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Spring Edition




For members of the PA/VI community







Video Road Map Shooting DSLR Video Lighting Solutions Codec Rules Consistent Success Reuse. Recycle. Repurpose. Can You Hear What I See? Video for Social Media Video Terms & Definitions



Full story on page 5

DIRECTOR’S CORNER Congratulations to the newly selected members of the FY13 Advanced Navy Visual Journalism training at the S.I. Newhouse School of Public Communications, Syracuse University.

Congratulations! It’s my pleasure to announce the names of the next cohort to attend the Advanced Navy Visual Journalism program for 2013-2014 at Syracuse University’s S.I. Newhouse School of Public Communication. Please join me in congratulating: Motion Media (8144) MC1(SCW) Demetrius A. Kennon, Director, Surface Warfare Division (N96) MC1(SCW) Nicholas Lingo, Defense Information School MC2(SW) Glenn B. Slaughter, USS Nimitz (CVN 68) MC1(EXW/SW) Sean P. Spratt, American Forces Network, Japan Photojournalism (8148) MC2(SW/AW) Torrey W. Lee, Commander, Third Fleet MC2(SW) Dominique A. Pineiro, Navy Public Affairs Support Element MC2 Antonio P. Turretto Ramos, NAS Oceana MC1(EXW/SW/AW) Jonathon J. Rasmussen, Expeditionary Combat Camera

One of my favorite things to do each year is to join an invited group of dedicated VI professionals to select the next convening class of MCs for advanced training at Syracuse University. There are only eight seats each year, four still media and four video media. The MCs we select are the future producers and mentors for VI in the PA community. It is a task each member of the board takes very seriously, not because of the program’s cost; it’s about the future of VI as an effective media for Navy communicators. While we were successful in filling each of the seats for the FY13 class, the future of this program remains firmly in the hands of our khaki leadership in the chief’s mess and wardroom. In my job I see almost all of the released images and video content produced by our MCs. The talent is out there, but if not identified early while they are shinny new SN’s and PO3s we run the risk of some of our best and brightest missing what regrettably is a small detailing window each year. Aside from the fact selected candidates must exhibit a level of work showing they have what it takes to refine their skills at the graduate university level, he or she must also be a good Sailor who can successfully navigate PTS, time on station requirements, and high year tenure limits. Commands must also show a willingness to allow their best Sailors to rotate early. As leaders we must do for our best for our Sailors and we owe it to our community to promote the Syracuse program to continue its viability and credibility. If combat camera is a desired goal for an interested MC, great, but Syracuse graduates also fill key positions at DMA, whether with the newly established All Hands Magazine staff or the Pentagon Channel. They can also serve as instructors at DINFOS or at NPASE, and high visibility billets here in the Pentagon.

Congratulations and get ready to open your minds, study hard and create. Vr/ Master Chief MCCM(SW/AW/EXW) Jon McMillan Senior Enlisted Leader, Chief of Information

Mr. Jeff Elliott, CHINFO OI-81, is your POC for information. He is a graduate of the program, albeit during the days of iron clad ships, but is always anxious to help anyone needing assistance with portfolio work and the application process. He can be reached at 703-692-4754 or


Lt. Cmdr. Chuck Abell Lt. Cmdr. Dave Luckett Oscar Sosa Damon Moritz MC1(SW/AW) Arif Patani Andrew Geraci Merle Livingston



Tim Mazurek

Staff Writers Contributors


Navy Office of Information Pentagon RM4B514 Washington, D.C. 20350-1200 Office: 703-614-9154 DSN: 224 Download Insider at:

InsiderPerspective by Andrew Geraci

Shooting Video with a DSLR Camera Digital single-lens reflex cameras capable of shooting high-definition video have been on the market for some time now and have accelerated the rate and quality in which we deliver our product. These lightweight cameras with interchangeable lenses produce a fantastic cinema quality image and allow you to blend in with the crowd because of their compact size. For the traditional video user, a DSLR camera can look like a daunting new tool. Rest assured, it’s not. In many cases, it can be easier and more versatile than a standard video camera. One of the greatest benefits to shooting with a DSLR camera is its ability to be used in tight spaces. This is helpful when you’re shooting aboard ships, aircraft or other confined areas. It’s best to use two hands when shooting, one steadying the body and the other holding the lens. Locking and resting your elbow against your chest or stomach also will help minimize camera shake and provide more stability. It’s important to use lenses (when possible) that feature image stabilization, as they will provide the steadiest shots. If the lens you are using does not have this feature, then it’s best to use a tripod or a monopod when shooting. Your product will come out looking much more professional.




If you’re using a DSLR camera on the run, it works best to have your aperture set above f/5.6 to ensure you have some flexibility on the focal range. If the scene is too dark, such as indoor shooting locations, you can increase your ISO and/or decrease your shutter speed. This will balance your exposure. Shooting at a smaller aperture (f/5.6-22) will allow you to retain maximum focus without having to change it constantly. Just keep in mind that the smaller the aperture (larger the number), less light will be allowed into the camera. When using a DSLR camera in low-light situations, you should take advantage of the camera’s ISO capabilities. Some DSLR cameras on the market have ISOs that go up into the 100,000s, which means that the sensor is capable of recording in near darkness. Setting your ISO at such high levels does come at a price though. If you shoot at or above 3200 ISO, you will start to see noticeable image grain or noise. This can be a desired effect. However, once you reach the 6400 ISO level, it can become rather unsightly, especially if you’re using an older DSLR camera. Most modern (2012+) models shoot low light levels at 6400 ISO at still acceptable production quality. Aside from achieving a well-balanced composition and exposure, audio is by far the most critical and challenging element when working with DSLR camera video.

Focusing is one of the most difficult, and sometimes the most irritating task to perform on the DSLR camera. A trick that I learned while in the field that will help you out greatly is to use your LCD monitor. When you want to focus, zoom in, usually x10, find the critical focus and then lock your lens down at that specific range (for that shot). If you are using a prime lens, you can digitally zoom into your focal point. This will allow you to have a tack-sharp image that will make your boss drool. If you’re shooting at an aperture of greater than f/3.5 (meaning < 3.5), it’s very important that you always check focus before an interview. If you’re shooting at f/1.4 or f/1.2, your subject will move out of focus if they move around because the in-focus range may only be one or two inches. One reason that you would want to use an aperture at this speed is if you want to achieve a very selective focus depth and/or to create a very elegant bokeh/blur in the foreground and background, which are the orbs that appear in lights when you use a very large aperture (small number). Another reason would be if you were in a low-light situation. Having a large aperture allows more light to enter the camera and hit the sensor and provides an image using a lower ISO.

Many older DSLR cameras lack audio options, such as monitoring, selecting channels, changing levels and removing the impedance tone, which becomes problematic in post production. Don’t worry though! There’s always a workaround. If you’re not using a newer DSLR camera such as the Canon 5D Mark 3 or Nikon D800 that have all of these settings, you can purchase an inexpensive impedance cable that can run from your camera to an external audio recorder such as a Zoom H4n that can be mounted on your camera for the most efficient use. If you are using a newer model such as Canon 5D Mark 3 or Nikon D800, you can hook standard mic cables directly into their appropriate ports and also have a headphone jack to ensure the sound is working correctly. Many video journalists live by this setup, which is one of the best ways to achieve great sound until DSLR cameras adopt new audio functions. The number one rule to remember when shooting video with a DSLR camera is to understand that there are no rules. Shoot high, get on your stomach, peek around corners and blend in with the environment. DSLR cameras allow you to grow creatively, so you can push your own professional boundaries. Even with technical limitations, find ways to adapt and overcome. The creative possibilities with a DSLR camera are endless. Happy shooting! Andrew “Drew” Geraci is an award-winning photographer, the lead multimedia producer for the Washington Times and the owner of District 7 Media, LLC. He served nearly a decade in the U.S. Navy as a photographer’s mate/mass communication specialist and attended the military motion media course at Syracuse University. His background includes photography, videography, broadcast journalism, motion HDR time-lapse photography, 3D animation, motion graphics, web/graphic design, and traditional storytelling. His clients include HBO, Netflix, NFL, Discovery, Nike, ESPN, CNN, PBS, FOX, FBI, various companies in Washington, D.C., as well as director David Fincher and editor Angus Wall.



Shooting Video:

The Roadmap to Consistent Success By Lt. Cmdr. David Luckett


ompelling video supports the conversation about our Navy’s

story is very much about applying solid fundamentals – with a twist. These tips will help your product be seen by more people and on more platforms. BASICS: • White balance • Use a tripod whenever possible unless going for a specific effect • Pan or zoom for a reason, and remember to establish a start and finish for either

COMPOSITION: • Remember the rule of thirds and when you break it, do so intentionally • Fill your viewfinder – be aware of everything in the frame and avoid visual or audio distractions • Zoom with your legs, not your camera • Apply the 30/30 rule – Change camera angle 30 degrees and distance from subject by 30 percent to best support dynamic sequences • Change height of view perspective – go higher or lower with the camera for dynamic angles

STORY TELLING: • Most important is to plan ahead – anticipate your story and the audio and visuals needed to tell the story, then be flexible when on site • Look for sequence opportunities – repetitive action is prime for shooting sequences • People make our stories interesting, focus on faces and the people involved in your stories • For every action, there is a reaction. Look for the reaction to make your story more rounded • Never stop shooting – when you think you have enough video, you need more • Don’t forget the close-in shots of what the subject is actually doing Here is the twist many mass communication specialists can apply to improve their video shooting ability – shoot audio. Try to gather all of the audio you will need to tell the story by itself – without your narration. Don’t plan on your voice telling a part of the story. Work to get a subject in the story to deliver that content for you. This will maximize your editing options. Listen to the environment around you when you’re on a shoot and intentionally gather the audio that can add to your story – almost all audio can add to your story. Again, the more audio you gather the more editing options you’re going to have. A couple of solid audio gathering techniques include: • Mic your interview subjects. This should be a foregone conclusion, but it is still an issue. • Shoot with headphones whenever possible. It is easier to fix problems on site when shooting than in editing. • Shoot 20 seconds of natural room audio. This can help cover the inevitable audio gaps when editing in post-production. I don’t present these reminders and tips to be critical of the content you’re gathering; I present them out of tremendous respect for the amount of demands on you in the fleet today. There is no shortage of people wanting your content. This will hopefully give a solid roadmap to more reliably compelling video content that will be usable in all of our platforms.




Can You Hear What I See? The average viewer can watch even the simplest videos and not even think once about what they are hearing. This is the mark of a successful video. Yet a viewer who is watching a video that has audio synchronization issues or a lot of distracting noise immediately focuses on the poor audio instead of the video or its message. The bottom line is that the viewer expects to hear what they see. Natural sound is the best way to achieve this. Every consideration must be made when you are recording an event to capture the natural sound. When you see a helicopter launching from the flight deck, you should hear (as close to the original sound) what it sounds like when that helicopter is launching. The slow turn of the engine as it starts – the thump, thump, thump of the propeller blades as they turn in rhythm, and the sudden force of wind and energy as the aircraft lifts off. Like an artist painting a canvas, your ears should hear what you are seeing.

Tips for Recording Natural Sound. Use channel 2 on your camera, the on-camera microphone. Wear headphones or earplugs whenever possible. Not only listen to see if your volume is appropriate, but listen to see if you are capturing the audio of every distinct movement in your frame. The noise at your location may interfere with the proper capture of every sound you need to make an


impressive video. So go back and record that sound a second time, as controlled as you can, and add that additional track in post production or add it as a separate track to your b-roll package. A final solution is to use your mic input and extend an external microphone to the subject that you are recording. You should anticipate what you will hear and what you want to hear in the final production.

Mic’ing the Talent.

Lavalier microphones are the most popular microphones for interviews but are often not placed correctly on the interviewee. The “lav” should be placed on the person’s shirt or blouse, approximately 12 inches from his or her mouth. While placing the lav under clothing may reduce wind, it inhibits the microphone’s ability to fully capture natural sound coming out muffled. Instead, place it front of the person on the suit’s lapel and use a windscreen to reduce wind noise. Handheld and hands-free wireless microphones are often used at larger events as part of the public announcing system. If possible, take a direct feed (line out) from the audio mixer to your camera. Some events will use a multi-box, which distributes the PA audio. In some cases, you may get better audio if you use your own microphone, but don’t limit yourself to mic’ing the lectern because the speaker may walk around while still making remarks. You should assume that when you are covering large events the on-camera microphone will not be “good enough.” Take your on-camera mic off the camera and move it closer to the speaker for better ambient sound recording. Also, do not over power the line input with a powered mic and a live-feed from the multi-box. You can clear up most of your problems by simply testing your system before the start of the AMERICA’S NAVY: A GLOBAL FORCE FOR GOOD

By Lt. Cmdr. Charles M. Abell

event and during the shoot using headphones to monitor the sound input.

Fix it in Post.

Too often an editor will receive a video that was only recorded with the on-camera microphone, or the main channel 1 audio microphone failed only leaving the oncamera mic. While it is difficult to save, a few tricks can be used in post production if you are using advanced video editing programs. Audio tools such as EQ (equalizers), mixers and waveforms can be very useful if you know how to use them. Advanced editors use them on every production to “sweeten” the audio. Audio sweetening is a term often used in post production facilities for fine-tuning sound. Sweeten refers to subtly mixing sound. Waveforms are best for visually displaying a noise, making it easier to cut the noise from the production. The waveform is generally displayed as a series of waves on each audio track channel. By lowering certain peaks in the wave, you can remove, reduce or eliminate noise from your audio tracks.

Music Videos.

While it is very tempting to do, do not use copyrighted music in your video productions. There is no debate, and there is no substitution for paying for a license to use music. Claiming “Fair Use” does not waive the U.S. Navy’s responsibility to follow copyright laws. CHINFO has an established account for using licensed production music, and organizations with public affairs units are eligible to have an account. There are forms to fill out and rules to follow, but you can use this service without breaking laws. For more information, contact CHINFO OI-2 at 703-614-9154 or

In the Dark:

Better Lighting Solutions for Low Light Events By Lt. Cmdr. Charles M. Abell


he often overlooked key element to every successful video is lighting. Events are planned and take place without consideration for that essential ingredient. The camera operator assumes that if there is enough light in the room for us to see, the camera will record the event as we see it. Unfortunately, this isn’t true and even with the most technologically advanced cameras, consideration must be made for enhancing the video recording with artificial lighting. Videographers need to know that light is to photography as ink is to writing. Video is 30 still frame photos per second with sound. Does this mean the video camera operator’s job is 30 times harder? Not when you use proper lighting techniques!

shadows. You can also achieve a similar effect by reducing the power intensity (dim). The fill light will usually be at 45 degrees off the camera to subject axis and will be not as high as the key light. It should also be less intense, nearly 1/3 the intensity of the key light. Diffusing the fill light also helps with softening shadows. The backlight will be placed off-camera behind the subject pointed towards the subject’s hair. This will add more dimension to your subject and the video overall. A good way to see if you are using the backlight correctly is to turn off the other two lights; with just your backlight, your subject should be silhouetted.

Quality Lighting: Beyond Three Point Lighting.

Three Point Lighting.

Once you have developed three point lighting techniques, branch out and try adding to your A technique taught even in the most basic natural looking set. Instead of the fill light, video courses is called three point lighting. try using a key, background, ¾ backlight Despite setting up three lights – key, backlight (coming over the subject’s shoulder and hair), and fill – novice videographers fall short of and some kick-lights. Kick-lights are used implementing this technique. The light should to highlight objects in the background or look as natural as possible and not artificial. shadow areas that light cannot reach. The Too much key or backlight and the wrong goal is to add more dimensions to your video placement of the lights can adversely affect by separating the subject from the foreground your video as well. Place the key light 45 to 90 and background. Also, add color filters to your degrees off the camera to subject axis at a high- kick or background lights to enhance er than subject angle. Also, diffuse the light so the mood of the video. that it is not so bright and does not create hard



Accessorize. Barn doors and snoots will help direct your light and reduce spill over. They also are useful for creating pattern effects and holding filters or diffusers. A variety of clips can be used to hold diffusers on barn doors from clothesline clips to butterfly paper clips. C-clamps from any hardware store give you some additional hanging options. A free light meter app on your smart phone will not only get you into the ballpark of correct exposure, but could save you several hundreds of dollars of purchasing a pro light meter. However, I strongly recommend the pro light meter over the smartphone app if it is within your budget. A tape measure is helpful in determining your distances from the camera to subject and light distances to subject to help adjust light intensity. More tricks of the trade can be found by searching the Internet or subscribing to various video trade magazines. Another useful feature is the zebra feature on your camera (crawling ants). It not only shows you where the highlights are but will also show if your shot is overexposed. There are many more tricks of the trade and videos to watch at or YouTube. Search “video lighting techniques.” Remember, the ultimate goal for good artificial lighting is to make it look natural and pleasing as possible. Your viewers will appreciate your videos more! 7

Why H.264?

Codec Rules of Engagement If you are an MC, this article will be one

of the most important you will ever read.

Quite simply, H.264 produces a gorgeous looking file. It also requires less processing power to play back. This codec achieves this while requiring about half the file size of MPEG-2. It is why today’s H.264 is the accepted format for Blu-ray and is widely used on the Internet (YouTube and Vimeo). H.264 will play in all the major video and web-based video players such as Windows Media Player, Apple QuickTime and Adobe Flash. While H.264 is a codec (compression/decompression), it can be contained in a MOV, WMV, FLV or MP4 wrapper. A H.264 contained in a MP4 wrapper will open in any player. A H.264 in any other wrapper will open in the wrapper’s default player and may or may not work in other players. You might ask why everyone does not use H.264. In my opinion, the answer is about money. Most people may not realize this is why their expensive edit or broadcast platforms will not, without exhaustive work-arounds, ingest or playback H.264 video files. When H.264 was developed and released in 2003, it was patented, and royalties had to be paid to use the codec. A lot of companies chose to go with another, less expensive option, instead of paying these royalties. In 2010, the developers of the H.264 codec announced that it would become free forever to consumers and to not-for-profit users. However, if you were a for-profit company and sold more than 100,000 licenses for software or hardware, then royalties would need to be paid.

By Merle Livingston, Defense Media Activity - Navy

Avid & H.264


ften our mass communication specialists are faced with the challenge of having to transfer video footage over poor Internet connections. I am constantly asked to give my best advice on how to overcome this restriction. Unfortunately, there is not a one-size fits all answer.

Exporting from Adobe Premiere using H.264 codec Using Adobe Premiere, you will want to use a H.264 setting or codec utilizing a VBR (variable bit rate) 2 pass option. When you select this option, you will be asked to input two parameters: target bitrate and maximum bitrate. I will circle back and give a more detailed and, likely, confusing explanation. But first, I will give you just the information to help you move great looking HD files. The following are settings, and the results based on an original file size of 295MB. All settings and results are based upon a H.264 VBR 2 Pass transcode. Target Bit Rate:

Maximum Bit Rate:

Final File Size:










Of course, whenever possible, you want to send the highest possible quality that your connection allows – that means, if you have the available bandwidth, camera originals, or if it is an edited sequence, a H.264 file transcoded at a CBR of 50 megabytes per second. I recorded a video demonstration on how to output a H.264 file using Adobe Premiere, and it can be viewed on YouTube at http:// I used Adobe Premiere Pro version 5.5. If you have version 6.5 or 4, your Premiere interface may look slightly different. The video demonstration is straightforward enough to let you export great looking H.264 files.


Most companies opted to pay the royalties. A few have opted for other solutions rather than pay. Avid for example uses an A.M.A. (freeware) plug-in to ingest H.264. Google is the other major corporation that resists royalties yet is still embracing H.264. At the same time, it is developing its own alternative to H.264, Web-M, which is intended to be and always remain an open source (free) codec. There are plenty of freeware software solutions and for-pay encoding software solutions for transcoding files (including H.264) or for ingesting files into platforms that do not natively accept them. One of those programs currently owned by all the Navy Public Affairs Support Elements is Adobe Media Encoder, which is included in Adobe video suites or collection bundles and is also the actual software used to export out of Adobe Premiere. To convert an H.264 file for ingest into an Avid platform using Adobe Premiere or Adobe Media Encoder, output an MXF (Material Exchange Format) OP1a, then select XDCAMHD 50 NTSC 60i, that will output a file that can be directly ingested (drag and drop into a bin or using the import option) by an Avid platform. It will ingest faster than if you used an AMA transfer and transcode mode to ingest the same file. To output a file from Avid, I recommend simply exporting the file in Avid’s native format, which is the HD format XDCAMHD 422. The file will be an MXF OP1a transcoded at 50 or 35 MBps. It will be a file that is interlaced upper field first. If you upgraded to 6, you can easily export an MXF. If you have not upgraded, you will use the export to device option “Select XDCAMHD drive or deck.” If you do not have these devices, use a virtual XDCAM drive method. You can then use either freeware or Adobe Media Encoder/ Premiere or for-pay software to convert it to the desired codec and wrapper. Though it sounds complicated, the result will produce a file that is far better looking than any other options. Additionally, the wait time to transcode the file will be far less than if you used Avid to export the same file. The other plus side is you are not using a very expensive editing system and tying it up for that exhaustive wait to export a file from Avid. If you have any questions or need help with any of these processes, you can reach me at


Ruse. Rcycle. Rpurpose. By Damon J. Moritz

Everybody is talking about ever-shrinking resources be it oil, trees or money. Video people are some of the biggest waste makers around. Sure, video transferred from videotape to solid-state shrinks the footprint, but that was only a small step toward the great green culture. When we shot on tape, we had a physical item in which we invested. We took time to write our name, VIRIN and subject matter on the tape, and then, it got put on a shelf. Today, we shoot, edit and format, and then only send in the final product. There is no physical media. We, as an enterprise, are wasting valuable and ever-shrinking resources by not saving our productions and their associated b-roll for future use.

Archiving media can range from softwarebased asset management systems to the very simple solution with hard drives and folders. Shoot and edit as you normally would. At the end, either edit together a loose prime cut and export it as an MXF file or use the camera’s original files with a VIRIN. If your command doesn’t have a digital-asset management system, you can store those files in a centrally accessible external hard drive with a folder structure that is designed around your workflow. The key is to stay on top of the archiving, so it becomes part of the process. Don’t let it become an end-of-the-week item and don’t settle for less than 100 percent completion. We spend too much time in the editing studio to let your good work go to waste. Folders for shipboard videography teams can be broken out into departments, hardware, events and intangibles such as sunsets or leadership. Shore-based folder structures are similar – command, landmarks, hardware and intangibles. Folders can be loosely or highly detailed. Add in subfolders for dates, camera types such as GoPro, high definition and digital single-lens reflex, or types of shots like wide, medium, close-up, and editing projects. Design the structure so it works best for your office. The research for content will take minutes, rather than hours, of importing and hunting for the needle in the haystack.

and submissions to the official record of the U.S. Navy become easy tasks. You may need to buy hard drives, but your local information technology department may have space it can allocate to you. You can also archive your prime cuts with us to reduce the need to reshoot and “pay” for footage all over again. If you have highspeed Internet access, contact CHINFO OI-2, and I’ll share access on the Navy’s imagery server. CHINFO developed and deployed an enterprise-grade digital asset management system to help with this archiving. The server is now hosted in the Amazon cloud for improved access speed by our primarily civilian customer base for uploading and downloading content. Visual information managers, public affairs officers and chiefs need to develop and enforce workflows for their archiving. Make it a part of your regular training to reiterate the process until it becomes second nature. And remember archiving and retention of Navy-owned media is a skill that can be taught and that ultimately saves the Navy money. CHINFO is responsible for feeding the media, including entertainment and documentary television producers. We’re also the Navy’s centralized collection point for submitting media to Defense Imagery Management Operations Center for archiving at the National Archives.

The effort to save our media content will save us money. Take sequestration for example. We face potential manning shortfalls with furloughs on the horizon. Man-hours are resources. With these resources shrinking, who will shoot video when requests come in from media or Hollywood?

These same folder structures can be applied to photo, graphics and story archiving as well. Every time CHINFO is able to respond to a Store everything you have for each subject in one location and eventually you will have a rich, media query with quality media products, we deep archive of information that pays dividends all make money from your work. Send those daily and saves you countless “rework” requests archive quality files to CHINFO every week – daily, if needed – and make money by reusing, in the future. Long-term projects such as recycling and repurposing. change of command ceremonies, cruise books





Video Terms and Definitions B-Roll

From the days of linear video editing with a- and b-rolls, the term refers to cover video used in editing to visually enhance a production. Today, b-roll is often used by news organizations and production companies to support storytelling visually. Quality b-roll should be brief in duration and without camera movement, poor focus or exposure. B-roll should have quality natural sound supporting the scene.


The amount of data that can be sent through a transmitting system. It also refers to the range of transmission frequencies a network can use. The greater the bandwidth, the larger the amount of information that can be transferred over that network.


Video distortion caused by excessive levels that cannot be handled by a television system. Example: A camera is viewing a scene that contains bright lights and/or specular reflections. The video operator would adjust the camera for appropriate skin tone levels and allow the extraneous super-white peaks to be clipped.

Color Bars

An electronically generated test pattern of colors used as a reference for proper equipment setup. Proper setup can be examined on a waveform monitor or vectorscope to verify that the encoding process meets a set standard or that it was not changed by any subsequent transmission or recording process.

Composite vs. Component Video Composite analog video combines luminance and chrominance. It is less expensive than component. The current practice is to use composite video signals for most applications, although component video editing is gradually replacing composite editing. A component signal keeps luminance and chrominance separate, and 10 6

provides better picture quality for high-definition productions.


Acronym for computer graphics. Usually, it stands for images either partially or completely created at a computer workstation. The term lowerthirds refers to a CG in the lower third of the screen.

Compression Ratio

A value that indicates by what factor an image file has been reduced after compression. The higher the ratio, the greater the compression. Decompression expands a compressed file close to its original form.


A loss of picture information that may appear as a short white flash and include one or more picture scan lines.

Edit Decision List

A list of time code information defining each edit in a sequence. The EDL consists of pertinent information such as time-code edit points, notes and switcher data. This is very useful during post-production work.

Frame Rate

In video and film, the standard number of frames continuously displayed per second of viewing time. For example, 30 frames/60 fields per second (29.97 actual for color).


The number of times an electronic signal is copied. First generation refers to the original material, usually in its unedited form. Care must be taken to ensure that distortion and other defects do not degrade the video and audio quality. Analog duplication, distortion and other noticeable problems occur after only a few generations, typically seven or eight. With digital duplication, a minimum of 20 generations may be made before any defects are noticeable.


Interlace Vs. Progressive Ultimately, it is about the display. Progressive is the preferred method. Interlaced: A display system in which two interleaved fields are used to create one frame. The number of field lines is equal to one-half of the frame lines. Interlacing fields allows the level of light on a screen to be more constant thus reducing flicker. In progressive scanning, both the odd and even fields are displayed together, resulting in a smoother looking image and less motion artifacts.

Prime Cut

A term used mostly by videographers and butchers! For videographers, it simply means reviewing all of the original â&#x20AC;&#x153;rawâ&#x20AC;? un-edited video and selecting all of the best scenes. For example, a one hour original recording may yield a 10-minute prime cut video.

Safe Title and Safe Action Areas Boundaries within the television viewing area used as a guide to insure the correct placement of graphics and titles so the desired information can be seen. As a good rule, stay within 4:3 safe title area.

Time Code

A standardized numbering system by which audio or video material is specifically identified for editing or reference purposes. The maximum time that could be displayed would be 23:59:59:29. After that, the display would start over again at zero. Time code is critical for relaying important information to editors for postproduction work.

Vectorscope and Waveform Monitors Tools used to confirm the proper transmission and/or recording of color signal and video levels. During recording and editing, the vectorscope and waveform monitors can be used to prevent excessive chroma and gain levels.

Video for Social Media:

Capture It, We’ll Use It

What makes a good video for social media? There’s no single blue-print answer. By MC1 (SW/AW) Arif Patani

Lt. Shawn Eklund, former director of U.S. Navy Emerging Media, once told me, “Produce how you consume.” I think that statement gets to the answer of what makes a good video for social media. In fact, you already know the answer because you’ve been consuming it. What kinds of videos do you watch when you are on Facebook or YouTube? Are you into documentaries or are you more of a “Gangnam Style” consumer? Either way, you know what entertains you. So, take a deeper look and ask yourself some questions the next time you like a video: • How does it keep me engaged? • How long is the video? • What are some of the techniques the shooter or editor used? • What message or story am I getting out of this? • How and why do I relate to this story in both an entertainment and information way? When it comes to what we as mass communication specialists and public affairs officers do for the Navy, it’s all about the messaging and packaging. And when it comes to messaging, there are some tried and true tactics. Know your audience. Is this story for Sailors, for the families of Sailors, or are you trying to reach the American public? In any case, be able to know for certain that your audience has a reason to consume it. An aircraft mechanic may have a great story about his job fixing helos day in and day out, 703.614.9154

but how will your audience be able to relate to him? The messaging may be there, but the packaging may just not be right. Trace your messaging and packaging through your storyboard. For us, the Navy’s Emerging Media team, our audience includes Sailors, their families, and the American public who all want to know that we are protecting them, defending them and spending their tax dollars efficiently. It’s your job as the storyteller to bridge this gap from the Sailor working on a helo to Americans who have little interaction with the Navy. To relate to the American public, it could be as simple as showing them how their sons and daughters are instrumental in maintaining the ships, aircraft or submarine. For example, the Sailor who fixes helos enables them to fly and provide security to the carrier, making it safer for the other 5,000 Sailors aboard, and ultimately keeping the bad guys away from our shore here at home. See how you can take your story and wrap it back to Chief of Naval Operations Adm. Jonathan Greenert’s tenets: Warfighting First, Operate Forward and Be Ready. To the average viewer, the CNO’s tenets may be hard to relate to. But, they don’t have to be. As proof, watch MC1 Brett Cote’s video about the CNO’s tenets at To make communicating Navy messages a little easier, use this suggestion from creative agency Mekanism. In order to generate massive views, Mekanism uses something it calls “Candy with the Medicine,” a philosophy AMERICA’S NAVY: A GLOBAL FORCE FOR GOOD

that recognizes a message is best received within entertainment. Therefore, the first item on the agenda is to entertain – the “candy” – the packaging. The second step is to inject the message – the “medicine.” For more information about this philosophy, visit Don’t let the “candy” detract from the “medicine” by starting with a goal of going viral. You may generate a tremendous amount of traffic with a “Gangnam Style” video, but that visibility may damage your command’s credibility by significantly deviating from your mission to tell your command’s story. Like most aspects of social media, brainstorm, be creative and focus on creating a quality product that helps your audience understand and relate to your unit, its mission and our Navy. If you have any questions or concerns, please feel free to contact us at or 703-614-9154.

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AP Style Guide


Academic degrees Use an apostrophe in bachelor’s degree, a master’s, etc.; there is no possessive in Bachelor of Arts or Master of Science.

Affect vs. effect Affect, as a verb, means to influence. Effect, as a verb, means to cause. Effect, as a noun, means a result.

Navy Capitalize when referring to U.S. forces such as the U.S. Navy, the Navy, Navy policy. Lowercase when referring to other nations such as the British navy. Marines Apply the same rule used for Navy. Do not use the abbreviation USMC. Ocean Lowercase when used alone or with multiple uses such as the Atlantic and Indian oceans.

Directions and regions Lowercase north, northeast, etc., when they indicate compass direction. Capitalize these words when they refer to regions such as the East Coast or are part of a proper name such as Northern Ireland or South Korea. Time of day Specify the exact time only if it is critical to the story. When giving a clock reading, use the time in the datelined community. Do not convert clock times from other time zones in the continental United States to Eastern time. For example, the missile target was launched from the Pacific Missile Range Facility at 10:39 a.m. HST (3:39 p.m. EST) on Kauai, Hawaii.


Schedule of Events

National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) Conference Las Vegas Convention Center, Las Vegas, Nev. April 6 – 11, Exhibits April 8 – 11 Photoshop World Conference and Expo Orlando, Fla., April 17-19 2013 PEPCON: The Print + ePublishing Conference Austin, Texas, April 28 - May 1 A Beginner’s Guide to Metadata May 6 web seminar beginnersguide.html Adobe MAX 2013 - The Creativity Conference Los Angeles, Calif., May 4-8 21st Annual Military Photography Workshop June 16 – 22 Deadline for applications to attend is April 19 For more information eligibility e-mail: BlogWell Chicago, Ill., June 19


38 Brand New Web Design Freebies for 2013

U.S. Navy Media Blog Shares the latest in digital media trends, tools and techniques to promote continuous knowledge sharing and innovation among Navy communicators across the globe.

Collection of website design elements, mobile interfaces and icon sets available for download. These elements are great for web designers who are looking to give their sites a modern look.

Video School

Barnstorm: The Eddie Adams Workshop Oct. 11-14

Quick Tip: How to Use the Align Panel in Adobe InDesign If you like Adobe InDesign, don’t miss how to use the Align panel within InDesign in this free, 15-minute tutorial from Vectortuts+. All references to commercially available sites and services are provided for informational purposes only, without Department of the Navy endorsement. 12


Photo by MC1 James R. Evans

The Eddie Adams Workshop is an intense four-day gathering of the top photography professionals, along with 100 carefully selected students. The photography workshop is tuition-free, and the 100 students are chosen based on the merit of their portfolios. Application deadline is June 3.

Do you want to refresh your video skills? Learn how to make better videos through lessons and tutorials from the Vimeo community.

Navy Imagery Insider Spring 2013  
Navy Imagery Insider Spring 2013  

Visual information news and information for the U.S. Navy public affairs and visual information community. This edition focuses on what the...