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“Work in progress” has established a platform for citizens’ discussion and interaction to better understand the labour market and its aspects. It lasted 14 months touching six different countries in which participants from twelve countries will have the opportunity to debate, elaborate, interact and share opinions and ideas about the current labour market from different point of views. The project seeks to answer the general situation in Europe about the world of work, which reflects a closed market, saturated in an atmosphere of bewilderment and confusion that affects especially the younger generations. The saturation of demand and supply of job are confused and they influence each other. People who are going to arrive at the labour market, starting from the opportunities available, cannot know how to “exploit” their skills and professionalism, so they are parked for a long time in a limbo, lost and disenchanted: these questions then are the daughters and mothers of the collapse of the labour market. Involving experts, decision and policy makers, social workers, interested in the subjects, the project encouraged actions and awareness at a local and European level about the topics of the project, in order to make people more conscious about their opportunities and role in the civil society in Europe, especially under the light of European strategy 2020. The experience was really fruitful and the project in its self could be considerate a good practices. That’s why in order to share results, we are glad to present you this vademecum.

Salvatore Martello Net In Action president




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Coordinating Association Focus: the funding programme “Europe For Citizens” Chapter 1: Europe and Work Policies Chapter 2: Women and Labour Market European Labour market- Strategies and policies of Europe 2020 Chapter 3: Immigration and Labour Market 1. Immigration and Employment 1.1 Employment rates of non-European citizens 1.2 Educational attainment levels of non-European citizens 1.3 Possibility of immigrant’s employment 2. Policies to increase the employment of the target group by participants 3. Educational and social support in center Dar Qalb Ta’ Gesu in Santa Venera 4. Identification of cross-cultural conflicts Chapter 4: Labour Market, Globalization and Outsourcing Chapter 5: Youth and Labour Market Chapter 6: Final Conference in Bologna Conclusion


Coordinating association The project has been runned by several organizations, where the coordianting association and responsable in particular was Net In Action NGO. Net In Action (NIA) is a non-profit social organization (NGO) based in Bologna (Italy).


NIA carries out its activity especially towards disadvantaged young people. Those people do not enjoy the same opportunities as their peers for economic, social, physical, educational, cultural and geo-graphical obstacles. In particular young Italians, foreigners and immigrants (first and second generation), which, because of these barriers, are at risk of going in situations and experiences of marginalization, delinquency, social exclusion. Check

out more details about NIA


Focus: the funding programme “Europe For Citizens” “Europe for Citizens” was a European programme under the EACEA (Education, Audiovisual and Culture Agency Executive Agency) division, funding project from 2007 to 2013 year. The aim of this programme was to bring Europe closer to its citizens and to enable them to participate fully in the European construction. Through this programme, citizens had the opportunity to be involved in transnational exchanges and cooperation activities, contributing to developing a sense of belonging to common European ideals and encouraging the process of European integration. To get more details please check the official website:


Another fundamental support was ensured the entire project long by the deep cooperation with the project partners, playing an active role in each step.












Chapter 1: Europe and Work Policies Venue: Kalamata, Greece. 01-03 December 2012.

The event was attended by national and international participants from Country-partners (45 people more or less): a chance to uncover the reality in European and not European partners’ countries. By exchanging ideas and identifying the policies in each country, participants compared and contrasted the situation that citizens of different European countries face. The different tendencies that exist nowadays in the labor market were presented giving special emphasis in the “Flexicurity”, a

new tendency which was first introduced by the Prime Minister of Denmark Poul Nyrup Rasmussen in the 1990s. “Flexicurity” is the term that is used to combine flexibility and security. The idea is that flexibility and security should not be seen as opposites but as complementary. Flexibility is needed in a dynamic economy that is constantly changing and security should be provided to employees. “Flexicurity” is implemented by European Commission across four policy components: 1) flexible and reliable contractual arrangements, 2) comprehensive lifelong learning strategies, 3) effective work policies; and 4) modern social security systems providing adequate income support during employment transitions. Therefore, “Flexicurity” is seen as a way to maintain and improve the competitiveness of the European Union. Then the conversation was focusing on one of the four policy components; the comprehensive lifelong learning strategies. The

importance of lifelong learning and its effect on a person’s career path was stressed by giving real examples. Some ways of implementing lifelong learning were indicated such as attending courses, conferences and seminars, taking part in exchange programmes and having the opportunity to interfere with people with different cultural backgrounds and to broaden your horizons. Moreover, the three types of learning (formal education, non formal and un-formal learning) were presented in order to indicate the ways that young people can gain skills and competences from different activities. Non- formal learning is highly appreciated by employers as it shows the employee’s willingness to gain more knowledge, the motivation for lifelong learning as well as the effort to improve oneself and to adapt to new situations and needs.

Flexibility Security


The labour market in Europe is in a stalemate. Therefore, the first event raised awareness about the different European work policies and the opportunities that European citizens acquire due to these policies. Another goal was to encourage actions in a local, regional and European level, especially under the light of European strategy 2014- 2020.



All participants had a really active role as long as the seminar lasted. They expressed their opinions and they discussed about their experiences. They formed two teams and the first team discussed about the process of finding a job, whereas the second team focused on the work policies and conditions in different European countries.


More specifically, the first team outlined the most popular ways to find a job comparing the situation in Bulgaria, Italy, Romania and Greece, etc. Participants agreed on the fact that citizens of the aforementioned countries mainly look for a job on the internet and less in newspapers. They also look for a job via career counseling offices in Universities. Moreover, they agreed that networking is very important while looking for a job as it is more likely that a person learns for a vacancy from a person that already works in a company. The person that works in the company will work as a bridge, as a link

between the person looking for a job and the employer. Participants from Romania, Bulgaria and Greece strongly agreed on that tendency in their countries, whereas Italian participants also agreed that this phenomenon happens in their country but less frequently than in the other countries. Thus, the criteria to hire a person do not mainly depend on CV and cover letter but on a strong network. On the other hand, the second team spoke about the work policies and working conditions in different European countries. They compared the working conditions and participants agreed that the general tendencies are to gain work experience by doing a stage and an internship as well as to be a freelancer and to have a shortterm contract. The minimum wage varies from country to country in Europe, for there are different laws, contracts and collective bargaining

agreements. For example, the minimum wage is 586€ per month in Greece, 310€ in Slovakia, €756 in Spain, whereas it is 1456 € in Netherlands, 143€ in Albania. There are also countries which do not set a minimum wage in laws but they determine it in collective bargaining agreements, such as Germany and Italy. Moreover, the insurance policy is different in each European country. Last but not least, participants in this group realized the different realities that exist in case an employee is fired, the compensation given and the support provided to unemployed citizens. After discussing the aforementioned topics, groups were called to prepare a short presentation of the main findings. They would present their outcomes in the event the same day in the afternoon so that the two groups would exchange ideas and more people would have the opportunity to learn about the main findings of the

seminar. In an environment of cultural exchange and transfer of knowledge, thanks to peer-to-peer sharing, to the involvement of many diverse stakeholders, some main conclusions were reached. In particular, the evidence of the fact that young people are the main group which suffers from unemployment in Europe. As young people enter to the labor market for the first time, they are inexperienced and thus, they tend to be disappointed and pessimistic about the situation nowadays. Therefore, the debate focused psychological aspect of the current situation. Due to economic crisis young people tend to feel more and more disappointed. The psychological impact that unemployment might have in younger generations was analyzed by Mrs. Tzanetaki, philologist and adult trainer. She focused on the different ways that young people may

re-act to unemployment and she tried to foster positive thinking, optimism as well as self-esteem no matter what the outcome of an interview might be. She also gave advice for making a CV and writing a cover letter and for replying to tricky but essential questions in an interview.

share the beneficiary impact when they become possibility to start a new business, to enhance entrepreneurial spirit and to implement an innovative idea.

Other available subsidized programs are those which aim to reduce unemployment by subsidizing institutions that want to hire a person but cannot afford it. Nevertheless the participants’ experiences have shown that there Those programs offer to pay part of the salary of person that will be are many opportunities funded hired. Mr. Giannakeas, business by European programmes for young people despite the econo- consultant for European subsidized programs, was the person that mic crisis. But often they are not presented the European policy informed. and the subsidized programs that To make some examples, “Lifelong are available for the young people. learning” and “Youth in Action” programmes give the opportunity In addition, the role of schools, universities, career offices and to the participants to gain more counselors was indicated. Mrs. expertises and skills: brief or long Tsintzou, responsible for manaexperiences in an intercultural ging the liaison office of University environment, exchanging ideas of Peloponnese, presented the and transferring knowledge and innovations. Highlighting subsidi- ways that students can find job in zed programmes by the European universities. Union, it has been possible to

“I didn’t know many European work policies, neither about funding programmes. I’m looking forward to make my Leonardo” — Aikaterini, 24, Greece


During this sharing of opportunities and experiences, some of the youth leaders from local university pointed out the possibilities provided by University for acquire new competences, like internships and mobility programmes (Erasmus, Mundus, etc) as well as fostering entrepreneurial initiatives.


Mrs. Anagnostopoulou, English counselor for schools in the municipality of Messinia, took the role of the presenter afterwards. She presented the “Lifelong Learning Program” and its sub-programs (Comenius, Grundtvig, Erasmus and Leonardo da Vinci). She described these programmes and she showed the opportunities that they provide for young people even in a period of economic crisis. She mentioned that the new aims are to foster cooperation and mobility in European Union in order to become a global benchmark in quality in education, creativity and innovation, equality, social cohe-

sion and active citizenship. The expected objectives and goals that will be set for the programme of Europe2014-2020 were discussed.

Good practices from Greek Universities Universities in Greece have an office called “Employment and Career Structure” whose purpose is to link young educated people finishing or recently finished university with companies that have available positions. This structure was formed due to the subsidization of the European Union 2007-2013. This structure coordinates the actions of three different offices which all of them combined can achieve the desired outcome; to link the young unemployed people with the labor market. The “interface office” aims to inform, consult and support students and graduates to prepare for their next step. Students and graduates can find more information on how to

enter the labor market and the preparation they need to do for their CV, their cover letter and a potential interview. They can also be informed for the available places in Greece and abroad but most importantly they are guided to learn where to look for available positions, the websites they should visit, the publications they can consult and other relevant tools. The next step after graduation might not lead a graduate to search for a job but it can lead to continue studying in a Master level in Greece or abroad. Information on how to choose an institution according to their needs and their criteria can be found in the “Interface Office”. Graduates can also be consulted for their option to do a research. There is also another office specialized in internships which provide work experience to students that have not graduated yet. Mobility

agreements were presented which give the opportunity to students to go abroad for 3-12 months to either study (Erasmus programme) or do an internship abroad (Erasmus practice). Last but not least is the office called “Unit of innovation and Entrepreneurship” which aims to create an entrepreneurial culture to all students so that they undertake the responsibility and the initiative to promote new innovative ideas implement and evolve them. Students learn practically how to conceive a successful idea by visiting outstanding institutions and businesses. Mentors also show practically to potential and ambitious entrepreneurs how to make a constructive business plan as well as how to start up a new business.

Fighting unemployment through social initiatives The second area of solutions to fight unemployment was inaugurated talking about social initiatives: another area where young

people can implement their new entrepreneurial efforts. Social Economy is the third largest sector after private (profitable) and public sector: it includes activities that are initiated by institutions and organizations which target mainly to provide services to all its members or the society and not to have profits. Moreover organizations operating in social economy have an independent management that takes decisions in a democratic way and that they are mainly focused to the people and not the capital. Although subsidized programmes for all the other sectors of economy were presented the same day in our event, there is a lack of funding due to a lack of institutional framework for social economy. The only source of funding is the European Social Fund and other European programmes that exist in a smaller scale. However, those programmes have as a priority to fight against unemployment and

social discrimination and there are no specific policies and funding for other areas of social economy. A successful example of social economy and entrepreneurship that operates in the local community was presented. Mr. Bourkos, coordinator of “K.A.NE.- Social Youth Development”, presented the topic of social entrepreneurship and a successful example which is “K.A.NE.”. It is a non-profit organization which was founded in order to promote actions in a local, regional, national and international level. Its aim is to create a structure for young people of local society in order to motivate them to take the initiative to act in local level as well as to educate and train people that work in the youth field. Since 2008 it has promoted European mobility as it has received more than 60 volunteers and it has sent more than 20 young people from Kalamata abroad under the “European Voluntary Service” programme. “K.A.NE.” has also or-

Social Initiatives


ganized a variety of other activities and actions such as environmental projects (cleaning the beach of Kalamata, environmental educational festivals, green week etc), social activities (donating bazaars, blood donations, collecting food etc) and cultural events (youth festival, concerts, intercultural nights etc).


It has also created two main structures so far; the Youth center of Kalamata and the Street Festival.

Youth Center of Kalamata is the largest programme of K.A.NE. as it was founded in 2009 and it already has more than 1600 registered and active members. It is a structure which offers seminars, lessons to exchange knowledge and a variety of seminars, such as Latin, tango and traditional dances, language courses, video art, practice in instruments etc. Street festival aims to make public areas more livable, active and usable by its citizens as they can be used as a space that fosters creativity, interaction, healthy way of life etc.

Within 3 years Kalamata’s Street Festival was evolved and many artists from Greece and abroad take part annually. K.A.NE. is a successful example which operates in the sector of social economy, a fast evolving sector which offers many job positions and social actions, activities and initiatives. K.A.NE. was funded only by its founders and within 4 years it achieved to have the necessary viability and sustainability.

It provides 3 full-time jobs and 2 part-time in local people and it supports the local economy as 90% of its expenses are directed in local businesses. Social economy is also fostered in a local level as many participants did not know the city and the area but they learned about the traditions of the area and its history.

Chapter 2: Women and Labour Market Venue: Turčianske Teplice, Slovakia. 06-08 February 2013. The workshop was held in the north part of Slovakia, where the unemployment rate is the second highest after the east part and where the empowerment of women is being sought for a long time. Due to this fact, “ESTRA foundation” has organized workshop where unemployed people, businesswomen, youths, students and seniors were invited and have discussed the barriers to set up business, as well as the business environment created in our region and possible supports and benefits from government for which they can apply for. The practical part of the workshop was implemented through a study visit of the entities of successful businesswomen, after which an open discussion with these businesswomen was held. Historically, women have been more affected by unemployment than men. In 2000, the unemployment rate for women in the EU-27 was around 10 %, while the rate for men was below 8 %. By the

end of 2002, this gender gap1 had narrowed to around 1.5 percentage points and between 2002 and mid-2007 this gap remained more or less constant. Since the first quarter of 2008, when they were at their lowest levels of 6.3 % and 7.4 % respectively, the male and female unemployment rates in the EU-27 converged, and by the second quarter of 2009 the male unemployment rate was higher. The decline of the men’s rate during 2010 and the first half of 2011 and the corresponding stability in the women’s rate over the same period brought the male rate below the female one once again. Since then the two rates have risen at the same pace, remaining very close and reaching at the end of 2012 10.7 % for men and 10.8 % for women. Regarding the participants and 1

Gender gap may refer to any statistical disparities between men and women. Usually, however, it refers to differences in labour market statistics, such as the gender pay gap, employment and unemployment.

representatives involved, besides Slovakia, Greece is one of the countries which where female unemployment is separated by 6.2 percentage points to male one (29.7% to 23.5%). Most of partner countries follow this general trend which places female and male rates quite close, not being further than 1 point apart. Only Italy has a rate of 10.6% male unemployment rate to the 12.6% of women. This same distance is visible in Bulgaria in the opposite direction, with 13.6% of unemployed men to the 11.6% of women. Slovakia faces a number of challenges: unemployment, particularly among the young and vulnerable groups, is very high, long-term unemployment remains the highest in Europe and the quality of the education and training system continues to be low. The tax wedge is relatively high for low-income workers and a non-negligible proportion of jobseekers have little incentive to move from


social assistance to a low-paid job.


As Europeans live longer and have fewer children, fewer people in work have to support higher numbers of pensioners, as well as fund the rest of the welfare system. The number of over-60s is now increasing twice as fast as it did before 2007 – by some 2 million a year instead of 1 million previously. A better knowledge economy with more opportunities will help people work longer and relieve the strain on the economy .

Identification of strategies to empower women Mrs. Andrea Hanková, mentor for businesswomen from Žilina, 38 years old and owner of stainless steel factory Novel Ltd., has been invited as a guest to speak about strategies to empower women in business and creative ideas women could build the business on. As a woman who is working in a male business environment, she

has understood that gender balance in business can make a business successful since each gender has a different character, which are matching to each other and creating efficient working team. To compare the past with the present, the position of women in business has been changed and woman is no longer playing a role of being only a mother and a wife, but also an equal working person or businesswomen. On the other hand, in the past, places like in France, women had worked in manufacturing, while men fought in the war. The most successful businesswoman comes also from France, her name is Coco Chanel, who was the first woman who drove a car, wore trousers and said that “it is better to be lover, than a wife”. Another important factor, which influences the employment of women, is religion and culture. For instance the employment rate

of women from non-European states is less than 50% because of traditions, culture and rules of society. However we can still find the exceptions like woman as taxi driver in Muslim country like in Dubai, women selling fruits and vegetable on the local market and other similar examples. To empower women in employment, men need to take responsibility for part of the house work and childcare or there needs to be created the business environment with good conditions for mothers who are ready to leave their children in the childcare services provided by government or by the employer. Moreover, women usually take care of their parents in their elderly age or parents in law who suffer from various diseases or disability, therefore women have to decide whether to choose work and place their relatives in houses with social services or she will stay at home with the relative to not feel guilty.

“One of the 5 targets for the EU in 2020 is to employ 75% of the 20-64 year-olds by 2020– achieved by getting more people into work, especially women, the young, older and low-skilled people and legal migrants, therefore we hope our workshop has assisted in reaching this goal.” — Katarina Kohutova, Organizer

Women have proved through the past years, that although they are emphatic and sensitive human beings they are also efficient as men on the labour market and can be successful also in top management positions and male working fields.

delft and despite this barrier she kept looking for a job. The management of the social service department accepted her application for position of nurse in the house for the elderly people and the team welcomed her very well and appreciated her working methods.

Summary of strategies to empower women: support for women from government; making a compromise in relationship; education of women in IT; tax free holidays for graduates; scholarships or social benefits for studying in University; easier utilizing of money from European funds; empowering of personal skills of women; be prepared for interviews.

Mrs. Gemzická was a trusted employee, therefore the director of nurseries asked her to also take care for the rooming of nails for the elderly people. In this time she came with an idea to set up her own business offering manicure and pedicure services, since she found a large demand for this service. Nowadays as a pensioner, her clients became her friends with who she spends her spare time and organizes various activities. She set up a small clinic in hospital where she could do pedicure and manicure while she was working in the house for elderly people. She found the business as the spirit of her life. In 2009 she was awarded as the woman for micro business.

The barriers to set up own business Mrs. Drahoslava Gemzická started her own business when she lost her job, when the department of dermatology shut down in Liptovsky Mikuláš. She became half

After introduction of her business life, the discussion moved to the barriers in setting up of the business. The first barrier encountered when setting up of the business venture, is simple accounting, which each self-employed person has to learn on the beginning when there is no money to pay to an accountant. Self-employed person also has to understand the links among costs and profits in order to make successful business. Tax conditions are second mostly mentioned barrier as well as investment in business, since to start a business you need some money to invest and take a risk (advice by Mrs. Hankova “use e-shop to test your business idea). To do your business you need to be healthy, skilled and have a possibility to realize it, all these can become barriers if you are missing one of them. Moreover, one of the major barriers is the bureaucracy connected with no support from government, especially for wo-


men businesses where there is no Consultancy centre where businesswomen can learn how to set up their business. More often the bureaucracy is one of the reasons why a businesswoman does not set up her own business, but prefer to get employed.


As mentioned before, women need to have a possibility to realize their business idea; this possibility is often linked with other barriers like economic fluctuation, low purchasing power, rules of export &import, transport, network connection and often changing rules. However, even if these factors are stable and can create sustainable business environment without family support and enough courage we will not succeed. On the other hand sometimes women seem live glass ceiling2 2

A glass ceiling is a political term used to describe “the unseen, yet unbreakable barrier that keeps minorities and women from rising to the upper rungs of the corporate ladder, regardless of their qualifications or

situation or the opposite, positive discriminations where women are not employed because of their competences or skills, but just because they are female. Indeed gender balance in labour market should mean equal opportunities, but to achieve this result, the European societies should deconstruct gender roles. The note of enthusiasm and positivity has been bring with the video screening of “Lipstick Manifesto”3

achievements”. Federal Glass Ceiling Commission. Solid Investments: Making Full Use of the Nation’s Human Capital. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Labor, November 1995, p. 4.


“Turčianske Teplice. Brainstorming on the obstacles”

Study visit – good practice Mrs. Kršková, who is the owner of Hotel Vyšehrad and who started her own business in 1971, spoke about her business career and shared her best practices and experience with all participants. She had made it clear on the beginning that she has never fired anyone from work although it was sometimes hard time to keep business going, but all her staff who have worked with her left the company when retired. She started out as an accountant at a concrete factory, but the factory had to shut down because of financial crisis and she had to decide to take a risk and open this factory on her own. She took a loan and bought the factory at an auction. When gaining the first contract for 5 million, the employees rebelled because they thought she was rich. They did not know she still had to pay the loan. It was very hard to manage a busi-

ness back in the day, due to many people not supporting her at all and even trying to discourage her by means of different forms. Many people did her wrong and constantly talked about her behind her back. She had to even fight in court for 7 years because some politicians wanted to take it over. When the concrete factory became profitable and the loan was paid back to the bank. She asked her husband to take over the business and she started a new business career in the hotel and food industry. She has set up a wholesale company, one Hotel Vyšehrad and one Pension Milka. She has been running these new businesses for about 20 years and finally after all these successes she got congratulated two years ago from the President of the Slovak Republic as the first women in Slovakia who started a business in 1971. After sharing her business life with us, the participants have asked her

why she decided to start up her own business. The answer to our question was that she wanted to have ensured work, so she decided to risk her 2 houses and the money she invested into the business. Regarding the hotel market, she entered this industry because she wanted to meet her suppliers and contract partner for the cement factory, so when she offered them accommodation and food for free, the negotiation was much easier. In her experience, it is harder to manage a hotel than to manage a factory. Advice for newly business women: be smart and modest; don’t care too much for the aspect.

Business environment and more Mrs. Maliková, who is the officer in the bureau for Trading in Žilinský region, talked about the business environment influenced by political decisions and about supports or benefits from the government.



Slovakia has introduced a set of reforms to strengthen the fiscal framework, improve the sustainability of the pension system and increase transparency of the judiciary and public procurement. In other areas, reform efforts have so far been limited, particularly as regards labour market and education. Therefore at the beginning of a business it is highly important to gain financial and other supports from the government, mostly from the Labour Office and the Bureau for Trading. Condition and requirements for gaining financial support for setting up own business and creating a new work place: being registered at the Office for Unemployment for at least 3 months, pass a training course, to make and successfully defend your business plan in front of a commission, after gaining of the trade licence, the applicant will receive a subsidy in the amount according to the charts applied for each region. The

business must be active for 2 years and also the subsidy must be verifiable in accounting. The financial support in Žilina region is 2 750€. Subsidy for a person with a handicap is up to 6 800€, but the handicap or disability must be of a form approved by the government and the money can be used only to create a safe workplace for handicapped/disabled people. In the case of employing another handicapped person, the employer gains a financial subsidy of 390€, that is the minimal wage for a period of 2 years. The French government allocates a subsidy that is equivalent with 70 % of the salary. In Slovakia, very few people apply for this form of subsidy because of high bureaucracy. Subsidy for graduates (starting Nov.2012): if the graduate is under 29 years old and is being employed, the government will pay to his employer the minimal wage for 18 months. If the employer applies

for this form of subsidy, he cannot fire the employee for the whole 18 months plus another 6 months period and employer has to pay last 6 months from his own sources. Working placement for graduates: 180€ / 4 months, the graduate is still registered at the Labour Office. This situation occurs mostly in family businesses or in public offices of administration. Therefore this system is abused since the money is not utilized in right way. In Holland, the graduate of a university must search for employment for at least 3 months before being able to register at the Office for Unemployment to get the financial support for unemployed people. In France, the graduate of a university will not be entitled to any financial support for unemployment, but the government will pay for his medical insurance. There isn’t any information agency in Slovakia that could inform the population about all the options

and possibilities. Only TV, newspaper and internet can be resources of information. Imprisoned person cannot gain a trade licence. In the case that the person was cleared and also his records are cleared he can apply for a licence. The evidence of the records is requested by the Bureau for Trade. If otherwise, the person would be requested to pay a fee. This requirement is applicable only to certain objects of business in Holland. France requests for all objects of business, but in this case the applicant must apply for it himself. After receiving the trading licence, a copy must be send to the IRS and social insurance office. In the case the trading licence is been stolen or lost, the police must be noticed at once. The most common businesses in the region of Žilina: tourist traffic, tourism, commerce, services. Some small businesses (repairs, massages, hairdressers) are mis-

sing because they do not render.

European Labour marketStrategies and policies of Europe 2020 The latest figures for December 2012 shows 5.7 million unemployed young people under 25 across the EU, with over 3.6 million in the euro area. That amounts to a youth unemployment rate of 23.4% in whole Europe and 24% for the euro area. In Ireland the total unemployment rate for the whole population in December was 14.7%. These are the percentages of people who don’t have a job, are looking for one and cannot find it. Both generations, young and older generations understand that it is young people who represent the future of our economy and society. Our collective future depends on young people’s skills, ideas and abilities, and on whether they

get an opportunity to apply and develop them in the labour market. Investing in young people is therefore a moral imperative, a social necessity and simple economic sense.

European action to support young people Europe has paid a lot of attention to young people’s unemployment and drop-out from the labour market. The Europe2020 Strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, which was adopted in 2010, includes among its five headline targets three that concern improving educational performance, boosting employment and reducing poverty and social exclusion. Progressing on all these targets depends on what opportunities there are for young people and what investments are planned for them. As a first result, funds worth €16 billion from the European Social

EU 2020


Fund and the European Regional Development Fund have been reallocated so they would benefit at least 628,000 additional young people compared to the original funding plan.


And last December, the Commission proposed a Youth Employment Package involving further practical initiatives. It proposes new instruments to tackle the short-term and structural employment problems facing young people. The focus is on supporting the transition from education to work. This means reducing the high numbers of those neither in employment nor in education or training (the so-called NEETs), and equipping all young people with the skills and experience they need to get a job.

The Youth Employment Package has four main elements.

1. Council recommendation for a Youth Guarantee.

labour market are estimated to amount to 1.21% of EUROPEGDP — an annual loss to the Member States of €153 billion! These are A Youth Guarantee means that findings of the European Founeach Member States should estadation for the Improvement of blish a scheme to ensure that all Living and Working Conditions, young people up to 25 years of or Euro-found, which is based in age receive – within four months Dublin. This initiative will involve of becoming unemployed or leaving the formal education system: €6 billion for the 2014 to 2020 pea quality offer of a job, the possibi- riod and will be open to all regions with a youth unemployment rate lity of continuing their education, an apprenticeship, or a traineeship. over 25%. €3 billion of this will be additional support on top of what Such Youth Guarantees will need to be based on close partnerships would already be financed by the European Social Fund. between public institutions and other players, including local and regional authorities, schools, busi- It is clear that investment in Youth Guarantee schemes should make nesses and trade unions. Turning a priority if we are talking about the Youth Guarantee into reality requires early intervention and ac- fixing national budgets in a smart tivation, and making full use of Eu- and growth-friendly way. The Youropean funding. Youth Guarantees th Guarantee would clearly generate a positive economic return. will cost something in the short Helping all young people to get term, but this will be much lower a labour market experience is as than the cost of doing nothing. important as good education, and we need to make that investment. These economic costs of young people’s disengagement from the

2. European Quality Framework for Traineeships. Traineeships are an excellent way of passing smoothly from education to the world of work. But all too often, employers use them to replace permanent jobs. A Quality Framework for Traineeships would encourage companies to offer a real chance to acquire experience and learn on the job under fair working conditions. The Commission will present a legislative proposal on this by the end of the year.

in Austria, Germany or Switzerland help both the economy and the labour market to function well. So the idea is to share the know-how with other Member States. The European Alliance will hopefully help disseminate good practice in this area. It will promote national partnerships to develop successful apprenticeship schemes, common curricula for various occupations and systems for recognising apprenticeships followed in another country.

3. European Alliance for Apprenticeships

4. To improve labour mobility for young people across Europe by opening up access to more job opportunities.

There is evidence that dual vocational training systems — where young people work and study in parallel — facilitate the transition from school to work. Joblessness among young people is significantly lower in Member States with extended work-based learning programmes. Such systems

This will involve transforming EURES, the network of European Employment Services, into a more flexible, demand-driven recruitment instrument. The goal is that people and companies get greater assistance with placing jobseekers into vacant jobs beyond national borders. Apprenticeships and

traineeships in another country that are linked to a job will also be facilitated by EURES. European Commission has also started to run targeted mobility schemes for young people in the form of small-scale, tailor-made recruitment campaigns that will address particular vacancies in certain occupations, sectors or Member States. The pilot project is known as Your first EURES Job.


Chapter 3: Immigration and Employment Venue: Rabat, Malta. 07-09 May 2013.

Immigration and Employment


High levels of employment protection reduce hiring and firing and have a theoretically ambiguous effect on the employment level. Immigrants, being new to the labor market, may be less aware of employment protection regulations and less likely to claim their rights, which may create a gap between the costs for employers of hiring a native relative to hiring an immigrant. This graph below tests that hypothesis drawing on evidence for the Europeand on two natural experiments for Spain and Italy. The results suggest that strict employment protection legislation (EPL) gives immigrants a comparative advantage relative to natives. Stricter EPL is found to reduce employment and reduce hiring and firing rates for natives. By contrast, stricter EPL has no effect on most

immigrants and may even increase employment rates for those who have been in the country for a longer time. 1.1 Employment rates of non-European citizens The lower levels of educational attainment of non-European citizens living in the Union are reflected in their relative employment rates. In 2000, only just over 73% of migrants of non-European nationality aged 25 to 39 living in the Union were employed as against 88% of nationals. Moreover, their unemployment rate averaged just over 15% as against 6% for nationals in this age group. For women, the differences were even more pronounced. Whereas 68% of nationals in the Union aged 25 to 39 were employed, the figure for non-European citizens was only around 44%. At the same time, the unemployment rate for the latter averaged

19% as opposed to 10% for nationals. Although a larger proportion of women of non-European nationality in this age group with tertiary (i.e. university or equivalent) education were employed than those with lower qualifications, only around half of these were in work as against 83% of nationals with a similar level of education. Equally, only around a third of women of non-European nationality with low levels of education were employed as opposed to just over half of nationals. For men, the differences in employment rates were smaller, but, over the Union as a whole, the proportion of non-European citizens with a given level of educational attainment in work was still some 10 percentage points below that of nationals. It must be emphasized that these large differences in respect of employment and unemployment rates, should not be seen as indicating a greater reluctance of those with non-European

nationality to work than nationals. The possibly higher participation of the latter in full-time education or training might explain part of the difference in participation in the labour force, but this, together with the higher unemployment of non-European citizens almost certainly reflects problems of access to jobs. In the case of women, cultural differences may also play a role, as might a lack of affordable childcare facilities in a situation where many non-nationals could well have less possibility of support from social and family networks than nationals. 1.2 Educational attainment levels of non-European citizens Non-European citizens living in the Union have, on average, lower levels of educational attainment than nationals and, indeed, of Europe citizens living in another European country. This is particularly so for men and women aged

25 to 39. In 2000, 46% of men of non-European nationality in this age group had no educational qualifications beyond compulsory schooling as compared with only 29% of nationals. Only 17% of non-European citizens had tertiary, or university, level education as against 24% of nationals. For women, the differences were even more marked. Whereas 30% of citizens had not progressed beyond compulsory schooling, the proportion in the case of non-European citizens was over half. Similarly, only around 17% of non-European citizens had tertiary level education as opposed to 25% of citizens. In the age group 20-64, the unemployment rate of foreign born persons in Europe is much higher than the unemployment rate of the total population (14% compared to 9%). The effect is particularly noticeable for foreign born persons from outside Europe for whom the unemployment rate is 16%.

In the prime working ages 2554, the unemployment rates of foreign born men and women are identical (8%) and are 6 and 5 percentage points higher than the unemployment rates of their counterparts in the total population. Again, the unemployment rates of foreign born men and women from outside Europe are particularly high in comparison with the unemployment rates of all men and women in this age group (for men 8 percentage points higher; for women 7 percentage points higher). A similar effect is seen in the 55-64 age groups. The higher unemployment rates of foreign-born in the prime working ages 25-54 (in comparison to all persons of this age group) are noticeable in almost all Member States with the exception of HU. In eight Member States (Belgium, Germany, Spain, France, Latvia, Austria, Finland and Sweden) the unemployment rates of foreign born aged 25-54 are 5


or more percentage points higher than the unemployment rates of all persons in the same age group.


These differences are even more pronounced for persons born outside Europe. Similar overall results apply to the analysis by citizenship. The highest gaps concern male third country nationals in the age group 55-64, whose unemployment rate in the Europe is 13 percentage points higher than the unemployment rate of all men in this age group.4 1.3 Possibility of immigrant’s employment The Programmes undertaken by the 5 companies target a range of groups such as children, persons with physical and intellectual disabilities, youth, persons with mental health issues, the community at large, the homeless, the environment and heritage. The types of services provided by

these 5 companies range from active participation in fundraising activities, manual work, financial services, administration and office work, PR, media and communication services, and project proposal writing. 4 out of the 5 companies reported that employees are able to choose whether to volunteer individually or in teams. 4 of the companies provide their staff with a list of NGOs which they can then choose from. The companies that do not have a Corporate Volunteering Programme in place (95%) were asked what benefits would make their company consider Corporate Volunteering. 84% of these companies claimed that the benefit that would make their company consider Corporate Volunteering would be the knowledge that the company is contributing positively towards the community, 72% said that the benefit would be increased staff

satisfaction and 59% said a positive company reputation. 2. Policies to increase the employment of the target group by participants During the discussions participants came up with various suggestion to be presented to the local authorities and those who are responsible for the immigrants employment in order to help them better integrate and find the job according their skills and abilities or provide them with training courses or seminars to make them competitive on the labor market with domestic job seekers. It was also noticed that although their skills, knowledge and abilities might be in the similar level than one of the local job seeker, there is still much of the discrimination involved in recruitment and hiring of non-Maltese job seekers. It is also being noticed that the black economy is making it for immigrants more difficult, therefore there are

often the cases of abuse or bribe. Another fact, which was discussed to increase the employment of the target group, was to invest in the undeveloped countries like Somalia, Kenya and other African countries from where the bulk of the immigrants are coming. To compare the situation with Spain, as mentioned by participants there is bigger problem with emigration than immigration; therefore the country is losing the professionals and high educated people, who seek for work abroad due to the fact that there are better employment conditions than in their domestic country. The main political problem which all participants from different countries agreed on, were the benefits the unemployed people receive while they are seeking for jobs and it was highlighted as one of the main reason why there is such amount of long term unemployed people.

Netherlands’ participants have promoted a number of actions which could be taken into the consideration for specific groups like unemployed migrant woman who would enquire EVC prior to learning and experience certificate and become part of voluntary work. To tackle the problem of unemployed youth people and elderly one of the suggestions was to establish vital cooperation between schools employers and local government. It was also highlighted that youths should be more focused on establishing (Social) neighborhood enterprises and the government should propose not only raising the retirement age but flexible retirement of 58-67Y. Irrespectively of the country, there are many foreign workers illegally working in sectors such as horticulture, catering and construction. A significant proportion of employers make abuse of foreign workers like paying less than the statutory minimum wage, not

complying with the collective agreements, not paying the insurance premiums for employees. 3. Educational and social support in center Dar Qalb Ta’ Gesu in Santa Venera The shelter was founded in 2001 as a joint venture between the Church and the local government. Dar Qalb ta’ Gesù houses families, women and children who fall victim to domestic violence and are struggling to overcome their negative experiences. At the shelter, residents follow a therapeutic programme aimed to reinstate them in the local community through ¬training in areas such as -education, social skills and home management. The main aim of the organization is to help children of single parents, battered wives and related cases by giving them prevention care, residential care and after-care. The organization acts as a Family Therapy Centre.



The house served as an orphanage house and hosted about 300 children, during the second war it was used as a hospital and used as catholic church were the prays took place. Nowadays it use is for women who face domestic violence and who cannot afford or are not capable to live on their own. In this shelter women with children, get a flat with their own kitchen and a social worker who is assigned to them. They can stay in this shelter for one year and half. As off today, the house has 9 flats and 1 social worker per family. When it was asked about the outcome, the manager said that some of them start living independently and doing actually very well, but some still fall out of integration into society. At the moment they are hosting 5 women and 2 babies. The social workers meet them during weekly sessions and when it is requested they invite the psychologist to the meeting. The house management also as-

sists them with legal issues when applying for work or when they are seeking for housing, as government social flats acquisition requires a lot of administrative effort. They also help them in seeking for further trainings or school to improve the development of their professional and personal competences. The educational level of the women is usually very low, most of the time they do not finish secondary school. Regarding the financial situation of the women staying in such shelter, they receive social benefits from government 400â‚Ź per month plus the 50â‚Ź per month as extra benefit that they are under this program. The first shelter which is allocated in Hal-Balzan is to help women to move out from the husband or boyfriend who is beating them. When entering the center there is security man who assist them in protection and who does not allow any men to enter the center. There are some cases when men would find the women especially

if they have children and try to kidnap her to keep on beating her and abusing her. When the women go back to the community the social worker follow them for 3 up to 6 months to assist in any problem the women would face out or help them with any administrative requirements. The shelter has 2 full time social workers, 1 part time social worker, 2 social supporters and 1 project manager. 4. Identification of cross-cultural conflicts The last day of the workshop, participants focused on the identification of cross-cultural conflicts and integration of the immigrants into the local community. One of the main problems which came out of the brainstorming was the lack of knowledge about the other culture traditions and habits. Therefore the participants suggested that people with the same culture, should organize various events to make local people understand

their cultural habits and traditions to avoid cross-cultural conflicts. Another suggestion to decrease the cross-cultural conflicts was to find out common hobbies like sport activities, art, musical festival and other cultural events which are in common and both parties can benefit from it. Second suggestion from the participant’s point of view was to do voluntary work together, where you organize clean up of your area to involve immigrants in local activities and make them feel part of the community. The Spanish participants have promoted the festival of music where the mixture of traditional music with international music will mix together and create cross-cultural music festival where the restaurants would serve the food of all minorities present in the festival. The social media is also one the main influencer when it comes to judging people, therefore the participants suggested to involve so-

cial media and local TV station or radio to be part of the campaign towards better understanding among the various cultural groups through promotion historical, educational and cultural background of immigrants and other minorities living in the domestic country. Due to the fact the children are the foundation of our future the participants suggested to give them the first priority when talking about cross-cultural conflict, since it is being proven that children who are brought up in the mixed families have more understanding and respect towards different cultures and various nations than the children who are living in close small single community. It was proposed by a Spanish participant to create an event for children to exchange letters with children from Africa or another country for one year or stay for 2 weeks in another country to better understand other cultural habits and traditions.

The last but not the least, suggestion was to create the media project where it can be created the online TV and the people could for free see various documentaries about cultural conflicts, misunderstanding and the other related cases which lead to the intolerance and disrespect of each other.


Chapter 4: Labour Market, Globalization and Outsourcing Venue: Razlog, Bulgaria. 06- June


Outsourcing, offshoring, two win-win notions. Everything starts some 50 years ago when Western countries were still dominating the young and fragile global market that was being created. Factories were transferred from antic “developed” countries to the so-called “developing” countries with consequences on labour market , but also on labour force, urbanism, local and global cultures and communities whether in one side of the world or the other. At first, there was a positive look at this new way of making business. Indeed, implementing factories in “less wealthy” countries means implementing jobs, services, infrastructures useful for the population. In the other side, “wealthier” countries can produce more for a lower cost and so increase goods’ consumption. In the same time, the structure of the labour market changes in these countries from industrial to post-industrial services society.

In the early 2000s, outsourcing became an essential mean to structure any country’s labour market. In fact, nowadays, it becomes impossible to think about labour market without thinking about exchanges services, goods and means of productions with other factories or enterprises. Outsourcing consists in contracting out of a business process to a third-party. Outsourcing allows each enterprise to specialize itself and to contract out to other enterprises, inside or outside the country, for needed goods and services. As a result of outsourcing, labour market changed heavily and radically over the last 50 years. Youngsters nowadays live in societies dominated by globalization and job’s migrations. They need to adapt to their new world, to this necessity to move, to specialize themselves and to accept impacts on their local communities. The fourth event within the pro-

ject Work in Progress, organized on 6th of June in Razlog, Bulgaria, addressed this topic of “Labour market, globalization and outsourcing” with a focus on young people on the labour market. Bulgaria is one of these countries where wealth economy depended on outsourcing for years. Indeed, even though Bulgaria is one of the richest countries in European Union for natural resources and had an agricultural economy for so long, from the last decades, economy has been revolved on outsourcing. Bulgaria is the largest producer of coal in Europe and its industry is based on metal and mineral extractions and on chemical and machinery industries. These facts leaded Western countries enterprises, e.g. German or Austrian enterprises, but also some from Russia, to implement factories in Bulgaria, Bulgarian entrepreneurs and outside enterprises opened call-centres for outside and young Bulgarians found themselves

working for multinationals in this country that still has one of the lowest individual income in European Union. And so, Bulgaria was the natural environment to set up this event of Work in Progress. For the same reasons, the involvement of such countries as Albania, Romania or Greece was important to discuss several realities connected to outsourcing in Europe. In fact, these countries are also known for welcoming factories, call-centres and other enterprises from Western world. On the other hand, thanks to other partners’ countries as Netherlands, there was the opportunity to discover the other side of the global market issue; how “wealthy” countries are becoming post-industry societies of services, trying to find a new balance and a new way of producing, consuming and working. Finally, through Italian, Greek and Spanish experiences, it has been possible to share knowledge about consequences of globalization and

understand better how dangerous it can be to underestimate the values of local communities. In this event in Razlog, were welcomed experts on globalization, local market and other related issues during this event. Participants were mostly representatives of civil society organisations, youth associations, local community or local authorities, but also representatives of national institutions and of course youngsters. This eclectic group permitted a closer analysis of those two facets of labour market: globalization and local communities. That antithesis met strongly and deeply in Razlog where youngsters and experts tried to figure out a fine balance between our global economical exigencies and our local needs and cultural assets. Quoting our guest speaker, Miroslav Dzhunev, free-lance consultant at National Associations of the Municipalities, we could summari-

ze the beginning of the meeting in Razlog in this way:

“Outsourcing to labour markets in developing countries is increasing, which of course causes inconveniences to the labour force in developed countries and changes the global equation. Nevertheless globalization is a natural phenomenon and the course of which can be difficultly changed”.



Even though there was an agreement on the difficulties of the goals, globalization and outsourcing were discovered to possibly be integrated in local communities in a fair way. Basing the discussions on youngsters’ points of views and experiences, alternatives to the actual situation were searched. Participants were provided a space for interaction where they could share good examples and successful practices for actions and initiatives in the field of youth employment. In particular, it was focused on social entrepreneurship as a viable factor for sustainable development of local communities and as a measure for increasing youth employment, fighting inequalities on the labour market including ones resulting by globalization and outsourcing, and as a way to use and exploit the potential of young people in the most creative and effective way. Indeed, by adopting values from the commu-

nities in the labour market sector, by building a bridge between business and non-profit fields, or by supporting a positive return of economy in the society, social entrepreneurship reduces the gap between people and labour market. During the event, youngsters were able to express their new ways of thinking the labour market; the globalization and the outsourcing in put them in common with representatives of local authorities and national institutions among others.

Chapter 5: Youth and Work Venue- Corbeanca, Romania. August, 2013. The youth unemployment rate in the European Union reached new historic high of 23.5 % in February 2013, more than twice as high as the adult rate, with some 5.7 million young people affected. Young people that have only completed lower secondary education (early leavers from education and training) bear the highest risk of unemployment. In 2012, the European average youth unemployment rate was 22.8 %, but reached 30.3 % for low-skilled youth. Being unemployed at a young age have a long-lasting negative impact, a ‘scaring effect’. Young people might be trapped in the lower end of the labour market, with less on-thejob training, lower wage levels and weaker long-term employment and career prospects, consequently experiencing long spells of joblessness and facing a high risk of exclusion. Young people aged 25-29 with higher education also find it harder to access jobs in line with their qualifications. Although the low-skilled

Thus continuing our analysis about employment in Europe, it was really crucial to discuss on situation of youth & labour market in Europe. So the fifth conference was built in Bucharest gathering youngsters In most of countries, the youth unemployment rate was above 20% together with representatives of labour market, non-governmental in 2012. Regarding the partners organizations, teachers and human involved in this project, in four, the resources specialists. The debate rate was over 30 % (Greece, Spain, crossed the European labour market, Italy, Slovakia) and in 3, the rates but also the South Eastern countries ranged from 20 to 30% (Bulgaria, situation. The interaction between Romania, Albania). However Malta the participants and specialists bring rated between 10 and 20 % and in the Netherlands the youth unemplo- a perspective regarding the factors yment rate was below 10 %. overall still face the highest risk of unemployment, the young highly skilled have suffered the biggest drop in employment.

and realities in Romania and foreign countries with its similarities and differences. During the presentations, workshops and sessions were defined the barriers that stop youngsters across Europe to find a proper job during their university and at the end of their studies. Also, during the discussions, the system gaps, the inappropriate fiscal consolidation policies and the particularities of the Generation Y and the divisions between this 33 generation and the post-war “baby boomers” were identified.

The key to personal branding is “permission to be yourself” and authenticity — Emilia Radu


Moreover, the youngsters found out about the employers expectations and what the stages of successful applications are, but also how to prepare themselves before entering in the recruitment process. The conference topics tackled also the entrepreneurship, European mobility programs and the topic “volunteer –the first step in my career”. With youth unemployment at high levels, a third percent of people under 30 say they expect to become their own boss one day. One in four unemployed young people say they would set up their own business rather than to seek work in today’s competitive job market, but there is still a huge gap between the number of youngsters who want to do it and number who will ever actually do it. Europe needs more entrepreneurs, more innovation and more high-growth SMEs. This is why it is necessary to stimulate the entrepreneurial mindsets of young people and why role of education in promoting this attitude is so

important. In the first day, Miss Emilia Radu, a career orientation program developer and communication specialist presented a labour market overview, introducing the participants in the context of youth unemployment topic, the NEET situation in South-eastern countries and in Romania and study cases with relevant solutions to combat the European issues. Moreover, the specialist talked about the importance of the personal brand and social media profiles for employers and what methods the youngsters should use in order to contact and approach an employer. She mentioned also that the fastest way to separate yourself from the pack is to figure out who you are, what you’re good at and maximize your strengths. While most people think of branding as creating a fake image, the guest said. If young people stop treating themselves like a replaceable commodity and start thinking about what makes them

who they are, soon the hiring managers will see the same thing. Due to the constantly presented study cases it was observed the growing mismatch between the skills that youngsters have and the vacancies that employers want to fill and why those who begin their careers without work are more likely to have lower wages and suffer joblessness again later in life. Graduate employment is being presently challenged to the core and two of the most frequently invoked underlying reasons are unadjusted curricula to job market demands, and graduate skills’ failure to meet employers’ requirements. In the second day, non-governmental representatives from DGT Association, AGRID, ATDD, and Social Initiatives explained to the participants the importance of European mobility such as Erasmus and European voluntary service through Lifelong learning and You-

th in Action activities –all initiatives included in the current Erasmus+ program. The participants find out insights from volunteers that were involved in programs mentioned above. Thus some solutions have been proposed in order to promote these programs in an efficient way, especially in rural areas where the information doesn’t reach its target so efficiently. The representatives of NGOs motivated the importance of creating your own NGO and how an organization can be considered an entrepreneurial start-up. The world café method allowed to the participants to gather as much details and insights about the NGO engine, how to motivate the vo-

lunteers and to promote their projects in a sustainable way.

animal welfare, and help them meanwhile to discover their career path.

In the last day, the main topic was how NGOs can help young people in the search of a job and what the path to entrepreneurship is. Volunteering can be an excellent way to learn more about a particular role or sector (particularly if you are coming from a for-profit job and hoping to switch to non-profit or government), workplace or office culture, or cause. Also, creating your own organization can be considered an entrepreneurial start-up. Lifelong learning includes hands-on experiences as a volunteer which can teach them about issues ranging from adult literacy to public health to

Emilia Radu presented a best case – NGOs Communication Camp, a 8 days Youth in action training course. The camp purpose was relevant with the communication and media labour market and was a a space for young people to develop their skills, knowledge and attitude (SKAs). The participants had the opportunity to experience and explore creative and innovative approaches in new media issues & bring their ideas forward in order to develop the field of Communication and New Media. At the end of this training course, the participants knew what the demands from the

employer are and how they can convince the media company to hire them from the resume creation until the interview stage. Youth in action trainee, Adrian Cocardan continued with an example of volunteering and entrepreneurship project implemented in Romania, mentioning the importance of entrepreneurship education in the early stages of young people studies. The vocational school system– also known as technical schools – should be one of the most important beneficiaries of this. At the end of the conference, the participants worked in groups at new projects to be implemented in the following mon-

ths to fight against youth unemployment and to offer support to the youngsters to find a job according to their skills.

“If we want to see more entrepreneurship down the road, we need to create a culture in our schools where entrepreneurial learning is pervasive.” — Adrian Cocardan


Chapter 6: Final Conference in Bologna Venue: Bologna, Italy. 11-13 September 2012.


The final conference of the project took place in Bologna, at Sala dei Tribuni della Plebe ”Stefano Tassinari” – Palazzo D’Accursio (where the Municipality of Bologna is placed) from 11th to 13th of September 2013. The event had been organised by Net in Action, cooperating with Europe Direct city of Bologna and Region of Emilia Romagna. Partners from different countries sent their representatives in order to stand for them. Many other local people took part in the event in an active and purposeful way. The meeting hosted experts, local and European politicians, directors of other organisations. The first day consisted of presentations and introductions. The meeting started with an opening speech of the Chairman of Net in Action who welcomed all the public and presented the agenda of the 3 days meeting. The topics of the previous events

were revised by discussing with experts and professors who could share others points of view and interpretations to develop the crucial aspects of them: Europe and work policies, women and labour market, immigration and employment, labour market, globalization and outsourcing, youth and employment. This event was the conclusion of all the studies made until then. Participants of the previous events met again to make the synthesis of the acquired knowledge and share their experiences. Every partner and local participant could have the chance to interact with experts and each other and to create an open space where they could share and examine the themes they had dealt with. The main topics discussed in Bologna were social inclusion, youth mobility and active citizenship. Besides, before the meeting the participants had a brainstorming

about any other interesting topic at European level they wanted to enhance, in order to match partners and local people interests. Coming from the previous meetings, most of the people voted for the in-depth analysis about European Programmes and opportunities. The second day there were organised group activities (open space technology) to work on different topics of the event and exchange with people with different background, best practices, knowledge, ideas and suggestions. The facilitators were experts about European issues, working at local and international level to promote international mobility and intercultural dialogue. After the open space, best aspects of the activity were put in common, planning also different steps to enhance them and to get the appointed objectives. At the end of the conference, participants attended a happening in the main square of Bologna, representing the policy of Europe to encourage young people to be proactive

and aware about the opportunities exist as Europe citizens. Since the topic of Europe opportunities won the day, it was added to the agenda and it was important to share point of views with Mr Salvatore Caronna, Member of European Parliament, last day. He describe the European policy to fight against unemployment and marginalisation, plus all initiatives to support mobility of workers in Europe and recognition of the competences assimilated by formal and non formal learning approaches by European people. Mr Fabrizio Binacchi (Director/ Head of Regional Office Emilia-Romagna for RAI; Regional Office Coordination) moderated the debate where also Mrs Mori Roberta (Regional Councillor for equal opportunities) took part. She presented the Regional initiatives to promote women empowerment and equal rights, with a look to the European laws to support it.

The final conference was the perfect moment also to present the final DVD, vademecum and website to the public as means of visibility and dissemination of the results. In order to give the project the right exposure, local and national journalists were present at the conference to cover the event. The last day was also important to plan actions for visibility and exploitation of the results. In groups they discussed about future cooperation in the field of European labour market, empowerment and opportunities for young people and workers. Not least, the discussion approached strategies to involve local authorities and to influence decision makers about labour market, to leave a tangible sign to the fight against unemployment.


Conclusion “European work policies and subsidized programs fostered a common belief within the participants that European identity enhances sustainable collaborations and an inclusive economy. Indeed a number of different collaborations and opportunities have emerged just during the project, creating new partnerships and spreading the opportunities for mobility abroad.


The participation of diverse stakeholders fostered the mutual understanding and collaboration

between the different levels of the Society: the events in fact, were attended by citizens, policy makers, civil society organizations, public authorities at local/regional/ national/European level, teachers, experts, psychologists, and entrepreneurs. Without any doubt, this was the main strength point, and what ensured the success of the project initiative in terms of impact into the participants. From the other hand, the presentation of the main findings of the

seminar and the discussion groups increased awareness in the rights and opportunities that European citizens’ share compared to non-European citizens.

“This event built a common ground to share ideas about European work policies and Participants in these events realized develop new ways to fight their role as European citizens, imagainst unemployment and to proving their civic and democratic foster labour market“ participation at EU level by developing citizens’ understanding of the — Salvatore Martello, EU policy making-process and, by Organizer promoting opportunities for societal and intercultural engagement and volunteering at EU level.”

Mr. Caronna Salvatore (MEP), Mrs. Mori Roberta (Regional Councillor for equal opportunities), Mr. Binacchi Fabrizio (Head of Regional Office for national televition - RAI) and the international delegation of project partners

This booklet has been funded with support from the European Commission. This booklet reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.

Work in progress - Final report  
Work in progress - Final report  

This booklet is a summuary of "Work in progress", a project funded by "Europe for citizens" Programme with the aim of establishing a platfor...