Page 1

Nicholas M. Van Berlo


Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City


Fig. 1 - The Hague Rooftop Garden Fig. 2 - Organic Farm

Prepared By:

Nicholas M. Van Berlo

A Thesis Presented to the Master of Architecture Program Kendall College of Art and Design May 2018 I


Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City


Acknowledgments

I would like to first thank the faculty in the Master of Architecture program at Kendall College of Art and Design; Brian Craig, Michael McCulloch Ph.D, Elizabeth Keslacy, and Travis Williams. This thesis would not have been possible without their help and support throughout the development of my proposal. I would also like to express my profound gratitude to my parents for all the love and unconditional support throughout the years. Your continuous encouragement and support inspired me to follow my dreams. Finally, I would like to thank my wife, for keeping me grounded, and pushing me to achieve my goals. Thank you for always believing in me, staying up with me, keeping me awake on allnighters, and making sacrifices so that I could succeed.

II


Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City


Abstract

Traditional agriculture accounts for 915 million acres, equivalent to 40% of the total land in the United States. With an expected population growth of 75 million in the United States by 2050, America would need to add 225 million acres of agricultural land to sustain this growth. Traditional agriculture is not currently sustainable to provide food for our expected population growth, which means new methods of agriculture must be introduced. This thesis focuses on how architecture can help reduce the need for future expansion of farmland, while restoring existing farmland to natural habitats. This thesis proposes a prototypical vertical farm that can be deployed throughout urban centers in the United States, providing food at the point of consumption, resulting in a significantly reduced footprint. The efficiency of vertical farming allows for agricultural production to meet future demands for a growing population, while allowing for existing farmland to be restored to its natural state. We can change the trajectory of agriculture by developing a new building typology, one that encourages the production of food and the interaction of consumers and commodity. The proposed building slopes up from the ground providing solar access for the farming pods, filtering light down into a large public space formed below. This public space is programmed as a flexible environment that can be used for events like harvest festivals, an extension of the weekly markets, indoor play space, etc. Adjacent to the public space multiple retail units are available for long and short term rental opportunities. FARMgr encourages community residents to learn and engage with agriculture and their community as we strive to educate future generations.

III


Urban Agriculture: Cultivating the City


Table of Contents

1.0 │ Introduction 02 2.0 │ People, Program, + Innovative Practice 18 3.0 │ Site 34 4.0 │ Design Proposal 44 5.0 │ Gallery Exhibition 68 6.0 │ Preliminary Research + Design 76 7.0 │ Precedents 114 8.0 │ Bibliography 128

01


02 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City


1.0 │ Introduction 02

1.1 │ History of Urban Agriculture 04 1.2 │ Defining the Problem + Solution 06 1.3 │ Disciplinary Discourse 14 2.0 │ People, Program, + Innovative Practice 18 3.0 │ Site 34 4.0 │ Design Proposal 44 5.0 │ Gallery Exhibition 68 6.0 │ Preliminary Research + Design 76

7.0 │ Precedents 114 8.0 │ Bibliography 128

03


1.1 │ History of Urban Agriculture Urban Agriculture is defined as the cultivation of crops within a city.1 Urban Agriculture is different from urban farming, because it assumes a level of commerce, urban farming is traditionally for personal consumption. Urban farming is a practice that people have been known to use throughout history, from the hanging gardens in Babylon, to the Mayans growing crops within their city walls, approximately 2,000 years ago. In the United States we see examples throughout history with propaganda gardens and war relief gardens. During the World War I, with a shortage of crops for the American people, the government encouraged Liberty Gardens to relieve the stress of food shortage at home. These gardens were small yet effective, encouraging families to grow their own produce. In World War II, the government again encouraged these gardens, but renamed

Fig. 3 - Urban Agriculture Timeline

04 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City

them ‘Victory Gardens’ again in an effort to relieve the stress of food shortages in the nation.2 During World War II, tankers transporting food were targeted, creating shortages in food supply at the front lines so military forces began cultivating food on islands and within their ships through the use of hydroponics.3 In the 1960’s space travel was on the rise, and NASA began experimenting with hydroponics and aeroponics so that they could grow fresh food on the ship. In the 1970’s, the revival of community gardens started resurfacing throughout cities across the United States. These community gardens popped up due to economic issues in each region with community gardens in Chicago and Detroit rapidly


growing. Since the early 2000’s, commercial grade facilities have been developed, in states like Arizona and New Jersey. Aerofarms in New Jersey is currently the largest commercial grade facility, producing over 2 million pounds of food annually through the use of aeroponics. Urban farming within many cities today take advantage of available vacant land. One of the best examples of this is in Detroit, Michigan, a once booming city, has been the victim of blight. This blight has resulted in a great deal of vacant land, and buildings being burned or torn down. As the many of these plots lay vacant, community gardens have begun to pop up. Detroit is home to approximately 1,400 urban gardens, providing jobs for more than 70 urban gardeners, as they sell this

produce to local markets.4 Urban farming which in some cases, is a result from turmoil, like arson, is an active way that the community can begin to rebuild, by greening the neighborhood, providing food locally, and educating the youth. Urban farms throughout history have been a reaction to issues plaguing a neighborhood or shortages of food, however today, urban farming is a growing movement in cities throughout the United States, as they provide food locally, provide jobs, better the environment, create community involvement, and convert vacant land into blossoming farms within urban areas. FARMgr aims to combine the production of crops with the typical conceptual vertical farms we see as spectacles. This combination of building typologies create an atmosphere prime for the education of the general public.

Introduction │ 05


1.2 │ Defining the Problem + Solution Throughout the world agriculture is facing problems with a growing population, growing cities, food waste, and pollution. Cities have become disconnected with nature as they grow, continuing to build on fertile ground that could be used for the production of food. As the cities move onto agricultural land, farms are forced further out from the city, increasing of food miles, which is the distance a product travels from farm to consumption. In our wake, this leaves a small percentage of the world that is untouched by man, as large cities mean more infrastructure and housing. Currently in the world, we have a population of 7.6 billion people, with our estimated population to grow by 2.2 billion people by the year 2050 to 9.8 billion.5 This population growth becomes an issue as it is estimated that the tipping point for agriculture is 10 billion people.

The United States, is currently the third largest country behind China and India, at 325 million people. 80.7% of America’s population lives in urban areas, an area having a population density of 1,000 people per square mile or larger. The United States population is expected to grow by 75 million people by 2050. In the U.S., 95% of our food is produced in rural areas, versus 85% globally. This means that most of our food must be transported to our cities in order to feed this population.6 As one of the leading consumers of goods, the United States imports many of its products. Overall, the United States imports 15% of its food consumption, 50% of its fruits, 20% of its vegetables, and 80% of the seafood consumed.7 This import number increases our food waste, food miles, and our carbon emissions.

Global Population

2018 Population

2050 Estimated Population Growth

2050 Estimated Population

Estimated Tipping Point for Food

Billion

Billion

Billion

Billion

7.6

+2.2

Fig. 4 - Global Population Growth

06 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City

9.8

10


United States Imports

Fig. 5 - United States Imports

United States Population

2018 Population

325

Million

2050 Estimated Population

398+

Overall Food Imports

Fruit Imports

15%

50%

Vegetable Imports

Seafood Imports

20%

80%

Million

Fig. 6 - United States Population Growth

Introduction│ 07


Traditional Farming

Vertical Farming

1500 Miles - Average distance that food travels

Food Miles Urban Farming can provide food locally within 75-100 miles Food Waste

Approximately $118 billion in food waste per year in the United States due to shipping, damage, and imperfections

50% of food reaches market

90% of food reaches market

Water Consumption

7% water used in vertical farming

70% of water used is for agriculture

Fertilizers/Pesticides/Biocides/Herbicides Fertilizers - 21.8 mllion tons in 2014 Pesticides + Herbicides - 300,000 tons

None

Food Production Loss of food in Natural Disasters: flooding, hurricanes, tornadoes, insects, inclement weather

Ability to grow year round Grow almost anything Ability to control the environment

Other BeneďŹ ts Heath The ability to have access to fresh local produce encourages a healthier lifestyle Fig. 7 - Traditional v. Vertical Graphs

Connection with Food Providing people with direct interaction with food and the agricultural industry allows for the education of food related issues

08 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City

Education Creating an environment for the education of all generations allows for the mental stimulation of core educational values


Food Miles + Food Waste Transportation, and ‘Imperfections’ are the leading causes of food waste in the United States. Approximately 50% of the food produced gets wasted annually. Society today, has the impression that their food has to look perfect, so any imperfection means that a product is less likely to sell. Farmers, in turn, wean out any imperfect items. As food gets packaged for transportation, the food packed on the bottom of the truck typically gets bruised and damaged, causing it to be unfit for sale. This forces stores to throw out the damaged goods because they are unlikely to sell. On average in America, we waste enough food to feed about 2 billion people per year, the equivalent of $118 billion.7 Vertical farms can reduce food waste to 10%. Since the transportation of food is significantly reduced, from hyper local cultivation. This in turn reduces the amount of carbon emissions and food miles that it takes from farm-to-table. Land Use Farming in the United States occupies 40% of the available land. This number could be significantly reduced by utilizing vertical farming methods. One acre of vertical farming typically yields the equivalent of 10-20 acres of traditional farming methods, FARMgr aims to substantially increase this number.8 This means that with vertical farming we can produce much more food on less land, providing a more efficient use of our limited resources.

Water Consumption + No Chemicals Vertical Farms not only use less land, but they also use less water. On average farms in throughout the world use 69% of the available freshwater for irrigation. Vertical farming uses a fraction of this number, about 10% of that of traditional farming methods, or 7% of the world’s available freshwater.9 This water can then be filtered and put back into the ground without the need for pesticides, since the plants are in a controlled environment. Health Benefits Most urban areas have limited grocery stores, creating food deserts. These food deserts are generally in inner city low income neighborhoods. Convenience stores and fast food restaurants in-fill where the grocery stores are less abundant, turning a food desert into a food swamp. These areas have more junk food than fresh healthy produce. Inserting farms in these areas provides a new source of sustenance, one that is healthy and encourages people to eat healthier foods. Education Without proper education on where our food comes from, we will continue to waste food that is still good for consumption. Growing food locally within urban boundaries is one of the best ways to educate people on the cultivation of agriculture. Since most cities are distanced from farms, people of all ages don’t know where their food comes from, the work required in the process of cultivation, or how to cultivate food. Providing educational programs within the vertical farm is a good way to educate the general public, and create an awareness for food production, consumption, and waste.

Why Urban Areas? 19.3% of population lives in Rural Areas 80.7% of population lives in Urban Areas

5% of food produced in Urban Acres

95% of food produced in Rural Acres

Fig. 8 - Urban v. Rural Graphs

Introduction │ 09


1 Dot = 100,000 Acres 0

100

Miles

Acres of Farmland: 2012

Fig. 9 - Existing Farmland Map: 2012

Continental US Total Land: 1,900,000,000 Acres Farmland Total: 914,528,000 Acres As of 2012, there were about 2.8 acres of farmland per person in the United States, yet this number is not enough to sustain our society as a whole, requiring that we import many of our goods from other countries.

48%

10 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City


1 Dot = 100,000 Acres 0

100

Miles

Acres of Projected Farmland: 2050

Fig. 10 - Predicted Farmland Map: 2050

Continental US Total Land: 1,900,000,000 Acres Farmland Total: 1,259,528,000 Acres If agriculture continued with the same methods, we would need to add approximately 345 million acres of farmland in the next 30 years to match the rising demand from our growing population. This would deplete more natural habitats and resources like forests and grasslands.

66%

Introduction │ 11


1 Dot = 100,000 Acres 0

100

Miles

Acres of Farmland With the Fig. 11 - Predicted Farmland Map with Vertical Farms: 2050 Incorporation of Vertical Farms: 2050

Continental US Total Land: 1,900,000,000 Acres Farmland Total: 450,000,000 Acres If we could grow food in controlled environments throughout large urban centers, we could provide food for the mass of society without the detriment of natural disasters, importation of food, reduction in food waste, lowered carbon emissions, lowered water use, and an education for the general public on food, agriculture, and its impact on society. This in turn would allow for the reduction in traditional farmland into a more efficient method through vertical farming, with the ability to return farmland to a natural habitat.

24%

12 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City


Metro Area - 200,000+ Population 25 Mile Radius 50 Mile Radius 75 Mile Radius

1 Dot = 100,000 Acres 0

50

Miles

Eastern Midwest Vertical Farm Distribution Phase I: Vertical Farms in Metro Areas - 200,000+

Fig. 12 - Vertical Farm Distribution

Introduction │ 13


1.3 │ Disciplinary Discourse Since the beginning of man, there has always been a need for food. The first source of food was obtained through hunting and gathering, and as the population began to grow and the demand for food exponentially increased, this no longer became a consistent method of providing nutrition for the masses. As mankind evolved a new industry was introduced, that of farming, where people would cultivate their own food. Today we continue to cultivate crops at a much larger scale, more efficient turnaround, with much better technology. However, this method of farming will not be enough to provide food for the expected future population. As stated before, the estimated carrying capacity or tipping point between agriculture and population is 10 billion people. With a current population of 7.6 billion people, and that number only continuing to rise, by 2050 we will draw closer to that number. If nothing were to change we would surpass that tipping point by 2053.

Most vertical farms today, are in conceptual phases, however there are a few, that have made strides to changing the farming methodology. What is missing from the discourse in Despommier’s book is the impact that farming can have on architecture. Most built vertical farms today are either a spectacle or renovated warehouse. What this thesis strives to do is to combine the production of a commercial grade vertical farm with the spectacle of what makes great architecture, creating this new building typology.

This thesis focuses on a new building typology that can provide a solution for growing food for this additional population growth, reducing our reliance on traditional farming methods, and slowly returning farmland into natural habitats. With advances in technology, as a society we are able to grow food in controlled environments, at a much more efficient rate, and with a reduced environmental impact, while educating the general public. This work engages with Dickson Despommier, and his published work, The Vertical Farm. Despommier’s work educates people on the need for new farming methods, and the steps involved in building a vertical farm. As the leading professional in the vertical farming discussion, Despommier states:

Fig. 13 - The Vertical Farm

“The reason why we need vertical farming is that horizontal farming is failing. If current practices don’t change by mid-century, an area bigger than Brazil would need to become farmland just to keep pace with the demand.” 10 -Dickson Despommier

Professor of Microbiology + Public Health at Columbia University

14 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City


The combination of production and spectacle puts this thesis in dialogue with the book, Garden City: Supergreen Buildings, Urban Skyscrapers, and the new Planted Space. Garden City features spectacle buildings and commercial grade farms, discussing not only the conceptual but the built projects that we see throughout the world. Many of these built projects are not specific to the production of food, but include the integration of green roofs, walls, and landscaping within the urban context.

Garden City features different sections dedicated to the analysis of greenery within the urban landscape, while the focus of this thesis is on the fusion between architecture and agriculture. While Garden City address a range of aesthetic planting conditions in architecture, this thesis is focused specifically on agriculture in architecture. Three selected feature projects within the book coincidentally happen to be three of the four precedent projects in which I have chosen to analyze for my thesis projects. Although I read this book after the selection of my precedent projects, this book reaffirms my selection as they provide insight on how the building proposed in this thesis will become not only a spectacle but a productive source of food within the urban realm. Developing this prototype of the productive spectacle for cities throughout America, shows the potential for the urban farm to provide food at a massive scale. Such farms harvest food locally on a significantly smaller plot of land, 3 acres, within a 75 mile radius of the farm, providing sustainably harvested food, and creating an environment for all to enjoy. As technology has advanced, our methods of farming have slowly progressed. What this thesis proposes is an innovative method in which farming can be reintroduced into the urban culture, connecting people with the food that they are consuming.

Fig. 14 - Garden City

By reimagining agriculture within the United States, we can rebuild environments that we have destroyed in the past, protect environments from future farmland expansion, and create new visions for the future.

Introduction │ 15


Spectacle Style Vertical Farm

Fig. 15 - ‘Dragonfly’ Vertical Farm Concept

16 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City


Warehouse Style Vertical Farm

Fig. 16 - Beckons Qatar Vertical Farm

Introduction │ 17


18 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City


1.0 │ Introduction 02

2.0 │ People, Program, + Innovative Practice 18 2.0 │ People 2.1 │ Program 2.2 │ Innovative Farming Practice 2.3 │ Produce 2.4 │ Aquaculture

20 24 28 30 32

3.0 │ Site 34 4.0 │ Design Proposal 44 5.0 │ Gallery Exhibition 68 6.0 │ Preliminary Research + Design 76 7.0 │ Precedents 114 8.0 │ Bibliography 128

19


2.0 │ People Agriculture is one of the most important industries, as most things are derived from agriculture. Not only does everyone eat, thanks to farms spread throughout the world, but things like medicine, clothing and bio-fuels come from agriculture. Bringing agriculture into the urban core allows for the direct connection of people and the food that they are consuming, as well as education on food and the process of its cultivation. Urban agriculture also stimulates industries like science, technology,

and engineering. The people most disconnected with agriculture are those from lower income areas, as they are not exposed to as many opportunities. These areas are then scattered with fast food and convenience stores, providing ‘empty’ food instead of fresh healthy foods. Growing at the point of consumption allows for people to have access to fresh healthy food that is grown locally and more sustainably than traditional agricultural methods. Urban Agriculture encourages:

Community Development, Engagement, + Education Urban Agriculture helps to bring people together. In a commercial aspect it can provide an economic boost, offering educational opportunities and common ground that creates shared goals between communities. Concentrated within the urban core, nearest to the largest percentage of the U.S. population, about 80%, programs that provide opportunities for youth can help to excite their interest in STEM education. A Reduction in Food Miles Cultivating food at the source of consumption means that there is a direct connection with the people consuming the food, as well as reducing the food miles, costs of transportation, and pollution associated with traditional farm-based agriculture methods. Added Greenery, ‘Lung’ for the City, + Reduction in Heat Island Effect Greenery in urban areas is important in reducing carbon dioxide, controlling water runoff, and reducing the heat island effect. This greenery acts as a lung for the city as people work symbiotically with vegetation. Cities commonly are a few degrees warmer than their neighboring rural surroundings, as concrete and asphalt absorb heat, increasing the air temperature, and this in turn makes the citizens turn their air conditioners up, increasing energy consumption. Introducing more green spaces within the city provides breaks in this concrete jungle known as the city. Reduction in Food Waste The main cause of food waste in our society is through the transportation of goods and the idea that foods need to be perfect in their appearance. By growing locally, we can reduce our food waste, by reducing the number of miles from farm-to-table. With better food education, we can remove the idea that vegetables must look perfect. The ‘perfect’ fruit or vegetable is a myth that our society has gotten used to as we expect the best, yet imperfections in foods like produce have no effect on their taste or nutritional value. Healthier Lives Urban agriculture promotes a healthier lifestyle. As more produce is available at the source, people do not have to rely on processed foods as a supplement. Regeneration of Derelict Land Using derelict land as a source of production, urban agriculture can not only cultivate food but the surrounding context through the utilization of once abandoned parcels or structures. More conventional vertical farms rehab old warehouses as an envelope to control the surroundings allowing for the growth of food year round. 20 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City

Fig. 17 - Bosco Verticale “Vertical Forest”


People, Program, + Innovative Practice │ 21


A Day at the Urban Farm Summer Artificial Light

Fluctuation in Consumers

Winter Additional Artificial Light Todd - 4-5pm

Stephanie - 7am-6pm

Jackson - 9am-12pm

Hours of Operation - 8am-8pm

22 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City

Fig. 18 - Day at the Farm


Name: Jackson Roberts Age: 13 years old Interaction: Student/Visitor

“...before visiting FarmGR in Grand Rapids, I never knew that farming could be so cool. Mrs. Miller showed us how they grow food vertically, and let us eat broccoli right off the stalk. Now I can educate my parents on what foods are healthy and what foods we should avoid...” Fig. 19 - Jackson Roberts

Name: Todd Healy Age: 41 years old Interaction: Consumer/Visitor

Fig. 21 - Todd Healy

“...before the FarmGR opened I had to take the bus 25 minutes out into the suburbs to get my groceries, not knowing if they had fresh healthy food. Now I can just ride the Dash for free, 5 minutes to the Downtown Market to get produce, that I know is FRESH and healthy. I used to eat a lot of takeout and fast food, but now that I know where my food is coming from and that is grown right down the street I love eating healthier...” Name: Stephanie Miller Age: 28 years old Occupation: Modern Farmer

“...growing up on a small family farm in Michigan educated me on the importance of food awareness in our current society. I love growing food in the city because it lets us connect with the largest percentage of consumers. As well as educate young people like Jackson on where their food comes from, encouraging them to eat healthier. I am able to inspire people on the importance of agriculture through hands on STEM methods, educating the future innovators of our world...”

Fig. 20 - Stephanie Miller

People, Program, + Innovative Practice │ 23


2.1 │ Program The proposed vertical farm, is a vision beyond just the production of crops, also including the integration of public space. The inclusion of commercial space and a park allows for the public to engage with the production of food. These public spaces include a large flexible gathering space, that can be used for events, one specifically being the harvest festival, which would happen every two months. The public could gather at FARMgr, and enjoy the festival as the crops are harvested within the facility. The included commercial space is available in long and short term opportunities, promoting smaller startup companies, as well as providing a home for existing businesses. The education of the general public on issues relating to food and the production of food, can help to improve lifestyles, consumption of food, and engage the surrounding neighborhoods. This is why within the farm, there are multiple classrooms, labs, and research rooms for the general public to come in and learn about the process of agriculture.

Fig. 22 - Vertical Farm Program Diagram

24 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City

The adjacent program diagrams, were full scale representations of the FARMgr program. The diagram below represents the overall gross square footage of the programmed spaces, like the farming and aquaponics pods, circulation, etc. These spaces were then organized based on overall size in order to understand spatial requirements before arranging them on the site. The diagram to the right breaks down each of these spaces between farming, aquaponic, retail and circulation spaces, as certain programmed spaces will be spread throughout the farm. For example, circulation and facilities must be spread throughout in order to access each pod, while providing egress and other functional requirements. Breaking the program down into individual sections allowed for user control of the arrangement, while providing the ability for the pods to have smaller HVAC zones. This reduces the chance for micro-climate within the pod, as large facilities can begin to create their own climates based on density and humidity levels.


N - 385,200 sf

N - 355,200 sf

N - 385,200 sf

N - 3,0

N - 355,200 sf

N - 355,200 sf

Farm Aquaculture Education Test Kitchen Retail/Restaurant Existing Buildings Facilities Gereral/Circulation

N - 3,0

N - 3,000 sf

N - 3,000 sf

N - 3,000 sf

N - 3,000 sf

N - 3,000 sf

N - 3,000 sf

N - 3,000 sf

N - 3,000 sf

N - 3,000 sf

N - 3,000 sf

N - 3,0

N - 3,000 sf

N - 3,000 sf

N - 3,0

N - 3,000 sf

N - 3,000 sf

N - 3,000 sf

N - 3,000 sf

N - 3,000 sf

N - 3,000 sf

N - 3,0

N - 3,000 sf

N - 3,000 sf

N - 3,0

385,200 sf

385,200 sf 592' - 0"

Site 278' - 0"

rm uaculture ucation st Kitchen tail/Restaurant sting Buildings cilities reral/Circulation

N - 355,200 sf

164,576 sf

Fig. 23 - Vertical Farm Programming Diagram

People, Program, + Innovative Practice │ 25 592' - 0"

N - 3,0

N - 3,0

N - 3,0

N - 3,0

385,2


Fig. 24 - Vertical Farm Program

26 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City

1 4

Retail/Restaurant Restaurant Retail Space

Existing Buildings G.R. Buddhist Temple + Zen Center HappyCat CafĂŠ

1 1 1 1

Test Kitchen Kitchen Refrigeration Dry Storage Eating

280 1 30 1 2 2 2 2 20 1 4 2 2 28

2 2 1 4 2 3 2

Farming Pods Control Room Community Gardens R+D Processing Drying House Germination Nursery Aquaponics Tank Decomtamination Offices Meeting Room Packaging House Storage

Quantity

Education Classrooms Labs Prep Study Rooms Office Testing Farm Storage

Farm

Vertical Farm Program

3,000 1,000

Retail Total

6,548 2,400

Kitchen Total

1,000 200 200 1,000

3,000 1,000

16,148

6,548 9,600

2,400

1,000 200 200 1,000

6,080

Education Total

281,480

224,000 200 6,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 4,000 2,000 16,000 600 480 600 4,000 5,600

1,680 2,240 200 320 240 1,200 200

Farm Total

800 200 200 4,000 3,000 4,000 2,000 1,000 800 600 120 300 2,000 200

Area/Unit (sf) Total Area (sf)

840 1,120 200 80 120 400 100

28' 28' 10' 10' 10' 20'

20'

10'

30' 40' 20' 8' 12' 20'

20'

W (ft)

40'

L (ft)

retail + market

sf

retail + market

sf

sf

sf

spread throughout (food, tools, other)

located near farm 2 medium

growing located near nursery located near loading 140 sf / farming pod (3 species, combine to serve multiple)

combination of 1 + 2 floor height spaces (hops - 18-26 ft tall) climate control for each pod (B.Harris Controls his w/ App) rentable space on roof testing for new methods + produce

Comments


People, Program, + Innovative Practice │ 27

1 4

1 1 1 1 1 1

15.0% 3 2 1 2

General Lobby Staff Loading/Unloading Storage Information Staff Bike Room

Circulation Circulation Space Stairs Elevator (Ped) Elevator (Freight) Equip

Facilities Mechanical 2 Anearobic Diestors 1 Typ. Size 20 Water Filtration 1 Electrical 2 Restrooms Public 4 Individual 6 Family 4 Janitoral 4 Storage 2

Existing Buildings G.R. Buddhist Temple + Zen Center HappyCat CafĂŠ ProperFit Clothing Co. Meteor Ink House de Tatuadora

Restaurant Retail Space

20.0% 20' 10' 12' 10'

20'

Total Building

10' 200 10' 100 12' 144 10' 100 Total Circulation

General Total

20'

385,166

50,090 600 200 144 200 51,234

11,800

8,000 200 2,000 1,000 200 400

8,024

Facilities Total 8,000 200 2,000 1,000 200 400

960 288 256 200 200

12' 8' 8'

20' 6' 8'

1,000 800

4,000 320

8,000

3,000 1,000 2,000 2,000

16,148

6,548 9,600

240 48 64 50 100

4'

4'

2,000 320 16 1,000 400

Retail Total

3,000 1,000 2,000 2,000

Retail Total

6,548 2,400

sf

sf

sf

large open lobby space break room 1-2 stall loading dock adjacent to loading/unloading general information kiosk (within lobby)

sf

room for multiple digestors (excement, waste into biomass)

sf

retail + market

sf

retail + market


2.2 │ Innovative Farming Practice The vertical farm designed in this thesis will use a combination of growing mediums in order to produce its food efficiently and sustainably. Through the use of an aquaponics system, and gravel pumice stones, the ground work will be in place for the plants to grow. Even with these innovative practices in urban agriculture, the plants grown in FARMgr, will require ample sunlight, or artificial light through the use of LED lights on the PAR spectrum.

The colors of red and blue, allow for the plants to grow, emitting a magenta color from the growing pods. The use of innovative techniques allows not only for the production of produce, through a diversity of fruits and vegetables, but fish and shellfish to be introduced into the ecosystem. The natural symbiosis of the plants and the fish allow the recirculation of water, using water more efficiently than hydroponics.

Aquaponics Defined: “Aquaponics is the cultivation of fish and plants together in a constructed, recirculating ecosystem utilizing natural bacterial cycles to convert fish waste to plant nutrients. This is an environmentally friendly, natural food-growing method that harness the best attributes of aquaculture and hydroponics without the need to discard any water or filtrate or add chemical fertilizers.” -Aquaponic Gardening Community11

Fig. 25 - Aquaponics

28 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City


This natural process allows for the input of only two ingredients into the ecosystem. The first input is the fish food, which controls the amount of nutrients supplied to the plants and the cleanliness of the tanks. As you feed the fish more often, generally 3-4 times per day, the fish will produce more excrement which in turn provides more nutrients for the plants. The second input, which is the reason I chose aquaponics over hydroponics, is that in an aquaponics, you only need to add marginal amounts of water, only the amount of water loss due to evaporation. In hydroponics the water has to be removed from the system every 2-4 weeks depending on the quality of the water and the size of the system. This means that hydroponics is

10-20 CF

=

a much more water intensive process as this water will have to be replaced about once a month for fresh clean water.12 The aquaponics system will require a well balanced system in order to maintain the health of the fish and the produce. Without a balanced system, the fish will be living in dirty water, which will eventually lead to their death, which in turn creates a toxic environment for the plants. Therefore, there are technical devices which will monitor the quality of the water and temperature in the tank the growing beds. There are also typical ratios of water to fish and fish to gallons that provide a well balanced ecosystem. The suggested balanced ratio is:13

2:1

=

2-3:1

5-10 Gals of Water

Growing Medium

1 Adult

Fig. 26 - A Well Balanced Aquaculture System

Pumice Stones - Media Based Pumice stones are igneous rocks that are formed from volcanos. They are produced when lava with high concentrations of water and gases are discharged. Pumice stones can be turned into gravel, which is used in materials like aggregate for concrete, or in many hydroponic and aquaponic systems can be used as a growing medium. These stones provide a solid base for the plant or tree to grow, and retain water in the case of a failure in the system. In this case if the system does fail and water is forcibly removed from the system, the pumice stones, with their retained water, will provide enough nutrition for the plants to survive until the water can be replaced into the system. Another benefit of the pumice stones are that they can be recycled, being used for up to seven years as long as they are disinfected after each use to prevent any contamination between grow cycles.14

Fig. 27 - Pumice Stones as a Growing Medium

People, Program, + Innovative Practice │ 29


2.3 │ Produce Although education is highly important, FARMgr still works as a highly productive farm. Cultivating approximately 3 urban acres, the proposed farm produces the equivalent of over 1,100 traditional farming acres. As a prototype this number is able to be scaled according to need. For example, in rural areas the farm could be scaled down for a smaller population but in areas like Chicago, with a large population, the farming pods could be built with higher density to create a large yield in production. Each farming pod is developed as a 20’ x 40’ structure, with 3 pods per row. With an estimated production of about 4 acres per pod, and 280 pods within the whole system. This would equal 1,120 acres of traditional farmland. However, this number does not include the farming done inside the lobby, or the community gardens. There are media-based growing planters spread throughout the building, as well as rooftop community gardens spread throughout the path. The average acre of farmland produces 10,840 pounds per acre.15 With 1,120 acres of cultivated

Vertical Acres Cultivated (3 Acres)

farming pods, the estimated production of produce within the farm would equal over 12.1 million pounds of food. The average American consumes 273 pounds of fruit, and 415 pounds of vegetables per year. These numbers total to 688 pounds of fruits and vegetables per year.16 By dividing 12.1 million pounds of food produced by the 688 pounds of food consumed per person per year, FARMgr would be able to provide produce for about 17,650 people per year through the cultivation of just the farming pods. The vertical farm will feature various types of produce like species of lettuce, kales, chard, chives, basil, hops, and many other species of plants. A large open lobby allows for the cultivation of fruit trees and other larger plants, with the potential for them to be goods that cannot be traditionally grown in Michigan. The idea is that the farm will work as its own ecosystem, providing diversity of fruits, vegetables, and herbs to the in-house restaurant and surrounding markets.

Traditional Acreage Equivalent (1,100+ Acres)

Fig. 28 - Farming Comparison

30 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City


Vertical Farming Tube

Nutrient Film Technique (N.F.T.)

Media-Based

Soilless system producing food in vertical tubes hanging from an armature.

Soilless system producing food in horizontal channels through circulation of water and nutrients through the bare roots of the plant.

Soilless system utilizing rock as a medium for producing food through a flood and drain methodology.

Section

Plan

Elevation

Plan

Elevation

Section

Fig. 29 - Growing Method Details

Fig. 30 - Lettuce

Fig. 31 - Broccoli

Fig. 32 - Basil

Fig. 33 - Hops

People, Program, + Innovative Practice │ 31


3.4 │ Aquaculture As stated before, aquaponics is the cultivation of fish and plants in a combined system, where the two work in a symbiotic manner. The fish require food, oxygen, and water to survive. The food will be provided by a machine dispersal method which is loaded by an employee. These fish need to eat 3-4 times daily depending on the amount of waste required and the season. The oxygen will be provided in two methods, from the plants cleansing the water of the waste as it filters through the growing pods and from air pumps that provide fresh air to the tank. The water will be circulated throughout the whole system, as the fish provide essential nutrients for the plant and the plant provide an essential service for the fish as it cleans the water from the fish waste, keeping clean and non-toxic water quality for the whole system. However, this system must remain in balance for the system to work. This means that the plants that are harvested from the system must be replaced with established sprouts, and that the fish that are harvested from the system also are replaced to provide enough nutrients for the plants. The fish chosen for the aquaponics tank are fish that have successfully been grown in the aquaculture process, as well as they are all freshwater species. The fish I have chosen for the aquaponics tanks are: tilapia, trout, and perch. Tilapia are an obvious choice here, as they are the most successfully grown fish species in aquaculture, as well as one of the most consumed species of fish in the United States. I chose trout, and perch as well, because

32 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City

they are also among the species of fish that are highly consumed in the Midwest, and have shown success in the aquaponics cycle.17 These fish will be dispersed into separate tanks to avoid species like trout from eating smaller species like perch. This separation is also due to the differences in required water temperature and water quality between fish species. However, each of these species require a regulated temperature control, and darker conditions. These species of fish do not like direct or bright light, so proper control of lighting must be maintained. The fish will be harvested based on their time to plate size. For each species of fish this time table is different. As you can see on the adjacent page, species like Tilapia, have a much faster time to plate period, about 9 months till maturity. Perch, typically take longer until maturity, and can range from 9-16 months based on how large you want the fish to grow. Trout, the longest time to plate species in the system, 12-16 months, but provide a high food conversion ratio. Each of these species we chosen as they have all been successfully grown in aquaponics systems, along with two of the three species being local fish species.18 With about 16,000 square feet of aquaculture tanks, at the ideal 5 foot depth, the farm would be able to produce an estimated 200,000 pounds of fish per year. The average American consumes 15.5 pounds of fish per year, providing fresh fish for 12,870 people per year.19


Tilapia Edible Time to Plate Size: Ideal Water Temp:

6 - 9 Months 72° - 86°F

Quality of Water:

Highly Adaptable

Ease of Cultivation:

Easy + Fast

Fig. 34 - Tilapia

Trout Edible Time to Plate Size: Ideal Water Temp: Quality of Water:

12 - 16 Months 56° - 68°F Pristine

Ease of Cultivation: Moderate High Food Conversion Ratio

Fig. 35 - Trout

Perch Edible Time to Plate Size: Ideal Water Temp: Quality of Water: Ease of Cultivation:

9 - 16 Months 70° - 82°F Adaptable Moderate

Fig. 36 - Perch

People, Program, + Innovative Practice │ 33


34 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City


1.0 │ Introduction 02 2.0 │ People, Program, + Innovative Practice 18

3.0 │ Site 34

3.1 │ Site Context 38 3.2 │ Potential Connections 43 4.0 │ Design Proposal 44 5.0 │ Gallery Exhibition 68 6.0 │Preliminary Research + Design 76

7.0 │ Precedents 114 8.0 │ Bibliography 128

35


3.0│ Site Since the proposed building is a prototype for urban areas throughout the United States, there are multiple locations that it is intended to be in. The focus of the first urban farm location is in Grand Rapids, Michigan. FARMgr, has a proposed location on the block between Ionia Avenue and Division Avenue, and McConnell and Logan Streets. This area is centralized in Grand Rapids, Michigan, a few blocks south of downtown. Locating the proposed building in this area provides multiple opportunities for connections through the Dash Line, a free bus line through the Rapid, which provides transportation throughout the downtown area. This location also provides a direct connection with the Downtown Market, providing an established market across the street from the proposed agricultural production facility. The existing site for the past several years has sat as a gravel parking lot until last year, when the owner of the parcels converted them into an asphalt parking lot. Along Division, there are four buildings with about 50% occupancy, that will incorporated into the proposed building.

Fig. 37 - Proposed Site

36 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City


gr FARM mpls ind FARM chi FARM FARM Fig. 38 - FARMgr Logo

Site │ 37


3.1 │ Site Context

Fig. 39 - Grand Rapids Boundary Map

38 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City


Fig. 40 - 1.5 Mile Map

Site │ 39


Site Industrial Fig. 41 - Quarter Mile Map

Religious Residential Transit Park

40 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City


The proposed site consists of 13 parcels, totalling about 165,000 square feet. One issue with the site is that there is an easement on the north side of the site for loading purposes for the Spectrum Industries building. Through proper design I am able to use that as the location for the proposed buildings loading dock. An opportunity on the site is the 22 feet of topography that slopes down from Division to Ionia. Through thoughtful design I was able to create two ground floor plans with a cutout in the middle for a large public gathering space. This topography works to my advantage through the loading dock as well, as it is ideal for the height of loading the trucks. Instead of having to excavate out earth

for a sloped loading dock I am able to utilize the topography to create the height difference between the truck bed and the floor. Several of the surrounding buildings are historical buildings, with the north and south buildings being renovated apartment buildings, built out of brick. The building to the west, the Downtown Market, is the newest of the surrounding buildings, comprised of brick, glass, steel, and wood. Although the surrounding buildings are built of brick, FARMgr is intended to standout from the crowd, as a concrete, glass, and landscaped structure that rises out of the ground featuring the fusion between the public space and production of agriculture.

Fig. 42 - Site Parcel Map

Site │ 41


Fig. 43 - Aerial Southeast Perspective

Fig. 44 - Lower Lot Site Perspective

42 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City

Fig. 45 - Upper Lot Site Perspective


3.2 │ Potential Connections

Fig. 46 - Grand Rapids Downtown Market

The Downtown Market, opened in 2013, is a mixed use facility at 132,000 square feet. This three story building is home to 21 indoor vendors, 2 restaurants, a rooftop greenhouse, and event space. Although, the Downtown Market already features a greenhouse, the proposed thesis could expand this already functioning market, by providing produce, educational space, and office space adjacent to the established Downtown Market. The lofts as previously mentioned were renovated after the development of the downtown market featuring 170 apartments.20 This potential connection to the Downtown Market, could help the proposed building gain traction and become a prototype for vertical farms in the midwest.

Fig. 47 - Grand Rapids Downtown Market

Fig. 48 - Grand Rapids Downtown Market

Fig. 49 - Downtown Market Green Roof

Site │ 43


44 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City


1.0 │ Introduction 02 2.0 │ Innovative Farming Practices 18 3.0 │ Site 34

4.0 │ Design Proposal 44 5.0 │ Gallery Exhibition 68 6.0 │ Preliminary Research + Design 76 7.0 │ Precedents 114 8.0 │ Bibliography 128

45


4.0│ Design Proposal

The proposed building for this thesis, is a prototypical vertical farm that can be deployed throughout urban centers in the United States. The vision is that food grown at these farms is dispersed at the point of consumption, in a hyper local fashion. The efficiency of vertical farming allows for the cultivation of approximately 3 acres of land to produce the equivalent traditional farming yield of an average large farm in the United States. Developing a new building typology that introduces farming, commercial, and a public park allows for the incorporation of the public into the proposed structure.

46 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City


Fig. 50 - FARMgr Icon

Design Proposal │ 47


Existing Context

The existing site consists of a parking lot and 4 commercial buildings, with only about 50% occupancy

Typical Warehouse Building

Typical commercial warehouses and vertical farm retrofits

Fig. 51 - FARMgr Concept Diagrams

Most high production vertical farms are built in existing warehouse units. Whereas most spectacle style farms provide a vertical form. By combining the two forms, creating a stepped terrace building you can provide solar access to each farming pod, while creating an enclosed public space below. Through pushing and pulling of the terraces, you can create a continuous public space, in the form of a new park for the community to engage with the new building. This transformation also provides growing space for community gardens, and rain gardens. Light is filtered through the farming pods down into the public space below. The space below is programmed to be flexible for a number of events, including the harvest festival, an expansion to weekly markets, etc. Commercial space outlines the gather space, through multiple sizes of commercial units, and through long and short term rental opportunities. FARMgr encourages the community residents to learn and engage with agriculture and their community while educating the general public. 48 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City


Vertical Stacking

Vertical high rise towers comprise the typical spectacle concepts for vertical farming

Merging The Two Typologies

Mixture between vertical and horizontal buildings that allow for solar access and rooftop terraces, while creating a large flexible space below

Continuous Loop of Circulation

Sloping the terraces to create a continuous loop of landscaped spaces

Design Proposal │ 49


Southwest Perspective 50 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City


Fig. 52 - Southwest Perspective

Design Proposal │ 51


McConnell

Ionia

Site Plan 52 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City


Division

Logan

Fig. 53 - FARMgr Site Plan

Design Proposal │ 53


4

4

4

4

3

2

1

1 7

7

Upper Ground Level Plan 54 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City


8

5 6

4

3

1

2

1

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7

Fig. 54 - FARMgr Floor Plan

1 Farming Pods 2 Aquaponics Pods 3 Flex Space 4 Commercial Space 5 Cafe 6 Loading Dock 7 Continuous Roof Path 8 Restrooms Design Proposal │ 55


Typical Pod Floor Plan

Typical Pod Section - A 56 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City

Fig. 55 - FARMgr Pod Floor Plan

Fig. 56 - FARMgr Pod Section


5

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2 6 6

Pod Exploded Axonometric

1 Vertical Farming Pods 2 Aquaponics Tanks 3 Transparent ETFE Panels 4 Ethylene Tetrafluoroethylene Continuous Roof Path 5 Glass Guardrail 6 Exterior Enclosure Fig. 57 - Path Exploded Axon

Design Proposal │ 57


2

4

1 4

1

Fig. 58 - Rain Garden Path

2

Rain Garden Path

2

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4 3

1 3

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Fig. 59 - Community Garden Path

Community Garden Path 58 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City


2 6

5 4

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Fig. 60 - Combined Path

Combined Path

Path Typologies 1 Farming Pods 2 Aquaponics Pods 3 Outdoor Gardens 4 Rain Gardens 5 Garden Shed 6 Living Wall

Along the path there are four different variations in design, three of which are depicted in the adjacent images. The different path designs include landscaping paths, community garden paths, entrances, and a restaurant. The landscaped paths are designed for natural vegetation, with native bushes and grasses growing alongside the path as it ascends. The garden paths are located near the stairwells, where there is a wood slat wall underneath that forms a garden shed for the storage of tools and other garden supplies. These gardens are available to community members on a monthly rental rate. Accompanied with the stairwell is a sweeping light well that allows of the integration of the stairway into the building design. This light well provides additional lighting for the plants, while creating more day lighting opportunities in the public space below. Design Proposal │ 59


Continuous Path Perspective 60 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City


Fig. 61 - Continuous Path Perspective

Design Proposal │ 61


West Elevation

South Elevation

62 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City

Fig. 62 - West Elevation


Building Section

Fig. 63 - Building Section

Fig. 64 - Building Section

Design Proposal │ 63


Night Perspective From The Downtown Market 64 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City


The building transforms between day and night. During the day it is an environment that encourages the production of food and the education of the general public. At night, the space transforms into a space illuminated by magenta colored LED lights, through the combination of red and blue lighting. This transformation can provide opportunities for events, music venues, or clubs. The integration of multiple programmed spaces, encourages people throughout the community to visit and engage with FARMgr.

Fig. 65 - Night Perspective From The Downtown Market

Design Proposal │ 65


Interior Perspective 66 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City


Fig. 66 - Interior Perspective

Design Proposal │ 67


68 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City


1.0 │ Introduction 02 2.0 │ People, Program, + Innovative Practice 18 3.0 │ Site 34 4.0 │ Design Proposal 44

5.0 │ Gallery Exhibition 68 6.0 │ Preliminary Research + Design 76 7.0 │ Precedents 114 8.0 │ Bibliography 128

69


5.0 │ Gallery Exhibition

Fig. 67 - Gallery Exhibition

70 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City


Gallery Exhibition │ 71


72 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City


Fig. 68 - Gallery Exhibition Boards

Gallery Exhibition │ 73


Fig. 69 - Gallery Exhibition Models

Fig. 70 - Gallery Exhibition Site Model

74 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City


Gallery Exhibition │ 75


76 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City


1.0 │ Introduction 02 2.0 │ People, Program, + Innovative Practice 18 3.0 │ Site 34 4.0 │ Design Proposal 44 5.0 │ Gallery Exhibition 68

6.0 │ Preliminary Design 76

6.1 │ Push Towards the Final Review 6.2 │ 75% Review 6.3 │ 50% Review 6.4 │ 25% Review 6.5 │ Thesis Prep

80 82 92 104 112

7.0 │ Precedents 114 8.0 │ Bibliography 128

77


6.0 │ Preliminary Design

Fig. 71 - Process Sketches

78 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City


This thesis has taken many different roads and angles as it has progressed from research to the final design. In the end, the design is presented as a cohesive product, with most of the process work hidden in stacks of sketches, prints, and aged digital files. This section covers the various stages of the project from the final review to thesis prep. As you can see by the graphic on this spread, the design process is not a linear one, but a series of layers stacked upon each other working their way towards a final goal. The following pages are a collection of sketches, models, and digital files that I compiled over the course of this proposal, representing thoughts and ideas that have progressed throughout this project.

Preliminary Design │ 79


6' - 9"

21 1/2"

32"

81"

15' - 4"

6.1 │ Push Towards the Final Review

12' - 6" 150"

5"

11' - 8"

5"

9' - 3 1/2"

8' - 4"

Top - Ceiling 11' - 4"

Fig. 72 - Storyboarding the Final Exhibition

80 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City

11 1/2"

4"

Typ. Chair Height

Main Level 0' - 0"


Approaching the 75% review, I developed a digital model of my gallery space to gain an idea of what the exhibition would look like. By developing a full scale model, I was able to create multiple mocks ups of how drawings could be organized. The adjacent image is one of the last stages of development of my storyboarding efforts. This helped to me be able to quickly pin-up the final design saving time on installation and making sure that each drawing fit cohesively. The drawings are generally laid out on a 20” grid, ranging from 20” x 20” to 40” x 60” drawings, each separated by 1” creating depth as they extrude from the wall.

Preliminary Design │ 81 Van Berlo - Gallery Exhibition 1


6.2 │ 75% Review In the weeks between the 50% and 75% reviews, I decided to change my building concept based on feedback from the reviewers. A few of the responses were about how the systems influence the architecture, and putting both systems on display as a singular idea. The new concept is based off of the system of ebb and flow where gravity is used to draw water and gradually trickle the water down through the plants, filtering the water as is gets down to the bottom tank. The 75% Review, for me, it was more about refining my justification, and expressing this new idea, than compiling the final design into a representation of what the final review would look like.

Fig. 73 - 75% Review Boards

82 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City


South Ionia Perspective

Farming Pod Plan

Axon Detail

14

Farming Pod Plan

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Level 7 90' - 0" Level 6.5 82' - 6"

Level 6 75' - 0"

Level 6 75' - 0"

Level 5.5 67' - 6"

Level 5.5 67' - 6"

Level 5 60' - 0"

Level 5 60' - 0"

Level 4.5 52' - 6"

Level 4.5 52' - 6"

Level 4 45' - 0"

Level 4 45' - 0"

Level 3.5 37' - 6"

Level 3.5 37' - 6"

Level 3 30' - 0"

Level 3 30' - 0"

Level 2.5 22' - 6"

Level 2.5 22' - 6"

Level 2 15' - 0"

Level 2 15' - 0"

Level 1.5 7' - 6"

Level 1.5 7' - 6" Level 1 0' - 0"

Farming Pods Section

40’

3

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40’

4/2/2018 9:50:15 AM

4/2/2018 9:51:51 AM

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Level 7 90' - 0" Level 6.5 82' - 6"

Level 1 0' - 0"

Aqua Tanks Section

5

Level 7.5 97' - 6"

Level 7.5 97' - 6"

North Ionia Perspective

West Interior View

Urban Agriculture: Cultivating a City │ 3 of 3

Fig. 74 - Conceptual Model

Preliminary Design │ 83


Fig. 75 - Conceptual Sketches

Continuous Terraced Roof Model The conceptual model represented in the adjacent sketches and images began as an idea that was conceptualized following the 50% review. After a day of conceptualizing this idea, I had sketched it out through drawings, but the vision was not there yet. At this moment I decided to work with a more hands-on approach, by developing a conceptual model that represented the overall form of the project. At this moment, I had stumbled upon a better understanding of the system, and a unique vision of the project. Since this model I have experimented with ways to de-regularize the

Fig. 76 - Continuous Terraced Roof Model

84 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City

uniformity of the project through light wells, pod widths, and structure. The form created becomes a continuous landscaped path that not only fosters the ability for people to transcend the roof, but makes daylight accessible for all pods. Besides just being a landscaped path, the roof also allows for traditional agricultural methods of growing during the warm months, where people can see the cultivation of crops in various ways through the controlled environment with the aquaponics system, aeroponics through hanging plants in the atrium, and traditional methods on the roof.


Fig. 77 - Continuous Terraced Roof Model

Fig. 78 - Conceptual Sketch of Terracing

Preliminary Design │ 85


Fig. 79 - Farming Pod Solid/Void Surfaces

Fig. 80 - Solar Access Sketch

Fig. 81 - Farming Pod Floor Plan

Fig. 82 - Farming Pod Section

86 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City


Landing Pad

Entry

Variation in Width

Bumpout

Fig. 83 - Developing the Terraced Model

Fig. 84 - Farming Pod Axon

Developing the Order of the Farming Pods The continuous terraced model went through a series of sketches before turning into a physical model. The adjacent sketches are some of those drawings that I developed before building the model. At this point of the design process, these sketches were just conceptual, and until the model was built did not form a complete idea. Combining the idea of ebb and flow and utilizing the site’s 22 feet of topography, I was able to use a series of sloping roof tops terraces to create the continuous rooftop path. Lifting the building off the ground on the north side of the site allowed for the formation of a space below, which could be enclosed to allow for commercial public space to occupy the lower environment.

Fig. 85 - Slab Thickness for Trees

Preliminary Design │ 87


Fig. 86 - South Elevation

Fig. 87 - West Elevation

Fig. 88 - Building Prototype Diagrams

88 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City


Fig. 89 - Developing the Terraced Model

Preliminary Design │ 89


Fig. 90 - Southwest Rendering

Fig. 91 - Site Plan

90 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City


The development of the farm proposal was in a very developmental stage at the 75% review, as it was the first time that reviewers had seen the new building design. The new design originated from the conceptual model that I had built following the 50% review. At this stage the vision was beginning to take an interesting shape, however, the site plan, and remaining interior spaces required more definition.

Fig. 92 - Northwest Perspective

Preliminary Design │ 91


6.3 │ 50% Review Ecosystem + Symbiosis Hamzah + Yeang

Dr. Ken Yeang, a principal at Hamzah and Yeang, is an architect and ecologist. He is the worlds leading green skyscraper architect, and he is known for his signature ecoarchitecture, which brings nature into his designs, creating not only buildings but ecosystems. His aim is to create smaller sub-systems that create a better bio-integration with nature and the built environment. His designs utilize walls of plants, photovoltaics, passive design, and subecosystems to create buildings that require minimal external energy.

Mewah Oils Headquarters Location: Date Built:

Malaysia - Port Klang 2005

Spire Edge Location: Date Built:

Manesar, India Under Construction

The Spire Edge development is a 20 story building with a roof top garden, utilizing a continuous landscaped walkway from the ground to the roof. A feature the firm typically utilizes in their designs, this development has already received an award for being India’s first bioclimatic skyscraper. The continuous pedestrian ramp is a landscaped walkway, that provides access to various pods within the building, providing alternate routes for egress, and providing water filtration through the landscaping. This allows for the building to be self-sufficient in water recycling.

The Mewah Oils Headquarters features a continuous interior garden, from the ground floor to the roof garden. This garden is thickly landscaped and includes water features. One of the most intriguing features of the landscaped stair. The continuous garden functions as a lung’ improving the air quality inside the building. The use of passive design provide the building the ability to switch between mixed modes, with the water features providing passive evaporation.

Education + Awareness Gary Comer Youth Center Architect: Landscaping:

John Ronan Architects Hoerr Schaudt Landscape Architects

The Gary Comer Youth Center located in Chicago’s south side provides an environment for youth to gather after school. Built in a neighborhood with minimal safe spaces for children after school, it provides an outlet for activity off of the street. Boasting a flexible gymnasium that can quickly change into an auditorium, the gym is the center of the activity within the building, surrounded by learning spaces, studios, exhibition space. On the third floor additional classrooms and studios overlook an 8,160 square foot roof top garden above the gymnasium. The Garden produces over 1,000 pounds of organic produce each year, working as an educational tool for the neighborhood youth. The garden maximizes two heat sources, ambient heat from the building and solar energy, mixed with soil depth of about one foot, this allows for the garden to produce food year round. The Gary Comer Youth Center has received multiple awards including the 2009 Green Roof Award of Excellence, and the 2010 American Society of Landscape Architects Award. The Youth Center provides safe and educational spaces for youth throughout the community, educating them not only in school but in agriculture and the arts.

Awareness + Interaction Pasona Urban Farm Architect: Location: Use:

Kono Designs Tokyo, Japan Office Space + Urban Garden

The Pasona Urban Farm in Tokyo is home to a recruiting office and urban farm, integrating the farming systems within the lobby and office spaces. The building was originally built in the 1970’s and renovated in 2010. The 9 story 215,000 square foot building features 43,000 square feet of dedicated farming space. These farming areas are of a mixed variety of hydroponic and soil based growing methods, producing over 200 different species of vegetables, fruits, and rice. This food is cultivated in house, and used in the cafeterias, fed to the people working in the office spaces. It is currently the largest farm to table outfit in Japan. The employees are encouraged to be active in growing and harvesting the produce with assistance from specialists. The Pasona Group took a loss in terms of rent-able space by dedicating 20% of the building to farm, but believed this number was offset by the benefits of an urban farm, engagement from the public and the welfare of its employees. Specifically in Japan where agriculture is decaying, the Pasona Building provides a source of education, awareness, and production of agriculture within a densely populated city. To promote this mission, they have developed programs for students to hear from experts, participate in internships, and learn first hand about agriculture. In a hope to cultivate the next generation Pasona aims to promote the cultivation of sustainable food.

Local + Technical Green Collar Farms Founder: Use:

Brian Harris Controlled Environment Agriculture

Brian Harris works in Grand Rapids, MI out of a renovated refrigeration container. Within the 350 sf container, houses what is an urban garden, leafy greens like kale and lettuce, and pak choi, are grown hydroponically. Every 7-8 weeks the harvest yield the equivalent of a traditional, 1.5-2 acre farm. With year round harvests, within this one shipping container, Brian produces substantially more produce that he could in traditional methods, without the use of pesticides, herbicides, biocides, and fertilizers. Not to mention the fact that he used 5% of the water of traditional farming methods, which use 70% of the consumed water annually.

Fig. 93 - 50% Review Boards

Precedents

Using coconut husks as a growing medium for the seeds to germinate, he then places the seedlings in tubes, that are hung from the ceiling of the container vertically, and provides about 16 hours of light for the plants each day. Using LED lights on the PAR spectrum (red and blue), the plants are able to thrive in the controlled environment, supplying greens to local restaurants.

For the 50% Review, my design was similar to the typical commercial style of vertical farming, through the use of renovated warehouses. This created an efficient design for the arrangement of the rectangular pods, but did not offer a lot of excitement for the design. At the review, most 92 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City

Urban Agriculture: Cultivating a City │ 2 of 4

of the feedback was on how the design of the building could respond to the system. At this point the design was highly technical dealing with the pod systems, and arrangement of the growing and aqua spaces to efficiently build out the structure.


Preliminary Design │ 93


Existing Site

Demo Parking + Buildings

Redo Preexisting Topography 94 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City

Fig. 94 - 50% Conceptual Diagrams


Peeling Away The Corners

Proposed Building

50% Review Conceptual Diagrams The design of the building at the 50% Review, as stated before was of a more efficient manner, as well as a diagrammatic design. The overall building was a rectangle, creating commercial space, and a park in the remaining space. The idea behind the park was that there is generally not enough green space in urban areas. By combining a building full of produce through vegetables and fruits, and a green space for the public, you can provide space for gathering, education, and commerce. The idea that stuck out for me, was during the winter, there would be a wonderful contrast of white and green between the production of food and the snow, that one does not normally get to experience. Preliminary Design │ 95


6"

6"

10' - 0"

6"

6"

Fig. 95 - Vertical Tube Details

96 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City

0'

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Vertical Growing System


Fig. 96 - Farming + Aquaponics Pods Modularity

12’

12’

24’

40

20’

Fig. 97 - Pod Arrangment

20’

Preliminary Design │ 97


Series

Brooding / Spawning / Nursery / Fattening / Stocking Tanks Fig. 98 - Aquaponics Arrangement

Fig. 99 - Aquaponics Arrangement

98 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City

Parallel


Fig. 100 -

Farming + Aquaponics Pods Arrangement

Fig. 101 -

Aquaponics Arrangement

Aquaponics Tank Design Following the 25% Review, I spent a couple of days focusing on aquaponics tanks, and existing methods of fish farming. Of the existing indoor tank designs, there are four that are the most successful and widely used: these include rectangular, square, circular, and triangular. Each with their own benefit. I chose a rectangular-style tank, because wall dikes can be shared, reducing the tanks’ overall build cost anywhere from 25-50%, and the style provides more efficient use of space by sharing walls and locating tanks directly adjacent to one another. The rectangle is the most widely used

tank, the suggested style to be used for systems over 400 cubic meter. The rectangular tank style also fits best with the current design of the farming pods creating a uniformity between farming and aquaculture. There needs to be a slope at the bottom of the tanks in order to allow for waste to gravitate downwards, and be pushed towards a drain that flows to the farming pods. Other considerations are the depth of the tank, with the ideal depth being about 5’ deep. Preliminary Design │ 99


Fig. 102 -

50% Review Perspective

Fig. 103 -

50% Review Site Plan

100 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City


Fig. 104 -

50% Review Perspective

Fig. 105 -

50% Review Perspective

Preliminary Design │ 101


Traditional Farming Fig. 106 -

Rethinking Farming Diagram

Fig. 107 -

Early Conceptual Sketches

Poetic Conceptualization The work up to the 50% review, was a done through a lot of sketching, with most options being conceptual. The adjacent sketches were done in more of a poetic manner, as the idea of rethinking traditional farming, turns the growing surface vertically. In the transition of that rotation, there were moments that I drew more conceptual sketches, based on that movement, combining the idea of rotation and that of a cross section of a plant to create forms for design. Another idea running through my head was that of peeling away the layers of industry, in that sense, the design was that the pods would be placed at ground level, with the enclosure becoming a grass roof, that literally looks as if it were peeling up from the ground revealing the new farming methods. 102 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City

Rethinking Farming

Vertical Farming


Fig. 108 -

Conceptual Building Visionary Section

Fig. 109 -

Conceptual Building Visionary Plan

Fig. 110 -

Conceptual Building Enlarged Section

Preliminary Design │ 103


6.4 │ 25% Review At the 25% Review ideas were very conceptual, mostly as massing studies. I was trying to define what the project was going to be. The basis of efficiency, population growth, and other additional benefits were prominent in the reasoning of the project, but the design was more of a conceptual mass at this point, with smaller scale moments trying to be developed. These smaller moments were the pod design, what it was going to look like, how it was going to be arrayed, and how the system would work.

History

History

Hamzah + Ye

Dr. Ken Yeang, a principal at Hamzah and Y leading green skyscraper architect, and he is nature into his designs, creating not only build systems that create a better bio-integration w walls of plants, photovoltaics, passive design minimal external energy.

- The a cultivation of crops within a city, and it assumes a level of commerce Urban Agriculture - The cultivation of crops withinUrban a city,Agriculture and it assumes level of commerce Hanging Gardens in Babylon - 600-500 BCE

Hanging Gardens in Babylon - 600-500 BCE

- Grew crops within city walls over 2,000 years ago Mayans - Grew crops within city walls over 2,000 Mayans years ago Aztecs - Floating Gardens - 1300 - 1500’s

Aztecs - Floating Gardens - 1300 - 1500’s

Mewah Oils Headquarters Location: Malaysia - Port Klang Date Built: 2005

United States - Propaganda Gardens United States - Propaganda Gardens

citizens to grow crops in themselves during the war in order to relieve food Government encouraged citizens to grow crops Government in themselvesencouraged during the war in order to relieve food shortages in the United States shortages in the United States

The Mewah Oils Headquarters features a continuous interior garden, from the ground floor to the roof garden. This garden is thickly landscaped and includes water features. One of the most intriguing features of the landscaped stair. The continuous garden functions as a ‘lung’ improving the air quality inside the building. The use of passive design provide the building the ability to switch between mixed-modes, with the water features providing passive evaporation.

World War I “Liberty Gardens” “Liberty Gardens” World War II - “Victory Gardens” “Victory Gardens” Hydroponics in Pacific Hydroponics in Pacific War Relief Hydroponics to provide fresh produce near war effort Hydroponics to provide fresh produce near- war effort

World War I World War II War Relief -

NASA

NASA

Experimenting + Growing Produce in Space

Experimenting + Growing Produce in Space

Community Gardens

Community Gardens

Commercial Outfits

Commercial Outfits

Debate

Debate

Population Growth

Gary Comer Y

Population Growth

19.3% of Populations lives in Rural Areas

The farming portion of the pod was progressing well but the aquaponics system was not as developed at this point. Working at the small scale of the tubes I was able to develop an initial overall pod design. Through a series of 20’ x 40’ pods, working from the parameters of the vertical tubes and circulation I was able to replicate the farming pod easily throughout multiple designs allowing myself to conceptually work through multiple ideas.

Architect: Landscaping:

5% of Food Produced in Urban Areas

2017 World Population - 7.6 Billion

2017 World 2050 Population World Population - 7.6 Billion(Estimate) - 9.8 Billion

Food Waste

John Ronan Architects Hoerr Schaudt Landscape Arc 5% of Food Produced in Urban Areas

The Gary Comer Youth Center located in Chic for youth to gather after school. Built in a ne children after school, it provides an outlet for gymnasium that can quickly change into an activity within the building, surrounded by lea the third floor additional classrooms and stud garden above the gymnasium.

19.3% of Populations lives in Rural Areas

2050 World Population (Estimate) - 9.8 Billion 80.7% of Population lives in Urban areas

Food Waste

80.7% of Population 95% of Food Produced lives in Urban areas in Rural Areas

95% of Food Produced in Rural Areas

Imperfections Imperfections Packaging + Transportation Packaging + Transportation America on average wastes enough food to feed America about 2 onbillion average people wastes per year enough food to feed about 2 billion people per year Value of 118 Billion Value of 118 Billion

United States in Food Production Americans Urban v. Rural Areas

Americans in Urban v. Rural Areas (urban areas 1,000+ people/square mile)

Food Miles

(urban areas 1,000+ people/square mile)

Food Miles

United States Food Production

Water Consumption

Water Consumption

Typically Food Travels 1,500 miles on average from Typically farm toFood tableTravels 1,500 miles on average from farm to table 50% of food reaches market

Results in a

50% of food significant amount of reaches market

carbon emissions Results in a significant amount of carbon emissions

Fertilizers + Pesticides

Fertilizers + Pesticides

Traditional Farming Methods pump fertilizers into the Traditional groundFarming in order Methods to grow pump fertilizers into the ground in order to grow 70% of freshwater used for agriculture - due to the over-farming of farm land - due to the over-farming of farm land

70% of freshwater used for agriculture

Pesticides sprayed over plants to prevent crop loss Pesticides from insects sprayed over plants to prevent crop loss from insects Changes the surrounding ecosystem, pH levels ofChanges surrounding the surrounding hydrology ecosystem, pH levels of surrounding hydrology Traditional Farming Produce That Makes it to Market

Traditional Farming Produce That Makes it to Market

Natural Disasters

Natural Disasters

Benefits

Benefits

Traditional Farming Water Usage

Crop loss due to natural disasters: flooding, hurricanes, Crop loss tornadoes, due to natural bad weather disasters: flooding, hurricanes, tornadoes, bad weather

Land Use

Traditional Farming Water Usage

Food That Reaches Market Food That Water Reaches Consumption Market

Land Use

Traditional Farming uses 37% of the available land Traditional Farming uses 37% of the available land

90% of food reaches market

90% of food 7% of freshwater reaches+/market used for agriculture

98% live elsewhere

98% live elsewhere

Vertical Farming Produce That Makes it to Market

Vertical

v.

1 acre

Vertical Traditional 110acre - 20 acres

Local

v.

Traditional 10 - 20 acres

Vertical Farming Produce Vertical Farming Water Usage That Makes it to Market

Pasona Urban Water Consumption

Architect: Kono Designs Location: Tokyo, Japan Use: Office Space + Urban Garden

The Pasona Urban Farm in Tokyo is home to a urban farm, integrating the farming systems w office spaces. The building was originally bu renovated in 2010. The 9 story 215,000 square f 43,000 square feet of dedicated farming sp areas are of a mixed+/-variety of hydroponic an 7% of freshwater for agriculture methods, producingused over 200 different species and rice. This food is cultivated in house, and u fed to the people working in the office spac largest farm to table outfit in Japan. The employ to be active in growing and harvesting the pro from specialists.

The Pasona Group took a loss in terms of dedicating 20% of the building to farm, but b was offset by the benefits of an urban farm Vertical Farming Water Usage the public and the welfare of its employees. where agriculture is decaying, the Pasona source of education, awareness, and produ within a densely populated city. To promote th developed programs for students to hear from in internships, and learn first hand about ag to cultivate the next generation Pasona a cultivation of sustainable food.

No Fertilizers / Herbicides / Pesticides No Fertilizers / Biocides / Herbicides / Pesticides / Biocides

Local

Grow Year Round / Grow Almost GrowAnything Year Round / Grow Almost Anything

Local theCenters point of consumption, specifically in Urban City Centers Environment Provide Local Food at the point of consumption,Provide specifically in Food UrbanatCity Controlled Environment Agriculture allows for Controlled optimal control of the Agriculture allows for optimal control of the interior environment based on each plants optimal environment interior environment based on each plants optimal environment

Education

Education

Connection with food they eat

Connection with food they eat

Where Food Comes From

Where Food Comes From

How to cultivate food

How to cultivate food

Health Benefits

Health Benefits

Main Level Floor Typical Floor Plan Ceiling Providing ample fresh local produce aided with the education of different Providing ample fresh local produce aided with the education of different typesWith of food encourages people to eat healthier. With fast food and types of food encourages people to eat healthier. fast food and junk food readily available in lower income neighborhoods, providing junk food readily available in lower income neighborhoods, providing food at the source of local consumption promotes a healthier lifestyle. food at the source of local consumption promotes a healthier lifestyle.

The Plantagon

Implementation Implementation

Designer: Plantagon + Sweco Location: Linkoping, Sweden Use: Vertical Farm/Greenhouse Exhibitio

The Plantagon, a ‘Plantscraper’, is named af is founders, Plantagon, a Swedish-Americ Company. The building which was origina intended to be a vertical garden in a geode dome, below, based off the companies conce of ‘AgriTechTure’ which is the combination agriculture, technology, and architecture.

Above

Above Within

Between

Fig. 111 -

FARMgr Branding

104 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City

Between

Facade Site

Below

Site

Below Traditional

Traditional

Green Collar

Founder: Brian Harris Use: Controlled Environment Agriculture

Brian Harris works in Grand Rapids, MI out of a re refrigeration container. Within the 350 sf c houses what is an urban garden, leafy greens and lettuce, and pak choi, are grown hydrop Every 7-8 weeks the harvest yield the equiva traditional, 1.5-2 acre farm. With year round within this one shipping container, Brian p substantially more produce that he could in tr methods, without the use of pesticides, he biocides, and fertilizers. Not to mention the fac used 5% of the water of traditional farming m which use 70% of the consumed water annua

10-20 CF

Background

gr FARM

Within Facade

Plantagon Version 1 has transformed from t geodesic dome into a tower, evolving from specifically a vertical farm into a structure th features office space, a restaurant, and t spectacle of vertical farming. Currently the pl is to use the plant waste and human excreme to create biogas, which will generate heating the building.

10-20 CF

= 2:1

.25d

Seed Day - 1

.75d

Testing Day - 1

Fig. 112 -

6-7d

Germination Day - 1

Seed Day - 1

1d

Testing Transfer to Germination Pods Growth Day - 1 Day - 8 Day - 1 Day - 9

= = 2-3:1

5-10 Gals of Water

Growing Medium

Using coconut husks as a growing medium for t to germinate, he then places the seedlings in tu are hung from the ceiling of the container v and provides about 16 hours of light for th each day. Using LED lights on the PAR spect and blue), the plants are able to thrive in the c environment, supplying greens to local restau

2:1

=

2-3:1

1 Adult 5-10 Gals of Water

1 Adult

Growing Medium

6w

Transfer to Pods Day - 8

.25-1d

Growth Day - 9

Harvest Day - 51

6w

Market Day - 51/52

Urban Agriculture: Cultivating a City │ 1 of 4

25% Review Design Boards

.25-1d

Harvest Day - 51

Market Day - 51/52

Urban Agriculture: Cultivating a City │ 1 of 4


Hamzah + Yeang

Spire Edge

Dr. Ken Yeang, a principal at Hamzah and Yeang, is an architect and ecologist. He is the worlds leading green skyscraper architect, and he is known for his signature ecoarchitecture, which brings Location: Manesar, India nature into his designs, creating not only buildings but ecosystems. His aim is to create smaller subDate Built: Under Construction systems that create a better bio-integration with nature and the built environment. His designs utilize walls of plants, photovoltaics, passive design, and sub-ecosystems to create buildings that require The Spire Edge development is a 20 story building minimal external energy. with a roof top garden, utilizing a continuous landscaped walkway from the ground to the roof. This is a feature the design firm Hamzah + Location: Malaysia - Port Klang Yeang typically use throughout their designs. The Date Built: 2005 development is intended to be commercial and office space, and has already received an award The Mewah Oils Headquarters features a for being India’s first bio-climatic skyscraper. continuous interior garden, from the ground floor to the roof garden. This garden is thickly The continuous pedestrian ramp is a landscaped landscaped and includes water features. walkway, that provides access to various pods One of the most intriguing features of the within the building, provides alternate routes landscaped stair. The continuous garden for egress, and provides water filtration, as functions as a ‘lung’ improving the air quality the landscaping filters the water down to the inside the building. The use of passive design basement. This allows for the building to be selfprovide the building the ability to switch sufficient in water recycling. between mixed-modes, with the water features providing passive evaporation.

Mewah Oils Headquarters

Gary Comer Youth Center Architect: Landscaping:

John Ronan Architects Hoerr Schaudt Landscape Architects

The Gary Comer Youth Center located in Chicago’s south side provides an environment for youth to gather after school. Built in a neighborhood with minimal safe spaces for children after school, it provides an outlet for activity off of the street. Boasting a flexible gymnasium that can quickly change into an auditorium, the gym is the center of the activity within the building, surrounded by learning spaces, studios, exhibition space. On the third floor additional classrooms and studios overlook an 8,160 square foot roof top garden above the gymnasium.

Producing over 1,000 pounds of organic produce each year, working as an educational tool for the neighborhood youth. The garden maximizes two heat sources, ambient heat from the building and solar energy, mixed with soil depth of about one foot, this allows for the garden to produce food year round. The Gary Comer Youth Center has received multiple awards including the 2009 Green Roof Award of Excellence, and the 2010 American Society of Landscape Architects Award. The Youth Center provides safe and educational spaces for youth throughout the community, educating them not only in school but in agriculture and the arts.

Pasona Urban Farm Architect: Kono Designs Location: Tokyo, Japan Use: Office Space + Urban Garden The Pasona Urban Farm in Tokyo is home to a recruiting office and urban farm, integrating the farming systems within the lobby and office spaces. The building was originally built in the 1970’s and renovated in 2010. The 9 story 215,000 square foot building features 43,000 square feet of dedicated farming space. These farming areas are of a mixed variety of hydroponic and soil based growing methods, producing over 200 different species of vegetables, fruits, and rice. This food is cultivated in house, and used in the cafeterias, fed to the people working in the office spaces. It is currently the largest farm to table outfit in Japan. The employees are encouraged to be active in growing and harvesting the produce with assistance from specialists. The Pasona Group took a loss in terms of rent-able space by dedicating 20% of the building to farm, but believed this number was offset by the benefits of an urban farm, engagement from the public and the welfare of its employees. Specifically in Japan where agriculture is decaying, the Pasona Building provides a source of education, awareness, and production of agriculture within a densely populated city. To promote this mission, they have developed programs for students to hear from experts, participate in internships, and learn first hand about agriculture. In a hope to cultivate the next generation Pasona aims to promote the cultivation of sustainable food.

Main Level Floor Ceiling

Typical Floor Plan

The Plantagon Designer: Plantagon + Sweco Location: Linkoping, Sweden Use: Vertical Farm/Greenhouse Exhibition The Plantagon, a ‘Plantscraper’, is named after is founders, Plantagon, a Swedish-American Company. The building which was originally intended to be a vertical garden in a geodesic dome, below, based off the companies concept of ‘AgriTechTure’ which is the combination of agriculture, technology, and architecture. Plantagon Version 1 has transformed from the geodesic dome into a tower, evolving from a specifically a vertical farm into a structure that features office space, a restaurant, and the spectacle of vertical farming. Currently the plan is to use the plant waste and human excrement to create biogas, which will generate heating for the building.

Green Collar Farms Founder: Brian Harris Use: Controlled Environment Agriculture Brian Harris works in Grand Rapids, MI out of a renovated refrigeration container. Within the 350 sf container, houses what is an urban garden, leafy greens like kale and lettuce, and pak choi, are grown hydroponically. Every 7-8 weeks the harvest yield the equivalent of a traditional, 1.5-2 acre farm. With year round harvests, within this one shipping container, Brian produces substantially more produce that he could in traditional methods, without the use of pesticides, herbicides, biocides, and fertilizers. Not to mention the fact that he used 5% of the water of traditional farming methods, which use 70% of the consumed water annually.

Precedents

Using coconut husks as a growing medium for the seeds to germinate, he then places the seedlings in tubes, that are hung from the ceiling of the container vertically, and provides about 16 hours of light for the plants each day. Using LED lights on the PAR spectrum (red and blue), the plants are able to thrive in the controlled environment, supplying greens to local restaurants.

Urban Agriculture: Cultivating a City │ 2 of 4

Preliminary Design │ 105


Fig. 113 -

Solar Study Diagram

Fig. 114 -

Conceptual Massing

106 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City


Preliminary Design │ 107


Vertical Farm Program Farm Farming Pods Control Room Community Gardens R+D Processing Drying House Germination Nursery Aquaponics Tank Decomtamination Offices Meeting Room Packaging House Storage

Quantity

L (ft)

W (ft)

40 1 20 1 4 2 1 1 6 1 4 2 1 8

40'

20'

10'

20'

Area/Unit (sf) Total Area (sf) 800 200 200 4,000 3,000 4,000 2,000 1,000 1,000 600 120 300 2,000 200

Farm Total Education Classrooms Labs Prep Study Rooms Office Testing Farm Storage

Test Kitchen Kitchen Refrigeration Dry Storage Eating

2 2 1 4 2 3 2

30' 40' 20' 8' 12' 20'

28' 28' 10' 10' 10' 20'

4 6 4 4 2

1,000 200 200 1,000

1,000 200 200 1,000

4'

20' 6' 8'

12' 8' 8'

1 1 1 1 1 1

20'

20'

15.0% 3 1 1 2

20.0% 20' 10' 10' 10'

10' 10' 10' 10'

spread throughout (food, tools, other)

sf

8,000

retail + market

8,000

sf

2,000 320 16 1,000 400

4,000 320

room for multiple digestors (excement, waste into biomass)

240 48 64 50 100

960 288 256 200 200

3,000 200 1,000 1,000 200 400

General Total Circulation Circulation Space Stairs Elevator (Ped) Elevator (Freight) Equip

located near farm 2 medium

sf

1,000

4'

growing located near nursery located near loading 3 different fish species

2,400

Facilities Total General Lobby Staff Loading/Unloading Storage Information Staff Bike Room

sf

6,080

8

2 1 20 1 2

74,480

Education Total

Retail Total Facilities Mechanical Anearobic Diestors Typ. Size Water Filtration Electrical Restrooms Public Individual Family Janitoral Storage

combination of 1 + 2 floor height spaces (hops - 18-26 ft tall) climate control for each pod (B.Harris Controls his w/ App) rentable? testing for new methods + produce

1,680 2,240 200 320 240 1,200 200

Kitchen Total Retail Retail Space

32,000 200 4,000 4,000 12,000 8,000 2,000 1,000 6,000 600 480 600 2,000 1,600

840 1,120 200 80 120 400 100

1 1 1 1

Comments

200 100 100 100

Total Circulation Total Building

1,000 800

8,024

sf

3,000 200 1,000 1,000 200 400

large open lobby space break room 1-2 stall loading dock adjacent to loading/unloading general information kiosk (within lobby)

5,800

sf

15,718 600 100 100 200 16,718

sf

121,502

sf

108 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City

Fig. 115 -

Initial Programming


60' - 0" 20' - 0" 4' - 0"

1' - 0"

4' - 0"

1' - 0"

20' - 0" 4' - 0"

1' - 0"

4' - 0"

6"

6"

4' - 0"

1' - 0"

4' - 0"

1' - 0"

20' - 0" 4' - 0"

1' - 0"

4' - 0"

1' - 0"

4' - 0"

1' - 0"

4' - 0"

1' - 0"

40' - 0"

6"

4' - 0"

30' - 0"

5' - 6"

6"

Fig. 116 -

Initial Tube System Sketches

60' - 0" 20' - 0" 4' - 0"

1' - 0"

4' - 0"

1' - 0"

20' - 0" 4' - 0"

1' - 0"

4' - 0"

1' - 0"

4' - 0"

1' - 0"

4' - 0"

1' - 0"

20' - 0" 4' - 0"

1' - 0"

4' - 0"

1' - 0"

4' - 0"

1' - 0"

4' - 0"

1' - 0"

4' - 0"

1' - 0"

4' - 0"

6"

40' - 0"

6"

4' - 0"

30' - 0"

5' - 6"

6"

Fig. 117 -

Pod Floor Plan Design

Preliminary Design │ 109

4' - 0"

1' - 0"


Aquaponics System Following my interview with Brian Harris, a local urban farming entrepreneur, owner of Green Collar Farms, I developed a series of sketches on the farming system. Similar to what Brian uses, a vertical tube, out of 4x4 pvc deck post sleeves, you have a channel that can be filled with a porous mesh that allows for water to be filtered down around the plants. This mesh is also a substrate that holds the growing medium until the plant is established. This series of sketches shows the details of the tube, along with typical layouts for worker access, incorporating the lighting as shown in red and blue. This system allowed for the modularity of the pod to be in 1’ increments, as a 4” x 4” tube would be able to easily arrayed 3 times within the 1’, quickly adding up volume of produce, considering these units can range in height. In Brian’s growing container, the tubes are around 8’ tall, with plants spaces accordingly, for leafy lettuces heads are typically spaced around 6” apart, but for smaller plants like herbs they can be spaced as close as 4” on center. With the ability to have one and two story space pods, that allows for the growth of a variety of produce, the taller pods allowing for plants like hops to grow indoors, since they can grow up to 18-20 feet tall.

Fig. 118 -

Initial System Sketches

110 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City


Preliminary Design │ 111


6.5 │ Thesis Prep What can be Grown?

Current Agriculture in Michigan

In a controlled environment like a vertical farm you have the option to grow almost anything. Although not everything is as efficient to grow indoors, many plants can be efficiently grown within the confinement of a vertical farm. Most plants can also be grown with an aquaponics system, which is the symbiotic relationship of fish and plants. Some of these plants include:21

While trying to decide what to grow, I chose to research what we already grow successfully in the area in order obtain a better understanding of the agriculture in Michigan. By researching what we already grow, this could allow for the reduction of highly successful foods in the vertical farm, utilizing the space for foods that are not as abundant around the region. Some of the foods that Michigan’s agricultural economy relies on are:

Lettuces + Other Leafy Greens Coffee Basil Oregano Mint Strawberries Radishes Sage Flowers Collard Greens Kale Tomatoes Thyme Chives Rosemary Arugula Green Beans Peas Soy Beans Berries Peppers Onions Potatoes Cucumbers Zucchini Watermelons Rice Hops Broccoli Carrots Celery Asparagus Squash Cauliflower Bananas Beets Pomegranates etc.

112 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City

Produce

National Rank

Cherries 2nd Blueberries 1st (1/3 of national supply) Apples Top 5 Asparagus 3rd Cabbage Carrots 2nd Celery Chestnuts Cranberries Cucumbers 1st Grapes 4th Various Herbs Mint Onions Potatoes MI Leading Commodity Soy Beans MI Top Export Corn Tomatoes Hops 4th Beans Pumpkins Squash Maple Syrup 7th Floriculture 3rd Honey 7th Christmas Trees 3rd

The adjacent sketches were initial studies of systems that could be utilized for the growing within the farm. Although soil based farming is not a vertical farming technique, at the base of the building, I had wanted to grow things in planters scattered throughout the lower floor, exposing visitors to multiple methods of agriculture.


Fig. 119 -

Aquaponics System Detail

Fig. 120 -

Hydroponics System Detail

Fig. 121 -

Soil-Based System Detail

Preliminary Design │ 113


114 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City


1.0 │ Introduction 02 2.0 │ People, Program, + Innovative Practice 18 3.0 │ Site 34 4.0 │ Design Proposal 44 5.0 │ Gallery Exhibition 68 6.0 │ Preliminary Research + Design 76

7.0 │ Precedents 114

7.1 │ Hamzah + Yeang 7.2 │ Gary Comer Youth Center 7.3 │ Pasona Urban Farm 7.4 │ Green Collar Farms 7.5 │ Precedent Design Principles

118 120 122 124 126

8.0 │ Bibliography 128

115


7.0 │ Precedents

The precedents chosen for my thesis exhibit a technical knowledge of urban agriculture, but also provide cultural significance within the urban core. Creating a connections with nature and agriculture for people within the city provides educational opportunities for people to learn about the surrounding natural ecosystem. Promoting greater public understanding of how agriculture within the city can benefit people and ecology helps to eliminate issues related to food, heat island effect, and water drainage. This understanding of agriculture can also stimulate educational core foundations of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. As technology advances, our methods of growing need to change to become more efficient. New methods should also establish closer connections between people and the food they are eating, while promoting the education of future generations of consumers.

116 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City


Hamzah + Yeang Malaysia + India

Building as Ecosystem

Gary Comer Youth Center Chicago, IL

Education

Pasona Urban Farm Tokyo, Japan

Social Interaction + Awareness

Green Collar Farms Grand Rapids, MI

Technical + Implementation

Precedents │ 117


7.1 │ Hamzah + Yeang Dr. Ken Yeang, a principal at Hamzah and Yeang, is an architect and ecologist. He is the world’ s leading green skyscraper architect, and he is known for his signature ecoarchitecture, which brings nature into his designs, creating not only buildings but ecosystems. His aim is to create smaller sub-systems

that create a better bio-integration with nature and the built environment. His designs utilize walls of plants, photovoltaics, passive design, and subecosystems to create buildings that require minimal external energy.22

“...One of the 50 people that could save the world.”23

-The Guardian Newspaper

Mewah Oils Headquarters Malaysia - Port Klang Location: Date Built: 2005 The Mewah Oils Headquarters features a continuous interior garden, from the ground floor to the roof garden. This garden is thickly landscaped and includes water features. One of the most intriguing features of the landscaped stair (figure 14). The continuous garden functions as a ‘lung,’ improving the air quality inside the building. The use of passive design provides the building with the ability to switch between mixed-modes, with the water features providing passive evaporation.

Fig. 122 -

Fig. 123 -

Mewah Oils Headquarters

118 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City

Mewah Oils Headquarter Stair


Spire Edge Location: Date Built:

Manesar, India Under Construction

The Spire Edge development is a 20-story building with a roof top garden, utilizing a continuous landscaped walkway from the ground to the roof, a feature Hamzah + Yeang typically use throughout their designs. This development is intended to be commercial space, and has already received an award for being India’s first bio-climatic skyscraper, which means that the building responds to the surrounding climatic conditions of the region. The continuous landscaped pedestrian walkway, provides access to various pods within the building, providing alternate routes for egress, while utilizing the system for water filtration. The landscaped path filters water down to the basement, allowing for the building to be self-sufficient in water recycling.24

Fig. 124 -

Fig. 125 -

Spire Edge

Spire Edge Diagrams

Precedents │ 119


7.2 │ Gary Comer Youth Center Architect:

John Ronan Architects

Landscaping: Hoerr Schaudt Landscape Architects Location:

Chicago, Illinois

Date Built:

2006

Use:

Youth Center Fig. 126 -

The Gary Comer Youth Center is located in Chicago’s south side. The center provides an environment for youth throughout the area to gather after school. Built in a neighborhood with few safe spaces for children after school, the building provides an outlet for their activities off of the street. Boasting a flexible gymnasium that can quickly

Fig. 127 -

Youth Center North South Section

120 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City

Gary Comer Youth Center

change into an auditorium, it is home to the South Shore Drill Team and Performing Arts Ensemble. The gym is the center of the activity within the building, surrounded by learning spaces, studios, and exhibition space. On the third floor additional classrooms and studios overlook an 8,160 square foot garden on the roof of the gymnasium. 25


Fig. 128 -

Gary Comer Youth Center Garden

The Garden yields over 1,000 pounds of organic produce each year, working as an educational tool for the neighborhood youth. By maximizing two heat sources; ambient heat from the building and solar energy, mixed with an optimized soil depth of approximately one foot, the garden is able to produce food year round. The Gary Comer Youth Center has received multiple awards including the 2009 Green Roof Award of Excellence, and the 2010 American Society of Landscape Architects Award. The Youth Center provides safe educational spaces for youth throughout the community, educating them not only in school but in agriculture and the arts.26

Fig. 129 -

Youth Center Gymnasium

Precedents │ 121


7.3 │ Pasona Urban Farm Architect:

Kono Designs

Location:

Tokyo, Japan

Date:

2010

Use: Office Space Urban Garden The Pasona Urban Farm in Tokyo is home to a recruiting office and urban farm, integrating the farming systems within the lobby and office spaces. The building was originally built in the 1970’s and renovated in 2010. The 9 story 215,000 square foot building features 43,000 square feet of dedicated farming space.

Fig. 131 -

Fig. 130 -

Pasona Urban Farm Facade

Pasona Lobby Harvest

These farming spaces are of a mixed variety of hydroponic and soil based growing methods, producing over 200 different species of vegetables, fruits, and rice. This food is cultivated in-house, and used in the cafeterias, feeding the office workers. 122 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City

It is currently the largest farm-to-table outfit in Japan. The employees are encouraged to be active in growing and harvesting the produce with assistance from specialists.


“It is important not to just think about how we can use our natural resources better from a distance, but to actively engage with nature and create new groups of people who have a deep interest and respect for the world they live in.”27 -Yoshimi Kono

With a double skin facade of hanging plants and the built materials of block and glazing, the building cannot operate as a passive structure. It is an active building keen on the production of crops. The HVAC system is highly regulated to grow produce more efficiently, while keeping employees comfortable. Within the office spaces are tomatoes, varying species of lettuce, fruits and beans, among many other species of plants. Many of these growing areas are integrated into the spaces as ceiling gardens, overhanging dining and conference tables. This integration creates an awareness for food production, and an aesthetically appealing pallet of integrated infrastructure and garden. Fig. 132 -

Cafeteria Table and Garden

The Pasona Group took a loss in terms of rentable space by dedicating 20% of the building to growing, but believed this number was offset by the benefits of an urban farm, engagement from the public and the welfare of its employees. Specifically in Japan, where agriculture is decaying, the Pasona Building provides a source of education, awareness, and production of agriculture within a densely populated city. To promote this mission, they have developed programs for students to hear from experts, participate in internships, and learn first hand about agriculture. In a hope to enrich the lives of the next generation, Pasona aims to promote the cultivation of sustainable food.28 Fig. 133 -

Conference Room Garden

Precedents │ 123


7.4 │ Green Collar Farms Founder:

Brian Harris

Location:

Grand Rapids, MI

Date:

2016

Use:

Controlled Environment Agriculture

Brian Harris works in Grand Rapids, MI out of a renovated refrigeration container. The 350 sf container houses an urban garden, producing leafy greens like kale, lettuce, and pak choi. These vegetables are grown hydroponically, yielding a harvest every 7-8 weeks. An amount equivalent of a traditional, 1.5-2 acre farm. With year round harvests, within this one shipping container, Brian produces substantially more produce that he could in traditional methods, without the use of pesticides, herbicides, biocides, and fertilizers. Not to mention the fact that he used 5% of the water of traditional farming methods, which use 70% of the consumed water annually. Using coconut husks as a growing medium, for the seeds to germinate in, he then places the seedlings in tubes. The tubes are hung from the ceiling of the container vertically in rows. Within the container blue and red lights provide about 16 hours of light for the plants each day. Using LED lights on the PAR spectrum (red and blue), the plants are able to thrive in the controlled environment, supplying greens to local restaurants.29

Fig. 134 -

Fig. 135 -

Green Collar Farms

124 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City

GCF - Benefits


Fig. 136 -

Vertical Growth

Fig. 137 -

Germination

Precedents │ 125


7.5 │ Precedent Design Principles Hamzah + Yeang Building as Ecosystem In my design proposal I utilized the continuous landscaped path seen on many of the Hamzah + Yeang projects, in order to create an outdoor park on top of the farming pods. This method allows for a variety of farming methods as well as helping to filter the water as it flows down to the ground.

Fig. 138 -

Water Filtration Diagram

Fig. 139 -

Education

Gary Comer Youth Center Education Education of future generations was very important in the design of my thesis proposal. Creating the connection between consumer and commodity, allows for the stimulation of this education. The Gary Comer Youth Center, also encouraged me to design a highly flexible space that could be used for educational activities while providing space for additional events like the harvest festival, and markets.

126 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City


Pasona Urban Farm Social Interaction + Awareness

Creating social awareness and the interaction of people and food, was one of the design principles taken from the precedent study of Pasona Urban Farm. Integrating commercial and production space encouraged my thesis to develop a mixed use facility providing ample public space for the education of food related issues.

Fig. 140 -

Social Interaction Diagram

Fig. 141 -

Technical Diagram

Green Collar Farms Technical + Implementation I was able to obtain a lot of information from the internet and reading books on vertical farming, but during my interview with Brian Harris, I was able to put that technical information into action. He was able to provide me with additional details on the system of vertical farming, from germination to harvest. We also discussed details like lighting, climate control, and production, which I was able to implement into my design of FARMgr.

Precedents │ 127


128 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City


1.0 │ Introduction 02 2.0 │ People, Program, + Innovative Practice 18 3.0 │ Site 34 4.0 │ Design Proposal 44 5.0 │ Gallery Exhibition 68 6.0 │ Preliminary Research + Design 76 7.0 │ Precedents 114

8.0 │ Bibliography 128 8.1 │ Endnotes 130 8.2 │ Figures 132

129


8.1│ Endnotes 1

Bailkey, M., and J. Nasr. 2000. From Brownfields to Greenfields: Producing Food in North American Cities. Community Food Security News. Fall 1999/Winter 2000:6

2

Rissman, Rebecca. Urban Farming. Minneapolis, MN. ABDOPublishing. ABDO Consulting Group. 2016. pp. 6-13

3

Rissman, Rebecca. Urban Farming. Minneapolis, MN. ABDOPublishing. ABDO Consulting Group. 2016. pp. 6-13

4

Keep Growing Detroit. 2017. Cultivating a Food Sovereign Detroit. http://detroitagriculture.net/about/

5

United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs. World population projected to reach 9.8 billion in 2050, and 11.2 billion in 2100. New York. June 2017. https://www.un.org/development/desa/en/news/population/world-populationprospects-2017.html

6

United States Census Bureau. American Community Survey: 2015. 2011-2015. https://www.census.gov/newsroom/press-releases/2016/cb16-210.html

7

Food Safety Modernization Act: Putting the Focus on Prevention FoodSafety - https://www.foodsafety.gov/news/fsma.html

8

Lemaire, Oliver. Global Waste: The Scandal of Food Waste. France. Capa Presse, Newen Distribution. 2011. www.netflix.com

9

Association for Vertical Farming. 2017. http://https//vertical-farming.net/vertical-farming/info

10

Association for Vertical Farming. 2017. http://https//vertical-farming.net/vertical-farming/info

11

Despommier, Dickson. Could Vertical Farming Be The Future?. Interview by Bryn Nelson. December 12, 2007. Accessed December 8, 2017. http://www.nbcnews.com/id/21154137/ns/technology_and_science-innovation/t/could-vertical-farmingbe-future/#.Wi8iAEqnFPY.

12

“What Is Aquaponics?” 2011. http://aquaponicgardening.ning.com/page/what-is-aquaponics.

13

Bernstein, Sylvia, and Dr. Wilson Lennard. “Aquaponic Gardening Rules of Thumb.” 2018. https://www.theaquaponicsource. com/rules-of-thumb/.

14

Harris, Brian. “Interview with Brian Harris.” Interview by Nicholas M. Van Berlo. 2018.

15

http://www.gardensofeden.org/04%20Crop%20Yield%20Verification.htm

16

Bradford, Jason. “One Acre Feeds a Person.” January 13, 2012. http://www.farmlandlp.com/2012/01/one-acre-feeds-a-person/

17

“Top 9 Best Fish For Aquaponics.” Best Fish For Aquaponics. 2016-18. http://uponics.com/aquaponics-fish/.

18

“Top 9 Best Fish For Aquaponics.” Best Fish For Aquaponics. 2016-18. http://uponics.com/aquaponics-fish/.

19

Bradford, Jason. “One Acre Feeds a Person.” January 13, 2012. http://www.farmlandlp.com/2012/01/one-acre-feeds-a-person/

20

The Lighting Practice. Grand Rapids Downtown Market receives Good Design is Good Business Award. 2017. https://www. thelightingpractice.com/downtown-market-receives-good-award/

21

Michael, Chris. “The Best Crops for Vertical Farming.” January 17, 2017. https://blog.zipgrow.com/best-crops-for-verticalfarming/.

22

Yeang, Ken. Jahnkassim, Shireen. Constructed Ecosystems: Ideas and Subsystems in the Work of Ken Yeang. Applied Research and Design. 2016. https://www.archdaily.com/796015/constructed-ecosystems-ideas-and-subsystems-in-the-work-of-kenyeang/

130 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City


23

Vial, John. Adam, David. Watts, Johnathan. Hickman, Leo. Sample, Ian. 50 People Who Could Save the Planet. Jan. 2018. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2008/jan/05/activists.ethicalliving

24

Nyawara, Brenda. Ken Yeang’s Signature Tower in India, the Grass is truly Greener on the Higher Side. Archute. Februrary 2016. http://www.archute.com/2016/02/17/ken-yeangs-signature-tower-india-grass-truly-greener-higher-side/

25

The Gary Comer Youth Center / John Ronan Architects. 09 Dec 2011. ArchDaily. <https://www.archdaily.com/189411/thegary-comer-youth-center-john-ronan-architects/> ISSN 0719-8884

26

Gary Comer Youth Center / Roof Top Haven for Urban Agriculture. 2010. American Society of Landscape Architects. https:// www.asla.org/2010awards/377.html

27

Andrews, Katie. Pasona Urban Farm by Kono Designs. Dezeen. Sept. 2013. https://www.dezeen.com/2013/09/12/pasona-urban-farm-by-kono-designs/

28

Kono, Yoshimi. Via: Andrews, Katie. Pasona Urban Farm by Kono Designs. Dezeen. Sept. 2013. https://www.dezeen.com/2013/09/12/pasona-urban-farm-by-kono-designs/

29

Harris, Brian. “Interview with Brian Harris.” Interview by Nicholas M. Van Berlo. February 2018.

Bibliography │ 131


8.2 │ Figures Fig. 1

Besseling, Ria. “The Hague Rooftop Garden.” Digital image. Retail Detail. February 08, 2016. Accessed January 2018. https://www.retaildetail.eu/en/news/food/consumers-hague-order-vegetables-roof.

Fig. 2

“Organic Farm.” Survivors Table. 2017. https://survivorstable.files.wordpress.com/2017/08/farm_field.jpg

Fig. 3Fig. 12

Van Berlo, Nicholas M. “FARMgr Graphics” Digital Image. 2018

Fig. 13

Despommier, Dickson. “The Vertical Farm: Feeding the World in the 21st Century.” Digital image. 2010. https://www. amazon.com/Vertical-Farm-Feeding-World-Century/dp/0312610696.

Fig. 14

Yudina, Anna. “Garden City: Supergreen Buildings, Urban Skyscapes and the New Planted Space.” Digital image. Amazon. 2017. Accessed 2018. https://www.amazon.com/Garden-City-Supergreen-Buildings-Skyscapes/dp/0500343268.

Fig. 15

Callebaut, Vincent. “Dragonfly Vertical Farm Concept.” Digital image. Accessed April 30, 2018. https://www. google.com/imgres?imgurl=https://i.pinimg.com/originals/40/d8/dc/40d8dc6c7e55e34be5313388556c203a. jpg&imgrefurl=https://www.pinterest.com/pin/474566879454467545/&docid=f3cObBbPIyVF8M&tbnid=0Ra0sXsVjdWSZM :&vet=10ahUKEwifq_Cyp-jaAhVo5YMKHfZzAawQMwhiKAswCw..i&w=570&h=703&bih=974&biw=1918&q=dragonfly vertical farm&ved=0ahUKEwifq_Cyp-jaAhVo5YMKHfZzAawQMwhiKAswCw&iact=mrc&uact=8.

Fig. 16

Iqbal, Asif. “Beckons Qatar Vertical Farm.” Digital image. Qatar Tribune. January 7, 2018. Accessed April 30, 2018. http:// www.qatar-tribune.com/news-details/id/105132.

Fig. 17

Boeri, Stefano, Gianandrea Barreca, and Giovanni La Varra. “Bosco Verticale “Vertical Forest”.” Digital image. Flickr. 2012. Accessed 2018. https://www.flickr.com/photos/alebonvini/18929268530/sizes/o/.

Fig. 18Fig. 24

Van Berlo, Nicholas M. “FARMgr Graphics” Digital Image. 2018

Fig. 25

“Aquaponics.” Digital image. Accessed January 30, 2018. http://aquaponicswork.com/aquaponics-plans-free-what-ishydroponic-gardening/.

Fig. 26

Van Berlo, Nicholas M. “FARMgr Graphics” Digital Image. 2018

Fig. 27

Greentress Hydroponics. “Pumice Stones as a Growing Medium.” Digital image. 1992-2018. Accessed December 03, 2017. https://www.hydroponics.net/i/134377.

Fig. 28Fig. 29

Van Berlo, Nicholas M. “FARMgr Graphics” Digital Image. 2018

Fig. 30

“Lettuce Refill”. Digital image. Accessed December 12, 2017. https://www.clickandgrow.com/products/grow-lettuceindoors.

Fig. 31

Ann’s Tips. “Broccoli”. Digital image. Cook for Your Life. Accessed December 12, 2017. https://www.cookforyourlife.org/ recipes/steamed-broccoli/.

Fig. 32

Mercola, Dr Joseph. “What is Basil Good For?” Digital image. What is Basil Good For? Accessed December 12, 2017. http://foodfacts.mercola.com/basil.html.

Fig. 33

YCH Hops. “Hops.” Digital image. Fresh Hops. Accessed April 28, 2018. https://ychhops.com/hop-products/green-hops.

Fig. 34

Torriseen, Bjorn. Tilapia. Digital image. Accessed October 17, 2017. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tilapia.

Fig. 35

Fleming, Jay. “Trout.” Digital image. Accessed February 18, 2018. https://www.nps.gov/yell/learn/nature/eastern-brooktrout.htm.

Fig. 36

Hammond, Ken. “Perch.” Digital image. Accessed February 18, 2018. https://www.britannica.com/animal/perch.

Fig. 37

“Proposed Site”. Google Maps. 2016. Image Retrieved: Nov. 9, 2017. https://www.google.com/maps/@42.9547473,85.6686703,501m/data=!3m1!1e3

132 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City


Fig. 38Fig. 41

Van Berlo, Nicholas M. “FARMgr Graphics” Digital Image. 2018

Fig. 42

“Site Parcel Map”. Kent County Parcel Viewer. 2014. Image Retrieved: Dec. 11, 2017. http://gis.kentcountymi.gov/ public/publicviewerjs/index.html

Fig. 43

“Aerial Southeast Perspective”. Google Maps. 2016. Image Retrieved: Dec. 12, 2017. https://www.google.com/ maps/@42.9546165,-85.6693007,161m/data=!3m1!1e3

Fig. 44Fig. 45

Van Berlo, Nicholas M. “Site Images” Digital Image. 2018

Fig. 46

“Grand Rapids Downtown Market”. Downtown Market. 2013. Image Retrieved: Dec. 12, 2017. http://siteselection.com/ issues/2014/jan/michigan.cfm

Fig. 47

“Grand Rapids Downtown Market”. Experience Grand Rapids. 2014. Image Retrieved: Dec. 12, 2017. https://www. experiencegr.com/things-to-do/attractions/downtown-market/

Fig. 48

“Grand Rapids Downtown Market”. The Lighting Practice, 2013, Accessed 11 Dec. 2017. www.thelightingpractice.com/ downtown-market-receives-good-award/

Fig. 49

“Downtown Market Green Roof.” LiveRoof. Digital image. LiveRoof.com. 2013. Accessed December 12, 2017. http:// www.greenroofs.com/projects/pview.php?id=1570.

Fig. 50Fig. 121

Van Berlo, Nicholas M. “FARMgr Graphics” Digital Image. 2018

Fig. 122

“Mewah Oils Headquarters”. T.R. Hamzah + Yeang, 2006. https://divisare.com/projects/17298-t-r-hamzah-yeang-mewah-oils-headquarters

Fig. 123

“Mewah Oils Headquarter Stair”. T.R. Hamzah + Yeang. 2006. https://divisare.com/projects/17298-t-r-hamzah-yeang-mewah-oils-headquarters

Fig. 124

“Spire Edge”. Hamzah and Yeang Rendering. 2016. http://www.archute.com/2016/02/17/ken-yeangs-signature-tower-india-grass-truly-greener-higher-side/

Fig. 125

“Spire Edge Diagrams”. Hamzah and Yeang Systems Diagrams. 2016. http://www.archute.com/2016/02/17/ken-yeangs-signature-tower-india-grass-truly-greener-higher-side/

Fig. 126

“Gary Comer Youth Center”. John Ronan Architects. December 2011. ArchDaily. https://www.archdaily.com/189411/ the-gary-comer-youth-center-john-ronan-architects

Fig. 127

“Youth Center North South Section”. John Ronan Architects. 2006. Arch Daily. https://www.archdaily.com/189411/thegary-comer-youth-center-john-ronan-architects

Fig. 128

“Gary Comer Youth Center Garden.” John Ronan Architects. December 2011. ArchDaily. https://www.archdaily. com/189411/the-gary-comer-youth-center-john-ronan-architects

Fig. 129

“Youth Center Gymnasium.” John Ronan Architects. December 2011. ArchDaily. https://www.archdaily.com/189411/ the-gary-comer-youth-center-john-ronan-architects

Fig. 130

“Pasona Urban Farm Facade”. Kono Designs. 2011. Image Retrieved Oct. 12, 2017. https://inhabitat.com/pasona-hq-isan-urban-farm-that-grows-food-for-its-employees-in-tokyo/

Fig. 131

“Pasona Lobby Harvest.” Kono Designs. 2011. Image Retrieved Oct. 12, 2017. https://inhabitat.com/pasona-hq-is-anurban-farm-that-grows-food-for-its-employees-in-tokyo/

Fig. 132

“Cafeteria Table and Garden.” Kono Designs. 2011. Image Retrieved Oct. 12, 2017. https://inhabitat.com/pasona-hq-isan-urban-farm-that-grows-food-for-its-employees-in-tokyo/

Fig. 133

“Conference Room Garden.” Kono Design. 2011. Image Retrieved Oct. 12, 2017. https://inhabitat.com/pasona-hq-is-anurban-farm-that-grows-food-for-its-employees-in-tokyo/

Bibliography │ 133


Fig. 134

Harris, Brian. “GCF Benefits.” Digital image. Green Collar Farms. Accessed February 2, 2018. https://www.facebook.com/ GreenCollarFarmsllc/photos/a.1549668881751203.1073741829.1375507672500659/1657748510943239/?type=3&theater

Fig. 135

“Green Collar Farms.” Digital image. Farm In a Box - Grand Rapids, MI. September 8, 2017. Accessed February 2, 2018. http://www.happyshipping.org/2017/09/08/farm-in-a-box-grand-rapids-mi/.

Fig. 136

Harris, Brian. “Vertical Growth.” Digital image. Green Collar Farms. Accessed February 2, 2018. https://www.facebook. com/GreenCollarFarmsllc/photos/a.1549668881751203.1073741829.1375507672500659/1575915309126560/?type=3&the ater

Fig. 137

“Germination.” Digital image. Farm In a Box - Grand Rapids, MI. September 8, 2017. Accessed February 2, 2018. http:// www.happyshipping.org/2017/09/08/farm-in-a-box-grand-rapids-mi/.

Fig. 138

“Spire Edge Diagrams”. Hamzah and Yeang Systems Diagrams. 2016. http://www.archute.com/2016/02/17/ken-yeangs-signature-tower-india-grass-truly-greener-higher-side/

Fig. 139

“Gary Comer Youth Center Garden.” John Ronan Architects. December 2011. ArchDaily. https://www.archdaily. com/189411/the-gary-comer-youth-center-john-ronan-architects

Fig. 140

“Pasona Lobby Harvest.” Kono Designs. 2011. Image Retrieved Oct. 12, 2017. https://inhabitat.com/pasona-hq-is-anurban-farm-that-grows-food-for-its-employees-in-tokyo/

Fig. 141

Harris, Brian. “Technical Innovation.” Digital image. Green Collar Farms. Accessed February 2, 2018. https://www. facebook.com/GreenCollarFarmsllc/photos/a.1375510705833689.1073741827.1375507672500659/1375511255833634/?ty pe=3&theater

134 │ Urbanizing Agriculture: Cultivating the City


Bibliography â&#x201D;&#x201A; 135


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