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YESHICA INDRA! FASHION BUSINESS 2.2

FASHION SOCIETY

20TH CENTURY: 1920S DESIGNERS


"COCO" CHANEL WAS A PIONEERING FRENCH FASHION DESIGNER WHOSE MODERNIST PHILOSOPHY, MENSWEARINSPIRED FASHIONS, AND PURSUIT OF EXPENSIVE SIMPLICITY MADE HER AN IMPORTANT FIGURE IN 20THCENTURY FASHION. SHE WAS THE FOUNDER OF THE FAMOUS FASHION BRAND

CHANEL.


BY 1913, AFTER ASSERTING DISDAIN FOR RESORT WEAR, SHE LAUNCHED SPORTSWEAR: HER TAKE WAS SIMPLER窶認LANNEL BLAZERS, JERSEY SWEATERS, AND INTRODUCE WOMEN IN TROUSERS, ALL OF WHICH WERE DECIDEDLY AGAINST TWENTIETH-CENTURY CULTURE MEMES.

In this example, Chanel uses striped jersey to create a dramatic and jaunty sports shirt. This shirt continues the boyish "Garテァonne" look Chanel championed in the 1920s. The pairing of this particular fabric with the cut of the blouse creates a signature Chanel sportswear look.


FASHION(LINE( CHANEL WAS TRENDSETTING BEFORE THERE WERE TRENDS.

HER POST–WORLD WAR I LOOK GAINED ATTENTION, AS SHE BROUGHT ON MODERNISM IN FASHION THROUGH BEADED DRESSES IN THE TWENTIES, THE INFAMOUS LITTLE BLACK DRESS, AS WELL AS A TWO- OR THEEPIECE SUIT, WHICH IS STILL A SIGNATURE CHANEL LOOK.


What began as a no-nonsense approach to fashion, designed to let women be comfortable while looking dignified, has been translated into classic, tailored style, especially in ready-towear, where the traditional tweed Chanel suit with a nipped-at-the-waist cardigan jacket remains one of the most popular—and most copied—fashion staples. Evening gowns tend to have an understated sex appeal and a bit of whimsy, and appear in luxurious fabrics with lots of embellishments.


BY 1921 SHE INTRODUCED CHANEL NO. 5, AND WAS ONCE QUOTED AS SAYING "A WOMAN WHO DOESN'T WEAR PERFUME HAS NO FUTURE." NO. 5 WENT ON TO BECOME ONE OF THE BEST-SELLING FRAGRANCES OF ALL TIME.

FRAGRANCES


AFTER A PERIOD AWAY FROM PARIS, CHANEL RETURNED AFTER THE SECOND WORLD WAR IN THE FIFTIES, A TIME WHEN CHRISTIAN DIOR WAS TOUTED AS PARIS'S PREMIERE COUTURIER. HOWEVER, CHANEL ROSE AGAIN WITH THE LAUNCH OF HER CHAIN-LINK BELT AND QUILTED LEATHER BAGS—TODAY WITH THE INTERLOCKING C'S—REESTABLISHING CHANEL AS THE DEFINITION OF CLASSY GLAMOUR WITH AN EDGE. IT IS

2/55

STILL KNOWN THROUGHOUT THE WORLD AS THE

"2/55" BAG AND IT, JUST LIKE THE "CHANEL SUIT" HAS NEVER REALLY EVER FALLEN OUT OF FASHION.


COCO PASSED IN 1971, BUT THE BRAND CONTINUED, EVEN LAUNCHING THEIR FIRST READYTO-WEAR COLLECTION IN 1978.YET WITHOUT A LEAD DESIGNER TO BE THE FACE OF THE BRAND, THE HOUSE STRUGGLED TO MAINTAIN ITS ENCHANTING REPUTATION FOR LUXURY. THAT IS, UNTIL KARL LAGERFELD JOINED IN 1983 TO REVIVE IT TO ITS ELITE STATUS, WHICH HE DID WITH ADDED GLAMOUR AND SEXINESS. TODAY, CHANEL STANDS OUT IN JUST ABOUT EVERY CATEGORY— COUTURE, READY-TO-WEAR, ACCESSORIES, JEWELRY, SHOES, AND FRAGRANCES.YET, THERE IS ALWAYS AN UNDENIABLE ELEMENT OF THE HOUSE'S FOUNDER. "A GIRL SHOULD BE TWO THINGS: CLASSY AND FABULOUS," COCO CHANEL ONCE SAID. FITTING, SINCE THAT'S THE ABSOLUTE EMBODIMENT OF THE LABEL EVEN A CENTURY AFTER IT WAS FOUNDED.


“she was thus able to impose her idea of fashion before fashion was even a concept” Jeanne-Marie Lanvin (1 January 1867, Paris – 6 July 1946, Paris) was a French fashion designer and the founder of the Lanvin fashion house. As the 19th century drew to a close, Jeanne Lanvin had grand plans. She began working as a milliner much the same story as Gabrielle Chanel. Far from slowing her down, the birth of her daughter Marguerite in 1897 fuelled her entrepreneurship. In creating highly sophisticated outfits for her daughter, she invented child fashion. The mothers who bought these outfits were won over and soon demanded similar attire for themselves, leading for the launch of departments for Young Ladies and Women. One of the most influential designers of the 1920s and '30s, when Lanvin died in 1946, ownership of the firm was naturally ceded to the designer's daughter, Marguerite di Pietro


“she sewed to dazzle her daughter and in doing so she dazzled the world�


,JEANNE LANVIN'S SKILFUL USE OF

INTRICATE TRIMMINGS, VIRTUOSO EMBROIDERIES AND BEADED

DECORATIONS IN CLEAR, LIGHT, FLORAL COLORS

BECOME LANVIN’S TRADEMARK. LANVIN WAS NOTED FOR A YOUTHFUL

QUALITY OF ITS LADYLIKE FEMININE DESIGNS.


THOUGH THE 1920S IS KNOWN BEST FOR THE SHORTENED HEMLINES AND STRAIGHT ANGLES OF COCO CHANEL'S STYLES. THERE ARE MANY OTHER DESIGNERS WHO MADE THEIR MARKS ON THE ERA WITH LONGER, FREERFLOWING "PICTURE DRESSES”. JEANNE LANVIN WAS ANOTHER WHO HELPED DEVELOP THIS FORM.

LANVIN WAS AN

AMBASSADOR FOR THE FEMININITY OF WOMAN’S CLOTHES, MARKING A SHARP CONTRAST TO THE SHARP LINES OF THE POPULAR DRESSES OF THE DAY.


Gold robe de style, 1923

Robe de style with hoop skirt, 1927

LANVIN BECAME FAMOUS FOR HER MOTHERDAUGHTER ENSEMBLES EVEN THOUGH IN THE

1920S, HER DECIDEDLY FEMININE DRESSES CONTRASTED WITH THE POPULAR STYLES FIT FOR ANDROGYNOUS FIGURES. SHE INSTEAD WAS KNOWN FOR HER “ROBES DE STYLE”, WHICH WERE DROPPED WAISTLINE DRESSES WITH ANKLE-LENGTH FULL SKIRTS.


Clients began requesting Lanvin’s designs for themselves as well as their children. She introduced the ‘war crinoline’ – a dress with a full skirt which allowed freedom of movement. These were more practical than the restrictive hobble skirts that Poiret had designed.

She is credited for designing the first ‘flapper dresses’, worn during the twenties. She made these chemise-style dresses for her daughter at first, but adapted the design for adults when they were admired by clients.


Evening dress, 1939, Silk taffeta embroidered with metallic sequins and pink beads.

Evening gown, 1937 Jeanne Lanvin was known for her playful use of embroidery and called this gown her “carp dress” due to the aquatic theme and the large sequined carp at the knee.

“Phedre”, 1933. Her beautiful evening dresses with their long, clean lines were influenced by the Art Deco movement of the twenties.


Her style, innovations, and influence on fashion: She designed romantic and theatrical items such as beaded dance dresses (flapper gowns), fantasy evening gowns with metallic embroideries, dinner pajamas, dolman-sleeved wraps, and bloomer skirts. Lanvin was known for her use of quilting, intricate machine embroidery, and the discreet use of sequins. She was a known influence on designers Schiaparelli and Balenciaga. Along with designer Paul Poiret, Lanvin was one of the first couturiers to establish a perfume business, producing such notable fragrances as My Sin and Arpège in custom-designed Lalique containers She developed a particular shade of blue and used it so often, people refer it as Lanvin blue, and eventually opened her own dye factories in 1923 to secure exclusivity of her color formulas.


FRAGRANCES ARPÈGE IN 1927, LANVIN’S ICONIC PERFUME WAS CREATED IN 1927 TO CELEBRATE MARIEBLANCHE’S (JEANNE LANVIN’S DAUGHTER) 30 BIRTHDAY ALONG WITH CHANEL'S CHANEL NO. 5 AND PATOU'S JOY, IT IS TH

ONE OF THE THREE BEST KNOWN PERFUMES IN THE WORLD. A LATER PERFUME, "MY SIN," IS WIDELY CONSIDERED ONE OF THE MOST UNIQUE FRAGRANCES


CURRENTPROJECTS

THE COLLECTION INCORPORATES SOME TRADEMARK LANVIN STAPLE LOOKS SUCH AS THE FLIRTY, FRILLED DRESSES IN BOLD BLOCK COLORS (ABOVE) DISPLAYING A NOSTALGIC NOD TO THE 80S, WHILE NOT STRAYING TOO FAR FROM THE TRADITIONAL HIGH-END LANVIN BRAND IMAGE (ABOVE TOP).


JEAN PATOU


the son of a tanner. His uncle owned a fur business, which Patou joined. In 1914 he opened a small dressmaking business, Maison Parry, in Paris and sold his entire opening collection to an American buyer. His career was interrupted by the First World War of 1914-1918, but in 1919 he reopened his salon, this time under his own name. His collections continued to be a great success. Along with 'Coco' Chanel he was considered a leading exponent of the 'garçon' look, creating smart, workmanlike and well-tailored clothes. Throughout the 1920s he also consistently championed the shorter length of skirt that did much to stimulate the demand for stockings. His long-waisted evening dresses with their emphasis on luxurious design and rich decoration were worn by famous actresses, such as Louise Brooks, Constance Bennett and Mary Pickford. Patou died in 1936, and his brother-in-law, Raymond Barbàs, took over the business. In 1963 the artistic direction of the company was taken over by Michael Goma.

JEAN PATOU

(AUGUST 19, 1880 - MARCH 8, 1936) WAS A FRENCH A FASHION DESIGNER. PATOU'S FAMILY'S BUSINESS WAS IN TANNING AND FURS. PATOU WORKED WITH HIS UNCLE IN NORMANDY, THEN MOVED TO PARIS IN 1910, INTENT ON BECOMING A COUTURIER. THE BUSINESS REMAINED IN THE FAMILY FOR MANY YEARS. JEAN DE MOÜY, GRANT NEPHEW OF JEAN PATOU, BECAME ITS CHIEF IN 1980. IN 2001 THE PERFUME BRANDS WERE ACQUIRED BY PROCTOR & GAMBLE'S PRESTIGE BEAUTY DIVISION.


Patou became part of a generational revolution in women's clothing, creating, like Paul Poiret before him and Gabrielle Chanel his contemporary, comfortable, wearable clothes for the modern woman.


By collaborating with textile mills on design and color, Patou was able to create exclusive colors through thread-dyeing methods, eliminating exact copies by lesser competitors. Design inspirations included Russian embroideries, antique textiles, and modern art.


Like Chanel, Patou was particularly known for his sportswear. He was the first to introduce it for women, including tennis skirts, shorts, knitted bathing suits, jersey cardigans and complementary accessories for his clothes with a highly visible "JP� monogram. And what today we would call "logo wear" or "team jackets�. He designed the then-daring sleeveless and thigh-length cut. He also was the first designer to popularize the cardigan.


Patou's design philosophy was influenced by sportswear, continuing the theme of casual elegance into day and evening ensembles. He believed in beautiful but functional clothes which reflected the personality of the wearer. Patou never felt fashion should dictate; the cut of the clothes was simple, often accented with architectural seam lines, embroidery detail, and attention to fabric, trims, and finishings.

The legendary rivalry between Patou and Chanel was intense and perhaps fueled both of their successful careers. Their visions for the modern woman were quite similar, and although it is Chanel that fashion history has credited with many of the silhouette and conceptual changes of 1920s fashions, it was Patou who, in 1929, dropped the hemline and raised the waistline—Chanel quickly followed suit.


By interpreting the surrounding art movements and cultural ideas into his designs, Patou created such classics as "cubist" sweaters, which figured prominently in his business. By adding coordinating skirts, scarves, hats, and other accessories, he increased his overall sales. Patou revolutionized the knitting industry with machine production, which meant greater productivity and greater profits. The casual fit of sweater and sportswear, in general, was financially beneficial as it required fewer fittings and less overall production time.


In traditional flapper style, this model wears a black lace dress with an asymmetrical hemline and fitted hip, designed by Jean Patou.

Patou pioneered the shortened skirt in the 1920s and transitioned to more full-length sheaths like this one in the ’30s.

“Reopening his couture house in 1919, he became known for eradicating the flapper look by lengthening the skirt”


IN 1928, JEAN PATOU CREATED UILE DE "H HALDテ右 THE C ", .

FIRST SUN TAN OIL


JEAN PATOU WANTED TO SEND A GIFT OF APPRECIATION TO HIS MANY REGULAR INTERNATIONAL CLIENTS WHO WOULD BE UNABLE TO VISIT PARIS IN THAT FIRST YEAR OF THE GREAT

DEPRESSION. HE ASKED ALMERAS TO CREATE SOMETHING VERY STRONG, YET SIMPLE, NO MATTER WHAT THE COST. THIS LEAD TO THE CREATION OF THE COSTLIEST PERFUME IN THE WORLD, JOY. AND REMAINS THE WORLD'S SECOND BEST-SELLING SCENT

(THE FIRST IS CHANEL NO. 5)


Jean Patou has continued to produce perfumes. Sadly recent years have seen the discontinuation of some products, as well as a reduction of the products available in the Joy and "1000" ranges. It can only be hoped that one day all the Jean Patou fragrances will be available again, and that they have not been lost forever. Strangely, since Procter & Gamble's takeover of Jean Patou, Joy has dropped in price. Part of the explanation may reside in the fact that since the takeover, many Jean Patou products are now manufactured outside France and probably involve less costly, more industrial, processes.

Jean Patou  

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