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Fish I.D. Project Lisa McWilliams Coach Arington 2nd Period


Title: Saltwater/Marine Fishes Common Name: Bellus Angelfish Scientific Name: Genicanthus Bellus

Species #: 1

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Pomacanthidae Geography / Habitat:The Bellus Angelfish is found in many reefs of the Ocean, especially in the Western Pacific and Eastern Indian Oceans. This fish is also found in the Philippines and islands as far east as Tonga. The Bellus Angelfish is typically found at a depth of around 300 feet. Life Strategy:The Bellus Angelfish is hermaphroditic and has the ability to change from female to male, and males can even change back into a female if no females are present. Food / Feed Strategy:The Bellus Angelfish is an omnivore, usually eating zooplankton and marine vegetation. It specifically eats algae in the wild. However in captivity, it will also eat frozen/ meaty foods such as brine shrimp and shellfish. They will eat many greens.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? Pauly, Daniel. "Genicanthus Bellus." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 30 Sept. 2012. Web. 05 Nov. 2012. < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genicanthus_bellus>. â&#x2014;? "Bellus Female Angelfish - Genicanthus Bellus - Bellus Angel Fish - Ornate Angelfish." FreshMarine.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Nov. 2012. < http://www.freshmarine.com/bellus-angel-female.html>


Title: Saltwater/Marine Fishes Common Name: Queen Angelfish Scientific Name: Holacanthus ciliaris

Species #: 2

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Pomacanthidae Geography / Habitat:The Queen Angelfish live in reefs and are common near Florida; especially the Florida Keys, the Bahamas, and the Gulf of Mexico. This fish rarely seen in the Bermuda Triangle but can be found as far south as Brazil. Life Strategy:The adult Queen Angelfish are found in pairs year round. The pair reproduces by rising up in the water, bringing their bellies close together, and releasing clouds of sperm and eggs. The female can release 25 to 75 thousand eggs each evening and as many as ten million eggs in each spawning cycle. The eggs hatch after 15 to 20 hours into larvae that lack effective eyes, fins, or gut. Larvae of the Queen Angelfish are found in the water column and feed on plankton. Food / Feed Strategy:The Queen Angelfish feed primarily on sponges, but also feed on tunicates, jellyfish, and corals, plankton, and algae. Juvenile Queen Angelfish serves as "cleaners" and feed on the parasites of larger fish. In home aquariums, aquarists feed this fish a diet of meaty and algae based foods.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? Deloach, Paul and Ned. "Holacanthus Ciliaris." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 15 Oct. 2012. Web. 05 Nov. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holacanthus_ciliaris>.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine fish Common Name: Sunburst Butterflyfish Scientific Name: Chaetodon kleinii

Species #: 3

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Chaetodontidae Geography / Habitat:It is a native of the Indian-Pacific region, from the Red Sea and East Africa to the Hawaiian Islands and Samoa, north to southern Japan, south to Australia and New Caledonia. It is also found in Galapagos Islands in the Eastern Pacific Ocean. Life Strategy:Butterfly fish reproduce in pairs or small groups, with the male of some species having been observed to nudge the females in an apparent attempt to induce egg laying. Food / Feed Strategy:They are omnivores, feeding mainly on soft coral polyps, algae and zooplankton. In the aquarium, Chaetodon kleinii will eat meaty food such as mysis. Its coral-eating habits can become a nuisance, but on the other hand they are fond of Aiptasia, small sea anemones that often become a pest in seawater aquaria.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Sunburst Butterflyfish." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 30 Oct. 2012. Web. 08 Nov. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sunburst_butterflyfish>.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine fish Common Name: Clownfish Scientific Name: Amphiprion ocellaris

Species #: 4

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Pomacentridae Geography / Habitat: Clownfish are native to warmer waters of the Indian and Pacific oceans, including the Great Barrier Reef and the Red Sea. While most species have restricted distributions, others are widespread. Clownfish live at the bottom of shallow seas in sheltered reefs or in shallow lagoons. There are no clownfish in the Atlantic. Life Strategy: Clownfish lay eggs on any flat surface close to their host anemones. In the wild, clownfish spawn around the time of the full moon. Depending on the species, clownfish can lay hundreds or thousands of eggs. The male parent guards the eggs until they hatch about 6 to 10 days later, typically 2 hours after dusk Food / Feed Strategy: Clownfish feed on small invertebrates which otherwise potentially could harm the sea anemone, and the fecal matter from the clownfish provides nutrients to the sea anemone. Clownfish are omnivorous: in the wild they eat live food such as algae, plankton, mollusks, and crustacea; in captivity they can survive on live food, fish flakes, and fish pellets. Algae accounts for around 20 to 25 percent of its diet in the wild (and should also account for its amount of algae diet in captivity as well). The diet of the clownfish also consists of copepods, mysids, isopods, zooplankton and undigested food from their host anemones.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Amphiprioninae." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 11 July 2012. Web. 08 Nov. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amphiprioninae>


Title: Saltwater/ Marine fish Common Name: Atlantic Blue Marlin Scientific Name: Makaira nigricans

Species #: 5

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Istiophoridae Geography / Habitat:The Atlantic Blue Marlin is usually found between the Caribbean Islands and Venezuela and the Bahamas, as well as between the Caribbean Saint Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands and West Africa. It can also undertake long migrations. Life Strategy:The Atlantic blue marlin reaches maturity at the age of two to four years. Marlin breed in late summer and fall seasons. Females may spawn as many as four times in one season. They often release over seven million eggs at once. The young drift freely in the ocean. Larvae inhabit the west central Atlantic off Georgia, North Carolina, Florida, Jamaica, Bahamas, and Puerto Rico and also the southwest Atlantic off Brazil. Food / Feed Strategy:The larvae feed on zooplankton along with drifting fish eggs and other larvae. They progress to feeding on a wide range of fishes, particularly mackerel, tuna, and squid. Blue marlin have been recorded to take prey as large as white marlin, as well as yellowfin and tuna in the 100 pounds range. Conversely, they are also capable of feeding on small but numerous prey such as filefish and snipefish.

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Atlantic Blue Marlin." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 11 Feb. 2012. Web. 08 Nov. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atlantic_blue_marlin>.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Fishes Common Name: Atlantic Sailfish Scientific Name: Istiophorus platypterus

Species #: 6

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Istiophoridae Geography / Habitat: The Atlantic sailfish habitat varies according to water temperature and wind conditions. They are usually found in warmer water. In the western Atlantic Ocean, it is most commonly found in the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean Sea, and the Atlantic coast of Florida, where it is the official state saltwater fish. Life Strategy: Spawning may begin as early as April, but occurs primarily during the summer months. Off southeast Florida, Atlantic sailfish move inshore to shallower waters to spawn near the surface in the warm season, with females swimming sluggishly with their dorsal fins above the water's surface, accompanied by one or more males. Fertilization is external. Females may shed up to 4.8 million eggs in three batches during a single spawning. Food / Feed Strategy: Atlantic sailfishes prey mainly on small fishes —particularly mackerels, tunas, jacks, halfbeaks, and needlefish — but also eats squid and octopuses.

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: ● "Atlantic Sailfishes, Istiophorus Albicans." At MarineBio.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Nov. 2012. <http://marinebio.org/species.asp?id=146>. ● "Saltwater Fish - Sailfish." Saltwater Fish - Sailfish. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Nov. 2012. <http://myfwc.com/wildlifehabitats/profiles/fish/saltwater/billfish/sailfish/>.


Title: Saltwater/Marine Fishes Common Name:Swordfish Scientific Name: Xiphias gladius

Species #: 7

Kingdom:Animalia

Phylum:Chordata

Class:Actinopterygii

Order:Perciformes

Family:Xiphiidae Geography / Habitat: Swordfish are found worldwide in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans in tropical and sometimes cold waters at depths between 200-600. Swordfish found in the Mediterranean are thought to consist of a separate stock from that of the Atlantic, but they are not totally isolated. Life Strategy: Little is known about the reproductive behavior of swordfish except that spawning tends to occur in warmer waters year round and during the spring and summer months in cooler regions. Females carry between 1-29 million eggs, which are fertilized externally. Food / Feed Strategy: Xiphias gladius are predators that feed throughout their depth range on other fishes and squids. They use their "sword" to slash larger prey while smaller prey are consumed whole.

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Saltwater Fish - Swordfish." Saltwater Fish - Swordfish. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Nov. 2012. <http://myfwc.com/wildlifehabitats/profiles/fish/saltwater/billfish/swordfish/>. â&#x2014;? "Swordfishes, Xiphias Gladius." At MarineBio.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Nov. 2012. <http://marinebio.org/species.asp?id=240>.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Fishes Common Name:Atlantic Spadefish Scientific Name:Chaetodipterus faber

Species #:8

Kingdom:Animalia

Phylum:Chordata

Class:Actinopterygii

Order:Perciformes

Family: Ephippidae Geography / Habitat:Atlantic spadefish are found around subtropical reefs, commonly off the coast of Florida and the Bahamas to southeastern Brazil and the Gulf of Mexico. Adults often form schools in open water of up to 500 fish Life Strategy: Atlantic spadefish are known to spawn off South Carolina between May and August. Small juveniles may sometimes be misidentified as young sheepshea Food / Feed Strategy: They feed mostly on microscopic organisms that drift with the currents. They can be any number of different algae, single-celled animals, or tiny crustaceans. The Spadefish will also feed on animals that live in or near the bottom of the ocean such as annelids, cnidarians, crustaceans, and mollusks.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Atlantic Spadefishes, Chaetodipterus Faber." At MarineBio.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Nov. 2012. <http://marinebio.org/species.asp?id=428>.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Fishes Common Name:Red Snapper Scientific Name:Lutjanus campechanus

Species #: 9

Kingdom:Animalia

Phylum:Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order:Perciformes

Family:Lutjanidae Geography / Habitat: The red snapper is found in the Gulf of Mexico and the southeastern Atlantic coast of the United States and much less commonly northward as far as Massachusetts. Life Strategy: A red snapper reaches sexual maturity at two to five years old, and an adult snapper can live for more than 50 years. Food / Feed Strategy:Red snapper will eat almost anything, but will usually eat small fish and crustaceans.

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Red Snapper (fish)." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 11 Nov. 2012. Web. 12 Nov. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_snapper_(fish)>. â&#x2014;? "Saltwater Fish - Red Snapper." Saltwater Fish - Red Snapper. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Nov. 2012. <http://myfwc.com/wildlifehabitats/profiles/fish/saltwater/snapper/redsnapper/>.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Fishes Common Name:Wahoo Scientific Name:Acanthocybium solanderi

Species #: 10

Kingdom:Animalia

Phylum:Chordata

Class:Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family:Scombridae Geography / Habitat: The Wahoo is found worldwide but usually range over the tropical and subtropical waters of the Indian, Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Life Strategy: Very little is known about the breeding of wahoo except that females lay lots of eggs and they spawn over a lengthy period. Food / Feed Strategy: The Wahoo feed mainly on fish and squid.

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: ● "Wahoo." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 11 Nov. 2012. Web. 12 Nov. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wahoo>. ● "Western Angler: Wahoo." Wahoo. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Nov. 2012. <http://www.westernangler.com.au/fishing-info/fish-guide/173-wahoo>. ● "Saltwater Fish - Wahoo." Saltwater Fish - Wahoo. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Nov. 2012. <http://myfwc.com/wildlifehabitats/profiles/fish/saltwater/mackerel/wahoo/>.


Title: Saltwater/Marine Fishes Common Name:Yellowfin Grouper Scientific Name:Mycteroperca venenosa

Species #: 11

Kingdom:Animalia

Phylum:Chordata

Class:Actinopterygii

Order:Perciformes

Family:Serranidae Geography / Habitat:The yellowfin grouper is a coral reef fish that is native to the western Atlantic Ocean, the Caribbean Sea, and the Gulf of Mexico. This fish will swim into cooler waters during cooler seasons. Life Strategy: This species of fish mature only as females and have the ability to change sex after reaching sexual maturity. They often pair spawn, which enables large males to competitively exclude smaller males from reproducing. As such, if a small female grouper were to change sex before it could control as a male, its fitness would decrease. If no male is available, the largest female that can increase fitness by changing sex will do so. Food / Feed Strategy: The yellowfin grouper feeds mainly on fishes associated with its reef shelter but will also eat squids as well.

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style:Thunniform Mouth Position: Subterminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Grouper." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 10 Nov. 2012. Web. 12 Nov. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grouper>. â&#x2014;? "Yellowfin Grouper." Yellowfin Grouper. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Nov. 2012. <http://www.helterskeletons.com/yellowfin_grouper.htm>.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Fishes Common Name:Gulf Flounder Scientific Name:Paralichthys albigutta

Species #: 12

Kingdom:Animalia

Phylum:Chordata

Class:Actinopterygii

Order:Pleuronectiformes

Family: Paralichthyidae Geography / Habitat: The Gulf Flounder can be found at the bottom of coastal lagoons and estuaries of the Northern Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Life Strategy: It hatches into a usual fish form, but the right eye eventually migrates over to the left side. Food / Feed Strategy: This flounder's diet consists mainly of fish spawn, crustaceans, polychaetes and small fish.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position:Subterminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Saltwater Fish - Gulf Flounder." Saltwater Fish - Gulf Flounder. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Nov. 2012. <http://myfwc.com/wildlifehabitats/profiles/fish/saltwater/flounder/gulfflounder/>. â&#x2014;? "Gulf Flounder." Gulf Flounder. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Nov. 2012. <http://www.womenanglers.us/Gulf_Flounder.html>.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Fishes Common Name:Royal Gramma Scientific Name:Gramma loreto

Species #: 13

Kingdom:Animalia

Phylum:Chordata

Class:Actinopterygii

Order:Perciformes

Family:Grammaticae Geography / Habitat: Found in the oceans of the Western Central Atlantic: Bermuda, Bahamas, and Central America to northern South America Life Strategy: The male Royal Gramma show various types of nest care behavior. Form breeding pairs. Food / Feed Strategy: The Royal Gramma is a planktivore, eating mostly zooplankton and crustaceans and also feeds on ectoparasites of other fishes

Body Form or Style: Taeniform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? Search FishBase. Web. 12 Nov. 2012. <http://www.fishbase.org/search.php>. â&#x2014;? Common. "Marine Fish Species." AC Tropical Fish & Aquarium. Web. 12 Nov. 2012. <http://www.aquaticcommunity.com/marinefish/>.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Fishes Common Name:White-jawed Cardinalfish Scientific Name:Pseudamia amblyuroptera

Species #: 14

Kingdom:Animalia

Phylum:Chordata

Class:Actinopterygii

Order:Perciformes

Family:Apogonidae Geography / Habitat: Indo-West Pacific Area around Singapore, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Moluccas, New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Palau, and Yap in the western Caroline Islands. They were recently reported from Tonga. They live in brackish water on coral reefs. Life Strategy:The White-jawed Cardinal Fish spawns during the winter in mangrove forests. The juveniles mature there then they travel to shallow lagoon reefs or sea grass beds to live out maturity. Food / Feed Strategy: They eat zooplankton and other microscopic animals, also graze on algae and seagrass.

Body Form or Style:Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style:Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? Search FishBase. Web. 12 Nov. 2012. <http://www.fishbase.org/search.php>. â&#x2014;? Common. "Marine Fish Species." AC Tropical Fish & Aquarium. Web. 12 Nov. 2012. <http://www.aquaticcommunity.com/marinefish/>.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Fishes Common Name:Tomato Clownfish Scientific Name:Amphiprion frenatus

Species #: 15

Kingdom:Animalia

Phylum:Chordata

Class:Actinopterygii

Order:Perciformes

Family:Pomacentridae Geography / Habitat: This fish is found in the waters of the Western Pacific, from the Ryukyu Islands in Japan, to Malaysia and Indonesia. They stay in coral reefs and use anemones as a home base. This type of clownfish prefer anemones. Life Strategy: This clownfish prefers to spawn on substrate and in caves. The anemone is not necessary for spawning. The eggs are deposited on a flat surface and tended by the pair until they hatch. Food / Feed Strategy: Herbivore. Will eat shrimp, krill, plankton, seaweeds, and mysids

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? Search FishBase. Web. 29 Oct. 2011. <http://www.fishbase.org/search.php>. â&#x2014;? Common. "Marine Fish Species." AC Tropical Fish & Aquarium. Web. 29 Oct. 2011. <http://www.aquaticcommunity.com/marinefish/>.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Fishes Common Name:White-Tail Angelfish Scientific Name:Centropyge flavicauda

Species #: 16

Kingdom:Animalia

Phylum:Chordata

Class:Actinopterygii

Order:Perciformes

Family:Pomacanthidae Geography / Habitat: Indo-Pacific Region around East Africa to the Tuamoto Islands, north to southern Japan, south to New South Wales, and Australia in coral reefs. Stays near coral bottoms and channels over reef slopes. Life Strategy:Stays in small loose schools, with other fish like damselfish and small wrasses. Food / Feed Strategy:These fish are herbivores and will eat algae, shrimp, other small crustaceans and some types of seaweed.

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? Search FishBase. Web. 12 Nov. 2012. <http://www.fishbase.org/search.php>. â&#x2014;? Common. "Marine Fish Species." AC Tropical Fish & Aquarium. Web. 12 Nov. 2012. <http://www.aquaticcommunity.com/marinefish/>.


Title:Saltwater/ Marine Fishes Common Name:Queen Triggerfish Scientific Name:Balistes vetula

Species #: 17

Kingdom:Animalia

Phylum:Chordata

Class:Actinopterygii

Order:Tetraodontiformes

Family:Balistidae Geography / Habitat: Eastern Atlantic: Ascension, Cape Verde, and Azores, ranges south to southern Angola, Western Atlantic: Canada to Massachusetts, USA and northern Gulf of Mexico to southeastern Brazil. Found over rocky or coral areas. Life Strategy: These fish may form schools or may remain solitary. There is not much information on breeding and the Queen Triggerfish has not been bred in captivity. Food / Feed Strategy: They feed mainly on benthic invertebrates but will occasionally prey on sea urchins by blowing water to overturn it and then attacking it where the spines are short.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position:Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? Search FishBase. Web. 12 Nov. 2012. <http://www.fishbase.org/search.php>. â&#x2014;? Common. "Marine Fish Species." AC Tropical Fish & Aquarium. Web. 29 Oct. 2011. <http://www.aquaticcommunity.com/marinefish/>.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Fishes Common Name:Great Barracuda Scientific Name:Sphyraena barracuda

Species #: 18

Kingdom:Animalia

Phylum:Chordata

Class:Actinopterygii

Order:Perciformes

Family:Apogonidae Geography / Habitat: The Great Barracuda is found in the Western Central Pacific: Papua New Guinea, Flores in Indonesia, and Sibuan Island in Borneo. They stay in coral reefs, and require a place to hide during the day Life Strategy:The barracuda eggs are laid on the surface waters away from shore. Young barracudas can lay up to five thousand eggs. However, mature females can lay up to three-hundred thousand. The newly hatched fry are born tenacious and begin preying upon other fish as soon as they hatch. Food / Feed Strategy:They feed on small fishes, mobile invertebrates, zoobenthos and benthic crustaceans.

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Nov. 2012. <http://www.miamisci.org/oceans/coralreef/predators/3barracuda.html>. â&#x2014;? Search FishBase. Web. 12 Nov. 2012. <http://www.fishbase.org/search.php>.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Fishes Common Name:Sleek Unicornfish Scientific Name:Naso hexacanthus

Species #: 19

Kingdom:Animalia

Phylum:Chordata

Class:Actinopterygii

Order:Perciformes

Family:Acanthuridae Geography / Habitat: The Sleek Unicornfish live in clear lagoons and seaward reef slopes. They are found in these areas: Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa including the Mascarene Islands to the Hawaiian, Marquesan and Ducie islands, north to southern Japan, south to Lord Howe Island. Life Strategy:These fish form shoals. Could not find much on breeding, known to spawn in spring in large groups. Food / Feed Strategy: They mainly feed on zooplankton such as crab larvae, arrow worms, pelagic tunicates, and occasionally filamentous red algae.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: ● Search FishBase. Web. 12 Nov. 2012. <http://www.fishbase.org/search.php>. ● Common. "Marine Fish Species." AC Tropical Fish & Aquarium. Web. 12 Nov. 2012. <http://www.aquaticcommunity.com/marinefish/>. ● "Sleek Unicornfish, Naso Hexacanthus Tropical Fish Photo from Tropical Fish and Aquariums." Sleek Unicornfish, Naso Hexacanthus Tropical Fish Photo from Tropical Fish and Aquariums. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Nov. 2012. <http://saltwater.tropicalfishandaquariums.com/Tangs/naso-hexacanthus.asp>.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Fishes Common Name:Red-Speckled Blenny Scientific Name:Cirripectes variolosus

Species #: 20

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum:Chordata

Class:Actinopterygii

Order:Blennioidei

Family:Blenniidae Geography / Habitat: The Red-Speckled Blenny is usually found in the Pacific Ocean; from Palau to Johnston Islands, Marquesas and Pitcairn Islands, north to the Bonin Islands, south to Rapa; throughout Micronesia. They inhabit exposed seaward reefs where it usually shelters at bases or among the branches of corals. Life Strategy: These fish are oviparous and the eggs are demersal and adhesive to the reefs. Food / Feed Strategy: The Red-Speckled blenny feeds on algae and plants found along the corals.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? Search FishBase. Web. 12 Nov. 2012. <http://www.fishbase.org/search.php>.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Fishes Common Name:Great white shark Scientific Name:Carcharodon carcharias

Species #: 21

Kingdom:Animalia

Phylum:Chordata

Class:Elasmobranchii

Order:Lamniformes

Family:Lamnidae Geography / Habitat: Great white sharks are found near shore along most of the temperate coastlines around the world. Great white sharks have been observed along the coastlines of California to Alaska, the east coast of the USA and most of the Gulf coast, Hawaii, most of South America, South Africa, Australia (except the north coast), New Zealand, the Mediterranean Sea, West Africa to Scandinavia, Japan, and the eastern coastline of China and southern Russia. Life Strategy: Great white sharks give birth to 2-14 fully-formed pups that are up to 5 feet long. Like all sharks, fertilization occurs within the female. The eggs hatch within the female and are nourished by eating unfertilized eggs and smaller siblings in the womb. There is no placenta to nourish the babies - they must fend for themselves, even before birth. They swim away from the mother immediately after birth, there is no maternal caregiving. Food / Feed Strategy:Young great white sharks eat fish, rays, and other sharks. Adults eat larger prey, including sea lions and seals, small toothed whales (like belugas), otters, and sea turtles. Great whites do not chew their food. Their teeth rip prey into mouth-sized pieces which are swallowed whole. A big meal can satisfy a great white for up to 2 months.

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "GREAT WHITE SHARK - Enchanted Learning Software." GREAT WHITE SHARK Enchanted Learning Software. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Nov. 2012. <http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/sharks/species/Greatwhite.shtml>


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Fishes Common Name: Pacific Angelshark Scientific Name: Squatina californica

Species #: 22

Kingdom:Animalia

Phylum:Chordata

Class:Chondrichthyes

Order:Squatiniformes

Family:Squatinidae Geography / Habitat: Angel Sharks are bottom dwellers that live on ocean floors of

depths from 10 to 4,300 feet ( They live in warm temperate oceans in the southern hemisphere. Pacific angel sharks are found in the eastern Pacific Ocean , from southern Alaska, USA to Baja, CA, USA and from Ecuador to southern Chile. Life Strategy: Angel Sharks reproduce via aplacental viviparity with litters of 8-13 live-born pups. In aplacental viviparity, the eggs hatch and the babies develop inside the female's body but there is no placenta to nourish the pups. Food / Feed Strategy: Angel Sharks eat fish, crustaceans, and mollusks. They spend the day hidden in the sand and rocks of the ocean bed. As fish swim by, the angelshark bursts up and surprises the prey, catching it in its trap-like jaws.

Body Form or Style: Depressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Subterminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "ANGELSHARK - Enchanted Learning Software." ANGELSHARK - Enchanted Learning Software. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Nov. 2012. <http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/sharks/species/Angelshark.shtml>.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Fishes Common Name: Black Tip Reef Shark Scientific Name:Carcharhinus melanopterus

Species #: 23

Kingdom:Animalia

Phylum:Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order:Carcharhiniformes

Family:Carcharhinidae Geography / Habitat:The blacktip reef shark is very common in the coral reefs and

shallow lagoons of the tropical Indian and Pacific Oceans. Some have recently entered the Mediterranean. Life Strategy:These sharks are viviparous and have litters of 2-4 pups after a 16 month gestation period. Food / Feed Strategy: The blacktip reef shark mostly eats reef fish. It hunts in small groups during the day. It commonly preys upon sturgeon fishes and mullet.

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "BLACKTIP REEF SHARK - Enchanted Learning Software." BLACKTIP REEF SHARK - Enchanted Learning Software. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Nov. 2012. <http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/sharks/species/Blacktipreef.shtml>.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Fishes Common Name: Goblin Shark Scientific Name: Mitsukurina owstoni

Species #: 24

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Lamniformes

Family: Mitsukurina Geography / Habitat: The Goblin shark is a bottom-dweller found in the western

Pacific, the western Indian Ocean and the western and eastern Atlantic. Life Strategy: Unknown Food / Feed Strategy: The Goblin shark eats fish (both large and small), including other sharks and rays. They also eat squid and crustaceans .

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "GOBLIN SHARK - Enchanted Learning Software." GOBLIN SHARK - Enchanted Learning Software. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Nov. 2012. <http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/sharks/species/Goblin.shtml>.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Fishes Common Name: Porbeagle Shark Scientific Name: Lamna nasus

Species #: 25

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Lamniformes

Family: Lamnidae Geography / Habitat: Porbeagles live in cold waters down to about 1,200 feet. These

common sharks live in the North and South Atlantic and the South Pacific Oceans. Life Strategy: Porbeagles give birth to live young. Embryos are cannibalistic in the womb; only 2-4 pups survive pregnancy. Food / Feed Strategy: The porbeagle feed on fish (mostly mackerel, squid, cod, hake, flounder and other bottom-dwelling fish).

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "PORBEAGLE SHARK - Enchanted Learning Software." PORBEAGLE SHARK Enchanted Learning Software. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Nov. 2012. <http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/sharks/species/Porbeagle.shtml>.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Fishes Common Name: Basking Shark Scientific Name: Cetorhinus maximus

Species #: 26

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Lamniformes

Family: Cetorhinidae Geography / Habitat: Basking sharks live in coastal temperate waters. They spend most of their time at the surface. Basking sharks are found off the coasts of western North America, off the east coast of the US and southern Canada, along the Gulf Stream, to the entire coastline of Europe, off the southern coast of Australia, off South Africa, New Zealand, most of southern South America, the Red Sea, and the coastlines of China and Japan. Life Strategy: Basking sharks reach sexual maturity at about 2-4 years old. They mate in the summer off the coasts of Iceland and northern Europe. The gestation period is about 3.5 years. They probably reproduce via aplacental viviparity. Females give birth to 1-2 live young. Food / Feed Strategy: Basking sharks are filter feeders that sieve small animals from the water. The basking shark swims with its mouth open and masses of water filled with prey flow through its mouth. The prey it catches usually include plankton, baby fish, and fish eggs. After closing its mouth, the shark uses gill rakers that filter the nourishment from the water.

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "BASKING SHARK - Zoom Sharks." BASKING SHARK - Zoom Sharks. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2012. <http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/sharks/species/Baskingshark.shtml>


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Fishes Common Name: Blue Shark Scientific Name: Prionace glauca

Species #: 27

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Carcharhiniformes

Family: Carcharhinidae Geography / Habitat: Blue sharks are pelagic; they are found in open waters. Like most pelagic sharks, they are found worldwide. Life Strategy: Blue sharks are viviparous. Litters consist of 4 to 13 pups; the number of pups increases as the size of the mother increases. The gestation period is almost 1 year. Females are mature at 5 years old. Food / Feed Strategy: The blue shark's diet consists mostly of squid, but it will eat

almost anything; it is an opportunistic feeder.

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "BLUE SHARK - Zoom Sharks." BLUE SHARK - Zoom Sharks. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2012. <http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/sharks/species/Blueshark.shtml>.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Fishes Common Name: Bluntnose Sixgill Shark Scientific Name: Hexanchus griseus

Species #: 28

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Hexanchiformes

Family: Hexanchidae Geography / Habitat: The Bluntnose Sixgill shark lives in dark waters at depths

down to 5900 ft, in dark or dim waters. It has been seen in coastal waters, usually below 330 ft. It has also been seen by the surface of open waters at night. This shark is found worldwide from tropical seas to northern temperate seas. Life Strategy: Females reach sexual maturity when they are roughly 14 ft long. They reproduce via aplacental viviparity; the eggs hatch inside the body and the babies develop inside the female's body. There is no placenta to nourish the pups. The Bluntnose Sixgill shark has litters of over 100 live-born pups. Food / Feed Strategy: The Bluntnose Sixgill shark eats large fish , crabs, shrimp,

smaller fish, and squid with its very sharp, saw-like teeth.

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Bluntnose Sixgill Shark - Enchanted Learning Software." Bluntnose Sixgill Shark - Enchanted Learning Software. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2012. <http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/sharks/species/Bluntnosesixgill.sht ml>.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Fishes Common Name: Bonnethead Shark Scientific Name: Sphyrna tiburo

Species #: 29

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Carcharhiniformes

Family: Sphyrnidae Geography / Habitat: Bonnetheads are found in the western Atlantic and eastern

Pacific Oceans, in the surf zone, reefs, on sandy bottoms and in estuaries. Life Strategy: Females are mature at 2.5 feet long and give birth in shallow bays to 8 to 16 pups about 14 inches long. Food / Feed Strategy: The Bonnethead shark has a varied diet. It eats both hardshelled prey and soft prey, and has a variety of teeth to eat all these animals.

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "BONNETHEAD SHARK - Enchanted Learning Software." BONNETHEAD SHARK Enchanted Learning Software. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2012. <http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/sharks/species/Bonnethead.shtml


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Fishes Common Name: Spined Pygmy Shark Scientific Name: Squaliolus laticaudus

Species #: 29

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Elasmobranchii

Family: Dalatiidae Geography / Habitat: The spined pygmy shark is found in temperate and tropical oceans worldwide. Life Strategy: The spined pygmy shark has unknown reproductive history. Food / Feed Strategy: It eats squid, shrimp, and mid-water fish. This uncommon shark lives in deep water but migrates vertically each day to hunt at night in mid-depth waters.

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "SPINED PYGMY SHARK - Zoom Sharks." SPINED PYGMY SHARK - Zoom Sharks. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Nov. 2012. <http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/sharks/species/Spinedpygmy.shtml >


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Fishes Common Name: Whale Shark Scientific Name: Rhincodon typus

Species #: 30

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Orectolobiformes

Family: Rhincodontidae Geography / Habitat: Whale sharks live in warm water (near the equator) both along the coast and in the open seas. They spend most of their time near the surface. Life Strategy: The Whale shark was long thought to be oviparous. Recently, pregnant females have been found containing hundreds of pups, so, Whale sharks are viviparous, giving birth to live young. Newborns are over 2 feet long. Whale sharks are sexually mature at 30 years old. This is the age at which they are able to mate and reproduce. Food / Feed Strategy: The whale shark is a filter feeder. As it swims with its mouth open, it sucks masses of water filled with prey into its mouth and through spongy tissue between its 5 large gill arches. After closing its mouth, the shark uses gills rakers that filter the water. Anything that doesn't pass through the gills is eaten. The water is expelled through the sharks 5 pairs of gill slits. The prey includes plankton, krill, small fish, and squid. The shark can process over 1500 gallons of water each hour.

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "WHALE SHARK - Zoom Sharks." WHALE SHARK - Zoom Sharks. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Nov. 2012. <http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/sharks/species/Whaleshark.shtml>.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Fishes Common Name: Short-finned Mako Shark Scientific Name: Isurus oxyrinchus

Species #: 31

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Lamniformes

Family: Lamnidae Geography / Habitat: Short-finned Makos are found worldwide in temperate and tropical seas. Makos range from the surface to relatively deep waters. They are pelagic oceanic swimmers, but are occasionally found inshore. In warm, tropical oceans, they swim deep below the surface as they prefer cool water. They are found off the island of Tahiti at depths of 650-1,300 feet Life Strategy: Makos reproduce aplacental viviparity. The pups are cannibalistic in the womb. On average, 10 -12 pups are born in each litter and are about 2 feet Food / Feed Strategy: Makos eat schooling fish, including tuna, herring, mackerel, swordfish, and porpoise. They are opportunistic feeders, eating just about anything.

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: "MAKO SHARK - Enchanted Learning Software." MAKO SHARK - Enchanted Learning Software. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Nov. 2012. <http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/sharks/species/Mako.shtml>.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Fishes Common Name: Lemon Shark Scientific Name: Negaprion brevirostris

Species #: 32

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Carcharhiniformes

Family: Carcharhinidae Geography / Habitat: It lives near the surface and at moderate depths, frequenting bays, docks, and river mouths. The lemon shark is found in the Pacific off Latin and South America, in the Atlantic off the coasts of South America and west Africa, and in the Gulf of Mexico. Life Strategy: Litters consist of about 36 young which are about 18 inches long at birth. Food / Feed Strategy: It eats mostly fish (including other sharks), but will also eats mollusks and crustaceans.

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: "LEMON SHARK - Enchanted Learning Software." LEMON SHARK - Enchanted Learning Software. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Nov. 2012. <http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/sharks/species/Lemonshark.shtml>


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Fishes Common Name: Thresher Shark Scientific Name: Alopias vulpinus

Species #: 33

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Lamniformes

Family: Alopias Geography / Habitat: The Common Thresher Shark swims from the surface to a depth of about 1,150 feet (350 m). It lives in open tropical and temperate waters, including the eastern and western Atlantic, the central Pacific, and the Indo-west Pacific. Life Strategy: Thresher eggs hatch inside the female. The developing embryos are oophagous; they will eat smaller, weaker siblings while in the womb. Mature females (at least 10 feet (3 m) long have litters of 4 to 6 pups, bearing live young. These pups are 3.5 to 5 ft (1.1 to 1.5 m) long at birth. Food / Feed Strategy: The Thresher eats squid and fish, corralling them with its elongated tail, stunning them with slaps from it, and catching them with its very sharp (but small) teeth.

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: "THRESHER SHARK - Enchanted Learning Software." THRESHER SHARK - Enchanted Learning Software. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Nov. 2012. <http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/sharks/species/Thresher.shtml>.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Fishes Common Name: Manta Ray Scientific Name: Manta birostris

Species #: 34

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Myliobatiformes

Family: Myliobatidae Geography / Habitat: Mantas swim in tropical seas, living both close to shore and in open seas. They are common and found worldwide. Life Strategy: Mantas reproduces via aplacental viviparity. Females give birth to a one or two pups which are about 45 inches wide and weigh roughly twenty pounds. Young mantas grow very rapidly. Food / Feed Strategy: Mantas eat microscopic plankton, small fish, and tiny crustaceans. They funnel the food into their mouth while they swim, using two large, flap-like cephalic lobes which extend forward from the eyes.

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: "MANTA RAY - EnchantedLearning.com." MANTA RAY - EnchantedLearning.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Nov. 2012. <http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/sharks/rays/Mantaray.shtml>.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Fishes Common Name: Leopard Shark Scientific Name: Galeocerdo cuvier

Species #: 35

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Carcharhiniformes

Family: Carcharhinidae Geography / Habitat: Leopard Sharks are found in many sub-trop-ical and trop-ical wat-ers They have been sighted from the eas-tern coast of North America to the eas-tern coast of Brazil. This shark is a saltwat-er spe-cies. Al-though they pre-f-er the seagrass ecosys-tems of the coastal areas, they oc-casional-ly in-habit other areas due to prey availabil-ity. Life Strategy: Leopard sharks are polygynandr-ous, mean-ing males and females have multi-ple mates; they do not pair-bond at any time. Food / Feed Strategy: Leopard sharks will eat fish, turtles, crabs, clams, mammals, sea birds, reptiles, other sharks, and just about anything else that they can catch alive.

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Galeocerdo Cuvier: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Nov. 2012. <http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Galeocerdo_cuvier/>


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Fishes Common Name: Greenland Shark Scientific Name: Somniosus microcephalus

Species #: 36

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Squaliformes

Family: Squalidae Geography / Habitat: This shark lives in very deep waters of the North Atlantic Ocean. It lives at depths down to 1,800 feet in very cold waters.These sharks swim to shallow Arctic waters during the winter to eat. Life Strategy: This large shark reproduces via aplacental viviparity, having litters of about 10 pups, each roughly 15 inches long. Food / Feed Strategy: The Greenland shark eats fish, dead cetaceans, and pinnipeds.

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Greenland Shark Printout - ZoomSharks.com." Greenland Shark Printout ZoomSharks.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Nov. 2012. <http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/sharks/classroom/sharktemplates/G reenlandshark.shtml>.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Fishes Common Name: Sunfish Scientific Name: Mola Mola

Species #: 37

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Osteichthyes

Order: Plectognath

Family: Molidae Geography / Habitat: The Sunfish is a large ocean fish found in warm and temperate oceans. Life Strategy: Ocean sunfish reproduce by releasing eggs and sperm into the water. Ocean sunfishes have tiny eggs, but they have many more than most fish species - in fact, one ocean sunfish was estimated to have more than 300 million eggs in one ovary. When larvae hatch, they have spikes and resemble pufferfishes. Food / Feed Strategy: The sunfish is a carnivore (meat-eater) that eats jellyfish, combjellies, and some crustaceans.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Sunfish Printout- EnchantedLearning.com." Sunfish PrintoutEnchantedLearning.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Nov. 2012. <http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/fish/printouts/Sunfish.shtml>.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Fishes Common Name: Cross-stripe Butterfly fish Scientific Name: Chaetodon auriga

Species #: 38

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Chaetodontidae Geography / Habitat: Cross-stripe butterfly fish are found in trop-ical coral reef habitats. Al-though they are usual-ly found where there is ab-un-dant coral, they are oc-casional-ly found in areas with spar-se coral. Life Strategy: But-terflyfish re-lease eggs into the water col-umn, which are ex-ter-nal-ly fer-tilized. Em-bryos hatch approximate-ly 30 days after spawn-ing and the lar-vae then spend about 40 days float-ing in the water col-umn as plankton be-fore they metamorphose into juveniles. Food / Feed Strategy: The cross-stripe butterflyfish be-nthic feed-ing fish that feed most-ly on plankton (Pratchett 2001). Howev-er, they are om-nivor-ous, and also feed on coral polyps, algae, shrimp, gastropods, nemertine worms, and polyc-haetes.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Chaetodon Auriga: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Nov. 2012. <http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Chaetodon_auriga/>


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Fishes Common Name: Black Dragonfish Scientific Name: Idiacanthus fasciola

Species #: 39

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Stomiiformes

Family: Stomiidae Geography / Habitat: The Black Dragonfish is com-mon in deep, tem-perate and equatori-al oc-eanic wat-ers. They have been found throug-hout the northeast and centr-al At-lantic Ocean and in areas in-clud-ing the Grand Bank, Scotian Shelf, Gulf of Mexico, Straits of Florida and Carib-bean Sea. Life Strategy: This fish is an ovipar-ous spe-cies with ex-tern-al fer-tiliza-tion. There is lit-tle in-for-ma-tion avail-able on the mat-ing be-haviors. Food / Feed Strategy: Adults are known to eat midwater fis-hes.

Body Form or Style: Anguilliform Swim / Locomotion Style: Anguilliform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Idiacanthus Fasciola: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Nov. 2012. <http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Idiacanthus_fasciola/>.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Fishes Common Name: Dannevig Dragonfish Scientific Name: Chauliodus sloani

Species #: 40

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Stomiiformes

Family: Stomiidae Geography / Habitat: Dannevig’s Dragonfish are known to in­habit al­most all marine wat-ers in the tem-perate and trop-ical zones. they are mostly bathypelagic. Life Strategy: Very lit-tle is known about the re-produc-tive habits but like many fish they are di­oeci­ous. Dannevig’s dragonfish are not known to be sexual­ly di­morphic since the specimens caught are rare-ly sexed. Food / Feed Strategy: This fish prey on a variety of nek-tonic, planktonic, and be-nthic or-gan-isms. This in-cludes other bony fis-hes and crus-taceans.

Body Form or Style: Anguilliform Swim / Locomotion Style: Anguilliform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: ● "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Chauliodus Sloani: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Nov. 2012. <http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Chauliodus_sloani/>.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Fishes Common Name: Black Mullet Scientific Name: Mugil cephalus

Species #: 41

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Mugiliformes

Family: Mugilidae Geography / Habitat: The Black Mullet has been found in the co-ast-al wat-ers of the trop-ical and sub-trop-ical zones of all seas. Striped mul-let are found in the wes-tern At-lantic Ocean, from Nova Scotia, Canada south to Brazil, in-clud-ing the Gulf of Mexico. Life Strategy: This fish is cat-ad-rom-ous. They spawn in saltwat-er yet spend most of their lives in freshwat-er. Dur-ing the autumn and wint-er months, adult mul-let mig-rate far of-fshore in large aggrega-tions to spawn. Food / Feed Strategy: Mul-let are di-urn-al feed-ers, con-sum-ing main-ly zoop-lankton, dead plant matt-er, and de-tritus.

Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Mugil Cephalus: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Nov. 2012. <http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Mugil_cephalus/>.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Fishes Common Name: Lingcod Scientific Name: Ophiodon elongatus

Species #: 42

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Scorpaeniformes

Family: Hexagrammidae Geography / Habitat: Li-ngcod are co-ast-al fish that oc-cupy sub-mer-ged banks with dense com-munit-ies of algae, and chan-nels with strong cur-rents flow-ing over and around rocky reefs. They avoid muddy and sandy bot-toms, and stag-nant areas. Life Strategy: Adult li-ngcod re-produce sexual-ly by means of ex-tern-al fer-tiliza-tion and ex-hibit both nest-ing and nest-tending ac-tivit-ies. Males attract one or more females to his nest-ing site. Once at the nest-ing site, females de-posit an egg mass con-sist-ing of 40,000 to 500,000 eggs with-in reef cracks and cavit-ies. Females often lay their eggs in lay-ers, with each layer fer-tilized be-fore the next layer is laid. A single male fer-tilizes the egg mas-ses of multi-ple females. Food / Feed Strategy: Li-ngcod are am-bush pre-dators that eat an-yth-ing that can fit in their mouths, es-pecial-ly fish and large in-ver-tebrates. Li-ngcod ex-hibit can-nibal-ism and prey on vari-ous spe-cies of sal-mon and rockfish as well as Pacific herr-ing and oc-topus.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Ophiodon Elongatus: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Nov. 2012. <http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Ophiodon_elongatus/>.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Fishes Common Name: Blackbar Triggerfish Scientific Name: Rhinecanthus aculeatus

Species #: 43

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Tetraodontiformes

Family: Balistidae Geography / Habitat: This tri-gger-fish is general-ly found in shal-low outer reef habitats. Swimm-ing along the bot-tom in search of food items, it is found on surge-swept basalt reefs. This fish is com-mon-ly found in sub-tid-al reef flats and pro-tec-ted lagoons. Life Strategy: Like most fis-hes, the tri-gger-fish un-der-goes heterosexu-al re-produc-tion, in which there are separate male and female parents. Reef fis-hes are egg-layers, and the eggs are ex-ter-nal-ly fer-tilized by the male parent. Food / Feed Strategy: The tri-gger-fish diet con-s-ists main-ly of reef in-ver-tebrates and algae. Com-mon food items are small crus-taceans, worms, brittles-tars, sea urchins, and snails.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Rhinecanthus Aculeatus: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Nov. 2012. <http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Rhinecanthus_aculeatus/>.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Fishes Common Name: Australian Remora Scientific Name: Echeneis Naucrates

Species #: 44

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Echeneidae Geography / Habitat: The re-mora are com-mon-ly found in all warm seas. They are often pre-sent in shal-low in-shore brac-kish areas, as well as around coral reefs. Life Strategy: Spawn-ing oc-curs in the warm seasons, spr-ing and early summ-er in most of its range, and dur-ing the autumn in the Mediter-ranean. The sexes are separate, sperm and eggs de-velop in male and female in-dividu-als. In males, sperm pas-ses from the tes-tis to the out-side by a special-ly de-veloped duct. Eggs are fer-tilized ex-ter-nal-ly then en-closed in a hard shell, which pro-tects them from damage and dry-ing. Food / Feed Strategy: The remora mainly feeds on scraps of food that are lost or re-jec-ted by the large host an-im-al it is at-tached to.

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Remora Remora: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Nov. 2012. <http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Remora_remora/>.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Fishes Common Name: Blue Head Scientific Name: Thalassoma bifasciatum

Species #: 45

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Labridae Geography / Habitat: Bluehead wras-ses live in trop-ical wat-ers, often around coral reefs, as well as of-fshore reefs. They are also known to in-habit other areas such as in-shore bays and seag-rass beds. Life Strategy: This fish spe-cies ex-hibits pro-togyny, which means the female fish can turn into a male when there are not enough male fish present. Food / Feed Strategy: These fish forage for zoop-lankton, worms, mol-lusks, ec-hinoderms, shrimp, and other small crus-taceans at de-pths of 3 to 80 feet.

Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Subterminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Thalassoma Bifasciatum: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Nov. 2012. <http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Thalassoma_bifasciatum/>.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Fishes Common Name: Fluffy Sculpin Scientific Name: Oligocottus Snyderi

Species #: 46

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Scorpaeniformes

Family: Cottidae Geography / Habitat: This fish is most com-mon-ly found in tem-perate, rocky, sub-tid-al and low in-ter-tid-al pools, though it is also found frequent-ly in mid-intertidal pools. This sculpin is only found along the Pacific Coast of the Uni-ted States, Canada and Mexico, where it is native. Life Strategy: They breed from November to April. Food / Feed Strategy: The diet of con-s-ists pthis fish is primari-ly of gam-marid amphipods and polyc-haetes, though diet shifts occur in con-junc-tion with nut-rient up-well-ings.

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;?

"Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Thalassoma Bifasciatum: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Nov. 2012. <http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Thalassoma_bifasciatum/>.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Fishes Common Name: Common Snook Scientific Name: Centropomus Undecimalis

Species #: 47

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centropomidae Geography / Habitat: They can be found in freshwat-er, brac-kish, or marine en-viron-ments at de-pths up to 22 m. Life Strategy: Al-though com-mon snook can oc-cupy both freshwat-er and marine en-viron-ments, they must spawn in saltwat-er, as sperm can only be-come ac-tive in saline con-di-tions. Food / Feed Strategy: The Common Snook diet primari-ly con-s-ists of palaemonid shrimp, micro crustaceans, co-pepods and mos-quitofish.

Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Centropomus Undecimalis: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Nov. 2012. <http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Centropomus_undecimalis/>.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Fishes Common Name: Black Spotted Goby Scientific Name: Neogobius Melanostomus

Species #: 48

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Gobiidae Geography / Habitat: Round gob-ies are native to the Black, Cas-pian, Mar-mara, and Azov Seas and their tri-buta-ries in Eurasia. Life Strategy: Males guard nests and attract females to spawn there. Multi-ple females may leave their eggs in a single male's nest. In some in-troduced popula-tions, there is an ex-treme-ly skewed sex ratio, with 2 to 3 males for every female. Food / Feed Strategy: gob-ies are voraci-ous feed-ers, with a penchant for steal-ing bait off the hooks of an-gl-ers. They eat mus-sels and other mol-lusks.

Body Form or Style: Taeniform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Anterior Citation: â&#x2014;?

"Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Neogobius Melanostomus: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2012. <http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Neogobius_melanostomus/>.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Fishes Common Name: White Seabass Scientific Name: Atractoscion Nobilis

Species #: 49

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Sciaenidae Geography / Habitat: White sea bass can be found along the Pacific co-astline, from Al-as-ka to Baja Califor-nia and in the Gulf of Califor-nia. Life Strategy: White seabass are pro-mis-cu-ous. Males and females spawn multi-ple times with dif-ferent partn-ers. Food / Feed Strategy: At-ractosc-ion nobilis feeds on northern an-chovy, mar-ket squid, Pacific sar-dines, blacksmith, sil-versides, and pelagic red crab.

Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Anterior Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Atractoscion Nobilis: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2012. <http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Atractoscion_nobilis/>.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Fishes Common Name: Peacock Flounder Scientific Name: Bothus mancus

Species #: 50

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Pleuronectiformes

Family: Bothidae Geography / Habitat: Peacock flound-ers are marine flat-fish, li-v-ing in clear oc-eanic wat-ers. They live a be-nthic li-fes-tyle on sand and rock bot-toms, in-clud-ing coral reef en-viron-ments. Life Strategy: Peacock flound-ers have a "harem" mat-ing sys-tem, in which one male mates with multi-ple females. Sever-al females have sub-territories with-in a male's ter-rito-ry. On average, one male mates with 6 females. Males are de-fen-sive of their ter-rito-ry and the females with-in their ter-rito-ry, de-ny-ing ac-cess to other males. Food / Feed Strategy: Adult peacock flound-ers are re-stric-ted to feed-ing on other be-nthic or-gan-isms. They are ac-tive pre-dators, most-ly eat-ing other fish; howev-er, peacock flound-ers can also feed on marine in-ver-tebrates, such as crus-taceans and some-times oc-topi.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Atractoscion Nobilis: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2012. <http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Atractoscion_nobilis/>.


Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: American Black Bass Scientific Name: Micropterus salmoides

Species #: 51

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centrarchidae Geography / Habitat: Lar-gemouth bass pre-f-er quiet, clear wat-ers with ab-un-dant vegeta-tion. This fish is native to eas-tern North America and his-torical-ly ran-ged from sout-hern Canada to northern Mexico, and from the At-lantic coast to the centr-al re-g-ion of the Uni-ted States. Life Strategy: Dur-ing the breed-ing season, each male pre-pares and builds a nest in shal-low water. Nests are general-ly very crude in de-sign. Once the nest is built a female swims near, and fol-low-ing an act of co-urtship, she lay her eggs in the nest. Food / Feed Strategy: Young Largemouth bass feed on zoop-lankton and aquatic in-sects. As they grow their diet shifts to crayfish and other fish spe-cies. As adults they prefer Sunfish as food.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Micropterus Salmoides: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Nov. 2012. <http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Micropterus_salmoides/>.


Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: Black Salmon Scientific Name: Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

Species #: 52

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Salmoniformes

Family: Salmonidae Geography / Habitat: Black Sal-mon are found native-ly in the Pacific from Mon-terey Bay, Califor-nia to the Chukchi Sea, Al-as-ka in North America and from the An-adyr River, Siberia to Hok-kaido, Japan in Asia. Life Strategy: The Black Sal-mon have season-al runs in which all adults re-turn to their natal streams and spawn at approximate-ly the same time of year. Sexu-al matur-ity can be an-yw-here from 2-7 years, so with-in any given run, size will vary con-siderab-ly. Sal-mon are semelparous, and short-ly after spawn-ing they die. Food / Feed Strategy: While in freshwat-er, Black Sal-mon fry and smolts feed on plankton and then ter-restri-al and aquatic in-sects, amphipods and crus-taceans. After mig-rat-ing to the ocean, the matur-ing adults feed on large zoop-lakton, herr-ing, pilchard, sandlance and other fis-hes, squid, and crus-taceans. Once the adult sal-mon have re-entered freshwat-er, they do not feed.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Nov. 2012. <http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Oncorhynchus_tshawytscha/>


Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: Golden Trout Scientific Name: Oncorhynchus aguabonita

Species #: 53

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Salmoniformes

Family: Salmonidae Geography / Habitat: The gold-en trout is found in high al-titude fresh bod-ies of water in the wes-tern area of the Uni-ted States. The water in which the fish are found is usual-ly of very low tem-pera-tures and is of great be-auty, hence, the name, aguabonita. The wat-ers con-tain lit-tle weed growth. Life Strategy: The female gold-en trout's egg de-velop-ment starts early in their short grow-ing season. The egg is al-most com-plete-ly ripe when lower-ing tem-pera-tures ar-rest de-velop-ment at the onset of wint-er. The fish are then ready to spawn the fol-low-ing spr-ing. The female lays her eggs in specific areas, and the males then come and fer-til-ize them. The de-velop-ment of the egg, hatch-ing, and early growth stages are vir-tual-ly the same as in the other spr-ing spawn-ers. Food / Feed Strategy: The diet of the gold-en trout con-s-ists main-ly of sur-face waterdwelling in-sects, prin-cipal-ly small ones such as cad-disfl-ies and mid-ges. Small crus-taceans such as tiny freshwater shrimp as well as some ter-restri-al in-sects con-tribute to the diet as well. Howev-er, small in-sects, eith-er in lar-vae or fully de-veloped form, float-ing on the sur-face com-pose most of the natur-al food of this spe-cies.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Oncorhynchus Aguabonita: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Nov. 2012. <http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Oncorhynchus_aguabonita/>.


Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: Greenback Cutthroat Trout Scientific Name: Oncorhynchus clarkii

Species #: 54

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Salmoniformes

Family: Salmonidae Geography / Habitat: The cutthroat trout is such a widespread spe-cies it oc-cup-ies many dif-ferent habitats. Cutthroat trout habitats range from co-ast-al marine to freshwat-er riv-ers and streams with gravel sub-strates. Life Strategy: The cutthroat trout are stream spawn-ers like other fis-hes be-long-ing to the Sal-monidae fami-ly. Dur-ing a spawn-ing event a female will dig a redd, a nest in gravel. Males court females by nudg-ing them with their noses and quiver-ing. The female lays her eggs in the redd and the male swims over and de-posits his sperm. Food / Feed Strategy: A cutthroat trout's diet chan-ges as they pro-gress through the life stages. As fry they feed on small crus-taceans and algae. As they pro-gress into fin-gerl-ings they feed on small in-sects, and crus-taceans. Juveniles and adults be-come op-por-tunis-tic feed-ers, eat-ing al-most any prey item in their en-viron-ment. They are known to eat other fis-hes, crus-taceans, and in-sects.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Oncorhynchus Clarkii: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Nov. 2012. <http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Oncorhynchus_clarkii/>.


Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: American Shad Scientific Name: Alosa sapidissima

Species #: 55

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Clupeiformes

Family: Clupeidae Geography / Habitat: American shad are re-stric-ted to tem-perate climates and spend the major-ity of their life in co-ast-al areas of the At-lantic or Pacific Ocean. Life Strategy: In the late months of wint-er, American shad enter freshwat-er riv-ers of the Uni-ted States, Canada and Mexico to spawn. One or more males chase a female up a river and may also nudge her belly until until the female re-leases her eggs in open water. The pur-su-ing males then fer-til-ize the eggs. Food / Feed Strategy: Juvenile American shad are om-nivores with a diet con-sist-ing of most-ly zoop-lankton and in-sect lar-vae. Juveniles eat more once they have left spawn-ing areas. As they get older, American shad broad-en their diet to in-clude small fish, crus-taceans, plankton, worms, and oc-casional-ly fish eggs. Dur-ing mig-ra-tion in the late months of wint-er, American shad eat very lit-tle food if any.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Alosa Sapidissima: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Nov. 2012. <http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Alosa_sapidissima/>.


Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: Weakfish Scientific Name: Cynoscion Regalis

Species #: 56

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Sciaenidae Geography / Habitat: This spe-cies of fish is in-digen-ous to the Atl-an-tic coast of the Uni-ted States, and ran-ges from Cape Cod to the shores of Florida. They mig-rate seasonal-ly in the re-lative-ly shal-low co-ast-al water of sandy mud bot-toms. Life Strategy: The weak-fish re-produc-tive bi-ology is not well un-derstood, de-spite stud-ies on its spawn-ing seasons. Weak-fish may be a multi-ple spawn-er, which means that it has sever-al mat-ing seasons a year, or weak-fish may have an ex-ten-ded spawn-ing season. Food / Feed Strategy: Dur-ing dif-ferent life stages, the food selec-ted by weak-fish va-ries. In the larv-al and juvenile stages, weak-fish primari-ly eat co-pepods, a type of crus-tacean. Young weak-fish also feed on mysid shrimp and an-chov-ies. As adults, weak-fish are the top car-nivore in the eelgrass habitat of the wat-ers of the Chesapeake Bay. An adult weak-fish eats a variety of spe-cies, in-clud-ing an-nelids, mol-lusks, crus-taceans, and other fish.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Cynoscion Regalis: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Nov. 2012. <http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Cynoscion_regalis/>


Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: Channel Catfish Scientific Name: Ictalurus punctatus

Species #: 57

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Siluriformes

Family: Ictaluridae Geography / Habitat: The native range of the Channel Catfish is the Nearctic in lower Canada and throug-hout the mid-west of the Uni-ted States. Chan-nel cat-fish can live in both fresh and saltwater and brac-kish water yet they are general-ly found in freshwat-er en-viron-ments. Life Strategy: This fish is mono-gam-ous and has an ex-ten-sive co-urtship be-havior that might only last one mat-ing season. The male and female mate in the summ-er but the re-lationship is es-tablis-hed ear-li-er in the year. Mat-ing takes place when the male swims along the female in the op-posite di-rec-tion. Their tails wrap around the oth-ers head to begin mat­ing. When the male’s body shiv­ers the female is stimulated and the eggs and milt are re-leased. The mass of eggs is de-posited in a nest built by the female or by both the male and the female. After mat-ing has oc-cur-red the male chases away the female and then guards the eggs until they hatch Food / Feed Strategy: The diet of adults con-s-ists of snails, algae,snakes, frogs, in-sects, aquatic plants, and even birds oc-casional-ly. Young-er chan-nel cat-fish are more con-sis-tent-ly om-nivor-ous, eat-ing a large variety of plants and an-im-als.

Body Form or Style: Depressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: ● "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Ictalurus Punctatus: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Nov. 2012. <http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Ictalurus_punctatus/>.


Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: Smallmouth Bass Scientific Name: Micropterus dolomieu

Species #: 58

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centrarchidae Geography / Habitat: This fish the Great Lakes and the St. Lawr-ence seaway drainages from sout-hern Quebec and New Hampshire to North Dakota, and the Mis-sis-sippi River drainage as far south as Al-abama. Life Strategy: The male will ex-cavate and guard a small, round nest. Suitabil-ity for nestbuilding is maximized bet-ween 1-2.5 m in depth, with par-ticle size of sub-strate near 30 mm. Sever-al females may spawn in the nest of one male. In-dividu-al females may also spawn in the nests of sever-al males. Food / Feed Strategy: Fry and juvenile diets con-s-ist primari-ly of zoop-lankton and in-sect lar-vae. Adults have a more di-ver-se palate, sub-sist-ing on such varied foods as crayfish, amphibians, in-sects, and other fish. Adults also can-nibal-ize young of other parents.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Micropterus Dolomieu: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Nov. 2012. <http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Micropterus_dolomieu/>.


Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: Kiyi Scientific Name: Coregonus Kiyi

Species #: 59

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Salmoniformes

Family: Salmonidae Geography / Habitat: Kiyi are found only in the Great Lakes bet-ween the Uni-ted States and Canada. They live in clear, dark water and have been col-lec-ted over bot-toms of clay and mud sub-strate. Life Strategy: Kiyi are lit-hopelagop-hils, mean-ing they spawn over open gravel-ly areas. They prac-tice ex-tern-al fer-tiliza-tion, and eggs are scat-tered ac-ross the sub-strate. Food / Feed Strategy: Kiyi pre-dominant-ly prey on small freshwat-er shrimps and may also prey on op-os-sum shrimp, amphipods, mayf-ly nymphs, mol-lusks, zoop-lankton, be-nthos, and chironomids.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Coregonus Kiyi: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Dec. 2012. <http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Coregonus_kiyi/>.


Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: Silver Carp Scientific Name: Hypophthalmichthys Molitrix Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cypriniformes

Species #: 60

Family: Cyprinidae Geography / Habitat: Silv-er carp are native to eas-tern Asia and are com-mon-ly found in northeas-tern China and Siberia. They are com-mon-ly found in im-pound-ments or backwat-ers of large slow flow-ing riv-ers or large lakes. Silv-er carp are be-nthopelagic, but they often swim near the sur-face of the water and are well known for breach-ing the sur-face. Life Strategy: Silv-er carp general-ly re-produce dur-ing the spr-ing or summ-er. Re-produc-tion is primari-ly caused by in-creased water tem-pera-ture. Like other spe-cies of carp, silv-er carp par-ticipate in broad-cast spawn-ing. Dur-ing spawn-ing, a female re-leases eggs and males fer-til-ize them with-in the water col-umn. A single female can carry as many as 2 mill-ion eggs. Food / Feed Strategy: Silv-er carp are filt-er feed-ers, feed-ing primari-ly on phytop-lankton. Using specialized gill rak-ers co-vered with a thick mat-rix of cal-cified sub-stan-ces, silv-er carp are able to filt-er out the very smal-lest or-gan-isms.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Hypophthalmichthys Molitrix: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Dec. 2012. <http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Hypophthalmichthys_molitrix/>.


Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: Yellow Perch Scientific Name: Perca Flavescens

Species #: 61

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Percidae Geography / Habitat: Yel-low perch are found main-ly in lakes and some-times in im-pound-ments of larg-er riv-ers. Clear water is im-por-tant as ex-ces-sive tur-bid-ity and silt could lead to death of perch. Perch do howev-er have a high toleran-ce for low oxyg-en con-di-tions. Life Strategy: Female yel-low perch ma-ture at ages two to four, males usual-ly ma-ture one year ear-li-er. Spawn-ing takes place in the spr-ing. The average numb-er of eggs laid per female is 23,000. Food / Feed Strategy: Young of the year yel-low perch feed on zoop-lankton, then as they grow they switch to be-nthic mac-roin-verteb-rates and fin-al-ly fish.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Perca Flavescens: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. <http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Perca_flavescens/>.


Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: Cichlid Scientific Name: Cichlidae

Species #: 62

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Cichlidae Geography / Habitat: Cichlids are mainly found in the lowland, freshwater areas of tropical and subtropical regions. Most cichlids inhabit lakes or the sluggish areas of rivers but there are a few species adapted to swift flowing streams. Life Strategy: Some cichlids are polygynous. males fertilize the eggs of more than one female. In this system, males might defend a territory that females visit to spawn, two females may defend a territory overlapping that of a male, or a male may dominate a harem of multiple females. Cichlids also employ polyandry, in which females mate with several males. Food / Feed Strategy: Herbivorous cichlids may browse, scrape, comb, ‘tap’ or suck epiphytic (attached) algae, unicellular algae, and/or clumps of the substrate. Planktivorous cichlids browse throughout the water column on zooplankton and phytoplankton. Piscivorous cichlids feed on whole fish, the fry, larvae, or eggs of mouthbrooding species, and the scales or fins of various fishes

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: ● "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Cichlidae: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Dec. 2012.


Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: Brown Trout Scientific Name: Micropterus dolomieu

Species #: 63

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centrarchidae Geography / Habitat: The Brown Trout is native to rivers in Iceland and Europe. Life Strategy: This fish mates with a different fish every year or so. Food / Feed Strategy: The Brown Trout mainly feeds on insects, insect larvae, and zooplankton.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Micropterus Dolomieu: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012


Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: Rainbow Trout Scientific Name: Oncorhynchus mykiss

Species #: 64

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Salmoniformes

Family: Salmonidae Geography / Habitat: Freshwater, brackish, or marine waters of temperate zones. In freshwater, they prefer cool water but have been known to tolerate water temperatures up to 24°C. Since they are native to the western U.S., then tend to be found in coastal streams and rivers which naturally have reduced flow in summer months. Life Strategy: Females find suitable nest sites while their male mate guards the site from other interested males and predators. The female digs the nest with her anal fin and then descends upon it to position her vent and anal fin into the nest. The male joins her in a parallel position so that their vents are opposite each other. The male and female open their mouths, arch their backs, and deposit the eggs and sperm at the same time. Food / Feed Strategy: Rainbow trout and steelhead are insectivorous and piscivorous. Both species primarily feed on invertebrate larvae drifting in mid-water to conserve energy that would be expended if they were foraging for food in the substrate.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Oncorhynchus Mykiss: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012.


Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: Alligator Gar Scientific Name: Atractosteus spatula

Species #: 65

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Lepisosteiformes

Family: Lepisosteidae Geography / Habitat: Alligator gar are found in large lakes, rivers, and bayous. Typically they are found in backwaters and bottomland swamps. Life Strategy: Female alligator gars lay eggs that are dark green or red and stick to rocks and vegetation. The eggs are poisonous if eaten. Alligator gar may take many years to reach sexual maturity, although little is known about reproduction in this species. Food / Feed Strategy: Alligator gars are opportunistic carnivores and sit-and-wait predators. They appear to be sluggish, but can ambush prey with short bursts of speed.

Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Atractosteus Spatula: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012.


Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: Longnose Gar Scientific Name: Lepisosteus osseus

Species #: 66

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Lepisosteiformes

Family: Lepisosteidae Geography / Habitat: L. osseus live in a variety of lowland habitats, preferring sluggish areas of larger rivers, lakes, reservoirs and estuaries. They can live in brackish water and are common in the deeper bayous along the Gulf Coast. Life Strategy: During the mating process as many as 15 males may approach the female. If she is ready, she will lead them in an elliptical pattern for up to 15 minutes prior to spawning. Food / Feed Strategy: By 10-11 days after hatching, young gar begin feeding on small crustaceans, such as cladocerans and copepods, and insects, including various dipterans such as chironomids. L. osseus quickly switch to a diet of primarily fish. Gars are active night feeders and much of the feeding is surface-oriented.

Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Lepisosteus Osseus: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012.


Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: Spotted Gar Scientific Name: Lepisosteus oculatus

Species #: 67

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Lepisosteiformes

Family: Lepisosteidae Geography / Habitat: Spotted gar prefer shallow open waters, usually 3 - 5 m deep, as well as stagnant backwater. They are often found near the surface basking near fallen logs, trees, or brush. Life Strategy: Multiple males gather in shallow (1.5 m) water near vegetation to compete for the larger females. Females allow more than one male to fertilize their eggs. Females splash and make quick movements at the moment the eggs are deposited. Food / Feed Strategy: This species of gar is an ambush predator, feeding primarily on aquatic crustaceans, such as crayfish.

Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Lepisosteus Oculatus: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012.


Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: Florida Gar Scientific Name: Centropomus undecimalis

Species #: 68

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centropomidae Geography / Habitat: Common snook are amphidromous fish, moving between fresh and saltwater during their life, but not for the purpose of breeding. They can be found in freshwater, brackish, or marine environments at depths up to 22 m. Life Strategy: Although common snook can occupy both freshwater and marine environments, they must spawn in saltwater, as sperm can only become active in saline conditions. Common snook are often observed congregating at the mouths of rivers, inlets, and canals during times of spawning. Several males often follow a single female during these mass spawning congregations. Food / Feed Strategy: Common snook are pelagic feeders. Daily feeding peaks occurs 2 hours before sunrise and 2 to 3 hours after sunset. Their feeding behavior is affected by the tidal cycle, and feeding activity noticeably increases with an increase in water flow following a period of standing flood or ebb tides.

Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Centropomus Undecimalis: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012.


Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: Fathead Minnow Scientific Name: Pimephales promelas

Species #: 69

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cypriniformes

Family: Cyprinidae Geography / Habitat: In addition to small rivers and ponds,fathead minnows are commonly found in muddy pools of headwaters and creeks. They also appear to tolerate habitat conditions that exclude many freshwater fishes such as high turbidity and temperature, variable pH and salinity, and low oxygen. Life Strategy: Fathead minnows are polygynandrous and spawn between the months of May and September, producing anywhere from 1000 to 10000 offspring per season. During breeding season, reproductively mature males are responsible for the selection and preparation of nest sites on the underside of horizontal objects. Food / Feed Strategy: Fathead minnows are opportunistic omnivores that can be characterized as benthic filter feeders, sifting through mud and silt in order to find food. Freshwater sediments often contain a large abundance of algae and protozoans, which represent a significant proportion of the fathead minnow diet.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Pimephales Promelas: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012.


Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: Bluntnose Minnow Scientific Name: Pimephales notatus

Species #: 70

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cypriniformes

Family: Cyprinidae Geography / Habitat: Bluntnose minnows prefer clear, rocky streams and creeks that are small to medium in size. They also occur in natural and man-made lakes. Life Strategy: The maximum recorded age for a bluntnose minnow is five years. It is unclear whether this was a captive or wild individual. Food / Feed Strategy: Bluntnose minnows eat algae, aquatic insect larvae, diatoms, and small crustaceans called entomostraca. Occasionally they will eat fish eggs or small fish.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Pimephales Notatus: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012.


Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: Brook Trout Scientific Name: Salvelinus fontinalis

Species #: 71

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Salmoniformes

Family: Salmonidae Geography / Habitat: Brook trout are found in three types of aquatic environments: rivers, lakes, and marine areas. Their living requirements in these environments are very specific. The freshwater populations occur in clear, cool, well-oxygenated streams and lakes. Life Strategy: Usually only a single male is able to fertilize the eggs that a female lays in a redd, but occasionally more than one male is able to do so. Usually the largest males are the most successful breeders. Food / Feed Strategy: The food habits of brook trout vary according to their age and life history stage. As fry, or very young fish, brook trout feed primarily on immature stages of aquatic insects. In general a brook trout's diet can be likened to a smorgasbord of organisms with prey ranging from mayflies to salamanders.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Salvelinus Fontinalis: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012.


Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: Pumpkinseed Scientific Name: Lepomis Gibbosus

Species #: 72

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centrarchidae Geography / Habitat: Pumpkinseeds are freshwater fishes, like other members of the sunfish family, Centrarchidae. They prefer cool to moderately warm, clear water that is 1 to 2 m deep in areas with lots of vegetation for cover. The ideal water temperature for pumpkinseeds ranges from 21 to 24 degrees Celsius. Life Strategy: Male pumpkinseeds will defend their nests aggressively against other fish by spreading their opercula, charging, biting, chasing, and on occasion, they will mouthfight. Females come in from deeper waters and at first appear to be chased away from the nest but, after a considerable amount of chasing, the male attempts to drive her into his nest and the female will approach the nest. Food / Feed Strategy: Pumpkinseeds consume a diverse diet of small prey including insects, insect larvae, mollusks, snails, crustaceans, leeches, and small fish. They are effective at destroying mosquito larvae and also consume detritus and small amounts of aquatic vegetation.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Lepomis Gibbosus: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012.


Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: Central Mudminnow Scientific Name: Umbra Limi

Species #: 73

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Esociformes

Family: Umbridae Geography / Habitat: Central mudminnows are resilient and thrive in waters with dense vegetation, low dissolved oxygen levels, minimal flow, and thick layers of organic substrate. Life Strategy: Spawning is most likely prompted by warming water temperatures and flooding in spring. Preferred water temperature for spawning is 12.8⁰ C but can occur at up to 15.3⁰ C. Many references note spring migration of central mudminnows into flooded areas. Spawning habitat is preferably flooded stream margins and pools with slow or no flow. Food / Feed Strategy: Central mudminnows are primarily bottom feeders and generally carnivorous.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: ● "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Umbra Limi: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012.


Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: Nile Perch Scientific Name: Lates Niloticus

Species #: 74

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Latidae Geography / Habitat: Nile perch are found in many different types of freshwater. They prefer warm, tropical waters where they grow to large sizes and occur in high densities. Life Strategy: Nile perch are sexually dimorphic. The male has only anal and urogential openings just anterior to the anal fin, whereas the female has a genital orifice separate from the urinary opening. They become sexually mature at the age of 3 years. Food / Feed Strategy: The diet of Nile perch consists of fishes, insects, crustacea and mollusks. The type of prey ingested by the predator depends on the predator size, prey availability and abundance within a given habitat.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Lates Niloticus: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012.


Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: Pirate Perch Scientific Name: Aphredoderus Sayanus

Species #: 75

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Percopsiformes

Family: Aphredoderidae Geography / Habitat: Pirate perch are found in clear warm water with low currents; these include bottomland lakes, overflow ponds and the quiet pools and backwaters of lowgradient streams. Within these areas pirate perch tend to congregate where there is dense vegetation, woody debris, root masses and undercut banks. Life Strategy: It was first suggested that the migration of the anus in A. sayanus was to facilitate gill brooding of its eggs, as is found in northern cavefishes with similar morphological features. However it was noted that the space within the branchial cavity of A. sayanus is insufficient to hold an entire clutch of eggs. Food / Feed Strategy: This carnivorous fish eats primarily immature aquatic insects, small crustaceans and sometimes small fish.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Aphredoderus Sayanus: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012.


Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: Paddlefish Scientific Name: Polyodon Spathula

Species #: 76

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Acipenseriformes

Family: Polyodontidae Geography / Habitat: American paddlefish are mainly freshwater fish but can survive in brackish water. They generally reside in large rivers with deep water and slow moving currents. Life Strategy: Paddlefish are broadcast spawners whereby multiple males swim near and release milt onto the eggs liberated by a female. The eggs are very sticky and thus adhere to a substrate such as gravel or sand. Food / Feed Strategy: This fish is a folivore specialized for filter feeding. American paddlefish use electroreceptors to locate zooplankton in turbid water.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Inferior Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Polyodon Spathula: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012


Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: Zebrafish Scientific Name: Danio Rerio

Species #: 77

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cypriniformes

Family: Cyprinidae Geography / Habitat: Zebrafish are native to inland streams and rivers of India. Its has a broad geographic range in the Indian subcontinent, ranging from the Ganges and Brahmaputra river basins of Bangladesh, India, and Nepal. Life Strategy: Zebrafish are promiscuous and breed seasonally during monsoon season. Mating behavior is also heavily influenced by photoperiod, as spawning begins immediately at first light during breeding season and continues for about an hour. In order to initiate courtship about 3 to 7 males chase females and try to lead female towards a spawning site by nudging her and/or swimming around her in a tight circle or figure eight. The female releases 5 to 20 eggs at a time. Food / Feed Strategy: Zebrafish are omnivores. They get most of their food from the water column, mainly eating zooplankton and aquatic insects. Zebrafish also surface feed, eating terrestrial insects and arachnids. Zebrafish commonly eat mosquito larvae.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Danio Rerio: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012


Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: Tilapia Scientific Name: Sarotherodon Melanotheron

Species #: 78

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Cichlidae Geography / Habitat: Tilapia are found only in freshwater lagoons and brackish, or slightly salty, waters along the coast of West Africa from Senegal to southern Cameroon. Life Strategy: Female tilapia take the initiative in courting males and each female begins to dig a pit for eggs before a male has been chosen. If the male is stimulated to react to the female's advances, he forms a pair bond with her. Food / Feed Strategy: Tilapia feed primarily on filamentous algae, microorganisms, and organic material from dead and decomposing plants and animals.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Sarotherodon Melanotheron: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012.


Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: Redear Sunfish Scientific Name: Lepomis Microlophus

Species #: 79

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centrarchidae Geography / Habitat: Redear sunfish are native to the central and southern United States and can be found in the St. Lawrence-Great Lakes and Mississippi River drainages, as well as the Atlantic and Gulf Slope drainages. Life Strategy: Spawning begins in early spring and ends in mid-summer but may extend into early October in warmer climates. Female sunfish produce between 9,000 and 80,000 eggs per mating season. Food / Feed Strategy: Juveniles eat insects, insect larvae, and small snails. Once their jaws fully develop, usually at about 1 year old, they begin to feed exclusively on snails. Adults feed on snails, aquatic insects, copepods, and organisms with hard shells, such as crustaceans.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Lepomis Microlophus: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012


Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: Oscar Scientific Name: Astronotus Ocellatus

Species #: 80

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Cichlidae Geography / Habitat: These fish are found in the Amazon River basin, from the Orinoco River to the Rio Paraguay, throughout Venezuela, Guyana, and Paraguay Life Strategy: These fish exhibit a high degree of parental care. After spawning in open water, the eggs are laid on a piece of ground that has been cleared by one of the parents. After three or four days, the eggs hatch. Food / Feed Strategy: Although these predators are not at all choosy, they feed mostly on insect larvae and smaller fish. Their feeding habits require that Oscars have excellent eyesight. Because of this, they have been the subject of numerous studies concerning eyesight in fish.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Astronotus Ocellatus: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012


Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: Koi Scientific Name: Cyprinus Carpio

Species #: 81

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cypriniformes

Family: Cyprinidae

Geography / Habitat: Common carp are native to Europe but have been widely introduced and are now found worldwide except for the poles and northern Asia. Life Strategy: Males externally fertilize eggs, which the females scatter over macrophytes in a very active manner. The eggs stick to the substrate upon which they are scattered. A typical female may produce 300,000 eggs, with some estimates as high as one million over the breeding season. Food / Feed Strategy: Koi are known to eat a wide variety of organisms including, insects, crustaceans, annelids, mollusks, fish eggs, fish remains, and plant tubers and seeds.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Cyprinus Carpio: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012.


Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: Electric Catfish Scientific Name: Malapterurus Electricus

Species #: 82

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Siluriformes

Family: Malapteruridae Geography / Habitat: Electric Catfish are found throughout western and central tropical Africa and the Nile River. They occur in all major freshwater systems including the Buzi Niger, Ogooué, Omo, Sanaga, Sabi-Lundi, Senegal, Shari, Zaïre and Zambezi River basins,as well as Lakes Albert, Chad, Kainji, Tanganyika and Turkana. Life Strategy: Nothing much is known of the reproductive biology of this fish. Breeding pairs nest in holes some 3 meters in length excavated in clay banks in water 1 to 3 meters deep. Food / Feed Strategy: This fish is a voracious piscivore. Hunting and stunning its prey using its paralyzing electric organ discharge.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Ostraciiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: ● "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Malapterurus Electricus: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012.


Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: North African Catfish Scientific Name:

Species #: 83

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Siluriformes

Family: Clariidae Geography / Habitat: North African catfish have been widely introduced around the world. They are found as far south as South Africa and north into northern Africa. They have also been introduced in Europe, the Middle East, and in parts of Asia. They are potamodromous, which means they migrate within streams and rivers. Life Strategy: This species participates in mass spawning. Food / Feed Strategy: They are known to feed on insects, plankton, snails, crabs, shrimp, and other invertebrates.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Ostraciiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Clarias Gariepinus: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012.


Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: Three-Lined Pencilfish Scientific Name: Nannostomus Trifasciatus

Species #: 84

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Characiformes

Family: Lebiasinidae Geography / Habitat: This fish is native to Guyana, the Rio Negro, and the middle portion of the Amazon River. Life Strategy: The Three-Lined Pencilfish spawns during the daytime among plant leaves. The eggs are adhesive and are sometimes placed on plants and sometimes scattered throughout the water. Fertilization takes place externally, and anywhere from 30-70 eggs are produced at a time. Food / Feed Strategy: This fish spends much of its time near the water surface, where it feeds primarily on insects. It has also been reported to eat detritus and algae.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Subterminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Nannostomus Trifasciatus: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012.


Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: Quillback Scientific Name: Carpiodes Cyprinus

Species #: 85

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cypriniformes

Family: Catostomidae Geography / Habitat: Quillback carpsuckers are found throughout much of eastern North America as far north as Saskatchewan, south to Florida and as far west as South Dakota, Kansas and Alabama. Life Strategy: Male and female quillback carpsuckers make a run, or migration, to their spawning areas where they release eggs and sperm in shallow water over gravelly riffles, sand or mud. Food / Feed Strategy: Quillback carpsuckers prefer to feed on the bottoms of lakes, rivers and streams; specifically they prefer clear, bottom water. They seek aquatic insect larvae and other small organisms such as mollusks, fingernail clams and aquatic vegetation.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Subterminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Carpiodes Cyprinus: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012.


Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: Goldfish Scientific Name: Carassius Auratus

Species #: 86

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cypriniformes

Family: Cyprinidae Geography / Habitat: Goldfish can be found in slow-moving, freshwater bodies of water. As with their close relative the carp, they thrive in slightly sludgy water. Life Strategy: Egg layers. Food / Feed Strategy: In the wild, Goldfish are omnivores. They eat plants, insects such as mosquito larvae, small crustaceans, zooplankton, and detritus.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Carassius Auratus: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012


Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: River Blackfish Scientific Name: Gadopsis Marmoratus

Species #: 87

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Percichthyidae Geography / Habitat: River blackfish have a relatively limited range, inhabiting freshwater rivers in southeastern Australia. They are found both north and south of the Great Dividing Range, a mountainous geographic barrier that divides Victoria into two separate regions. Life Strategy: River blackfish reproduce sexually, but their mating system is unknown. Fertilization of eggs occurs outside of the motherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s body, and eggs are normally laid inside hollow logs. Food / Feed Strategy: River blackfish are carnivorous, ambush predators. They prefer to ambush prey areas of cover in order to most efficiently use their short, quick bursts of speed. They have a diverse diet. Prey items include insects, mollusks, crustaceans, small fish, and terrestrial invertebrates that fall into the water.

Body Form or Style: Taeniform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Gadopsis Marmoratus: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012.


Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: Walleye Scientific Name: Sander Vitreus

Species #: 88

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Percidae Geography / Habitat: Walleye are native to the Nearctic Region. Walleye are abundant in many lakes and larger rivers over much of North America, from the Northwest Territories across Canada east of the Rocky Mountains to Labrador, southward along the Atlantic Coast to North Carolina, west to Arkansas, and north along the Missouri River. Life Strategy: Lay eggs on rock or gravel. Some lay eggs on vegetation or sand. Parents do not tend to nest, leaving juveniles to fend for themselves once spawning is over. Food / Feed Strategy: Walleye are strictly carnivorous. Young walleye eat plankton. As they get older, they mostly eat fishes such as yellow perch and freshwater drum. They also eat insects, crayfish, snails, and mudpuppies.

Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Sander Vitreus: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012.


Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: Hatchetfish Scientific Name: Gasteropelecus Sternicla

Species #: 89

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Characiformes

Family: Gasteropelecidae Geography / Habitat: Hatchetfish live in the Amazon river and most of its tributaries. Here the fish lives near the surface. It frequents well-vegetated areas near shore, but when schooled, will venture out into open water. Life Strategy: This fish only breeds for a short period coinciding with the start of the rainy season. The eggs are laid by the female, then the male will swim near the eggs and release his sperm. Food / Feed Strategy: The hatchet fish has a diet which is composed primarily of insects and larvae.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Gasteropelecus Sternicla: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012.


Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: Silver Carp Scientific Name: Hypophthalmichthys Molitrix Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cypriniformes

Species #: 90

Family: Cyprinidae Geography / Habitat: Silver carp are native to eastern Asia and are commonly found in northeastern China and Siberia. They have also been introduced to other areas of the world, and are now considered invasive to North America. Life Strategy: Silver carp generally reproduce during the spring or summer. Reproduction is primarily caused by increased water temperature. Like other species of carp, silver carp participate in broadcast spawning. During spawning, a female releases eggs and males fertilize them within the water column. A single female can carry as many as 2 million eggs. Food / Feed Strategy: Silver carp are filter feeders, feeding primarily on phytoplankton.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Hypophthalmichthys Molitrix: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012.


Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: Cardinal Tetra Scientific Name: Paracheirodon Axelrodi

Species #: 91

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Characiformes

Family: Characidae Geography / Habitat: Cardinal tetras live in Brazil, Colombia, and Venezuela, in the upper Orinoco and Negro River drainages. Life Strategy: Female cardinal tetras release their eggs during the rainy season. The eggs become fertilized by the sperm of males in close proximity. Mating takes place at twilight during the rainy season. The male embraces the female while swimming. Fertilization is external. As the female scatters about 500 eggs into the water, males fertilize the eggs. Food / Feed Strategy: The diet of Cardinal Tetras consist of very small crustaceans, mesofauna, eggs, algae, detritus, and some other types of prey.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Paracheirodon Axelrodi: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012.


Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: Northern Pike Scientific Name: Esox Lucius

Species #: 92

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Esociformes

Family: Esocidae Geography / Habitat: This fish is native to North America and Eurasia. They are found from Labrador west to Alaska, south to Pennsylvania, Missouri and Nebraska. In Europe they are found throughout northern and western Europe, south throughout Spain and east to Siberia. Life Strategy: Northern pike are considered random spawners not nest builders. Food / Feed Strategy: Pike fish are a carnivorous fish. Equipped with sharp teeth and very complex skull and jaw structures they are predators of smaller fish, frogs, crayfish, small mammals and birds.

Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Esox Lucius: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012.


Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: Creek Chub Scientific Name: Lasmigona Compressa

Species #: 93

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Unionoida

Family: Unionidae Geography / Habitat: This fish is found in the Canadian Interior Basin, the upper Mississippi, Ohio and St. Lawrence River systems extending from Saskatchewan to Nebraska and eastward to Vermont and Quebec. It is always found from the Hudson River system in New York. Life Strategy: Age to sexual maturity for this species is unknown. Food / Feed Strategy: These fish are filter feeders.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Lasmigona Compressa: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012.


Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: Warmouth Scientific Name:

Species #: 94

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centrarchidae Geography / Habitat: Native to large parts of the south. Warmouths prefer slow-moving, back water streams. Life Strategy: Nests are built on gravel, mud, or rock substrates. Male Warmouths have been seen to guard their nest up to five days after fry have hatched. Food / Feed Strategy: The diet of the Warmouth fish includes insects, crayfish, and other fish.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Subterminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Warmouth." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 12 July 2012. Web. 11 Dec. 2012.


Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: Muskellunge Scientific Name: Esox Masquinongy

Species #: 95

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Esociformes

Family: Esocidae Geography / Habitat: Muskellunge are native only to North America. Muskellunge are abundant in many lakes and rivers over much of North America, however, their greatest concentrations are present in the waters of the Midwestern states. Life Strategy: Muskellunge are random spawners, not nest builders. They scatter their eggs in shallow water, most often over live or decaying aquatic plants or their roots. Food / Feed Strategy: Muskellunge are the top predator in any body of water where they occur, and they will eat larger prey than most other freshwater fish.

Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Esox Masquinongy: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012.


Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: Macquarie Perch Scientific Name: Macquaria Australasica

Species #: 96

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Percichthyidae Geography / Habitat: This fish is only found in Australia. In it's native range, this species occurs in highest abundance in the Murray-Darling basin in New South Wales. This freshwater species lives in rivers and stream, preferring deep, rocky pools Life Strategy: Breeding fish migrate upstream and gather in schools which can last for several weeks. Males nudge the female vent region which causes the release of eggs and then fertilization. Females are oviparous and mate each year. Food / Feed Strategy: The bulk of their diet consists of aquatic invertebrates such as caddisfly, stonefly and mayfly species, with a small quantity of terrestrial insects taken as well. Adults feed at the bottom of lakes and rivers. Young are zooplanktivorous, and eat water fleas, rotifers and water mites by sucking them up into their mouths.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Macquaria Australasica: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012.


Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: Bowfin Scientific Name: Amia Calva

Species #: 97

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Amiiformes

Family: Amiidae Geography / Habitat: Bowfin are found as far north as the upper St. Lawrence River in Quebec and Ontario, and as far south as Southern Texas and Florida. They can be found from the east coast and west into South Dakota, Nebraska, Missouri, Kansas, and Central Oklahoma. Bowfin live in backwater pools of rivers, lakes, and swamps. During times of high water, bowfin swim into river cutoffs and their floodplain habitats. Life Strategy: During mating (springtime) males and females alike move into spawning areas. These areas are shallow, vegetated waters in lakes or ponds. Females often lay eggs in several nests, and as a result, males often have eggs from more than one female in their nest. Food / Feed Strategy: This fish is a non-specific predator. This can be seen by the variety of foods they consume. Though they eat most anything, the largest percent of their food is made up of insects, fishes, crustaceans, and amphibians. Some common examples include frogs, bass, other bowfin, dragonflies, sunfish, crayfish, etc.

Body Form or Style: Taeniform Swim / Locomotion Style: Anguilliform Mouth Position: Subterminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Amia Calva: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012.


Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: Alewife Scientific Name: Alosa Pseudoharengus

Species #: 98

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Clupeiformes

Family: Clupeidae Geography / Habitat: This fish is an anadromous species, native to the Atlantic Ocean and the lakes and streams that drain to it from Newfoundland to North Carolina. This includes the Gulf of St. Lawrence, the outer coast of Nova Scotia, the Bay of Fundy, and the Gulf of Maine. Life Strategy: Females broadcast their eggs simultaneously with males broadcasting sperm. Although the eggs are adhesive at first and may stick to plants or rocks, they lose their adhesive qualities after a few hours and settle to the substrate. Food / Feed Strategy: Little is known about the feeding habits of anadromous alewives. Adult landlocked fish eat mostly zooplankton, especially larger varieties such as copepods, cladocerans, mysids, and ostracods.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Alosa Pseudoharengus: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012.


Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: Striped Bass Scientific Name: Morone Saxatilis

Species #: 99

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Moronidae Geography / Habitat: Striped bass can be found on the Atlantic coast of the United States, from northern Florida to the St. Lawrence estuary in southeastern Canada. This species has been introduced to many inland lakes and reservoirs in the Midwest, as well as, the Pacific coast of the United States. Life Strategy: is polyandrous. A group of 7 to 8 males surround a single larger female, and once surrounded, males bump the female to the waters surface. Once at the surface, males continue bumping the female until she releases her eggs into the water. Once the eggs are discharged into the water, males release their sperm. Food / Feed Strategy: The dietary habits of striped bass change throughout their life. As larval, striped bass feed on zooplankton, and as juveniles they mostly feed on insect larvae, small crustaceans, mayflies, and larval fish. Adult striped bass are piscivorous, feeding on bay anchovy, Atlantic silversides and yellow perch; however, a vast majority of their diet consists of Atlantic menhaden.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Subterminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Morone Saxatilis: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012.


Title: Freshwater Fishes Common Name: Freshwater Drum Scientific Name: Aplodinotus Grunniens

Species #: 100

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Sciaenidae Geography / Habitat: Freshwater drum are the only members of the family Sciaenidae that inhabit freshwater. They have a vast distribution range that extends from as far north as the Hudson Bay to their extreme southern range in the Rio Usumacinta Basin of Guatemala. Life Strategy: Freshwater drum breed seasonally in open water. The eggs are fertilized and left floating near the surface of the water, where the eggs, and subsequently the larvae, are carried by currents. This unique characteristic is thought to be the explanation of their wide distribution. Freshwater drum are seemingly promiscuous because males and females disperse eggs and sperm into the water column where fertilization is rather random. Food / Feed Strategy: Adults feed primarily on aquatic insects such as mayflies, small fish and mollusks. During the early larval stage freshwater drum feed primarily on the larval stages of other fishes. After reaching 12 mm they begin to feed on zooplankton. Juveniles feed on larval stages of mayflies and caddisflies.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Aplodinotus Grunniens: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Invertebrates Common Name: Caribbean Reef Octopus Scientific Name: Octopus Joubini

Species #: 101

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Mollusca

Class: Cephalopoda

Order: Octopoda

Family: Octopodidae Geography / Habitat: Florida, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea to Guyanas, Bahamas, West Indies. Life Strategy: The sperm is passed to the female through a spermatophore that the males, using a special arm, place in the female's mantle cavity. The spermatophore evaginates in the female's oviduct, releasing sperm. Usually males would hold the spermatophore in the female until this process is complete, but in this case the male cannot because the fertilization takes too long. Food / Feed Strategy: Mainly feed on crabs

Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Octopus Joubini: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Invertebrates Common Name: Blue Crab Scientific Name: Callinectes Sapidus

Species #: 102

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Crustacea

Class: Malacostraca

Order: Decapoda

Family: Portunidae Geography / Habitat: The blue crab is a bottom-dweller found in a variety of habitats ranging from the saltiest water of the gulf to almost fresh water of the back bays. Especially common in estuaries, this species ranges into fresh water, and may be found offshore. Life Strategy: Unlike males, females mate only once in their lifetime, after the pubertal or terminal molt. When approaching this final molt, females attract males by releasing a pheromone in their urine. Females can lay up to 8 million eggs at a time. Food / Feed Strategy: Typically this species eats clams, oysters, and mussels as well as almost any vegetable or animal matter. This species will scavenge freshly dead animals but not long dead animals.

Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Callinectes Sapidus: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Invertebrates Common Name: Red King Crab Scientific Name: Paralithodes Camtschaticus

Species #: 103

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Crustacea

Class: Malacostraca

Order: Decapoda

Family: Lithodidae Geography / Habitat: They can be found as far south as the Sea of Japan, and north up to the Kamchatka Peninsula. Life Strategy: Female Alaskan king crabs mate immediately after the eggs hatch. During this process a male is attracted by a chemical that is released by the female. The male then clasps onto the female and holds her until she molts. The female and male may remain connected for up to 7 days. After molting the male uses his fifth pair of legs to spread spermatophores over the females opening. The females eggs are then released and pass over the spermatophores and become fertilized. Food / Feed Strategy: The adult form feeds on many different animals including some fish parts and are generalized carnivore.

Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Paralithodes Camtschaticus: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Invertebrates Common Name: Moon Jellyfish Scientific Name: Aurelia aurita

Species #: 104

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Cnidaria

Class: Scyphozoa

Order: Semaeostomeae

Family: Ulmaridae Geography / Habitat: Moon Jellyfish are found near the coast, in mostly warm and tropical waters. Life Strategy: The eggs develop in gonads located in pockets formed by the frills of the oral arms. The gonads are commonly the most recognizable part of the animal, because of their deep and conspicuous coloration. The gonads lie at the bottom of the stomach. Males and females are distinct and reproduction is sexual. Food / Feed Strategy: Their primary foods include small plankton organisms such as mollusks, crustaceans, tunicate larvae, copepods, rotifers, nematodes, young polychaetes, protozoans, diatoms, and eggs.

Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Aurelia Aurita: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Invertebrates Common Name: Greater Blue-Ringed Octopus Scientific Name: Hapalochlaena lunulata Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Mollusca

Class: Cephalopoda

Order: Octopoda

Species #: 105

Family: Octopodidae Geography / Habitat: Greater Blue-Ringed Octopus are found in the IndoWest Pacific and Indian Oceans. They are very common in shallow waters around the coast of Australia particularly in the cooler areas along the southern coast. Life Strategy: The male inserts its arm under the mantle of the female, and the spermatophores then travel down the groove on the hectocotylus to the female's oviduct. Soon after mating, the female begins to lay 60-100 eggs, which she carries in a cluster underneath her tentacles. Food / Feed Strategy: This animal is carnivorous, feeding primarily on fish, crabs, mollusks and other small marine animals. It hunts every thing that it is able to overpower.

Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Hapalochlaena Lunulata: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Invertebrates Common Name: Lion’s Mane Jelly Scientific Name: Cyanea capillata

Species #: 106

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Cnidaria

Class: Scyphozoa

Order: Semaeostomeae

Family: Canidae Geography / Habitat: They may be found in the North Atlantic Ocean, including the Gulf of Maine and off the coasts of Europe, and in the Pacific Ocean. Life Strategy: Reproduction occurs sexually in the medusa stage. Under its bell, the lion's mane jellyfish has 4 ribbon-like gonads which alternate with 4 very folded lips. The lion's mane jellyfish has separate sexes. The eggs are held by oral tentacles and are fertilized by sperm. Larvae called planula develop and settle on the ocean bottom, where they develop into polyps. Food / Feed Strategy: Lion's mane jellyfish eat plankton, fish, small crustaceans and even other jellyfish.

Citation: ● "Lion's Mane Jellyfish (Cyanea capillata)." About.com Marine Life. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Invertebrates Common Name: Purple Striped Jelly Scientific Name:

Species #: 107

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Cnidaria

Class: Scyphozoa

Order: Semaeostomeae

Family: Pelagiidae Geography / Habitat: Open waters in Mediterranean and Atlantic Oceans. Life Strategy: This jellyfish reacts with light to attract its mate. Food / Feed Strategy: The Purple Striped Jellyfish eats plankton and small organisms.

Citation: â&#x2014;? "Jellyfish." About.com Marine Life. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Invertebrates Common Name: Thimble Jellyfish Scientific Name: Linuche unguiculata

Species #: 108

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Cnidaria

Class: Scyphozoa

Order: Coronatae

Family: Bruchidae Geography / Habitat: occupies the shallow, warm, marine waters of the subtropics and tropics. While it prefers shallow water, it can occupy the epipelagic, mesopelagic, bathypelagic, or abyssopelagic regions. Life Strategy: is polygynandrous, where males and females have multiple mates. Food / Feed Strategy: Their diet consists of crustacean plankton, including copepods and barnacle larvae.

Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Linuche Unguiculata: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Invertebrates Common Name: Bat Star Scientific Name: Patiria miniata

Species #: 109

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Echinodermata

Class: Asteroidea

Order: Spinulosida

Family: Asterinidae Geography / Habitat: The Bat Star can be found along the Pacific coast from Alaska down to Mexico. They are numerous in certain kelp forests. Life Strategy: The Bat Star has an unusually long breeding season. Both males and females will discharge fertile sperm and eggs all year long, but more abundantly during the late winter and spring. Food / Feed Strategy: The Bat Star is usually an omnivore or a scavenger. It feeds by extending its stomach over a great variety of sessile or dead plants and animals.

Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Patiria Miniata: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Invertebrates Common Name: Sand Dollar Scientific Name: Echinarachnius parma

Species #: 110

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Echinodermata

Class: Echinoidea

Order: Clypeasteroida

Family: Echinarachnius Geography / Habitat: This species is the common dollar of the North American east coast from New Jersey north. It is circumpolar and also occurs in Alaska, British Columbia, Siberia and Japan. Life Strategy: Gametes are released into the water column as in most echinoids, and most generally when the water is warm. The free-swimming larvae join the populations of plankton and metamorphose through several stages before the test begins to form and they become bottom dwellers. Food / Feed Strategy: This sand dollar burrows in the sand at the sea bottom feeding on algae and fragments of organic material found in the substrate.

Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Echinarachnius Parma: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Invertebrates Common Name: Giant Caribbean Anemone Scientific Name: Condylactis Gigantea

Species #: 111

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Cnidaria

Class: Anthozoa

Order: Actiniaria

Family: Actiniidae Geography / Habitat: Commonly found in the Caribbean--most specifically the West Indies--and the western Atlantic, ranging from southern Florida through the Florida keys. They can be seen growing in lagoons or on inner reefs as either individuals or loose groups, but never as colonies. Life Strategy: This is a dioecious organism that is rarely hermaphroditic. There is no mode of asexual reproduction. Its primary mating season is spring, but it does have a tendency to continue reproduction at a low level throughout the year. Food / Feed Strategy: The Giant Caribbean Anemone feeds upon fish, mussels, shrimp, or other similar organisms.

Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Condylactis Gigantea: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Invertebrates Common Name: Florida Stone Crab Scientific Name: Menippe Mercenaria

Species #: 112

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Arthropoda

Class: Malacostraca

Order: Decapoda

Family: Menippus Geography / Habitat: The Stone Crab can be found just below the low tide line from the Atlantic coast of North Carolina to the Gulf coast of Florida. Life Strategy: The female carries her eggs in a sac-like mass containing 160,000 to 1,000,000 eggs until they hatch. Food / Feed Strategy: The larvae and pre-juvenile stone crabs are opportunistic carnivores that feed on smaller zooplankton. The juvenile and adult stone crabs are still opportunistic carnivores, but feed on animals that are larger than the zooplankton. Utilizing their massive and powerful claws, adult stone crabs feed on acorn barnacles, hard shelled clams, scallops, and conch.

Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Menippe Mercenaria: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Invertebrates Common Name: Atlantic Rock Crab Scientific Name: Cancer Irroratus

Species #: 113

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Arthropoda

Class: Malacostraca

Order: Decapoda

Family: Cancridae Geography / Habitat: They inhabit the Atlantic ocean, and are extensively distributed along North America's east coast. Their range stretches as far north as Labrador, Canada and reaches southward to South Carolina, U.S. Life Strategy: Females moult their shells during the fall so that they remain soft during mating. It takes rock crab shells between 2-3 months to fully harden. After fertilization females lay their eggs and store them under their stomach for almost a year. Depending upon the female's size the number of eggs produced can range from 125,000 to 500,000. Food / Feed Strategy: They eat an assortment of items including algae, polychaetes, mussels, gastropods, and various crustaceans including hermit crabs.

Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Cancer Irroratus: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Invertebrates Common Name: Glass Sponge Scientific Name: Euplectella aspergillum

Species #: 114

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Porifera

Class: Hexactinellida

Order: Lyssacinosida

Family: Eupleridae Geography / Habitat: This sponge species is found in the western Pacific Ocean near the Philippine Islands. Life Strategy: Little is known about their reproduction. Food / Feed Strategy: Glass Sponges staple food is microscopic organisms and organic debris. These are filtered out of the water that flows through the sponge.

Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Euplectella Aspergillum: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Invertebrates Common Name: Green Crab Scientific Name: Carcinus Maenas

Species #: 115

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Arthropoda

Class: Malacostraca

Order: Decapoda

Family: Portunidae Geography / Habitat: The green crab is native to the Atlantic Ocean off of the coast of Europe. Life Strategy: The mating process of the green crab begins with the seeking out of a recently molted female crab by a male green crab. The female lays eggs which she carries in a pouch underneath her abdomen where the male crab fertilizes them. The female green crab can lay as many as a hundred thousand eggs at one time. Following fertilization, the females then travel to deeper water to more stable water conditions where the eggs begin to develop. Food / Feed Strategy: The green crab enjoys a variety of different foods. These foods include clams, oysters, mussels, and other small crabs. The green crab is very dexterous and has many ways in which to open up the shellfish on which it feeds.

Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Carcinus Maenas: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Invertebrates Common Name: Purple-Spined Sea Urchin Scientific Name: Diadema Savignyi

Species #: 116

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Echinodermata

Class: Echinoidea

Order: Diadematoida

Family: Diadematus Geography / Habitat: The Purple-Spined Sea Urchin lives in shallow waters off of the east coast of Africa near Madagascar, Tanzania, and Kenya. It is found widespread across the Indo-Pacific region such as North Australia, the Philippines, China, South Japan, East Indies, South Pacific Islands, and islands in the western Indian Ocean. Life Strategy: Sea urchins spawn by gathering together and releasing millions of eggs and sperm into the water column. An urchin does not have a specific mate or a social structure. Food / Feed Strategy: It uses teeth that are on an apparatus called Aristotle's Lantern to scrape the algae off of hard substrate such as rocks or dead coral substrate.

Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Diadema Savignyi: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Invertebrates Common Name: Atlantic ghost crab Scientific Name: Ocypode quadrata

Species #: 117

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Arthropoda

Class: Malacostraca

Order: Decapoda

Family: Ocypodidae Geography / Habitat: Ghost crabs inhabit tropical and subtropical areas and can be found on both oceanic and more protected estuarine beaches. They are found on the supralittoral zone of sand beaches, from the water line up to the dunes. Life Strategy: Mating can occur throughout the year. Unlike other crab species, ghost crabs can mate even when the female’s integument is hard, which means that they can mate anytime after sexual maturation. Usually mating will occur somewhere in or near the burrow of the male. Often copulatory plugs are found in ghost crabs; the male will release a seminal fluid along with his sperm that will become hard and prevent rival sperm from reaching the female’s ova. Food / Feed Strategy: Ghost crabs are both predators and scavengers, and they feed at night. Their prey can be influenced by the type of beach they live on. Crabs on oceanfront beaches tend to feed on bean clams and mole crabs, while crabs on more protected beaches will feed on the eggs and hatchlings of loggerhead turtles.

Citation: ● "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Ocypode Quadrata: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Invertebrates Common Name: Cushion Star Scientific Name: Pteraster tesselatus

Species #: 118

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Echinodermata

Class: Asteroidea

Order: Spinulosida

Family: Asterinidae Geography / Habitat: The cushion star inhabits the regions of Europe's rocky coasts, most commonly the seas to the south and west of the British Isles. Life Strategy: The cushion star is one of the few sequential hermaphroditic echinoderms. Younger and smaller individuals are males, developing into females as they increase in size and age. Male and female gametes are not distinguishable to the naked eye. Food / Feed Strategy: Cushion stars are omnivorous. As with other starfish, they feed themselves by inverting their stomachs in order to digest the food they eat. Their diet includes molluscs, worms and ophiuroids that are also found among rocky shores. They also eat microorganisms, decaying seaweeds and dead invertebrates.

Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Asterina Gibbosa: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Invertebrates Common Name: Brittle Star Scientific Name: Ophiothrix Fragilis

Species #: 119

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Echinodermata

Class: Ophiuroidea

Order: Ophiurida

Family: Ophiothrichidae Geography / Habitat: Common brittle stars are commonly found off the coast of the British Isles as well as on all other coasts bordering the North Sea and throughout the eastern Atlantic Ocean, as far south as the Cape of Good Hope. They are also found around the Azorean Islands. Life Strategy: Common brittle stars mate by releasing sperm and eggs into the water, with the release of sperm by the males triggering females to release eggs. The eggs are fertilized and develop in the water column. Food / Feed Strategy: This brittle star is a nocturnal passive suspension feeder. To feed, it lifts its arms through crevices in rocks, passing particles to its mouth where it uses the two pairs of tube feet in its mouth and both a vertical row of teeth and group of tooth papillae to consume its food. This species' diet is made up largely of detritus, diatoms, and phytoplankton. It will also occasionally scavenge dead material.

Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Ophiothrix Fragilis: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012.


Title: Saltwater/ Marine Invertebrates Common Name: Caribbean Reef Squid Scientific Name: Sepioteuthis Sepioidea

Species #: 120

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Mollusca

Class: Cephalopoda

Order: Teuthida

Family: Loliginidae Geography / Habitat: The Caribbean Reef Squid lives in the ocean waters of Florida and Bermuda through the West Indian islands and from Venezuela to Cozumel along the Caribbean shores of Central America and the northeast of South America. Life Strategy: Large adults typically form pairs of one female and one male before they disengage from the squid school to head for the reefs to mate. Females lay eggs in clutches and die immediately after. However, males can copulate many times in a concentrated short period of time before they die. Females lay the eggs in well protected areas, scattering them within the reefs. Food / Feed Strategy: The diet primarily includes fishes.

Citation: "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Sepioteuthis Sepioidea: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012.


Title: Freshwater Invertebrates Common Name: Zebra Mussel Scientific Name: Dreissena polymorpha

Species #: 121

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Mollusca

Class: Bivalvia

Order: Veneroida

Family: Dreissenidae Geography / Habitat: Zebra mussels were originally found in the drainage basins of the Black and Caspian Seas, including the Danube, Dniester, Volga, and Ural Rivers. Life Strategy: In habitats where they water stays warm year round, they may reproduce continuously. Females release eggs into the water, and males release sperm, and fertilization occurs after they are released. Females grow and release eggs in batches of up to 40,000, up to four times during the breeding season, which lasts as long as the water stays warm enough. Food / Feed Strategy: They eat mainly single-cell organisms, such as bacteria, bluegreen algae, small green algae, and protozoans. They also consume very fine detritus particles.

Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Dreissena Polymorpha: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012.


Title: Freshwater Invertebrates Common Name: Duck Mussel Scientific Name: Villosa fabalis

Species #: 122

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Mollusca

Class: Bivalvia

Order: Unionoida

Family: Unionidae Geography / Habitat: The Duck Mussel is found in sporadic in the Ohio River drainage north to Lake Erie drainages in Michigan and Ontario, and in the Duck and the upper Tennessee Rivers. Life Strategy: Age to sexual maturity for this species is unknown. Sexes are separate and viviparous. The glochidia, which are the larval stage of the mussels, are released live from the female after they are fully developed. Food / Feed Strategy: Mussels have been cultured on algae, but they may also ingest bacteria, protozoans and other organic particles.

Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Villosa Fabalis: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012.


Title: Freshwater Invertebrates Common Name: Red Swamp Crawfish Scientific Name: Procambarus clarkii

Species #: 123

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Arthropoda

Class: Malacostraca

Order: Decapoda

Family: Cambaridae Geography / Habitat: As the common name implies, red swamp crayfish are found mainly in swamps, sloughs, and ditches. This species avoids streams and areas with strong current. During periods of drought or cold, the red swamp crayfish burrows itself for survival. Life Strategy: Sexes are separate, but the location of gonads are similar in both males and females. The sperm cells are released from the body of male crayfish through a pore. Sperm enters the female and the eggs are fertilized and released. The female crayfish then lies on her back and curls her abdomen forward. By beating her swimmerets, the female creates a water current which drives the fertilized eggs into the swimmerets where they will remain for approximately 6 weeks. Food / Feed Strategy: Although some crayfish are known to feed on vegetation, the red swamp crayfish is carnivorous, eating insect larvae, tadpoles, and snails. When traditional food sources are scarce, the crayfish eat the remains of dead animals and worms as well.

Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Procambarus Clarkii: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012.


Title: Freshwater Invertebrates Common Name: California Spiny Lobster Scientific Name: Panulirus Interruptus

Species #: 124

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Arthropoda

Class: Malacostraca

Order: Decapoda

Family: Palinuridae Geography / Habitat: California spiny lobsters are found on the Pacific coast of North America from Monterey Bay, California to Baja California, Mexico. They are occasionally found within the Gulf of California. Life Strategy: Females then move inshore to shallow water (usually less than 15 m in depth) and extrude 50,000 to 800,000 eggs. These eggs are fertilized by sperm released from the spermatophores, and they attach in masses to feathery pleopods beneath the abdomen of females. Food / Feed Strategy: California spiny lobsters are omnivorous bottom feeders that scavenge dead animals, algae, and detritus. They also consume invertebrates such as mussels and urchins. In the winter, California spiny lobsters occasionally eat coralline algae.

Citation: â&#x2014;? "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Panulirus Interruptus: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012


Title: Freshwater Invertebrates Common Name: Bay Ghost Shrimp Scientific Name: Neotrypaea Californiensis

Species #: 125

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Arthropoda

Class: Malacostraca

Order: Decapoda

Family: Callianassidae Geography / Habitat: Bay Ghost Shrimp can be found at intertidal locations within the regions of the North American West Coast ranging from Mutiny Bay, Alaska to Tijuana River, San Diego County, California and El Estuario de Punta Banda, Baja California Norte, Mexico. Life Strategy: Once a female is found, the male will follow and protect her from predators and other suitors with his major cheliped, until she molts. This process is known as temporary mate guarding. After the female molts, the male mates with her and then leaves her to find another premolt female. Food / Feed Strategy: Ghost shrimp ingest plankton and detritus deposits scraped from the sediments during burrowing. Plankton is also obtained as water and detrital materials pass over the body and are collected on the hairs of their second and third walking legs.

Citation: "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Neotrypaea Californiensis: INFORMATION. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012.

Fish ID Project  

Fish ID Project for Mr. Arington's AquaScience class at Auburn High School. Lisa McWilliams

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