Cairneagle: Impact, Feasibility and Transferability

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Impact, Feasibility and Transferability Report An overview of deploying the NewGlobe Methodology to drive up school performance at scale in low infrastructure economies June 2019


Impact, Feasibility and Transferability Report An overview of deploying the NewGlobe Methodology to drive up school performance at scale in low infrastructure economies June 2019

Other than as stated below, this document is confidential and prepared solely for your information and that of other beneficiaries of our advice listed in our engagement letter. Therefore, you should not refer to or use our name or this document for any other purpose, disclose them or refer to them in any prospectus or other document, or make them available or communicate them to any other party. In any event, no other party is entitled to rely on our document for any purpose whatsoever and thus we accept no liability to any other party who is shown or gains access to this document. Cairneagle Associates LLP, Bewlay House, 2 Swallow Place, London W1B 2AE Registered in England and Wales No OC302340.

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Executive Summary NewGlobe Education has built a strong reputation with governments in Africa, India and China working in partnership with teachers and communities to help build capacity and capability in government school systems and enabling significant improvements in school attainment levels in underserved, low income communities in regions with low infrastructure and limited participation. Unique to the NewGlobe methodology is their collaborative approach, working with existing government teachers and government schools to drive up attainment levels. NewGlobe operates as a technical partner, providing training, materials and technology to support existing teachers improve their practice, underpinned by research and informed by a wealth of data and insight which has led to the development of an approach that meets local needs and delivers exceptional results at scale and at pace. This report has been prepared by Cairneagle Associates as an independent analysis of independent impact studies, internal reports and metrics. It explores how the NewGlobe methodology has been successful in driving up education outcomes in low infrastructure communities around the world and considers the feasibility of achieving similar levels of improvement in educational attainment and GDP improvements in other locations with similar challenges. This includes analysis of existing independent impact assessments conducted on NewGlobe’s work in a number of countries, as well as internal studies and reports conducted by the Measurement & Evaluation division at NewGlobe. Cairneagle also reviewed and evaluated NewGlobe’s own data on operational, impact, academic and other core data sets, some of which are included in the appendices.

The NewGlobe Approach to Delivering Sustainable Improvement in Education Outcomes Building on experience of education transformation at a systems level at scale and at pace in countries including Nigeria, China, Kenya, India and Liberia, the NewGlobe methodology includes all aspects of school improvement and has been designed as a full 360-degree support ecosystem that works at every level from classroom to national government. The programme engages existing schools and government teachers, invests in them, builds their confidence, their capability and their accountability to deliver a step change in education outcomes. The NewGlobe approach is a powerful vehicle for social justice, ensuring that, regardless of a child’s location of birth, the income or education levels of their parents, all children of Sindh have the opportunity to reach their full potential. The programme is comprehensive, providing everything from a unique and proprietary technology platform, teacher training and supervision to inspection, lesson plans, textbooks and test papers as well as all of the supporting infrastructure and data needed to manage a scale programme at every level. While the government remains in full control of the education system and continues to employ the teachers and keep the building open and maintained, NewGlobe provides the government with comprehensive technical support, across all aspects of this quality transformation. It is effectively a comprehensive support to, rather than in place of, the relevant government agencies. The programme works alongside the existing infrastructure at all levels including: •

The partnering approach embedded in the NewGlobe Methodology, the case studies and other evidence reviewed, alongside the analysis undertaken as part of this review, all point to a robust and research driven approach to school improvement, underpinned by the unique experience and expertise of NewGlobe Education in delivering significant improvements in education outcomes and offering good value for money.

An Introduction to NewGlobe and the NewGlobe Approach NewGlobe was established in 2007 specifically to challenge and change the quality of education available to children in underserved, low income communities. Their approach is reflected in the recent shift in emphasis by the United Nations which saw a move from measuring enrolment in the Millennium Development Goals of 2000, to a focus on social justice through inclusive and quality education as set out in the 2015 Sustainable Development Goals. The NewGlobe Platform and Methodology is unique and proprietary and has been developed through scientific research on learning and pedagogical practice, experience gleaned first-hand through the analysis of billions of education data points, the observed practice of the top performing teachers and a relentless focus on insight driven continuous improvement at the classroom, school, local and national level. No other education intervention has been able to deliver the same level of system intervention, delivering large and fast learning outcomes at such large scale in emerging markets.

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with individual teachers o training government teachers already working in the schools in modern, scientifically based pedagogy in the English medium, supported through continuous professional development and coaching using research developed lessons plans for every subject and every class for every year group o providing the technology the teacher will need to access the lesson plans and to record key data points that will inform supervisors of the progress being made and areas were support is needed with children o placing them in classes that are age and capability appropriate so that they are able to progress through the curriculum o ensuring all pupils have access to high quality educational materials that lead to accelerated and continuous improvement of learning gains that will close the learning gap through remedial interventions at the school level o data driven needs-based support visits to schools where support is flagged o web based toolset that delivers real time information about each school in the region o continuous improvement and evaluation with schools inspected daily, combined with cloud enabled technology that allows everyone to respond what is happening on the ground quickly o technology integration in even remote classrooms such that technology and data to drive student learning gains through use of technology

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within the region o universal access to dashboards showing data on key metrics including attendance, accountability, lesson delivery, inspections etc o principals and ministry support officers are able to carry out regular academic monitoring and utilise knowledge and tools to support teaching and learning in the schools.

Contents Contents Executive Summary .................................................................................................................. 0

The Benefits Case

An introduction to NewGlobe and the NewGlobe approach .................................................................. 0

The NewGlobe approach sees existing government schools transformed into powerful public schools. By targeting communities with the highest numbers of children, the NewGlobe approach maximises impact at pace and at scale. The approach to identifying which schools and which teachers participate in the programme is underpinned by a well-considered set of criteria that has been developed and refined through previous projects to secure the best outcomes.

The benefits case .................................................................................................................... 2

Our analysis concludes that the NewGlobe Platform and Methodology: • • • • • • • • •

is unique and proprietary and drives exceptional educational outcomes in some of the most marginalised communities and regions (Section 1) delivers significant learning outcomes in low socio-economic communities. (Section 2) works successfully inside of existing government schools with existing government teachers and structures (Section 3) delivers at the scale and speed to drive momentum in school improvement and impact children today (Section 4) successfully operates in low infrastructure environments (Section 5) delivers learning gains in environments with low levels of initial English fluency in teaching force (Section 6) works in communities with challenging levels of insecurity (Section 7) in particular increases enrolment and learning levels for girls (Section 8) and demonstrates Value for Money, Socio-Economic benefits and high Return on Investment for the country (Section 9)

Because NewGlobe works within the existing education system and offers a full 360 degree support ecosystem, the NewGlobe solution has been able to demonstrate significant impact and value for money. Although the education and socio-economic benefits can be quantified and valued in different ways, much of the value to society and to individuals is intangible. Nevertheless, a financial return investment can be calculated using a range of methods developed by the OECD, UNESCO, and numerous independent academics. The general conclusion of the research is simple and unequivocal: improvements in the quality (as opposed to the quantity) of schooling increases the cognitive ability of the labour force, which directly translates to greater productivity and higher economic output for a province or country. More specifically, the work correlates and quantifies both improvements in education outcomes (on the ‘input’ side) and the corresponding increases in GDP growth (on the ‘output’ side).

The NewGlobe approach to delivering sustainable improvement in education outcomes .............................. 1

About the Firm/Authors ............................................................................................ 6 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 7 Purpose and structure of this report ............................................................................................. 7 Report outline ........................................................................................................................ 8

Section 1: The NewGlobe methodology .......................................................................... 9 1.1 - NewGlobe Education Academies ............................................................................................ 9 1.2 – The NewGlobe ethos .......................................................................................................... 9 1.3 – Unique and Proprietary NewGlobe platform, technology and methodology .......................................10 1.4 – Delivering improved education outcomes at a systems level .........................................................11 The Teacher Guides, at the cornerstone of NewGlobe’s methodology ................................................11 Data-driven continuous improvement .......................................................................................11 Increased students’ learning time ............................................................................................ 12 Section 1.5 – Misconceptions about NewGlobe Methodology ................................................................12

Section 2: Feasibility of delivering significant learning outcomes in low socio-economic communities ........................................................................................................ 14 2.1 – Introduction: Global context ............................................................................................... 14 An evidence-based response to education policy priorities .............................................................. 14 The Global context ..............................................................................................................15 2.2 – NewGlobe Education Academies are teaching students in low socio-economic communities ..................16 2.3 – NewGlobe delivers significant learning outcomes in low socio-economic communities .........................17 Learning Gains Proven by Research Studies of NewGlobe programmes implemented in other similar socioeconomic contexts ...............................................................................................................17

Section 3: Feasibility of delivering with existing government school teachers ........................ 24 3.1 - Introduction ...................................................................................................................24 3.2 – Increase in public school enrolment ......................................................................................25 3.3 – Reduction in teacher absenteeism ........................................................................................26 3.4 – Teacher feedback ............................................................................................................26

Section 4: Feasibility of delivering at the scale and speed required ..................................... 28 4.1 - NewGlobe track record in delivering at scale and pace ............................................................... 28 4.2 – EdoBEST roll-out plan ........................................................................................................28

Section 5: Feasibility of working in low infrastructure communities .................................... 29 5.1 – NewGlobe’s methodology : Efficacy in overcoming low infrastructure-related challenges .....................29

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Section 6: Feasibility of working in communities with teachers who start off with low levels of English fluency...................................................................................................... 32 6.1 – NewGlobe can deliver strong learning outcomes for students through teachers with limited pre-service English fluency levels...............................................................................................................32 6.2 –English fluency levels of by country and territory .......................................................................33

Section 7: Feasibility of increasing learning levels and enrolment of girls............................. 34 7.1 – Girls education/enrolment challenges across Sub-Saharan Africa and Eastern and South-eastern Asia ......34 7.2 – NewGlobe territories with similar girls education/enrolment challenge ...........................................35 7.3 - NewGlobe methodology closes gender gap in educational outcomes ...............................................35 7.4 – Outcomes following NewGlobe’s intervention ..........................................................................36

Section 8: Feasibility of transforming education in fragile communities (insecurity, conflict, postconflict) .............................................................................................................. 39 8.1 - Characteristics of Fragile Communities ..................................................................................39 8.2 - Characteristics of Sub-Saharan Africa ....................................................................................41 8.3 - Characteristics of Eastern and South-eastern Asia .....................................................................41

Section 9: Value for Money, Socio-Economic Assessment, Cost Benefit Analysis ..................... 42 9.1 - Scope of Impact, and Expected Outcomes compared with Current Conditions ...................................42 Students Impacted ...............................................................................................................42 Current state – baseline of education outcomes ...........................................................................43 9.2 - Expected impact – education outcomes ..................................................................................43

About the Firm/Authors Established in 2001, Cairneagle is a leading independent strategy and management consultancy specialising in Education. We work with clients right across the education ecosystem – form nursery schools to higher education, with providers, education services organisations, charities and governments. We have built a strong reputation for delivering client outcomes underpinned by rigorous, data-driven analysis and judgements derived from our experience in the market. Our work includes corporate strategy, growth strategy, market assessment, business planning, performance improvement, new operating model and service design, cost reduction, transformation programme design and support, valuation support and commercial due diligence, research and evaluation. About 50% of our work is international in character, split between helping clients internationalise and working for overseas clients. Leading the review was Julie Mercer, Partner at Cairneagle. Julie is a qualified accountant who has worked in industry and for government. Julie has worked at all levels of the education system, supporting organisations spanning early years’ provision to higher education. Julie’s clients include public, private and international education providers as well as governments and she has worked with educations systems in the UK, India, Australia, Japan, the Middle East and the USA. Julie started her career as a civil servant and brings 30 years of experience of working with clients and government on major transformation programmes and advising government on education reform, including reviewing the value for money of a number of government programmes in the UK, Middle East and India. Prior to joining Cairneagle, Julie was global industry lead for the Education sector at Deloitte LLP.

Comprehensive package of services provide high value for money ....................................................44 Socio-economic impact .........................................................................................................46 9.3 - Return on Investment ........................................................................................................48

Conclusion ........................................................................................................... 51

Cairneagle Associates LLP June 2019

Appendices .......................................................................................................... 53 Appendix 1: Girls education/enrolment in Sub-Saharan Africa and Eastern and South-eastern Asia ................53 Percentage of children of primary school age who are not in school by gender, Sub-Saharan Africa ...........53 Percentage of children of primary school age who are not in school by gender, Eastern and South-eastern Asia .................................................................................................................................55 Appendix 2: 2019 Fragile States Index Data ....................................................................................56 Fragility indicators ..............................................................................................................56 2019 Fragile States Index Data by country ..................................................................................56

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Introduction

We have drawn heavily on the following case studies, information and data to help demonstrate the efficacy of the approach and its applicability to other similar contexts. They include:

This section of the report introduces NewGlobe Education Schools, their mission and an overview of the NewGlobe Approach to school improvement at a systems level. Along with section 1, the introduction provides the reader with the information they need to contextualise sections 2 onwards which demonstrate how the NewGlobe approach can deliver transformative performance improvements in schools and the associated increase in educational outcomes for girls and boys at scale and at pace.

Case study reviews of NewGlobe programmes including: o EdoBEST, Edo State, Nigeria which saw large learning gains (70% of an entire year’s worth of gains in less than one term) and a 22 % increase in enrolment in 12 months; o NewGlobe’s work in Liberia which saw very large gains in student learning outcomes in the first year and teacher absenteeism reduced from 60% to less than 10% impacting early grades literacy and numeracy; o Implementation in Guizhou, China to improve learning outcomes in English

External reports evaluating the impact of the programmes from: o Oxford Policy Management and the University of Sussex, funded by the UK Department of International Development (DfID) o Edo State Universal Board of Education (in collaboration with NewGlobe) o The Ministry of Education of Liberia, Pencils of Promise, Worldreader, University of Liberia, and NewGlobe o The Centre for Global Development o Decision Management Consultants (DMC)

The report looks at NewGlobe and the evidence Cairneagle was able to draw on through case studies and independent research to assess NewGlobe’s interventions in Nigeria, Liberia, China, India, Kenya and Uganda as well as the relevance of their approach to delivering a far-reaching education reform programme at scale and pace to communities in other regions, with a focus on Sub-Saharan Africa and Eastern and South-eastern Asia. The success of the NewGlobe Approach is well documented and has delivered measurable, successful outcomes in a wide range of regions that share similar socioeconomic, geographical, infrastructural and educational measures. These programmes demonstrate how NewGlobe works with existing government teachers to significantly improve learning outcomes at scale and pace. The approach has been designed to be a 360 Degree, turnkey solution for the schools that the government identifies for complete transformation built on 5 pillars summarised below.

For ease of reference key documents have been included as appendices to the study.

Report Outline The remainder of this report offers the following insights: • • •

An overview of the key socio-economic and other attributes that can been seen in Sub-Saharan Africa, Eastern and Sothern Asia which have been addressed by other NewGlobe programmes How NewGlobe has demonstrated their approach to addressing the requirement, and the impact on educational attainment Any independent evidence to support their approach and the impact they have had

Each requirement is considered in turn, as set out below, followed by an overall set of conclusions. Section 1-9 demonstrate how the NewGlobe methodology: The approach is underpinned by innovative technology and a data driven platform, alongside high-quality learning materials, effective training and ongoing coaching for teachers and school leaders. Underpinning the operations are technology-enabled support teams providing 360-degree support for learning outcomes. The toolkit and approach have been developed by NewGlobe over many years of research and practice.

Purpose and structure of this report This independent review of the NewGlobe Approach has been prepared by Cairneagle Associates. The study draws on published material, data provided by NewGlobe and independent reports and research that have examined the projects undertaken to date.

• • • • • • • • •

Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section

1: applies to Sub-Saharan Africa, Eastern and Southern Asia 2: delivers significant learning outcomes in low socio-economic communities 3: works inside of existing government schools with existing government 4: delivers at scale and speed required 5: operates in low infrastructure environments 6: delivers in environments with low levels of initial English fluency in teaching force 7: works in communities with challenging insecurity 8: increases enrolment and learning levels for girls 9: demonstrates Value for Money, Socio-Economic Assessment, Return on Investment

The study examines each of the socioecomic and other factors that have been common to the programmes supported by NewGlobe to demonstrate the efficacy of the programme, how it will support improved education outcomes for the children in some of the least developed communities in a country and the impact this has on the teaching profession, local communities and the economy.

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Section 1: The NewGlobe Methodology Section one provides an overview of NewGlobe with a focus on their holistic 360-degree approach to transforming education systems and raising pupil attainment levels. The approach they have successfully adopted in multiple settings is described and the unique attributes of the programme are highlighted. This section provides background context for each of the following sections of the report.

1.3 – Unique and Proprietary NewGlobe Platform, Technology and Methodology NewGlobe’s unique, proprietary platform is a technology-driven 360 Degree, turnkey solution for the schools that the government identifies for complete transformation built on 5 pillars summarised below. This data-driven, technology-based systems transformation approach is unique globally and specifically designed for the challenging constraints within emerging market public education systems.

1.1 - NewGlobe Education Academies Established in 2007 as a global organisation, NewGlobe initially deployed their approach in Kenya with a single objective to try and solve the seemingly intractable problem of education access and attainment for millions of children in poorer communities with low infrastructure and limited access to schools that empower and inspire them. Uniquely, NewGlobe partners with governments and existing systems to dramatically improve primary and pre-primary education. Today they have demonstrated dramatic learning gains in Nigeria, China, India, Liberia, and East Africa, developing programmes that address the particular circumstances of communities and governments in low infrastructure economies. All of their work and the resulting outcomes are all underpinned by research, pedagogical practice, data and insight enabling the creation and dissemination of highquality training, coaching, content and feedback. Figure 1.1 – NewGlobe operating countries

1.2 – The NewGlobe Ethos The NewGlobe ethos begins with the premise that the potential to deliver significant learning gains well beyond the status quo already exists within the existing school system and with the right technology based up-skilling, scientifically proven pedagogical approaches and a 360-degree support system. They equally advocate that a child’s background should not be a determinant of their education outcomes and address this by enabling high quality classrooms, age and grade appropriate learning levels and remedial support to push up learning gains and close the attainment gap. The intervention substitutes existing provision and aims to drive improved productivity from existing budgets rather than duplicating provision which is often the approach adopted to delivery such system-wide transformation. Moreover, the approach of partnering with existing schools and teachers means delivery is extremely cost effective. The approach works on 4 levels – pupil level, classroom level, school level, and systems level.

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Underpinning the core Pillars is NewGlobe’s holistic approach to teaching and learning, based on 8 key principles that we believe uniquely drive the efficacy of the programme and the scale and pace at which real improvements in educational attainment can be achieved. Key principles of the NewGlobe approach 1.

Evidence based, analytically delivered

Our pedagogical approach combines what is known from the science of learning with big data and analytics from our delivery of teaching and learning

2.

Curriculum aligned

Our content covers and aligns to national curricula

3.

Comprehensive learning and CPD materials

Our materials together constitute a complete package, including student materials, lesson plans, teaching strategies and activities, and teacher development

4.

Technology at the heart of delivery

Our individual portable devices empower students, teachers and supervisors with the convenience, efficiency, and transparency of digital content and the data we gather enables rigorous analysis and deep insight right across the system enabling a more responsive and agile approach to transformation

5.

Accountability and professionalism

Our rigorous and transparent approach emphasizes and cultivates the values of accountability and professionalism among students, teachers and supervisors

6.

Teacher development

We empower and motivate teachers through high quality development materials, in-person preservice training, regular data driven coaching, and transparent progress analytics

7.

Transparency and QA

Our QA and support teams use big data to analyse every step of delivery and intervene proactively to address issues at every stage of delivery, from infrastructure to student progress

8.

Partnership

Our ways of working builds capacity and capability, strengthening the system from within at pace and supporting teachers and government to delver the step change in performance needed to radically improve education outcomes.

Our eight principles inform everything we do and allow us to deliver at pace with integrity

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1.4 – Delivering Improved Education Outcomes at A Systems Level

The NewGlobe Approach has been successfully delivered in multiple developing countries and has demonstrated significant improvements in educational attainment levels. Some of the key attributes of the programme that have enabled these outcomes to be achieved within such short timeframes include:

The Teacher Guides, at the cornerstone of NewGlobe’s methodology The teaching material and lesson instructions are available to teachers in a digital format, via NewGlobe’s Teacher Guides, which incorporates each lesson into a highly researched scope and sequence. The Teacher Guides content include: • •

• • •

Clarifications of the goals and expectations teachers should have at the beginning of each lesson Lessons deconstructed into sub-sections to maximise the learning, practice and feedback potential while ensuring effective use of class time - more than 50% of class time is used for student practice and direct, targeted teacher feedback to students Concepts introduced using extensively tested activities and questions to maximise engagement and understanding by each student A carefully scaffolded explanation and reflection for each concept, enabling teachers to lead the class efficiently Each lesson also guides teachers to provide specific and positive feedback as well as utilise best-practice classroom management techniques

The main benefits of the Teacher Guides include: • • •

The stimulation of more dynamic classroom environments via moving away from lectures, and moving towards varied, evidence-based pedagogical strategies Increased opportunities for pupils to practice a core set of skills as teachers are able to pinpoint precisely where a pupil is struggling Support for teachers with lower subject-matter knowledge

Data-driven continuous improvement NewGlobe collects and leverages data in real time through its teacher tablets and Academy Managers’ smartphones. It can hence monitor and track the immediate impact of its model on the effectiveness in individual schools. Metrics collected include: • • •

Teacher attendance (data on arrival and departure time, start and end of class) Lesson delivery (% lessons started/completed, speed/pace of lesson delivery) Academic progress (children’s attendance and results on summative assessments)

The analysis of usage and attainment data is instrumental: •

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For the continuous improvement of NewGlobe’s methodology: it has enabled NewGlobe to develop and improve its methodology over time

For the adjustment of the implementation of new programmes: the analysis of pupils’ attainment in the context of a particular programme has enabled the adjustment of the lessons plans and materials provided For the continuous monitoring of schools, enabling o Immediate intervention o Team support o The implementation of performance incentive programmes for teachers o Impact reporting

Increased students’ learning time NewGlobe increases students’ learning time not only by decreasing absenteeism, but by ensuring that instructional time is structured in a way that maximises learning, provides sufficient time for student practice and uses scientifically proven approaches to accelerate student learning.

Section 1.5 – Misconceptions About NewGlobe Methodology Reform of education systems are complex and impact many different stakeholders and outside interest groups. In any context, transformation at pace is challenging and stakeholders may question underlying intentions of a programme and its impact on the education system, its teachers and students. In undertaking our research into the work of NewGlobe, we have identified a number of areas where outside interest groups have raised questions which led to inaccurate headlines. We have reviewed the assertions made which imply that NewGlobe leads to privatisation of the education system and de-professionalize teachers. Having reviewed the way in which NewGlobe has engaged with education reform programmes across Africa and Asia to date, the evidence and the practice on the ground would not support such assertions. The following table summarises our findings on the three main misconceptions concerning the NewGlobe methodology: Figure 1.2 Myth-busting the NewGlobe Approach Assertion

Evidence based on case study reviews and independent evaluations

Working with NewGlobe or Implementing NewGlobe methodology means you are privatising the public school system

Implementing the NewGlobe Methodology in government schools is about strengthening the government’s own ability to deliver within its schools. It is not privatisation. NewGlobe programmes provide technical assistance under contract to support government schools which remain government schools, free at the point of delivery and run by the government. The NewGlobe approach is a government support programme similar to any project undertaken by government or large development agencies, where a private sector actor with the right technical solutions is hired to support the government transformation. The NewGlobe programmes do not involve the schools being privatised or sold off to NewGlobe or any other school operator and parents.

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Assertion

Evidence based on case study reviews and independent evaluations

NewGlobe employs non-certified teachers and replaces the existing government teachers

The schools in these projects are government schools employing government certified teachers. NewGlobe does not employ the teachers – the government does. The NewGlobe methodology is a teacher development programme that skills up and empowers existing government school-teachers in those schools; it does not replace them. This methodology has been proven to support existing teachers to deliver dramatic learning outcomes. For example in the case study discussed in this report about the reform in Edo State, Nigeria, the same government teachers who had been present in the government schools prior to the intervention, were trained and supported using the NewGlobe methodology, improved their practice and delivered accelerated learning for the students in their classes.

NewGlobe teacher guides eliminate teachers helping individual students

Section 2: Feasibility of Delivering Significant Learning Outcomes in Low Socio-Economic Communities In this section we review how NewGlobe has been able to operate in low socio-economic communities and demonstrate how the impact of their approach in partnership with the government delivers significant learning outcomes. In an effort to improve attainment levels, many government policies in developing countries over the last decades have focused on enrolment, which is relatively straightforward to measure. For countries with low socio-economic communities, this is an important first step but with no explicit focus on the quality of teaching and learning, many countries continue to struggle to deliver quality education for enrolled children.

From investigating the implementations of NewGlobe Methodology in government schools, we have found that NewGlobe teacher guides empower and support teachers to individualise instruction based on modern scientifically based pedagogy.

Alongside improved student enrolment (see section 3), NewGlobe, most importantly, has delivered better learning outcomes for enrolled children, leveraging its holistic methodology described in section 1. This can be demonstrated through the analysis of the usage and progress data provided by NewGlobe’s management information system, while independent studies have also proven the efficacy of NewGlobe’s methodology when compared to other schools, especially traditionallymanaged public schools. This is discussed further below.

More than 50% of the average lesson time is for students to practice and teachers to provide individual feedback. This methodology trains and supports teachers to individualise feedback and instruction more than they have been able to do without this methodology.

This section contextualises NewGlobe’s work, showing how it has been delivering significant learning outcomes in various countries with low socio-economic circumstances and challenging educational contexts. We summarise key learnings from field studies analysing the attainment or progress of NewGlobe pupils.

The lesson plans help teachers deliver higher quality lessons efficiently, create space for teachers to reflect on their classroom practice and provides the teachers with the framework that enables them to focus on individual instruction and personalised student support. Prepared lesson plans (or teacher guides) have been shown in multiple research studies globally (within Africa, United States and other locations) to deliver improved learning outcomes for students of all abilities. In particular, looking at the independent evaluation contracted by UK’s DfID (discussed in Section 2 of this report), this approach has shown that it can significantly increase learning outcomes for students of all abilities and varying home situations, because it utilises scientifically-based pedagogies to increase individual student feedback. This was also seen in the evaluation of the implementation in Edo State, where the research showed a 50% increase in individual student practise and a 200% increase in teacher individual feedback.

2.1 – Introduction: Global Context An evidence-based response to education policy priorities For a policy to deliver significant learning outcomes, it must not only focus on improving enrolment, but also address the quality of education delivered to the children enrolled. This can be achieved by taking a holistic approach to education policies, considering: • • • • •

the curriculum and pedagogical approach the provision and quality of supporting materials for both students and teachers school’s staff training and support teachers’ accountability and management analysed in conjunction with contextual information on gender, affluence, level of teacher training etc.

Since its inception, NewGlobe has deployed programmes that have been improving student learning outcomes in in low-socio economic communities, as demonstrated by studies conducted independently and in collaboration with NewGlobe. Academic studies show that NewGlobe has had a strong positive impact on students’ outcomes compared to other schools, in terms of progress, and of overall attainment. Furthermore, a study considering contextual information showed that NewGlobe students’ better learning outcomes compared to both public and private schools were largely driven by the most disadvantaged children in these schools.

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Compared to other schools, NewGlobe has proven successful in delivering strong learning outcomes to students, and doing so irrespective of family income, education, or language state. This section will review in detail the evidence which shows: •

Students in classrooms using the NewGlobe platform in Lagos, Nigeria outperformed their peers in traditionally-managed public schools by a wide margin, 1.38 and 0.86 standard deviations in literacy and math, respectively. This represents an estimated two or more additional years of instruction in literacy and roughly one and one-half additional years of instruction in math. These gains in Lagos, Nigeria were found to remarkably be driven by equity. NewGlobe students’ performance on literacy and numeracy assessments are quite similar irrespective of parental income, education, or home language. This implies that the NewGlobe approach overcomes the inherent disadvantages typically challenging students from low income households and with parents with less formal education. Students in public schools in Edo State implementing NewGlobe platform gained more than 70% of a year’s worth of instructional gains in just one semester, were 45% more likely to work a full day, 54% more likely to give positive feedback to pupils, and 55% less likely to use corporal punishment. In NewGlobe-managed public schools in Liberia, research showed that in a single year, students in these classrooms gained one additional full year of learning compared to their peers in traditionally-managed public schools. In East Africa, studies showed that students taught using the NewGlobe platform performed higher on national exams than their peers in traditionally-managed public schools – gains equivalent to over 32% more schooling in English and 13% more schooling in maths.

The Global Context Education outcomes tend to be strongly influenced by socio-economic factors. For example, there is a strong correlation between primary school net attendance rate and the share of population below the poverty line (Figure 2.1). Furthermore, there is significant academic evidence that children in less affluent households are more likely to achieve lower academic outcomes; and that income has a causal effect (rather than only a correlation) on children’s learning outcomes2. Improving learning outcomes for all children, irrespective of affluence levels, is a challenge for many governments.

assessing educational policies, it is hence crucial to not only consider the impact on enrolment, but also to investigate the impact on the attainment of enrolled children, taking into consideration contextual information such as gender, level of affluence, level of teacher training etc. Figure 2.1 – Primary school attendance rate vs. population under poverty line, % (UNESCO)

2.2 – NewGlobe Education Academies are Teaching Students in Low Socio-Economic Communities NewGlobe Education works across Africa and Asia in countries facing both socio-economic and education challenges (cf. Figures 2.2 and 2.3). Through the work that NewGlobe has delivered in developing countries to date, they have demonstrated that their approach not only teaches, but drives differential improvements even in low socio-economic communities. Figure 2.2: Socioeconomic Comparison: NewGlobe operating countries, 20174 Number of NewGlobe students

The performance of countries with comparable levels of economic development on education indicators varies wildly. This is largely due to the actions of governments and their policy approach to improvements in education. For example, in Malawi, 1992-1994 government policies abolished school fees and provided schooling materials free of charge, increasing primary enrolment rates drastically but without the right investment in teacher quality, did not achieve the attainment uplift they had anticipated. “it is clear that the policy (had) implications on the quality of schooling being supplied to the larger population of children since the newly hired teachers were untrained and may not have been qualified instructors” 3.When designing or

Uganda

445,000

Kenya

Human Development Index (HDI) rank

value

GNI per capita (2011 PPP $)

Life expectancy at birth

Mortality rate, under-5 (per 1,000 live births)

Population ages 0-14

162

0.516

1,658

60.2

49

48%

142

0.59

2,961

67.3

45.6

41%

Nigeria

283,000

157

0.532

5,231

53.9

100.2

44%

Liberia

23,000

181

0.435

667

63

74.7

42%

China

16,000

86

0.752

15,270

76.4

9.3

18%

India

900

130

0.64

6,353

68.8

39.4

28%

2

Does Money Affect Children’s Outcomes? An Update (Kerris Cooper & Kitty Stewart, 2017) The Long-Term Effects of Universal Primary Education: Evidence from Ethiopia, Malawi and Uganda (Carina Omoeva & Wael Moussa, 2018)

3

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4

Source: UNESCO

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Figure 2.3: Education Comparison: NewGlobe operating countries3 Number of NewGlobe students Uganda Kenya

445,000

Mean years of schooling

Primary school net attendance rate

Youth literacy rate

Adult literacy rate

Out-of-school rate for children of primary school age

6.1

87%

87%

73%

13%

6.5

85%

82%

72%

15%

Nigeria

283,000

6.2

68%

66%

51%

32%

Liberia

23,000

4.7

43%

49%

43%

57%

China

16,000

7.8

97%

100%

95%

3%

India

900

6.4

83%

86%

69%

17%

The impact study showed that the gains in learning outcomes stemmed from how the NewGlobe platform supports, guides and changes teacher behaviour and practice to strengthen teachers’ abilities to create a more productive classroom and help pupils stay focused, follow directions, and work hard. These habits, in turn, help pupils learn better. Figure 2.4 depicts that model and reports the benefits of EdoBEST seen in just its first term. Teachers at Edo-BEST schools received more training, used the provided technology, and had more textbooks in their classrooms. Their behaviour also differed from teachers at status quo schools. Edo-BEST teachers spent more time at school, provided more feedback to pupils, used praise and distributed it liberally to many pupils, rather than concentrating solely upon top performers. All of this led to more learning. Figure 2.4: Model and benefits of EdoBEST

2.3 – NewGlobe delivers significant learning outcomes in low socio-economic communities Because NewGlobe is a data-driven, scientifically-based organisation, it continuously monitors and analyses performance information in order to track the immediate impact of its model on the effectiveness in individual schools, providing a view of the efficacy of its methodology to deliver learning outcomes. Rigorous external academic studies have also been conducted to provide an independent view of NewGlobe’s impact on students’ learning outcomes.

Learning Gains Proven by Research Studies of NewGlobe Programmes Implemented in Other Similar Socio-Economic Contexts Edo is a state in southern Nigeria where 60% of the population live below the poverty line. Approximately 23% of the population are primary school-aged children in need of a better education. Absenteeism is high and approximately 1 in 4 Edo children aged 5-16 are illiterate and 1 in 5 innumerate. The primary school completion rate is 45%, falling well below the national average of 68% for Nigeria, and 98% for OECD member countries. The urgent need to build capacity for over 15,000 teachers and ensure learning for more than 320,000 pupils prompted the Edo State Universal Basic Education Board (SUBEB) to launch the Edo Basic Education Sector Transformation (Edo-BEST) initiative in partnership with NewGlobe Education Academies (NewGlobe). NewGlobe works with SUBEB to build local capacity, provide teaching and learning resources, and implement teacher development programming The impact study of EdoBEST examined pupil performance and a range of teaching and learning indicators in both EdoBEST schools and traditionally managed public schools not yet in the EdoBEST programme. The study found in just the first 2.5 months, that pupils in EdoBEST classrooms significantly outperformed the traditionally managed public schools, even within just one term. The outperformance of EdoBEST students were equivalent in less than one term to nearly three-quarters of a year more maths instruction and nearly two-thirds of a year more literacy instruction. Furthermore, these impacts are driven by gains by girl pupils.

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Education in Liberia has been disrupted by more than a decade of civil war, post-conflict stress, and the Ebola health crisis, and both its socio-economic situation and its educational outcomes are amongst the lowest in the world. In this context, the Liberian Ministry of Education works in partnership with NewGlobe, aimed at improving the quality of teachers and education at government schools, delegating the management of 68 public schools which have educated 23,000 in 8 different counties across Liberia since September 2016 (Bomi, Bong, Grand Bassa, Grand Cape Mount, Margibi, Montserrado, Nimba, and River Cess). Data shows this partnership is delivering on significantly accelerated learning gains. Students in the programme using NewGlobe platform and methodology performed exceptionally well compared to their traditional public-school counterparts, according to a study conducted by independent researchers at the Center for Global Development and Innovations for Poverty Action. The study, a randomized controlled trial, used appropriately conservative treatments of academic outcomes and carefully assigned schools to treatment and control conditions. In its first year, NewGlobe students gained one additional full year of learning.

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Figure 2.5: Student Learning in One School Year in Liberia

The Ministry expanded the programme in its second year to reach more students, including those in the most remote parts of the country. In its recent report on the global education crisis, the World Bank rightly commends Liberia’s public-private partnership as positive policy action. If its subsequent steps are as successful as its first, Liberia will be well on its way to achieving its audacious goal to become a leading light for education. Lagos State, Nigeria. The UK’s Department for International Development (DFID) commissioned an independent baseline report to better understand the impact of NewGlobe driving up the quality of education in Lagos. Researchers from Oxford Policy Management and the University of Sussex studied second grade students in Lagos who attend NewGlobe-managed, traditionally-managed public schools and other private schools. Along with assessing student performance in literacy and numeracy, these researchers examined teacher, school, and student background characteristics hypothesized to influence learning.

NewGlobe students outperformed traditionally managed public school students by a wide margin, 1.38 and 0.86 standard deviations in literacy and math, respectively. This represents an estimated two or more additional years of instruction in literacy and roughly one and one-half additional years of instruction in math. In literacy, NewGlobe students also outperformed students in other private schools, but by a smaller margin (0.35 standard deviations, roughly six months of instruction). In math, NewGlobe and other private school students performed similarly. Equity: NewGlobe students’ performance on literacy and numeracy assessments are quite similar irrespective of parental income, education, or home language. Figure 2.7: Impact on Students’ Literacy Performance

Literacy: NewGlobe students outperformed their peers at both public and other private schools. Numeracy: NewGlobe students outperformed their peers at public schools and performed similarly to students at other private schools. Figure 2.6: Literacy and Numeracy Performance among Second Graders in Lagos, Nigeria

Figure 2.8: Impact on Students’ Numeracy Performance

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In these graphs, the slope of each line tells an equity story: the flatter the line, the more equitable the performance outcomes across each family background characteristic. Looking at NewGlobe student performance, the green lines are relatively flat. Performance on literacy and numeracy assessments are quite similar irrespective of family income, education, or language state. This isn’t true of the other lines, especially for family education, where there exists a wide gap in performance between students from the least and most educated families, for both public and private school students. At NewGlobe, equity doesn’t come at the expense of performance. NewGlobe student performance is strong irrespective of the student’s home language, socio-economic background, and family educational attainment history. In fact, NewGlobe students from the poorest and least educated families performed just as well as private school students from less poor and better educated families.

These effects are significant and meaningful. When compared with traditionally managed pubic school peers, the average NewGlobe pupil learned to read almost 10 more words per minute and could also answer 10% more reading comprehension questions correctly. In maths, NewGlobe pupils answered 10.1% more quantity discrimination problems and 5.8% more word problems correctly. Furthermore, within one academic year, a greater proportion of NewGlobe pupils crossed English reading and maths fluency benchmarks. By year’s end, nearly half (46%) of NewGlobe pupils were categorized as fluent readers, compared with a quarter of public school pupils. Additionally, only a quarter of NewGlobe pupils remained non-readers, far less than the public school nonreader rate of 41%. Figure 2.9. Performance of NewGlobe programme reading fluency compared to the general school system

Since Kenya established free education in 2003, enrolment has improved but attainment has remained unsatisfactory, with over two-thirds of children in Class 3 not being literate or numerate at the Class 2 level. From 2009 to 2013, Uwezo has found no improvement in the levels of learning for children in Kenya. There are now efforts underway to improve the state of the primary education system in Kenya, from increasing pupil and teacher attendance to improving learning outcomes. In this context, NewGlobe Education Academies now educates children across 44 counties in Kenya, serving over 100,000 pupils in difficult-to-reach areas; it is the largest network of complementary schools in the country. NewGlobe pupils learn more than their public-school peers in both English and maths. Based on a nationally representative sample of more than 2,700 pupils in Kenya, the study estimates “the NewGlobe effect” to be .31 standard deviations in English and .09 standard deviations in maths. This is equivalent to over 32% more schooling in English and 13% more schooling in maths. Independent studies have been conducted on NewGlobe schools, all demonstrating better student learning gains compared to traditionally-managed public schools. We review and discuss these studies and gains below and further summarise them in Figure 2.10, in terms of the impact

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NewGlobe programmes have been observed to have on student achievement in the low socioeconomic communities NewGlobe operates in. Figure 2.10. Summary of learning outcomes delivered in NewGlobe programmes NewGlobe programme

Learning outcomes achieved

Study authors and methodology

EdoBEST, Nigeria

+125% / +98% Children in EdoBEST schools progressed c. two times quicker than their peers (learning 75% of a year in Maths, and c.65% of a year in literacy over one term) These impacts are in particular driven by improvements of girl pupils

Edo State Universal Board of Education, in collaboration with NewGlobe, comparing the results in 30 Edo-BEST schools with 30 other schools’ representative of Edo state schools

Liberia

+100% (Eng.), +200% (Math) NewGlobe students progressed twice as fast in Maths and three times as fast English (and more than twice the number of NewGlobe students met reading fluency benchmarks)

Collaboration between the Ministry of Education, Pencils of Promise, Worldreader, University of Liberia, and NewGlobe to conduct a matched comparison of attainment on standard tests, comparing 6 NewGlobe schools with 6 similar traditional state schools

Lagos, Nigeria

NewGlobe students’ performance was strong irrespective of family income, education, or language

Funded by the UK Department of International Development (DfID), conducted by Oxford Policy Management and the University of Sussex, comparing students at NewGlobe, public and affordable private schools

In literacy, NewGlobe students perform better than students at other private and public schools (resp. by 0.5 and by 1.38 standard deviations), and this difference is largely driven by better performance of poorer children at NewGlobe compared to other schools (students in higher income brackets performed slightly better in NewGlobe schools than in other private schools, and students in lower income brackets performed significantly better in NewGlobe schools than in private schools.) In mathematics, NewGlobe students perform better than students at public schools and similarly to students at private schools (by 0.86 standard deviation). 2013-14 EGRA/EGMA programme, Kenya

+32% (Engl.), +13% (Math) at Early Years NewGlobe pupils outperformed their publicschool peers in both English and maths. (0.31 standard deviations in English and 0.09 in maths)

NewGlobe analysis of 2013-14 EGRA/EGMA programme, analysing the performance of a nationally representative sample of 2,700 pupils across 13 counties in collaboration with Decision Management Consultants (DMC).

Section 3: Feasibility of Delivering with Existing Government School Teachers This section examines the feasibility of the ambition of delivering the programme with existing schoolteachers within the government school system. We identify the benefits that arise by developing and supporting teachers to improve their practice and the importance of this approach to driving up pupil attainment levels in the way NewGlobe has been able to achieve.

3.1 - Introduction A key tenet of the NewGlobe methodology is that it approaches improvements in school systems by working with and building on existing capacity and capability. This approach is underpinned by the premise that by working with teachers already within the system to improve practice, the benefits that can be realised include: • Improved student success through enhanced quality of teaching and learning in the classroom - research asserts makes a greater contribution to education outcomes (productivity, innovation earnings and improvements in GDP)5 • More confident and capable teachers – research from McKinsey6 consistently highlights the importance of teacher quality and leadership in raising education standards • Improving sustainability and driving accountability and professionalism – Previous studies have found national averages of teacher absenteeism in developing countries are up to 50%. Having a teacher in the classroom is an important pre-requisite to promote students’ learning and other outcomes and the investment in teacher practice reduces teacher absenteeism • A workforce already in place that benefits from the investment – Evidence show that teacher wellbeing has significant effects on children’s socioemotional adjustment and academic performance. Providing teachers with strong feedback, well-designed instructional guidance, national standards-aligned materials and texts, and more scheduled instructional time strengthen teachers’ wellbeing and abilities to create a more productive classroom and help pupils stay focused • Technology enabled improvements in pedagogy and monitoring to support teacher development– UNESCO’s Digital services for education in Africa report shows that ICT in education in general offer a range of benefits including access to low-cost teaching resources, improved access to high volumes of data which can be analysed and used to monitor, improve and inform practice and policy reform NewGlobe has already proven their ability to successfully deliver an education programme with existing government teachers as seen in section 1. In the remainder of this section, examples of projects undertaken by NewGlobe are summarised demonstrating how the interventions have enhanced the quality of education and rebuilt trust in the public system in countries such as Nigeria, Liberia and China by working in collaboration with existing government school teachers. Highlights of such results include: • •

5 6

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Increasing public school enrolment by 22% in less than a year in Edo State Nigeria Reducing teacher absenteeism by 85% in Liberia

Education Quality and Economic Growth (Eric A. Hanushek Ludger Wößmann, 2007) Drivers of student performance (McKinsey, 2017)

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Changing teacher behaviour in Nigeria by increasing the likelihood of delivering full days of instruction in public schools by 45%, increasing teachers giving student feedback by 200% and reducing corporal punishment by 55%

3.2 – Increase in Public School Enrolment The case study for Edo State, Nigeria illustrates the effectiveness of NewGlobe’s approach to education transformation. In 2018, 7,000 nursery, primary teachers and administrators participated in the EdoSTAR professional development programming aiming to develop their quality of teaching, enhance their leadership skills and use technology to improve pedagogy. The programme has been well-received not only by teachers but also by parents who through this programme have regained trust in the public education system, evidenced by a dramatic increase in enrolment in public schools since the programme started. The Figure shows that there has been a 22% increase in enrolment in EdoBEST public schools from April 2018 to April 2019.

3.3 – Reduction in Teacher Absenteeism LEAP is a Public-Private Partnership programme launched by and for the Liberian Ministry of Education to improve the quality of teachers and education at government schools. Teachers from 68 primary schools participated in pre-service training and were equipped with syllabus-aligned textbooks for all grades. Absenteeism fell dramatically. Former Liberian Minister of Education, George Kronnisanyon Werner reported that estimates for teacher absenteeism across Liberia were 60% before NewGlobe Methodology was deployed. Once these traditionally managed public schools were transformed by the NewGlobe methodology, teacher absenteeism was reduced to less than 10%, equivalent to an 85% reduction in absenteeism. The Figure demonstrates that this reduction in teacher absenteeism occurred across the country in each of the counties participating in the programme. Figure 3.2: Average Teacher Absentee Rate by County in Liberia, 2018 County

Figure 3.1: Growth in Attendance in EdoBEST schools in one Year Local Government Area

# Schools

Attendance as of April 2019

Attendance prior to entering EdoBEST in April 2018

1 Year Growth from entering EdoBEST

Akoko Edo

14

3,508

2,881

22%

Egor

30

16,763

12,389

35%

Esan Central

9

3,767

2,978

26%

Esan North East

1

775

585

32%

Esan South East

5

2,584

2,071

25%

Esan West

6

2,216

2,272

-2%

Etsako Central

8

2,690

2,194

23%

Etsako East

5

1,812

1,592

14%

Etsako West

2

1,579

1,444

9%

Igueben

9

1,660

1,419

17%

Ikpoba Okha

49

25,365

20,535

24%

Oredo

40

19,632

17,297

13%

Orhionmwon

16

3,270

2,978

10%

Ovia North East

13

4,166

3,324

25%

Ovia South West

7

2,748

2,089

32%

Grand Total

214

92,535

76,048

22%

Margibi Bong Monteserrado Grand Bassa Bomi Nimba Rivercess Grand Cape Mount Maryland Grand Kru

Average Teacher Absentee Rate, Adjusting for Excused Absences 4.1% 4.7% 7.3% 12.1% 9.1% 5.4% 16.0% 6.7% 8.8% 6.7%

With a national teacher shortage in the country, NewGlobe also developed an alternative certification with universities and NGOs to support initial teacher training and increase the number of teachers entering the system.

3.4 – Teacher Feedback Teachers themselves have responded very positively to the partnership with NewGlobe and, in every case study, this benefit has had a significant impact on the success of the programme. When surveyed teacher where overwhelmingly positive about their experience of NewGlobe and the impact it has had.

Evidence of the successful transformation is also shown in journal articles such as Vanguard stating parents have begun withdrawing their children from private schools and moving them to public schools following the EdoBEST implementation and improvement of teaching quality. As Governor Obaseki states “EdoBEST is revolutionising infrastructure in schools and has restored the confidence of the masses in public schools. With this, a lot of people, seeing that the schools are now conducive for learning, encourage their children to go to school.”

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Figure 3.3: 2019 Teacher satisfaction statistics

Section 4: Feasibility of Delivering at the Scale and Speed Required In reviewing each of the education system transformations they have been engaged on, the evidence demonstrates that NewGlobe can deliver at scale and pace time and again. The case of EdoBEST is a good example illustrating NewGlobe’s capability to deliver results in an extremely efficient and rapid manner. We have not come across another provider of system-wide transformation that has demonstrated these results on this large a scale and at this kind of speed of rollout.

4.1 - NewGlobe Track Record in Delivering at Scale and Pace Since their inception, NewGlobe has helped educate over 750,000 students, supported 1,414 schools in 55 different provinces across 6 countries over a 10-year time frame. On average projects were rolled out over a 6-month period, achieving results within 1-2 years. They have worked closely with governments to improve and create powerful public-school systems by delivering at pace and to a high level. The projects in Liberia, China and especially Nigeria demonstrate how NewGlobe’s educational programmes can generate large learning gains for teachers and transform existing government school systems which highly benefit students, administrators and parents Initial results In China demonstrate teachers are benefiting from weekly training in English and are helping children to spend four times more time speaking English and learning twice as many words per week compared to when the programme began. Measurement and evaluation studies were also conducted in Nigeria, and yielded positive results: •

Teachers were 40% more likely to be teaching a full day (as defined by a 1:45pm end)

In the first 2.5 months of the programme, teachers taught the equivalent of 70% of an entire year worth of instruction in English and 65% in Maths.

Teachers guided students through independent practice 50% more than usual and gave 200% more feedback on the students’ work

Figure 4.1 summarises the scale of delivery broken down by country Country

# of Students Enrolled

# of Schools Supported

445,000 283,000 23,000 16,000 900

360 1,053 68 18 7

Kenya & Uganda Nigeria Liberia China India

# of Provinces 4 3 10 1 1

4.2 – EdoBEST roll-out plan A review of case studies demonstrates that NewGlobe has developed their approach, adapting their methodology based on feedback from the governments and teachers they work with and based on the insight they gain from the wealth of data they collect and analyse in order to really focus on take-up and improvement at scale and pace. In just over a year, NewGlobe through EdoBEST have increased the number of students exposed to the programme by more than 500%, 9000 teachers have been trained and the number of schools implementing EdoBEST has quadrupled. Figure 4.2: Rollout of EdoBEST Rollout of EdoBEST Dates

Jan-18

# Students # Teachers # Schools

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Contract Signed

Apr-18

Sep-18

Jan-19

Apr-19

42,605

150,000

150,000

267,000

1,500

7000

7000

9,000

250

600

600

1,000

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Section 5: Feasibility of Working in Low Infrastructure Communities

Figure 5.2: Access to electricity (% of population)7 Limited and infrequent electricity provision

In this section we describe how NewGlobe has addressed the impact of low levels of infrastructure in their programme design. The NewGlobe platform is underpinned by a range of technologies that have been designed with low infrastructure environments in mind. In particular, the NewGlobe approach is operating in communities with the following challenges: • • • • •

Limited and infrequent electricity provision No wired connections Low speed data access Unreliable data access Harsh physical conditions

Sub-Saharan Africa’s household electrification rate is the lowest in the world, with more than 50% of the population having no access to power from the centralised system8. Total installed capacity of electricity in the region was 96 gigawatts in 2015, compared with 325 GW in India and 1,519 GW in China, according to the US Energy Information Administration. South Africa accounts for nearly half of the region’s generation capacity. Nigeria, which has a population four times the size of South Africa’s, has only about a quarter of the installed generation capacity of South Africa. There’s also a big gap between electricity access in urban households (71%) versus rural households (22%).

The remainder of this section reviews how NewGlobe has successfully delivered against each of the challenges listed above.

5.1 – NewGlobe’s Methodology: Efficacy in Overcoming Low Infrastructure-Related Challenges Delivering in regions with low levels of infrastructure adds to the complexity of rolling out and delivering an education reform programme if it does not fully consider the local context in terms of geography, utilities and infrastructure. This is particularly pertinent in the context of digital infrastructure which is increasingly relied upon by governments and schools to support teaching, training, monitoring and reporting. The technology platform developed by NewGlobe consists of a combination of mobile app architecture and cloud-based web services, applications analysis tools and dashboards. In terms of devices in the field, they use smartphones and tablets. It has been configured with resilience and long battery life built in. This means the platform can cope in infrastructure environments which typically have intermittent power and low network connectivity. The products have been tested and used for over 10 years in other similar geographies such as Liberia, Kenya, Uganda, Nigeria and India (see Figure 5.1).

NewGlobe addresses the issues of shortage of power by: • Providing teacher devices that are custom-manufactured and a product of 10 years of iteration, testing and deployment of hardware designs in communities with limited and infrequent electricity provision • The tablets designed and tested to work for up to 10 days on a single charge, ensuring smooth operations even when electricity is unavailable for multiple days • NewGlobe also remotely monitors battery life and downloads of lesson plans to monitor activity; flagging up any repairs that might be necessary, problems with connectivity or suspicious behaviour

Figure 5.1: Infrastructure analysis by country

No wired connection

Wired internet connection in schools is unavailable in most of the communities served by NewGlobe, driving the need for technology solutions that do not rely on this type of connectivity. The NewGlobe Platform is designed in a mobile-first environment, assuming only the availability of limited mobile connectivity. The principal’s device itself acts as a conduit between all of the teacher/classroom devices and the cloud, with data being cached at multiple levels in the architecture. Teacher guides can load the next two weeks of lesson plans in advance and after 30 days, old lessons plans are deleted automatically.

7 8

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World Bank Electrifying Africa (Oxford Energy Forum, 2018)

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Low speed data access

According to GSMA, unique mobile subscriber penetration in Sub-Saharan Africa stood at 44% at the end of 2017, still well below the global average of 66%. In addition, while Sub-Saharan Africa is seeing an accelerating migration to mobile broadband capable connections, 2G connections are still the majority of the region’s total connections base. On the other hand, Asia Pacific has been the biggest contributor to global subscriber growth in recent years and still has room for growth. As of the end of 2017, there were 2.7b unique mobile subscribers in Asia Pacific, accounting for two thirds of the region’s population. Asia Pacific is also rapidly migrating to higher speed mobile networks, with mobile broadband (3G and above) becoming the dominant technology by the end of 2016. However, improving connectivity in rural and remote areas remains challenging. NewGlobe’s platform is designed to work in these environments. As such, synchronisation of the tablets and guides are possible wherever there is 2G, which the International Telecoms Union declared ‘ubiquitous’, following an announcement that it was accessible to over 95% of the world.

Unreliable data access

NewGlobe Platform is designed around a multi-level data-caching architecture that requires only 20 minutes of active data connection daily. All the data for a teacher/classroom is cached locally on the teacher’s tablet. The school level data along with the data from the teacher’s tablet is cached locally on the principal’s device. Once a connection becomes available, the data is being transferred between the cloud and the school.

Section 6: Feasibility of Working in Communities with Teachers Who Start Off with Low Levels of English Fluency Research has shown that teacher subject knowledge has a positive and significant effect on student performance. Teachers with limited or low level of English fail to develop English skills among pupils and themselves as they are likely to deliver lessons in the local language. The case studies we have reviewed demonstrate that the approach adopted by NewGlobe in places where it delivers English medium of instruction: • •

Delivers strong learning outcomes for students through teachers with limited pre-service English fluency levels Has a positive impact on Teacher Confidence and English Fluency Levels

In this section we explore how NewGlobe successfully work in communities where teachers join the programme with low levels of English fluency to achieve these outcomes.

6.1 – NewGlobe Can Deliver Strong Learning Outcomes for Students Through Teachers with Limited Pre-Service English Fluency Levels NewGlobe has proven they are able to work in communities with teachers with low level of English and still deliver strong learning outcomes for students Across all territories, NewGlobe teachers have an average English reading fluency level of 136 words per minute (wpm). In the Liberia programme, teachers’ initial English reading fluency was 122 wpm on average. Nevertheless, despite these lower teacher fluency levels, Liberian students significantly outperformed their peers at traditionally managed public schools (see Section 2). During the first year, these gains were roughly equivalent to an additional year’s worth of schooling. Figure 6.1: Teacher Fluency Rates in Words per Minute by territory Territory

Number of teachersa

Mean WPM

Pass Rate

Nigeria (Lagos)

253

148

95%

Nigeria (Edo)

30

Liberia

387

122

95%

Uganda

117

136

95%

India (Andhra Pradesh)

147

136

95%

Total

934

135.5

95%

a.

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(proxy for fluency)

for all teachers between 2016-2019 tested at Pre-Service or In-Service Training Note: Pass rate is calculated as greater than or equal to 100 WPM

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6.2 –English Fluency Levels of By Country and Territory NewGlobe has proven they are able to work in communities that have a moderate to very low English Proficiency Index by successfully implementing their approach in countries such as Nigeria and Liberia9. The table below outlines the English Proficiency Index10 by relevant country. Figure 6.2: English Proficiency Index by country Region

EPI

Overall Ranking11

Position in continent

Proficiency

Asia

57.13

28

4/21

Moderate

Nigeria

Africa

56.72

29

2/9

Moderate

Senegal

Africa

53.50

39

3/9

Moderate

China

Asia

51.94

47

9/21

Low

Taiwan

Asia

51.88

48

10/21

Low

Pakistan

Asia

51.66

50

12/21

Low

Ethiopia

Africa

50.79

54

4/9

Low

Egypt

Africa

48.76

62

5/9

Low

Asia

48.72

63

15/21

Low

48.29

66

2/9

Very Low

45.64

78

6/9

Very Low

Country India

Bangladesh Iran Kuwait

Middle East Middle East

Myanmar

Asia

44.23

82

18/21

Very Low

Afghanistan

Asia

43.64

84

19/21

Very Low

Cambodia

Asia

42.86

85

20/21

Very Low

Iraq

Middle East

40.82

87

9/9

Very Low

Libya

Africa

39.64

88

9/9

Very Low

Section 7: Feasibility of Increasing Learning Levels And Enrolment of Girls Gender parity, in terms of school attendance remains a challenge for governments across the globe and is a common issue in countries were NewGlobe work. Across Sub-Saharan Africa and Eastern and Southern Asia, girls participation in education remains lower than boys and is low compared to many other countries (see figure 7.1 and Appendix 1 for further details). In this section, we describe how the NewGlobe Approach encourages an increase in the participation of girls in the education and indeed drives up participation across boys and girls, closing the gender participation gap. 7.1: Percentage of children of primary school age who are not in school by gender, Sub-Saharan Africa

7.1 – Girls Education/Enrolment Challenges Across Sub-Saharan Africa and Eastern and South-Eastern Asia Similar to other territories where NewGlobe operates, girls in Sub-Saharan African and Eastern and South-eastern Asian countries are constrained by poverty and unfavourable social norms that result in a gender enrolment gap (see figure 7.1). Figure 7.2: School enrolment, primary (gross), gender parity index (GPI)

South Asia East Asia and Pacific (excl. high income) Sub-Saharan Africa (excl. high income)

9

Liberia is not included in the ranking list Sourced from Education First (EF) 11 EF ranked 88 countries 10

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In 2018, in sub-Saharan Africa, 33.3m girls were out of school compared to 28m in 201512. 75% of girls start primary school, but only 8% finish secondary school13. Poverty is seen as one of the root causes as children in the poorest communities are nine times more likely to be out of school. Girls face even more barriers to education, including responsibility for household chores, long journeys to school posing risks of exploitation and early marriages. However, arguably the most common barrier has been the lacking societal sense of entitlement to education, combined with poor outcomes delivered from the state system.

• The teacher training and classroom management techniques are

focused on encouraging girls to be leaders in and out of the classroom Gender-sensitive school management

NewGlobe has partnered with governments in a number of developing countries and had a significant impact on learning outcomes. This is against a backdrop of significant challenges. For example: • • •

“In Nigeria, almost two-thirds of women in the north-west and north-east regions have no formal education” “In Kenya, nearly 40% of girls in Kenya reported missing days of school because they didn’t have access to pads when they were menstruating” “In Liberia, a girl is more likely to be married by 18 than to know how to read and 63% of girls between the ages of 15-24 are illiterate”

academies • A strict policy against the use of corporal punishment on all pupils is in

place; meaning girls become more confident, expressive and engaged • Teacher training programmes include lessons on how to identify all

manners of abuse Co-curriculars

• NewGlobe encourages girls to hone and practice leadership skills

through participation in various co-curricular activities like drama, chess and the arts and taekwondo. Girls are particularly encouraged to engage in sports like athletics, ballgames and taekwondo which typically have less female participation • NewGlobe has also fostered partnerships such as coding programs

designed to narrow the gender gap of women in STEM Accountability

• Through innovative wireless technology, NewGlobe engages in

systematic gender-responsive monitoring to ensure effective evaluation of the progress of each of the female pupils across indicators like attendance and academic performance • Parent-Teacher Associations meetings allow partners to seek

7.3 - NewGlobe Methodology Closes Gender Gap in Educational Outcomes

Gender-sensitive instruction

• NewGlobe has introduced school leadership roles for girls, including • A strict policy against the expulsion of teen mothers from NewGlobe’s

According to UNESCO, the GPI (Gender Parity Index, ideally = 1.0) of Pakistan is 0.86. This level is similar to the one in Nigeria (0.84), where NewGlobe currently operates.

NewGlobe’s methodology is focused around improving opportunities for girls in and out of the classroom by:

within the classroom and community Head Girls and Prefects

NewGlobe has demonstrated their impact on both girls attainment and enrolment through previous interventions in Kenya, Uganda, Liberia and Nigeria by applying a gender-sensitive approach to learning instructions, school management and co-curricular. This has resulted in girls consistently outperforming boys in NewGlobe academies in Kenya, Uganda and Nigeria and closing both the attainment and enrolment gap in Liberia.

7.2 – NewGlobe Territories with Similar Girls Education/Enrolment Challenge

• Over 60% of NewGlobe’s teachers are women, providing role models

accountability for their girls education Affordable fees

• Affordable fees mean that parents don’t have to choose which child to

send to school and are less likely to prioritise boys over girls

• NewGlobe commissions all artwork and creative stories in textbooks

and workbooks to ensure equal visibility of male and female characters, and specifically represent female characters in powerful, unconventional roles • As fewer girls than boys usually tend to volunteer in class, NewGlobe’s

teachers are trained to practice more cold calling to ensure equal participation

7.4 – Outcomes Following NewGlobe’s Intervention Evidence for driving improved academic attainment of girls NewGlobe’s support for gender equality in the classroom and in the community has translated to improved performance on high stakes end of primary school exam, such as in the Kenya Certificate of Primary Education (KCPE) and Uganda’s Primary Leaving Exam (PLE). For the fourth consecutive year, girls attending NewGlobe for five or more years were the highest performing cohort, averaging 281 marks. The success of this cohort accentuates the exciting trend that extended education at NewGlobe appears to close the gender achievement gap endemic in typical KCPE outcomes.

12 13

UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2018) Brookings (2016)

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Figure 7.3: Gender attainment levels

Alongside improving academic attainment, NewGlobe’s intervention in Liberia has proven to be successful in increasing enrolment of girls, resulting in a reversed Gender Parity Index, i.e. ECE Level 1 GPI has changed from 0.89 to 1.02 and the ECE Level 2 GPI has increase from 0.96 to 1.05 in less than 4 years. Figure 7.5: Progress towards Gender Parity through NewGlobe Interventions14

Figure 7.6: Summary of various research with reference to the NewGlobe Methodology closing Gender Gap In Uganda, boys outperform girls nationally and are 8% more likely than girls to be in Division 1 & 2 in the PLE. However, in NewGlobe Uganda schools, equal opportunity, supportive teachers, and community engagement are enabling girls to surpass their male peers and reverse the national trend, with girls being 2% more likely to be in Division 1 & 2. Figure 7.4: Pupils achieving Division 1 & 2 scores, Uganda

Similar effects have been seen across Nigeria as girls in NewGlobe schools, and Nigerian government schools supported by NewGlobe, have been reaching higher academic attainment than their peers. A study in 2018, backed by the UK Aid agency DFID, found that all types of pupils reached equal outcomes at NewGlobe schools in Lagos, regardless of their background.

Country

Study – Year

Subject Grade Population

Boys Score

Girls Score

Gender Gap (if negative, girls outperform boys)

Kenya

KCPE –2018 (consistent with 2014-17)

Girls with 5+ years at NewGlobe

277

281

-4 KCPE points

Uganda

PLE – 2017

Primary Leaving Exam – 7th Grade

93% in Div 1&2

95% in Div 1&2

-2% in Div 1&2

Nigeria

Oxford Policy Management (DFID funded) 2018

2nd Grade Literacy & Math

677/578 (l/m)

695/583 (l/m)

-0.16 sd: Girls outperform boys

Liberia

EGRA/EGMA

Grades 1, 2, 3, 5

2019

“score” reflects the number of tasks where a gender gap exists (e.g. 9 of 10 tasks have a gender gap)

G1 9 of 10; G2 7 of 11; G3 5 of 9; G5 0 of 2

(see chart below)

Girls are closing the gap. Smaller gaps this year than two years ago for 25 of 32 sub-tasks. Early grades gaps are more prevalent than later grade. In G5, girls outperform boys.

14 Source: Comparison of enrolment data from Liberia EMIS and the enrolment data from schools where NewGlobe was deployed.

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Section 8: Feasibility of Transforming Education in Fragile Communities (Insecurity, Conflict, Post-Conflict) In this section we examine the ability of NewGlobe to transform education in fragile communities. The report highlights the chronic fragility of all of the jurisdictions NewGlobe is operating in and the positive impact on attainment which is described elsewhere in this report.

Since 2008, 75 countries and contexts have been considered fragile at least once. Of these 75, 27 are considered chronically fragile and have appeared on the OECD report every year. These include, Liberia and Kenya, all countries were NewGlobe has been operating as well as Uganda and Nigeria. This is demonstrated in Figure 8.1. Figure 8.1: Fragility in the World, 2019

8.1 - Characteristics of Fragile Communities As defined by OECD: “Fragility is a combination of exposure to risk and insufficient coping capacity of the state, system and/or communities to manage, absorb or mitigate those risks. Fragility can lead to negative outcomes including violence, the breakdown of institutions, displacement, humanitarian crises or other emergencies”. The OECD fragility framework looks at current exposure to natural disasters or violence, for example, as well as the ability of a country or context to deal with future negative events, i.e. the combination of risk and coping capabilities.

Political

Sources from data (e.g. perception of corruption, decentralized elections, political terror, regime persistence, judicial and legislative constraints etc.) that captures and assess the vulnerability to risks inherent in political processes, events or decisions, political inclusiveness and transparency (corruption) and its ability to change and avoid oppression.

Societal

Sources from data (e.g. gender inequality, urbanization, access to justice, displacement, etc.) that captures and assesses the vulnerability to risks affecting societal cohesion (e.g. inequalities among cultural groups, etc.), social cleavages, etc.

Economic

Sources from data (e.g. aid dependency, debt, unemployment rate, GDP growth rate, education/schooling, food security, etc.) captures and assess the vulnerability to risks stemming from weakness in economic foundations and human capital (e.g. macroeconomic shocks, unequal growth, high youth employment, etc.)

Environmental

Sources from data (e.g. natural hazard exposure, environmental health, disease exposure, etc.) that captures and assess the vulnerability to environmental climactic and health risks to citizens’ lives and livelihoods (e.g. exposure to natural disasters, pollution, disease epidemics, etc.)

Security

Sources from data (e.g. violent conflict risk, homicide rate, terrorism, police officers and armed security size, rule of law, etc.) that captures and assess the vulnerability of citizen security and exposure to social and political violence (e.g. terrorism, insurgency, etc.)

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The Fragile States Index, produced by The Fund for Peace, is a critical tool in highlighting the normal pressures that all states experience, but also in identifying when those pressures are pushing a state towards the brink of failure. By highlighting issues in weak and failing states, The Fragile States Index makes political risk assessment and early warning of conflict accessible to policy-makers and the public at large. NewGlobe have already demonstrated an ability to deliver significant improvements in the learning outcomes in fragile and conflict-affected states. For example, four of NewGlobe’s countries of operations, i.e. Kenya, Liberia, Nigeria and Uganda are classified under an “alert” category, with a total score between 90 and 99.9. Those countries also share similar characteristics in terms of social cohesion, political landscape and demographic pressures. Therefore, amongst others, countries like Cameroon, Niger, Mali, Côte d'Ivoire, Congo Republic and Pakistan appear also likely to benefit from NewGlobe’s expertise (see Appendix 2 for further details).

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8.2 - Characteristics of Sub-Saharan Africa According to the World Bank’s “Africa’s Pulse” 2019 report, economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa is estimated to have decelerated from 2.5% in 2017 to 2.3% in 2018, below the rate of growth of the population for the fourth consecutive year. Significant heterogeneity persists in the region. Among resource-intensive countries, economic activity accelerated in some metals exporters, thanks to an increase in mining production amid improving commodity prices and a rebound in agricultural production and public infrastructure investment (the Democratic Republic of Congo, Guinea, Niger). Growth in other metals exporters remains subdued, as high inflation and high debt levels weigh on investor sentiment (Liberia and Zambia). The recovery in the Central African Economic and Monetary Community subregion has continued, although it remains fragile, as fiscal consolidation efforts were relaxed in some countries. Among non-resource-intensive countries, growth remains robust but decelerated in several economies in 2018, due to a wide array of factors, including foreign exchange shortages (Ethiopia), slow credit growth to the private sector (Tanzania), falling output in the cash crop sector (Côte d’Ivoire), and macroeconomic instability (Sudan).

Section 9: Value for Money, Socio-Economic Assessment, Cost Benefit Analysis In this section we assess the expected impact of a typical NewGlobe programme and consider socio-economic effects and return on investment. Based on this analysis, we conclude that NewGlobe delivers outstanding value for money: •

NewGlobe programmes deliver dramatic improvements in education outcomes for significant numbers of students in the regions in which they operate

The cost of delivering the programmes procures a comprehensive set of services and resources to deliver a full turnaround and operating programme for a given region

Beyond the immediate education benefits there is a substantial socio-economic and wider economic impact

The expected Return on Investment is high. Using expected improvements in GDP as a measure of the financial benefits of a typical programme, the ROI analysis shows that an implementation of this methodology in a typical state/country will provide returns equal to 300% of their GDP within 50 years.

8.3 - Characteristics of Eastern and South-eastern Asia According to the 2019 edition of the semi-annual East Asia and Pacific Economic Update “Managing Headwinds”, growth in developing East Asia and the Pacific (EAP) is projected to soften to 6% in 2019 and 2020, down from 6.3% in 2018, largely reflecting global headwinds and a continued gradual policy-guided slowdown in China. Extreme poverty in the region (based on the number of people living under the international poverty line of $1.90/day in 2011 PPP terms) is at historical lows and concentrated in a few countries—Lao PDR, Papua New Guinea, and Timor-Leste as well as in remote locations in more affluent countries. A further reduction in extreme poverty is expected over the next few years, with the poverty rate projected to dip below 3% by 2021.

In this chapter, we assess the impact of an example programme whose costs, impact and benefit are in line with many previous NewGlobe programmes, and whose context – education costs a nd outcomes absent the programme; scale and challenges – reflects those of regions in which NewGlobe works.

9.1 - Scope of Impact, and Expected Outcomes Compared with Current Conditions As our baseline for this section, we assess the number of students who will be impacted by an example programme and the likely education outcomes in the absence of the programme.

Students Impacted A typical large-scale programme’s projected roll-out covers: •

School years ECD/Nursery to Year 6, i.e. nursery through all of the Primary years

Several hundred schools in the first year, rising to thousands within a few years

Curriculum aligned with the national curriculum on all primary subjects – English, mathematics, local language and literacy, science, religious and cultural education, social studies, general science

Figure 9.1: Student Reach - Previous NewGlobe programmes - Rollout of EdoBEST Rollout of EdoBEST Dates

Jan-18

# Students # Teachers # Schools

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Contract Signed

Apr-18

Sep-18

Jan-19

Apr-19

42,605

150,000

150,000

267,000

1,500

7000

7000

9,000

250

600

600

1,000

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Current state – baseline of education outcomes

Comprehensive package of services provide high value for money

Current education outcomes in many of the regions in which NewGlobe currently or could operate are relatively low, with:

NewGlobe programmes provide a range of services which constitute a complete turnaround package for the operation of the schools within the programme.

low levels of education achievement – basic skills, performance in national standardised assessments, and results in international assessments such as TIMSS and PISA

low participation rates – e.g. gross intake rates of 40-60% at Grade 1

high drop-out rates – e.g. completion rate of 30-50% for Primary

high disparity in participation by girls and boys – e.g. 10-20% difference between boys’ and girls’ intake rates for Primary; 10-20 difference between boys’ and girls’ enrolment rates

The scope includes all services, materials, technology training, and new field teams required to transform the quality of schools. From a budgeting standpoint, this means its cost covers not just teaching and learning in the classroom, and monitoring and oversight at a school level, but also the need for central training, support, oversight, management and monitoring of the school. The services are divided into four pillars, together with the performance-related incentive programme for teachers and principals: Figure 9.3 - Service and Support Pillars

Figure 9.2: Education Outcomes Comparison: NewGlobe operating countries15 Number of NewGlobe students Uganda Kenya

445,000

Mean years of schooling

Primary school net attendance rate

Youth literacy rate

Adult literacy rate

Out-of-school rate for children of primary school age

6.1

87%

87%

73%

13%

6.5

85%

82%

72%

15%

Nigeria

283,000

6.2

68%

66%

51%

32%

Liberia

23,000

4.7

43%

49%

43%

57%

China

16,000

7.8

97%

100%

95%

3%

India

900

6.4

83%

86%

69%

17%

9.2 - Expected Impact – Education Outcomes In this section we lay out the expected impact of the example programme, referring to the findings of Chapters 2-6. This would typically involve: •

A comprehensive set of services which will be delivered to the target schools, and which will lead to..

drastically improved education outcomes, and..

wide ranging socio-economic benefits

We have laid out the expected education outcomes in Sections 2 and 3 – in summary they represent a dramatic and sustained improvement in learning. Turning to the services delivered and socio-economic benefits:

15

Figure 9.4 - Detailed Breakdown of Services and Support Pillar 1. Technology Platform for Learning Delivery, Accountability & Support 1

Teacher tablets

Custom-manufactured, android-based, e-ink Teacher Computer Tablets for every teacher

2

Principal devices

Compatible android-based smartphone for each Principal/Manager to run the Academy Manager platform

3

Hardware and software support and replacement

IT support of hardware and software and replacement of damaged devices (replacement rate of up to 25% per year)

4

Learning Management Platform

Learning Management Platform Module to manage the distribution, training and delivery of lesson plans to teachers

5

Accountability and Professionalism Module

Accountability & Professionalism Module for tracking "true" attendance, including teachers' lesson delivery, and student performance, along with pupil attendance and performance

6

Reporting Dashboard

Web-based Dashboard Reporting Module for access to aggregate and drill-down disaggregated information on teaching, learning, teacher and student information

7

Instructional Leadership Support Module

Instructional Leadership Support Module for smartphone-based oversight and analysis of lesson delivery delivered to custom smartphone application for use by coaches and supervisors

UNESCO

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Pillar 2. Data-Driven Training and Ongoing Coaching and Professional Development 1

Teacher Pre-service Training

In-person multi-day, scientifically based Pre-Service Training for every teacher. Pre-service training covers topics including content delivery and teacher-guide use, effective classroom management, behaviour management techniques, pupil assessment & individualised feedback, and building strong pupil and community engagement.

2

Principal Pre-Service Training

In-person multi-day, scientifically based Pre-Service Training for every Principal

3

Ongoing Training, Coaching and CPD

Support Team 1: Fully staffed regional team for Data-Driven Coaching and Professional Development. Coaches make regular in-school and in-class visits (1x - 3x per month) for coaching and oversight, using specially trained techniques integrated with data driven insights through smartphone analysis app of lesson delivery.

Pillar 3. Scientifically based Learning Materials (Digital and Printed) aligned to national Curriculum 1

Comprehensive teacher materials

Pillar 4. 360 Degree Support Teams (in addition to the Data Driven Coaching & Professional Development in Pillar 2) 1

QA Team

Support Team 2: Field-based Independent quality assurance audit team visiting each school 1x-3x per month and conducting specialised tracked quality assurance audits

2

Telephone Support Team

Support Team 3: Centralized telephone/electronic Analysis/Issue Tracking/Resolution Team

3

IT Support Team

Support Team 4: IT Support & Repair team

4

Data and Analytics Support Team

Support Team 5: Data Operations Programme Management & Analytics team providing real-time monitoring, reporting and closing of feedback loop for teacher and pupil attendance, instructional delivery of lessons and tracking/monitoring of inventory management.

5

Academic Support Team

Support Team 6: Academic Services (instructional materials and pedagogical adaptation, measurement & evaluation services for comprehensive assessment and analysis of pupil academic outcomes, Academic Field Officers)

6

Leadership and PMO Support Team 7: Full project management and leadership support Support Team team (project management, finance, human resources, partner relations, administration)

Customized digital teacher guide/lesson plans for every lesson in every subject and class every day specially customized for national syllabus digitally distributed to every teacher tablet Nursery, P1, P2, P3, P4, P5 English, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies, General Science

Supplemental learning materials

Complete set of non-consumable syllabus-aligned supplemental printed materials (shared 3:1)

Pupil learning materials (1:1)

Pupil Homework Books and Pupil Classwork Books on a 1:1 basis

4

Printed exam materials

Full set of printed exam materials for MidTerm/EndTerm assessments (early childhood classes also have pre-printed formative assessments)

5

Mathematics kit

Mathematics Activity Kit for hands-on learning of mathematical content

6

Instructional posters

Complete set of instructional posters to hang around each classroom

7

Non-consumable replacement

Replacement service of non-consumable materials as they are worn/lost (not to exceed a rate of 25% per year)

Consumable replacement

Replacement service of consumable materials for pupils each year

2 3

8

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Socio-Economic Impact Improved education outcomes like those demonstrated in NewGlobe’s existing programmes, and would be expected as a result of this programme, have been shown across the world to have significant social and economic benefits: • • • • • • •

Improved employment levels Improved economic performance of private sector companies and entrepreneurship Improved performance of civic functions through enhanced workforce capabilities Increased civic awareness and engagement Reduced crime levels Reduced poverty Improved health and mortality levels

For the purposes of this study, we have not quantified these benefits individually, but in the table below we present examples of the quantum of impact of education improvements identified in public and academic studies.

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Area

Description

Figure 9.5 - Socio-economic impact of education – examples Area

Description

Example of Impact

Regional Scope

Source

Economic growth

Improved education outcomes reduce unemployment, improve public and private sector productivity

0.5% GDP growth improvement associated with 25 PISA point improvement

Worldwide

Universal Basic Skills, What Countries Stand to Gain, Hanushek and Woessman, OECD, 2015

Better educated citizens interact more effectively with, and contribute more to, public and civic bodies and civil society

An additional year of education increases voter turnout by 7% and increases tolerance of intolerant groups by 8-12.5% points

Improved education reduces crime, recidivism, and incarceration

10-30% reduction in different types of crime associated with additional year of schooling

US

Civic awareness and engagement

Crime

US

“Are There Civic Returns to Education?”, Journal of Public Economics, Dee, 2004, quoted in Understanding the Social Outcomes of Learning, R. Desjardins and T. Schuller, OECD, 2007 Lochner, L. and E. Moretti (2004), The Effect of Education on Crime: Evidence from Prison Inmates, Arrests, and SelfReports

Poverty

Improved education reduces poverty

Two additional years of secondary education would reduce number of adults in poverty by 55%

Worldwide – low- and middleincome countries

UNESCO / UIS / GEM, Reducing global poverty through universal primary and secondary education, 2017

Health

Better educated citizens are better informed about their

18% reduced risk of poor health for additional year of education

Sweden

Spasojevic, J., Effects of Education on Adult Health in Sweden: Results from a Natural

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Example of Impact

Regional Scope

health, interact more effectively with health providers, have better health, and live longer Female empowerment

Better educated societies have improved gender equality, empowering women and girls better

Source Experiment. 2003, City University of New York Graduate Centre: New York, NY.

Additional year of schooling associated with 10-20% wage increase for women and girls, and 5-10% reduction in infant mortality

Various

Returns to investment in education – a further update, Psacharopoulos and Patrinos, 2004; Returns to Women’s Education, T.P. Schultz, 1993

9.3 - Return on Investment The education and socio-economic benefits described above can be quantified and valued in different ways, and much of their value to society and individuals is intangible. Nevertheless, a financial return investment can also be calculated, and a financial measure of return which captures a broad range of activities and benefits (though by no means all associated with education outcomes) is GDP. The World Bank, OECD, UNESCO, and numerous independent academics have steadily refined understanding and methodologies for measuring the benefits and costs of specific educational measures over the last five decades. Further, these have played a significant role in selecting and employing effective educational measures, both for policy makers and for non-governmental funders. Professor Eric Hanushek and colleagues have exhaustively studied financial and economic returns for education interventions that improve student learning across large-scale education systems. This research allows one to calculate the financial return from an investment in the social sector such as education. The return observed is in addition to the social returns and can be used to perform a cost benefit and ROI analysis. Further, Professor Hanushek has been consulted in the preparation of this review.

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Figure 9.6 – Analysis of Education Attainment and Economic Growth – Hanushek and Woessman, 2015

Fundamentally, the research illustrates and quantifies the correlation between education improvements and economic growth, as the chart illustrates. The general conclusion of their research is simple and unequivocal: improvements in the quality (as opposed to the quantity) of schooling increases the cognitive ability of the labour force, which directly translates to greater productivity and higher economic output for a province or country. More specifically, the work correlates and quantifies both improvements in education outcomes (on the ‘input’ side) and the corresponding increases in GDP growth (on the ‘output’ side). We draw on Prof. Hanushek’s work to derive a return on investment of a typical NewGlobe programme. Hanushek’s research concludes that if a state improves the quality of student learning by ¼ standard deviation (roughly equivalent to 25 points on PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment), the state’s economic growth rate (measured in GDP) increases by 0.5% annually.16 NewGlobe’s approach is designed to produce this level of improvement and has done so in every country where it operates, according to independent studies, many of which we have cited above (Ch. 2-6). A country or state that demonstrates learning gains equivalent to those NewGlobe has demonstrated in Liberia, Lagos, and Edo State, Nigeria, and Kenya, will likely achieve the equivalent growth to 25 PISA points in five years. As this substantially higher educated students graduate and eventually enter the workforce, Hanushek’s research calculates the impact of that on the GDP of the country. The effect grows greater as a larger and larger proportion of the workforce comes from the students who graduate with significantly improved education.

Figure 9.7 Impact of NewGlobe programme intervention over time on GDP # Years after Implementation of NewGlobe Programme

Total additional economic output from the education gains (measured as % of GDP)

10

1.0%

11

1.6%

12

2.4%

13

3.4%

14

4.7%

15

6.3%

16

8.2%

17

10.5%

18

13.1%

19

16.1%

20

19.6%

The impact continues to grow, and for example after 50 years, a state or country would see an additional 300% of their starting GDP as the cumulative economic return from making such an investment. For example, if you have a country or a state with a GDP of USD $30 Billion today, and they implemented the NewGlobe methodology, we would expect that the cumulative value of the improvement to future GDP caused by this program to be equal to USD $5.9 Billion. Figure 9.8 – Example 20 Year Financial Return of Implementation Today’s GDP of Example Country/State

USD $30bn

Expected financial benefit to the economic output after 20 years, expressed as a % of today’s GDP

19.6%

Expected financial benefit to economic output after 20 years (in $USD)

USD $5.9bn

Based on the fact that implementing the NewGlobe methodology will cost substantially less than these pure financial returns to GDP, the investment in such a transformation represents a high ROI and substantial value for money, not even including the value of extensive wider social benefits of the transformation in education outcomes.

16

Source: Education Quality and Economic Growth, Eric A. Hanushek, Ludger Wößmann, The World Bank Publication 2007

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Conclusion Cairneagle’s review of the NewGlobe approach to improve educational outcomes for some of the most disadvantaged communities in the country confirms that: •

• • •

• • •

The NewGlobe Platform & Methodology is a unique and proprietary approach that over 10 years has an impressive record of working in partnership to deliver research-proven dramatic improvements in educational outcomes at scale and at pace The experience of their teams demonstrates that they are able to bring their experience and expertise to support a step change in the region’s education system Their approach to working with existing government teachers to drive the change ensures engagement, quality of teaching and accountability for their performance Their approach enables education systems to transform through technical and infrastructure support and in doing so builds capacity and capability within the existing system rather than privatising and de-professionalising provision. The unique and proprietary support and technology that NewGlobe brings to the partnership means that teachers have real time access to research led teaching materials and support that can be managed even where the infrastructure is unstable The quality of teaching and teachers will be enhanced, and has been proven to work in environments with teachers who have similar starting levels of English fluency This approach has been proven in similar contexts to significantly improve girls educational attainment and equitable enrolment ratios Delivering an ‘all-in’ 360-degree proposition that displaces rather than duplicates current expenditures/activities, means there is high likelihood of reallocating current expenditure towards this programme

Section 5: delivers in environments with low levels of initial English fluency in teaching force

• NewGlobe delivers strong learning outcomes for students through teachers with limited English fluency levels

Section 6: works in communities with challenging insecurity

• NewGlobe has a track record of operating within fragile communities

Section 7: increases enrolment and learning levels for girls

• NewGlobe’s gender-sensitive methodology has driven higher attainment and enrolment of girls in Kenya, Uganda, Liberia and Nigeria

Section 8: Feasibility of transforming education in fragile communities (insecurity, conflict, post-conflict)

• The report highlights the chronic fragility of all of the jurisdictions NewGlobe is operating in and the positive impact on attainment achieved.

Section 9: demonstrates Value for Money, Socio-Economic Assessment, Cost Benefit Analysis

• Good value for money (comprehensive package of services at low cost relative to current budget) • High ROI (based on uplift to economic growth)

The following table summarises the key benefits arising from a partnership with NewGlobe to deliver an education transformation programme at scale and pace.

Benefits of the partnership approach with NewGlobe Education Section 1: delivers significant learning outcomes in low socio-economic communities

• NewGlobe delivers strong learning outcomes to students in low-socio-economic communities, irrespective of family income, education, or language state

Section 2: works inside existing government schools with existing government teachers

• Increase in school enrolment • Reduction in teacher absenteeism • Positive impact on teacher’s satisfaction

Section 3: delivers at scale and speed required

• NewGlobe delivers results at large scale in an efficient and rapid manner

Section 4: operates in low infrastructure environments

• The NewGlobe methodology is underpinned by a range of technologies specifically designed for, and tested in, low infrastructure environments

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Cairneagle Associates LLP, Bewlay House, 2 Swallow Place, London W1B 2AE Registered in England and Wales No OC302340.


New Appendices Appendix 7.1: Girls education/enrolment in Sub-Saharan Africa and Eastern and South-eastern Asia

Percentage of children of primary school age who are not in school by gender, Sub-Saharan Africa

Section 7 Annexures Appendix 7.1: Girls education/enrolment in Sub-Saharan Africa and Eastern and South-eastern Asia

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Percentage of children of primary school age who are not in school by gender, Eastern and South-eastern Asia


Appendix 8.1: 2019 Fragile States Index Data

Fragility indicators 17

Section 8 Annexures Appendix 8.1: 2019 Fragile States Index Data

Cohesion

Economic

Political

Social

C1: Security Apparatus

E1: Economic Decline

P1: State Legitimacy

S1: Demographic Pressures

C2: Factionalized Elites

E2: Uneven Economic Development

P2: Public Services

S2: Refugees and IDPs

C3: Group Grievance

E3: Human Flight and Brain Drain

P3: Human Rights and Rule of Law

X1: External Intervention

2019 Fragile States Index Data by country C1

C2

C3

E1

E2

E3

P1

P2

P3

S1

S2

X1

Total

Point change over 5 years

China

5.6

7.2

7.3

4.2

6.7

4.6

8.7

5.1

8.8

5.9

4.3

2.7

71.1

-7.9

88

India

7.2

7.3

8

5.3

6.4

6.1

4.1

6.8

5.6

7.7

4.7

5.1

74.4

-2.5

74

Kenya

7.9

9.1

8.6

6.6

7.4

7.2

8.2

8.0

6.8

8.6

7.7

7.5

93.5

-5.5

25

Liberia

6.7

8.3

5.2

7.9

7.8

7.5

6.6

8.7

6.5

8.2

8.1

8.7

90.2

-4.1

39

Nigeria

9

9.9

9.4

7.8

8.1

6.9

8.0

8.9

8.3

9.2

7.2

5.9

98.5

-1.2

14

Uganda

7.5

8.9

8.3

6.3

7.0

7.3

8.6

7.8

8.0

9.0

9.1

7.5

95.3

-0.7

20

Angola

6.9

7.2

7.5

6.6

9.3

6.6

8.0

8.7

6.7

8.9

6.5

4.9

87.8

0.4

35

Benin

5.9

6.7

2.8

6.5

8

7.1

4.8

8.3

4.9

7.7

4.9

6.0

73.6

-4.6

75

Botswana

3.8

3.3

4.3

5.8

7.2

5.5

2.7

6.5

5.1

7.9

3.9

3.5

59.5

-5.0

120

Burkina Faso

8.2

7.8

3.9

6.9

7.6

7.2

6.5

8.1

5.6

8.5

6.0

7.5

83.9

-5.1

47

Burundi

8.6

7.9

7.9

8.4

7.2

6.0

9.0

8.2

9.0

9.1

8.4

8.4

98.2

1.1

15

Cameroon

8.5

9.6

8.5

6.5

7.5

7.5

9.2

8.2

7.7

8.3

8.3

7.2

97.0

3.9

16

Country

Global Rank

17 Source: Fragile States Index 2019

| 61

An overview of deploying the NewGlobe Methodology to drive up school performance at scale in low infrastructure economies|

62


Country

Cape Verde

C1

C2

C3

E1

E2

E3

P1

P2

P3

S1

S2

X1

Total

Point change over 5 years

5.0

5.5

3.5

5.8

6.3

7.5

4.7

5.4

3.4

6.6

4.2

8.7

66.6

-7.5

Global Rank

106

C1

C2

C3

E1

E2

E3

P1

P2

P3

S1

S2

X1

Total

Point change over 5 years

Mali

9.5

5.4

8.1

7.4

7

8.3

6.5

8.5

7.6

8.3

8.4

9.6

94.5

4.7

21

Mauritania

6.3

8.8

7.0

7.1

6.2

6.9

8.3

8.6

7.5

8.5

7.4

7.4

90.1

-2.9

31

Mauritius

1.7

3.2

3.8

4.5

2.9

4.3

2.4

2.9

3.8

3

2.3

4.1

38.9

-7.2

150

Mozambiqu e

6.7

6.6

5.6

8.6

9.3

7.7

6.8

9.1

5.6

9.3

5.9

7.4

88.7

2.8

33

Namibia

5.1

3.5

5.2

7.0

7.9

6.8

3.0

6.8

3.2

7.8

4.4

5.8

66.4

-5.1

107

Niger

8.7

8.9

7.7

7.1

8

7.6

7.3

9.3

6.8

8.8

8.3

7.8

96.2

-1.7

18

Rwanda

6.0

8.0

9.8

6.2

7.8

7.1

6.8

6.8

6.6

7.4

8.1

6.9

87.5

-3.0

37

Sao Tome and Principe

5.0

6.3

4.2

8.2

6.0

8.5

5.0

5.3

2.9

6.4

4.8

8.5

71.1

-4.7

88

Country

Global Rank

Central African Republic

8.6

9.4

8.3

8.7

9.9

7.1

9.1

10

9.5

9.1

10

9.2

108.9

-1.7

6

Chad

9.5

9.8

8.2

9

9

8.5

9.6

9.1

8.8

9.5

9.5

8.0

108.5

-0.2

7

Comoros

6.5

8.0

4.8

7.6

7.0

6.8

7.1

7.6

5.9

7.6

5.3

7.4

81.7

-3.4

56

Congo (Brazzavill e)

7.0

6.7

7.8

7.6

8.1

7.4

9

8.9

8.4

8.1

7.0

6.5

92.5

2.9

27

Congo (Democrati c Republic)

8.8

9.8

10

8.3

8.6

7.0

9.4

9.2

9.6

9.8

10

9.7

110.2

0

5

Côte d'Ivoire

7.4

9.1

7.5

6.7

7.6

7.0

7.3

8.2

7.3

8.3

7.2

8.4

92.1

-9.6

29

Senegal

5.6

7.0

5.8

7.1

7.0

7.7

4.1

7.4

5.4

7.4

6.7

6.1

77.2

-5.6

66

Djibouti

5.9

7.3

5.9

7.0

7.7

5.2

8.1

7.6

7.7

7.8

6.7

8.2

85.1

-2.0

43

Seychelles

6.8

6.0

4.2

3.9

5.3

5.7

4.9

2.1

3.8

4.5

2.6

6.4

55.2

-8.6

126

Equatorial Guinea

5.9

8.2

6.3

5.9

8.1

4.9

9.8

8.1

8.6

7.9

4.5

4.4

82.6

-2.7

53

Sierra Leone

4.4

7.8

6.2

8.6

8.3

8.0

6.3

8.8

5.2

8.5

7.4

7.3

86.8

-3.1

39

Eritrea

6.6

8.1

7.7

7.7

8.4

8.9

9.4

7.8

8.7

8.4

7.7

7.0

96.4

0.9

17

Somalia

9.6

10

8.9

8.8

9.4

9.2

9

9.4

9.3

10

9.4

9.2

112.3

-0.3

2

Ethiopia

8.2

7.9

8.5

6.4

6.5

6.6

8.0

8.3

8.2

9.0

8.7

7.9

94.2

-3.7

23

South Africa

6.5

6.6

6.1

7.3

6.9

5.5

6.5

6.7

4.2

6.6

4.8

3.4

71.1

4.5

88

Gabon

4.8

7.9

3.2

5.8

5.9

5.8

7.8

6.3

7.4

6.5

3.9

5.1

70.5

-1.7

92

Sudan

8.4

9.7

10

8.1

7.7

8.3

9.8

8.6

9.4

9.4

9.6

8.9

108

-2.1

8

The Gambia

6.3

7.7

3.2

8.4

6.3

7.9

7.8

7.3

8.4

8.2

6.0

6.4

83.9

0.8

47

Tanzania

5.4

5.7

5

6.2

7.1

7.6

6.3

8.8

6.4

8.3

6.1

7.2

80.1

-0.7

60

Ghana

4.6

4.9

3.8

5.7

6.0

7.8

3.6

7.2

5.0

6.6

4.4

6.3

65.9

-4.8

110

Togo

7.0

7.6

5.4

7.0

8.3

7.5

8.5

8.5

7.2

7.5

6.9

6.0

87.4

-0.4

38

Guinea

8.6

9.6

9.1

8.6

7.3

7.1

9.8

9.2

7.1

8.6

7.6

6.8

99.4

-3.3

11

Zambia

5.1

5.9

5.3

7.5

9.4

7.3

8.1

7.3

7.4

9.2

6.1

7.0

85.7

-0.5

40

GuineaBissau

8.3

9.6

4.9

7.7

9.2

7.5

8.9

8.9

7.2

8.5

6.7

8.0

95.5

-5.1

19

Zimbabwe

8.8

10

6.7

8.1

7.9

7.3

9.4

8.6

8.2

9

8.2

7.3

99.5

-3.3

10

Lesotho

6.5

7.3

3.3

8.5

8.1

8.0

5.3

7.5

5.2

8.3

4.4

7.2

79.7

1.1

61

Afghanista n

10

8.6

7.8

8.6

7.5

7.8

9

9.8

7.9

9.3

9.6

9.1

105

-1.5

9

Madagascar

6.9

7.8

3.5

7.3

9

6.7

6.5

8.6

5.6

9.0

3.9

6.2

80.9

-2.2

58

Bangladesh

7.6

9.6

8.0

6.1

6.1

7.6

7.6

7.5

7.3

7.0

7.5

5.8

97.7

-5.1

36

Malawi

4.8

8.1

5.3

8.0

8.1

7.4

6.1

8.0

5.9

9.1

5.2

7.4

83.3

-5.8

49

Bhutan

3.9

7.5

8.5

5.0

5.3

6.9

3.7

5.5

6.0

5.5

6.4

7.7

72

-8.9

81

| 63

An overview of deploying the NewGlobe Methodology to drive up school performance at scale in low infrastructure economies|

64


Country

C1

C2

C3

E1

E2

E3

P1

P2

P3

S1

S2

X1

Total

Point change over 5 years

Maldives

5.8

8.6

4.2

5.3

3.0

6.2

8.3

5.2

7.7

5.4

4.1

5.9

69.8

-5.6

96

Nepal

5.9

8.8

9.7

5.6

6.1

6.2

6.6

6.6

7.1

8.4

7.2

6.5

84.7

-6.3

45

Pakistan

8.5

9.3

9.4

6.3

5.9

6.8

7.9

8.0

7.4

7.8

8.1

8.8

94.2

-8.8

23

Sri Lanka

6.8

9.1

9.0

5.5

6.5

7.1

6.9

4.5

8.4

6

7.8

6.3

84

-8.6

46

Mongolia

3.2

5.5

3.2

4.8

5.8

3.8

4.1

4.8

4.2

4.9

2.6

7.2

54.1

-4.0

128

Global Rank


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