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BI OTOPIA

A s t o r y o f s u s tai n ab le li vi n g Created by Benedetta Gatti Clara Kirstine Simonsen Nicolai Fuglsang Torp Nicolai Qvist Krarup Pascale Atsma

Bi o -: -to pi a :

A co m b ining f o rm m e a ning “l if e� o ccu rring in lo a nwo rd s f ro m Gre e k . De rive d f ro m t h e Gre e k , t o po s , m e a ning pl a ce .


Aalborg University Architecture & Design

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Course module Title of publication Course period Semester Group number

Sustainable Architecture Biotopia Fall 2017 MSc01 Arch 16

Main supervisor Technical supervisor

Isak Worre Foged Yovko Ivanov Antonov

Number of pages 132 Appendix 45


Clara Kirstine Simonsen

Benedetta Gatti

Nicolai Qvist Krarup

Pascale Atsma

Nicolai Fuglsang Torp 3


INTRODUCTION / Things change. We used to think that our planet was overflowing with ressources. We used to think that humans could not impact nature in any significant way. We have collectively discovered that this is far from the case. We have pushed this planet to a state where we are on the verge of irreversible damage. And yet, we are still living in a centuries old paradigm where nature is seen as a commodity, exploited in a world centered around economic growth. People are inherently resistent to change. This causes the push towards sustainability to be slow. We need to radically change our lifestyle and consumption-driven culture if we are to experience a truly sustainable world. Architects and designers have an important part to play in reshaping our world to meet the needs of a globally sustainable society. We need to redesign our cities, our buildings, our products. To be part of this push towards sustainability is a privilege. This project is not about discovering a silver bullet solution to the issues of sustainable architecture. We merely want to participate in the development of concepts and ideas on the issues people and societies face today. We need the cumulative impact of an entire field to chang culture. And culture is what we need to change if we wish to experience a sustainable world.

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ABSTRACT / The following publication is about the merging of architecture and sustainability in a mixed-use zero-energy housing complex in the city of Aalborg. The process is based on an integrated design approach where aesthetical, technical, functional, spatial, logistical and social considerations are compared in order to achieve a holistic, architectural project. The project aims to adress social and environmental issues that are specific to the context and to provide architectural solutions that improve the life quality of the residents in the housing complex. READING GUIDE / The publication is divided into four guiding titles; following a brief introduction on sustainability, context is a geographical and cultural exploration of the area in which the project site is situated; concept encompasses additional investigations that help define the vision and aim of the project; presentation details the final solution for a sustainable housing complex and process takes one step back to illustrate the many considerations and mediums that have been active during the design process. In order to aid the reader in picturing the atmospheres of the design, short fictional texts accompany some of the diagrams in the presentation. The texts are written in first person to create a personal story from the perspective of a fictional resident.

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TABLE OF 08

Introduction 08

Sustainable Architecture An investigation of the project theme

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Context 12 Context_geographical Aalborg and the Artisan’s Quarter 14 Site plan Development plans and near context 16 Mapping A cartographic reading of the site 18 Area characteristics Using phenomenology to read the context 20 Microclimate analysis Analysing the climatic conditions of the site 22 Context_cultural Suburbs, cities and people

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Concept 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 6

Social sustainability Time for a new social era? Environmental sustainability Where do we place the responsibility? Sustainability tactics An architectural response A city of communities Combatting loneliness and climate change through architecture Zero Energy Building Evolving buildings from energy consumers to producers Indoor climate Defining criteria for thermal, visual and atmospheric comfort A vision of sustainable architecture Alternatives to the current way of living

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Presentation 42 Introducing Biotopia A sustainable housing project 44 Masterplan An overview of the final design 46 Distribution Placement of dwellings, stairways and public functions 48 Elevations & sections Exploring the site through different views 50 Facade zoom Examining the details of the facade 52 Community_Neighbourhood Creating the framework for sociability in the city 54 Community_City Block Scaling the community to fit the city block 58 Interwoven dwelling Creating spatial diversity and atmosphere 60 Apartmentss One, A1, A2, A3, B1, B2 and B3 72 Reaching zero energy standard Using passive and active strategies to achieve low energy demands 74 Indoor environment Validating thermal and atmospheric comfort 76 Detail drawings Construction of the building envelope 78 Detail drawings Principles for the construction of the frame


CONTENTS 80

Process 82 Methodology 84 Episode 1 Workshop: climate, volume, acces and daylight 86 Episode 2 Big scale_ 1:500 88 Episode 3 Integrating building physics and concept 90 Episode 4 Small scale_ 1:100 96 Episode 5 Intertwining small and big scale

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Conclusions 100 Conclusion A vision of sustainable architecture 101 Reflection Afterthoughts on process and product 102 List of illustrations 104 Bibliography 106 Appendix -

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Sustainable Architecture An investigation of the project theme

Sustainability is the new norm. It is the stamp of approval for all products, services and activities of the 21st century. But there is an irony to this. We are not sustainable. Not yet. The demand for sustainability has increased faster than our capability to produce sustainable buildings and products. As a result, developers - and companies in general - cut corners to achieve “sustainability”. The integration of renewables can for example mask the poor energy performance of a building. We say we want sustainability but in truth, we just want the stamp.

precious. This causes ressource efficiency and energy consumption to adjust accordingly. Human-made products do not follow these principles. To us, materials and energy come in abundance. This attitude manifests itself in our products. We will probably never design like nature. After all, nature got a small head start of a few billion years. We can however try to adopt the principles nature has evolved through all those years while maintaining an understanding of the unique needs of people. Human beings have evolved a social dimension that has progressed far beyond what is generally seen in nature. This is why we have to broaden our understanding of sustainability from the environmental dimension to the social and economic as well. The social needs of people are currently challenged by a rapidly changing society. Social interaction is moving towards the realm of the virtual. If architecture has the potential to change the behaviour of people, we should consider this development of society and design for it.

Obviously, this is not the case for all buildings. There are many examples of ingenious solutions to complex issues related to sustainability. We are even starting to see projects that move beyond sustainable design to achieve what is termed “regenerative”. Some of these projects utilise knowledge in the field of biology to create design systems that follow the rules of ecosystems. This principle is known as biomimicry. Ideally, our buildings should connect with their surroundings in a very fundamental way. Ressources must be reused, all sources of energy must be utilised and so on. The following project will make an attempt to address the issues of environmental and social Biomimic architecture relies on a detailed sustainability. Our solution is specific to the understanding of biology which is beyond site but the concepts and ideas are generally the reach of this project. Nevertheless, the applicable within the same social and cultural principles are extremely valuable and essential to context. This is our contribution to the a complete understanding of what sustainability discussion on sustainable architecture. is. Ressources in nature are scarce and therefore

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“You never change things by fighting the existing reality. To change something, build a new model that makes the existing model obsolete.�

- Buckminster Fuller


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Context 11


Context_geographical Aalborg and the Artisan’s Quarter

Our cities are expanding and densifying. Harbour fronts are being repurposed and green areas are revitalised. The harbour city of Aalborg has undergone the same transformation during the last decade, particular evident along the harbour front with the additions of the House of Music, the Utzon Center and several new parks and recreational spaces. This transformation has infused Aalborg with a new cultural identity. The progress of the city’s university along with the general trend of urbanisation has necessitated new housing projects. This project connects with the development of Aalborg and makes an attempt to solve the housing situation of a specific site with sustainable aspirations. For the last few years the area known as Godsbanearealet has undergone a massive transformation with the construction of residential and educational buildings. The adjacent area, Åparken, has contrinued this line of development with additional residential buildings and plans for urban renewals that are scheduled for completion in 2018. The natural extension of this development will therefore be to rebuild the area known as the Artisan’s Quarter wherein our project site lies. The Artisan’s Quarter is currently dominated by industrial buildings and small businesses which makes the area largely unoccupied during the day. It is delineated by a strip of dense vegetation towards Åparken with only one small opening. This connection would most likely be strengthened in the case of new development in the Artisan’s Quarter. To the east and south the area is bordered by large artery roads which creates a seperation to the surrounding areas. The following sections will make an attempt to identify the potentials of the project site.

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Ill. 1


N

1_ Karolinelund / day care 2_ Bus & train station (infrastructural node) 3_ Godsbanearealet (educational, residential) 4_ Ă…parken (residential, recreational) 5_ Eternitten (commercial, residential) 6_ Nytorv (commercial center of Aalborg) 7_ House of Music (cultural)

6 7

1 2

3 4

5 13


Site plan Development plans and near context

The site plan (ill. 2) is based on the current intentions for the Artisan’s Quarter. A development plan for the area was proposed - although not enacted - in april 2015 which specifies the shape and heights of three new buildings in the southeastern corner of the area. As these buildings provide a conceivable context they have been included in the site plan. Connections between the Artisan’s Quarter and Godsbanearealet are currently hard to find since the border is constituted by the “backside” of private businesses. Considering the plans for Godsbanearealet - establishing a green stretch and reintroducing a stream - it is most likely that a new development plan for the Artisan’s Quarter will involve a much stronger connection to these green areas. The site itself is bordered by Hjulmagervej to the north, Bødkervej to the west, Gørtlervej to the south and a gas station connected to Sønderbro to the east. Gørtlervej is, in this part of the area, a small path running alongside a stream and can therefore only be accessed by foot or bicycle. It continues its path to the west of the project site where it runs alongside a traffic road. The site has a rectangular shape with the long sides facing south. This could positively affect several factors relating to indoor climate and energy production. Dimensions and total area can be read off ill. 2. The aim of the project is to achieve a floor area ratio between 100 % and 200 %.

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Ill. 2


N

Gørtlervej

Sønderbro

Bødkervej

Hjulmagervej

Østre Allé

Site dimensions_ 180 x 48 m Area_ 8640 m2 Floor Area Ratio_ 100 - 200 %

Model 1:500 Picture not in scale

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Mapping A cartographic reading of the site

Understanding the area is about observing it through different mediums and scales. The following analyses aim to highlight the current infrastructural conditions, the typologies and functions, vegetation as well as the districts - and their boundaries - that make up the larger area. I) Infrastructure / The Artisan’s Quarter is bordered by two large artery roads that both connect the center of Aalborg to the highway. This creates a traffic node in the southeastern corner of the area. The internal roads have a considerably different scale. Since the Artisan’s Quarter is a confined area that doesn’t provide significant passage to other areas, traffic is limited to those who have errands in the area. The infrastructural conditions for light traffic such as pedestrians and cyclists are good although not optimal. There are bike paths and sidewalks throughout the area but the heavy traffic on Sønderbro and Østre Allé creates a high-paced environment where car traffic is dominant. Means of public transportation in the area are good with the relative proximity to bus and train stations. Additional bus stops closer to the site can be read off illustration 3. II) Districts & green areas / Industries, businesses and services are the prevalent building type in the area. The northeastern corner of the Artisan’s Quarter have a few residential buildings which marks a transition to the residential areas east of Sønderbro. Also present in this area is a school. The green areas in the near context are located to the

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north in Åparken. Åparken is part of a green stretch that starts in the northern end of Karolinelund near Nordkraft. This stretch is currently being redesigned so that more attractive urban areas will be created. III) Accessibility / The area is primarily entered from Sønderbro - either from south or north - or Østre Allé - from east or west. The small path connecting the Artisan’s Quarter and Åparken is practically hidden and will therefore not be a primary way of access until the connection is strenghtened. Different ways of access internally on the site can be read off illustration 3. These accessways will most often be the ones that are used by visitors. To further document the arrival points, a series of photographs made in a Serial Vision format accompany the accessibility map. The pictures can be found on page 19. IV) Building heights / The current morphology of the area as well as the building heights can be read off illustration 3. In general the buildings increase in height from the western end of the area to the eastern end. This difference in height is largely a result of the functions within them. The lower buildings towards west are primarily industrial buildings and small businesses. The buildings to the east of the site are mainly residential. This would usually provide a good starting point for the discussion of building heights but since the area is likely to be transformed for other purposes the height of buildings would perhaps change over a short time span. The maximum heights are however good indicators of the approximate building heights within the site.


Ill. 3

I) Infrastructure_1:5000

II) Districts & green areas_1:5000

III) Accessibility_1:5000

IV) Building heights_1:2000

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Area characteristics Using phenomenology to read the context

How is the site experienced? What are the qualities, the characteristics? These questions are essential to our understanding of the context. Visiting the site and documenting the materials of buildings, the greenery, the pavement, sightlines etc. helped us develop ideas of how to respond to the context. The site was investigated from a phenomenological perspective and supplemented with the methodology known as Serial Vision. The aim was to give an insight into the aesthetic, tactile, acoustic and emotional qualities and drawbacks - of the site. The routes towards the project site are documented through a series of photographs. The routes can be read off illustration 4. The predominant building material in the area is brick. The patterns, color, texture and joints vary little which gives the area a homogenous appearance. A few of the industrial buildings on the site break this pattern with steel plates as cladding and large billboards and advertising. The acoustic pollution from Sønderbro is instantly noticed when approaching the site. The gas station between the project site and Sønderbro creates a small barrier which helps to distance the two areas. Although this seperation reduces the acoustic pollution it presents a potential issue of air pollution due to the attraction of cars. Sønderbro has two lanes in each direction thus creating a significant barrier between the areas to the east and west. A pleasantly suprising feature of the area is the small stream running along the southern edge of the project site. This stream runs along the entire length of Gørtlervej. In its current form the stream has mainly visual qualities. Still it can prove beneficial to the general atmosphere of the project site to have such a unique natural element. Furthermore it helps delineate the site and provides a practical seperation between the site and its neighbour to the south.

18 Ill. 4


1_ Gørtlervej along the river

Brick

brick

brick

2_ Hjulmagervej towards east

3_ Bødkervej towards north

4_ Hjulmagervej towards south

brick

brick

brick

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... and brick


Microclimate analysis Analysing the climatic conditions of the site

The microclimate analysis of the project site covers the examination of wind conditions, sun path and noise pollution. Since the physical environment will greatly influence the effect of the different conditions, a variety of building typologies have been developed to investigate the change in wind speeds and directions, shadows etc. related to different building physics. Additional information can be found in appendix 1. WIND / The wind rose uses data from Aalborg Airport and shows a dominant wind direction from west and south-west. As the wind rose does not originate from the center of Aalborg, wind conditions will be different due to closer settlement. Initial concerns include the open east-west stretch on Hjulmagervej since it can accelerate the velocity of the wind. This may infuence different parameters in the building design such as the force for natural ventilation, passive cooling and the comfort of outdoor spaces. The guiding information of the wind rose is supplemented with analyses in Autodesk Flow Design; a software for investigating wind behaviour in a given site. The simulations are based on a wind velocity of 5 m/s from one of the most dominating wind directions, west. A variety of building typologies have been developed to get an insight into how the shape and location of the building can impact the wind. SUN / In addition to wind conditions, the movement of the sun and its affect on the site have been analysed in the modelling software, Revit. The same typologies have been utilised for this analysis. The typologies have been shaped and angled in order to create maximum variety in the conditions on the site. The different building shapes have been compared in terms of surface area exposed to sun, outdoor areas, shading on the neighbouring buildings and the indoor climate - thermal and visual. Because the building site is oriented to the south there is a great potential to take advantage of the various postitive factors the sun brings while still being aware of the negative consequences in the design and sketching phase.

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Ill. 5


Typologi _ Slab Characteristics _ Southern orientation, low surface to volume ratio, semi-closed

Typologi _ Dot Houses Characteristics _ Scattered building volumes, high surface to volume ratio

Typologi _ Urban Block Characteristics _ Introvert volumes with closed courtyards

Typologi _ Slab Characteristics _ Southwest orientation, low surface to volume ratio, open

Typologi _ Dot Houses Characteristics _ Angled randomly, high surface to volume ratio

Typologi _ Urban Block Characteristics _ Circular to test wind conditions in relation to shape

Typologi _ Slab Characteristics _ East-west orientation, low surface to volume ratio, open

Typologi _ Dot Houses Characteristics _ Offset to get southern exposure to sun, high surface to volume

Typologi _ Urban Block Characteristics _ Large south facades yet introvert and closed Ill. 6

Typologi _ Urban Block Characteristics _ Open courtyards, mix between introvert and extrovert

The purpose of the different building typologies is to gain insight into the influence of building physics on the microclimatic conditions on the site. The typologies have been developed for variation yet still with the intention of creating recognisable shapes that could

be used as references in the design phase. For each typology comments have been made on the assumed daylight indoors and outdoors, wind conditions in the urban space, considerations on energy and the spatial qualities. The conclusions of the analyses can be found in appendix 1.

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Context_cultural Suburbs, cities and people

What makes one home more attractive than another? The short answer is that it depends on the user group and their personal preferences. For this purpose however it is necessary to further specify the preferences of different but generel user groups. For students and young people, it is very important to live close to life in the city. They put special emphasis on the proximity to social life, including friends and family. Conditions for children, social inconveniences and nature have little relevance in this group. In contrast, facilities such as gyms and spaces for social events are preferred. When a family is formed, a drastic change occurs, and facilities related to the family become the main requirement. The safety of the children is paramount. Another important factor is the proximity to work and the ease of parking near the dwelling. As for older people and singles over 60, closeness to nature and social homogeneity become predominant. A further relevant part is proximity to the city due to mobility problems that appear over the years. Why live in the suburbs? From a study of 2,500 people over 15 years of age in Denmark, the conclusion have been drawn that most people prefer to live in the suburbs of large cities which is a result of different factors. The most important is the proximity to the urban centre and the ease of reaching it. These are quiet areas where there are no social inconveniences and therefore are suitable areas for children. Above all, it attracts families and adults for its tranquillity.

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Ill. 7

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Concept 25


Social sustainability Time for a new social era?

Studies show that there is an increasing number of lonely persons in Denmark. More than 210,000 Danes over the age of 16 consider themselves to be”often lonely” or ”always lonely”. Loneliness most frequently occurs among elderly and young people but can still be considered as an overall societal problem. Loneliness can have major health-related and economical consequences. Every single year loneliness causes 1.000 - 1.500 deaths in relation to bad sociality. (Dr.dk. (2017)) Why is this problem increasing? The ever-increasing relience on technology for social interaction creates decreasing personal relationships between people. As a result traditional social patterns are challenged and put under a huge amount of pressure. This often causes us to neglect seeking out relationsshops with others. Loneliness is an incredibly vulnerable subject even though social interaction is a great human need and a condition for all of us. Therefore we must protect the community and find a way to deal with the problem. (Psykiatrifonden.dk. (2017)) How to deal with it? The way out of loneliness is usually subjective and attained through various methods. However, it is often about finding the right balance between taking care of themselves and thereby gathering courage to seek new relationships, either through existing acquaintances or through new experiences with new people. How can architects address the issue of loneliness?

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57 % % of the Danish population knows people they think or know are lonely (Dr.dk. (2017))

Ill. 8


11.428 11.428 Aalborg

Ill. 9

Registrered lonely in Aalborg

Number of lonely registered in aalborg (rødekors.dk.(2017))

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Environmental sustainability Where should we place the responsibility?

An annual survey done by Energistyrelsen shows that the total CO2 emission for Aalborg municipality is at 3.170.012 ton making it the municipality in Denmark with the highest outlet. Taking into consideration the amount of people living in the municipality it ranks as the sixth largest in Denmark when balancing on the carbon footprint per resident, which in Aalborg is at 15,3 ton. (Energistyrelsen. (2017)) The survey divides the CO2 outlet into five sectors; Energy, Transport, Chemical processes, Agriculture and Landfill. The biggest contributors in Aalborg is energy at 44 percent and chemical processes at 33 percent. The CO2 outlet from energy includes the production and usage of heating and electricity whereas the chemical processes include the CO2 outlet from industrial processes. The large amount of CO2 outlet originating from chemical processes is the reason for the high emission levels in Aalborg as it is considerably higher than any municipality in Denmark. The local cement factory, Aalborg Portland, is responsible for five percent of Denmark’s total CO2 outlet. The chemical process of producing cement requires a CO2 extraction from the chalk, causing the factory to release 1 ton of CO2 into the atmosphere per kg cement produced. (FROM</a>, A. (2017)) However, the city still has a high CO2 outlet from energy production and usage in comparison to other cities. Considering the energy used in households, Copenhagen use 48 tJ pr. resident and Aalborg 36 tJ pr. resident, but the CO2 outlet from that energy results only in 0,69 ton pr. resident in Copenhagen while it is at 1,27 ton in Aalborg. This means that 28 percent more CO2 is released when producing or using energy in Aalborg. 28

In order to increase the CO2 emission and slower the greenhouse effect the municipality has initiated a climate strategy to prevent further climate change and adapt to the ones on the way. In its current state Aalborg uses only 8 percent renewable energy but the vision is to be fossil fuel free by 2050 and the climate strategy is the first stepping stone. The strategy focuses on four different points for improvement; renewable energy, energy savings, public transport and increase in greenery. (Aalborg. dk. (2017)) Renewable energy shall cover 60 percent of the municipality’s energy consumption by 2030 and 100 percent by 2050 using varying renewable solutions including windmills, solar cells, solar thermal collectors and heat pumps. Energy usage in the households shall be lowered 40-50 percent in the next 40 years. This should be achieved through educating the residents about the effect of a high energy consumption, starting with children and youngsters. The municipality is to go first and set the example with the construction of new low energy housing and energy renovations. Public transport, bicycling and car sharing shall be the primary means of transportation. The goal is to double the amount of people using public transportation by lowering the c nditions for cars in the city,and improving the conditions for buses. Additionally, bicycling shall be made more popular by constructing faster and safer bike routes. Increase in greenery shall be doubled in 2030 by creating more forest and wetlands to naturally absorb the CO2 in the atmosphere.


Energy

44 %

Transport

11%

Chemical processes

31%

Agriculture Landfill

13% 1%

The distribution of the municipality's total emissions for 2015

(Energistyrelsen. (2017))

What about solidarity? Could some of the previously mentioned topics be resolved with community? The dictionary defines community as: 1) 2)

a: the people with common interests living in a particular area a: a social state or condition b: joint ownership or participation c: common character d: social activity - (Merriam Webster)

Could there be a link between social interaction and carbon dioxide emissions? Is it possible to address this conenction through architecture?

Ill. 10

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Sustainability tactics An architectural response

Biophilia is a hypothesis on the connection between humans and nature. In architecture it translates into an environment where natural elements such as plants and trees are used to reestablish an affiliation with nature and other forms of life. Health research shows that daily exposure and immediate accessibility to green areas increase usage rates. Similarly, green spaces can promote physical activity, create meeting places for better socialization, contribute to an increase of mental strength and generally contribute to better well-being. It has also been shown that plants and trees in the cities can affect the climate and air quality. Each tree acts as a purification plant. It helps to purge the air for various contaminants. In 1991, researchers McPherson calculated how much pollution the city’s 4.1 million trees removed. It was shown that the total took out about 855.00 tonnes of CO2. (Naturstyrelsen.dk. (2017)) How can we create access to attractive green areas in easy connection with our construction? Can we create green spaces in the buildings that create a sustainable environment for the social and climatic aspect?

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One of the findings of the WWF is that we as a population should decrease our meat consumption in order to combat climate change. Eating fruits and vegetables are significantly better for the environment and should thus be encouraged. The production of some foods is high in pollution and therefore changing eating habits is one of the easiest ways to change our carbon dioxide footprint. At the same time, a daily intake of fruits and vegetables can boost your personal health and well-being. In addition, the economic and environmental costs of tansporting food is high. Overall, it is usually cheaper to grow the products themselves. Urban gardening can help form a social community between neighbors. Anna Taws and Peter Tom-Petersen, the founders of ’Urban Garden Company’ describe urban gardening as follows: ”To us, the garden is closely related to communities and people. The community with our neighbors, people who walk by the streets, each other as well as with our children. ” (Company, U. (2017)) Could this be a concection to the need for green areas?


Ill. 11

Statistics show that one in five people in Denmark participate in sharing-economy. This corresponds to more than 800,000 thousand Danes aged 16-74 years. (Dst.dk. (2017)) Shared economics means that two or more people can share a product or article that they share a common interest in at different times of the day or even in life. Examples of shared services and products can be the need to cut hedges, car transportation or the need for children’s clothing at a certain age. The benefits of sharing things are especially economical and climate-driven. CONCITO has proven that the rental of tools 20 times among 20 people can contribute to a total CO2e equivalent of 931 tonnes. Another example could be a drilling machine. The output of the production for five drilling machines is 140 kg. CO2-savings by dividing 5 drilling machines among 30 people is thus 700 kg CO2e. (Concito.dk, 2017) Can we create architecture that adds to the desire to share? How can this contribute to a better community in a residential building?

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A city of communities Combatting loneliness and climate change through architecture

Can we produce architectural solutions as a response to the social and environmental issues identified on the preceding pages? Architecture is not art. We do not believe in architectural concepts as arbitrary formal compositions. We want to create social, sustainable architecture that solves issues on an individual as well as a societal level. Based on these thoughts we developed a concept of connecting people in differently scaled communities and programming the communal spaces to address the social and environmental issues outlined on the preceding pages. It starts with the entrance to each apartment. What do you see on your way to your apartment? Do you encounter your neighbours? Are the spaces designed for spontaneous meetings? Are they designed for movement or do they encourage stays? The potential for sociability is highly dependent on the answer to these questions. We wish to create a space for social interaction between the apartments. This space becomes a node for encounters and conversations. It connects a defined cluster of residents in what we term the neighbourhood. This is the foundation of the socially sustainable housing complex. The idea of communities extends beyond the first, small cluster. We envision additional spaces that act as links between the small communities. These spaces contain functions that are based on our sustainability tactics. It can be greenhouses, urban gardening, workshops or common rooms such as communal kitchens. These spaces have a functional character in order to ensure their use. The urban spaces represent the last connections of the complex. They tie everything together while creating the base for a vibrant and joyful outdoor space. The principal organization of functions is established by this order of communities.

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Ill. 13

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Zero Energy Building Evolving buildings from energy consumers to producers

Analyses show that buildings use 40 % of the total energy consumption in the world (Usgbc.org. (2017)). The energy used to supply the buildings are primarily produced from fossil fuels, such as oil, coal, natural gas etc. (aalborgforsyning.dk. (2017)) The transformation of natural ressources to energy releases big amounts of CO2 which contribute to the ongoing greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect causes the temperatures on the planet to rise, slowly creating massive climate changes. To prevent this process and lower the CO2 outlet, the building industry has in recent years begun working with solutions to lower the energy consumption of buildings by implementing more energy efficiency. In that connection the concept zero energy building (ZEB) was born. Since the energy efficiency also lowers the maintenance costs of the buildings, the concept has quickly become popular among the buyers. Over the years, several definitions of zero energy building has surfaced, varying from country and manufacturers. Following the danish research center for zero energy building, it is defined as a building designed with a low energy demand, where the demand is covered by the use of fossil free energy sources. It is required that the building is connected to energy infrastructures to maintain a stable energy input, allowing the grid to supply the building in low energy production periods as well as upload in periods of excess energy. (Anon, (2017)) Three different levels of ZEB exist; nearly ZEB, net ZEB and plus ZEB. They are defined based on how much of their energy demand is covered by renewable energy production. This project aims to fulfill the net ZEB standard which means that the renewable energy production must cover the energy demand from heating, domestic hot water and electricity - both building and user related. When balancing the energy demand it is necessary to examine the amount of primary energy supplied to the building and not just the final energy used at the site. The primary energy is defined by a factor that takes into consideration the amount of energy used to produce the amount of final energy. The production of electricity requires the highest amount of energy. A renewable energy source producing electricity would therefore lower the energy demand considerably.

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Connect

To the distribution grid

COAL

EXCESSIVE HEAT

TRASH

District heating

Electricity


Import

Import

Reduce

The buildings energy demand

Generate

Renewable energy

Examples of passive initiatives to lower energy demand

90 degrees 107,4 kwh/m2

Reference

45 degrees 139,5 kwh/m2 Lower transmission loss by adding insulation 0 degrees 119,8 kwh/m2

Improving the daylight level to lower the artificial lighting

Photovoltaic panels

Implement natural ventilation to minimize the use of mechanical ventilation

Wind power

Hydro power

Export

Ill. 12

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Indoor climate Defining criteria for thermal, visual and atmospheric comfort

According to the Danish Strategic Research Centre for Zero Energy Buildings, a NETZEB building is not only defined by the energy consumption but also on the quality of the indoor environment (Anon, (2017 )). A high quality indoor environment fulfills the requirements in relation to thermal, visual, atmospheric and acoustic comfort and at the same time incorporates high architectural quality with respect for the user (Kirkegaard, A., Knudstrup, M., Lund, R., Katic, I. (2014)). This project mainly focuses on the thermal, visual and atmospheric environment. The requirements for the indoor environment are primarily based on the Danish building regulations and the Danish standards. In accordance with the Danish standards, the building aims to fulfill category two for a normal level of expectation in relation to indoor environment. ( DS/EN 15251, table 1). Thermal indoor environment / The evaluation of the thermal environment in this project is primarily based on the indoor temperature but can also be evaluated on drag and thermal radiation. The indoor temperature is evaluated for both the summer and winter, heating or cooling season. The dimensioning values are minimum 20 degrees in the heating season and maximum 26 degrees in the cooling season (DS/EN 15251 table A3). The temperatures can be further specified based on the activity level and thermal insulation of the people in the room (DS/EN 15251, 6.2.1). A maximum of 100 hours over 27 degrees and 25 hours degrees is allowed on yearly basis (BR 6.2 stk 1). Applying passive strategies to

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control the solar heat gain prevents excessive temperatures in the summer and saves on expenses for heating in the winter. Atmospheric indoor environment / The majority of the buildings energy demand goes towards ventilating. Therefore the evaluation of the atmospheric environment is crucial to maintain high comfort while at the same time saving energy. The atmospheric comfort is in this project valued on CO2 and olfaction but can also be valued on humidity. A maximum of 500 PPM above the outdoor level of 350 PPM is allowed for CO2. Olfaction is calculated based on 0.2 olf pr sqm and 1 olf pr person (Carl Erik Hyldgürd (1997)). The building regulations state a minimum requirement for outdoor air supply at 0,3 l/s pr. m2 and exhaust in both kitchens and bathrooms. (BR stk 6.3.2.1). Applying several ventilation strategies, both active and passive, helps lower the energy demand from ventilation. Visual indoor environment / Daylight has a large impact on the resident’s physical and mental wellbeing as it helps prevent stress and depression (Kirkegaard, A., Knudstrup, M., Lund, R., Katic, I. (2014)). In this project the daylight factor has been the parameter when analyzing the daylight. According to the Danish building regulations the minimum requirement is two percent on average in half of the room (BR 6.5.2). However more quality can be applied to the room by increasing the amount of daylight, especially in the main occupant rooms.


COMFORT CRITERIAS winter ⁰C

summer ⁰C

ppm

CO2

Daylight factor %

Natural light

North/East

20-25

23-26

850

2

x

-

West/East/South

20-25

23-26

850

3 -- 5

x

-

South/West

20-25

23-26

850

3 -- 5

x

-

Bathroom

North

20-25

23-26

850

2

-

x

Entrance

-

20-25

23-26

850

2

-

x

Balcony

South

-

-

-

-

x

-

Room

Orientation

Bedroom Kitchen Living room

FORT CRITERIAS CO2

LIGHT

er ⁰C

ppm

Daylight factor Room %

26

850

Bedroom 2

26

850

Kitchen 3 -- 5

26

850

Living 3 -- 5 room

26

850

Bathroom 2

- North

26

850

Entrance 2

-

-

Balcony -

x South

COMFORT VENTILATION CRITERIAS

Room temp. Natural Artificial Natural Mechanic Orientation light light winter ventilation ventilation ⁰C summer ⁰C

North/East x -

SOLAR RADIATION LIGHT CONTROL

Air COsupply Daylight Exhaust factor air 2 ppm l/s pr m

2

% l/s

ShadingArtificial possibletiesNatural Natural Mechanic light ventilation ventilation Permanent light Movable

23-26 -

850 0,3

2-

x -

-

x

x

-

20-25 x

23-26 x

850 0,3

3 -205

xx

-

x

x

x

20-25 x

23-26

850 0,3

3 --- 5

xx

-

x

x

x

20-25-

23-26 x

850 0,3

2 15

- -

x

-

-

x

20-25 x

23-26

850 0,3

2-

- -

x

-

x

-

- -

- -

--

x -

-

x

-

South/West x -

- -

Artifici light

VENTILAT

20-25 x

West/East/South x -

-

Room temp.

LIGHT

x

-

37

Air

l/s


A vision of sustainable architecture Alternatives to the current way of living

The aim of this project is to create a new way of living in the city; a way that promotes social interaction in small and large communities; a way that creates possibilities for the residents to inhabitat spaces outside their own private realm; a way that introduces a new sustainable agenda that can reduce the carbon footprint of each individual as well as the overall building complex. The building must meet the demands of a net zero-energy building while creating good visual, thermal and atmospheric indoor comfort. Furthermore, it should aim to integrate building, people and nature. The latter two are constantly evolving. Can a building have the same potential for living? Can it adapt in accordance with the residents that inhabit it? We wish to create a framework for living in the city where people shape their own environment. A place that has a strong identity so the residents can identify with it. We believe this aim has the potential to show people another way; a new model for life in the city.

38


39


40


Presentation 41


Introducing Biotopia A sustainable housing project Biotopia is an architectural solution to the issues of sustainability today. We envision a building that connects with the users. A building that creates a framework for co-living. A building that produces energy rather than consume it. A building that reestablish the connection between people and nature. Biotopia is born out of the idea of a complete integration between buildings, people and nature. We wish to contribute to an ambitious and persistent discourse on sustainability in the built environment and society in general. Biotopia is how we communicate this intention.

42


Ill. 14

43


Masterplan An overview of the final design

The master plan is the result of careful considerations on microclimatic conditions, accessibility, outdoor spaces, energy performance and concept integration. The shape and composition is related to the urban block. The openings create a permeable and inviting complex. The buildings close off the courtyard to the north providing a stronger sense of enclosure while opening up towards the stream to the south. The parking is placed undeground and can be accessed from the road east of the site (appendix 8).

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45 Ill. 15


Distribution Placement of dwellings, stairways and public functions

Ill. 16

46


Ill. 17

47


Elevations & Sections Exploring the site through different views

Ill. 19 Urban Section_scale 1:500

48


Ill. 19 Urban Section_scale 1:500

Elevation North Scale 1:500

Elevation South Scale 1:500

Ill. 20

49


Facade zoom Examining the details of the facade

50


The contrasting appearance of heavy brick and light wood produce a strong statement about the activities within. The solid presence of brick links the building with the context while indicating the rootedness of a dwelling. The light and living wooden frame point to the interchangeable and random character of the life inside. Towards the courtyard the frame grows as an autonomous structure. It takes on a life of its own while creating a variety of spaces under, above and besides the floors and wall partitions.

Facade zoom_north Scale 1:200

Facade zoom_south Scale 1:200

Ill. 21

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Community _ Neighbourhood Creating the framework for sociability in the city

�The neighbourhood is part of my home. The vibrancy of the spaces greet me everytime I enter the stairway. It provides me with a sense of comfort. Although I share it with my neighbours I consider it to be mine. I feel ownership of it. It is a place to relax; a place to read; a place to sit; a place to play; a place to talk; a place to be. I can extend my own personal space out into the stairway. I can decorate it and thereby turn a collective space into one of individuality. This mosaic of different lives and personalities create a rich and diverse space for me and my neighbours to seek inspiration and refuge in.

The neighbourhood is born out of the aspiration for a socially sustainable architecture. By providing the residents with a shielded space that they can inhabit and therefore relate to, activities can unfold and create social bonds between the residents. The neighbourhood is constituted by the apartments that share a stairway. The stairways vary slightly to ensure the most suitable solution to the placement of apartments inside the buildings. Ill. 22 exemplifies one of these stairways with the different communal spaces it contains. The spaces are divided between five stories. The ground level contains an entrance from the street and an exit to the courtyard. A staircase is leading down to the storage in the basement. Bicycle parking is also present on the ground floor. Both an elevator and a staircase lead up to the apartments and the shared, social spaces on the upper floors. The communal spaces in the neighbourhood are largely unprogrammed due to the interchangeable needs of the residents. This goes hand in hand with the physical structure of the stairway; a wooden column-beam grid allows for adaptation if a new requirement arises. The different levels of the stairway are visually connected through an open atrium which will create a stronger sense of cohesion between the residents.

52


Ill. 22

53


Community _ City Block Scaling the community to fit the city block

Ill. 23

54


�Like most people I thrive on the outdoors; forests, streams, fields. The spaces inside the city block reconnect me with nature. I find the abundance of greenery to be calming and stimulating. The frame feels like a treehouse from where I can escape the pace of the city. It also offers me the chance to connect with other people of similar interests. I used to grow my own food back home and did not imagine I would have the same opportunity here. There is so much diversity here and it inspires everyone. The students use the ball court; the children and families use the swings and playgrounds; the elderly take walks on the frame and in the courtyard while maintaining the urban gardening; I sit back and observe as all these people connect with each other across ages and interests and break down the barriers that usually seperate them.�

The city block is the entire community of Biotopia. It is connected through the wooden structure that evolves from stairways to shared spaces and facilities in the courtyard. The structure is a complex, layered frame for the workshops, the greenhouses and the additional functions that are shared by the entire complex. The structure is accessed from different levels and directions; from either the first or second level in the staircases and from ground level in the courtyard. Ramps and steps are used to create small variations in the height of the structure. The horisontal and vertical planes created in the wooden grid appear as partitions creating spatial boundaries. The material choice of the partitions varies; from transparent and opaque glass to sheets of plywood. The structure creates a raised platform to be explored by the residents. It supports the different plant beds and greenhouses that provide the residents with fresh produce. Additional plants and trees infuse the entire complex with the feeling of a lush and sweeping nature. The city block is not usually the socially coherent building we imagine for this project. It is a large community where interaction is often impersonal and superficial. Our aim is to break down the barriers between people by introducing shared facilities that promote spontaneous interaction. Another benefit of this is that it allows for shared use of household products which in turn reduces the carbon footprint of each resident. Spread around the site are small commercial and business facilities that enhance the day to day activity of the site. The city block is about creating opportunities for social interaction. It is about creating an identity for the complex that increase the sense of community among the residents and make them identify with the buildings they inhabitat.

55


Ill. 24

56


57


Interwoven dwelling Creating spatial diversity and atmosphere

There is a distinction between a dwelling and dwelling. A dwelling is a place; a house, an apartment. It is what we inhabitat and eventually make a home of. Dwelling is what we do. It is the act of inhabiting and projecting one’s self onto the home. It is making a home of a house. Interwoven dwelling has two meanings; one literal and one figurative. The idea of interwoven dwelling is a continuation of the principal concept of creating connections between the residents. The connection is made physical by placing three apartments per two stories. This configuration necessitates the interweaving of apartments which in turn creates a larger community for each staircase. We call each joining of apartments a cluster. Two different clusters have been developed for the complex which gives a total of six apartment typologies. In addition, a seventh apartment, a single-story, has been developed to provide more opportunities for mixing the buildings with different apartment typologies. A stairway of five stories can therefore contain 14 different apartments, thus creating a rich and diverse community. The design of the apartments are based on a shared list of criteria. Every apartment has views and openings to north and south (east and west for the few apartments that are oriented differently). This increases the potential depth of the apartments as well as the posssibilty for natural ventilation. Good daylight conditions, variation in the spatial experience, long sightlines and a difference in size are some of the principal criteria of the apartments.

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Apartment B2 Size_ 98 m2

+

Apartment B3 Size_ 62 m2

Apartment B1 Size_ 49 m2

+

Apartment B2 Size_ 98 m2

Apartment A1 Size_ 78 m2

+

Apartment A3 Size_ 49 m2

Apartment A1 Size_ 78 m2

+

Apartment A2 Size_ 88 m2

Apartment 1 Size_ 108 m2

Ill. 25

59


Apartment One Single-story apartment _ 108 m2

To ensure the feeling of privacy for the residents on the ground floor a small transitional space between stairway and apartment has been incorporated in the design. Upon entering the apartment the residents will have an unobstructed view across the apartment. The corridor has open connections to the adjacent spaces yet delineated by three bedrooms to the north as well as a free-standing core to the south. The surfaces of the core help define the surrounding spaces such as the kitchen and living room to the south. Large communal spaces for the family have been prioritised while still providing the residents with smaller niches to offer privacy.

Ill. 26 Plan_Apartment One Scale 1:100

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Ill. 27

Ill. 28 Section_Apartment One Scale 1:100

61


Apartment _ A1 Duplex apartment _ 78 m2

Top floor

Bottom floor

The primary spatial quality of this duplex apartment comes from the large double height room that is experienced immediately after entering the apartment. A straight line connects the entrance door and the staircase to the second floor and guides the eye to the double-height space. A kitchen, dining area and bathroom are placed on the bottom floor, while the second floor has a living room, two bedrooms and a second bathroom. The separation on two floors enhances the feeling of privacy for the residents while producing a richer spatial experience.

Ill. 29 Plan_ Apartment A1 Scale 1:100

62


Ill. 30

Ill. 31 Plan_ Apartment A1 Scale 1:100

63


Apartment _ A2 Single-story apartment _ 88 m2 The L-shaped couples apartment is designed for long views to increase the feeling of space. A small offie is placed by the hall which creates a more secluded atmosphere for work or study. The heart of the apartment is the kitchen which has large window openings to create good daylight and working conditions. The bedroom is placed to the north and has less daylight in order to provide an intimate and private atmosphere. The apartment wraps around the bathroom core and extends to the southern facade once again creating a long and unobstructed view through the living room. A small nook is visually connected to an equally sized balcony at the southern end of the apartment.

Ill. 32 Section_ Apartment A2 Scale 1:100

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Ill. 33 Plan_ Apartment A2 Scale 1:100

65


Apartment _ A3 Single-story apartment _ 49 m2

The smallest of the apartments, two single-story student or couples apartment, are designed to enhance the feeling of space within a limited number of square meters. A central bathroom core defines the different zones of the apartment; to the north a small study area and bedroom, to the south a living room and inbetween a kitchen. The apartment is not divided by walls which creates one, large room. An additional feature is added to the topmost of the small apartments; a large skylight that penetrates the apartment above directs diffuse light down into the central kitchen. The perceived depth of the apartment is hereby reduced greatly and good daylight conditions are guaranteed at all times.

Ill. 34 Plan_ Apartment A3 Scale 1:100

Ill. 35 Section_ Apartment A3 Scale 1:100

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Apartment _ B1 Single-story apartment _ 49 m2

Ill. 36 Plan_ Apartment B1 Scale 1:100

Ill. 37 Section_ Apartment B1 Scale 1:100

67


Apartment _ B2 Duplex apartment _ 98 m2

Top floor

Bottom floor

The second duplex apartment is atypically entered from the topmost floor. As was the case in the first duplex apartment the division on two floors create more distance between the rooms and thereby increase privacy. The topmost floor has a spacious hall, two bedrooms, an open work space to the north and a bathroom. The staircase that leads down to the lower floor is flooded with daylight from a skylight above while an interior window in one of the bedrooms also utilise this light source. The stairs lead down to the south facing dining area and kitchen as well as a balcony. A second bathroom and a third bedroom are located on the lower floor connecting with a living room that creates a view through the entire depth of the apartment.

Plan_ Apartment B2 Scale 1:100

Ill. 38 Plan_ Apartment B2 Scale 1:100

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Ill. 39

Ill. 40 Section_ Apartment B2 Scale 1:100

69


Apartment _ B3 Single-story apartment _ 62 m2

The long and stretched geometry of the apartment creates a route through the different rooms. This perceived distance creates greater seperation between the zones of the apartment thus enhancing the feeling of privacy in an otherwise small apartment. The entrance hall is partially seperated from the kitchen. Both spaces are faced to the south with large window openings for great daylight condtions. Following the kitchen is the balcony and living room. The apartment turns 90 degrees to create a division between the public zones and the private. A small hall creates distance between living room and bedroom while providing entrance to the bathroom.

Ill. 41 Section_ Apartment B3 Scale 1:100

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Ill. 42 Plan_ Apartment B3 Scale 1:100

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Reaching zero energy standard Using passive and active strategies to achieve low energy demand

1

Solar PVs to produce electricity

2

External shading to regulate the solar heat gain

3

External shading to regulate the solar heat gain

4

Water reservoir for collection of rainwater

5

Mechanical ventialation system to maintain a stable indoor environment

6

Natural ventilation to lower the energy demand

A big part of the projects vision is to create a building that fulfills the standards of a NETZEB building and is sustainable in its use of ressources. The NETZEB status is reached by applying both passive and active strategies to the building, thereby lowering the overall energy demand. To maintain a good indoor environment the building is equipped with a mechanical ventilation system for usage in the cooling season and the windows are designed to utilize natural ventilation during the heating season (appendix 4). Each block has a ventilation plant located in a technical room in the basement. From here the air is supplied in vertical ventilation shafts that run in a centrally located technical core and the air is distributed to each apartment in suspended ceilings. The system is VAV controlled, allowing residents to individually control the indoor environment within their apartment. Additionally, sensors are placed around the apartment, controlling the temperature and CO2 level and maintaining a constant airflow of 0,3 l/s pr sqm as required (Bygningsreglementet.dk. (2017)). The natural ventilation is dimensioned to utilize single sided ventilation in every room of the apartment. It is an analogue system controlled by the residents. Their individual experience determines the quality of the indoor environment and when to activate the

72

system by opening the windows. The windows are fixed in the middle, which means that when opened, two openings will be created - one at the bottom for fresh air inlet and one at the top for hot air outlet. To further control the quality of the thermal environment and to prevent overheating, solar shading is placed on the southern facades to manage the solar heat gain. The moveable shading system allows for the low sun rays to passively heat the rooms during the heating season, while they provide shade for the high sun rays during the cooling season, thereby minimizing the solar heat gain. Finally, a verification of the building was made in Be15 to prove it meets the requirements of a zero energy building and to determine the amount of solar PV’s necessary to reach the NETZEB standard (appendix 7). Based on the electricity consumption and overall energy demand, each complex was provided with 214 sqm of photovoltaic panels to cover the yearly electricity requirement and lower the demand on ressources (appendix 5). A water reservoir was installed to collect the rainwater from the roof and use it for grey water in the apartments, resulting in a minimal use of local resources and less pressure on the local drainage system.


1

2

3

6

4 5

Supply

Exhaust

Inlet

Outlet

Rainwater

Ill. 43

73


Indoor environment Validating thermal and atmospheric comfort

Fulfilling the standard of a NETZEB building is not just about living up to the energy requirement but just as much about creating an acceptable indoor environment. To fulfill both the projects vision for a good indoor environment and the requirements from the Danish standards, analyses have been carried out with the use of Bsim and Velux Daylight Visualizer to evaluate the quality of the indoor environment. The analyses are based on the most critical apartment, apartment A1, which was chosen because of its exposure to the southern sun and its internal heat loads. The graphs show the atmospheric environment, in relation to CO2, for an entire day. It is illustrated for both the cooling season, where natural ventilation is activated, and the heating season. where mechanical ventilation is activated, to demonstrate the difference in CO2 levels when using different ventilation strategies. In both cases a satisfactory atmospheric environment is maintained, keeping a CO2 level in each room under the maximum requirement of 850 ppm (DS/EN 15251:2007). From the graphs the daily routine of the residents is clearly depicted in the rise and fall of the CO2 level in each room. The last graph illustrates the thermal environment in the apartment during the length of a year. The results depicted show the average temperature in each room. It keeps a steady pace during the year, rising simultaneously with the outdoor temperature. As a part of the process the hours above 27 and 28 degrees, in the rooms towards the south, have been studied. The final solution has four hours over 27 degrees in the living room and 17 hours in the kitchen. Both of the rooms have zero hours over 28 degrees (appendix 6). The visual environment has been evaluated based on the amount of daylight. All of the apartments fulfill the requirement of a minimum three percentage on average. Simulations can be found in appendix 2 74

Ill. 44

Critical apartment


21 june

CO2 level

(ppm)

700 21 june

Kitchen

650

Living room

600

Bedroom

550

Bathroom CO2 level

500 (ppm)

WAKING UP

450 700

BREAKFAST

AT WORK

400 650

DINNER

GOING TO BED

Living room

WATCHING TV

350 600

Bedroom

300 550 500

Kitchen

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

(H )

Bathroom

450 400 350 300 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

(H )

CO2 level - 21 june cooling season

21december CO2 level (ppm)

Kitchen

800 21december

2

3

4

5

CO2 level

Living room 750 700 Bedroom 650 Bathroom 600 550 (ppm) 500 800 450 750 400 700 350 650 6 300 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 (H ) 600 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 (H ) 550 CO2 level - 21 december heating season 500 450 400 350 300 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 (H )

Kitchen Living room Bedroom Bathroom

CO2 level Kitchen Living room Bedroom Bathroom

Average temperature

(°C ) 24,0

Kitchen

23,5

Living room

23,0

Bedroom 1

22,5

Bedroom 2

22,0 21,5 21,0 20,5 20,0 Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Average temperature in all rooms on a yearly basis

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Okt

Nov

Dec

Ill. 45

75


Detail drawings Construction of the building envelope

Ill. 46

76


Ill. 47

Ill. 48

77


Detail drawings Principles for the construction of the frame

78


Addition of photovoltaic panels on roof

Ill. 49

79


80


Process 81


Methdology Problem based learning and integrated design process

The methodology behind the project follows the integrated design process (IDP) in order to achieve a holistic design that incorporates and balances all aspects of a sustainable building. The aim of IDP is to combine the two fields of architecture and engineering, valuing the fields equally and as a result creating a coherent solution. The integrated design process is a complex iterative method which for the sake of simplification is divided into five phases that are represented in the diagram on the following page. Throughout the project different methods have been applied in each of the different phases, but most of the process has been intertwined with quick shifts between phases as per the IDP recipe. Microclimate analysis Through an analytic method the microclimate has been analyzed based on climatic maps depicting the local wind direction and the path of the sun to identify the issues for further design. The information found in the analysis has been applied actively, into a study investigating the effect of wind and sun,

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on different building typologies, using Flow design and Revit as software tools. Thereby quickly shifting between the analysis and sketching phase, to gain a deeper inside and understanding of the topic. Sketching the plans for the apartments With a starting point in the sketching phase, the plans for the apartments were investigated through sketches and animated 3D models; they were based on information studied in the analysis phase and architectural quality. However the plans required deeper knowledge of the indoor environment specifically the visual, prompting the need for a deeper analyze of the windows, applying visual software Velux Daylight Visualizer and renderings. The shift between the phases led to a reevaluation of the plan, initiating a new sketching phase, studying both apartment plans and a master plan with narrower volumes. This is just a small summary of different ways the IDP has improved the project and final design.


Problem or idea

Analysis

Sketching

Synthesis

Presentation

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Episode 1 Workshop: Climate, volume, access and daylight

In the beginning of our design process, the university has planned a workshop as a kick-starter for our design phase. The workshop allowed us to play with varying types of forms and designs approaches to gain a relation to our site and to deal with some of the question asked from the analysis phase. Plenty of models were investigated to study different opportunities for different subjects, such as the accessibility to our site, movement of people, typologies, FAR (floor area ratio) and placement of the 20%. In combination of the subjects above the orientation, height and arrangement of the building volumes were tested to meet the challenges of our site in order of the wind, sun and noise.

Sub-conclusions / Accessibility against north at Hjulmagervej and towards the water in the southern part High building volumes against east to provide a barrier for noise and to reach height of the context. Lower volumes against the water to the south to allow sun into the site. The 20% placed in the lower part of the building volume to create interaction in the openings and in the center. Varying building heights to create different scale on site.

Ill. 50

84


85 Ill. 51


Episode 2 Big scale_ 1:500

In the next phase of the design phase, we started modelling various examples of masterplans in physical models. We worked in 1:500 scale and used sketching and other digital tools (Revit, Sketchup, Rhino etc.) to investigate shadows, solar radiations and hours of sun in the urban area and the faรงade. The digital tools also gave us an understanding of the human scale in between the buildings. Furthermore, we examine deeper into some different subject such as entrances and accessibility to apartments, parking and the overall connection to the city. In close relationship with the concept and the design strategies the size and connection between neighbours has been developed in various ways combined with urban farming, green flow and the difference between public and private zones for the users and the visitors of the site.

Sub-conclusions / Various comfortable outdoor public and semiprivate areas. Comfortable in order of sun, security, greenery and shelter for wind and rain. Spatial diversity for outdoor areas. Using the height as a scale of privacy. Ground level as the public zone. 2 nd level as the semiprivate zones and the 3 rd level as the private zones. In order of generate enough privacy for each apartment we choose the stairways with access to each apartment on each side as the main entrance for each apartment Because the 20% are placed on the ground level we decided to use there roofscapes for the urban farming and therefore being able to create a semiprivate zone in another level.

- guarantee more privacy

- necessity of a lot of staircases

- apartments are double faced

- few saircases

- poor daylight

- overhanging avoid overheating in summer - apartments are double faced

- few saircases

- apartments are one faced - narrow and dark corridor of entrance

86 Ill. 52


87 Ill. 53


Episode 3 Integrating building physics and concept

We asked ourselves “How do we create the framework for social interaction?” For our perspective it is all about the size of the community. An example of the real world could be- If you start on Aalborg University your first meeting with your fellow student is sampled in one big social activity, the breakfast in the center of Aalborg. A lot of student’s experiences this as an overwhelming amount of new faces and impressions. Later the same day, you start to get divided into small groups of people and suddenly gets the feeling of a bit more profit and confidence to start talk and knowing each other. Later the same day you have the courage to meet other groups together with your newest friends in your group. This could be one example of how social interaction works. Therefor we tried to create a natural scale of this subject and started to investigate how a physical form can provide it. At this point of the process we had three sizes of communities. Small, Medium and Large. The small community should work as the “neighborhood”. What do 10-20 houses on a suburban area have in common? The road connecting them all. What do apartments

88

have in common the stairways. The stairways in a compact city is usually a boring and not sensing area. What If we designed the stairways as a social meeting point and used greenery, materials and daylight to create an area where people want to interact? The medium community is driven by the strategy of urban gardening. It is a way of sharing your vegetables and common need together with other small communities on the site. The area should be designed with a spatial diversity meaning, the need for intimate spaces and the opportunity to more social. The medium community should be closely connected aesthetically and physically to the small community. The large community works as collecting element for the entire building site and even more? In this case different functions should work as an active element to lead the residents and the public to interact and activate the entire site through out the whole day. In this phase of the process, we were thinking these three examples of the masterplan would represent the concept in various ways.

Ill. 54


Ill. 55

89


Episode 4 Small scale_ 1:100

To reach the best possible living space, we started sketching plans. We investigated different qualities and strategies to combine the different users in the best possible way. Our vision is to intertwine the users, so they will get the feeling of a mixed community with different way of living. We used foam to archive an idea of how to merge the different apartments in a combination of plans and sections. We also considered how the orientation, daylight, natural ventilation the option of privacy and the different views to the outdoor would appeal to the user and how it will affect the indoor environment. Furthermore, we studied how the stairways should be designed and what qualities it should archive for the users. We focused a lot of “the meeting�. How can we design good meeting points and still be aware of peoples need for privacy if they example having a bad day? We studied sightlines, the possibility to get daylight and how they could use the stairways as a daily need for more than just an entrance to the apartment. In this time of the design process we used different tools to gain knowledge of energy, atmospheric, thermal and visual comfort. (BE15, BSIM and Velux daylight visualizer - see appendix 2-7)

Sub-conclusions / Having three sizes of apartments Small, Medium and Large to fit different form of users and needs. Intertwine the apartments to get as much users as possible into each floor. Having orientation to both sites of the building block. Divide apartments up into passive and active zones. (passive zones- bedrooms, offices.) / (active zones- socializing areas, kitchen, living rooms) Having a spatial diversity in form of daylight, room height, size and materials. The stairways will have a centered social area, with the opportunity to be active or just relaxed. The social room should be placed in a clear connection to the outdoor urban farming on the same level. (above ground level) A need for most users is storage in different sizes and forms. It could be sport equipment, toys or even your collection of shoes. This need should be integrated in the stairways. Having a visual connection to each floor or level.

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Ill. 56


Ill. 57

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Preliminary study on windows and their effect on the indoor environment

As a part of the proces a preliminary study was done, testing five different window shapes, and their method of handling the solar gain. The study focused on evaluating the division of daylight in the room and the atmosphere created. The windows tested keep a constant size of two square meters and a light transmittance of 68 percentages. The two different rooms tested are both 12 square meters, but vary in depth and width, being either four or three meters, the room height is 2,44 meters. The simulations done are based on white walls and ceiling, with wooden floors. The daylight is tested for the windows having no shading, an overhang of either one or two meters, and an exterior shading module, consisting of either vertical or horizontal slats, both with the dimensions; five centimetres in width and 10 centimetres between each slat. The studies show that using the same size window, but with different shapes and placements, will create a variety of different daylight factors with adjacent examples of division of daylight in the room. However a certain type of window shape or its specific placement might give a high average daylight factor, without being able to, spread out the light evenly in the room. The study also indicates that using a window that has a higher width in relation to height will result in a higher daylight factor. Furthermore prioritizing rooms with a minimal depth will enable

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the ability to fill the room with more natural daylight, since the light will be less contained by the walls, thereby creating better conditions for the division. However it needs to be taken into consideration, that the most optimal solution for the windows might not be based solely on the daylight factor or division of daylight, but also on the function of the room. Since it is not necessary for all zones to have a high daylight factor different solutions could work for different rooms, dependent on its function. Some spaces might require a higher level of privacy or specific functions to be places along the wall containing the window, resulting in a solution based more on the function and atmosphere of the room. Further studies show that applying the windows with either a shading system or eave, lowers the quality of the visual environment, since the daylight factor in most test scenarios, will be lowered by at least 33 %. Resolving in the conclusion that by having a moveable system, the visual environment will only be effected in periods, where the thermal environment requires a lowered amount of solar heat gain. Another solution could be to increase the amount of windows and having permanent eave, thereby maintaining the full view out the window.


Roomdimension 4m width / 3m depth / 2,44 height Shading solution

Window 1m width / 2m height

Window 1m width / 2m height

Appendix 3, no. 6

Appendix 3, no. 7

1

Without shading

Window 2m width / 1m height

DF 3 %

Appendix 3, no. 8

Appendix 3, no. 9

2

3

DF 4,7 %

DF 3,2 %

Window 3m width / 0,66m height

Window 1,44m width / 1,44m height

Appendix 3, no. 10

4

DF 3,9 %

5

DF 5 %

Overhang 1m

DF 2,0 %

DF 2,0 %

DF 2,9 %

DF 2,4 %

DF 1,2 %

Overhang 2m

DF 1,9 %

DF 1,8 %

DF 2,5 %

DF 2,0 %

DF 1,6 %

Vertical slats

DF 1,2 %

DF 1,4 %

DF 2,0 %

DF 1,6 %

DF 1,7 %

Horizontal slats

DF 1,2 %

DF 1,4%

DF 1,9 %

DF 1,5 %

DF 1,7 %

Roomdimension 3m width / 4m depth / 2,44 height Shading solution

Window 1m width / 2m height

Window 1m width / 2m height

Appendix 3, no. 1

Appendix 3, no. 2

6

Without shading

DF 3,1 %

Window 2m width / 1m height

DF 3,2 %

Appendix 3, no. 4

DF 4,4 %

Appendix 3, no. 5

9

8

7

Window 3m width / 0,66m height

Window 1,44m width / 1,44m height

Appendix 3, no. 3

DF 3,8 %

10

DF 3,8 %

Overhang 1m

DF 2,2 %

DF 2,4 %

DF 3,2 %

DF 2,8 %

DF 1,6 %

Overhang 2m

DF 1,7 %

DF 1,8 %

DF 2,5 %

DF 2,1 %

DF 1,4 %

Vertical slats

DF 1,3 %

DF 1,4 %

DF 2,1 %

DF 1,8 %

DF 1,6 %

Horizontal slats

DF 1,3 %

DF 1,3 %

DF 1,9 %

DF 1,5 %

DF 1,3 %

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BSim analysis of the stairways

As the galleries play a central role in the concept as communal spaces, an analysis was conducted to determine the quality of their indoor environment. Based on the galleries materiality, consisting primarily of glass, they are subject to both overheating and low temperatures, depending on the season, where there will be either high transmission losses or high internal heat gains. The analysis is carried out in Bsim, where dynamic simulations are used to evaluate the thermal environment, in regards to indoor temperatures, over the duration of year. Based on previous knowledge, eight different solutions are simulated, testing the influence of varying the area of windows, towards both north and south. The results show that using different amounts of windows in each simulation has a minimal influence on the thermal environment, when heating

is activated. Except for simulation three and six, which uses less heating during April and September and has a higher temperature. The biggest outfall is found, when comparing the simulations with and without heating activated. Here the temperature drops approximately eight degrees during the heating season and keeps the same steady temperature during the cooling season. Considering the amount of energy used to heat the gallery to a barely acceptable temperature, it’s concluded that because of the large transmission loss, the most energy sufficient solution is to construct an unheated gallery. Because the gallery is placed in between two buildings, it will receive heat, from their transmission loss, meaning that during winter the temperature wont drop below six degrees. During summer, the temperature won’t rise above 23 degrees as a result of natural ventilation, utilized through a stack ventilation principle.

(kW) (kW) kW 4

1

1

3,5

3,5

2

2

3

3

3

3

4

4

5

5

6

6

2,5

2,5

2

2

1,5

1,5

7

7

1

1

8

8

0,5

0,5

0 o

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Heating Heating data gallery data gallery

4

0 Jan

C

Jan Feb

Feb Mar

Mar Apr

Apr May

May Jun

Jun Jul

Jul Aug

Aug Sep

Sep Okt

Okt Nov

Nov Dec

Dec

Ill. 56


1.

2.

75 %

75 %

N

3.

4.

50 %

50 %

N

75 %

5.

6.

50 %

25 %

N

8.

25 %

25 %

50 %

N

25 %

N

50 %

N

25 %

7.

N

Ill. 57

50 %

75 %

N

25 %

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Episode 5 Intertwining small and big scale

After working in different scales- we begun detailing and started assembling. We studied different materials for the exterior and how the link should be between the building blocks, stairways and the urban gardening. The materials of the interior were also investigated to archive knowledge of how it could affect the indoor daylight of the different rooms in each apartment. Furthermore, we tried different ways of modelling the “medium community” and how it should be designed. The shape and functions of roofscapes have been discussed and the placement the renewable energy sources (solar panels). The solar panels have also been investigated in the top of the structural system (on top of the urban gardening) to give an impression of local production (food, solar energy) The form, functions and materials for the balconies was studied through varying sketches and connected to the rooms creating them.

The building blocks will be designed in varying brightness red brick. For the stairways and communities, the structural system should be built in wood in order of the human interaction. It should be designed in open squares to create spatial diversity with a lot of daylight and greenery. To link the building blocks with the structural wood system, the facades will should have a similar expression but in a different scale and material. The materials of the interior will have dominated by white plaster in a combination of plates of wood to create a comfortable indoor daylight. To avoid overheating a shading system has been added. It is designed in perforated Corten steel to match the red brick on the façade. The placement is only needed on the southern façade. To have the best overall impression of the design, the roofscapes will be flat because of the significant look of the structural wood system. The balconies should be integrated in the building block to gain enough privacy. The possibility to be social is important but also the opportunity to be private should be a high priority in the design.

96 Ill. 60


97 Ill. 61


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Conclusions 99


Conclusions & reflection

Conclusion / Biotopia is our solution to social problems. We want to create communal spaces for interaction among the residents that can potentially help combat loneliness. We want to create a sense of belonging both within a small and a large community. Biotopia is also our soloution to environmental problems. We want to create a framework that allows the residents to realise their aspirations towards personal sustainability. Sharing products, growing food on-site, managing waste and living in a compact city environment will create an environment and atmosphere of sustainable living. Biotopia promotes all these ideals through the design of its spaces. From the open and interchangeable wooden frames with plateaus and niches for sociability and individual configuration to the spatially diverse and light dwellings that are homes for a wide range of different, intermixed users, Biotopia creates the identity for a large city community to gather around.

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Reflection / Upon completing the project we have had the opportunity to reflect on the process as well as the final design. This has highlighted some potential issues of the design that we will discuss in the following section. Is it possible to force people into being social? The question of architecture shaping behaviour is complex and one with many opposing viewpoints. Our project builds on the premis that people want to socialise and thus use the spaces we have created. If the opposite turns out to be true; if people prefer privacy and private spaces over the social ones, there could be a strong argument against designing with such an emphasis on sociability. The ambition of creating social spaces has had a huge influence on the way the dwellings have been designed. In order to maximise the number of residents in one stairway, a choice of creating cluster of three apartments on two stories were made. This proved to be very complex and although the final designs were solved well and provided interesting and varied spaces we wonder if the apartments could have had more quality without this restriction. This could be investigated further to clarify the potential of even better apartments. The choice of building materials can be questioned in terms of its sustainability profile. Producing brick uses a lot of energy and could therefore not be considered to be the optimal solution for a sustainable project. It was favored over wood because of its durability but a more thorough investigation of the different materials would be necessary to attain a full understanding of this subject. The use of wood in the project can be considered to fit more into a sustainable agenda; however, the structure is relatively inefficient and therefore requires a lot of material to stand. The design of the frame could be improved considerably to improve ressource efficiency. Other areas could also be discussed but these are the ones we consider to be of most importance to the integrity of the project.

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List of illustrations

Illu. 1: Aalborg city map (krak) Illu. 2: Physically site model (own) Illu. 3: Context maps (own) Illu. 4: SIte photos (own) Illu. 5: Wind rose and sun diagram (xx) Illu. 6: Typologies diagrams (own) Illu. 7: User patterns and characteristics (own) Illu. 8: Diagram of loneliness (xx) Illu. 9: Diagram 2 of loneliness (xx) Illu. 10: Carbon dixoxide diagram (xx) Illu. 11: Sustainability tactics (own) Illu. 12: ZEB diagram (own) Illu. 13: Concept diagram (own) Illu. 14: Exterior render (own) Illu: 15: Masterplan (own) Illu. 16: Public functions diagrams (own) Illu. 17: Distribution diagram (own) Illu. 18: Urban section 1 (own) Illu. 19: Urban section 2 (own) Illu. 20: Elevations 1:500 (own) IIlu. 21: Facade zoom: 1:200 (own) Illu. 22: Community neighbourhood diagram (own) Illu. 23: City block diagram (own) Illu: 24: City Block community render (own) Illu. 25: Apartment axonometry (own) Illu. 26: Apartment 1 plan (own) Illu. 27: Apartment 1 render (own) Illu. 28: Apartment 1 section (own) Illu. 29: Apartment A1 plan (own) Illu. 30: Apartment A1 render (own)

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Illu. 31: Apartment A1 section (own) Illu. 32: Apartment A2 section (own) Illu. 33: Apartment A2 plan (own) Illu. 34: Apartment A3 plan (own) Illu. 35: Apartment A3 section (own) Illu. 36: Apartment B1 plan (own) Illu. 37: Apartment B1 section (own) Illu. 38: Apartment B2 plan (own) Illu. 39: Apartment B2 render (own) Illu. 40: Apartment B2 section (own) Illu. 41: Apartment B3 section (own) Illu. 42: Apartment B3 plan (own) Illu. 43: Zero energy diagram (own) Illu. 44: Critical apartment diagram (own) Illu. 45: Bsim data (own) Illu. 46: Facade/roof detail drawing (own) Illu. 47: Footing detail drawing (own) Illu. 48: Floor detail drawing (own) Illu. 49: Constructural detail (own) Illu. 50: Process illustrations (own) Illu. 51: Process models (own) Illu. 52: Galleries principle (own) Illu. 53: Model photo (own) Illu. 54: Conceptual diagrams (own) Illu. 55: Model photos (own) Illu. 56: Process photos (own) Illu. 57: Process photos (own) Illu. 58: Bsim data (own) Illu. 59: Bsim models (own) Illu. 60: Process illustration (own) Illu. 61: Process illustration (own)


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Bibliography Internet sources Aalborg.dk. (2017). Aalborg klimapixi. [online] Available at: https://www.aalborg.dk/media/302647/introduktion-klimapixi.pdf [Accessed 18 Dec. 2017]. Aalborg.viewer.dkplan.niras.dk. (2017). Aalborg Kommune - Spildevandsplan 2016-2027. [online] Available at: http://aalborg.viewer.dkplan.niras.dk/dkplan/dkplan.aspx?pageId=113 [Accessed 18 Dec. 2017]. Boligforskning.dk. (2017). Boligforskning. [online] Available at: http://boligforskning.dk/sites/default/files/ Explanations%20for%20preferencen%20in%20Denmark%20for%20surroundings%20and%20location%20 of%20the%20home.%20ENHR2009.pdf [Accessed 18 Dec. 2017]. Business Culture. (2017). Work-life balance. [online] Available at: http://businessculture.org/northern-europe/ denmark-business-culture/work-life-balance/ [Accessed 18 Dec. 2017]. Bygningsreglementet.dk. (2017). Forside. [online] Available at: http://bygningsreglementet.dk/ [Accessed 18 Dec. 2017]. Dfm-net.dk. (2017). Lommeparker. [online] Available at: https://www.dfm-net.dk/dfmnet_files/artikler/192_ Lommeparker_kan_fremme_sundheden_for_mennesker_nr_4_2014.pdf [Accessed 18 Dec. 2017]. Ditaalborg.com. (2017). Ditaalborg.com - helt tæt på!. [online] Available at: http://www.ditaalborg.com/nyheder/fjernvarme-stadig-populaert-i-aalborg.aspx [Accessed 18 Dec. 2017]. Dmi.dk. (2017). Måned/sæson/år: DMI. [online] Available at: http://www.dmi.dk/vejr/arkiver/maanedsaesonaar/ [Accessed 18 Dec. 2017]. Dr.dk. (2017). Ensomhed. [online] Available at: https://www.dr.dk/NR/rdonlyres/9EE02E7A-F9F4-4652-BB54E2212BA39131/6117652/Fakta.pdf [Accessed 18 Dec. 2017]. Dst.dk. (2017). Statistics Denmark. [online] Available at: http://www.dst.dk/en [Accessed 18 Dec. 2017]. Energyplanning.aau.dk. (2017). Energivision Aalborg kommune. [online] Available at: http://www.energyplanning.aau.dk/Publications/AalborgKommune-Energivision.pdf [Accessed 18 Dec. 2017]. Frederiksen, S. and Lindegaard, D. (2017). Opvarmning med fjernvarme. [online] Bolius.dk. Available at: https://www.bolius.dk/opvarmning-med-fjernvarme-17059/ [Accessed 18 Dec. 2017]. FROM</a>, A. (2017). Stor CO2-udledning fra Aalborg Portland. [online] Jyllands-posten.dk. Available at: https://jyllands-posten.dk/indland/ECE3326185/Stor-CO2-udledning-fra-Aalborg-Portland/ [Accessed 18 Dec. 2017]. aalborgforsyning.dk. (2017). Aalborg forsyning. [online] Available at: https://aalborgforsyning.dk [Accessed 18 Dec. 2017]. India, I. and Us, C. (2017). Rain Water Harvesting: Meaning, Methods, Advantages, and Disadvantages. - Important India. [online] Important India. Available at: https://www.importantindia.com/23766/rain-water-harvesting-meaning-methods-advantages-and-disadvantages/ [Accessed 18 Dec. 2017].


Koogi, L. (2017). GRAFIK Så meget regner det i Danmark på et år. [online] DR. Available at: https://www. dr.dk/nyheder/vejret/grafik-saa-meget-regner-det-i-danmark-paa-et-aar [Accessed 18 Dec. 2017]. Miljoegis.mim.dk. (2017). Miljøgis. [online] Available at: http://miljoegis.mim.dk/spatialmap?&profile=noise [Accessed 18 Dec. 2017]. Mobility and transport. (2017). Pedestrians and cyclists: unprotected road users - Mobility and transport - European Commission. [online] Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/transport/road_safety/specialist/knowledge/pedestrians/pedestrians_and_cyclists_unprotected_road_users/ [Accessed 18 Dec. 2017]. Naturstyrelsen.dk. (2017). Grønne områder & menneskelig sundhed. [online] Available at: http://naturstyrelsen. dk/media/nst/Attachments/groenne_omraader_og_menneskelig_sundhed.pdf [Accessed 18 Dec. 2017]. Usgbc.org. (2017). Green Building 101: Why is energy efficiency important? | U.S. Green Building Council. [online] Available at: https://www.usgbc.org/articles/green-building-101-why-energy-efficiency-important [Accessed 18 Dec. 2017]. Miljoegis.mim.dk. (2017). Miljøgis. [online] Available at: http://miljoegis.mim.dk/spatialmap?&profile=noise [Accessed 18 Dec. 2017]. Mobility and transport. (2017). Pedestrians and cyclists: unprotected road users - Mobility and transport - European Commission. [online] Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/transport/road_safety/specialist/knowledge/pedestrians/pedestrians_and_cyclists_unprotected_road_users/ [Accessed 18 Dec. 2017]. Naturstyrelsen.dk. (2017). Grønne områder & menneskelig sundhed. [online] Available at: http://naturstyrelsen. dk/media/nst/Attachments/groenne_omraader_og_menneskelig_sundhed.pdf [Accessed 18 Dec. 2017]. Usgbc.org. (2017). Green Building 101: Why is energy efficiency important? | U.S. Green Building Council. [online] Available at: https://www.usgbc.org/articles/green-building-101-why-energy-efficiency-important [Accessed 18 Dec. 2017]. Anon, (2017). [online] Available at: http://www.en.zeb.aau.dk/digitalAssets/126/126807_nzeb-working-definition.pdf [Accessed 18 Dec. 2017]. Company, U. (2017). Hvad er urban gardening?. [online] Urban Garden Company. Available at: https://urbangardencompany.myshopify.com/blogs/news/urban-gardening [Accessed 18 Dec. 2017]. Energistyrelsen. (2017). Aalborg. [online] Available at: https://sparenergi.dk/offentlig/vaerktoejer/energi-og-co2-regnskab/aalborg [Accessed 18 Dec. 2017]. Footprint.wwf.org.uk. (2017). Your tips - WWF Footprint Calculator. [online] Available at: http://footprint.wwf. org.uk/tips [Accessed 18 Dec. 2017]. Medier, N. (2017). Grønnere fjernvarme på vej til Aalborg. [online] www.nordjyske.dk. Available at: https:// nordjyske.dk/nyheder/groennere-fjernvarme-paa-vej-til-aalborg/1294adcc-01a4-49c2-bc86-7c349db62558 [Accessed 18 Dec. 2017].


Noun Project. (2017). Noun Project. [online] Available at: https://thenounproject.com/ [Accessed 18 Dec. 2017]. Psykiatrifonden.dk. (2017). Hvad er ensomhed?. [online] Available at: http://www.psykiatrifonden.dk/faa-hjaelp/ taenk-dig-staerk/ensomhed/1-hvad-er-ensomhed.aspx [Accessed 18 Dec. 2017]. Renonord.dk. (2017). Energianlg. [online] Available at: http://www.renonord.dk/default.aspx?m=2&i=227 [Accessed 18 Dec. 2017]. rødekors.dk. (2017). røde kors kæmper mod ensomhed i julen. [online] Available at: https://www.rodekors.dk/ nyheder/roede-kors-kaemper-mod-ensomhed-i-julen [Accessed 18 Dec. 2017]. Concito.dk. (2017). deleøkonomi. [online] Available at: https://concito.dk/files/dokumenter/artikler/deleoekonomi_endelig_100615_2.pdf [Accessed 18 Dec. 2017].

Documents Danielsen Architecture. (2015). “Boliger Housing”. Copenhagen, Denmark: Danielsen Architecture. Fonden Dansk Standard. (2007) “DS/ EN 15251:2007”. Copenhagen, Denmark. Institut for Teknologi. (2008). “Klima og arkitektur”. Copenhagen, Denmark: Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole. Kang, J. (2007) Urban noise mitigation: “Urban sound environment” (pp. 175-176). New York, USA: Taylor and Francis. Kirkegaard, A., Knudstrup, M., Lund, R., Katic, I. (2014). “Zero energy buildings – Design principles and built examples for detached houses”. Copenhagen, Denmark: SBI Forlag. Madsen, M. (2015) ”Deleøkonomiens klimapotentiale”. Copenhagen, Denmark :Velux Fonden Pawlyn, M. (2011). “Biomimicry in Architecture”. London, UK: Riba Publishing. Poul Bæk Pedersen. (2009). “Sustainable compact city / Bærredygtig kompakt by”. Arhus, Denmark. Carl Erik Hyldgård (1997) “Grundlæggende klimateknik og bygningsfysik”, Aalborg, Denmark,

References Leth & Gori, “Meget social boligbyggeri” (2014) Available from: http://lethgori.dk/da/housing-project/ Penda architecture, “International Horticultural Expo” (2019) Available from: http://www.home-of-penda.com/


Appendix

APPENDIX 1

WIND AND SUN SIMULATIONS

APPENDIX 2

DAYLIGHT VISUALIZATION

APPENDIX 3

WINDOW STUDIES

APPENDIX 4

NATURAL VENTILATION CALCULATIONS

APPENDIX 5

SOLAR PANNELS CALCULATIONS

APPENDIX 6

BSIM ANALYSIS

APPENDIX 7

BE15

APPENDIX 8

Parking


APPENDIX 1 - WIND

AND SUN SIMULATIONS

WIND

1:5000 N

0

30

33

30

60

0

W

E

5%

10%

24

12

0

0

15%

> 11.0 m/s 0

21

15

0

20%

25%

5.0 - 11.0 m/s 0.2 - 5.0 m/s

The wind rose has its origin at Aalborg Airport and illuminates the frequency of wind direction and strength on an annual basis. The rose tells the dominant wind direction in the area is from west and south-west. As the wind rose does not originate from Aalborg center, wind conditions will be different due to closer settlement. The guiding knowledge of the wind is supplemented with the Flow Design analysis tool for investigating wind behaviour around the building site. Along Hjulmagervej there are som open east-west stretches witch can effect the velocity of wind in the area. This may influence different parameter in the building design, such as the force for natural ventilation, passive cooling and the comfort of outdoor spaces. In order to be even more aware of the wind, a variety of building typologies have been developed to get an insight into how the shape and location of the building can have an impact on the wind. The simulations is based on a wind velocity of 5 m/s from one of the most dominating winddirections west.


SUN 1:5000 33 0

10

30

N

20 30 30

40 0

60

50 60 70 80

Ă˜

W

24

12

0

0

Summer

5.0 - 11.0 m/s

Spring & Fall

0

21

15

0.2 - 5.0 m/s

0

> 11.0 m/s

S

Winter

ency minant

In relation to the sun’s pattern of movement in the sky, various registrations and simulations have been made on the site.

s wind d

Ten different building shapes have been analysed and simulated to gain the best possible knowledge about how the shapes and locations of the buildings affect the ability to get the best possible sun in terms of facade, outdoor areas and surrounding buildings.

ffect n the g and

gies of the wind

The ten different buildings do all have a height on 17 meters (4 floors). The sun has a big influence on the indoor climate in terms of the thermal climate and the visual comfort level. Because the building site orientates to the south, there is a good opportunity to take advantage of the various postitive factors the sun brings but still be aware of the negative consequences in the design and sketching phase.


SL AB

MODEL 01

21. june 10.00 am

21. sept/march 10.00 am

Velocity m/s 6.5 5.5 4.5 3.5 0.0

Daylight Inside / The southern facades are almost fully exposed to sun the entire day. The first floor of the second row af buildings are shaded particularly during midday. The northern facades are never exposed to sun except for rare occasions in winter where the sun sets in northeast and northwest. Daylight Outside / The room in-between the buildings is shaded almost the entire day, which limits the potential use of the outdoor spaces.

21. june 10

Velocity m/s 6.5 5.5 4.5 3.5 0.0

Daylight Insid sun according general, shade buildings in the

Daylight Outs exposed to the shade in the m

Wind Conditions / The northern facade towards the road create a corridor of high wind speeds on the perimeter of the site. Contrary to expectations, the space in-between the buildings is sheltered from the wind which creates good conditions for this area.

Wind Conditio and directs tow results in calm north, although between the bu

Energy / Southern exposure can cause overheating in the apartments but also gain passive solar heat in the winter. The building shape is relatively compact which improves the overall energy demand. The buildings are not angled optimally to take advantage of the higher wind pressure from west.

Energy / The e ding means the On the other ha heat. The west be utilised for n

Spatial Qualities / The space between the buildings is very well-defined and protected from noise pollution from the north and south. There are possibilities for creating a coherent and social community while still maintaining open connections to the surroundings.

Spatial Qualiti this scheme. T the desired ou road to the nor open complex large building on the site pos


01

am

MODEL 02

21. june 10.00 am

21. sept/march 10.00 am

Velocity m/s

Velocity m/

6.5

6.5

5.5

5.5

4.5

4.5

3.5

3.5

0.0

0.0

ost fully exposed d row af buildings hern facades are in winter where

Daylight Inside / Eastern and western facades are exposed to sun according to the time of day (east gets sun before midday). In general, shade from the buildings do not affect the neighbouring buildings in the summer half.

dings is shaded se of the outdoor

Daylight Outside / At midday the outdoor spaces are fully exposed to the sun. The northern parts of the outdoor spaces get shade in the morning and afternoon.

the road create of the site. Conbuildings is shelns for this area.

21. june 10

Wind Conditions / The first block from the west blocks the wind and directs towards the south on the road west of the site. This results in calmer wind conditions on the site and the road to the north, although there is a bit of turbulence in the outdoor spaces between the buildings.

ing in the apartter. The building overall energy to take advanta-

Energy / The east-west orientation of the long facades of the building means there is a smaller risk of overheating in the summer. On the other hand it reduces the possible gain from passive solar heat. The western orientation allows the dominant wind direction to be utilised for natural ventilation purposes.

ings is very rom the north coherent and nnections to the

Spatial Qualities / There is a clear division of outdoor spaces in this scheme. This can either be positive or negative depending on the desired outcome. The site has several entry points from the road to the north as well as from the stream. This creates a rather open complex that is only closed off to the east and west. The large building volume to the east might affect the noise pollution on the site positively.

Daylight In casts shade and the rest therefore no almost all d but it should smaller than

Daylight Ou to sun the e almost the e the sun’s az

Wind Cond northern an directional t building cor the wind is c

Energy / Th on and the p examples. T 2. The wind would likely

Spatial Qua from those m dynamic.


EL 02

.00 am

xposed to e midday). In eighbouring

e fully r spaces get

ks the wind site. This oad to the oor spaces

s of the builhe summer. passive solar nd direction to

r spaces in depending on s from the ates a rather west. The se pollution

MODEL 03

21. june 10.00 am

21. sept/march 10.00 am

Velocity m/s 6.5 5.5 4.5 3.5 0.0

Daylight Inside / The angle of the buildings means each building casts shade to the building on the eastside shortly after midday and the rest of the day (westernmost building is “first in line� and therefore not affected). The northeastern facades are shaded almost all day. Overall the daylight conditions are less than optimal but it should be noted that the space between the buildings are smaller than in the previous examples. Daylight Outside / The outdoor spaces to the south are exposed to sun the entire day while the spaces in the north are shaded almost the entire day. The only exception is in the morning where the sun’s azimuth angle is the same as the angle of the buildings. Wind Conditions / The wind appears to run primarily on the northern and southern sides of the site. It is considerably less directional than in scheme #1 since the wind is broken by many building corners which creates turbulence. Between the buildings the wind is calmer than in previous examples. Energy / The building is not nearly as exposed to solar radiation and the possibility for gaining solar heat is less than in other examples. The compactness is more or less the same as in model 2. The wind pressure on the facades do not differ a lot which would likely make natural ventilation more difficult? Spatial Qualities / The spatial qualities do not differ considerably from those mentioned in model 2. The composition is slightly more dynamic.


am

Urban Blocks

MODEL 07

21. june 10.00 am

21. sept/march 10.00 am

Velocity m/s 6.5 5.5 4.5 3.5 0.0

21. june 1

Velocity m 6.5 5.5 4.5 3.5 0.0

Daylight Inside / Depending on the height the building can be considered to create good daylight conditions. Both of the southern facades are exposed to sun the entire day. The apartments in the western and eastern ends will get direct sunlight all day as well except for a brief period around midday.

Daylight Insi nings have so facades that south appear amount of sou

Daylight Outside / The outdoor space, namely the courtyard is shaded the entire day due to the height of the building. This severely limits the use of the space both in summer and winter.

Daylight Out sternmost blo This is partial block has a s by widening t sun condition

Wind Conditions / The long, unbroken facade to the north creates a corridor of high wind speeds on the road outside the site. The speed is highest at the northeastern corner where two building facades run parallel to each other. The courtyard is completely sheltered from the wind which could compensate for the absence of sun. Energy / The south facing facades have the possibility of passive solar heat gain while the shorter east and west facades get the sun in the morning and afternoon. Tactics for avoiding overheating will have to be implemented. The surface are to volume ratio appears to be relatively low. Spatial Qualities / The courtyard is a decidedly introvert typology that doesn’t emphasise the connection to the city. Apartments are faced both into the courtyard and out to the city.

Wind Condit increased co not sufficient are sheltered create higher

Energy / The model 7. So i has been incr

Spatial Quali a more extrov seem larger. maintained b south also cre


7

m

ding can Both of the y. The apartct sunlight all y.

courtyard is ing. This sevewinter.

he north outside the er where two urtyard is mpensate for

bility of passive ades get the ing overheao volume ratio

rovert typology Apartments are

MODEL 08

21. june 10.00 am

21. sept/march 10.00 am

Velocity m/s

21. june 10.0

Velocity m/s

6.5

6.5

5.5

5.5

4.5

4.5

3.5

3.5

0.0

0.0

Daylight Inside / The buildings with east and west facing openings have somewhat good exposure to sun particularly on the facades that face south. The building with an opening towards south appears to have a slightly better exposure to the sun. The amount of south facing facade is however smaller. Daylight Outside / The outdoor spaces in the western- and easternmost blocks hardly receive any direct sunlight during the day. This is partially due to the proximity of other blocks. The middle block has a satisfying amount of daylight which can be enhanced by widening the block. It is a considerable improvement from the sun conditions in model 8. Wind Conditions / The wind speeds appear to be marginally increased compared to the ones seen in model 8, however it is not sufficient to regard it as a problem. All of the open courtyards are sheltered from the wind but increasing the space would also create higher wind speeds. Energy / The passive solar heat gain is arguably worse than in model 7. So is the overall energy demand since the surface area has been increased. Spatial Qualities / Compared to model 8 the open blocks create a more extrovert courtyard which would make the outdoor spaces seem larger. The feeling of coherency on the site would still be maintained by the U-shaped blocks. Opening the block to the south also creates a strong connection to the stream.

Daylight Insid siderable sha conditions in however very

Daylight Outs day which se block, on the the course of

Wind Conditio some of the w the courtyard are generally

Energy / The as for model The aerodyna friction betwe result in a sm

Spatial Qualit those of other resemble the building is pe


EL 08

.00 am

cing opearly on the g towards e sun. The

n- and eauring the day. he middle be enhanced ent from the

arginally wever it is n courtyards would also

se than in urface area

ocks create door spaces uld still be ck to the

MODEL 09

21. june 10.00 am

21. sept/march 10.00 am

Velocity m/s 6.5 5.5 4.5 3.5 0.0

Daylight Inside / The southern part of the building casts a considerable shade towards north which might affect the daylight conditions in the northern part of the building. The conditions are however very good for the southern part of the building. Daylight Outside / Then courtyards will not get any sun during the day which severely limits the use of these spaces. Outside the block, on the south, east and west side, the conditions vary over the course of the day but are generally good. Wind Conditions / The shape of the building seems to decrease some of the winds speed on the road towards north and to shelter the courtyards completely. The wind conditions around the block are generally speaking better than those in model 7. Energy / The energy demand for the buildings is roughly the same as for model 7 while the gains from passive solar heat is as well. The aerodynamic shape of the building will most likely create less friction between the buildings facade and the wind and therefore result in a smaller heating demand. Spatial Qualities / Overall, the qualities of this model resemble those of other urban blocks with its introvert courtyards. It does not resemble the context in shape which will be a big part of how the building is perceived.


Urban Villa

MODEL 04

21. june 10.00 am

21. sept/march 10.00 am

Velocity m/s 6.5 5.5 4.5 3.5 0.0

21. june 10.

Velocity m/s 6.5 5.5 4.5 3.5 0.0

Daylight Inside / The first row of southern facades are the only ones fully exposed to sun at all times. The daylight conditions can be considered to be good although there are shadows on both south, west and east facades in the morning and late afternoon. The northern facades are permanently shaded.

Daylight Inside 4 with the impo midday (becau in the morning perhaps for the

Daylight Outside / The large south-facing outdoor spaces are the only ones with optimal sun conditions. The small spaces between the houses are almost entirely shaded due to their small width. The northern part of the site have mostly shaded outdoor spaces.

Daylight Outsi 4 since the nor spaces are still less exposed.

Wind Conditions / The narrow corridor running from west to east in the middle of the site create higher wind speeds than the surroundings. The spaces from north to south are relatively calm.

Wind Conditio in the east-wes remaining do n in model 4, so m

Energy / All apartments appear to have the possibility of passive solar heat gain from south except for a few of the lower apartments in the second row. The seperation of building volumes will result in a much higher energy demand for the complex as a whole. Spatial Qualities / The buildings create a spatially diverse area with a lot of different possibilities and niches. It is very open and inviting and in this respect very connected to the surroundings. However, this also results in more noise pollution and disturbance from the city.

Energy / The o sive solar heat could probably the amount of b negatively.

Spatial Qualiti from the ones d


4

m

s are the only t conditions can dows on both ate afternoon.

MODEL 05

21. june 10.00 am

21. sept/march 10.00 am

Velocity m/s

6.5

5.5

5.5

4.5

4.5

3.5

3.5

0.0

0.0

Daylight Inside / The daylight conditions resemble those of model 4 with the important difference that the best conditions are around midday (because of the offset). The facades are mostly shaded in the morning and afternoon. Overall good conditions except perhaps for the lower, northernmost apartments. Daylight Outside / Seemingly better conditions than in model 4 since the northern spaces also get some sun. The southern spaces are still very exposed to sun while the northern ones are less exposed.

om west to east s than the suratively calm.

Wind Conditions / The wind speeds are like in model 4 highest in the east-west running corridor between the buildings. The remaining do not appear to get as much shelter from the wind as in model 4, so more turbulence can be expected.

y diverse area very open and surroundings. and disturbance

Velocity m/s

6.5

r spaces are the paces between small width. outdoor spaces.

bility of passive ower apartng volumes e complex as a

21. june 10.

Energy / The offset of buildings create better conditions for passive solar heat gain. The differences in wind pressure on the site could probably be utilised for natural ventilation purposes. Again, the amount of building volumes will affect the energy demand negatively. Spatial Qualities / The spatial qualities do not differ considerably from the ones discussed in model 4.

Daylight Ins volumes see particularly b The condition

Daylight Ou double row o ditions from t of the buildin northern spa

Wind Condit corridor effec ct of the anal to create incr highlights the can create a

Energy / Sin two facades facades will h conditions. E

Spatial Qual increased dy each other. T The composi


EL 05

.00 am

MODEL 06

21. june 10.00 am

21. sept/march 10.00 am

Velocity m/s 6.5 5.5 4.5 3.5 0.0

hose of model s are around tly shaded s except

Daylight Inside / The more random placement and angles of volumes seem to decrease the amount of daylight on the facades, particularly because of a reduced distance between the volumes. The conditions at midday are however very good.

in model southern n ones are

Daylight Outside / Like in many of the previous examples the double row of buildings create a very large difference in sun conditions from the northern part of the site to the southern. The offset of the buildings create some possibilities for the sun to reach the northern spaces but not much.

l 4 highest gs. The the wind as

ons for pason the site oses. Again, demand

considerably

Wind Conditions / The angling of the buildings eliminates the corridor effect experienced in model 4 and 5. An interesting aspect of the analyses is that the presence of two parallel walls seem to create increased wind speeds between them. Furthermore it highlights the affect of the surrounding streets since the side roads can create a gust of wind into the site. Energy / Since there are no facades that face directly south, two facades can be utilised for passive solar heat gain - and two facades will have to be protected from the summer sun. The wind conditions. Energy demand will once again be high. Spatial Qualities / The spatial qualities relate particularly to the increased dynamic of the building volumes and their relation to each other. The angling can be adjusted for different purposes. The composition creates a more diverse environment on the site.


APPENDIX 2 - DAYLIGHT VISUALIZATION


APPENDIX 3 - WINDOW STUDIES APPENDIX 3, NO 1 Window 1m width / 2m height

Without shading

1m overhang

DF 3,1 % 2m overhang

DF 2,2 % Vertical lamellos ( 5/10 )

Horizontal lamellos ( 5/10 )

DF 1,7 %

DF 1,3 %

DF 1,3 %


APPENDIX 3, NO 2 Window 1m width / 2m height

Without shading

1m overhang

DF 3,2 %

DF 2,4 %

2m overhang

Vertical lamellos ( 5/10 )

Horizontal lamellos ( 5/10 )

DF 1,8 %

DF 1,4 %

DF 1,3 %


APPENDIX 3, NO 3 Window 2m width / 1m height

2m overhang

DF 2,5 %

Without shading

1m overhang

DF 4,4 %

DF 3,2 %

Vertical lamellos ( 5/10 )

Horizontal lamellos ( 5/10 )

DF 2,1 %

DF 1,9 %


APPENDIX 3, NO 4 Window 1,44m width / 1,44m height

Without shading

1m overhang

DF 3,8 %

DF 2,8 %

2m overhang ( 5/10 )

Vertical lamellos ( 5/10 )

Horizontal lamellos ( 5/10 )

DF 2,1 %

DF 1,8 %

DF 1,5 %


APPENDIX 3, NO 5 Window 3m width / 0,66m height

Without shading

1m overhang

DF 3,8 %

DF 1,6 %

2m overhang

Vertical lamellos ( 5/10 )

Horizontal lamellos ( 5/10 )

DF 1,4 %

DF 1,6 %

DF 1,3 %


APPENDIX 3, NO 6

Window 1m width / 2m height Without shading

1m overhang ( 5/10 )

DF 3 %

DF 2 %

2m overhang ( 5/10 )

Vertical lamellos

Horizontal lamellos

DF 1,9 %

DF 1,2 %

DF 1,2 %


APPENDIX 3, NO 7

Window 1m width / 2m height Without shading

1m overhang

DF 3,2 %

DF 2 %

2m overhang

Vertical lamellos ( 5/10 )

Horizontal lamellos ( 5/10 )

DF 1,8 %

DF 1,4 %

DF 1,4 %


APPENDIX 3, NO 8

Window 2m width / 1m height Without shading

1m overhang

DF 4,7 %

DF 2,9 %

2m overhang

Vertical lamellos ( 5 /10 )

Horizontal lamellos ( 5/10 )

DF 2,5 %

DF 2 %

DF 1,9 %


APPENDIX 3, NO 9

Window 1,44m width / 1,44m height Without shading

1m overhang

DF 3,9 %

DF 2,4 %

2m overhang

Vertical lamellos ( 5/10 )

Horizontal lamellos ( 5/10 )

DF 2 %

DF 1,6 %

DF 1,5 %


APPENDIX 3, NO 10

Window 4m width / 0,66 height

Without shading

1m overhang

DF 5 %

DF 1,2 %

2m overhang

Vertical lamellos ( 5/10 )

Horizontal lamellos ( 5/10 )

DF 1,6 %

DF 1,7 %

DF 1,7 %


APPENDIX 4 - NATURAL VENTILATION CALCULATIONS


Window height 1m / width 2m

Window height 2m / width 1m


Window height 1,44m / width 1,44m

Window height 1,44m / width 1,44m

FINAL VENTILATION FOR THE CRITICAL APARTMENT The natural ventilation is calculated on the critical apartment, to confirm that the windows would be able to supply enough natural ventilation doing the summer months. The calculation are done using the above excel sheets, and the numbers are compared to those calculated for the neccesary amount of airchange done in APPENDIX XX.


APPENDIX 5 - SOLAR PANNELS CALCULATIONS Calculation of the photovoltic panels To reach the status of a NETZEB building, the energy demand of the building, including the user related electricity, needs to be covered by renewable energy production. The necessary amount of photovoltaic panels is calculated, based on both the total energy requirement and total electricity requirement from Be15. The electricity requirement needs to be included in the calculation, taking into account the electricity used for appliances, which is otherwise not included in the total energy requirement from Be15. 1.

36,4 kWh/m2 pr year Electricity used for appliances. Expressed in electrical kWh.

2.

+

20 kWh /m2 pr year / 1,8

=

47,51 kWh/m2 pr year

Total energy demand. Expressed in primary energy. Converted into electrical kWh, by dividing with the primary energy factor for electricity

47,51 kWh/m2 pr year

x

874,6 m2 =

Total heated squaremeters

41536 kWh pr year Total requirement of reneawble electricity

Knowing the neccasary amount of electricity to be covered by the photovoltic panels, it is possible to calculate the size of the area needed. The calculation is based on the following formular.

Annual yield = C x D x E C = (A x B) / 100

3.

A B C D E

= = = = =

Area needed Module efficiency Peak power System efficien-

Annual yield = C x D x E => C = Annual yield / (D x E) C =

41536 kWh pr year / (0,85 x 999 kWh/m) =

48,91 kWpeak

The amount of solar radiation is based on a scenario, where the inclination of the panels i zero degrees, meaning they are placed flat on the roof. The system efficiency is based on a free standing scenario, with a high effective inverter (based on the sheet for calculating solarpanels, handed out in ZEB course, lecture 8) 3.

C = (A x B) / 100

=> A = (C x 100) / B

A = (48,91 kWpeak x 100) / 22,5 = 217,37 m2 By using the most sufficent photovoltaic panels on the market from Sunpower residential, it is possible to a have module efficiency on 22,5 %. (https://us.sunpower.com/homeowners/equinox-home-solar-systems). This results in needing an area of 217,37 m2 to cover the neccesary amount of electricity production.


If the highest amount of solar raditon, where to be used in the calculation, the solar panels would need to have an inclination of 45 degrees towards the south. Thereby rising the amount of solar radiation from 999 kWh/m to 1163 kWh/m. C =

41536 kWh pr year / (0,85 x 1163 kWh/m) =

42 kWpeak

A = (42 kWpeak x 100) / 22,5 = 186,7 m2 This lowers the neccasary area to 186,7 m2. However the area has to be repesented towards south in angle of 45 degrees, which is not possible to utilize with a classic pitched roof. Because the area of the roof towards the south would only be 101 m2 in a symetric scenario.


APPENDIX 6 - BSIM ANALYSIS

Bsim - window analysis on the critical apartment

The windows, and their size, shape, orientation and shading solution, has a huge influence on the indoor environment, as they determine both the amount of solar heat gain, daylight inlet, and air supply possible for natural ventilation. To evaluate the indoor environment with regard to thermal comfort in the critical apartment, different window types are tested in the living room and kitchen, which are both oriented towards the south. The analysis is carried out with the use of Bsim, where nine different dynamic simulations are done, testing three different sizes of windows in each of the two rooms and with two different solutions for solar heat control, external dynamic shading system and a horizontal eave. In the kitchen a one-meter eave is tested and where a two-meter eave is tested in the living room, in both cases the solar shading system has a shading coefficient of 0,5. In all of the analysis the thermal environment is valued on the amount of hours above 27 degrees and 28 degrees, to verify they fulfill the requirements from the building regulations.

Kitchen

Hours 512

500

425

479

600

553

560

Living

249

400

174

102 17 0

44

64

153

167

121

105 29

20

4 0

25

100

30

100

200

191

300

0 Allowed

A1

A2

A3

B1 Hours > 27

B3

C1

C2

C3

Chosen

Hours > 28

Living

597

Hours

B2

515

600

429

437

500

500

400 204

228

244

144

300

81

200 100 4 0

32

45

114

172

213 60

100 25

100

201

286

400

300 200

Hours 600

495

Chosen

0

0 Allowed

A1

A2

A3

B1

Hours > 27

B2

B3

Hours > 28

C1

C2

C3

Chosen

Al


Livingroom

2,5 m2 A1

4,5 m2 B1

6,5 m2 C1

Sha-

Sha-

A2

Sha-

B2 Over-

C2 Over-

A3

Over-

B3

C3

Kitchen

8 m2 A1

11 m2 B1

C1

Sha-

A2

Sha-

B2 Over-

A3

13m2

Sha-

C2 Over-

B3

Over-

C3


APPENDIX 7 - BE15


Sønderbro

Gørtlervej

Hjulmagervej

APPENDIX 8 - PARKING

Bødkervej

Parking on the site

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