Building an Unrivaled Legacy of Leadership: Creating a Template for Success in Student Government Written by: Nathan Davison, U 93 85 69 80
Thesis Committee: Director Member -
Jennifer Espinola, Leadership & Civic Engagement W. Robert Sullins, Dean of Undergraduate Studies
Presented to the committee for final approval on August 13, 2009 This paper was written for the Honors College at the University of South Florida.
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Table of Contents Building an Unrivaled Legacy of Leadership: ................................................................................................ 1 Creating a Template for Success in Student Government ........................................................................ 1 It started with a giant cake. .......................................................................................................................... 3 Proposal for improvements to SG infrastructure ......................................................................................... 6 Introduction .............................................................................................................................................. 6 The Fundamental Difference .................................................................................................................... 7 The New Challenge ................................................................................................................................... 7 Determining and discovering leadership .................................................................................................... 10 Why Jim fell short ................................................................................................................................... 11 Practice Sets: Some Community Examples ............................................................................................. 11 Community Example: Behaviors of a good lawyer ............................................................................. 12 Community Example: Behaviors of an evangelical ............................................................................. 12 Community Example: behaviors of a good parent ............................................................................. 13 The tie-in ............................................................................................................................................. 14 Exploring the Fundamentals of Leadership ................................................................................................ 16 Trait theory ......................................................................................................................................... 17 Behavioral theories ............................................................................................................................. 18 Situational and Contingency Theories ................................................................................................ 24 Transformational Leadership .............................................................................................................. 32 Increasing your Leadership Influence ......................................................................................................... 40 Using the theories ................................................................................................................................... 40 Making your own definition, then becoming it ...................................................................................... 43 Positive Affirmation ................................................................................................................................ 44 Continuing Your Exploration ....................................................................................................................... 45 Mentor: get one and be one ................................................................................................................... 45 Changes in communication ..................................................................................................................... 49 An introduction to Emotional Intelligence.............................................................................................. 54 Transition Manuals ..................................................................................................................................... 60 Senate President ..................................................................................................................................... 62 Director of Marketing & Public Affairs .................................................................................................... 63 Conclusion ................................................................................................................................................... 64 Works Cited ................................................................................................................................................. 68 Appendix: 7 Instances Why Your Positive Affirmations Fail To Work ........................................................ 71 Citations ...................................................................................................................................................... 74 Davison 2 of 75
It started with a giant cake. It was my first week of school at the University of South Florida, and I hopelessly wandered the campus in an effort to get my bearings right. I was lost. I was overwhelmed. I was three days a freshman and I couldn’t have possibly imagined that poor sense of direction could have led me to such a fantastic opportunity. After struggling to find the Faculty Office Building – the old stomping grounds for the USF Honors College, I decided that I would go to the Marshall Center to ask for directions. What I found, instead, was a bald man named Stavros and a sheet cake of the likes I had never seen. Stavros introduced himself to me with a thick Greek accent. He was the Senate President for Student Government. I never heard of the position, but he was the gatekeeper between me and my new sugary love. I decided that I would be polite and talk to him, until he offered a slice and I could be on my way. After the exchange of hello’s and a swap of names, he asked me what I knew about his organization: “Nathan, what do you know about Student Government at this university?” Only that they have lured me in with delicious cake, but don’t actually seem to be giving me said cake, I thought. “Not much,” I said. “SG has a bank account of $8.2 million each year. What sort of things do you think that can buy?” A lot more of that delicious cake, I thought. I glanced toward the cake. “No clue. Probably a lot,” I said. “We use it to fund student programs, the REC Center, the Marshall Center, and over one hundred different student organizations,” he continued. Another glance at the cake. This time I was caught.
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He grabs a knife and slices a huge piece of cake onto a paper plate. He start to motion toward me, then pulls it back right as I begin to reach for it, then he stared at me right in the eyes and said, “How would you like to be a part of one of the most influential organizations on campus?” I was torn. If I said ‘no,’ would I still get cake? I thought. Skeptically, I asked, “How would I go about getting involved?” He handed me an application to run in the upcoming election for a vacant Senate seat in the College of Business, and explained to me the process. He also went into more detail about the opportunities within the organization, the weekly expectations, mission of the organization, and benefits of being involved… oh, and he gave me the slice of cake. From that point forward, I was sold. Looking back, I learned a lot from this experience. For starters, if it sounds too good to be true, there is probably a catch. More importantly, though, I realized that sometimes we go to the table with preconceived notions about how we think things are going to pan out, it ends up being something very different from what we expected. I thought that I was going to the table for a free slice of cake, and I ended up joining Student Government. In the same way, when I set out to write this thesis, I thought that I was going to be in a position to change the entire organization – fix all the problems and such. My initial plan was that I would look at the problem, knock out some well phrased legislation and POOF! All problems are solved. Problems like high turnover, low participation, student apathy, and things of the sort. It didn’t end up happening, at least not in that sense. As I started to drill deeper and deeper, I began to develop a fascination for the process of discovery. I learned about all sorts of different theories and leadership styles. Much of this information has been evolving for hundreds of years, and I realized that it is exactly what I needed. It is exactly what Student Government needs: a greater appreciation for different leadership styles and how to handle different situation. I’m reluctant to think that having this knowledge will eliminate the problems in Student Government. I do believe, though, that with the Davison 4 of 75
proper educational structure, we can spark a passion in the eyes of the members in SG and slowly, I am confident that we will begin to improve the way that Student Government does business. It is my hope that everyone who reads this dissertation will gain a greater appreciation for leadership theory, and able to understand that leadership from a more holistic perspective. There are many different types of leaders and many different situations that call on different – or multiple – leadership styles (That’s why we can write so many books about the topic … but yet, oddly enough, it can be so hard for the individual to define.) I also hope that the readers of this book realize that there isn’t a single correct type of leader. Each person must use the resources provided to create their own concept of an ideal leader. This is a continued process – you’re got to be constantly searching for more information. After all, there is always room for improvement… and cake. Enjoy and happy learning!
Nathan Davison University of South Florida, ‘09 Director, Marketing & Public Affairs, 2008-2009 Senate President, 2007-2008 Senate President Pro Tempore, 2006-2007 ASRC Committee Chair, 2005-2006 Senator, College of Business, 2004-2008
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Proposal for improvements to SG infrastructure Introduction When I began my research on the infrastructure of the Student Government at the university, one of my primary objectives was to ascertain the specific fundamentals necessary to create an effective student government, and then implement changes to the system that would improve the overall effectiveness of the organization. After looking into numerous different universities around the country, I quickly noticed that each school had both similarities and differences to the student government at USF.
For example, each of the student governments at the eleven public universities in Florida
(University of Florida, Florida State Universities, etc.) has been granted the authority to allocate and expend the monies generated from activities and services feed, which are paid by students during their tuition each year.1 Each of these universities also has student representation at the highest level of the university â€“ where a member or members of student government sit on the Board of Trustees for their university. The student governments at other universities, such as Purdue, trade the philosophy of representation for one of programming. Student governments with this structure, have no direct authority to represent, but rather are designed with the intention of offering services to the student population.2 In some instances, I found that the structures of the student representation closely mirrored that of many state and national systems. USF, FSU, and UF all have a three branch system (Executive, Legislative, and Judicial) that are fashioned to operate in a similar manner as the national bodies that share the same name. New College in Sarasota, Florida, offers a fascinating alternative to this structure that practices a shared-governance method known as the â€œNew College Student Alliance.â€? The NCSA convenes periodic town hall meetings throughout the year, where all students at the university are
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invited to become voting members for the items on the agenda. Members are elected into mostly clerical positions and those that help to facilitate these meetings.3
The Fundamental Difference During my pursuit for knowledge, I came to the realization that while some of the government association infrastructures were better funded, or received higher volumes of participation; the success of many of the programs was not predominantly as a result of the infrastructure, but the caliber of leaders that the organization possessed. Of course, a well-oiled machine will be less likely to break or fail, but it is even more important that the organization has the right drivers to steer the vehicle in the right direction. As I thought about this, it became clear that the need for the right leadership was crucial in every field of business, government, and practice. Truly, having the right leaders with the right skills is a key factor to be successful. On the other side of the coin, a poor leader could have a far greater negative impact than any structure could compensate. All over the news, we hear about the plight of major corporations and how they faulted it with poor or inadequate leadership from its top officials. GM, AIG, and Enron are three excellent examples of this. Leaders of these companies did not listen to the signs and symptoms that their respective companies were in trouble.
Stephen Cooper, the
turnaround guru whom Enron hired to lead it through bankruptcy, found that 99 percent of Enron's problems weren't market driven, but leadership related -- a massive breakdown in accountability and governance. This poor leadership was evident in the careless hiring procedures, support of investments backed by risky loans, and unethical practices throughout his time in that position.4
The New Challenge The challenge, then, became something much greater than simply adopting a new set of statutes or modifying a few timeframes. Admittedly, I feel that in retrospect I had a flawed mindset as I went into this project. Initially, I assumed that my time in the organization would give me a better perspective as
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to fix organization, but in reality, a strong Student Government can’t be created by new legislation alone; it takes a paradigm shift, where Senators and other officials understand the importance of their positions and the value of good leadership (as well as what it takes to be a great leader, which can be found in the leadership section). It was during a presentation at the American Student Government Association Summit in Washington, D.C., that it finally dawned on me that the way to create an effective government association wasn’t by writing better legislation; it is achieved through developing a body of individuals who have a strong purposeful mindset. The presentation was made during a workshop appropriately titled, “13 Steps to a Super Student Government,” which challenged the listeners to put the needs of their group before the needs of individuals, to carry themselves professional and responsibility, and to have a clear vision shared throughout the organization (for a complete list of the 13 Steps, check out the “ASGA Tips” section in the appendix of this paper)5. As the speaker continued, it became evident that these steps could not simply be applied; they each had to be internalized by each of the members of the group in order for them to become a better organization. In order for the leadership of an organization such as student government to improve, the members must not only understand the values of a leader; they must also learn to appreciate the importance of the positions they hold and the roles and responsibilities of a leader. As the old adage declares, though, the chain is only as good as its weakest link. Each person in the organization must be willing to answer the call of leadership and step boldly forward into this position. But what makes a leader? What traits must an aspiring leader develop to effectively lead? How does one become a leader? These are the questions that now carried far more weight for me than simply ‘how to make SG better’, as I once naively attempted to address. Logically, it would stand that if each of the members of student government were able to become stronger leaders, then naturally the organization would evolve into an
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entity that provided greater leadership to the university campus. The bulk of this paper focuses on strategies that define different types of leaders, and the skill sets that are needed to be set into motion this exciting concept of leadership. It is the belief of this researcher that the more that is done to develop principled leaders, the more beneficial it will ultimately be for the student government association.
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Determining and discovering leadership The key component that I assert will improve the overall quality and performance in student government at USF is the realization of the leadership potential that each of the members possess. The qualities of leadership, though, speak a certain universal truth that can transcend and be applied to almost any situation. President John Quincy Adams once said, â€œIf your actions inspire others to dream more, learn more, do more and become more, you are a leader.â€?6 When you think about people who have helped you to dream, learn, and desire to do more with your life, what people immediately come to mind? Perhaps you are reminded of that teacher that always taught you to believe in yourself. Maybe it was that employer that went out of his way to help you to be the best you could be in your position. Or maybe it is that close friend that keeps you from doing something you would regret and helps to set a positive example of how you want to behave. Whoever it might be, is should be self-evident that leaders are much more than just military generals and presidents. There doesnâ€™t seem to be a standard mold that a leader simply falls into. I have spent considerable time experiencing both effective and ineffective leaders in student government, and I have seen the ramifications of what both can do for the organization. After watching dozens of different students rise to the challenge and take on the tough roles of leadership in the organization, I realized that each performed in their positions quite differently. I found it interesting that each student leader responded in a very unique to the responsibilities their position held. Some of the leaders over the years were excellent communicators, but failed to effectively follow through with their actions. Others offered promising visions, but became blind by the power that they wielded. Each of these members was a leader in their own right, though. It was through this empirical investigation, coupled with the leadership books and formal leadership training that I have been fortunate enough to experience, that led me to determine that leadership can best be described as a set of practices developed to enhance the influence of an individual.
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many of the shortcomings that I have noticed in the organization seemed to be stemmed from an inability to react appropriately to an unforeseen situation. Conflict situations provide the easiest accounts that indicated problematic leadership. Let’s illustrate this lesson by learning from my friend, Jim.
Why Jim fell short For example, I remember vividly a situation where a former student body president (in the interest of privacy, we’ll call him “Jim”) was accused of behaving inappropriately during an official university function. While it can be presumed that there would certainly be consequences for Jim’s actions, the situation escalated exponentially when he attempted to cover up his actions. Jim repeatedly denied his misbehavior, which caused his staff to lose faith in his ability to lead. Eventually, his peers became so disgruntled with his twisted stories and half-truths that he was forced to resign from his position. If Jim had spent more time developing his set of leadership practices, he would likely have had the skills to behave accordingly. Perhaps with more sharply refined skills, he would have realized the importance of his position as student body president and been able to avoid this unfortunate situation all together. It is my belief that a finely tuned set of leadership practices is necessary to effectively lead in any situation. It is not enough to have qualities of a leader, you must also understand how to act and react to a variety of different situation.
Like everything else worth obtaining, leadership requires the
development of skills.
Practice Sets: Some Community Examples What if a firefighter only knew how to rescue cats from trees? What would he do if he ever had to put out a fire, or save someone from a burning vehicle? It wouldn’t be pretty, that’s for sure. Consider a few community concepts and the leadership for each of these different groups: Legal Communities,
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Church Communities, and family settings. We will explore each of the groups and identify how developing a strong set of practices dramatically enhances the ability of the members to succeed. Community Example: Behaviors of a good lawyer There are certain people who have a particular affinity to becoming a lawyer. These people often possess traits, such as a sense of reason, the ability to comprehend and operate in a complex environment, and the perseverance to continue to assert for what they believe. Joseph Hosteny, a Chicago-based intellectual property litigation attorney, described a good lawyer as someone who possesses the ability to be impartial and independent, who is able to fight fairly, and who has strong literary skills. Additionally, Hosteny believes that the best lawyers are well-rounded, highly empathetic, and versed in all procedural elements of the case.7 These traits alone, though, will not likely be enough to adequately perform as an attorney. An individual with the desire to become a lawyer will spend years studying civil and criminal law, exploring cases and gain a better sense of the precedents that have been set. Additionally, a lawyer must also become familiar with local, state, and federal laws: how those laws are created, changed and the purpose and intent behind them. Without the ability to continually polish and refine these skills, a person will not be able to effectively represent an individual or cause.
Any lawyer will attest that it takes hard work and
dedication to be successful in the field. Community Example: Behaviors of an evangelical Members of the Christian Community often view their ideal interaction with God as a close and perpetually growing relationship. This relationship is developed through prayer and by studying the teaching of their religion through the Holy Bible. In addition to a set of expectations that God has for
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Christians, such a loving one another and trying to become closer to God, many Christians also believe that it is important to share the message of their faith. In the Great Commission, Jesus commanded his disciples: "Go into all the world and proclaim the gospel to the whole creation” 8 It is impossible, though, for a Christian to effectively communicate this relationship if the person does not have an adequate understanding of what is included in the gospel. In order to convey the message to others, the person must gain an appreciation for what specifically they believe. Failure to do this is like have a movie rental employee try to make recommendations of a good title to watch without ever having watched a film. It is important, then, for a member of the Christian community to become educated about the religion, as well as to understand its personal significance to that person. In the same way, a person seeking guidance from a pastor would be left longing if the pastor had never read the scriptures. Community Example: behaviors of a good parent Will Smith and DJ Jazzy Jeff once sang that “parents just don’t understand.”9 While this might be true about something, a good parent generally both understands and has a legitimate desire to offer care to his or her children. There are some people that seem to be great candidates for parenthood – those people who can get even the most rambunctious of children to stop crying, and can make a point without making an enemy (To borrow from the words of Isaac Newton). The best parents, though, are often the ones that have gained a strong sense of responsibility for their roles. Dr. Phil McGraw, television personality, author, and former psychologist, suggests that there are seven tools for purposeful parenthood. These success factors include defining shared goals with your children, creating strong lines of reciprocated communication, and setting a strong positive example.10 McGraw goes into great length in his writing to articulate that each of these tools takes time to master, and that it will require dedication, patience and sacrifice.
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As parents grow with their children, they often learn how to be patient during even the most trying times. They also develop a greater understanding about when to have fun and when to be firm in decisions – those occasions that the child wants to do something that could have negative consequences for the child. Many of these traits are gained empirically, or simply by doing and being directly in the midst of a situation. The tie-in We can take a way of great deal of information from these different roles that can be applied to help us to become better leaders. These three roles – the lawyer, the evangelical and the parent – each exhibit a variety of leadership responsibilities. The lawyer is charged with facilitating justice and effectively defending their clients. The evangelicals are charged with reaching out to others and spreading the message of their faith. The parents have the responsibility of nurturing and developing their children. While many would argue that there is a certain breed of people that lends itself to each of the professions (and there does appear to be strong evidence in support of this claim), each of these roles share the same necessity for acquisition and development of related skill sets. In the same way, an individual might possess the fundamental traits that promote positive leadership, but they must still develop the necessary skills to carry out those responsibilities. As with the example roles, a person must hone his or her leadership abilities by studying and experiencing the actions of other established leaders. No leadership should strive to be a one-trick pony. Instead, a good leader will continue to learn new tactics to effectively handle any situation. What if Harry Potter relied only on the spell Stupefy? Perhaps he would do well against some of his adversaries throughout the J.K. Rowling series, but he would not have been able to accomplish what he was destined to do. He wouldn’t have possibly been able to save Hogwarts, nor could he have conquered the dark lord, Voldemort. Determined to achieve his full potential, Potter spent years training and learning new
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magical skills â€“ spells like Finite Incantatum (The spell stopper), Riddikulus (the laughing spell), and the immensely powerful Expelliarmus (the great disarmer), as well as many others.11 As a leader, it is important to know when to implement different tactics and theories of leadership. Over the next few pages, we will introduce a variety of different leadership theories and explore the continually evolving definition of leadership. Each of these theories will provide you with a greater appreciation for the amount of thought that goes into effective leadership. Letâ€™s continue.
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Exploring the Fundamentals of Leadership Leadership is a strange and interesting beast. It is both easy to recognize and difficult to describe. The greatest challenge when discussing the concept is to identify the specific characteristics that a leader must possess and clearly define what exactly a leader is. In preparation for this construct, I went to my favorite web search engine and searched for the definition of a leader. Much to my chagrin, the first definition to return was courtesy of dictionary.com: lead⋅er [lee-der] –noun.
a person or thing that leads.
Someone that leads? Unfortunately, the conventional methods of defining wouldn’t offer too much assistance for this particular situation. Although, it was reassuring that my argument about how defining leadership can be an arduous project was now substantiated by this definition. The truth is, authors from around the world have written countless volumes of books that attempt to define what makes a good leader and better understand how they function. Over the past century, there have been four primary ‘generations’ of theory that have been published discussing this issue: •
Contingency and Situational theories
Each of these of theories, which will be discussed further in the coming pages, offers a different and interesting prospective about the fundamentals of leadership. As you read each generation of theory, it is also good to note that each of these theories focuses on specific elements of effective leadership, and that these theories are not in competition with one another. It is both acceptable and encouraged to identify the commonalities and differences found between each school of thought.
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Trait theory Trait theory attributes the success of a leader to his or her natural disposition. Sometimes referred to as the “heroic theory”12, this is said to be the first academic theory of leadership. Gordon Allport, a nineteenth century psychologist, is considered to be one of the pioneers of this theory. Throughout his research, Allport studied the causes for varying personalities and how those personalities came to be. In his research, Allport identified 4,500 different words in the English that he believed could describe a person. Once the list was compiled, Allport categorized the words into three groups: Cardinal traits (traits that dominate and shape a person’s behavior), central traits (those that act as the building blocks that shape most normal behaviors), and secondary traits (characteristics that are seen in only certain situations).13 Christine Clacey, an expert leadership and management coach, writes about the fundamentals of a ‘natural leader’. Clacey defines a natural leader as someone who is centered with high personal ideals. A natural leader is someone who understands and lives life in line with their purpose. Someone who is authentic, who has a clear sense of their own personal values and is seen by others to embody those values. Someone who believes in giving first, with no expectation of a return. Someone who inspires others to follow their example, just by being themselves.14 Clacey argues that a natural leader is a sort of rooted personality trait, and that there is a distinct type of individual that reflects this type of leader. Clacey’s definition of a natural leader denotes that leadership is a largely intrinsic ability. Clacey does mention that there are exercises that a leader can practice to develop their abilities as a leader, but her argument centrally lends to the concept that there are unique qualities that help to makeup great and effective leaders. There has been extensive research and surveying done to define the general characteristics and traits that are believed to be necessary and fundamentally present in strong leaders. Both Stogdill and
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Mann reported that many studies identified personality characteristics that appear to differentiate leaders from followers (for a list of traits identified by many popular leadership guruâ€™s of this past century, see Table 1). A shortcoming of this Table 1: Researcher-Identified Traits school of thought was that Stogdill (1948)
Alertness, Confidence, Initiative, Insight, Intelligenc
for a long period of time, Persistence, Responsibility, Self Sociability
there was an assumption that there was as definite
set of characteristics that leaders possessed, and as
Adjustment, Conservatism , Dominance, Extroversio Intelligence, Masculinity,
such, anyone with those
traits could, in fact, become
a great leader. For example, this
Lord, DeVader, and Dominance, Intelligence, Masculinity Alliger (1986)
argument that a leader in the staff room would be just as capable in leading a group of soldiers on the battlefield. While the fundamental belief that leadership is solely inherited has been largely discontinued, it is interesting to note that many of the traits of an effective leader are still largely promoted in many books on the subject in present time. The basic idea remains that if a person possesses these characteristics, she or he will be able to take the lead in very different situations15. Behavioral theories As the twentieth century progressed, so did the evolution of the concepts and theories relating to leadership.
After realizing the inherent flaws with categorizing a leader through his natural
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different behaviors. With this, behavioral theories were born. While the previous theory spoke about qualities of a leader, this theory approaches leadership as a set of comparisons between leaders and their respective followers. Robert Tannenbaum and others set out to identify the interactions that were consistent in leadership situations. Working with Warren Schmidt, Tannenbaum, a professor of the development of human systems at the University of California, argued that the style of leadership is dependent upon the prevailing circumstance; therefore leaders should exercise a range of leadership styles and should deploy them as appropriate.16 Both Schmidt and Tannenbaum theorized that a good leader required a Figure 1 - Tannenbaum and Schmidt's Continuum of Leadership
careful balance of democratic and autocratic styles, and that the mix varied depending on the group of people that were being led and the environment in which they were being led. The graph (Figure 1) demonstrates the continuum of leadership behavior that was outlined in Schmidt and Tannenbaumâ€™s work.
This theory has been incorporated into countless leadership and management development training modules over the past fifty years. It is often used as the model for how employers should interact with Davison 19 of 75
different employees with different personalities. For example, Larry Richard and Mark Sirkin, two lawyers affiliated with Leadership & Organization Development Practice at Hildebrandt International, write about how effective leaders are charged with the responsibility of setting a clear vision of where they want their constituents to go, and then they lead those constituents there in a way that makes them voluntarily want to follow. Research seems to show that the best leaders have certain flexibility in their approach, an ability to match their style to the situation. Some leadership styles are simply more effective in certain situations than others. However, the challenge is not simply an intellectual one, matching the style to the needs of the firm. The best leaders use a combination of intellect and emotional savvy. They choose the style that best fits the situation and then skillfully use emotions-their own and others'-to get the job done.17 The six different leadership styles that Richard and Sirkin use to address different types of leadership within their firm are based around the research by Dr. David C. McClelland of Harvard University, and include the following styles: 1. Visionary
Let’s explore each of these styles in greater detail: “The Visionary” – A visionary leader helps his or her subordinates to comprehend a clear and definitive goal or end result. Visionary leaders present a challenge that calls forth the best in people and brings them together around a shared sense of purpose.19 Lubna Haq, a consultant at Hay Group, describes the visionary style as being all about the big picture, “The objective is providing long-term direction and vision,” she says. “It’s about being clear about what you want to do and getting people to
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buy into it.20” Also known as the authoritative style, this style is often appropriate when a new direction is required or a clarification of the goals to be achieved is needed.21 The visionaries with the greatest lasting impact are often the leaders most remembered in the history books. Here are a few examples of notable leaders that are considered visionaries by theorists of today include: •
The founding fathers of the United States for their ability to envision a new future of circumstances and helped bring a revolution, and then a new nation, into being .22
Mohandas Gandhi for rejecting the status quo, and starting a non-violent revolution that ultimately resulted in the independence of India from British rule. 23
Walt Disney for his excellence in innovation of animation and theme park design and setting a new precedent for making dreams come true.24
“The Mentor” – An individual with a mentoring leadership style works closely with individuals and strives to bring out the best in people by building relationships.25 A simple way to illustrate this style is to imagine a coach of a little league team that puts his arm around a player who might be struggling on the field and helps him to realize what areas he needs to improve by setting a strong, positive example. By investing his time into the player, the coach will begin to be able to help mold the player into a better athlete and performer in the sport. This style is often characterized as compassionate and caring. These leaders are highly empathetic individuals who are able to see the best in others. They are champions of customer service in the work place, and gain their deepest satisfaction from helping to develop others.26 People are often very receptive to mentors, as they often provide the encouragement and motivation needed to help you to excel and overcome your own feelings of inadequacy. Mentors can be found in almost every profession
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and are most typically someone with more entrepreneurial or business experience and savvy than those they guide.a “The Affiliate” – The affiliative leaders want their companies and group settings to be friendly, supportive and positive places in which to work. They tend to avoid being critical and seek policies and activities that enable everyone to get along.27Theorists acclaim that this leadership style promotes harmony among the followers and helps to solve conflict. Teams are often built by making sure the followers feel connected to each other.28 While very effective at motivating employees and groups in the short run, there is a tendency when using this style to overlook poor performance.29 Other characteristics that are often associated with affiliative leaders are the genuine value placed on other people, the ability to openly share emotions, and general conflict-avoidance.30 “The Participant” – Most often associated with the expression “a leader among equals”, this style focuses heavily on the concept leading democratically. Participative leaders strive to govern their decisions through consensus of the other members of the company or group, rather than by simply making autocratic decisions.31 This leader seeks to involve other people in the process, possibly including subordinates, peers, superiors and other stakeholders. The level of inclusion, though, is said to vary greatly between leaders. Some participative leaders may regulate whom to give or deny control, and most participative activity is primarily within the immediate team.32 “The Over-Achiever” – Everyone has experienced at some point a leader with a pacesetting style. This type of leader offers a “do as I do, or get out of the way” mentality to their followers. Pacesetters are easily identified by their continual ability to create extremely high performance standards, and are often the ones that others look to as the example.33 This type of leader is always focused on achieving new levels of success, and is quite typically highly effective and admirable. In small doses, this type of
For more information about being a good mentor, read the “Mentor: get one and be one” Section of this writing.
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leader can bring up company or group morale by pushing others to obtain the same level of success. Often though, an extended introduction to this type of leader can actually drive the team morale down, as they set almost impossible standards that are can frustrate others when they repeatedly fall short. It is not uncommon for the leaders that use this style as their base to manage a group with high turnover, as many workers and followers may elect to quit if pushed by a pacesetter for too long of a period.34 This leadership is also routinely exercised in military environments, where members who have achieved great things expect others to follow in rank. â€œThe Authoritarianâ€? â€“ Fear is the primary motivator used by commanding leaders. This leadership style provides little explanation for why something is to be done. Rather, this leader excels at taking control of a situation and providing clear and concise commands about what actions should be taken.35 This type of leader will place special attention on showcasing the inadequacies of a group or individuals, but will not focus much attention on positive elements of a situation. Most authoritarians delegate very little, keeping close control of the situations.36 This role is often considered to be soothing during a crisis situation, because a commanding leader will know exactly what needs to be done to address the issue at hand. However, this style often creates very negative rifts in most business settings, as it demoralizes employees and takes away most personal ambitions to succeed.37 It is important to note that each of the aforementioned styles do not define a leader. Rather, think of each of these as methods or approaches to leadership. Often times, behaviorists theorize that there should be a good mix between the different styles and that one leader might use each of a number of different approaches to guide people that are responsive to the varying traits. No style of leadership listed above is definitely useful for all individuals.38 Think of a strong and versatile leader as a master chef and the different leadership styles, his spices: In order to create that perfectly seasoned dish, there must be careful balance of ingredients, and every dish demands different attention. An extravagant use of spices might be required for some meals, while others may be cooked to perfection with only a dash
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or two of seasoning. Just like with the application of leadership, the only way to tell what is needed is by learning empirically – trying it out and seeing if the right flavor is coming through. This is the fundamental structure for the behavioral theory. Situational and Contingency Theories The arguments made by theorists of the previous section focused on the interactions that exist between the leader and those being led, whereas those in support of situational and contingency theories believed in the notion that the situation that an individual is in often governs the way in which a leader responds. Like the behavioral theories, these next theories were created in response to the flawed “great man” theories portrayed by the trait theorists during the previous century. This section has been broken into two sections: a discussion on situational theory of leadership, as well as a discussion of the contingency theory. While both stemmed from the same circumstances there are certain key distinctions, as we will find, that make separating them appropriate in this context. Situational Theory of Leadership – As part of the Ohio State leadership research program, researchers began to work to identify what leadership behaviors were likely most effective in a variety of different leadership situations. More broadly speaking, the goal was to associate different situational characteristics that demanded particular patterns of leadership.39 After studying theorist from previous decades, John K. Hemphill, twentieth century philosopher, postulated that the consideration of the characteristics, needs, and demands of the individual are necessary when leading for a particular situation. The insightful concept that the characteristics of a situation could govern the actions of a leader with just as much (and he theorized that perhaps more) weight as those of an individual fascinated Hemphill.
Through his research, he made revolutionary advancements, wherein he
identified, measured, and evaluated fifteen distinct group dimensions for the description and
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differentiation of numerous types of groups. Each dimension identified a specific component of the group, and included such Table 2: Commonly Examined Characteristics of Groups*
things as the numbers of members
Numbers of member in the group
Group characteristics that differentiates a
which the group adheres to specific rules and regulations, and the different roles in the organization (see Table 2).40 In
Diversity in membership (e.g., age, gender)
Degree group adheres to a standard set of behaviors
comprehensive set of group characteristics
group from a collection of individuals
members or able to join the group Polarization
Orientation toward a single, specific goal
Pace change occurs within the group
Degree of association among members
Independence from other groups
Amount of behavior regulation by other team members
help identify a variety of different situations, Hemphill developed
Restriction on those who are considered group
Role or status within the group
Individual memberâ€™s need satisfaction by group membership
elaborate Hedonic Tone
Feelings of satisfaction, pleasantness, or
questionnaire that included
355 descriptive statements
that related to each of these
Amount of time/effort spent on group tasks
Relationship between the team and its leader
different dimensions.41 This questionnaire has helped to
in ensuring group needs are met *Reflects research categorized by John K. Hemphill and was originally compiled by Koppes, et. Al.
profile numerous different leadership situations, and much of the profiles are still used in the classification of different groups today.
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Through Hemphillâ€™s research, he asserted that what an individual actually does when acting as a leader is in large part dependent upon characteristics of the situation in which he functions. Additionally, this theory believes that no single optimal psychographic profile of a leader exists. This is the primary difference between Situational and Contingency theories. Contingency theories of leadership â€“ In the late fifties, theorists began to synthesize and integrate both the trait and situational approaches to leadership. Like situational theorists, those that explored the concepts of contingency leadership recognized that different situations often called for different leadership styles.
The crux of this difference, though, lied with the belief that specific
behavioral profiles tended to lend the best result for the situation. There are several models that have appeared predominantly since its inception, namely Fiedler contingency model, Vroom-Yetton decision model, the path-goal theory, and the Hersey-Blanchard situational theory. The Fiedler contingency model was developed by Fred Fiedler, a business and management psychologist, and postulates that the leaderâ€™s effectiveness is a result of the interaction leadership style and situational control. The basis of Fiedler's contingency model involved assessing a potential leader with a scale of work style ranging from task-oriented at one end, to relationship-oriented at the other. Then contingent on factors such as stress level in the organization, type of work, flexibility of the group to change, and use of technology, a customized coordination of resources, people, tasks and the correct style of management could be implemented.42
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In contrast, the Vroom-Yetton decision model was created to provide specific methods of decisionmaking as a leader to effectively address a problem. This model consist of both a clear and concise pattern of questioning
Figure 2: Vroom-Yetton Decision Model
and leadership decision making to determine how best
subordinates and address a situation.43 This model also
between individual and group
strategies. Think of this Model tree recreated from image found at http://www.implementer.com.
model as a prescription for the type of leadership strategies that should be implemented. Essentially, this model has two components: who should be involved with making a decision, and how should the problem be overcome. Each of the yes/no questions in this model help to adequately identify the situation at hand, and what parties would be best to handle the situation. A model tree (Figure 2) illustrates all possible outcomes from each of the questions, which guides the decision of the leader. The seven questions that coincide with the tree-diagram (above) must be answered in order from 1 to 7 and followed across from left to right: 1. Is there a quality requirement? Is the nature of the solution critical? Are there technical or rational grounds for selecting among possible solutions? 2. Do I have sufficient information to make a high quality decision?
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3. Is the problem structured? Are the alternative courses of action and methods for their evaluation known? 4. Is acceptance of the decision by subordinates critical to its implementation? 5. If I were to make the decision by myself, is it reasonably certain that it would be accepted by my subordinates? 6. Do subordinates share the organizational goals to be obtained in solving this problem? 7. Is conflict among subordinates likely in obtaining the preferred solution? Once each of the questions has been answered, this model uses the tree-diagram to prescribe the appropriate decision process from one of five different methods, namely: Autocratic I (AI) - The leader makes the decision, Autocratic II (AII) – Leader requests specific information from others, Consultative I (CI) - One-on-one discussion with relevant members, Consultative II (CII) - Leader facilitates group discussion, then makes decision, or Group (GII) – Consensus among the group.44 The primary objective with Vroom’s decision model, both when he introduced it with Yetton and when he expounded upon his initial research with 1988 with Arthur Jago, was to create a clear method for any person to make an informed decision about how a situation should be addressed. The greatest shortcoming with the Vroom-Yetton-Jago decision model, though, is that it is itself a decision tree and will only be as useful as the quality of information you input and how you approach the decision itself. The next permutation in the contingency theories family is the path-goal theory. Developed largely by Robert House in 1971, this approach is somewhat of a hybrid between the conventional contingency theories, where actions depend on the circumstance, and transactional theories, where actions are guided by reciprocating behaviors between the leader and his followers. Leaders in this theory are viewed largely as facilitators for the followers to accomplish a task at hand. Additionally, this theory proposes that a leader must be flexible and able to change their leadership style, as required. This theory focuses on the leader’s ability to affect the performance, satisfaction, and motivation of a group
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by offering rewards, directing clear paths to achieve goals, and removing obstacles.45 House proposes that there are four different types of leadership styles, depending on the situation. Online management portal, Value Based Management.net, describes these styles as: 1.
Directive Leadership, where the leader gives specific guidance of performance to subordinates.
2. Supportive Leadership, where the leader is friendly and shows concern for the subordinates. 3. Participative Leadership, where the leader consults with subordinates and considers their suggestions. 4. Achievement-oriented Leadership, where the leader sets high goals and expects subordinates to have high-level performance.46 In addition to the style of leadership implemented, House argues that there are two situational factors that need to be taken into consideration, namely those relating to the personalities of subordinates and characteristics of the environment.
Both the followerâ€™s locus of control (whether
external or internal factors guide actions) and their self-perceived ability are the primary factors relating to subordinate personalities that this theory states need to be considered. Authors Tudor Rickards and Murray Clark emphasized that the situational component of path-goal theory suggested that differing levels of initiating structure would be required according to varying job conditions.47 Characteristics of the environment govern which leadership style is necessary, which includes the level of structure of both the task and the group (higher levels of structure tend to require less directive leadership, etc.) and how the group members interact with one another (highly supportive groups yield less of a need for supportive leader, and so forth). The final predominant contingency model that will be discussed is the Hersey-Blanchard situational theory. Created by Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard, two highly respected authorities in the leadership field, this theory was also designed to better understand the needs of the situation, and determine the most appropriate style to satisfy those needs. This model rests on two fundamental concepts, namely
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the leadership styles of the leader and the development (or performance readiness) levels of the followers.48 We will first examine the different leadership styles prescribed by the authors, each of which is characterized in terms of the amount of direction and support offered by the leader. Hersey and Blanchard categorized leadership into four different behaviors, referred to as S1-S4. The table below illustrates each of the different variables that attribute to each behavior. Table 3: Hersey-Blanchard Leadership Behaviors Behavior Type
defines the roles
(From leader to
and tasks of the
decision to the
Leader defines roles
ideas from the follower S3: Supporting/
taking up specific
follower is left in
when and how
but primarily left
entirely initiated by
leader is involved
*Table created based on data found at 12Manage.com.
It is important to note that each of the leadership behaviors outlined in Table 3 is considered to be important in its own right, and that this model asserts that there is an appropriate time for each of the behaviors to function. Furthermore, Hersey and Blanchard argued that there is not one style that is considered to be optimal or desired for all leaders to possess.49 As with many of the previous
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contingency models explored, leaders need to be flexible and able to adapt to a variety of different situations.
The developers of this model believed that the right leadership style was largely based to those being led â€“ the followers. With this in mind, the authors used a similar letter-number classification for the four different performance readiness levelsb exhibited by followers (R1-R4). The follower behaviors in this model are determined by comparing the ability of the follower with level of confidence the follower exhibits. Table 4: Hersey-Blanchard Performance Readiness Levels Hersey and Blanchard Insecure
said that the leadership R3
style (S1 - S4) of the leader must correspond to the performance levels
Follower has the ability to
Follower has the ability to
perform and is confident
apprehensive about doing
about doing so and is
it alone or the follower is
not willing to use that
follower. The leader should recognize, though, that it is not the follower that should adapt to the situation, but
Follower is unable and
complete tasks but has the
confidence or the follower
confidence as long as the
leader provides guidance,
or the follower lacks the
rather the leader. the
ability but is motivated and making an effort. *Table created based on data found at 12Manage.com.
leadership, a leader should be trained in how to operate effectively in various leadership styles, and how to determine the development level of others. By adopting the right style to the development stage of the follower, work
Originally classified as â€œdevelopment levelsâ€? (D1-D4); the developers of this model refined their terms in 2008 to more adequately reflect the characteristics of a follower.
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gets done, relationships get built up, and the follower will be able to work up to the R4 readiness level and have the ability to perform confidentially and be committed.50
Each of the situational and contingency models discussed in this section recognized that leadership was much more elaborate of a process than to simply become more in-tune with behaviors of the leaders. Each of the theories above required the ideal leader to exhibit a certain amount of flexibility and have the ability to respond to a variety of different situations. The Vroom-Yetton-Jago models were created to help leaders effectively come to different decisions, based on the individuals affiliated with that decision; Hersey and Blanchard paired the actions of a situational leader with the levels of development and readiness of its followers; and the path-goal theory believes that different types of motivational, and satisfaction structures should be put into place for different group dynamics. Through each of these theories, we learned about a variety of valuable components that are believed to affect a leader’s ability to successfully lead. This will help us to gain a greater appreciation for the next evolution of leadership theory: Transformational leadership. Transformational Leadership After looking at each of the different types of situations and the styles that are commanded from its leaders, we are now ready to look at some of the most recent leadership theories. Transformational theories of leadership have been developed by great researchers like James MacGregor Burns and Bernard M. Bass, and attempt to create valuable and positive change in a leader’s followers. The primary objective with this type of leadership is to transform the followers to achieving something greater than what they might have otherwise been capable achieving. In this leadership, the leader enhances the motivation, morale and performance of his follower group.
Let’s examine the
fundamentals of the theories that relate to this leadership model.
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Transformation Leadership: According to Burns – Winner of the Pulitzer Prize and the National Book Award, James MacGregor Burns has dedicated his life to better understand the fundamentals of leadership and the way in which we interact with one another. Burn’s key innovation in this complex field was to deviate from the previous concepts of traits and behaviors that were included in the “great man” theories and the transactional leadership, adopting instead a much more collaborative mindset with the leadership process, where both the leader and the led seek a mutually beneficial relationship. In his best seller, Leadership, Burns discusses how every generation of people have attempted to develop propositions about what they believed was leadership. Burns accounts how Plato compared leadership to being the captain of a vessel, yet Plato failed to be empathetic to those that the captain was leading, or challenges that they might have with the captain’s command.51 Some considered leadership to be an authority deriving from God or perhaps from an innate nature of man. In many situations throughout history, leadership was viewed as a property estate – something almost magical that was touted by those that had it and coveted by those that didn’t. As civilization advanced, many of these paintings of grandeur began to fade with the passing times. Yet, in the absence of structured hierarchies and supreme rulers, an intellectual gap developed – a gab that Burn argued needed to be filled with new theories and models that outlined a more holistic view of leadership. His response to this gap was the development of his version of the transformational theory, where motivation and morality guided the principles of a leader. Communication is also an invaluable part of Burn’s theory. Transformational leaders raise the bar by appealing to higher ideals and values of followers. In doing so, they may model the values themselves and use charismatic methods to attract people to the values and to the leader. In his leadership theory, Burns also makes another important distinction about the moral fortitude that a leader possesses. Burns believes that a true leader must strive to satisfy the interests of others. In contrast, Burns describes some of histories infamous men of influence, such as Adolf Hitler, as amoral leaders and not possessing the true qualities of a leader. Burns
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denied that Hitler was a leader because, “leadership, unlike naked power-wielding, is… inseparable from followers’ needs and goals.”52 These men, as the author describes, use fear to replace charisma and are set to only satisfy their personal desires and intentions. Burns spends very little time in his theory associating these amoral leaders with what he believes to be real leaders. The fundamental component for the Transformational theories created by Burns is synergy that might exist in such a way that everyone gets raised to a higher level of performance.
different leadership styles that Burns discusses in this model, each of which describes the way in which a transformational leader might behave, namely: the intellectual, the reformer, the revolutionary, and the charismatic hero. •
Intellectual Leaders are idealistically motivated to values that transcend the practical needs of all. With an intellectual leader, there is a higher moral purpose and vision that can transform society.
Reform Leaders create reformation mass movements that require the participation of large numbers of followers to achieve. Reform leaders can transform part of society to realize a higher standard of moral principles.
Revolutionary Leaders challenge societies “status quo” thinking and ask followers to “sacrifice" for the greater good of all. Revolutionary leaders ask for changes to the whole of society versus a Reform leader who works towards improving one aspect of their community or society.
Charismatic Leaders are perhaps the ultimate form of a Transformational leader. The Charismatic leader is viewed as a champion or “hero” among their followers.53 The concept of charismatic leadership was also explored by fellow researcher, House, and has been a widely discussed attribute in the field of leadership for the past thirty years.54
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Burns recognized that this style of leadership was not the only style, though. In fact, Burns also identified what he referred to as transactional leaders, where the leader is given power to perform certain tasks and reward or punish for the team’s performance. This model, Burns believed, covered the bulk of the leadership models up until that point. These models focused on a series of exchanges between the leader and the follower. One example of this model of leadership is a manager who offers a pay bonus to employees who surpass their goals. The “transaction” occurs when the employee does something so that he or she will receive something specific in return.55 Unfortunately, theories that incorporate this sort of leader-follower interaction are often only as strong as the accompanying incentive. In contrast, transformational leadership is the process whereby a person develops a genuine connection that raises the morality and motivation with both the leader and the follower. Transformation Leadership: According to Bass – Shortly after Burns introduced his research relating to the transformational leader, others began to explore the merits of his work. One such researcher was Bernard Bass, who has spent considerable time expounding upon the work done by Burns. As part of the evolution to Burns’ theory, Bass proposed that the extent to which a leader is transformational is measured first by the level of influence on the followers. The desire is to have the followers trust, admire and respect the transformational leader.56 In Bass’ words, “A transformation leaders helps followers grow and develop into leaders by responding to individual followers’ needs by empowering them and by aligning the objectives and goals of the individual followers, the leader, the group, and the larger organization.”57 Like Burns, Bass recognized the presence of both transactional and transformational leadership. Both of these styles of leadership are discussed in Bass’ Full Range of Leadership Model, which compares and contrasts behaviors of a leader that govern both the actions and effectiveness. This includes both the four components that Bass has identified within transformational leadership, as well as several behavior types that are commonly associated with transactional leaders.
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Let’s explore each of the different leadership behaviors outlined in this model. Each behavior is also outlined in Figure 3. Bass refers to the most primitive leadership behavior identified is this model as Laissez-Faire Leadership (LF).
Considered to Figure 3: Bass Full Range Leadership Model*
be a highly ineffective method of leadership,
transactional to absence
situations that require leadership. A very “hands off” approach is applied by those exhibiting this behavior.
Almost all research
indicates that this style yields the lowest return from followers. The
*Figure courtesy of Barbuto and Cummins-Brown of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln.
behavior that Bass identifies is Management-by-exception (MBE). This behavior may be either passive or active, and leaders exhibiting this trait often compare performance to generally accepted guidelines and standards.58 Passive MBE leaders wait until a situation has occurred, then perform damage control; active MBE leaders use failure as an example of what will occur if standards are not met. While this behavior is generally more effective than the LF behavior, it is generally ineffective at producing desired results.
MBE behaviors often lead to very high employee turnover, poor satisfaction and a low
perception of organizational effectiveness.59 Contingent Reward (CR) behaviors are considered by Bass to be the most effective of the transactional methods of leadership. This behavior yields similar expectations as the MBE behavior, but
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the leader focuses on positive reinforcement for good follower behavior rather than through punishment for failure. CR Leaders strive to clearly articulate what the follower will receive when performance goals are achieved.60
While many leaders often settle for this behavior, the core
fundamentals of developing interest in the follower are essential in the transformational leadership behaviors. The fundamentals of the contingent reward behavior are often incorporated and expounded upon in Bassâ€™ identification of the four Iâ€™s of a transformational leader, which the author believes will help the leader to obtain both a more effective and active role in the organization. Letâ€™s use this opportunity to transition into our discussion about the four tiers of transformational leadership behavior, as conceived by Bass. The first tier of transformational leadership behavior is that of Individualized Consideration (IC). According to Bass, a leader must pay close attention to the specific needs for achievement and areas of potential growth with an individual follower. The objective of the IC leader extends far beyond just accomplishing a task or achieving an organizational goal. The leader acts as a coach and mentor to the followers and helps them to realize their own potential. Rather than viewing all followers as the same, an IC leader recognizes and embraces differences in each individual.
Listening and two-way
communication is viewed as essential for the IC leader, and oversight is replaced with monitoring of progress and facilitation when necessary. Intellectual stimulation (IS) is the next behavior component that Bass attributes to a transformational leader. Leaders that embody this behavior encourage their followers to be innovative and obtain new ways of thinking about a situation. Creativity is encouraged and mistakes are never publically criticized. Additionally, followers are encouraged and solicited to develop solutions and try new approaches.
These leaders often help their followers to look at the problem from a variety of
different angles.61 The leadership is at Google, Inc., is an excellent illustration to this point. Best-selling
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author Gary Hamel writes about Google’s formula for innovation – internally referred to as the 70-20-10 rule. Outlined in the corporate policy for Google, this formula stipulates that each engineer devote seventy percent of his or her resources to the enhancement of base businesses for the company, twenty percent of resources focus on those projects that substantially modify core business components, and the remaining ten percent of engineering resources are to be allocated to creating new and innovative ideas that are of interest to the employees. Allowing this innovation to freely flow, has provided the company engineers substantial flexibility and autonomy to develop new ideas that could become the “next big thing” for the company.62
Management teams for Google seem to have adopted this
intellectual stimulation with their engineer followers. The third behavior that Bass believes is attributed to a transformational leader is the ability to offer inspirational motivation (IM). A transformational leader should carry him or herself in a fashion that inspires others around them by providing meaning and challenge to follower’s work. Symptoms of inspirational motivation include a heightened sense of enthusiasm in the group, as well as an optimistic outlook that is shared by the followers. These leaders are very inclusive of other members, and are excellent at clearly communicating expectations that followers want to meet and demonstrate a commitment to the shared vision of the group. This behavior works well in identifying different types of stress and creating an environment to turn that stress into a challenge that the follower’s are motivated to overcome.63 The final tier of leadership behavior that Bass discusses in his Full Leadership model is that of idealized influence (II). Transformational leaders are often looked at by their followers as role models – someone that the followers aspire to emulate with their own actions. Followers view leaders with this quality as having extraordinary capabilities, persistence, and determination. With this in mind, Bass believes that two aspects to be considered when assessing II behaviors: the leader’s actual behaviors and the elements that are attributed to the leader by his or her followers and associates.
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transformational leader that behaves with an idealized influence emphasizes the importance of having a collective sense of mission, and reassures others that obstacles will be overcome. Followers often take pride in knowing the leader and in being able to associate with him or her.64 Based on Bassâ€™ research, leaders are often most effective when they regularly act in accordance to each of the transformational leadership behaviors. This, combined with some of the precepts laid out in the contingent rewards behavior, has proven to promote a greater amount of work effort by workers, higher productivity, higher morale and satisfaction, greater organizational effectiveness, lower turnover, and a stronger sense of adaptability to a changing organizational environment.65
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Increasing your Leadership Influence Each of the researchers that have been introduced in these generations of theory has offered a new dimension and dynamic to the growing field of leadership. Through the efforts of researchers like Gordon Allport, Thomas Carlyle, and Robert Tannenbaum, we have learned about traits and behaviors that can be used to differentiate leaders and their styles.
This valuable information has led to
discoveries by Fiedler, Vroom, Hersey, and Blanchard that opened our eyes to the possibility that leadership is based not just on the individual leading, but also with the environment and those being led.
Burns and Bass continue this evolution of thought with the introduction of mutually beneficial
scenarios that are factored by moral decisions and charismatic behaviors. With each new iteration and concept, we come closer to creating our own definitions of what it means to be a leader, as well as how we, too, might become better and more influential in our roles of leadership.
Using the theories For those who want to improve their own leadership potential, studying the different generations of leadership theory can prove to be immensely beneficial. There are hundreds, if not thousands, of cumulative years of knowledge and research that are reflected in the works of these authors. With this vast expanse of information, there shouldnâ€™t be any shortage of different perspectives to let the reader appreciate all that leadership entails. Spend some time critically assessing each of the theories that have been explored in this paper. We opened this section with a discussion about the importance of developing and refining different skills, and how qualities that lend themselves to being a positive leader would not be enough to become a great leader. Think back to the examples relating to the parent, the lawyer, and the evangelical: each of these roles went through a process of enlightenment, where they needed to develop and refine their abilities. The theories that we have discussed provide many of the essentials that will help you to change your outlook and understand the complexities of true leadership. In some cases, the authors provide specific models that can be applied by a growing leader to incite an action or response. For example, the Vroom-Yetton-Jago decision model provides a step-by-step Davison 40 of 75
process for coming to a decision for any number of different situations. Learning this model will help you to become more comfortable when making important decisions, as well as give you the confidence you might need to take charge of a situation. Fully understanding the history and implementation of other theories will allow you to grasp the qualities, traits, behaviors, styles, and interactions that leaders have had with their followers. Even those theories that have been widely abandoned or disproved by researchers of today, such as the “great man” theory and other inherited trait theory concepts, paint vivid pictures of the noticeable distinctions that have historically been found in leaders. Many of the intrinsic characteristics that have been identified in leaders by researchers over previous centuries, regardless as to whether they may or may not have been genetically predisposed to acquire those traits, provide an excellent framework for us attempt to emulate in our own leadership roles. With certainty, I can proclaim that I have improved my leadership potential over the course of my studies. This is primarily because I was introduced to such a broad spectrum of influence – reading about all sorts of different success (and failure) stories of people leading over the course of humanity – that have made me more sensitive to my own behaviors and leadership styles. We can also develop our influence by spending time critically evaluating the evolution of the leadership theories. The progression of thought that has taken place in the leadership field seems to closely reflect the ideal development that we also have as individuals who aspire to become great leaders. When we begin our pursuit to create an unrivaled legacy of leadership, we often act in a similar manner as what is governed by trait theorists - relying only on our natural talents and abilities. Perhaps we have a natural ability to truly listen and be empathetic towards others or maybe it is a gift for charisma that causes others to be moved by our rhetorical aptitude. As we begin to consciously improve our leadership potential, we often learn to modify our own behaviors and styles to improve our ability to work with those people around us. Taking notes from the behaviorists, we might lead one
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group of people with clear directions and expectations, while in other situations we act as a moderator for others and facilitate progress through that manner. Our evolution of influence might very well continue as we become mindful of the environments and situations that relate to those people that we lead. Our mindset as leaders may begin to shift from the conventional concepts of simply leading others, and now we begin to command and direct the entire situation. We become more aware of critical factors that will affect our ability to lead, such as the barriers we face and the challenges that lie ahead, and we must work to effectively manage these situations. Our actions must now be contingent upon what is needed by our followers, recognizing that each individual possesses different strengths and our developmental patterns must vary to suit them. At some point, however, we must excuse ourselves from the tired exchange of the ‘solicit and response’ method of leadership, and venture forth to a new domain that develops a true connection that is shared by both the leader and the follower. Adopting the philosophic methods of Burns and Bass, you must be willing to develop a relationship with those being led and help them to be motivated and realize their own potential. Others begin to look up to you as a role model and friend, and you humbly take pride and satisfaction in knowing that you have helped these people to achieve something greater than they could have possibly otherwise imagined. Your every action becomes guided by honesty, ethics, and clear sense of purpose as you realize that you now have the obligation of setting a strong positive example for those around you. However, the greatest reward that you might receive is the comfort that you have not trained a follower, but rather have developed another leader. A leader who in turn also has the confidence, motivation, and support to go out and build up others in the same way. In the words of Walter Lippman: “The final test of a leader is that he leaves behind him in other men the conviction and the will to carry on.”
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Making your own definition, then becoming it Perhaps the reason that there are so many different theories on leadership is due to the fact that each supported theory provides a valuable foundation that can be elaborated upon by the next researcher. Throughout this dissertation, we have covered dozens of contributing theories that have manifested from the works of previous explorations. To that extent, the presence of so many different leadership theories today is both a testament of how much leadership has grown over the previous generations and how the study of leadership will likely continue to evolve in the generations to come. After spending quite some time studying so many different facets and theories of leadership, it dawned on me that it is conceivable (and in all likelihood probable) that no one theory is really correct... rather, they all are, at least to an extent. One of the most fascinating components of leadership is that you make of it what you choose. Each theorist that has come to the table to propose her concept of leadership has brought with her a unique definition that they embrace tightly. The lifeblood of each of their researched theories remains in their commitment to their concept. In the same way, you have the opportunity to develop your own theory of leadership that will guide you. You are the only one that can truly see the world from your perspective, and you owe it to yourself to create a clear vision of how you want to develop your leadership abilities. Spend some time with this and ask yourself critically the following questions, as they relate to leadership: •
How do high-performing leaders interact with their followers? What fuels this interaction, and how do all parties benefit from this relationship?
What knowledge, skills and abilities are required of leaders in order for the organization to reach its strategic objectives?
What are the characteristics of the high-performing leaders that enable them to demonstrate critical behaviors more often, in more situations, and with better results?
What type of leader thrives in your organization’s environment? Davison 43 of 75
What are the attitudes that motivate leaders to excel within the organization?
What differentiates average leaders from those who consistently deliver optimal results?
How do the best leaders weather changing conditions and overcome challenges?66
Once you have answered all of these questions about your theory for the ideal leader, it’s time to internalize your information, and ultimately become that leader. The secret: positive affirmation. I’ll explain.
Positive Affirmation Positive affirmation is a vision realization strategy that was first introduced to me quite unexpectedly, while I was reading Dilbert Future, a comic satire book by cartoonist Scott Adams. While most of this book was filled with jokes about the working class and interesting exploits shared by his pet and trusted friend, Dogbert, the last chapter unexpectedly outlined the fundamentals of positive affirmation and how this simple exercise had helped this author with no experience and virtually no artistic ability to become a successful syndicated cartoonist. Adams says the idea behind affirmations is “to simply write down your goals 15 times a day and somehow, as if by magic, coincidences start to build until you achieve your objective against all odds.”67 While there is no guarantee that positive affirmations will work for you, they have helped many people to achieve the goals that they have desired. In the same way, putting into writing about how you embody the traits of the ideal leader that you have theorized may help you to achieve that state. When you write about how you are the leader you imagined, use present tense. Though it may seem a little strange at first to attempt to realize a goal that you have not yet accomplished, it will help you to visual what you desire and make it real. This forces the mind to subconsciously realize the goal, which is often the greatest barrier in accomplishing a goal of this magnitude. You can read more about this concept in the Appendix, where I have included Evelyn Lim’s “7 Instances Why Your Positive Affirmations Fail To Work.”
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Continuing Your Exploration The field of Leadership continues to evolve as researchers attempt to develop a greater appreciation for the mechanics and fundamentals associated with the subject.
Today, the precepts of leadership
extend far beyond just those roles found in business and politics. The skills that one might acquire during the pursuit of becoming a leader can be applied in any situation, at any job or in any environment.
Warren Bennis, author and distinguished professor at the University of Southern
California, writes that “leaders come in every size, shape, and disposition – short, tall, neat, sloppy, young, old, male and female.” Bennis goes on to say that the ingredients for a leader may include any or all of the following: a guiding vision, a genuine passion, a sense of trust and integrity, and a curious and daring mentality.68 Regardless of your profession or organizational involvement, there is a necessity for strong leaders that can set the stage for members of that community. In this section, we will look out ways to continue your leadership exploration, as well as introduce you to some of the cutting edge components of leadership.
Mentor: get one and be one When we are young, we look to our parents for guidance and direction. With their assistance, along with the presence of other adults in our life, we learn about the complexities of the world and how to survive it. As a growing leader, we are still young in our development and an excellent way to continue to grow as a leader is to find a mentor – someone who is knowledgeable and experienced as a leader, and who can help you to develop your own abilities. Mentors serve a variety of valuable purposes in our life: some offer advice and direction that will point us towards success, while others will offer encouragement and that little push when we need some adjustments. While it is presumed that you will be interacting closely with your mentor, not all mentor-protégé relationships meet face to face. A mentorship may correspond through e-mail or via the telephone. No matter how the communication occurs, it is beneficial have someone in your life that you desire to emulate. Here are a few tips that should help you to select the right mentor. Davison 45 of 75
Before you begin a search on your own, see if there is a formal mentorship structure through your employer, alma mater, or affiliated organizations. In some cases, a structure will already be in place that will have you take some sort personality matching test and then pair you quickly with a suitable match. As a pledge for my business fraternity, I was given a form that had me describe my interests, hobbies, and personality type. Once I completed the form, I was matched with my big brother Drew, who was an excellent complement for me throughout the pledging process. If a formal structure is not in place or a suitable match couldn’t be found, it’s time to start the independent search.
Dr. Katharine Hansen, career educator and author, makes the following
recommendations for finding a mentor: 1. Begin the search with people you know – Look for someone that you admire and respect. An employer or teacher is often a good initial consideration. You want someone who is willing to make a long-term commitment and able to make deep-seated investment in your future. 2. Identify the skills you want to develop - Consider your goals in choosing a mentor. Are you looking for someone that can provide specific insights into a particular career industry? Or perhaps you want to study someone because of their ability to effectively handle a situation. Understanding your motives will help you to identify where you should look. 3. Avoid seeking mentorship from direct supervisors – it is important that you are able to speak candidly about your career and professional life, which might mean having conversations about your frustrations in the workplace. 4. Compatible Personalities – Your mentor prospects should include people that you feel the most comfortable with. Many mentors like to work with a protégé that remind them of themselves. This does not mean that you should try to be something you are not, and it definitely doesn’t have to be a perfect match. Hansen argues that in some cases it is actually better to have a
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differing, but compatible, personality, because it provides a greater opportunity to shape you more fully. 5. Similar Values - This person should also share similar values as you, so they will be able to empathize with you on a greater level. You want someone that can offer advice that will not cause you to compromise your core beliefs. 6. Other things to consider â€“ A good mentor should possess emotional intelligence (which we will discuss momentarily), intuition, a drive to keep learning, and a desire to bring about change. The author recommends that you should avoid a mentor who is too controlling, judgmental, or a know-it-all. Instead, you should look for a positive, upbeat attitude â€“ someone who will become invested in and celebrate your success. The mentorship is especially productive when the mentor believes he or she can learn from you, and the relationship is a two-way street.69 Mentors are often great at helping you to regain focus and see the light at the end of the tunnel, even when the struggles are tough. Most mentors can provide you the assurance that they, also, have been in similar situations and might be able to provide you with some perspective about ways to overcome the barriers that lie before you. To refer once again to my business fraternity, there were many times that I was ready to give up. Sometimes I felt that I couldnâ€™t balance the expectations of the pledging process with the rest of my hectic life; other times I lost sight of why I was even pledging in the first place. Each time I began to doubt, though, Drew was always able to empathize with my situation, and then offer me advice that had worked for him when he was in my shoes.
encouragement, I was able to get past my fears and frustrations, and ultimately able to become a brother and pass on my experiences to two little brothers of my own. The last point highlights a valuable second component of mentorship, and that is becoming one for someone else. Just as you might seek guidance from your mentor, there is probably a lot that you might be able to offer others, too. I learned so much about myself during each of the four occasions that I
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was fortunate enough to be able to be a formal mentor while a student at the university. One of the proudest moments in my adult life occurred when I was able to reach out and grasp the hand of little, Sean, and welcome him as my brother into the fraternity. It was just as powerful the second time, as I welcomed Brett. As I watched them through the process, it made me appreciate everything that I was able to overcome. Just one semester after I joined the fraternity, I was now in a role-model position, where I was looked to for strength and wisdom, and it was humbling to say the least. Being a mentor is especially important in an organization like Student Government. Generally, you have one year to accomplish everything on your agenda. Unfortunately, it simply isn’t feasible to adequately see through everything to completion. For those multi-term projects, having a protégé is an excellent way to ensure that all of your hard work does not simply get lost in the transition after you leave. Even though I am no longer a member of the organization, I was able to take my former assistant director, Jasmine, under my wing while I was the director and helped to develop her as my successor. Together, we were able to collaborate with one another and continue the momentum from one administration to the next. This has helped to prepare her for the new position as director, and helped to alleviate the learning curve associated with any new position. I might have paved the way, but I have seen her build something far greater than I could possibly have imagined. Every mentor interacts differently with their “mentees.” Steve Thompson of Associated Content outlines these generally accepted qualities that you should strive to embrace as a mentor: •
Let it happen naturally – Mentoring is not the sort of role that allows an individual to walk up to someone else, point, and than simply say, “You. I’m your mentor now.” You’ve got to be patient and be available to those that might need you as a mentor. Typically, the protégé will initiate the conversation about having someone become a mentor, though the mentor candidate may also state that he or she is willing.
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Don’t force your experience down their throat – A mentor is supposed to be a source of guidance and a voice of inspiration -- not a tyrant. Never insist that something must be done your way. Instead, offer suggestions and debate other perspectives, but allow the protégé to learn to make their own decisions.
Provide practical advice – It is important that you differentiate your experiences from those of your protégés. What worked for you will not necessarily work for them. Take the time to assess his or her strengths and cater the advice to suit their situations.
Accept your mistakes and admit them to others – No one is perfect. Chances are that you made a mistake or two in your time. If you embrace this mistake, and pass it onto your protégé, they might be able to avoid making the same one.
Be an accountability partner – One of the jobs of a mentor is to hold your protégé to their expectations and goals. Motivate your protégé to continue striving for excellence, especially when it seems tough. They have come to you because they want to improve in their abilities, and therefore you shouldn’t let them make excuses if they fall short. Call them out, if you see them slipping. It will be better for both of you.
Be available – Committing time is one of the most important things that you can do as a mentor. If you've been acting as a mentor to someone, set up weekly or monthly visits at your local coffee shop or in your office. Take the time to ask him or her how it's going and what he or she has been up to. Show an acute interest in the life of your protégé so that he or she knows you care.70
Changes in communication The methods through which people learn about leadership have also changes significantly in recent years. After the internet explosion of the early 1990’s, it is now easier than ever to find useful information about leadership. Dissenting theories are also available at a much faster rate than in Davison 49 of 75
previous decades. As soon as one researcher is able to post their research to the internet, it is made available for others who wish to either elaborate on the findings or offer a counter-point to the arguments. This has resulted in a much shorter incubation period for information to go through the creative process. Books and libraries have widely been replaced by blogs and social media networks, which has created an entirely different platform for leaders to both influence and be influenced by others. This paradigm shift has created quite a stir in the expansive leadership community. While many of the essentials traits and interactions remain similar in leadership as it is pursued during this digital age, there are several key distinctions. The first of these is the significance of having proven success as a leader.
Remi Cote, seasoned leadership and management coach, writes on his blog about the
importance of creating an online following as a leader that is powered by your previous successes. Cote argues that the internet is full of self-proclaimed ‘gurus’ and that by having a strong foundation of people who trust you and follow your actions, you will be able to distinguish yourself from the pack and build the credibility that you need.71 Another blogger, Steve Kessler, believes that a web-based leader is responsible for developing and maintaining a culture and purpose for the online community.72 In his works, Kessler stresses that an online leader should be much more than a webmaster of a site or the individual who types the name into a group. Rather, the author identifies a leader in this context as having a strong and commanding presence with the online presence, able to offer guidance and assistance to his or her followers. Seth Godin discusses the use of the Internet as a tool for joining others in his best-seller, Tribes. According to Godin, we each affiliate with tribes based on our interests, passions, ideas, and social circles. Geography used to be very important for a tribe, but the internet has eliminated this as a necessity.73 However, Godin warns that while the internet allows easier access to the ‘tribe’, it can also negatively affect the quality of leadership. Without a strong leader, a tribe quickly falls into just another
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crowd.74 A good leader is able to create a tight and cohesive community with a strong line of communication. In Godin’s words, “A tribe that communicates more quickly, with alacrity and emotion, is a tribe that thrives.”75 Today, leaders use a variety of different online resources to effectively reach out to their followers. Over the past decade, there has been a tremendous growth in different social media websites. These web sites offer user-created content that is easily published and allows a structure for interaction between the publisher and the reader. Let’s explore a few of the different sites and methods that leaders have taken up to effectively reach out to their followers. We’ll also briefly highlight some of the most influential users on across these mediums. Blogging – A Blog is a type of website, which is usually maintained by an individual with regular entries of commentary, descriptions of events, or other material such as graphics or video. Some blogs are written to discuss specific topics or as part of a larger community of related knowledge, while others are simply written by an individual in a similar fashion as a journal or diary. Many blogs also have the ability for readers to leave comments to the site about articles written. Companies may write a blog to keep the public informed. Leaders are also using blogs as a way of keeping their followers up-to-date with everything that is happening either in the organization or in the life of the leader. As we discussed previously, communication is an important part of any interaction between a leader and his or her followers. Researchers might also keep blogs to account new theories or models in the field of leadership. These sites provide an excellent exchange of intellectual property, and allow rapid development of new theories and concept iterations. Here are a few noteworthy blogs that relate to leaders, leadership and theory:
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Center for Leader Development – Founded by Scott Allen, renowned author and leadership trainer, the CLD provides individuals who have a passion for leadership development a gathering place on the internet. (http://www.centerforleaderdevelopment.com/blog/)
Extreme Leadership – Steve Farber leads discussions in business leadership that cover everything from the ability to be greater than yourself to how leadership can be applied in a variety different situations. (http://stevefarber.com/)
Seth Godin’s Blog – Join acclaimed author Seth Godin for an in-depth exploration of the world’s most powerful form of marketing: leadership. (http://sethgodin.typepad.com/)
Many companies offer free templates to create your own blog. Wordpress.com, Blogger.com, and Typepad.com are just a few of the sites online that will allow you to create your own leadership blog. Social Networking - Social network services are online communities of people who share common interests or who are interested in exploring the interests of others. These networking sites are available from any computer with an internet connection, and provide a variety of ways for users to interact with one another. The application of social networking sites range from keeping up with friendships to being an integral part of a major political campaign. Leaders have been using social networking in growing numbers to foster relationships in groups and to develop stronger followings. Here are a few notable sites that offer excellent potential for leaders: •
Facebook – Millions of people use Facebook everyday to keep up with friends, upload photos, share links and videos, and learn more about the people they meet.76 In addition to connecting personally with his or her followers, leaders can also facilitate group and fan pages for different causes and organizations. The leader of these pages has extensive Davison 52 of 75
flexibility with its content, including the ability to send messages to the other members, create announcements, keep track of upcoming events, and recruit new members. (www.facebook.com) •
LinkedIn – LinkedIn is an interconnected network of experienced professionals from around the world, representing 170 industries and 200 countries. Its members can find, be introduced to, and collaborate with qualified professionals, as well as share summaries of professional expertise and accomplishments.77
Leaders can use this site to develop
connections with his or her members, facilitate discussion, and post various employment opportunities. (www.linkedin.com) •
Twitter – Simplicity has played an important role into the design and use of Twitter. Twitter is divided into two core groups of people: those who follow you (people who find you interesting) and those you are following (people who are of interest to you). The site poses its users with the question, "What are you doing?", and it requires all answers to be under 140 characters in length. Leaders will often use this site to send motivational quotes, solicit feedback, and create a dialogue between users that can be easily viewed others by others. Twitter is also fully integrated with the text message system for most mobile devices, which allows users to continue to be plugged in from virtually anywhere. (www.twitter.com)
During the 2008 presidential election, Barack Obama’s campaign used Twitter extensively to connect with his supporters. While the conventional method of communication involved telling others what the candidates were doing, Obama used Twitter and other social media to ask his supporters what was important to them and how they would handle different situations. Many use this as one of the premier examples of how leaders use social media and social networking sites. Davison 53 of 75
Throughout Godinâ€™s book, the author reminds his readers that the internet is simply a tool (albeit, a very effective one) to easily enable some tactics, and that it shouldnâ€™t be viewed as a replacement for conventional leadership styles. The global reach that a leader now possesses through the internet does have some limitations, though. Cultural, language, and proximity barriers all exist when potentially leading people all around the world. Behaviors and actions that seem appropriate in the context of traditional leadership environment may be inappropriate for others. Having a virtual team (or a team not bound by the normal geographic location) can also mean that it is harder to develop a sense of trust with between the members of the team78 Global leaders may also experience some difficulty in developing a unified vision with their followers, because of the proximity and nature of their work. It is important to recognize these concerns, so that you may begin to identify ways to overcome these issues.
An introduction to Emotional Intelligence One of the most recent approaches that has emerged onto the scene over the past few decades has been the concept of Emotional Intelligence (EI). This school of thought asserts the existence of an unrecognized but important human mental ability to reason about emotions and to use emotions to enhance thought. In simple terms, EI is the ability to be smart with feelings. Studying the concepts in this field of study will likely be invaluable as the researchers continue to elaborate on this topic. Although this theory topic buzzed amongst professionals since the mid-1980s and had steadily increased momentum, it was not until Daniel Goleman published his best seller Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More than IQ in 1995 that the topic suddenly gained its mainstream popularity. The passage below is found in the opening pages of Golemanâ€™s book, and indicates the profound paradigm shift that is being proposed by this concept: This mapping [by scientists of the heart] offers a challenge to those who subscribe to a narrow view of intelligence, arguing that IQ is a genetic given that cannot be changed by
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life experience, and that our destiny in life is largely fixed by these aptitudes. That argument ignores the more challenging question: What can we change that will help our children fare better in life? What factors are at play, for example, when people of high IQ flounder and those of modest IQ do surprisingly well? I would argue that the difference quite often lies in the abilities called here emotional intelligence, which include self-control, zeal and persistence, and the ability to motivate oneself. And these skills, as we shall see, can be taught to children, giving them a better chance to use whatever intellectual potential the genetic lottery may have given them.79 This theory was very pragmatic in its research. Discussions that mirrored those in an anatomy course were used to scientifically â€˜proveâ€™ the functionality of the limbic system and the cerebral cortex, relating to this concept of emotional intelligence. Goleman accounts a study of elementary school boys that were recorded to have above-average IQs, but nevertheless seemed to be struggling in school. During a neuropsychological examination, each of these boys was determined to have an impaired frontal cortex functioning. Goleman argued that in spite of the superior mental IQs, each of these children was more prone to abusive behavior and alcoholism later in life because of the emotional life was impaired.80 The discovery that a physiological structure of the cortex may be associated with the emotional demeanor of an individual, ergo the propensity for the person to behave in a socially appropriate manner has lead to some of the greatest magnitude of contradicting definitions relating to leadership in the researcher community. An explosion of responses quickly followed the release of this book. Some researchers praised Goleman for his genius and stood in support of his models, while others criticized both the terminology and operation of his work for making such an extravagant claim without being able to fully substantiate it. There has been a great deal of confusion over the past fifteen years about the exact meaning of this construct. The definitions are so varied, and the field is growing so rapidly,
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that researchers are constantly amending even their own definitions of the construct. At the present time, there are three main categories of models of EI, namely: •
The Ability EI models
The Mixed models of EI
The Trait EI model
The EI Ability-Based models– In their article from 1990, Professors Peter Salovey and John D. Mayer define emotional intelligence as “…the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and actions.”81 In a review of the publication by Melissa Karnaze, interprets this definition to imply that emotions can be used to guide logical thinking and goal-oriented actions, or that emotions can actually enhance rationality.82
The Salovey-Mayer model identified a set of conceptually-related mental processes
involving emotional information. The three branches of this set included Appraisal and Expression of Emotion, Regulation of Emotion, and Utilization of Emotion. Under the third main branch Salovey and Mayer list four more categories, each of which encompasses one of the way that the two propose we can utilize our emotions. The four categories, or skills, are flexible planning, creative thinking, redirected attention, and motivation.83 Let’s look at each of these action categories: Flexible
Figure 4: Salovey-Mayer Ability-Based Model
implies that the mood of a person can affect their decision to make future actions. The more positive the mood of a person’s
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mood, the more positive the future plans will be, and the opposite all is argued to stand true.84 A person’s mood may also help them to Creative thinking and address a problem. A person that responds in this manner is expected to have a varying amount of clarity for categorizing information, depending on the feelings exhibited by the individual. Mood Redirected Attention states that attention is directed to new problems when powerful emotions occur. This means that if a very intense feeling is experienced by an individual, the person can learn to refocus the energy on the most important stimuli in their environment at that time. The final characteristics expressed in this model are motivating emotions.
circumstances, moods may be used to motivate persistence at challenging tasks. If an individual is able to anticipate a stressful situation, like an upcoming evaluation, then the individual can use the stress to become better prepared for the situation. This model indicates that emotions have the ability to perceive, understand, use and manage emotions, based on the necessity of the situation at hand. The EI Mixed models– After Goleman’s initial release of this concept in 1995, he created a revised theory: the Emotional Competency model. In this model, Goleman focuses on EI as a wide array of competencies and skills that drive leadership performance. This revised model outlines four main EI constructs, namely self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management. Each of these constructs has varied number of different categories.85 Let’s explore each construct: The first construct proposed in Goleman’s revised EI mixed model is Self-Awareness. This is the ability to read one's emotions and recognize their impact while using gut feelings to guide decisions. The different categories included in this construct are: •
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Self-Management is the second construct included in the competency model.
controlling one's emotions and impulses and adapting to changing circumstances. The cognitive ability to manipulate one’s own instinctive emotions is what Goleman argues is essential to the success of this theory. The categories for this construct include: •
Social Awareness is the third construct outlined by Goleman. This trait demonstrates the ability to sense, understand, and react to others' emotions while comprehending social networks. Empathy is a key component of this concept. All the categories for this construct include: •
The final construct that Goleman proposed in his Emotional Competencies model is Relationship Management. This focuses on the ability to inspire, influence, and develop others while managing conflict. This requires hard work and dedication to master this trait. The categories for this construct include: •
Teamwork and Collaboration
Goleman includes a set of emotional competencies within each construct of EI. Emotional competencies are not innate talents, but rather learned capabilities that must be worked on and developed to achieve outstanding performance. Goleman argues that individuals are born with a general emotional intelligence that determines their potential for learning emotional competencies.86 The EI Trait models–Not satisfied with the fact that the EI ability-based models was hard to accurately and was highly resistant to scientific measurement, K. V. Petrides and his associates created Davison 58 of 75
the EI Trait model. This model refers to an individual's self-perceptions of their emotional abilities, and is measured through the use of a individualize survey, known as a self report.
significantly more generalizations than the ability model, this concept should be investigated with a personality framework. In an effort to address the conceptual shortcomings of early measures, Petrides embarked on the development of a comprehensive inventory predicated on the trait EI framework. Petrides believed that the primary focus should be on the conceptual development and understanding of trait EI, which comprises emotion-related dispositions and self perceived abilities and is measured through self-report. Note that this operationalisation (a fuzzy operation) of EI is congruent with the subjective nature of emotional experience and does not run into the aforementioned conceptual and psychometric challenges facing ability EI.
The goal has been to define trait EI
operationally and empirically as well as to locate its position within established personality hierarchies87.
Although there are still numerous points of contention with the new theories evolving around Emotional Intelligence, it is fascinating to be able to watch the different models evolve. Previous theories that have been explored were primarily developed during previous generations, while this theory is growing and changing right in front of us.
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Transition Manuals One of the greatest challenges that a leader faces is preparing the way for those that will lead after they are gone. Transition manuals are excellent tools to pass on the knowledge and information. A comprehensive transition manual will answer both pragmatic questions, like how to log into company email accounts, create agendas, and identify key points of contact. Additionally, a good manual will also include information about how to interact with fellow co-workers, ways to handle difficult employees, how to set clear goals and visions for both you and your team, and other topics that are more philosophic in their nature. The best transition manuals are written as evolving documents that develop with the position itself. As soon as you begin a new position it is recommended that you start writing down questions that you might have; then write down the answer to those questions as they develop. It is likely that your successor will also share of the same questions that you have experienced as he or she goes through the training process. Here are a few other tips that can improve the quality of your transition manual: •
Keep a journal or notebook of different key projects and how each project logically progressed.
Reserve copies of whitepapers (spec sheets) and agendas for different projects or initiatives for your future successor – this will leave out much of the ambiguity if a similar project is taken up in the future.
Contact information for key contacts that you have worked with while in your position. You should also communicate with these contacts that you now have a successor who will be working in your stead, as well methods that they might be able to contact him or her.
A list of goals that you have set as a leader in this position.
An outline of things that were accomplished during your time in that position.
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Other projects that have not yet been completed, but that progress has been made during the previous term.
Words of inspiration and motivation that can be applied by both your successor and his or her team.
On the following pages, excerpts from two sample transition manuals have been included. The first manual has been created to transition the new Senate President, and it illustrates more pragmatic information operating in this new position. The second manual excerpt was created for the purpose of transitioning the new Director of Marketing and Public Affairs for Student Government. In this excerpt, more attention is given to the philosophic elements of that the position entails. Allow these documents to guide you to create your own manual when the time is right.
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Building an Unrivaled Legacy of Leadership USF Honors Thesis TABLE OF CONTENTS Purpose of this Manual ................................................................................................................................. 2 Senate President â€“ At a Glance ..................................................................................................................... 3 What the Constitution says about the Senate President ...................................................................... 3 What the Statutes say about the Senate President .............................................................................. 3 What the Rules of Procedure say about the Senate President ............................................................. 4 First things First â€“ Before you take the podium............................................................................................ 5 Meeting with the Necessary Parties ..................................................................................................... 5 Meet with the Previous Chair ....................................................................................................... 5 Meeting with the Outgoing SenEx Members ................................................................................ 6 Meeting One-on-One with each new Chair .................................................................................. 6 Meeting Collectively with the Incoming SenEx Members ............................................................ 8 Other Important Relationships To Develop .................................................................................. 9 Make all necessary room reservations ............................................................................................... 10 Setting up & Maintaining The Senate Listserv .................................................................................... 10 Logging in to the listserv ............................................................................................................. 10 Updating Users ............................................................................................................................ 11 Sending E-mail over the Listserv ................................................................................................. 12 Approving E-mail Sent over the Listserv ..................................................................................... 12 Other Listserv Considerations ..................................................................................................... 13 Senate Meetings ......................................................................................................................................... 14 Creating weekly agendas .................................................................................................................... 14 Including Guest Speakers ............................................................................................................ 14 Gathering Content and Setting Deadlines .................................................................................. 17
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Building an Unrivaled Legacy of Leadership USF Honors Thesis PURPOSE OF THIS MANUAL This manual was written to assist newly elected Presidents of the Student Senate in acquiring the necessary tools to effectively serve the student body. Use this manual as a guide into what is in store for you in your new position: it provides advice and insight passed along by former Senate Presidents and other student leaders; depicts some of the duties and responsibilities that are essential to your success in this role; and helps to the alleviate the learning curve incumbent with the undertaking of any new position. Additionally, this book will equip you to more effectively train and develop your successor – the next Senate President. I realize that it might seem like this should be farthest thing from your mind right now, but I can assure you from experience that the day that you will be passing the gavel onto the next new chair will come more quickly than you might expect. As you read this handbook, imagine yourself to be a great explorer setting out to sea and consider this manual to be your trusted map and compass. Publilius Syrus – entertainer to Caesar – wrote that “anyone can hold the helm when the sea is calm”,1 and there will be times that the waters will be calm and it will be easy to follow these instructions without delay. On other occasions, you might find yourself facing a fearful storm and you will have to rely on your intuition and good judgment. Trust them, as they were likely the traits that helped you to get to where you are today. Once you have encountered something new or unexpected, make a note of how you attacked the issue and overcame the challenge at hand. This information would likely serve to be an invaluable asset to future leaders in this position. There is no need to reinvent the wheel.2 This manual provides a general overview into some of the expected duties and key responsibilities for you in your new position, but should in no way be considered complete. Some important responsibilities have been omitted – either in an effort to focus on more significant topics or as a result of sheer absent-mindedness of the author. Regardless, a great deal of time was spent in the construction of this manual, and the hope is that it would not become obsolete as the years progressed. Instead, this document should learn and grow with the organization. This book should record detailed accounts of the successes and non-successes, and provide vital insights to future generations of student leaders. Good luck in your new position, and I hope that this book helps you to accomplish the great things you desire. Go Bulls!
Nathan Davison Senate President, 48th Term Original Author
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Building an Unrivaled Legacy of Leadership USF Honors Thesis SENATE PRESIDENT â€“ AT A GLANCE The Senate President (also commonly referred to as the Chair) is responsible for the leadership and management of the Senate. As the President of the Legislative branch, you will set the agenda for all meetings, manage the office and payroll of all remunerated members, and represent the Senate before the university administration and outside bodies. Furthermore, you are charged with the responsibility of setting the vision and strategy for the branch as a whole. To be effective in this position, you must learn to effectively delegate projects and tasks to other members of SenEx, as well as being willing to appoint others to take charge. This position is looked to for guidance, support and motivation. It is important that you carry yourself with respect and professionalism, and set a positive example. Be mindful of your actions and the consequences of those actions. In the coming pages, we will explore the Constitutional, Statutory, and Procedural obligations and responsibilities of your new position.
WHAT THE CONSTITUTION SAYS ABOUT THE SENATE PRESIDENT The Student Body Constitution, which must be approved by a majority vote of the student body, dictates that the Senate shall elect a Senate President at the beginning of each legislative term, and that this member shall be the highest elected official in the Senate3. Furthermore, the President of the Senate is constitutionally granted the authority to assume the office of the Student Body President in the event that both the Student Body President and Vice-President are unable to perform the duties of the office4. This order of succession helps to illustrate the importance of the position that you are taking on. There will likely be occasions that you will asked to sit on a committee or attend meetings on behalf of the Student Body President or Vice-President, and therefore it is imperative that you work closely and communicate with members of the Executive Branch regularly.
WHAT THE STATUTES SAY ABOUT THE SENATE PRESIDENT The Student Government Statutes, which are voted on the Senate and then approved by the Student Body President, also declare specific duties and responsibilities for Senate President. You are statutorily granted duties in this new position, which include representing the Senate before the university administration, preparing the agenda for all Senate meetings, and overseeing the day-to-day operations of the Senate. Additionally, the Senate President serves as a voting member for many of the screening committees through Student Government Administrative Services, such as those for the Comptrollers and Accountants. In addition to the those regular sessions of the Senate scheduled by the chair, the Senate President is also granted authority to call special sessions of the Senate when deemed necessary, provided notification is given to the Senate forty-eight hours before the start of the Special Session. Transition Manuals
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Building an Unrivaled Legacy of Leadership USF Honors Thesis These special sessions are often used to address unforeseen or time sensitive matters, such as the resignation of a chair or an allocation for an upcoming event. Finally, The SG Statutes allow the Senate President to appoint any positions deemed necessary or appropriate to sufficiently represent the best interest of the student body. Examples of this might include appointing Senators to a select committee to research a new project proposal, or perhaps appointing a historian to document the semester events. The Senate President may also either serve on the Activity and Service Recommendation Committee or appoint a designee. These appointments are not remunerated, except for those outlined in other Titles of the SG Statutes.5
WHAT THE RULES OF PROCEDURE SAY ABOUT THE SENATE PRESIDENT
The Senate Rules of Procedure, which requires a supermajority approval by the Senate, provides the Senate President with more specific directions to those powers and responsibilities outlined in the other legislative documents. In this document, the Senate President is charged with the responsibility of overseeing all departmental paperwork, preparing and submitting a yearly budget for the Senate, and signing all appropriate legislation. The Senate Rules of Procedure also explains items that will be discussed later in this manual, such as Gavel Procedures and timelines for submitting various documents (Agendas, Minutes, etc.). The ROP also calls for a vote of confidence at the beginning of each academic semester for the Senate President. During this vote, both the Senate President and Pro Tempore must explain their progress from the previous semester, as well as state their goals for the next.6
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Building an Unrivaled Legacy of Leadership USF Honors Thesis FIRST THINGS FIRST – BEFORE YOU TAKE THE PODIUM Congratulations, you have just been elected as the new Senate President... now what? You are probably filled with excitement and enthusiasm for your new position, but I imagine that there is also a little voice in the back of your mind that is absolutely freaking out: “Who do I need to be talking with? What should be my next move? What should I be doing, and how should I be doing it? How am I going to accomplish A, B, C, D, and E? When would be the best time to schedule a meeting with that administrator? Who are the best people to know?” What have I gotten myself into? Don’t worry, it’s natural. The truth is that the hardest question is usually as simple as, “Where should I start?” This next section is going to offer some insight about how to get a better understanding of where to begin to create that game plan for the next term. In this section, we will talk about who you should be meeting with, how to take care of all of that administrative housekeeping, and how to get ready for an incredible next year.
MEETING WITH THE NECESSARY PARTIES As you begin to transition into this new position, you are going to quickly realize that you won’t be able to do it alone. There are all sorts of different people that you should be meeting with that will help you to get acclimated into the role of Senate President. You will need to meet with your predecessor, the outgoing and incoming Senate Executive Committees, and various administrators around campus. All of these groups can offer great information to help you create a winning administration.
M EET WITH THE P REVIOUS C HAIR One of the best ways to start preparing yourself for the next year is to talk with someone who has already been through the same things that you are about to face – the outgoing Senate President. This individual will help you to grasp exactly what your duties and responsibilities will be. One of the first things that you should do with this person is to go over this manual. After you have read this book independently, take notes and jot down any questions you might have about the content. Schedule a time that you can sit down with the outgoing chair to discuss what you have learned, and ask for clarifications and elaborations when appropriate.
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Building an Unrivaled Legacy of Leadership USF Honors Thesis Meeting with the previous chair is also a great way to answer philosophical questions you might have about your new position, such as what would be the best way to plan a retreat or reaching out to students. The previous chair will likely not have all the answers, but could probably offer a strong prospective about what worked during his or her administration. Chances are that you won’t be able to cover everything during your discussions; there are just too many possible questions and scenarios that might arise. With that in mind, make sure that you also exchange your contact information with one another. This way when something does come up, advice is only a phone call away.
M EETING WITH THE O UTGOING S EN E X M EMBERS As the new Senate President, find a time that all the new Senate leaders can meet collectively with the outgoing Senate leaders. It is recommended that this meeting be in somewhat of an informal setting, such as at a restaurant or other venue. This will allow everyone to be more personable, which will build rapport and make everyone feel more comfortable with one another. This fun working environment is an important element to building community and successfully working as a team.7 There are a few objectives with this meeting. You and the other members will be able to discuss interests, reasons for getting involved with Student Government, and things of the like. This also helps to create rapport amongst the members, which will once again lead to a more productive working environment. Additionally, this is a great time for the previous SenEx to reflect with the new leaders about initiatives and projects that worked and those that didn’t work. Hearing this early on will help the next administration to understand the potential of the organization, as well as some of the challenges that you all might face. This information will be beneficial as you start to set the plans in place for your term.
M EETING O NE - ON -O NE WITH EACH NEW C HAIR Once you have met with the outgoing Senate President and the previous SenEx, begin to schedule meetings with each of the new chairs. These meetings are essential for a variety of reasons. First, the other chairs are going to be your core team in the Senate this next year – it will be because of these individuals that accomplishments will occur and victories will be achieved – and it is important that you get to know who they are. Secondly, you need to illustrate now the importance of having a strong line of communication both up AND down the chain of command. By scheduling meetings with them early on, you are being proactive about this concept and showing them that you want to talk with them. It will be easier for them to come to you later when they need something from you. The third key reason for this meeting is that the chairs are going to look to their President (that’s you) for advice and guidance throughout the year... but only if they feel that you care and are going to be there for them. This helps them to know what that you are genuinely interested in their needs and Transition Manuals
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Building an Unrivaled Legacy of Leadership USF Honors Thesis that you want to be there when they need you. Author Anne Bruce identifies authenticity and genuineness as one of the five keys to creating high-spirited morale boosters in the workplace.8 Additionally, you should use this meeting time to discuss plans that the Senator has for his or her committee. Ask them about their vision for the committee, and what sort of project ideas they want to accomplish with their committee. Find out about any timelines that they are working with and encourage them to set specific deadlines for milestones. Finally, discuss expectations with each of the new chairs. Find out what sort of specific expectations they have for the organization this next year, and how they believe they can help to reach those expectations. Also, determine what expectations they have for their committee members and the committee as a whole. Additionally, have them detail their expectations for you as the Senate President. Asking those you will be leading what they demand from a leader is one of the single most effective ways to serve in your position, because you will learn quickly what is expected of you to be considered a success. Some Important Things to Consider Below are a few things to consider with your one-on-one meetings with the chairs. Many of these considerations can (and should) also be applied with other meetings you might have. Most are simple techniques that have proven beneficial through personal experiences. ¾ Before you meet with the chairs of each of the committees, make sure that you take the time to understand the purpose of that committee. Much of this information can be gathered from the Senate Rules of Procedure, the transition manual for that committee, and by speaking with the outgoing chair of that committee. Make sure that you feel comfortable with the fundamentals of the committee, so that the conversation can be more focused on outcomes than structures. ¾ Schedule your meeting in a quiet place without distractions or interruptions. Refrain from answering phone calls, text messaging or using a computer during the meeting. Even if you are listening, if gives the impression that you have better things to be doing. During all of your meetings, you want people to feel as though the most important thing in your life at that time is the conversation you are currently in. ¾ Come to these meetings (along with any other meetings you might have) with a notepad and a. This way you will be able to write key points that were discussed, follow-ups (like unanswered questions and new tasks), and other notes at the time they are brought up. This also is useful when you need to reflect on that meeting at a later point and time. Don’t rely on your memory to remind yourself of the conversation; you will forget most of the key ideas. ¾ LET THEM DO MOST OF THE TALKING! People don’t like to go to meetings and be lectured. You will learn a lot more about the individual, the challenges they face, and will likely be a Transition Manuals
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Building an Unrivaled Legacy of Leadership USF Honors Thesis lot more helpful to them in the long run if you ask intelligent questions and let them respond. Often times, this Socratic method of directed questions and limited lecturing actually help the chair to recognize deeper answers for their problems. 9 ¾ Send each chair a personalized e-mail thanking them for their time after your meeting. This simple gesture takes only a few minutes of your time and makes a huge impression on the individual. Try to send this e-mail no later than two days after the meeting. You should also include a brief synopsis of some of the key points that were discussed as well as the responses to questions that you said you would look into. At the end of every e-mail, encourage them to contact you if they needed anything in the future.
M EETING C OLLECTIVELY WITH THE I NCOMING S EN E X M EMBERS Once you have met with each individual member, it is time to work with the Pro Tempore to bring together all of the members of the Senate Executive Committee. Now that you have each of the chairs thinking about what is necessary to have an effective committee, the brainstorming needs to begin as to the direction needed for an effective Senate. Have each member come together to discuss their committee plans, and allow members to provide constructive feedback for some of the ideas and initiatives. The early SenEx meetings should begin to develop the vision for organization. This should be something that the entire group has input on and provides a mental picture of what you want to create for the future. Don’t confuse the vision with a plan, though. A plan provides direction to reach some sort of destination, and should only be created after a clear vision has been developed. Creating a Vision To create a strong vision for your term as Senate President, it is important to understand the basic components that go into a successful vision. The Leadershape Institute, a not-for-profit organization committed to developing young adults to lead with integrity, identifies five key dynamics necessary for any powerful vision10: ¾ It must be vivid. This means that there must be a clear and powerful concept associated with the idea. You need to be able to have a picture of the desired outcomes that can be imagined and described to others. ¾ It must be challenging. The vision needs to be something that you and the other SenEx members can strive to obtain. A good vision takes hard work to obtain, but is worth every moment necessary. If the vision is something you can obtain too easily, you probably won’t be making an impact to the level that you probably could. Create a vision that takes risks! ¾ It must be service directed. Each member of SenEx should assist in creating a vision that focuses on more than just themselves; the most powerful visions are bigger than those who Transition Manuals
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Building an Unrivaled Legacy of Leadership USF Honors Thesis create them. Ask yourselves who can be influenced with this vision, and then shoot to make that vision a reality for those people you imagined would benefit. ¾ It must be expandable. Think about a vision that doesn’t end with a specific project, such as how to improve student life at the university. You might see things now that will accomplish that objective, but more things can always be created. You want to set a vision that can be elaborated upon year after year. Don’t be satisfied with a single outcome, desire more. ¾ It must be compelling. A vision could be everything listed above, but if it is not compelling, then it is not a strong vision. You need to collectively create a vision which others will both understand and appreciate. Your vision should be exciting and motivating, because it will be used as the fuel to take you there. A vision should be directed by your passion, and that passion should be able to transcend to others.
O THER I MPORTANT R ELATIONSHIPS T O D EVELOP Here is a list of some of the other relevant individuals and offices to meet with as you prepare yourself for this new position. Check with the outgoing Senate President for recommendations about other individuals that if is important to develop a relationship with. Internal Student Government Contacts • Student Body President
Dr. Kevin Banks, Dean for Students & Assistant Vice-President of SA
Student Body Vice-President
Executive Cabinet Members, both outgoing and incoming
Ms. Regina Young-Hyatt, Director Center for Student Involvement
Agency Directors for WBUL, SRA, SGCS, and SAFE TEAM
Mr. Nick Whitesell, Assistant Director Center for Student Involvement
SG Administrative Services (SGAS) Staff, both students and professionals
Ms. Amy Simon, Director Civic Engagement & Volunteerism
Director of Student Government Training, Operations, and Advising
Ms. Jennifer Espinola, Director Student Leadership Development
University / Administration Contacts • Mr. Joseph Synovec, Director Marshall Student Center
Ms. Cindy Greenwood, Director Office of Student Programs
Ms. Keri Riegler, Director Office of New Student Connections
Dr. Jennifer Meningall, Vice-President Division of Student Affairs
Ms. Marnie Hauser, Director Office of Orientation
Dr. Tracy Tyree, Assoc. Vice-President Division of Student Affairs
Dr. Samuel Wright, Director, Office of Multicultural Affairs
• • •
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Building an Unrivaled Legacy of Leadership USF Honors Thesis •
Ms. Barbara Davis, Event and Meeting Services
Editor-in-Chief and News Editors USF Oracle
MAKE ALL NECESSARY ROOM RESERVATIONS It is important that you work with USF Event and Meeting Services as soon as possible to make the necessary reservations for your term. You will need to know the proper dates, times, and locations of all Senate meetings. Furthermore, you will need to assist chairs in processing the reservations for their committee meetings. Here are a few things to remember when making reservations. First, you cannot schedule Senate meetings during the first or last week of any semester. Additionally, you cannot schedule Senate meetings during University Exam Weeks (Including Summer A, B, AND C). You will also want to take into consideration university events that might affect the attendance of Senators. This includes Homecoming week, large University Lecture Series events, the Student Body Elections and university vacations, as well as other events that you believe Senators should consider participating in. In order to ensure maximum participation during the summer months, you should schedule meetings as soon as possible (preferably before the end of the fall), and provide ample notice to Senators so arrangements can be made. Try to give each Senator a calendar of events that depicts all of the expected dates and times that the members are needed. List the Senate meetings, committee meetings, orientation involvements, and other events occurring during the summer. See USF Event and Meeting Services for more information: http://ctr.usf.edu/Reservations/
SETTING UP & MAINTAINING THE SENATE LISTSERV The Senate Listserv is the primary form of communication for the Legislative Branch. It is an electronic mailing system that members are subscribed to, and is used for the purposes of distributing agendas, minutes, updates and other important information. Although it is primarily maintained and operated by the Senate President Pro Tempore, it is important that the Senate President also understand the basic functions.
L OGGING IN TO THE LISTSERV To login to the Senate Listserv, find “SG_Senate” in the public mailing lists directory at the mailman.acomp.usf.edu website. Alternatively, you can type the following URL in the address bar at the top of your internet browser: http://mailman.acomp.usf.edu/mailman/admin/sg_senate Transition Manuals Senate President
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Building an Unrivaled Legacy of Leadership USF Honors Thesis At this page, you will be asked to enter you “List Administrator Password” (See Appendix: Figure 1). You will need to get this password from the outgoing Senate President or Pro Tempore.
U PDATING U SERS At the beginning of each term, the user list must be updated to ensure that the proper individuals are being communicated with. There are two components to updating the user list on the Senate Listserv: Removing old users and adding new users. To Remove Old Users At the beginning of each term, individuals who are no longer needed on the listserv must be removed. Before clearing the listserv, though, the Pro Tempore should send a housekeeping e-mail to all of the list subscribers notifying them that the mailing list is being updated. In this e-mail, it should instruct anyone who wants to remain subscribed to notify the Pro Tempore before a deadline set in that e-mail. After the e-mail has been sent and the deadline has passed, the Pro Tempore will remove any user that has not requested to remain subscribed. Here is the process for removing members: 1. Login to the mailing list (using the directions provided prior) 2. Click “Membership Management...” on the left-hand side of the menu at the top of the screen (See Appendix: Figure2). 3. The Administrator can either use the “Mass Removal” option or the individual removal option, which is located under “Membership List”. a. For the “Mass Removal” Option, enter in each of the e-mail addresses being removed. Be sure to only type one address per line. Click to submit your changes once you have completed your list of individuals being removed. NOTE: Mass Removal can only be used if all of the e-mail addresses wished to be removed are known and listed. If is uncertain which e-mail address are being removed, the administrator should use the individual removal option. See 3b.
b. For the individual removal option, click “Membership List”, then click the first letter of the e-mail addresses you want to clear (Located just below the “find member” search). Check the “unsub” box on the far left of each name you wish to unsubscribe (See Appendix: Figure 3). Be sure to click “Submit Your Changes” before you advance to the next letter. Continue repeating this step until all desired names have been removed. Now you are ready to subscribe new users to the Senate Mailing List To Add New Users Transition Manuals
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Building an Unrivaled Legacy of Leadership USF Honors Thesis Once all of the desired users have been successfully removed, the next step is to add new users to the list. Here is the process for adding members: 1. Login to the mailing list (If you are both removing and adding during the same timeframe, it is not necessary to login again.) 2. Click “Membership Management...” on the left-hand side of the menu at the top of the screen. 3. Click the “Mass Subscription” option. 4. Choose whether you want to “subscribe” or “invite” the individuals to the mailing list. Subscription automatically registers the user to the mailing list, while invitations are intended to give the user the option of registering. 5. Select whether you want to send a welcome message to new subscribers. a. If you select “yes”, you may either send the default welcome message for the listserv, or you may enter in a personalized welcome statement in the second box. If you decided to enter additional text, include at least one blank line at the end of your message. 6. In the top box, enter in each of the e-mail addresses being added. Be sure to only type one address per line. Click “Submit Your Changes” once you have completed your list of individuals being added. 7. Once you click submit, the page should reload with the list of e-mail addresses that were successfully subscribed (See Appendix: Figure 4). 8. Label each e-mail address with the proper name by clicking the first letter of the address under the “Membership list” tab. Submit changes after each page of e-mails has been labeled. Now all of the new members have been added. You may repeat this process anytime someone wishes to be added to the Senate mailing list.
S ENDING E- MAIL OVER THE L ISTSERV You can send e-mail over the Student Senate listserv by sending it to the following address: email@example.com. If you do not send the e-mail from an account subscribed to the mailing list, you must wait for an administrator to approve the message.
A PPROVING E- MAIL S ENT OVER THE L ISTSERV
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Building an Unrivaled Legacy of Leadership USF Honors Thesis Any mail that is sent by an account that either does not have sufficient permissions to communicate through the listserv or is not a subscribed user must receive approval from an administrator. Both the Senate President and the Pro Tempore are assigned as Administrators for the mailing list. Here is the process to approve pending e-mail: 1. Login to the mailing list 2. Click “Tend to pending moderator requests” on the right-hand side of the menu at the top of the screen. 3. Review each pending message and determine whether to approve it being sent over the listserv. a. Mark “Accept” for any message that you wish to send across the Senate Mailing list. b. Mark “Defer”, “Disregard”, or “Reject” for any message that is unsolicited or inappropriate. c. You can also check the box that reads “discard all messages marked defer” to delete any messages not accepted. 4. Click “Submit All Data” to finalize your decision. NOTE: Be careful not to accidently discard a message you meant to approve, or accept a message you meant to discard. Both actions are final and cannot be reversed.
It is recommended that you check the pending folder at least once a day to ensure that information is effectively communicated to your subscribers.
O THER L ISTSERV C ONSIDERATIONS The listserv is open to anyone who wishes to subscribe, but you do have the ability to moderate the discussion. Only those members that are given the appropriate permissions may submit notifications across the mailing list. All members subscribed have are given by default the ability to communicate over the listserv, but both the Senate President and Pro Tempore are capable of adjusting the permission levels for different individuals. To learn more about the different permission levels that can be granted to each member, check out the mailing list legend – located on the Membership List page.
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Building an Unrivaled Legacy of Leadership USF Honors Thesis SENATE MEETINGS As the new Senate President, you will be responsible for planning the weekly sessions of the Senate. The Senate meetings are typically frequented by concerned students, administrators and many other interested parties. The following sections will help you to become more familiar with the responsibilities and roles that you will have before, during, and after the weekly meetings.
CREATING WEEKLY AGENDAS In order to run an effective meeting, it is important that you have created a well-thought-out agenda that includes all of the necessary components of the productive meeting. There are many things that you will need to take into consideration before you take the podium. The more planning that you put into preparing the agenda, the more smoothly the meeting will typically run. A strong agenda should include a healthy balance of presentations, reports, and items being brought forth for debate and approval. Let’s explore in detail some of the elements that go into creating a superior agenda.
I NCLUDING G UEST S PEAKERS Adding short presentations by guest speakers to the agenda is a great way to create more stimulating meetings for both Senators and members of the gallery. This is also one of the best ways to inform the Senators about the current events and initiatives occurring throughout the university. Other presenters might request to get feedback from the Senate about new projects being considered for the university (some might also want to lobby the Senate to consider funding the initiative). You might also decide to invite a guest speaker or two that will offer advice to improve a Senator’s ability in his or her position, such as asking a State Senator or Representative to discuss ways to effectively communicate with constituents. Tips on Selecting Guest Speakers Here are a few ways that are recommended when recruiting guest speakers for the weekly Senate Meetings. These are some of the tactics that have served to be useful of the years. Please record any other methods that might work for you, so that others will be able to benefit in the future. 1. Contact the leaders of A&S funded offices and departments – Inviting the directors and senior administrators of the offices funded through Student Government often serves to be a benefit for both parties. The members of Student Government have the opportunity to become more familiar with the operations, responsibilities, and upcoming projects within that department. Additionally, the Senate can provide relevant student feedback and disseminate information Transition Manuals Senate President Davison Page 62: 14 of 19
Building an Unrivaled Legacy of Leadership USF Honors Thesis back to the office, which will often result incite positive changes at the departmental level. These presentations will also help members to more intelligently allocate funds each year, which could result in an increase to departments that very clearly explain their purposes and direct impacts to the student body. The USF Recreation Center, the Marshall Student Center, the Center for Student Involvement, Veteran’s Services, Multicultural Affairs, and CAB are all A&S funded offices. If you need help identifying other departments that are funded through activity and service fees, you can submit a request to Student Government Administrative Services for a printout of the annual allocations for that fiscal year. 2. Work with the Vice-Presidents and Associate Vice-Presidents – Through the university administration, you will discover that there are all sorts of individuals that would provide a perfect complement to the activities of the Senate. By inviting administrators from the division of Student Affairs as well as the members of Academic Affairs, you will be able to develop a stronger working relationship with almost all of the movers and shakers at this institution. Just about everything that is implemented at USF must first have the support by someone in one of these two departments, and therefore it is quite beneficial to learn from them and have the opportunity to have the Senate communicate ideas and feedback. 3. Encourage Senators to make recommendations about personal contacts – Another great way to find influential speakers to come before the Senate is to ask the members to refer people they might know, such as a teacher or employer. Each year, there are some members of the Senate that hold positions or internships with prominent figures in the community, such as State Representatives, lobbyists, and county workers. Other members might have been particularly moved or inspired by certain teachers or staff. Using the existing contacts that are developed through these members will often prove to be a very successful measure of finding guest speakers. During the meeting, consider allowing the Senator to provide a quick introduction for the speaker. The Senator can also set the stage for the presentation by discussing the reasons for asking the individual to speak. 4. Ask administrators to refer other administrators – As the Senate President, you will develop regular meeting schedules with many of the administrators throughout campus. During these conversations, bring up your desire to find more diverse guest speakers that will help to inform the Senate about what is happening at the university. Ask your administrator friends to make recommendations about some suitable candidates to come present. 5. Consider inviting conference presenters to come speak – Most of the Student Government conferences (Florida Student Association, American Student Government Association, etc.) have keynote speakers that present during the conference. Some of these members include officials for the State Board of Governors, individuals within the state and national legislature, and venders promoting products or services specifically developed with college students in mind. Most speakers present to these conferences to help advocate for or on the behalf of different Transition Manuals
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Building an Unrivaled Legacy of Leadership USF Honors Thesis causes relevant to universities, and many will be willing to come to your university to speak. This is also a great way to introduce a new product or service to the Senate for future consideration. 6. Work with the teachers throughout the university – Many of the professors at USF have been invited to teach at the university because of their exceptional performance in their field of study. [Comment about the quality of educators by the USF Provost].11 Most educators have established themselves as experts in their industry, and have been brought to the institution to share that knowledge with students and administrators. Many teachers are willing to share the discoveries that have been found in their research with the Student Senate, and will often want to work with this body when attempting to implement proposed changes to the university. 7. Meet guest speaker prospects during networking events – Whether it is a university career fair or an event being put on by a student organization, there is never a shortage of opportunities to meet new and influential people. When you attend these events, introduce yourself to people and talk to them about their responsibilities. At the end of these conversations, let them know that you are always looking for new people to present before the Student Senate and encourage them to consider the opportunity. Exchange business cards with one another, and send an email following up about the opportunity. You’d be surprised about the sort of people that you meet just attending the different campus events. 8. Identify potential guest speakers with local publications – Now that you are a student leader, it is important that you remained connected with the current events that surround your university. Pay close attention to the news publications offered throughout campus, and seek out information about the new projects underway. When you learn about an individual or team of individuals that are either proposing an initiative or actively working to implement something, consider inviting them to propose their work to the Senate. This gets more student involvement with the project, and tends to provide a different prospective. The USF Oracle, the USF Magazine, the Tampa Tribune, and St. Petersburg Times are just a few of the publications that you should actively follow. You should also stay up-to-date with the press releases published from different departments around campus, such as those from USF Athletics, the Alumni Association, and University Relations. Understanding the current priorities throughout campus will both help you to be a better leader to the organizations and find more suitable individuals to present to the Senate. Once you have found guest speakers that will provide a valuable addition to the Senate, add them to your calendar for the week you have committed them. The next step is to make the necessary preparations for that speaker. Preparations for Guest Speaker Transition Manuals
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Building an Unrivaled Legacy of Leadership USF Honors Thesis Now that you have selected your guest speaker, there are a few things that you need to remember to do to effectively prepare for their appearance at the Senate. First you will need to remind the speaker of their commitment to present. This typically includes sending an e-mail reminder between 3-7 days prior of the engagement. This letter should thank the speaker for his or her willingness to participate, as well as give the proper date, time, location and any other special instructions that will be needed. It is also important that you take the time to confirm that you have the proper name of the speaker, spelled accurately, and ensure that you have the appropriate title of the individual. Furthermore, you will need to determine the length of presentation. It is often appropriate to provide the guest speaker with a maximum amount of allotted time to present (for example, notifying the speaker that they will have up to 25 minutes to present and entertain any questions from the senate). Finally, determine if the speaker will require any special equipment that is necessary for the presentation (projectors, flipcharts, TVs, etc.). Make sure to conclude your e-mail by asking for a confirmation that acknowledges that everything is correct and in order.
G ATHERING C ONTENT AND S ETTING D EADLINES One of your responsibilities as the Senate President is to recognize anything that might need to be discussed on the Senate floor during a particular week. Therefore, it is important that you develop a regular line of communication with all of those individuals that might contribute content to the weekly Senate meetings. This will help you to create a more comprehensive agenda, as well as to effectively manage and prioritize the time spent on issues and initiatives each week. If you are proactive and take the necessary preparations before the meeting, you will never need to be surprised about the content, which will allow you to maintain more order and decorum during the meetings. Here are some of the entities that you should be communicating with to gather content each week: Committee Chairs It is important that you communicate with the Senate Committee chairs to determine what items should be on the agenda during any particular week. This might include any bills or resolutions that have been created by the committee, formal presentations from committee members, and reports offered by the chair. Consider having each chair identify anything they would like to be added to the agenda during the SenEx meetings. You might also want to consider designating a specific deadline each week (such as by 5pm, four days prior to the next Senate meeting) for chairs to submit any new content. Consider setting a similar deadline for each of the other entities as well. The Other Branches (Executive and Judicial)
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Building an Unrivaled Legacy of Leadership USF Honors Thesis The Senate acts as a check for the other branches, and therefore needs to be informed about the actions of both the Executive and Judicial Branches. The Executive Branch in Student Government works closely with the Senate to accomplish many of their week to week obligations. You will need to identify any cabinet members, directors, and court nominees that will be coming up for confirmation during a particular week and request digital copies of their resumes in proper form (i.e., personal information, such as contact information and GPAs, is blocked out). Also, determine any allocation and transfer requests that will be coming from the branch. Resolutions and reports, when appropriate, should also be submitted to the Senate President in a timely manner before the meeting. You should also identify any material that will be provided by the Student Supreme Court. This includes rulings and opinions offered from any court case, as well as any reports from the branch. There are many different individuals within each branch that might wish to offer content for the weekly agendas, and it is often simply too cumbersome to attempt to follow-up with all of them on a weekly basis. For this reason, it is advisable that you streamline the requests through one or two liaisons in each branch – perhaps the Student Body President or Chief-of-Staff in the Executive branch and the Chief Justice or Judicial Clerk for the Court. Regardless of who will handle the requests, this individual should actively communicate with the rest of their branch to determine any items that should come before the Senate. As stated previously, it is strongly encouraged that you designate a specific deadline for the submission of any content that is wished to be considered during a particular week. Once again, this will help to alleviate the need to scramble at the last moment to modify the agenda. Other entities There is an occasional need to gather content for the agenda from other groups at the university. Consider implementing a similar line of communication with the Dean for Students, the SG agency directors, and other entities – such as with the ERC, SGAS, and the Office of Marketing & Public Affairs. Knowing what is going to be introduced before the meeting will help you to effectively plan each meeting and balance the time needed during any given week. Remember: in order to effectively plan the weekly meetings, you should create clear guidelines and expectations for submitting content. Publicize these submission guidelines to each of your contributing parties, and do what you can to stick to them. This means that sometimes you might have to tell people that have late submissions that you will not be able to entertain their content that week. It is also important, though, to be flexible. There are always going to be some occasions that unexpected content comes up that is time-sensitive by its nature. Use your best judgment and be transparent throughout the process. If you say “no” to one request, but “yes” to the next, be prepared to defend your decision. Keeping this in mind will help to govern your actions to be fair and respectable. Set a reasonable deadline that allows everything to be effectively processed. • Ex. Friday prior to the next Senate meeting Transition Manuals
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Building an Unrivaled Legacy of Leadership USF Honors Thesis To the new Director of the Department of Marketing & Public Affairs:
Congratulations on your recent appointment as the leader of one of the most influential elements of Student Government. The department of Marketing & Public Affairs has an important function in the overall success of Student Government. This department was designed to ensure that SG effectively communicated with the student body. As the director for Student Governmentâ€™s marketing arm of the organization, you must actively work with the other student leaders in each of the branches, agencies, and other SG entities to ensure that their voice is heard. As you read this transition manual, it is important to remember to be proactive! The success of this organization is greatly influenced by a strong marketing department. With that in mind, you are challenged to continually find new and innovative ways to improve this department. You are urged to work with the student leaders to create a comprehensive list of events, activities, and projects hosted by Student Government and identify methods of making these successful. This will help to create an activities framework that can be used to guide your department this next year. Even if the exact dates might not be finalized, if you are able to create a general calendar of different campaigns that will be need, you will be able to begin to plan your resources accordingly. This will also allow you to follow up with the individuals planning the events as you get closer to that period of time. This transition guide will not give you all the answers, but it should help to provide a clear direction to help you develop into your position over this next year. Throughout the challenges and obstacles you face, perhaps the most important advice that you can receive is to simply have fun with this position. This opportunity is promised to develop you as a leader, and you will gain relevant life experiences that can be transferred to any area of expertise. Donâ€™t let yourself get bogged down by the little things (or the big things) that will come your way. Take if from someone that has far too much gray hair at an early age: there is nothing that you will encounter that you cannot get past, just as long as you take the time to think creatively and optimistically about the situation. Congratulations once again on your new position as the director of marketing for USF Student Government. I wish you the absolute best during this next year and am eager to see how you will shape and nourish this department into something even more incredible than it has already been.
All the best
Nathan Davison Director, Marketing & Public Affairs 2008 â€“ 2009, 49th Term Transition Manuals
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Building an Unrivaled Legacy of Leadership USF Honors Thesis Meeting with Student Leaders As the newly appointed director, you will quickly realize that everyone in SG can benefit from developing a relationship with your department. By facilitating meetings with the different student leaders in the organization, you will be able to exponentially increase your productivity and develop an important infrastructure that will carry you through your time as director. Your goal as the new director should be to meet with every potential stakeholder that you will be working with over this next year. This will allow you to introduce yourself as the new department leader, as well as help them to realize the resources that are available to them through your department. Additionally, you will be able to work with each of them proactively throughout their planning and implementation processes of their initiatives. Some keys to remember: Listen First â€“ Rather than trying to tell these stakeholders what you can offer them right out of the stall, take the time to determine the specific needs that might be relevant to their projects. Ask open-ended questions Make yourself available â€“ it is amazing how much more productive your department can be if you are easy to get a hold of by other members of the organization.
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Building an Unrivaled Legacy of Leadership USF Honors Thesis Planning for this next year As you begin in the year as the Director of Marketing & Public Affairs, it is important that you clearly understand your purpose and goals as the leader of this department. What do you want your department to accomplish on behalf of the organization during this next year? What do you hope the members of your staff will gain through their experiences? What do personally hope to gain from your involvement in this position? These are all important considerations when taking on this (or any) new responsibility. A proverb to consider: “If you do not know where it is you are going, It matters not to whom you ask for directions, nor the roads that you shall take, nor the items you shall bring; for all paths shall lead you to the same destination: wandering, wanting, and longing for more.” Because it is the hope of this former director that you are able to move forward with confidence and vigor in this new position, you first must know where you want this organization to be when you shall pass the torch onto the next. You also need to know what resources are currently available that can contribute to the success of the organization, and identify potential new ones that may also help. Here are a few things to consider that might help you to find your way. Goals and vision exercises One of the most powerful tools that can help your team to formulate a strong direction for the next year is your own imagination. As simple as it might sound, you can create a very powerful agenda just by visualizing the end of your term as director and going backwards. The mind cannot fathom things that are not at least conceivably possible. Even the most complicated and intricate ideas are dissected by the mind to develop a comprehensive picture. The more you think about something, the more impossible ideas are thrown out, and what you are left with is something that you could actually construct. For example, try to picture a four-sided triangle: No matter how hard you try, it just isn’t going to happen, and your mind quickly starts to race to figure out other ways to accomplish similar things. This exercise will help: 1. Take a blank sheet of paper and write one big thing that you to want to accomplish in the top center of the page. Circle this word. 2. Below the accomplishment, write a sentence as to the specific reason that you selected this goal, using as much detail as you can. 3. Skip down to the bottom of the page now, and write a sentence on the bottom of the page that describes in detail the accomplishment you have circled, except write it in such a way that all of your rhetoric is past tense. Transition Manuals
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Building an Unrivaled Legacy of Leadership USF Honors Thesis
5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
a. DO NOT use words like “I want to accomplish…” or “It would be nice if…”, for the purpose of this exercise, write as if it has already happened and you are very proud of this accomplishment. “I did this…” While you are continuing to visualize this accomplishment, write another sentence just the sentence you just wrote about all of the people you “worked with” to realize this goal. Start listing names and positions of people “who helped you” and “how they helped you” along the way. Again, only think as if it has already happened. Just above that line, do the same thing again with resources that you “used” to accomplish this goal. Repeat the exercise again with the “obstacles that you overcame”, describing in detail all of the elements “roadblocks that you cleared” and how you “cleared them”. Remember to continue to talk about this as though it has already happened, and do not break that mindset during this exercise. Once you have completed this exercise, take a highlighter and circle any person, place, thing, or idea that has helped you to accomplish this goal. Congratulations, you have just created a basic roadmap to accomplish that big goal that you had for this next year! You now know, what resources you will need, who you will need help from, what obstacles will likely stand between SG and this accomplishment, and a greater appreciation for what the end product will look like. Now, it is just about going out and doing exactly what you have already mentally done.
Consider repeating this exercise with your entire staff. Have each member choose one initiative that they want to accomplish, and then have them use the steps above to create a roadmap to get there. This can develop into a fun ice-breaker, as well. Have each person create a graphic or press release that embodies that spirit of this accomplishment, and have them present it to the rest of the staff. As they discuss their vision, buzz anytime they break away from the past tense rhetoric. Help them to understand the importance of submerging themselves in the concept that it has already been done: this will prove to be widely beneficial when it actually comes time to do these initiatives. It’s scary how successful it proves to be, if everyone takes it seriously and dedicates fully to the exercise.
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Building an Unrivaled Legacy of Leadership USF Honors Thesis Department meetings Department Staff Meetings / MPA Family Meetings The director should schedule a weekly staff meeting for the entire department to provide a venue for all members of MPA to be effectively engage with one another and be aware of everything that the department is currently affiliated with. It is recommended that an hour block be scheduled each week at the end of each week (preferably on Friday), and the SG Conference room has proven to be an appropriate location to hold these meetings. This room can be reserved through the Office Manager in Student Government, Ms. Judy Pollock. All of the following should be expected to attend the meeting each week: • • • • • •
The director The assistant director All MPA coordinators & graphic designers Any fulltime assistant coordinators that are helping in the office All CAP Squad Coordinators A member of the Executive Branch (optional, but encouraged)
To ensure that these meetings flow smoothly from week to week, each of the members listed above should submit a report electronically to the director the night before the meetings occur, to allow the director to create a printed agenda packet for the meeting. These reports should provide the following four sections: • •
What are the current projects and initiatives that are being taken on by the individual? o This section should outline all of the items currently on the plate of the staff member What progress has been made during the previous week toward these current projects and initiatives? o Meetings, specific milestones achieved, important information that has been gathered, etc. What are the specific goals & objectives that the individual hopes to accomplish during the next week? o The expectation is that these items should then be reflected in the progress made section for the following week. Any other comments, questions, or concerns for the department o Recognition of the good work by other members of the department, reminder of important upcoming dates (either professional or personal – i.e., events or birthdays), etc.
After each of the reports is presented by its respective staff member(s) in a round robin fashion, the director should outline any big level goals and events for the department and the organization in the coming weeks, the director should also take the time to publicly recognize any outstanding work from the previous week as way of building the morale and enthusiasm within the department. This is also an Transition Manuals
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Building an Unrivaled Legacy of Leadership USF Honors Thesis opportunity to address any departmental problems or situations that might have occurred. Any individual remediation should occur during the weekly one-on-ones, discussed below.
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Building an Unrivaled Legacy of Leadership USF Honors Thesis One-On-One Keys Scheduling weekly one-on-one meetings with each member of your staff has proven to be widely beneficial to the success of the department. It is recommended that these meetings be held outside of the office to minimize the potential interruptions and distractions that will naturally occur. The café on the second floor of the bookstore is an excellent example of a location that has worked during previous administrations. As the director, you are strongly encouraged to schedule these meetings near the beginning of each week (preferably Monday) to help set the stage for the week to come. 30 minutes per staff member is typically a suitable amount of time to effectively carry out these meetings. These meetings should be held at the same time each week, and a formal calendar invite should be sent to each member through Outlook. Topics for discussion during the One-on-Ones should include: • •
A brief overview of the progress made by the individual during the previous week Identifying the projects and initiative that the individual will be taking on during this upcoming week, as well as any specific areas that the individual may need the assistance from the director. Assigning additional responsibilities and priorities for the individual to take on for the next week. Addressing any ongoing behavioral or performance issues that might arise – This is a good opportunity to identify any learning opportunities for the staffers and directly discuss any issues that the director has seen.
The director should use the staff reports submitted from the department staff meeting (MPA Family meeting) of the previous week during each of the one-on-one meetings as a guide to facilitate each of the conversations. The one-on-one meetings are an opportunity to work out the details for each of the reports presented. Cabinet meetings As the director, you will be responsible for attending the Executive cabinet meetings that are held each week. These meetings included the Student Body President and Vice-President, the chief of staff and all executive staff, and the directors of each of the departments. During these meetings, you will be expected to furnish a similar to report to those that are offered during the MPA Family meetings. Your report should outline all of the projects and initiatives that the department is currently undertaking, as well as departmental goals, and things of the sort. The specific expectations for the cabinet meetings will be outlined by the Student Body President or other designated member. These meetings are widely beneficial as the director of Marketing, because you are able to recognize any initiatives that will likely be in need of the assistance of your department. Having a clear understanding about exactly what everyone is working on in the Executive Branch will provide a variety of benefits to both your department and the organization. Marketing is often the first point of contact Transition Manuals Director of Marketing & Public Affairs Davison Page 63: 7 of 8
Building an Unrivaled Legacy of Leadership USF Honors Thesis for any student with a concern or situation to be addressed (SG Website, awareness events, etc.), and by knowing what initiatives are currently being worked on in each of the different departments, you will be more equipped to connect the students with the right individuals. The cabinet meetings also help you to be proactive and recognize any projects or initiatives that might require advertising or manpower from your department. Submission deadlines can also be reminded to members with projects, as well.
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Conclusion Over the course of this paper, I have developed an incredible appreciation for the different leadership theories that have been developed over the past X number of years. Every page that I read has introduced me to a whole new world of perspective and knowledge. When I began my research, admittedly, the task to write this formal dissertation seemed daunting and never with an end in sight. I spent so much time trying to figure out how I could take on this behemoth that I almost lost light of all that I had to gain from this experience. As a testament to the content in this thesis, though, it was the volumes of books on motivation and living up to expectations that helped me to put everything into perspective. I owed it to all those people that have looked up to me over the years to continue to persevere.
More importantly, I owed it to myself.
This was a culmination of everything that I
experienced at the university, and once I had finally achieved the right mindset the content of the thesis carried with me everywhere I went. While talking with a difficult individual, I was reminded of the tactics that were encapsulated in the behaviorist styles of leadership. It was as if something slipped into that perfect part of my mind to everything come together perfectly.
Suddenly, I was reading hundreds of pages from different
researchers, just for that perfect quote that brings everything together. Other occasions, I would glance at the clock and realize that I had just worked through the night on a section, and I loved every minute. My time was never wasted, because I was spending time with some of the greatest minds of all time. I developed strong connections with so many of the authors that I have included in this paper, finding a different piece of each of them I best related to. Then it hit me: this is how life should be. Sure, work is going to be hard sometimes, and you are probably going to feel like you want to just give up. But on those darkest hours, thatâ€™s when that something deep inside you rises up and takes hold of the reins. Because I have realized that the investments that I have made while on this journey will forever change
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me. There is no way that you can unlearn the things I have studied over the course of this paper, and I am thankful for that. After submerging myself in this work, I am committed to treating all people with respect, and will strive to always motivate them and help them to transform into something greater than they might realized themselves capable of becoming. My goal is to continually be mindful of the styles and idealized behaviors that I have learned, and that I will apply them in every facet of my life. As for the members of Student Government, my suggestions to strengthen your effectiveness and expand your reach: 1. Keep a positive outlook, no matter how dark the occasion might feel. So many times, Student Government has destroyed itself with bitterness and hostility. I’ve seen members fight with one another, when so much could have been accomplished if they simply worked together. In this book, I right about the concept of positive affirmation. Even if it seems strange at first, or perhaps a little silly, just do it. Spend five minutes a day every day from now through rest of your life visualizing the world as you want it to be, and then write it down as though it had already happened. You’ll be amazed with how quickly things start to come together. If you need help getting on the right track, read the “why positive affirmation will fail” section in the back of this book. It isn’t my words, but I found so inspirational I felt obligated to pass it along. 2. Spend time learning and applying the different strategies listed in this book. Even a few minutes of dedicated reflection per day will make a huge difference. Find those strategies that seem to work best with your behaviors, then grasp onto them and never let go. Don’t stop there, keep reading. There are so many incredible people in this world, why not spend time with some of them.
Who knows, maybe reading their theories will light a spark inside you to develop a
theory of your own. Once you have read something that speaks to you, make a point of sharing it with someone else. Tell them about it and tell them how it has positively impacted your life. I
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promise you, the energy is contagious. While you are at it, develop spiritually. Search for something bigger than yourself, and then spend the rest of days attempting to get closer to that something. The peace that you will find will change your world. You’ll know where to search, if only you listen to your heart. Trust me. 3. Mentors. Be one. Get one. Having a support group makes the world of difference. Imagine having the comfort of knowing that any situation that you face, you have someone standing next to you and giving you the encouragement you need. Never feel too proud to ask for help, or to ashamed to admit that you might have a problem. It will make things a lot better if you can just be honest with yourself, and you’ll feel better still if you can be honest to others. Consider creating a peer mentor program for each of the branches and agencies. I had heard rumor that the 49th term attempted to start something like this during the spring of 2009, and that is excellent, but don’ let it be another initiative that can’t survive the transition. One of the greatest areas for improvement in the organization is the cohesion from one administration to the next. It can be a political arena, absolutely. But that shouldn’t ever mean that you would be willing to sabotage all of your hard work because you might not agree with the next administration. Find common ground and stand there… together. 4. Spend time with members of Student Government outside of the confines of the Marshall Center. Years ago, after every Senate meeting we would go to a local bar and sing Karaoke or shoot pool or play a few rounds of bowling. No matter how heated things might have gotten on the Senate floor (and they definitely got heated some nights), the after meeting hangouts reminded us that we were fighting the issues, and not the people. It can be hard to get everyone out at one time, so also consider doing some small networking socials, too. If a group of SGers live on campus, perhaps you can find a night for everyone to meet at the dining hall together. Activities like this improve morale and create a sense of trust between members. This
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is one of the best ways to increase participation, decrease turnover and get all around better performance from all of the members of Student Government. 5. Always be mindful of your actions. Remember, your positions do stop when you leave the office. You want to always set a good example to your constituents, and your fellow SG members. You are the best and brightest minds on campus, and doors will be opened for you that will not be opened for any other students at the university. Take pride in that, but also serve humbly. I have seen so many student leaders become tainted by their positions, and began to act arrogantly and with pompous disregard. Whether you think you are or not, you are a role model, and people do look up to you. Make them proud! Theyâ€™ll respect you even more, if they donâ€™t think you think you are better than them. 6. Have fun. You only are in college once, make the most of it.
Thank you for spending the time to explore this dissertation. I hope that through this work you have learned more about the concept of leadership and feel more confident to build an unrivaled legacy of leadership in your own life.
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Goleman, Daniel, Richard E Boyatzis and Annie McKee. Primal Leadership: Realizing the Power of Emotional Intelligence. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2002. Hamel, Gary and Bill Breen. Future of Management, the. Boston: Harvard Business Press, 2007. Hansen, Ph.D., Katharine. "The Value of a Mentor." Quintessential Careers. 1 August 2009 <http://www.quintcareers.com/mentor_value.html>. Hemphill, John K. Situational factors in Leadership. Columbus: Ohio State Bureau of Educational Research, 1949. Hemphill, John K. and C. M. Westie. "The measurement of group dimensions." Journal of Psychology, the (1950): 325-342. Hersey, Paul, Kenneth Blanchard and Dewey Johnson. Management of Organizational Behavior. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall (9th ed.), 2008. Holistic Management Pty. Ltd. . Group/Individual Level: Persuasion, decision, commitment. 2000. 24 July 2009 <http://www.implementer.com/implementer/web/step4_c/persuade-decrational.htm#The%20VroomYetton%20method%20of%20contingent%20decision-making>. Hostney, Joseph N. "What Makes a Good Lawyer?" Intellectual Property Today October 2002: 44-45. House, Robert. "1976 Theory of Leadership, A." Leadership: The cutting edg. Ed. L. L. Larson and J. G. Hunt. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1976. —. Path-goal Theory of Leadership. Seattle: University of Washington, 1975. Karnaze, Melissa. "Salovey & Mayer on Emotional Intelligence (1990)." 31 March 2009. Mindful Construct. <http://mindfulconstruct.com/2009/03/31/salovey-mayer-on-emotional-intelligence-1990/>. Kessler, Steve. "Leadership in the Internet World." 1 March 2009. Denver DataMan. <http://denverdataman.blogspot.com/2009/03/leadership-in-internet-world.html>. Koppes, Laura L, et al. Historical perspectives in industrial and organizational psychology. Danvers: Routledge, 2007. Lazenby, Malcolm. Maetrix: Leadership styles. 25 January 2009 <http://www.maetrix.com.au/leadership_styles.asp>. Lim, Evelyn. "7 Instances Why Your Positive Affirmations Fail To Work." 17 April 2008. Attraction Mind Map. <http://www.attractionmindmap.com/7-instances-why-your-positive-affirmations-fail-to-work/>. LinkedIn.com. About Us: LinkedIn. 2009. July 2009 <http://press.linkedin.com/about>. The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha. Ed. Herbert G May. Oxford University Press, 1973. Mark 16.15. McGraw, Dr. Phillip C. "Seven Tools for Purposeful Parenting." Family First. Roseburg, OR: Simon and Schuster, 2004. 137-257. McLaughlin, Corinne. Visionary Leadership - Center for Visionary Leadership. <http://www.visionarylead.org/articles/vislead.htm>. New College of Florida. New College Student Alliance. 2009. <http://www.ncf.edu/student-life/studentgovenment>. Northouse, Peter Guy. Leadership: theory and practice. Thousand Oaks: Sage, 2006. Oxendine, Jr., W.H. “Butch”. "13 Steps to a Super Student Government." ASGA Summit. Washington, D.C.: American Student Government Association, 2007. Parrish, David. International Business Adviser for Creative People: Six Leadership Stlyes - Management Ideas, Techniques, Models and Tools . 2007. <http://www.d.parrish.dial.pipex.com/leadership6styles.html>. Petrides, K.V., Adrian Furnham and Norah Frederickson. "Emotional Intelligence." Psychologist, The (2004): 574577. Purdue University. Purdue Student Government. 2007. <http://web.ics.purdue.edu/~psg/info/aboutus.php>. Richard, Larry and Sirkin, Mark. "Six Styles of Leadership: How Will You Handle Your Firm's Reins?" Law Practice (2008): 32-35. Rickards, Tudor and Murray Clark. Dilemmas with Leadership. London: Taylor & Francis, 2006.
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Rowling, J. K. Harry Potter, The (Series). United Kingdom, USA, Canada: Bloomsbury Publishing, Scholastic Publishing, Raincoast Books, 1997-2007. Salovey, Peter and John Mayer. "Emotional Intelligence." (1990): 189. Smith, Will and Jeff Townes. "Parents Just Don't Understand." He's the DJ, I'm the Rapper. By Will Smith and Jeff Townes. Philadelphia, 1988. Tannenbaum, Robert and Warren H Schmidt. "How to Choose a Leadership Pattern." Harvard Business Review (1973): 162-180. Thompson, Steve. "How to become a mentor." 5 March 2007. Associated Content. <http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/160899/how_to_become_a_mentor.html?cat=4>. Transformleaders.com. LeaderSHIFTS. 2009. 27 July 2009 <http://transformleaders.com/LeaderSHIFTS.php>. Twitter.com. About: Twitter. 2009. July 2009 <http://twitter.com/about>. Ulmer, Jeremy J. "Emotional Intelligence 2xâ€™s more important than IQ in contributing to excellence." January 2009. Coach with Jeremy. <http://www.coachwithjeremy.com/blog/emotional-intelligence/emotionalintelligence>. Value Based Management.net. Path-Goal Theory - Robert House. 23 March 2009. 26 July 2009 <http://www.valuebasedmanagement.net/methods_path_goal_theory.html>. Vroom, V. H and P. W. Yetton. Leadership and decision-making. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1973. Walters, Jamie. Ivy Sea Online: Conscious, Inspired-Leadership Essentials. March 2009 <http://www.ivysea.com/pages/ldrex_0802_04.html>.
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Appendix: 7 Instances Why Your Positive Affirmations Fail To Work by Evelyn Lim on April 17, 2008 What Are Positive Affirmations: Affirmations are positive thoughts or statements on a desired state or outcome. The desired state or outcome can cover any aspect of your life such as in abundance, success, relationships or health. One common example of an affirmation is “I consistently and easily make $X a month”. Using affirmations is powerful because consistent thoughts can become realities. Hence, the more often you reinforce the positive, the more it is likely to happen. While you would prefer to believe that you are a positive person, in reality, it is more like the opposite. On a subconscious level, you may have several negative self sabotaging thoughts and beliefs. These thoughts are usually formed from the various experiences that you have had, the conditioning that you went through as a child, your sense of fair play, your successes and failures and the values that you have been taught and come to adopt. Consistent thoughts make up your belief system, when you give them power and more focus. They form the “writings on your wall” from which you frequently consult in your everyday life. If the “writings on your wall” tend to be negative and limiting, they can hinder you from taking risks, achieving your dreams or simply being the best that you can be. Here are some common examples of “writings on the wall” that are not very useful: • “Don’t rock the boat.” • “Don’t risk getting yourself hurt.” • “Know where you come from.” • “You are not all that capable.” • “Don’t draw too much attention to yourself. No one likes a showoff.” Positive affirmations are statements that can help replace these “writings on your wall”. In the Palace of Possibilities series, Gary Craig proposed using affirmations to help reinforce positive beliefs after clearing negative emotions and thoughts. He believed that affirmations held the missing step to greater financial abundance, more enriching relationships and to pursuing all possibilities. He examined the reasons why positive affirmations failed to work in several cases. Why Aren’t Your Positive Affirmations Working?: 1. Presence of Tail Enders Perhaps one of the main reasons why positive affirmations do not work is because of the presence of tail enders. Tail enders are beliefs and thoughts that appear at the end of the affirmation. Let me give you an easy example to illustrate what a tail ender is. Say your positive daily affirmation is “I easily and consistently make $50,000 a month”. Your tail enders may go like this…. • “But if I make $50,000 a month, I will have friends and relatives come borrow money from me.” • “But if I make $50,000 a month, I will be known as rich by my friends and rich people are not nice.” • “But if I make $50,000 a month, I will have to work very hard in my job to earn that and I will have no life left.” • “But if I make $50,000 a month, my friends will not like me.” • “But if I make $50,000 a month, women (or men) will want to be with me more for how much I make and not for whom I am.” Davison 71 of 75
The list of tail enders can go on and on. You can have tail enders for just about any affirmation that you use for health, relationships, love, etc. So if you have been diligently saying your positive affirmations but find that they are not working, you may want to ask yourself if you’ve got some tail enders that are sabotaging your initial intent. Tail enders can easily reduce the effectiveness of your affirmations. It takes a while to unearth all the limiting tail enders but once you uncover them, you open up the opportunity to erase them. 2. Your Affirmation is a Should and Not a Want. You may make an affirmation which you do not really want. Often enough, people make affirmations because their parents say so, all their friends are doing so or it sounds like a good affirmation to affirm. You may even have a tail ender that says this “I easily and consistently make $50,000 a month but I do not really want it.” In this example, it may be that you have other dreams, rather than just a money goal. It is important that you make affirmations according to what you really want, rather than make them based on your shoulds. Your wants are desires that come from within your soul and not from someone else’s dream. 3. Your Affirmation Is Not Realistic Enough. If your affirmation appears to be a lofty goal to you, you may inadvertently set up tail enders that says it is too difficult to attain. Let’s use the first example again for illustration. For instance, if you currently make $1000 a month, then making an affirmation on “I easily and consistently make $50,000 a month” may be too much of a stretch to you. It may be far easier to set an interim but more realistic affirmation; such as “I easily and consistently make $5,000 a month” and work your way up. You will find that you will have less obstacles to clear subconsciously, as you move up the ladder. 4. Your Affirmation Is Not Exciting Enough. If your affirmation is not exciting enough, you may lose motivation. Affirmations must have enough “pull” for you to focus your intent on. For instance, from currently making $1,000 monthly, would $5,000 a month be a good enough affirmation for you to work on? I would think so. Your affirmation also works best if you say it with some emotion. When you can actually “feel” your affirmation, its impact increases dramatically. One important tip is that it is best that you do not let others know too much about your dreams and affirmations. Announcing them to people who are not very supportive and who have little understanding about what you are doing, can invite criticisms. They may just douse your enthusiasm, causing you to give up on your affirmation. Hence, it is best to keep things to yourself, focus your thoughts and get some results, before sharing your findings with others. 5. Your Positive Affirmation Is Not Made In The Present Tense. Your affirmation is less effective if you use words like “I will be _________” instead of “I am ________ “. Of course, you may feel that it is inappropriate to affirm something that has not happened yet. But saying things in the present tense will program your subconscious mind to believe that what you affirm is already a fact. Once your subconscious mind believes that it is true, you will find yourself taking actions to make your goal a reality. 6. Your Affirmation Focuses on the Negative rather than Accentuating the Positive. Think back about all your affirmations. Are you formulating them in the positive or in the negative sense? Affirmations made from a negative perspective will only draw your subconscious mind to your old habitual and limiting thoughts. They will not be as effective in bringing about desired positive outcomes. Davison 72 of 75
“Positive anything is better than negative nothing.” Elbert Hubbard quotes (American editor, publisher and writer, 1856-1915) 7. Your Affirmation is Not Supported by a Dream. You may associate dreams as something that is so big but which are unattainable. You pooh pooh the idea of dreaming: why waste time imagining the impossible when dreams seldom come true? Well, there is much value in daydreaming. And in case you believe so, daydreaming is not just for kids. When you daydream, you connect yourself with all possibilities. The act of daydreaming itself creates a nice feeling when you think “how nice if I would be if I can/am _________”. When you feel good, you start to exude a positive energy vibration. According to the Law of Attraction, you may well start to attract the opportunities that match the same vibration. “Dreams are like the paints of a great artist. Your dreams are your paints, the world is your canvas. Believing, is the brush that converts your dreams into a masterpiece of reality.” — Unknown Summary: Guidelines to Help Make Positive Daily Affirmations a Success 1. Make affirmations short and succinct, with no tail enders. 2. Base your affirmations on wants and not shoulds. 3. Make them realistic. 4. Make your affirmations exciting enough. 5. State affirmations in the present tense. 6. State affirmations in the positive. 7. Augment your affirmations with dreams. In short, before you conclude that positive affirmations do not work, go through this checklist first and see if you have made them correctly. It is important to have fun while making affirmations. Adjust them from time to time to eliminate boredom. Cover your intent adequately with affirmations by focusing on different aspects of your goal and watch your desires unfold before you.
Source: Lim, Evelyn. "7 Instances Why Your Positive Affirmations Fail To Work." 17 April 2008. Attraction Mind Map. <http://www.attractionmindmap.com/7-instances-why-your-positive-affirmations-fail-to-work/>.
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Citations The following citations were used during the course of this thesis. 1
(Florida Statutes, The) (Purdue University) 3 (New College of Florida) 4 (Csorba) 5 (Oxendine) 6 Quote Courtesy of Thinkexist.com 7 (Hostney) 8 (May) 9 (Smith and Townes) 10 (McGraw) 11 (Rowling) 12 (Carlyle) 13 (Allport) 14 (Clacey). 15 (Doyle) 16 (Tannenbaum and Schmidt) 17 (Richard) 18 (Goleman, Boyatzis and McKee, Primal Leadership: Realizing the Power of Emotional Intelligence) 19 (McLaughlin) 20 (Chynoweth, Times Online: A new take on the big picture) 21 (Parrish) 22 (Walters) 23 (Walters) 24 (Aldridge) 25 (Richard) 26 (Cruz) 27 (Richard) 28 (Chynoweth, Times Online: Affiliation feels good if it works) 29 (Breen) 30 (Lazenby) 31 (Richard) 32 (Breen) 33 (Goleman, Boyatzis and McKee, Primal Leadership: Realizing the Power of Emotional Intelligence) 34 (Goleman, Boyatzis and McKee, Primal Leadership: Realizing the Power of Emotional Intelligence) 35 (Richard) 36 (Lazenby) 37 (Goleman, Boyatzis and McKee, Primal Leadership: Realizing the Power of Emotional Intelligence) 38 (Antonaki 236) 39 (Koppes, Thayer and Vinchur 390) 40 (J. K. Hemphill) 41 (Hemphill and Westie) 42 (Envision Software) 43 (Vroom and Yetton) 44 (Vroom and Yetton) 45 (House, Path-goal Theory of Leadership) 46 (Value Based Management.net) 47 (Rickards and Clark) 48 (Hersey, Blanchard and Johnson 171-247) 2
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(Hersey, Blanchard and Johnson 106) (Daft 515) 51 (Burns 25) 52 (Burns 17) 53 (Transformleaders.com) 54 (House, 1976 Theory of Leadership, A) 55 (Northouse 177) 56 (Bass, Bass' and Stogdill's Handbook of Leadership) 57 (Bass and Riggio, Transformational Leadership 3) 58 (Bass and Riggio, Transformational Leadership 8) 59 (Barbuto and Cummins-Brown) 60 (Bass and Riggio, Transformational Leadership 21) 61 (Bass and Riggio, Transformational Leadership 7) 62 (Hamel and Breen 101-112) 63 (Bass and Riggio, Transformational Leadership 71) 64 (Bass and Riggio, Transformational Leadership 6) 65 (Barbuto and Cummins-Brown) 66 (Caruso and Seidler) 67 (Adams) 68 (Bennis) 69 (Hansen) 70 (Thompson) 71 (Cote) 72 (Kessler) 73 (Godin 4) 74 (Godin 30) 75 (Godin 52) 76 (Facebook.com) 77 (LinkedIn.com) 78 (Zucal, Coron and King) 79 (D. Goleman, A Study of Emotion: Developing Emotional Intelligence 1-9) 80 (D. Goleman, A Study of Emotion: Developing Emotional Intelligence) 81 (Salovey and Mayer 189) 82 (Karnaze) 83 (Salovey and Mayer) 84 (Salovey and Mayer 202) 85 (Ulmer) 86 (Goleman, Boyatzis and Rhee 343-362) 87 (Petrides, Furnham and Frederickson 544-577) 50
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Building an Unrivaled Legacy of Leadership USF Honors Thesis
(Springfield Informatics, LLC) (Zompetti) 3 (University of South Florida Student Government Art. III, Sect. XVII) 4 (University of South Florida Student Government Art. II, Sect. XV) 5 (Univeristy of South Florida Student Government 403.7-403.7.8) 6 (University of South Florida Student Government Chapter 9) 7 (CreatingCommunity) 8 (Bruce 6) 9 (Princeton Review, The) 10 (Leadershape) 11 (Provost1) 2
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Published on Aug 14, 2009
Written by Nathan Davison for the USF Honors College at the Univerity of South Florida, this dissertation discusses the evolution of the fie...