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138 Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History

Raising the Banner for Progress and Prosperity T HE province of Ilocos Sur, located along the western coast of Northern Luzon with an area of 2,579.58 square meters, occupies about 20.15% of the total land area of Region I. It is composed of 32 municipalities and two cities subdivided into 768 barangays. The municipalities and cities are: Alilem, Banayoyo, Bantay, Burgos, Cabugao, Caoayan, Cervantes, Galimuyod, Gregorio del Pilar, Lidlidda, Magsingal, Nagbukel, Narvacan, Quirino, Salcedo, San Emilio, San Esteban, San Ildefonso, San Juan, San Vicente, Santa, Santiago, Sta. Catalina, Sta. Cruz, Sta. Lucia, Sta. Maria, Sto. Domingo, Sigay, Sinait, Sugpon, Suyo, Tagudin, Candon City and Vigan City. Fourteen of these municipalities are cradled within the Cordillera ranges. By income classification, Ilocos Sur is a first-class province, with the majority of its residents engaged in agriculture, business and other livelihood ventures. The Ilocos Surians’ adventurous and hardworking character, it may be noted, has spurred many of them to work overseas, resulting

in an infusion of much-needed revenues to the provincial coffers. Ilocos Sur is also known as the home to illustrious sons and daughters who have made their mark not only in the history of the province but of the country as well, like the legendary woman warrior Gabriela Silang, the poetess Leona Florentino, President Elpidio Quirino, and church and labor leader Isabelo de los Reyes, among others. Today, Ilocos Sur continues its march towards progress and prosperity. Under the local government’s PROSPERITY agenda are the program’s thrusts intended to reduce poverty: 1) Participative Governance; 2) Raising Agricultural Incomes through Productivity and New Agribusiness Fronts; 3) Organizational Rationalization; 4) Sustaining Health and Social Services; 5) Peace and Order and Public Safety; 6) Education for All, Environment Protection and Management; 7) Revenue Enhancement; 8) Infrastructure Push; 9) Trade, Industry, Tourism Integration and Promotion; and 10) Youth Excellence and Leadership. Raising the Banner for Progress and Prosperity 139

Participative governance

Non-Government Organizations (NGOs), Civil Society and representatives of the different sectors play a vital role in governance. An involved citizenry is able to know and define development initiatives truly responsive to their needs. In Ilocos Sur, NGO representatives have joined special bodies and vital committees in the planning and implementation of programs and projects that help in the economic and cultural development of the province.

Together with an empowered citizenry as a vital partner in the task of governance, several major programs of the provincial government are now in place. Project KABSAT (Kakailian nga Agnaed ti Barangay, Sangsangkamaysa Agrang-ay Tayo) is a major project that has drawn support from partner agencies of the national government, NGOs and the private sector. KABSAT, also the Ilocano word for “sibling,” gathers the manpower, technical and financial resources of multi-agency

1906 – The Old Vigan School for Girls, formerly known as Colegio de Ninas of Vigan, was ran by the Sisters of the Order of St. Paul Chartres during the Spanish period and was reopened with the coming of the Americans. Today, St. Paul College of Ilocos Sur is one of the leading Catholic institutions of the province. Now on its 103rd year of dedicated service in pursuit of its apostolate in the field of education, the school continues to grow as it prepares its graduates to become locally and globally competitive. 140 Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History

stakeholders operating in Ilocos Sur to bring basic services like education, skills/ capability building, agriculture development environmental protection, social services and others especially to people living in remote barangays. Target areas are identified by the Office of the Governor and the Technical Working Group, followed by a consultation dialogue with local officials, thus enabling the KABSAT team to assess the needs of the community and the corresponding services to be delivered.

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The Burgos residence in Vigan houses the memorabilia of the martyr–priest Jose P. Burgos, as well as Ilocano artifacts and the ethnic arts of the Tingguians.

Now on its second year of implementation, the program has already provided 156 barangays of the municipalities of Salcedo, Galimuyod, Alilem, Sugpon, Banayoyo, Gregorio del Pilar, Sigay, Cervantes, Quirino, San Emilio, Lidlidda, Suyo, Burgos, Nagbukel, San Vicente, and San Esteban, with various services, including dental and medical assistance, the distribution of farm and fishery equipment, livestock and poultry, among others. 142 Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History

It is also a venue for learning education and skills development to develop the capabilities of the recipient barangays in the areas of First Aid and Public Safety, Basic Life Support for barangay tanod and barangay councils. Assisting them in these efforts are the Philipine National Red Cross and Office of Civil Defense, the Department of the Interior and Local Government, the University of Northern Philippines , Ilocos Sur

Community College, Technical and Skills Development Authority, the Provincial Health Office and the Philippine National Police and other agencies. The SIGLAT (“Salisal Iladawanna ti Gaget dagiti Lumugar tapno Agsaknap ti Timpuyog�) program, on the other hand, is a development strategy to encourage wider participation of all sectors at the barangay level in innovative, productive and healthful activities leading to self-

sufficiency and economic growth. It aims to give recognition to barangays that promote good governance and initiatives by addressing social and economic problems at the local level. Launched in 2008, the search for the best barangay in different categories encourages community participation through the implementation of various development programs, harnesses their potentials and showcases outstanding Raising the Banner for Progress and Prosperity 143

144 Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History

Provincial Jail

This building was originally constructed to house the municipal jail in 1657. When Ilocos Sur became a province in 1818, it was converted into a provincial jail. Repair work on the prison was undertaken in 1855. Taken over by revolutionaries under Col. Juan Villamor in 1898, it was later used by American forces to house detained political leaders Mena Crisologo, Estanislao Reyes and Enrique Quema in 1899. The former president, Elpidio Quirino, was born inside the building on November 16, 1890 when his father was the jail warden.

accomplishments, innovations and best practices, resulting in more productive and self-sufficient barangays. SIGLAT search areas were generally focused on: 1) Health, Nutrition and Environmental Protection; 2) Peace and Order, Protection and Public Safety and Disaster Risk Management; 3) Education, Culture and Youth Development,; 4) Agricultural Productivity, Cooperative Development and Entrepreneurship and Job Creation and Income Generation; and 5) Governance and Administration. The search, a showcase of accomplishments and innovations, is open to all qualified barangays vying for the Best Program Implementation award as well as minor and individual awards. A SIGLAT evaluation team, composed of representatives from the Department of the Interior and Local Government and other national government agencies, including department representatives of the provincial government, was created to determine the indicators in the search area and to document the program processes of the barangays that would serve as bases for the evaluation. Cash awards and citations are given for the following categories: Cleanest, Greenest and Safest LGU, Cleanest Coastal Area, Cleanest Inland Body of Water, Best LGU-NGO Project Based Practices, Best LGU Practice and Best LGU based on the Local Government Performance Management System (LGPMS). The “KASIGLATAN� (Champion) Awards, in the form of cash and citations for First, Second and Third Runners-up, are also given to Local Government Units (LGUs) with the most number of awards received during the contest period. The SARANAY Program, on the other hand, is for a smaller setting or cluster of Raising the Banner for Progress and Prosperity 145

remote barangays Technology development seminars and training programs for health workers and other capability-building activities are also undertaken in these areas. Another vehicle for providing documentation and updated information on various prosperity agenda of the province is embodied in OPLAN DAMAG. Tri-media outlets - print, radio and television – in cooperation with NBN 4 Vigan, the provincial government’s Ilocos Sur Post, the Ilocos Star, Bannawag and other maga-


This bridge across the Abra River survived the bombings during World War II. Formerly known as Banaoang Bridge, it has been renamed after the late President Elpidio Quirino. 146 Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History

zines and local newspapers of general circulation, are the channels utilized to ensure that people are given access to information on these various development programs. Key information about the province can also be obtained from the provincial government's website, With the active participation of the local government in the Regional Development Council of Region 1 in 2007, as well as the League of Provinces of the Philippines, the integration of its development

initiatives into the regional and national levels in agribusiness, trade and industry, tourism and other development concerns, is now a reality. These initiatives complement and fully support earlier plans for a Northern Luzon Agribusiness Quadrangle and Northern Gateway in Region I involving the participation of various sectors, and the China Consulate based in neighboring Ilocos Norte province, whose strong economy is bound to attract a potential market for products from Ilocos Sur.


Banaoang pump irrigation project

A medium-scale, foreign-assisted project of the National Irrigation Administration (NIA), the Banaoang Pump Irrigation Project (BPIP) in Ilocos Sur's 1st district aims:to increase agricultural production through irrigation and drainage infrastructures, increase the income of farmers and generate additional employment opportunities for residents.The project, implemented by the NIA-BPIP Project Management Office in Bahet, San Ildefonso,. is expected to be completed by the end of 2009. When finished, it will provide year-round irrigation to 6,000 hectares of farmlands and would benefit around 5,334 families. 148 Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History

R aising Agricultural Incomes Through

Productivity and New Agribusiness Fronts With its great potential as a leading force in the agricultural and agribusiness sectors, the Ilocos Sur provincial government has focused its goal on achieving self sufficiency in the production of rice, corn and other crops imported by the national government at huge expense. Corn, garlic and other agricultural products contributed considerably in boosting the provincial economy. The production of Virginia tobacco, especially, has poured in immense capital not only to farmers but to the province as well, through its share of the tobacco excise taxes. In previous years, however, tobacco farmers were disappointed with the low prices of flue cured tobacco. To remedy the situation, a Tobacco Summit was held, attended by farmer-leaders, traders and cigarette manufacturers. The result of the meetings served as basis for the holding of a tripartite conference in December 2007 with the National Tobacco Administration and key stakeholders, and the setting of increased prices at P10 per kilo for all grades, the first of its kind in the history of the province’s tobacco industry. With this positive development, it is hoped that more farmers will engage in tobacco-growing in the coming years. Ilocos Sur, likewise, has been identified by the Department of Agriculture as one of the largest yellow corn-producing provinces in Northern Luzon. To further boost production of the crop, farmers have been encouraged to plant corn in areas not used for tobacco-growing. In January 2003, the Grains Marketing Assistance for Ilocos Sur (GMAIS) Program porgram was launched, providing for the sale of the crop to the government which later sells the same to feed millers. Raising the Banner for Progress and Prosperity 149

The Ilocos Sur Electric Cooperative, Inc.(ISECO) was registered with the National Electrification Administration (NEA) on Jan. 24, 1974 to provide round-the clock and inexpensive electric service to the province’s 34 municipalities, including the city of Vigan. It operates as a non-stock organization owned by local residents and is funded by long-term, low interest loans from the NEA.

A year after its launch, GMAIS has become a promising venture and incomebooster for cash-strapped farmers. To assure a ready market for the crop, a Memorandum of Agreement has been signed between the provincial government and San Miguel Corporation, a multinational firm based in Manila, which buys the product at a guaranteed floor price. Realizing the increasing production costs, a Corn Summit, with the participation of corn growers, technicians and agricultural experts, was held to find out the problems attendant to the industry and how to address the same. The event was also an opportunity for farmers to learn the appropriate technology from experts to increase their yield. To address the problems of the farmers’ lack of capital and the unstable buying price of corn, a Memorandum of Agreement was also signed by the provincial government with the Nueva Segovia Consortium of Cooperatives in which the 150 Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History

former provided financial assistance for farmers and SMEs at a low interest rate of 5% per year Another Memorandum of Agreement, this time with the National Food Authority, was signed on March 12, 2009, with the province infusing a capital of P3M for the latter to buy corn from the farmers at P13 a kilo, or P2. higher than the buying price of private traders. This was to ensure that the farmers were protected from unscrupulous traders. The provincial government has also encouraged farmers to grow high-yield, high-value crops like hybrid and fancy rice, sweet sorghum, exotic fruits, mango, onion and garlic, ampalaya, okra, tomatoes, squash, egglants and peanuts. These are showcased in an integrated organic farming system at the BARANG-AY Demo Farm in San Juan town, where there is also a thriving livestock industry. The farm has drawn the attention of the Regional Development Council which

Luzon hydro power plant

At the cost of $150 million, the Bakun AC hydro power plant was put up following the signing of a Purchase Agreement to develop a 70MW hydro power plant with the National Power Corporation on November 24, 1996. The project is situated along the Bakun River on the boundary of Ilocos Sur and Benguet province in northwestern Luzon's Cordillera central mountain range, approximately 40 kms. from San Fernando, La Union province.

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readily adopted it as the regional demo farm of the entire Region I. To cope with the challenging times brought about by the global economic slowdown, the provincial government introduced a Sustainable Program of Enhancing Economic Development (SPEED) to maximize available resources for its poverty reduction program. This economic stimulus package, a “back to basic� program was intended to promote self-sufficiency, sustainability and economic stability of the marginalized sector. The 14 upland municipalities are populated mainly by IP (Indigenous People), particularly members of the Bago tribe. These municipalities are strategically located along the mountain ranges in the eastern part of the province conducive for the cultivation of exotic fruits like lanzones, marang, rambutan and durian and other fruit-bearing trees. To further increase the income of Bago tribesmen, seedlings have been distributed for planting in different municipalities. 152 Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History

In partnership with the Department of Trade and Industry and Department of Science and Technology, and Small and Medium Enterprise (SMEs), the provincial government has encouraged the people to learn modern processing processes and appropriate product packaging to add more value to their products. This was the highlight of the SME Congress in the cities of Vigan and Candon on March 1113, 2009. Financial assistance was also offered by the provincial government to SMEs, along with provisions for small processing machines.

O rganizational Rationalization

One of the visions of the provincial government is to take up the challenge of rationalizing its bureaucracy to provide a better quality of public service to the people. In line with this objective, the crafting of the PGIS (Provincial Government of Ilocos Sur) Citizens Charter is underway, where frontline services have been identified and systems and proce-

dures defined for prompt and quality delivery of the same. Manuals of operations for the different offices are also in the works to institutionalize operations and decision-making processes.

S ustaining Health and Social Services

Prosperity would not be meaningful if the people's health iscompromised. Thus, the HEALS Program, or Hospital Economic Enterprise to Attain Lasting Sustainability, was introduced, transforming health institutions into self-sustaining health enterprises. Funds generated through HEALS would ultimately subsidize welfare and services for indigents, as well as help in the procurement of much-needed equipment and facilities. Pilot areas for this program are the Tagudin General Hospital and Capillariasis Center, the Gabriela Silang General Hospital, the Salcedo Medicare Community Hospital and five district hospitals. Eyed as incomegenerating medical services and facilities are: the TBDOTS Microscopy Center at the GSGH, the New Born Screening Units of all the hospitals, the Microbiology units, and the Blood Services Unit which shall be expanded to include the sepa-

ration and processing of blood components. The PGIS also created the HEALTH Program (Health, Empowerment, Affordable Lifestyle Towards Happiness) that aims to maintain quality health for all residents through the primary health care approach. It also envisions universal access to quality health services that are affordable and acceptable to individuals, families and communities that can be

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154 Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History

Tobacco Plantation

Tobacco-growing is a major source of revenue for farmers of Ilocos Sur. Raising the Banner for Progress and Prosperity 155

reached through intersectoral linkages and networking, and the strengthening of public health programs at all levels. This program is supported by barangay health workers, who are also vital partners of the KABSAT program, through basic skills training programs. Another venue for providing access to health and social service is the 10-year-old Ilocos Sur Hotline Program held every Saturday at DWRS Commando Radio from 8: a.m to 11 a.m. The radio program, launched during the administration of former Gov. Luis "Chavit" Singson, was designed to provide immediate response to individuals in dire need of assistance, with problems ranging from the repatriation of distressed or deceased OFWs and claims of benefits. It also serves marginalized and disadvantaged groups through the provision of medical and other health services

Redrying Plant

and other forms of assistance. To complement the Hotline Program, the provincial government offers round-theclock Aid to Individuals in Crisis Situations (AICS) on a 24-hour basis at the provincial Capitol where a team of social workers can readily attend to their needs. Herbal plants as alternative and affordable medicine have not been overlooked. Since this type of plant can be raised anywhere, there has been an intensive campaign to grow these in backyards or vacant lots close to residential homes.

Peace and Order and Public Safety

The task of achieving peace and order does not only depend on law enforcement agents, but is also a responsibility of citizens. Peace and order and public safety can be best achieved with the people's participation in

Founded by former congressman Floro Crisologo in 1967, the Farmers of the North Tobacco Corporation is a tobacco re-drying plant located in Vigan City. Managed until 1971 by Crisologo's son Vincent, now a congressman of Quezon City, the plant is currently owned by Fortune Tobacco Corporation.

156 Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History

barangay-based activities. Apart from the Citizens' Police, composed of barangay tanod, a “Baybay” Watch tasked to safeguard the waterways against smugglers and other criminal elements, was created, with the Office of the Governor offering a P5,000. reward for those who may have information on individuals or groups who could be involved in dynamite fishing and other related illegal activities. Apart from these programs, Peace and Order Councils at all levels have been strengthened to counter all forms of criminal activity. In addition, a Criminal Justice System Seminar was organized in cooperation with the Philippine National Police, the Department of the Interior and Local Government and the Department of Justice, to acquaint the different key players on their respective roles and the

processes involved in dealing with situations involving crime and peace and order. The Provincial Public Safety Office was also created with the primary task of taking responsibility for the public safety and disaster-preparedness capability of the PGIS, especially during calamities and emergency situations.

E ducation for All, Environmental Protection, Preservation and Management

The “Education for All” program covers pre-school, primary, secondary, tertiary, non-formal education for out-of-school youth, vocational education, scholarships and teacher training and support for the Ilocos Sur Community College (ISCC) and other learning institutions of the province. Hopefully, the program can contribute to raising literacy rates and igniting the spirit of competition not only among students

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but in teachers as well, thus making for a more enlightened citizenry. As additional incentive, the Best Maestra program has been sustained by the provincial government to further hone teachers’ skills. At present, classes in the Chinese language are offered at the ISCC to prepare the youth for globalization trends, especially for those who intend to look for gainful employment abroad. A scholarship program has also been set up to encourage and support students enrolled in Fishery, Agriculture and Forestry courses at the Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College, where it has been noted, the enrolment in these fields has been on a steady decline. Another program involves the integration of the history of Ilocos Sur, stressing the province’s rich cultural and historical heritage, in the curriculum of local schools for Grades 5 and 6 pupils as well as high school and college students, to inculcate in them an awareness of the past and a love of province and country. This program has been approved by local executives through Sangguniang Panlalawigan Resolution No. 08, Series of 2009. In the light of increasing environmental degradation, now not only a local but also a global problem, Ilocos Sur has enacted the Environment Code in 2007. The Code defines the parameters of environmental use abuse, the processes involved in the legislation of environmental protection proposals, and checks and balances that the government is committed to undertake to ensure the preservation of the province’s natural resources. The best example of stewardship of the environment of Ilocos Sur is its TAGIBIKA (Tagibien ti Kabambantayan ken ti Aglawlaw) Program, a 10-year comprehensive Forest Resources Management 158 Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History

Salomague Port, Cabugao

The port of Salomague prides itself on the fact that it is found on the international mariner’s map. An ancient port of call for seafarers, merchants and mariners from different Asian countries, the port became a place of embarkation for Ilocanos hired to work in the sugar plantations of Hawaii and California during the American period. In 1965, President Ferdinand E. Marcos by virtue of Republic Act 4559, converted the then Port of Cabugao, now known as the Port of Salomague, to an international port of entry. The Port of Salomague was declared as a permanent international point of entry by President Fidel V. Ramos on June 14, 1997. It is now under lease by a private corporation for 25 years, serving as a transshipment port of goods and products on its way to Taiwan as well as an unloading point for commercial fishing vessels.

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and Development Plan covering 20 hectares of upland, plains and coastal forests. Its objective is to create increased awareness of shared responsibility in the protection, conservation and management of natural resources among local government units, peoples’ organizations and other stakeholders. TAGIBIKA’s most recent achievement was its inclusion in the KABSAT caravan where municipalities joined seedling production activities for local tree parks and nurseries. In addition, through a Sangguniang Panlalawigan resolution, an ordinance was enacted declaring June 29 of every year as “Piesta ti Kabambanatayan” in Ilocos Sur. All sectors were encouraged to engage in massive reforestation activities to address the problem of forest denudation, to ensure environment protection and improve ecological balance. In the campaign to lessen and ultimately eliminate the impact of solid wastes, the provincial government adopted the universal environmental campaign to Reuse, Reduce and Recycle in its own drive to protect the environment. With the creation of the Provincial Waste Management Board that provides a framework for all component cities and municipalities, private sector partnerships were also tapped in efforts to formulate strategies for stricter compliance with environmental laws.

R evenue Enhancement

Ilocos Sur has boosted its internal revenue sources to make the province less dependent on the Internal Revenue Allotment (IRA) and the province’s share from Tobacco Excise Taxes (RA 7171). To do this, it updated its Real Property Tax bases and enhanced tax collection efforts

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Fishing as a Way of Life

For Ilocos Sur residents who live in seaside communities, fishing is the principal

and other income-generating ventures to insure more funds for vital programs and services. With the passage of the Amended Revenue Code of the province, an increase in collections from local sources is expected.

I nfrastructure Push

Infrastructure development is a requisite for economic growth. It is a vital component for increased productivity and an important adjunct to trade and industry. Recognizing that infrastructure is the backbone of any development enterprise,


the provincial government has focused on infrastructure projects such as road openings, farm-to-market roads and other road linkages that provide citizens easier and more convenient access to basic services. The social infrastructure projects include the renovation of Gabriela Silang General Hospital, the district hospitals of Santa Lucia , Tagudin and Magsingal, and the proposed construction of an Ilocos Regional Farmers Training Center where training, seminars and conferences can be held for both provincial and national events. A facility will soon open for old

and needy residents to be housed at Magsingal District Hospital. Another program in the offing in partnership with the Department of Health Regional I, is the proposed establishment of a Rehabilitation Center for drug dependents in Santa town, where the site has already been pinpointed.. On the other hand, a plan is underway for the renovation of the Gregoria Rivera Memorial Library Building where the Provincial Library and the Offices of the Environment and Natural Resources and the Commission on Elections are currently housed. In the plan is the opening up of the building’s ground floor as a commercial center, or a one- stop shop for various industries and products of the province as well as providing office space for companies offering a variety of services to clients. Another major infrastructure on the drawing board is a government center to accommodate the different National Government Agencies (NGAs) operating in Ilocos Sur. The center could serve as quarters for these agencies at reasonable rental rates. The improvement of the SantiagoBanayoyo-San Emilio Road and TagudinCervantes Road has resulted in easier mobility and transport of Ilocos Sur’s products and produce to the markets. The road network has been enhanced by the construction of the new Banaoang and Tagudin Bridges linking Ilocos Sur to the southern provinces, and the replacement of minor bridges along the national highway. Another vital infrastructure is the ongoing construction of the Banaoang Pump Irrigation Project that, hopefully, will trigger agricultural productivity, with the provision of irrigation facilities to municipalities in need of such services. Raising the Banner for Progress and Prosperity 161

Tourism, Trade and Industry, Integration and Promotion

Rich in history and cultural and natural attractions, Ilocos Sur has the potential of being one of the country’s top premier tourist destinations. These possibilities maybe classified into: 1) environmental/ natural (beaches, coves, falls,etc.); 2) heritage; 3) pilgrimage; 4) events/festivals; and 5) agricultural. Ilocos Sur offers a Total Vacation Package (TVP) where one can experience and enjoy a trek to historic Tirad Pass, where the young general of the Philippine Revolution, Gregorio del Pilar, fell while defending his country; or visit Bessang Pass, a haven for eco-histourism enthusiasts in Cervantes town blessed with beautiful scenery. Through an eco-historical odyssey, one can also pass through a dozen and more waterfalls found in verdant mountains and hilly terrains. All these and more have become tourists attractions in upland areas, also the home of the province’s Indigenous Peoples. Another component of the TVP is Pilgrimage Tourism in which devotees experience healing powers attributed to patron saints and religious images, like the 17th century image of the Black Nazarene of Sinait, St. Vincent Ferrer, Santa Lucia and many more. There, too, is the imposing St. Paul Cathedral and other old churches found in every parish where different religious images are enthroned for worship. The province also takes pride in two of its most famous historical sites now recognized by the UNESCO. The cemturies-old church in Sta. Maria town, nestled on top of a hill and used as fortress during the 1896 Revolution, was inscribed in the UNESCO World Heritage List of Cultural Properties on December 11, 1992. 162 Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History

The University of Northern Philippines (UNP) in Vigan City is the first and oldest

On December 4, l999, the restored Vigan Heritage Village in the province’s capital of Vigan City, also found its way to the UNESCO World Heritage List for its structures with unique architectural designs dating back to the 18th and 19th centuries. Efforts are also underway to preserve other valuable cultural artifacts with the creation of an Office on Conservation and Preservation of Cultural Heritage. A series of cultural mapping seminars and workshops involving Department of Tourism officers and other employees were held to collate cultural and historical data.

state university in Northern Luzon. Older than the government-run University of the Philippines by two years, it was founded in 1906.

To promote Ilocos Sur tourism and its trade and industry products, a week-long Kannawidan Ylokos Festival is observed from January to early February each year to celebrate the creation of Ilocos Sur as a separate province on February 2, 1818. Highlights of the festival are the holding of a trade, agri-aqua and livestock fair to promote the One-Town One-Product (OTOP) program. To further boost the campaign for its local products and the province as a major tourist destination, the provincial government engages in various tourism activities such as travel marts, trade caravans and

festivals held in ifferent venues as strategic promotional activities. These include the annual “Tawid ken Partuat� or Heritage and Crafts festival at SM Mega Trade Hall in Mandaluyong City, Metro Manila, in partnership with the Department of Trade and Industry. A welcome boost is the participation of ISHORE, or the Ilocos Sur Hotel and Related Enterprises, as lead organization in partnership with the provincial government. Aimed at preserving the rich culture of indigenous communities in the upland and other lowland municipalities populated by the IPs, the first ever BEGNAS Ylocos Raising the Banner for Progress and Prosperity 163

Festival reeled off in October 2008, featuring a program of activities that showcased the talent, rituals, games, crafts and cuisine of the IPs. Ilocos Sur has much to offer its visitors. Not only is it the site of major historical events, it is also the birthplace of heroes and heroines and notable personages who have shaped not only a region’s destiny but that of a nation as well.

Youth Excellence and Leadership

Sustained prosperity in Ilocos Sur lies in the hands of its youth, the province’s future leaders.


With this in mind, a comprehensive and sustainable Provincial Youth Program has been crafted to increase the participation of the young in governance and development. Under the program, young men and women are provided quality education and livelihood and employment opportunities and excellent health and recreation activities and skills development. The components of this program are the Ilocos Sur Youth Congress and the Ilocos Sur Provincial Youth Council. The Ilocos Youth Congress convenes all existing youth organizations for a three-five day consultative assembly

This is the only airport in Ilocos Sur located in Barangay Mindoro, it is classified as a secondary airport or a minor commercial domestic airport. In the past, it was considered a “sleeping asset” for the city of Vigan since no revenues had been generated from its operations. With the launching of its inaugural flight on March 19, 2009, flights from Manila to Vigan and vice versa are now scheduled twice a week.

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where they openly express the different issues and concerns of their sector. The Ilocos Sur Provincial Youth Council, on the other hand, is an umbrella organization of all youth groups and organizations that encourages and promotes volunteerism among the youth, and empowers them so they can contribute to nation-building. They are, likewise, encouraged to take part in sports activities to take them away from engaging in vices and other unproductive activities. In line with these efforts, the provincial government has sponsored a Trainors’ Training (Agility Training) workshop to

strengthen their capabilities by training students to be more competitive in the field of sports. Sports equipment and tools were likewise distributed to different youth organizations through their respective Sangguniang Kabataan (SK) representatives for various athletic activities. With its rich natural resources harnessed by a hardworking people inspired by its storied past, the province of Ilocos Sur can confidently move towards a more progressive and prosperous future in the years to come. Soar High, Ilocos Sur!

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Living Treasures A

PART from its rich history, Ilocos Sur is also known for its industries, cuisine, and places of interest. Some of these industries have been developed and given generous support by the local government in order to fully realize its potentials by way of the economic opportunities these may provide. The places of interest – whether historical, religious or natural – have likewise been vigorously promoted as attractive tourist destinations. Vigan, for one, has already been declared a heritage site by the Unesco. With the province's many natural attractions as well, it is on its way to earning for itself a distinguished place on the country's eco-tourism map.

Honey Honey is a healthy substitute for sugar. It comes from honeybees that thrive in the hinterlands of the province that produces pure, natural and unadulterated honey.

Canton Noodles with Squash The pancit canton noodles with squash is a local version of the Chinese canton noodles. Squash has been added as an ingredient for its nutritive value. It came about as one way of adding value to the abundant harvest of squash in the province.

166 Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History

Loom-weaving Loom-weaving is an industry handed down through generations and dates back to the Spanish period. A craft mastered by small-scale weavers, it thrives in a number of municipalities in the province. Sails of galleons that plied the Manila to Mexico route were made of abel or native cotton, manufactured from the looms of Ilocos. Product lines include placemats, table runners, table napkins, hand towels, blankets, pillow cases, and clothing materials or fabrics.

Buri craft Buri craft is made from buri palms that grow abundantly in Ilocos Sur. Buri is a fan palm with leaves and long petioles terminating in a rounded fan of numerous leaflets. These are large palms, huge fan-shaped leaves with stout petioles ranging from 2-5 m in length. The leaves can be woven into bags, baskets, mats, fans, hats and other novelty items. Buri-weaving is a century-old industry in the province and is a common source of livelihood for residents, especially women and out-of-school youth.

Belgian Lace

The town of Tagudin is the main source of this industry introduced to the area by the ICM Missionary sisters, most of whom came from Belgium. Belgium is famous for its lacework. Sister Louise de Moester was the founder of the ICM Congregation and the first ICM sister to come to the Philippines in 1910. The ICM Missionary order established St. Augustine’s School where lacework was taught to its students.

Leather craft Leather craft is one of the traditional industries in the province which is concentrated in the municipality of Bantay. The leather craft industry, that utilizes carabao or cow skin, started with the need for saddles and casings for blacksmith products. Living Treasures 167


Ilocos Sur farmers cultivate a plant called tayum, a source of indigo. In the past, Vigan was a major indigo-producing area.

Bamboo craft This traditional industry thrives in the towns of Cabugao, Quirino, Galimuyod, San Juan, Santa and Sugpon. Soft-strip bamboos taken from the interior flesh of bamboo are made into trays and baskets called labba. It is used by market vendors to sell various farm produce. These baskets are said to be simply designed, but are extraordinarily sturdy. Today, the industry has introduced innovations to meet the demands of the market. Product lines now include furniture, bags, placemats, curtains and other home decor.

Sash-making Sash-making is a part of the furniture industry cluster in the province. It has branched out as a result of the intensive promotion and development of the wooden furniture industry in the province. The sash-making industry uses capiz shells or kulintipay as the primary and unique raw material.

Furniture-making The making of wooden furniture with an antique finish has become a major industry in the province, giving employment to many residents and contributing significantly to the local economy. A variety of product lines produced are living room sets, dining sets, chairs, tables, “aparador�, chests and others. They are made from narra, acacia, molave, mahogany, gemelina and other wood species. 168 Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History

Garlic industry

An essential cooking ingredient, garlic is cultivated in Sinait, the northernmost town of Ilocos Sur. Sinait has been called the “Garlic Center of the North.” A Garlic Trading Center has been established in front of the public market where trading day is observed every Friday. On this day, buyers come from all over the country to buy the commodity.


Ilocos Sur, together with Ilocos Norte, are the country’s biggest producers of red shallot onions. The town of Sinait remains the major producer of this variety of onion often eaten with bagnet (a pork delicacy) and tomatoes or may be pickled as accompaniment to other dishes. Sugarcane vinegar is often mixed with red shallot onions called lasona and serves as a dip for the famous Vigan empanada.

Opia-making A nutritious and crunchy snack made of rice flour and sesame seeds. This delicacy is made in Pandayan, San Juan and Sabang, Cabugao. It is a mixture of kneaded rice flour and brown sugar (tagapulot), shaped in a half-moon with toasted sesame and sugar. The opia is cooked in a big Vigan jar that serves as an oven until it is done.


The towns of Cabugao and San Vicente are known for this particular industry. The salt produced is either rock salt or refined salt. Living Treasures 169

Blacksmith trade

The towns of San Juan and Santa are known for this particular industry. Bolos, scythes, knives and scissors are produced in these two towns.

Burnay-making Burnay is the Ilocano word for a jar made of clay mixed with sand, ashes, and fine gravel. Burnay can be found only in the city of Vigan where there is an abundance of clay. In fact, there is a place in the area called Pagburnayan, meaning a place where burnay is made. Before, the burnay was used only to store salt, vinegar, basi (sugarcane wine), and fermented fish sauce. But consumer demands have transformed some of these storage jars into decorative items and indispensable landscape ornaments.

Stone craft

The town of San Esteban is known for its mountains that yield big stones made into mortars and sold all over the country.

Terra cotta red clay industries Vigan is the center of the terra cotta red clay industry. The traditional craft of making terra cotta called damil is an enduring industry in Vigan. Craftsmen produce items such as banga (cooking pots), karamba (water vessels), masetera (flower pots) and Vigan tiles that continue to be used in houses as floors or as an accent.

170 Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History


With gold abundant in the mountains of neighboring Kalinga and Apayao, the Ilocanos of Bantay and Vigan used the supply to make combs, hairpins, chains, necklaces, earrings, brooches, rings and bracelets. Tambourine necklaces with pendant medallions, scapulars and reliquaries were typical accessories used by women during the Spanish period. Necklaces with filigree beads adorned the necks of well-to-do women. Women fashioned their long hair in a bun that required the wearing of combs called peinetas made of gold or silver and tortoise shell. The more expensive peinetas were made of gold filigree combined with pearls, corals and diamonds.

Living Treasures 171

Tobacco industry

Ilocos Sur did not enjoy a tobacco monopoly during the Spanish period. Under the monopoly, the cultivation of tobacco was confined to the town of Gapan, in Nueva Ecija province and in some towns in the provinces of Bulacan and Cagayan. During the American period, the Tobacco Inspection Law was enacted on February 4, 1916, aimed at improving the method of production and the quality of tobacco in the country with the ultimate goal of making it an export crop. In 1927, Virginia or flue-cured tobacco, was planted as an experiment at the Ilagan Agricultural School in Isabela province to determine its adaptability to the soil and climate conditions. In 1942, a team from Kuksai Shoiji Kaishai, one of the biggest cigarette factories in Japan, arrived in the Philippines to analyze the soil, climate, rainfall, and weather conditions in La Union for the purpose of looking into the province’s potential for growing tobacco. The team found the conditions in La Union similar to the areas where they planted flue-cured tobacco in Japan. The impetus to cultivate tobacco in Ilocos Sur came after World War II with the passage of Republic Act 698 in 1952. The Act limited the entry or importation of Virginia Tobacco. Under the law, all locally-grown and produced Virginia Tobacco was purchased by the government. It also fixed the price for both flue-cured and sun-dried Virginia Leaf Tobacco. The Philippine Tobacco Administration was mandated to assist the Agricultural Credit Cooperative and Financing Administration in purchasing the leaves. A retired American lieutenant by the name of Harry Stonehill brought into the country tobacco seeds from the United States and printed manuals on how to flue-cure tobacco leaves. The seeds and manuals were distributed for free by Stonehill to the farmers of Abra, Ilocos Sur and Ilocos Norte. Stonehill built flue-curing barns in Agoo and San Juan in

172 Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History

Sangleys deliver tobacco to cigarette factories in the 1860s.

La Union and in Santa Barbara and San Jacinto towns in Pangasinan province. Later, the enterprising former soldier established the Philippine Tobacco Flue-Curing and Redrying Corporation. Since then, tobacco had become a major crop in the provinces of Abra, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur and La Union. Presidential Decree No. 628 designated specific areas for growing the crop. Ilocos Sur was designated to grow Virginia Leaf. Today, Virginia Tobacco is considered a

major cash crop of farmers in Ilocos Sur. Local government units also stand to gain from this industry. Republic Act 7171, known as the Tobacco Excise Tax Law authored by former Rep. Luis “Chavit� Singson, mandates the allocation of millions of pesos from tobacco excise taxes as shares for the four tobaccoproducing provinces of Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Abra and La Union. The shares of each province are used for infrastructure and livelihood development projects that benefit

farmers and their families. Proof of the importance of this industry is the holding of an annual tripartite conference among the National Tobacco Administration, traders and cigarette manufacturers and tobacco farmers. The conference aims to thresh out problems and concerns affecting the tobacco industry, and in particular, setting the price of flue-cured tobacco leaves in the face of increases in the prices of inputs such as fertilizers and pesticides. Living Treasures 173


Culinary Heritage

OOD is part and parcel of the cultural heritage of Ilocos Sur, as well as a tourist attraction. Visitors make it a point to bring home delicacies from this province as pasalubong or gifts to family and friends. Some of these gastronomic delights which put Ilocos Sur on the culinary map are the longganisa, empanada and bagnet.

Bacalao Bacalao, or codfish, is caught along the waters of Caoayan during summer. It is about a meter long, and is a fatty fish. It is good when broiled or fried and eaten with bagoong and kamatis or soy with kalamansi.

Bagnet Bagnet, is a specialty of Ilocos Sur. It is made of selected parts of swine like the belly, shoulder, stomach and pigue cut into 8 x 6 inches, boiled in water and seasoned with salt and garlic until tender. After it is cooled, it is deep-fried until tender. Serve with tomatoes (kamatis), bagoong (fish sauce) and green onions (lasona) (KBL) or with catsup. It may also be used as additional ingredient (sahog) for ‘pinakbet, a delectable dish of mixed vegetables, including eggplant, ampalaya, string beans, okra and patani. 174 Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History

Basi An Ilocano native wine made from sugar cane, basi is produced by extracting the sap from the sugar cane that is boiled later. The bark of trees like kariskis or samakis is mixed with the boiled sap. Then, the mixture is allowed to ferment and age. This famous Ilocano brew is produced mainly in the town of San Ildefonso.

Cornik (Kornik) This food product of

Bantay, Candon City and Santo Domingo is glutinous corn cooked in different flavors like adobo, garlic, cheese, barbecue, and is sweet and spicy. The corn kernels are boiled with water and lime until the outer skin breaks, then is washed thoroughly before it is sun-dried. It is then deep-fried in a large vat and cooked until done.

Empanada Empanada is a famous Ilocos delicacy sought after by tourists and visitors. Its dough is made of rice flour, with fillings of grated pork, sprouted mongo, carrots, cabbage and eggs and salt and pepper for seasoning. Deep-fried in oil to a crisp, it is served with sukang Iloko, native onions and hot pepper. Culinary Heritage 175



A seasonal small fish which is harvested 7-8 days after the full moon during the months of August to October and l0 days after the full moon during the months of November to February. Ipon is best for kilawin, sinigang, paksiw and omelets. It is also good for bagoong and is sometimes served as dried fish. Ipon can only be found along the shores of the coastal towns of Caoayan and Santa.

Ilocos Sur’s well-known delicacy is a mixture of ground pork with vinegar, salt and pepper, inserted in an intestine casing and bundled by the dozen. Longganisa is cooked with water until done and served with tomatoes and bagoong. It is usually served for breakfast with sinangag (fried rice) and itlog (egg), popularly called longsilog.

Kalamay A specialty of Candon, this delicacy is made of grounded glutinous rice, brown or white sugar and coconut milk. Kalamay is cooked with coconut milk until the sugar is dissolved together with glutinous rice, and is stirred continuously until done.

176 Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History

Ludong A delicious big fish caught along the Abra River at Barangay Rancho to Banaoang, Santa. Ludong is plentiful during the months of May to October. Sigay and gillnet is used in catching ludong. It is good for sinigang, broiled and paksiw dishes. Ludong is also referred to as the President’s fish.

Sukang Iloko

Miki This is the Ilocano version of Chinese noodles. The noodles are made of flour, salt and egg. It is manually kneaded and cut. The dish is usually served for breakfast or during birth and death anniversaries. The Ilocano word for pray is “lualo” and combined with the term “maki” means “to pray with the others.” However, a play of words has resulted in common usage. Instead of “maki”, the word “miki” has been substituted, giving rise to the term “miki-lualo,” meaning “praying and eating miki at the same time.” The town of Cabugao where miki is manufactured now enjoys a delicious kind of notoriety because of this noodle.

This native vinegar is made of sugar cane juice fermented with ‘samak’ or kariskis for its taste and lomboy bark for coloring. It is an income-generating project in Santo Domingo, San Ildefonso and Sta. Maria towns. Its sour taste is good for preparing pickles and for cooking adobo, paksiw and is also used to preserve fruits and vegetables.

Tinubong A native delicacy usually served during the Christmas season in Cabugao, it also a best-seller in Magsingal and Santo Domingo towns as well as among street vendors in Vigan City. Tinubong is made of ground glutinous rice with sugar, coconut milk, grated young coconut, ground peanut milk and margarine. The mixture is then placed in a native young bamboo and is cooked in an oven until done. Culinary Heritage 177

Significant Sites and Landmarks


IGAN City is the capital of Ilocos Sur province. On December 2, 1999, it was declared a World Heritage Site by the United Nations Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (Unesco). Vigan became a city on January 22, 2001. During the Spanish period, Vigan assumed the name Villa Fernandina that later became the seat of the Bishopric of Nueva Segovia. One historical place in the city is Vigan Cathedral, also known as St. Paul Cathedral. The church was built in 1641, but the present structure dates back to 1799. Its façade is divided into three levels “with the ground portals flanked by coupled columns topped by Chinese Fu Dogs.” The bell tower is located 10 meters from the church and has three levels. The lower level has a square

178 Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History

St. Paul Cathedral

Significant Sites and Landmarks 179

Simbaan a Bassit

180 Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History

shape, with the two upper levels in octagon form. A statue of a chicken is found on top of the bell tower’s dome. On the left of the cathedral is the Archbishop’s Palace. The Palace has the stone house look, often referred to as the Vigan style, and is made entirely of bricks. The cathedral now houses a religious museum. Fronting the cathedral is a plaza (town square) displaying a monument of Juan de Salcedo dating back to the 17th century. Gabriela Silang, wife of the famous Ilocano hero Diego Silang, was said to have been executed in this plaza in 1763. Another plaza in Vigan is Plaza Burgos. It is adorned by an obelisk which is Egyptian in character and a pedestal in the Greco-Roman style. There are many homes in Vigan that serve as museums. One of these is the Padre Burgos House containing memorabilia of the martyred priest Fr. Jose Burgos, as well as Ilocano and Tingguian artifacts. The other homes that have been converted into museums are those owned by the Crisologo and Syquia families. The homes were usually made of brick and wood. At the end of Vigan’s Quezon Avenue, one finds the Simbaan a Bassit, a cemetery chapel with square columns for support. Two bells have been added to the chapel’s façade. Not to be missed is the Mestizo Quarter highlighted by old Vigan houses on both sides of a cobblestoned street. Most of the houses in this part of the city have tiled roofs and are made of bricks. The area is now called Vigan Heritage Village.

Significant Sites and Landmarks 181

182 Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History

Vigan Heritage Village The restored Vigan Heritage Village is a tribute to a rich and idyllic lifestyle during the Spanish period. The World Heritage List included the village in November 1999 because of its outstanding architectural, urban planning, and landscape design exemplifying a Spanish colonial town in Asia.

Significant Sites and Landmarks 183

Bantay’s Bell Tower The church of Bantay is dedicated to the Nuestra Señora de la Caridad or Our Lady of Charity. The statue of Our Lady is found in a niche at the top section of the façade. Below it, in another cornice, is the statue of St. Augustine of Hippo, suggesting that the church was a former Augustinian parish. With its pointed windows and blind arches, the church appears to be patterned after the pseudoGothic style. The bell tower is located on top of a hill not far from the church. 184 Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History

Patroness of Ilocandia The Roman Catholic church in Bantay, established in 1591, is dedicated to the Nuestra Se単ora de la Caridad, locally known as Apo Caridad, or Our Lady of Charity, patroness of the Archdiocese of Nueva Segovia. Her feast day is celebrated on the second Sunday of January in commemoration of the canonical coronation of the image on January 12, 1956 by then Apostolic Nuncio to the Philippines, Rev. Egidio Vagnozi.

Bantay Church

Significant Sites and Landmarks 185

Bessang Pass West of the town of Cervantes, Bessang Pass is situated 5,250 feet above sea level. It was here where the Japanese general Yamashita made his exit as he tried to escape from American and Filipino

186 Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History

forces during the last stage of World War II in the Philippines. The Battle of Bessang Pass was eventually won by the United States Armed Forces in the Philippines, Northern Luzon (USAFP, NL) on June 14, 1945.

Cabugao Church Cabugao’s Catholic church was built by the Augustinians. The church is made of bricks and was done in the Renaissance style with columns flanking niches holding statues. A five-level octagonal bell tower is found on the left side of the church. Significant Sites and Landmarks 187

Candon Church Augustinian priests were responsible for the building of a Catholic church in Candon. The church follows a “baroque 188 Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History

style with volutes and scrolls emphasizing the façade.” The façade has three levels “with portals flanked by coupled Corinthian columns.”

Caoayan Church Built by the Augustinians, the church of Caoayan is a mixture of the pseudoGothic and High Renaissance styles. The columns suggest a Renaissance influence while the pointed windows and arches remind one of the Gothic style. A fourlevel bell tower is found on the left side of the church.

Significant Sites and Landmarks 189

Magsingal Church The church of Magsingal built by the Augustinians is dedicated to St. William, the Hermit. It is made up of five structures: the new church of Magsingal, the ruins of the old church, the bell tower, the visita and the convent. The old church was destroyed by an earthquake that hit the province in the 18th century. The visita, a small chapel which was designed in the simple High Renaissance style, now houses a museum featuring a collection of pottery and porcelain. The 190 Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History

new church, built on the right of the old ruins, is also in the High Renaissance style. The façade has three levels “with pilasters rising to pediment levels. Arched windows line the façade.” The bell tower is a few meters away from the ruins of the old church. It is octagonal in shape and is four levels high. A convent has been annexed to the new church. Inside is a antique wooden altar (retablo) divided into three levels, with niches housing the statues of various saints.

San Juan Church The brick church of San Juan was constructed by Augustinian priests during the Spanish period. It has three levels, with the ground and the second level adorned by solo columns between blind arches. During the Japanese occupation, the townspeople of San Juan were herded inside this church by the Japanese who

wanted to know where a compatriot, believed to have been killed by guerillas, was buried. A machine gun was positioned by Japanese soldiers in front of this church as a grim warning to San Juan residents. An eighteen-year old boy, Constante Varilla Castro bravely led the Japanese to the shallow grave of Tomoyoki San.

Significant Sites and Landmarks 191

San Vicente Church The Catholic church in this town is a late 19th century structure built by the Augustinians. Entirely made of brick, the church follows the Baroque style. Composite columns dominate the lower and mid-level. Small octagonal towers flank both sides of the façade. Pilgrims come in droves to visit the church because of miracles attributed to St. Vincent Ferrer, the town’s patron saint.

192 Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History

Significant Sites and Landmarks 193

Santa Lucia Church The town’s Augustinian church has been restored recently in the pseudoRomanesque style. Consoles projecting downward from the cornice make the façade attractive. The church has been dedicated to Santa Lucia, a saint often invoked by people who need a cure for their eye ailments.

194 Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History

Significant Sites and Landmarks 195

Santa Maria Church The church of Santa Maria has been included in the World Heritage List in 1993. Built on top of a promontory, it has a commanding view of the sea. Accessible through an 82-step stairway, its faรงade is flanked by two huge columns. A four-story octagonal bell tower is located beside the church. The exposed bricks on the faรงade give the structure a reddish hue.

196 Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History

Significant Sites and Landmarks 197

Shrine of Apo Lacay The Catholic church of Sinait was also built by the Augustinians. A small niche and scroll work on the pediment can be found on the faรงade. Two square towers are also found on both sides of the faรงade. This church is famous for its statue of the crucified Christ or Apo Lacay, as local folks call him. According to local lore, boxes bearing the images of the Virgen Milagrosa and Sto. Cristo Milagroso or Apo Lacay were washed ashore along the boundary of the towns of Badoc and Sinait. When the priests of Badoc and Sinait attempted to bring the images to their respective parishes, they reportedly had a hard time carrying the boxes. The priests then decided to exchange their statues: the Virgen Milagrosa went to the Badoc parish while Apo Lacay went to Sinait. The task of carrying the boxes did not prove to be difficult this time. Reputed to be miraculous, Apo Lacay attracts pilgrims even if it is not His feast day, which falls on May 3.

Descriptions of churches and old houses were taken from Heritage: Philippine Architecture, Region 1. United Architecture of the Philippines, 1997.

198 Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History

Significant Sites and Landmarks 199

Narvacan Watch Tower The church of Narvacan was inspired by the Baroque style “with scroll designs on the pediment and flat buttresses supporting the façade.” A four-story octagonal bell tower is found on the right side of the church. A watch tower is found in Sulvec Point. It is a circular tower with indentations on top. Entirely made of bricks, the tower has two openings – one on the lower level and another in the middle portion. 200 Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History

San Esteban Watch Tower Watchtowers were constructed in Ilocos in the 1750s to warn natives of approaching Moro slave traders who had been ravaging coastal settlements. Among the watchtowers built are those found in Cabugao, Narvacan and San Esteban towns. Made of rubble and circular in shape, a watch tower warning townspeople of the impending arrival of pirates can be found in San Esteban. On top of the watch tower are rounded indentations. On the lower level is an opening. Small holes that could have served as drain holes dot the upper part of the structure. Significant Sites and Landmarks 201

202 Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History

Palacio de Gobernador The Palacio de Gobernador was said to have been built soon after the construction of the church of San Vicente de Ferrer in 1795. The gobernadorcillo of the town resided in this structure where he watched local zarzuelas and comedias performed in the church plaza. The residence, however, came to be known as Palacio de Gobernador. During the American period, the house was abandoned and its administration was passed on to the Archdiocese of Nueva Segovia. In 1940, the Sisters of St. Paul used the house as their convent before they moved to Vigan after World War II. From 1949 to 1955, the Palacio de Gobernador became home to 40 Chinese seminarians who arrived in the Philippines after the takeover of China by the communists. With the permission of the Archbishop of Nueva Segovia, it became the home of St. Vincent High School in 1955. The local government took over the administration of the school in 1980. In June 2000, the school closed down and the residence was turned over to the Archdiocese of Nueva Segovia.

Significant Sites and Landmarks 203

204 Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History

Tirad Pass Located in a town named after Gregorio del Pilar, this Pass was defended by the soldier-hero to enable Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo to keep a safe distance between him and his forces and pursuing American soldiers. The site has been declared a national shrine.


Spanish Sundials This town boasts of two sundials built in 1841. Mounted on a simple pedestal is a square block tilted at a calculated angle. The face of the sundial 206 Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History

is marked by grooves showing the time and a simple iron rod as the hand. The sundials are found in front of the Tagudin Municipal Hall and in the church courtyard.

Santa Marker The brick marker in Santa town, as reflected in its inscription at the back (Gov. Felix Angco, C.O. Upington, J. Ortega, E. P. Schuman), could indicate

repairs done on the retained Spanish period walls during the early American period, particularly during the incumbency of Gov. Felix Angco (1906-1908). Significant Sites and Landmarks 207

Syquia Mansion The ancestral home of Doña Alicia Syquia-Quirino, the Syquia mansion was a venue for official and public functions during the administration of the late President Elpidio Quirino, Doña Alicia’s husband. The structure was built in 1830 by Justo Angco and was given as a gift to his daughter Estifania when she wed Gregorio Syquia, Alicia’s father, in 1875. It is considered the first Malacañang in the north.

208 Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History

Significant Sites and Landmarks 209

Famous Sons and Daughters Pedro Bukaneg Ilocanos acknowledge Pedro Bukaneg as the “Father of Iloko Literature.” Born blind, Bukaneg was found wrapped in a woven mat (tampipi) floating in the Banaoang River that divided the towns of Bantay and Vigan. At that time, it was the practice to kill or bury alive babies who had defects to avoid what the ancients called the curse of the evil spirits. Bukaneg was adopted and raised by the Augustinians of Bantay who baptized him and gave him the name Pedro. Bukaneg, on the other hand, is an Isneg term for “Christianized Isneg.” Bukaneg’s adoptive family, who had discovered that he was a brilliant student, taught him the rudiments of education. He later became fluent in Latin and Spanish, translating works in both languages to Iloko and Isneg. He is credited for helping in the translation of the Doctrina Cristiana into Iloko in 1621. Fr. Francisco Lopez, who wrote the Arte de la Lengua Ilokana, also acknowledged the invaluable assistance of Bukaneg. Bukaneg also translated many Spanish prayers and sermons into Ilocano. One of the oldest prayers in Ilocano, Cararag ken Sta. Maria, is said to his work. His fluency in Spanish, Latin, Ilocano and Isneg made him an ideal translator of the Augustinians for their gospels. The Ilocano epic poem “Biag ni Lam-ang” has also been attributed to Bukaneg. It has been reported that his love and affection for the Augustinians led him to substitute some native ideas for Spanish concepts. Bukaneg lives on through a poetical joust similar to the Tagalog ”balagtasan” called Bukanegan. He is said to have died between the years 1622 and 1626.

1591 (March): A laundry woman finds a baby inside a tampipi (woven bag) floating

along the bank of a stream (now called Banaoang River). The baby was the first Ilocano poet, orator, musician, lexicographer and linguist, Pedro Bukaneg, who was born blind.

210 Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History

Famous Sons and Daughters 211

Jose Burgos Jose Burgos was born in Vigan on February 9, 1837 to Don Tiburcio Burgos, an officer of the Batallon Milicias de Ilocos 5 de Linea, and Doña Florencia Garcia, a Spanish mestiza. Burgos had two other sisters – Antonia and Maria. At the age of 10, Burgos enrolled at the Colegio de San Juan de Letran and obtained his Bachiller en Filosofia, sobresaliente in 1885. Four years later, Burgos received his second degree – 212 Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History

Bachiller en Teologia – graduating at the top of his class. After finishing his studies in the seminary, Burgos became a parish priest at the Sagrario de Intramuros. Burgos decided to enroll at the University of Santo Tomas where he obtained the following degrees: Licenciado en Teologia (1862), Bachiller en Canones (1866), Doctor en Teologia (1868), Licenciado en Canones (1868) and Doctor en Canones (1871). This qualified him to be a member of the examining board for priests. Disturbed by how the Spanish clergy looked down on Filipino seculars, Burgos wrote a manifesto entitled “La Verdad” where he expressed his liberal ideas and extolled the ability of native seculars. He eventually became one of the keen supporters of an advocacy that promoted the handing over the supervision of parishes not held by religious corporations to Filipino seculars. This, in effect, made Burgos a marked man. On January 20, 1872, Filipinos working in the Cavite naval yard rose in arms when their exemption from the payment of tribute was withdrawn. This incident was known as the Cavite Mutiny. For the Spaniards, the event was a convenient excuse to silence supporters of the secularization movement. Falsely accused as the brains of the mutiny, Burgos, together with Frs. Mariano Gomez and Jacinto Zamora were executed by means of the “garrote” on February 17, 1872. Governor General Rafael Izquierdo earlier ordered Archbishop Meliton Martinez to defrock the three priests. Believing in the innocence of the three, Martinez refused to do so. Jose Rizal dedicated his novel El Filibusterismo to the three martyred priests.

Leona Florentino Leona Florentino was born in Vigan on April 19, 1849 to a rich family. Her parents were Marcelino and Isabel Florentino. She married Elias de los Reyes and had five children by him, the eldest of whom was Isabelo de los Reyes. Florentino gained international prominence when her poems in Iloko were exhibited at the Exposicion General de Filipinas in 1887 and at the International Exposition in Paris in 1899 that marked the centennial of the French Revolution. Isabelo de los Reyes paid homage to his mother when he included her poems in his El Folklore Filipino. Included in this work were Florentino’s congratulatory and erotic poems in Ilocano. Most of the congratulatory poems for birthdays and weddings were usually in acrostic form. The foremost Ilocano poetess died on October 4, 1884 at the age of 35.


The Exposicion General de Filipinas in Madrid featured Spanish poems by Leona Florentino, then the foremost Filipino woman poet in Spanish.

Famous Sons and Daughters 213

Isabelo de los Reyes The son of Elias de los Reyes and Leona Florentino, Isabelo de los Reyes was entrusted in the care of Don Mena Crisologo. As a young man, he enrolled at the Vigan Seminary, then proceeded to Manila as a self-supporting student at the San Juan de Letran where he finished a bachelor’s degree with flying colors. He then transferred to the University of Santo Tomas to pursue a degree in law, becoming a notary public at the age of 22. As the legal age to practice law was 25, he turned his attention to journalism. De los Reyes contributed an article, “Invasion of Limahong” to the Diario de Manila, and later founded the first vernacular paper, El Ilocano. He eventually published prizewinning books, like Historia de Ilocos, Folklore Filipino, and Las Islas Filipinas en la epoca de la Conquista. Arrested by the Spaniards during the Philippine Revolution of 1896, he wrote from his Bilibid prison cell the Sensecional Memoria sobre la Revolucion Filipina where he accused the friars of being the root of the Filipinos’ disenchantment with Spanish colonial rule. For this piece, De los Reyes was deported to Spain where he was imprisoned at the Montjuich Castle in Barcelona. While in Spain, he founded and edited two nationalist papers, El Defensor de Filipinas and Filipinas Ante Europa. Released from prison by virtue of the Truce of Biak na Bato in 1897, he was appointed Consejero del Ministerio de 214 Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History

Ultramar from 1898-1901. Returning to the Philippines in 1901, De los Reyes established the country’s first labor union, Union Obrera Democratica Filipina on February 2, 1902, spearheading the first Labor Day celebration on May 1 of the same year. In the first labor congress held on August 3, 1902, he proposed the establishment of the Philippine Independent Church and nominated Fr. Gregorio Aglipay, vicar general of the Revolutionary Army as the Supreme Bishop. De los Reyes was a councilor of Manila from 1912 to 1919 and senator of the first senatorial district from 1922-1928. At the end of his senatorial term, he devoted his time to religion and writing. He is the author of the Biblia Filipina, Aglipayan Calendar and Divine Office. De los Reyes died on October 10, 1938.

Federico Isabelo Abaya Isabelo Abaya was the son of a well-to-do couple of Candon. He finished his secondary education at the Vigan Seminary. Resisting a Spanish-influenced education, Abaya decided to stop schooling and instead helped his parents in their business. In 1898, Abaya, along with townmate Fernando Guirnalda, organized a cell of the Katipunan which they called Estrella del Sur. While revolutionary leader Emilio Aguinaldo was in Hong Kong, the Katipuneros of Ilocos, like Abaya and Guirnalda, informed the leader that they were busy organizing and were ready to start the revolution on his return to the Philippines. On the night of March 24, 1898, when the Candon Katipunan was discovered, Abaya and Guirnalda were left with no choice but to occupy the headquarters of the Guardia Civil, wounding the commanding officer and arrested three friars and a few Spanish residents. The following day, Guirnalda assumed control of the civil government in Candon while Abaya was appointed Commander-in-Chief with the rank of general. The Spaniards, however, brought in “cazadores,� Spanish shock troops headed by Jose Garcia Herreros, to quell the protesters. Abaya and Guirnalda, however, were able to escape and avoid arrest. Abaya later joined the forces of Col. Juan Villamor during the Philippine-American War, bringing in Igorot soldiers with whom he had ethnic affinity. He was killed in action, fighting American troops this time, on May 3, 1900. Famous Sons and Daughters 215

Elpidio Rivera Quirino A native of Vigan, Elpidio Quirino was the son of Mariano Quirino, a former sergeant of the Spanish army and warden of the Vigan provincial jail, and Gregoria Mendoza Rivera of Agoo, La Union. In his early years, Quirino attended the Aringay Elementary School in La Union. He obtained his high school education from La Union High School and Ilocos High School. He enrolled at the College of Law of the University of the Philippines and graduated in 1915, passing the bar the same year. Quirino became the private secretary of Manuel Quezon who was then Senate President. Later, he accompanied Quezon to the United States when the latter met with President Woodrow Wilson and offered the services of the Filipino militia in the war against Germany. In 1919, Quirino became a representative of the first district of Ilocos Sur. In 1925, he was elected to the Senate and was the chairperson of the Special Joint Committee on Taxation. He accompanied Quezon to the United States in 1933 to secure the passage of an independence bill, the Tydings-McDuffie Law, which the Philippine Legislature approved on May 1, 1934. In the same year, Quirino became a delegate to the Constitutional Convention, representing Ilocos Sur. When the Commonwealth government was inaugurated in 1935, Quezon appointed Quirino as Secretary of Interior and Finance. Quirino resigned from the position later to run for a seat in the National Assembly. Elected senator on November 11, 1941, Quirino was unable to assume the position because of the outbreak of World War II. His active support for the guerilla movement led to his incarceration in Fort Santiago. Upon the inauguration of the Philippine Republic in 1946 with Manuel Roxas as president, Quirino was elected as his vice president. President Roxas initially gave the secretary of finance portfolio to Quirino, who was later appointed secretary of foreign affairs. With the death of President Roxas on April 15, 1948, Quirino became president, serving the late president’s unexpired term. He was elected President of the Philippines 216 Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History

Elpidio Quirino was elected President of the Republic of the Philippines on November 8, 1949.

on November 8, 1949. He died on February 29, 1956. Quirino was married to Alicia Syquia of Vigan with whom he had five children. His wife and three of his children died during the liberation of Manila from Japanese forces in 1945. Two children survived – Tomas and Victoria. Famous Sons and Daughters 217

Diego Silang saw Spain’s vulnerability vis-a-vis the British when the latter made its presence felt in the Philippines in 1872. This emboldened him to declare Ilocos’ independence from Spanish rule. With his supporters, he sought the removal of the Spanish alcalde mayor of Ilocos Sur, the abolition of the tribute and the expulsion of the bishop and all Spanish mestizos in the province. Seeing the growing influence and popularity of Silang, the Spaniards, with the connivance of Miguel Vicos and Pedro Becbec, conspired to assassinate the Ilocano leader. Silang’s widow Gabriela, with the help of her fellow Itnegs, continued her husband’s unfinished task. She was, however, captured and hanged in public on September 20, 1763.

218Ilocos IlocosSur: Sur:An AnIllustrated IllustratedHistory History

Epic of Lam-ang

This epic poem is considered “the oldest recorded Philippine folk epic and the only complete epic to come down to us,” according to Filipino folklorist, Damiana Eugenio. The authorship of the poem was attributed to Pedro Bukaneg in some accounts. The earliest data on the poem was given by Father Gerardo Blanco to Isabelo de los Reyes, who published it as a series in the periodical El Ilocano from December 1899 to February 1890. The poem was later reprinted in De los Reyes’ El Folkore Filipino. Famous Sons and Daughters 219

Prominent Ilocos Surians S

INCE the establishment of the civil government in 1901, Ilocos Sur has had its share of capable provincial executives, each an achiever in ways too numerous to be chronicled here. Their names are engraved in the hearts of the people they served unselfishly or continue to serve. The following is a roster of governors in chronological order:



220 Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History

1906 1908 1909 1912


Hon. Hon. Hon. Hon.

Mena Crisologo Felix Angco Estanislao Reyes Manuel Singson

1912 - 1916 1916 - 1919 1919 - 1925 1925 - 1928 1928 - 1931 1931 - 1932 1933 - 1936 1937 - 1941 1943 - 1945 1945 - 1946 1946 - 1952 1952 - 1955 1956 - 1959 1960 - 1963 1964 - 1971 1972 - 1986 1986 - 1987 1987 1987 - 1988 1988 1989 - 1992 March 23 to June 30, 1992 1992 - 2001 2001 - 2004 2004 - 2007 2007 - present


Hon. Hon. Hon. Hon. Hon. Hon. Hon. Hon. Hon. Hon. Hon. Hon. Hon. Hon. Hon. Hon. Hon. Hon. Hon. Hon. Hon. Hon. Hon. Hon. Hon. Hon.

Juan Villamor Jose Villanueva Simeon Reyes Alberto Reyes Alejandro Quirolgico Lupo Biteng Alejandro Quirolgico Pedro Singson Reyes Pascual Pimentel Sixto Brillantes Perfecto Faypon Eliseo Quirino Pedro Singson Reyes Godofredo S. Reyes Carmeling P. Crisologo Luis “Chavit” C. Singson Jose G. Burgos Jr. (OIC Governor) Antonio “Yeng” Abaya (OIC Governor) Anita Lorenzana (OIC Governor) Evaristo “Titong” C. Singson Mariano M. Tajon (By Operation of Law) Deogracias Victor B. Savellano (By Operation of Law) Luis “Chavit” Singson Deogracias Victor B. Savellano Luis “Chavit” Singson Deogracias Victor B. Savellano

Prominent Ilocos Surians 221

Hon. Mena Crisologo (1901 - 1906)

Hon. Felix Angco (1906 - 1908)

Hon. Estanislao Reyes (1908 - 1909)

Hon. Manuel Singson (1910 - 1912)

222 Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History

Hon. Juan Villamor (1912 - 1916)

Hon. Jose Villanueva (1916 - 1919)

Hon. Simeon Reyes (1919 - 1925)

Hon. Alberto Reyes (1925 - 1928) Prominent Ilocos Surians 223

Hon. Alejandro Quirolgico (1928 - 1931; 1933 - 1936)

Hon. Lupo Biteng (1931 - 1932)

PASCUAL RIVERA PIMENTEL. Pascual Rivera Pimentel was a lawyer by profession. He was born in Poblacion Weste, Sta. Cruz, Ilocos Sur. Pimentel was the Executive Secretary of President Jose P. Laurel during the Japanese Occupation of the Philippines and was later appointed governor of Ilocos Sur from 1943 to 1945. Pimentel was killed by the Japanese near the close of World War II in 1945. In his memory, a school was founded by his brother Marcial in Sta. Cruz, Ilocos Sur and named Pascual Rivera Pimentel Memorial School on February 11, 1947.

Hon. Pedro Singson Reyes (1937 - 1941; 1956 - 1959) 224 Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History

Hon. Pascual Pimentel (1943 - 1945)

Hon. Sixto Brillantes (1945 - 1946)

Hon. Perfecto Faypon (1946 -1952)

Hon. Eliseo Quirino (1952 - 1955)

Hon. Godofredo S. Reyes (1960 - 1963) Prominent Ilocos Surians 225

Hon. Carmeling P. Crisologo (1964 -1971)

Hon. Luis “Chavit” C. Singson (1972 - 1986; 1992 - 2001; 2004 - 2007)

Hon. Jose G. Burgos Jr. (1986 - 1987 / OIC Governor)

Hon. Antonio “Yeng” Abaya (1987 / OIC Governor)

226 Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History

Hon. Anita Lorenzana (1987 - 1988 / OIC Governor)

Hon. Evaristo C. Singson (February - December1988)

Hon. Mariano M. Tajon (December 1989 - March 22, 1992)

Hon. Deogracias Victor ‘DV’ B. Savellano (March 23 to June 30, 1992; 2001 - 2004; 2007 to present) Prominent Ilocos Surians 227



FOURTEENTH CONGRESS 2007 – 2010 First District - Ronald Singson Second District - Eric D. Singson

REGION 1 First District - Salacnib F. Baterina Second District - Lucas V. Cauton

THIRTEENTH CONGRESS 2004 – 2007 First District - Salacnib Baterina Second District - Eric D. Singson TWELVE CONGRESS 2001 – 2004 First District - Salacnib Baterina Second District - Eric D. Singson ELEVENTH CONGRESS 1998 – 2001 First District - Salacnib Baterina Second District - Grace G. Singson TENTH CONGRESS 1995 – 1998 First District - Mariano M. Tajon Second District - Eric D. Singson NINTH CONGRESS 1992 – 1995 First District - Mariano M. Tajon Second District - Eric D. Singson EIGHT CONGRESS 1987 – 1992 First District - Luis C. Singson Second District - Eric D. Singson

REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES REGULAR BATASANG PAMBANSA (1984 – 1986) REGION 1 First District - Salacnib F. Baterina Second District - Eric D. Singson 228 Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES SEVENTH CONGRESS 1969 – 1972 First District - Floro Crisologo Second District - Lucas V. Cauton SIXTH CONGRESS 1965 – 1969 First District - Floro S. Crisologo Second District - Pablo C. Sanidad FIFTH CONGRESS 1961 – 1965 First District - Floro S. Crisologo Second District - Pablo C. Sanidad FOURTH CONGRESS 1957 – 1961 First District - Faustino B. Tobia Second District - Godofredo S. Reyes THIRD CONGRESS 1953 – 1957 First District - Floro Crisologo Second District - Ricardo Gacula SECOND CONGRESS 1949 – 1953 First District - Floro Crisologo Second District - Ricardo R. Gacula FIRST CONGRESS 1946 – 1949 First District - Floro Crisologo Second District - Fidel Villanueva

COMMONWEALTH OF THE PHILIPPINES THIRD NATIONAL ASSEMBLY 1941 – 1946 First District - Jesus Serrano Second District - Prospero Sanidad SECOND NATIONAL ASSEMBLY 1938 – 1941 First District - Benito Soliven Second District - Prospero Sanidad FIRST NATIONAL ASSEMBLY 1935 – 1938 First District - Benito Soliven Second District - Sixto Brillantes TENTH PHILIPPINE LEGISLATURE 1934 – 1935 First District - Pedro Singson Reyes Second District - Prospero Sanidad NINTH PHILIPPINE LEGISLATURE 1931 – 1934 First District - Pedro Singson Reyes Second District - Fidel Villanueva EIGHT PHILIPPINE LEGISLATURE 1928 –1931 First District - Benito Soliven Second District - Fidel Villanueva SEVENTH PHILIPPINE LEGISLATURE 1925 – 1928 First District - Simeon Ramos Second District - Lupo Biteng

SIXTH PHILIPPINE LEGISLATURE 1922 – 1925 First District - Vicente Singson Pablo Second District - Lupo Biteng FIFTH PHILIPPINE LEGISLATURE 1919 – 1922 First District - Elpidio Quirino Second District - Ponciano Morales FOURTH PHILIPPINE LEGISLATURE 1916 – 1919 First District - Alberto Reyes Second District - Ponciano Morales Third District - Eustaquio Purugganan THIRD PHILIPPINE 1912 – 1916 First District Second District Third District

ASSEMBLY - Alberto Reyes - Gregorio Talavera - Julio Borbon

SECOND PHILIPPINE ASSEMBLY 1909 – 1912 First District - Vicente Singson Encarnacion Second District - Jose Ma. Del Valle Third District - Juan Villamor FIRST PHILIPPINE ASSEMBLY 1907 – 1909 First District - Vicente Singson Encarnacion Second District - Maximino Mina Third District - Juan Villamor

Prominent Ilocos Surians 229

SENATORS WITH ROOTS IN ILOCOS SUR 1916 – 1917 AQUILINO CALVO - With roots in Vigan, Calvo was elected senator to the Senate during the 4th Philippine Legislature, representing the second senatorial district then comprised of the provinces of La Union, Pangasinan and Zambales. 1916 – 1919 JUAN VILLAMOR - Elected senator during the 5th Philippine Legislature, Villamor represented the first senatorial district comprised of Batanes, Cagayan , Isabela, Ilocos Norte and Ilocos Sur provinces. 1916 – 1922 VICENTE ENCARNACION - Elected to the Senate during the 4th Philippine Legislature, Encarnacion represented Batanes, Cagayan, Isabela, Ilocos Norte and Ilocos Sur provinces, that made up the first senatorial district. 1922 – 1928 ISABELO DELOS REYES - This son of Vigan, Ilocos Sur was elected senator of the 4th senatorial district consisting of Manila and the provinces of Bataan, Rizal and Laguna. 1925 ELPIDIO QUIRINO - A Vigan, Ilocos Sur native, Quirino was elected senator for the 2nd senatorial district. He was reelected in 1931, 1941 and 1945. He later became President of the Republic.

230 Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History

1927 MELECIO ARRANZ - Elected senator representing the first senatorial district comprised of Cagayan, Isabela, Ilocos Sur, Ilocos Norte and Abra provinces. Arranz was reelected in 1934, 1941 and 1946. 1946 – 1949 PROSPERO SANIDAD - Elected senator during the first Philippine Congress, Sanidad was born in Narvacan, Ilocos Sur. 1961 – 1969 RAUL S. MANGLAPUS - Born in Manila to Valentin Manglapus, a congressman from Tagudin, Ilocos Sur and the former Justina Sevilla of Malabon, Rizal province. He was elected to a Senate seat by a landslide in 1961. 1971 – 1998 ERNESTO M. MACEDA - Born in Pagsanjan, Laguna to Antonio Abarquez Maceda and Corazon Vergara Madarang of San Esteban, Ilocos Sur. Maceda won a seat in the Senate in 1971. He ran for the same post in 1987 and became Senate President from 1996 to 1998. 1998 – 2004 ROBERT Z. BARBERS - born in Surigao City to Felix Barbers of Cabugao, Ilocos Sur and Regina Zabala, the senator was a former police officer before he joined the Senate.



UCH has been written about Ilocos Sur. Library shelves, archives and bookstores are full of accounts documenting the colorful past of the province and its place in local history. I had observed, however, that no history of Ilocos Sur has yet been published in illustrated form that would be attractive not only to young students but also to those who either have an aversion for reading what they believe to be tedious tomes laden with facts, or are turned of by its text-heavy nature. In my growing up years, I had looked around for this type of book, but the quest proved to be futile. Through the years, the dream had been a constant – to someday have a book about the province that would not only be easy reading but also easy on the eyes. The opportunity to offer this alternative route to history came my way when I entered the government service and I began interacting with Ilocos Sur’s young and vibrant citizens, the future leaders of the province. With them, I shared a vision of a future that held a lot of promise, from lessons learned in the past. The path to that dream was well within sight in the years to come. And thanks to a dedicated group of professionals from different fields who helped me in this effort, the story of Ilocos Sur has now become accessible not only to natives of the province, but to all Filipinos and other interested readers – in a more exciting and visually attractive version. For this, I would like to express my gratitude to the following: DR. MARIA LUISA T. CAMAGAY, former chair of the University of the Philippines History Department in Diliman, Quezon City, and now Director of the UP Press, who diligently collated and cross-checked the historical data for the book; RENE A. ARANDA, chief cartoonist of the Philippine Star, who drew the illustrations for the book that take out the boredom of reading what could have been “just another historical publication;” ARMAND B. BACALTOS, award-winning senior lecturer of the University of the Philippines College of Fine Arts, who has exhibited his works in major shows here and abroad; NATIVIDAD ALA DADOR, Book Project Director, who was not only responsible for bringing together all the talented people who worked towards making the book possible, but took care that deadlines were met, no matter how late in the night; BENJO LAYGO, the book’s Art Director, who brought a deep reserve of enthusiasm and long experience as layout artist and editorial cartoonist for various newspapers, magazines and books to the project; NANIE S. GONZALES, Assistant Art Director for the project, and creative artist for the ASEAN Centre of Biodiversity, who suffered long hours and countless sleepless nights working on the book with no complaints; ARNOLD AZURIN, poet-anthropologist, who supplied insightful information on the origins of the universe and the Ilocos region; AMADO NAVAL, researcher, who patiently dug up dusty files on Ilocos Sur facts and trivia; ESTER G. DIPASUPIL, desk editor of the Philippine Daily Inquirer and the book’s editorial consultant, and THE PEOPLE OF ILOCOS SUR and young people everywhere, who must learn from the past in order to prepare for the future. I dedicate this book to you. I’m sure you will enjoy reading ILOCOS SUR: AN ILLUSTRATED HISTORY as much as I enjoyed being part of this project.

DEOGRACIAS VICTOR ‘DV’ B. SAVELLANO Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History 231

Bibliography Books Agoncillo, Teodoro. History of the Filipino People. Quezon City: Garotech Publishing, 1990. Blair, Emma and Robertson, James. The Philippine Islands. Manila: Cacho Hermanos, 1987. De los Reyes, Isabelo. El Folklore Filipino. With an English translation by Salud Dizon And Maria Elinora P. Imson. Diliman, Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 1994. Dela Torre, Visitation. The Ilocos Heritage. Makati City: Tower Book House, 2006. Gatbonton, Esperanza. Vigan Album. Manila: National Commission for Culture and the Arts, 2002. Kalaw, Teodoro. The Philippine Revolution. Kawilihan, Mandaluyong Rizal: Jorge B. Vargas Filipiniana Foundation, 1969. Kasaysayan; The History of the Filipino People. Asia Publishing Company Limited, 1998. Vols. 1 and 7. Ochoso, Orlino. The Tinio Brigade. Quezon City, Philippines: New Day Publishers, 1989. Scott, William Henry. Ilocano Responses to American Aggression, 1900-1901. Quezon City, Philippines: New Day Publishers, 1986. United States. Annual Report of the Philippine Islands Commission to the President of the United States. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1904. United States. Annual Report of the Philippine Islands Commission to the President of the United States. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1906. United States. Annual Report of the Philippine Islands Commission to the President of the United States. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1907. Zaide, Gregorio. The Philippine Revolution. Manila, Philippines. The Modern Book Company, 1968.

Periodicals Bueno, Cristopher. “Federico Isabelo Abaya: Freedom Fighter of Ilocandia During The Philippine Revolution. History from the People; Kasaysayan mula sa Bayan. Proceedings of the 1998 Centennial Regional Seminar-Workshop On Oral and Local History. Vol. 1. Manila, Philippines: National Historical Institute, 1998. “Fr. John Thompkins Writes.” Ilocos Review. Vol. 23, 1990. Ilocos Review. Vol. 18, 1986. “Ilocos Sur in 1842.” Ilocos Review, Vol. 22, 1990. Soria, Jimmy. “Eleuteria ‘Capitana Teriang’ Florentino Reyes.” History from the People; Kasaysayan mula sa Bayan. Proceedings of the 1998 Centennial Regional Seminar-Workshop Series on Oral and Local History. Vol. 1. Manila, Philippines: National Historical Institute, 1998. Scherpf, Frederick, SVD. “Memorable Days of Vigan.” Ilocos Review. Vol. 17, 1985.

Unpublished Materials Historical Data Papers. “Ilocos Sur.” Manila: National Library. Olivar, Celia. “The First Pensionados: An Appraisal of their Contribution to the National Welfare.” Master’s Thesis, University of the Philippines, 1950. Viloria, Rev. Fr. Loreto. “War Memoris; Personal Experiences during World War II.”

Website – Official Website of the Province of Ilocos Sur


Rene A. Aranda made the illustrations found in Chapters I, II,III, IV, V, VI, V11, VIII, IX , Chapter X, pages 148, 154, 160, Chapter XI, pages 170 and 172, Chapter XII, page 177, Chapter XIII, pages 182, 184, 196, 200 and 201, Chapter X1V, Chapter XV (portraits of all governors except that of Gov. DV Savellano). Bim B. Bacaltos drew the illustrations for author’s photo on the jacket cover, portrait of Gov. DV Savellano , message illustration, pages 29, 34, 35, 109, 138, Chapter X, Chapter XI, Chapter XII, Chapter XIII, page 227 (portrait of Gov. DV Savellano).

232 Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History

Other Sources Faustino Centeno – Centeno was the only native of Ilocos Sur linked to the Katipunan. Members of the Centeno family of Cabugao were known for their separatist tendencies, both in the wars against Spain and the United States. The other Centenos that participated in the Philippine Revolution were Antonio, Telesforo and Valentin. Pedro Damaso of Narvacan – He used the Guardia de Honor prayer meetings in Narvacan town as a ruse to mobilize the people against the Spaniards. Damaso was later expelled from Narvacan by Spanish authorities. Fr. Joaquin Martinez de Zuñiga – An Augustinian friar who arrived in the Philippines on August 3, 1786. An account on the province of Ilocos written by Zuñiga appeared in his work entitled Estadismo de las Islas Filipinas (Status of the Philippines). Miguel Lopez de Legaspi – The first Spanish governor in the Philippines who served from 1565-1572. He founded the first permanent Spanish settlement in Cebu and made Manila the capital of Spain’s new colony in 1571. Guido de Lavezares – A Spaniard who succeeded Miguel Lopez de Legaspi as governor general of the Philippines. He served from 1572-1575. Juan de Salcedo – A grandson of Miguel Lopez de Legaspi, he was given an encomienda in what is now Vigan in Ilocos Sur. The encomienda was initially called Villa Fernandina. Francisco Colin – A Jesuit priest who wrote a study entitled Labor Evangelica describing the culture of the early Filipinos. Miguel de Loarca – One of the early conquistadores, he wrote Relacion de las Islas Filipinas which describes the mode of life of the early Filipinos, particularly the Pintados or Visayans. Andres Malong – A native of Binalatongan (now San Carlos City), Pangasinan province, he led a revolt against abusive Spanish encomenderos and alcaldes and later proclaimed himself “King of Pangasinan.” Later, he sent his ally, Pedro Gumapos, to Ilocos to rally the Ilocanos against the Spaniards. Francisco Primo de Rivera – Spanish governor general who recommended to the Spanish Queen the conferment to Vigan of the title of Very Noble and Loyal City in 1897. Gen. Samuel Young – Head of the American forces who arrived in Ilocos on November 18, 1899 in pursuit of Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo, who would later become the first President of the Philippine Republic. William Howard Taft – First American Governor General of the Philippines. Antonio Zabala – Alcalde Mayor of Ilocos during the British Occupation of the Philippines in 1762. Ilocano leader Diego Silang demanded from Spanish authorities Zabala’s dismissal for abuses he committed while in office. Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History 233




Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History  

Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History

Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History  

Ilocos Sur: An Illustrated History