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MARPOL

OPERATION: COMPLIANCE

Tools for Effective Environmental Compliance

OPERATION: COMPLIANCE – Tools for Effective Environmental Compliance

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OPERATION: COMPLIANCE – Tools for Effective Environmental Compliance


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS NAMEPA has developed the Operation: Compliance program to help seafarers better understand MARPOL regulations and the need for MARPOL compliance. This program is made possible through a grant from the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation (NFWF). Project Manager: Lyn Harris, NAMEPA Technical Support: Jane Seyer, NAMEPA Education Manager: Nina Quaratella, NAMEPA Content provided by: ProSea Foundation and NAMEPA Edited by: Gail Nicholas, NAMEPA Graphic Designer: Gayle Erickson For questions concerning this guide, please contact Lyn Harris at l.harris@namepa.net DISCLAIMER: This training guide alludes to web pages and other resources that are not a part of the NAMEPA family. These sites are not under NAMEPA control, and NAMEPA is not responsible for the information or other links found there. The presence of these links is not to imply endorsement of these sites, but to provide additional relevant information from sites that are managed by other organizations, companies or individuals.Š 2018 View this publication online at www.namepa.net/MARPOL

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OPERATION: COMPLIANCE

Tools for Effective Environmental Compliance

Table of Contents 5 Introduction 6 Instructions on how to use the handbook 7 Pre-Assessment Survey 8 The Importance of Shipping 9 The Marine Environment 11 MARPOL Regulations and IMO Conventions 12

Impacts of Shipping on the marine environment a. Discharges at sea b. Emissions into the air c. Antifouling, invasive species, and ship recycling

20 Compliance and Enforcement 21 Methods for Reporting Non-Compliance 22 Post-Assessment Survey

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OPERATION: COMPLIANCE – Tools for Effective Environmental Compliance


OPERATION: COMPLIANCE

Tools for Effective Environmental Compliance

Introduction OPERATION: COMPLIANCE is designed to educate the seafarer and shoreside personnel on the importance of environmental compliance, including MARPOL compliance, and to provide educational tools to support compliance efforts and the reporting of non-compliance. The project is urgently needed to help conserve our invaluable ocean resources, including habitats, fish, and coral reefs. We anticipate an outcome of increased compliance with environmental requirements, including MARPOL, or reporting of non-compliance, aboard ships. This project is made possible through a grant from the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation (NFWF) specifically for the ports of Wilmington and Morehead City, North Carolina. The importance of effective environmental compliance programs in the maritime industry has been demonstrated time and time again over the past two decades, and while its record is immeasurably better, there remains room for improvement in compliance. The international maritime community has made significant progress over the last 20 years to develop more robust environmental management systems for commercial vessel operations, both shoreside and shipboard. Improper ship-related operational discharges of oily mixtures, including the discharge of bilge water from machinery spaces, fuel oil sludge, and oily ballast water from cargo tank washings (MARPOL Annex I), may result in oil fouling beaches, death of wildlife and destruction of important food and breeding habitats. Reductions in improper discharges will result in less risk to the marine environment. Garbage from ships (MARPOL Annex V) can be just as deadly to marine life as oil or chemicals. While the vast majority of debris washed up on beaches comes from people on shore or from towns and cities that improperly dispose of their garbage, in some instances garbage washed ashore comes from ships which may throw debris overboard rather than dispose of it properly on board or in port waste reception facilities. Maritime transport is the fifth largest contributor to air pollution and carbon emissions (MARPOL Annex VI), and the growth rate of trade by sea makes the issue even more pressing. There is a concerted effort to reduce emissions through technology (scrubbers or exhaust gas cleaning systems) or the use of low sulphur fuel, hybrid technologies, LNG and other alternative energy sources. These strategies are serving to lower emissions in port and at sea. Reductions in pollutants in air emissions will have a dramatic and positive impact on improving the health of the marine environment, local wildlife, fishing, and community well-being. Despite these measures, compliance with environmental requirements, including MARPOL, remains a challenge for some ship operators, potentially resulting in damage to the marine environment. Further, the regulatory framework is getting more complex and demanding, not less, resulting in greater requirements placed on the shipping industry for compliance. Through its comprehensive approach, OPERATION: COMPLIANCE will provide the seafarer and shoreside personnel with a thorough understanding of what MARPOL is, what is required, why compliance is important for protecting the marine environment, what compliance looks like, risks of non-compliance, steps to be taken if non-compliance occurs, the reporting tools needed to take action, and how to report violations to shoreside personnel and law enforcement, should all other mechanisms for compliance fail. Further, the program will be distributed through ship operating/management companies to help ensure compliance throughout the chain – from the officers and ratings on board to the highest levels of shoreside management.

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OPERATION: COMPLIANCE

Tools for Effective Environmental Compliance

Instructions for Users Environmental care and sustainable development of the maritime industry has received considerable attention from corporations and society at large in the last decades. The importance of effective environmental compliance programs in the maritime industry has been demonstrated time and time again over the past two decades, and while its record is immeasurably better, there remains room for improvement in compliance. The international maritime community has developed more robust environmental management systems for commercial vessel operations, both shoreside and shipboard. Many maritime companies now take a proactive approach to environmental care. As a seafarer or port employee, you are asked to play an important role, because you are an essential part of the company performance and a key factor in compliance.

THE GOALS OF THIS HANDBOOK ARE TO: • Increase knowledge of the importance of shipping (chapter 3) • Show the beauty and diversity of the marine environment (chapter 4) • Teach about environmental impacts of the shipping industry (chapter 5) • Provide information about MARPOL regulations (chapter 6) • Inform about enforcement and compliance (chapter 7) • Give tools to report non-compliance (chapter 8) • Inspire individuals to take a proactive role

BEST USE OF THIS PROGRAM IS: 1. Read the Introduction 2. Take the Pre-assessment survey 3. Read through the material 4. Ask questions/discuss in group setting 5. Take post-test to knowledge gained 6. Put knowledge into ACTION This handbook is meant to inspire, motivate and empower you to participate in supporting the maritime industry in becoming a sustainable industry, to comply with all regulations and to be proactive in its performance. As a maritime professional, you are important. If you find the information in this handbook useful and would like to know more information about environmental aspects and the need for compliance can be found on the project website www.namepa.net/MARPOL, the NAMEPA website www. namepa.net, and the IMO website http://www.imo.org/en/OurWork/Pages/Home.aspx. In addition, NAMEPA offers an e-learning program about marine environmental awareness that can be ordered.

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OPERATION: COMPLIANCE Test your knowledge of MARPOL regulations, compliance, and the marine environment prior to completing the training course. To take this assessment test online, visit MARPOL Assessment Test https://goo.gl/forms/sbASvuRqwwzl5InI2 1. What does “MARPOL” refer to? A. The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships B. The Global Agreement for Endangered Species Management C. The International Agreement for the Reduction of Invasive Species 2. What is the objective of MARPOL? A. To preserve the marine environment B. To minimize oil pollution in the ocean C. To reduce pollution from garbage in the ocean D. To minimize sewage pollution in the ocean E. To limit chemical harm from noxious liquids in the ocean F. To limit air pollution from ships G. All of the above 3. How much oxygen we breathe is produced in the ocean? A. 10% B. 25% C. 50% D. 75% 4. True or False: A typical marine food chain starts with phytoplankton 5. The maritime sector is essential for the world economy, because___ of world trade is carried by sea. A. 30% B. 50% C. 75% D. 90% 6. What is an environmental hazard associated with oil spills? 7. True or False: All small ships must have the capacity to hold all oil generated onboard and may not discharge oil unless it is treated. 8. What is a noxious liquid? A. Warm seawater from the surface of the ocean enriched with nitrogen B. Liquids leftover after cooking containing oils C. Liquids with chemicals that are poisonous to marine life, can contaminate freshwater drinking supply, and can contaminate seafood D. Sewage 9. True or False: According to MARPOL Annex II, Category X liquids are not hazardous and may be discharged anywhere at sea. 10. What is considered sewage on a ship? A. Waste from toilets and urinals B. Liquids and fluids from medical areas or sick bays C. Liquids from where live animals are kept onboard D. All of the above 11. True or False: Ships over 400 gross tons, or smaller ships that are approved to carry over 15 persons are NOT required to have an approved sewage treatment system or holding tank. 12. Name a risk associated with garbage in the ocean, or marine debris. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 13. True or False: It is illegal to discharge plastic materials, synthetic lines, fishing nets, ash from incinerating garbage, or residue from the cargo section of oil tanker anywhere at sea from any vessel. 14. Why do chemical compounds, including CO2, Sox and NOx, emitted into the air from ships pose a threat to living things? A. They can cause respiratory problems B. They can cause heart problems C. They accelerate climate change D. They can damage ecosystems as a whole E. All of the above

15. True or False: Ships operating in designated Emission Control Areas must comply with more stringent fuel standards regarding sulfur emissions (SOX) and/or nitrogen oxides (NOX). 16. Potential consequences of climate change are: A. A higher frequency of extreme weather conditions B. Change in geographical distribution of species C. Change in geographical distribution of some infectious diseases D. Flooding of land areas E. Ocean acidification, F. All of the above 17. The IMO convention on antifouling systems used on ships prohibits the use of: A. Tributyltin (TBT) B. All toxic substances C. Prickly coatings D. Systems using electricity 18. True or False: A newly introduced species becomes invasive when it likes the physical circumstances (like temperature) in the new environment better than where it came from. 19. True or False: According to the International Labor Organization (ILO), working on a ship recycling beach is one of the most dangerous jobs in the world. 20. Why is it important to protect the marine environment? ________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 21. Why is compliance with MARPOL Regulations important (mark all that apply): A. Safety of the crew B. Improve business performance C. Keep cargo tied to the vessel D. Protect the environment E. Required by law 22. Which of the following are goals set forth in a standard EMS ? A. Lower operating costs B. Prevent pollution and reduce waste C. Reduce risk of penalties D. Overall company reputation E. All of the above 23. Who in the maritime industry is prosecuted for MARPOL violations (mark all that apply)? A. Technical managers B. Shoreside personnel C. Corporate officers D. Students at a local college E. Owners 24. True or False: The first step to reporting a non-compliance issue onboard ship is to call the US Coast Guard. 25. Should companies have policies and procedures in place to report non-compliance issues internally? Yes or No

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The Importance of Shipping

TODAY, ALMOST NO NATION IS FULLY self-sufficient; none can depend on domestic resources alone. Every country sells what it produces in excess and buys what it lacks. Ships have always provided the only truly cost-effective method of bulk transport over any great distance. Maritime transport is essential to the world’s economy as over 90% of the world’s trade is carried by sea. Shipping provides a vital service, on which the entire global economy depends. Given that the bulk of this trade consists of commodities such as grain and oil, this leads to the inescapable conclusion that, without shipping, half the world would starve and the other half would freeze (IMO 2005). The UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development) estimated the global seaborne trade at about 9.5 billion tons of goods (2016). This is equivalent to more than one ton of cargo for each person on the planet, every year! This immense job is carried out by 89,800 ships, manned by over 1.6 million seafarers from all over the world. (Equasis Fleet Statistics, 2016). As part of the maritime industry, seafarers and shoreside staff have the privilege of being part of an industry that spans the globe. It is one of the oldest, most diverse industries in the world. This privilege brings responsibility to be aware of the marine environment and to be proactive in protecting the environment through everyday actions. Every member of the maritime industry plays a part in protecting the marine environment. As an agency of the United Nations, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) is responsible for the safety of life at sea and the protection of the marine environment. The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL) covers prevention of pollution of the marine environment by ships operational or accidental. The importance of effective environmental compliance programs in the maritime industry has been demonstrated time and time again over the past two decades, and while its record is immeasurably better, there remains room for improvement in compliance, especially with MARPOL Annexes I, V, and VI. The international maritime community has made significant progress over the last 8

OPERATION: COMPLIANCE – Tools for Effective Environmental Compliance

20 years to develop more robust environmental management systems for commercial vessel operations, both shoreside and shipboard. One of the more important steps in this effort was adoption by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) of the International Management Code for the Safe Operation of Ships and for Pollution Prevention ( ISM Code) into the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) and to make compliance with the ISM Code mandatory for commercial vessels. The ISM Code requires the implementation of a comprehensive Safety Management System (SMS) aboard each vessel to ensure compliance with applicable safety and environmental protection standards. The ISM Code also requires the identification of a Designated Person Ashore (DPA) to serve as a direct link between shipboard personnel and the highest levels of shoreside management. Training requirements for seafarers are set in the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW). In the latest revision in 2011, the IMO included the importance of maritime professionals (the human element) in the prevention of pollution. The following information gives you tools to be proactive in compliance of MARPOL regulations.

Dolphins in bow wave of ship - NOAA


ProSea

The Marine Environment IMPORTANCE OF THE OCEAN Over 70% of the world’s surface is covered with seas. They are crucial to human life. Half of all the oxygen we breathe comes from the ocean. The ocean provides food, regulates our climate, and is economically important.

THE 10% RULE In marine food chains, only 10% of the energy gained from food is used to grow. When a plant or animal is eaten, it is the organic material from this 10% weight gain that is passed on to the next level in the food chain. The other 90% of the energy from food is lost in the form of heat or used for movement. This 10% rule means that a very large number of phytoplankton are needed at the base of the food chain to produce one big tuna or a shark at the top of the food chain.

Seaweed and fish on a Philippine market

Josje Snoek, NIOZ

MARINE FOOD CHAINS A marine food chain starts with phytoplankton, which are plant-like organisms that are capable of transforming carbon dioxide and water into sugar and oxygen by using sunlight (photosynthesis). These plankton are eaten by microscopic animals called zooplankton (zoo = animal), such as small crabs and larval fishes. Zooplankton in turn is eaten by larger zooplankton and/or small fish. Larger fish, such as tuna, or sharks, consume these small fish. Bacteria break down waste products and dead organisms, releasing nutrients and carbon, which re-enter the food chain via the phytoplankton. This means that all life on in the ocean is dependent on plankton to survive.

ProSea

MARINE ECOLOGY – THE BASICS Organisms at sea range from small to large; from microscopic plankton, to oysters that calcify their own shells, to blue whales that are larger than school buses, to kelp stalks growing meters high. All living things depend on each other in the ocean, and all of those living things depend on the non-living things provide the living space necessary for these organisms to survive.

Phytoplankton

FOOD CHAINS CONNECTED IN A FOOD WEB All circular food chains are connected with each other in more complex food webs. After all, most organisms eat more than one type of food and can be eaten by more than one type of predator. An arrow on a food web shows energy transfer, so a fish transfers energy to a seal when the seal eats the fish.

ProSea

A food pyramid where 10% of the energy is transferred to the next trophic level

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The Marine Environment NOAA

ProSea

NOAA

Coral reef , Mangroves, Salt Marshes

OPEN OCEAN AND COASTAL SEAS The ocean can be divided into deep open ocean and shallow coastal seas. They are very different, not only in physical circumstances like temperature or depth, but also because different plankton, animals and plants live there. Many shipping regulations are based on the fact that open oceans and coastal seas are so different, such as regulations for sewage. While the sea looks similar from above, marine areas can be very different because our seas are varied and diverse. Examples include the deep sea, coral reefs, rocky shores, tidal flats, salt marshes and mangroves.

Deep sea Giant kelp

 DID YOU KNOW?

• Plankton is very abundant in the ocean – a teaspoon of seawater typically contains 100.000 phytoplankton. • In a food chain of 4 levels: phytoplankton – eaten by zooplankton – eaten by small fish – eaten by predatory fish, it takes approximately 1,000 kg (2,200 lbs) phytoplankton to produce 1 kg (2.2 lbs) predatory fish. CONCLUSION The sea is not only a blue highway useful for shipping activities; it plays an important role in balancing the planet and the oceans are teeming with life. It is not a uniform mass of water with the same life forms everywhere. Coastal areas are very different from open ocean areas, partly due to differences in the availability of nutrients needed for the production of marine life. In almost all sea areas, phytoplankton are at the base of the food chain and give way to life in the ocean. Because of complex food webs, many organisms are interlinked, meaning that when one marine organism is affected by human or natural causes, this is likely to have an effect on other organisms in the same food web. As a seafarer/shoreside personnel (member of the maritime supply chain) it is important to know about the marine environment to be able to understand the impact each of us have on the environment. It will help you understand why regulations are necessary to protect the ocean and hopefully motivates you to be proactive in your daily activities onboard or in port.

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ProSea

PARTICULARLY SENSITIVE SEA AREA’S (PSSA’S) The International Maritime Organization (IMO) protects sea areas from shipping activities in two ways: Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas (PSSAs) and Special Areas. Special areas are always coupled to MARPOL Annexes. As an example, an area designated Special area for annex 1 will have extra rules regarding oil. PSSA’s are protected as an entire area with specific extra measures, such as mandatory piloting or speed restrictions. By 2017, 17 PSSAs had been designated, including the Great Barrier Reef and the Florida Keys.


Environmental Regulations The shipping industry is working on minimizing its impact on the environment. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has taken responsibility for pollution issues and has adopted a wide range of measures to prevent and control pollution caused by ships and to mitigate the effects of any damage that may occur because of maritime operations and accidents. MARPOL The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, now universally known as MARPOL, is an agreement, written by the members of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) to control and prevent pollution from ships. Its objective is to preserve the marine environment by regulating the handling of oil, garbage, sewage, noxious liquids, harmful substances and air emissions aboard a vessel and to minimize damage from operational or accidental discharge of such substances into the water. MARPOL applies to 99% of the world’s merchant tonnage and has greatly contributed to a significant decrease in pollution from international shipping. Reductions of pollution generated by ships have been achieved by addressing technical, operational and human element issues. Other IMO conventions address anti-fouling systems used on ships, the transfer of alien species by ships’ ballast water and the environmentally sound recycling of ships. New environmental topics arising on the IMO agenda include underwater noise, biofouling, and black carbon. ANNEX I: OIL POLLUTION Shipboard sources of oil pollution include engine room bilges, fuel tanks, bunkering operations, cargo operations (loading/discharging) and tank washings. Generally, oil or oily mixtures should not be discharged into the water. When operationally necessary, these substances should only be discharged using special equipment and outside of prohibited areas. ANNEX II: NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES IMO has categorized noxious liquid substances in different categories with corresponding discharge limits. A complete list of noxious liquid substances is listed in the International Bulk Chemical Code (IBC) book, which classifies various liquids in terms of what level of hazard they pose to marine life and people if discharged into the sea. Check the MARPOL rules before discharging anything into the water.

ANNEX III: HARMFUL SUBSTANCES Standards exist for packing, labeling, documenting, stowing and limiting quantity of harmful substances. A list of substances that are classified as marine pollutants can be found in the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) code. Accidental loss overboard of containers, especially those which are known to contain marine pollutants, must be always be reported to shore authorities. ANNEX IV: SEWAGE The regulations in Annex IV of MARPOL allow the discharge of sewage into the sea when the sewage has been treated by an approved sewage treatment plant (STP). Such plants collect the sewage, treat it (either chemically or biologically) and retain it until it can be discharged either at sea or in an onshore facility. When sewage is not treated, ships are only allowed to discharge this sewage when they are not close to land. ANNEX V: SOLID WASTE It is illegal to discharge any solid materials other than certain types of food and animal waste anywhere at sea. Solid waste should be taken to a reception facility while the ship in in port. Review the MARPOL regulations, the vessel’s Garbage Management Plan or the placard in the garbage storage area of your ship for specific instructions. ANNEX VI: AIR POLLUTION In the last decade, IMO has been actively working at regulating the emission of polluting air substances by ships. A major change in sulfur oxide emissions regulations will occur in 2020, and IMO agreed to cut carbon dioxide emissions in half (compared to 2008) by 2050. Ships operating in designated Emission Control Areas (ECAs) are required to comply with more stringent fuel, sulfur, and engine nitrogen oxides limits to avoid damage to human health and the environment.

ANTIFOULING CONVENTION The International Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-Fouling Systems on Ships’ prohibits the use of harmful organotin (organic compounds containing tin) in anti-fouling paints used on ships and creates a possibility to prevent the potential future use of other harmful substances in anti-fouling systems. BALLAST WATER CONVENTION The regulations for management of ships’ ballast water are described in the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments. The Convention requires all ships to carry out ballast water management procedures to avoid the transfer of invasive species. Procedures include ballast water exchange (a temporary measure) and ballast water treatment. SHIP RECYCLING CONVENTION The IMO Convention on Safe and Environmentally Sound Ship Recycling contains guidelines for human and environmental friendly recycling of ships. It was agreed upon in Hong Kong in May 2009 but has not entered into force yet. When in force, every ship must have a list of all materials present on board that may be hazardous to man and nature, including materials present in the ship’s structure, systems and equipment. Ship owners are responsible for maintaining and updating this IHM (Inventory of Hazardous Materials) throughout the life of the ship. THE HUMAN ELEMENT Seafarers are especially entrusted with stewardship of the oceans. For regulations to be effective, the people working in the shipping are very important. Compliance with MARPOL regulations, when combined with accurate documentation, thorough training, and proper contingency planning will help marine organizations stay proactive in environmental preservation. The environmental performance of the shipping industry always depends on the professionalism and competence of its people, on ships and on shore.

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Impacts of Shipping on the Marine Environment Where shipping competes directly with other means of transport, it remains by far the most energy efficient. However, shipping does have an impact on the environment. Most harm is done by daily operational emissions of various substances from land- and ship-based sources, not by accidents. Intentional and unintentional discharges of oil, chemical cargo residues, garbage, cleaning agents, anti-fouling paints, exhaust gases, other air emissions, and invasive species from ballast water and hull fouling have ongoing negative effects globally on ocean life. DISCHARGES AT SEA

MARPOL ANNEX I -V MARPOL sets limits for the discharge of substances such as oil, chemicals, sewage and solid waste into the ocean: • Oil (Annex I); • Noxious liquid substances carried in bulk (Annex II); • Harmful substances carried in packaged form (Annex III); • Sewage (Annex IV); • Garbage, solid waste (Annex V); Worldwide, several regions and states have supplementary regulation amplifying international conventions. In the US these regulations include the Oil Pollution Act (OPA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA).

Ecological impacts Oil can kill marine organisms and disrupt the structure and function of marine ecosystems. One of the most apparent effects of oil spills at sea is bird mortality. When oil sticks to the feathers of a seabird, they are no longer waterproof. As a result, sea water reaches the body of the seabird and the most common cause of death is under-cooling from loss of body heat. An oil stain of 1 inch on a bird’s chest is enough to be lethal. Oil also impacts small organisms. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that dissolved oil compounds in the water column are toxic and lethal to zooplankton (very small animals in the water column).

Ecomare

OIL IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT (ANNEX I) Impacts of oil in the sea While major oil spills receive most public attention, even a small spill can have large consequences. The impacts of oil do not always depend on the size of the spill, but rather on the site (e.g. an intertidal area with soft sediments) or the timing (e.g. during the breeding season of sea birds).

Oil polluted bird

NIOZ, Josje Snoek

Economic impacts Sea-bound industries such as the tourism and fishing industry can suffer economic losses from oil pollution. Fishermen are especially at risk when they farm in coastal areas. Shellfish such as mussels filter sea water and, consequently, ingest oily components. This will not always cause the shellfish to die, but will give them an oily taste and will make them dangerous for human consumption, which will ensure grave economic losses to the shellfish industry.  DID YOU KNOW?

Especially in cold areas, an oil stain of an inch on its feathers is enough to kill a sea bird. Zooplankton

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ProSea

Packaged chemicals

WOCB

Effects of chemicals The effects of a spilled chemical depend on several factors, such as the amount spilled, the toxicity of the chemical, and whether the chemical remains at sea or comes ashore. The way a chemical affects an organism is largely determined by its toxicity, the duration of contact and the dose of the chemical. Acute toxic effects occur after short time exposure to high doses. Acute effects are relatively easy to identify, and range from disorder and nausea, to coma and death. Long-term hazards of chemicals (also for humans) include cancer, changes in genetic material, and injuries to the nervous system.

WOCB

CHEMICALS (ANNEX II AND III) Chemicals are transported by ships as bulk products (in chemical tankers, bulk carriers or gas tankers) or in packaged form (on container ships). Around a thousand different chemical substances are carried in liquid form in chemical tankers: methanol being number one (10 million tons/year – ITOPF).

 DID YOU KNOW?

About 85,000 chemicals are used in commerce in the US, and 2,000 are regularly transported by sea. SANITARY WASTE OR SEWAGE (ANNEX IV) Like any other place where people live, all ships produce sanitary waste (sewage). Some ship types produce particularly large amounts of sewage, such as cruises, passenger vessels and cattle-carriers.

ProSea

Effects of sewage Sewages discharged in the sea provides nutrients for marine organisms. In the open ocean, sewage is rarely a problem. Coastal seas naturally contain many nutrients and suffer from being overloaded with nutrients carried by sewage. When nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus are added to seawater, algae will grow in large numbers (algal bloom). This blanket of algae on the surface blocks sunlight from reaching the other parts of the water, so other organisms cannot photosynthesize and produce oxygen. Although fish and other animals breathe underwater, they still require oxygen. Once oxygen is

Chemical tanker

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Impacts of Shipping on the Marine Environment

ProSea

depleted from less photosynthesis, fish and other animals will die of oxygen deprivation. The excess of dead organisms will cause bacteria to breakdown these organisms at a fast rate, therefore using up even more oxygen in the water. This causes animals to die off at an exponential rate, and can completely collapse an ecosystem. This entire process is called eutrophication. Also, sewage may contain harmful chemicals (such as cleaning agents) and may introduce pathogens affecting human health. Cruise ship

Weeks Bay NERRS site

 DID YOU KNOW?

In the open ocean, sewage has positive effects, because it provides nutrients for phytoplankton. SOLID WASTE IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT (ANNEX V) Solid waste in the marine environment (marine debris) is found worldwide. Plastics constitute around 60-80% of all this marine debris. One problem with plastics is that they don’t degrade but break down into ever smaller fragments called microplastics and nanoplastics. And even those take a long time, it takes about 450 years for a plastic bottle to fall apart in the marine environment. As this happens, chemicals that were used to create the plastic are released into the water, degrading water quality. Marine litter is found in ocean surface waters, in coastal areas (e.g. beaches), and on the ocean floor.

Massive algae bloom due to surplus of nutrients

Ecological impacts Marine litter impacts at least 267 marine species, including sea turtles, seabirds, dolphins and whales, seals, and fish. The main problems are entanglement and ingestion. • Entanglement means that an animal becomes trapped in debris. Once trapped, animals drown, suffocate, or become seriously injured. • Animals ingest litter items because of resemblance to their natural prey. Petrels and albatrosses are seabirds that are known to accumulate solid waste in their stomachs, clogging the intestines. The animal eventually starves to death or dies of malnutrition.

Claire Fackler, NOAA National Marine Sanctuaries, Marine Photobank

Plastic soup Debris is found drifting in the upper water layers of the ocean. In 1997, American sailor Captain Charles Moore discovered two continent-sized areas of floating plastic in the Pacific Ocean. There are five of these areas in our ocean and they are called the plastic soup, a commonly referred to area is the Great Pacific Garbage Patch. Gyres act as a giant whirlpool in which floating debris is slowly sucked to the center by circular currents. It has been estimated that an average of over 13,000 pieces of plastic litter are floating on every square kilometer of ocean surface. The North Pacific gyre is estimated to contain an average of 334,000 plastic fragments per square kilometer.

Albatross killed by plastics

Richard Thompson, Univ. Plymouth

Growing problem of microplastics The sea contains a growing amount of microplastics that are poisoning the marine food chain. Microplastics contain chemicals and when small animals at the base of the food chain eat these microplastics, these chemicals enter the food chain. These small animals are eaten by larger animals, and chemicals build up to higher concentrations in higher levels of the food chain. This means that concentrations can be very high at the top, eventually posing hazards for larger marine animals like fish, and for humans eating those animals.

Tiny beach flea with ingested microplastic items

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Impacts of Shipping on the Marine Environment ProSea

Other impacts Marine litter has significant economic impact for coastal and fishing communities. Tourism will decrease if a coastal area is covered in marine debris, and beach cleaning operations can be very costly. Additionally, marine litter can clog or damages fishing nets and boats. When litter like ropes get entangled around propellers and rudders, it poses dangers for humans.  DID YOU KNOW?

In 1992, a cargo ship leaving China lost 29,000 bath toys, including bright yellow rubber ducks, somewhere in the Pacific Ocean. Fifteen years later, these ducks were found on British beaches, still fully intact, after traveling 17,000 miles. WHAT CAN YOU DO? In MARPOL annex 1-5, IMO has set limits to the discharge of oil, chemicals, sewage and solid waste into the ocean. Some materials (like plastic) are not allowed at all, some (like oil) as little as possible. As a seafarer or port employee, you are very important in minimizing these discharges, by keeping to the regulations, by using the technical means available and by using common sense by having a pro-active attitude. Keep these materials onboard as much as you can and land them in port, in well-organized reception facilities!

High concentrations of plastic and debris in the Pacific Ocean caused by circular currents (gyres)

EMISSIONS INTO THE AIR

MARPOL ANNEX VI Air pollution has been an important environmental issue on the planet since the 1970s. Compared to land-based sources, air pollution regulations for seagoing ships have been relatively recent. In the last decade, IMO has been actively working at regulating the emission of polluting substances by ships. Regulations regarding air pollutants from ship engines can be found in MARPOL Annex VI. Annex VI also regulates shipboard incineration, and the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from tankers. Impotant air pollutants from ships are carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur oxides (SOx), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and Particulate matter (PM). These air emissions are causing the following problems. These air emissions from ships are causing the following problems: SOx

NOx

Climate change

×

×

Air quality (Human health)

×

×

Acidification

×

×

PM

CO2 ×

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CLIMATE CHANGE The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) defines climate change as: ‘any change in climate over time, whether due to natural variability or as a result of human activity’. Scientists agree that our world climate is changing: global air and ocean temperatures are rising, snow and ice are melting, and sea levels are rising. The question is: what is causing these changes – man or nature? In the history of the Earth the climate has been changing constantly, due to variations in natural processes. However, according to the IPCC, during the last century the changes in the climate are very likely caused by human activities.

OPERATION: COMPLIANCE – Tools for Effective Environmental Compliance

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Impacts of Shipping on the Marine Environment ProSea

Consequences of climate change While there is scientific consensus about the fact that the climate is changing and that human activities are playing a role, the impacts of climate change, and the future developments, are much more uncertain. Nonetheless, there are many examples of the natural system reacting to climate change, including: higher frequency of extreme weather conditions; change in geographical distribution of species (and possible extinction of some of them); changing geographical distribution of some infectious diseases (such as malaria); flooding of land areas; ocean acidification, and warming of the ocean causing death of phytoplankton and corals.  DID YOU KNOW?

Retracting glaciers in France (The sign shows ‘the level of the glacier in 1990’. Picture taken in 2010)

Jashim Salam / Marine Photobank

Marine animals are very sensitive to temperature changes, both in and out of the water. For example, sea turtle eggs are temperature-dependent. Generally, colder sand temperatures produce male hatchlings and warmer sand temperatures produce female hatchlings. Also, many marine species are cold-blooded, meaning that their metabolic rate and physiology are dependent on the temperature of the water in which they live. AIR QUALITY Air pollution that mostly impacts human health are smog and particulate matter (PM).

Children walking in flood waters

John Neander

Smog Nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur oxides (SOx) contribute to the formation of various types of smog. Ozone (O3) is one of the main components of smog and is dangerous to human health when present at ground level. Ozone irritates the respiratory system and the eyes. Exposure to high levels of ozone results in chest tightness, coughing and wheezing. Particulate Matter (PM) PM represents very small particles. Once they are inhaled by humans, they can cause many problems. Particles bigger than 10 micrometer (µm) are removed by the human body, for example by coughing. Smaller particles remain undetected and end up in our respiratory system. The smallest particles (smaller than 2.5 μm) are most harmful for human health. Health effects include asthma, heart attacks and heart and lung diseases.  DID YOU KNOW?

The word ‘smog’ is a combination of the words smoke and fog. It can sometimes be seen in big cities as a ‘cloud’ that covers the city.

Smog over a city - NOAA’s National Weather Service

California Environmental Protection Agency

ACIDIFICATION Acidification is caused by nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and ammonia (NH3). In the air these compounds react with water and strong acids are formed. Acidification does not only occur when it rains (acid rain), because the acids also reach land without rain (dry deposition). These acids increase the acidity in the environment and cause a variety of damage, including: • Essential nutrients leach out and disappear to the ground water, resulting in decreased soil fertility • Soil releases toxic heavy metals • An overload of the nutrient nitrate from acidification may cause algal blooms and oxygen shortage in surface waters. • Strong acids attack new and old buildings, bridges and monuments.

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OPERATION: COMPLIANCE – Tools for Effective Environmental Compliance

Particulate Matter (PM)


Impacts of Shipping on the Marine Environment ProSea

 DID YOU KNOW?

Acidifying emissions have strongly decreased since they were addressed in the 1970’s and 80’s. However, in North America, Asia and Europe, levels of acidification are still above environmentally safe values. The fact that other air pollution issues (such as climate change) get more attention in the media, does not mean that the problem of acidification is entirely solved. WHAT CAN YOU DO? The maritime industry is working hard on establishing regulations and developing innovations to cut emissions of the shipping industry. While some solutions require business choices and large investments, everyone can play a role in cutting emissions. According to MARPOL Annex Vl, all ships need to have a Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP) onboard. The SEEMP is an operational measure that aims to improve the energy efficiency of a ship in a cost-effective manner and assist shipping companies in managing the environmental performance of ships. Done properly it should significantly reduce fuel consumption. We can all use energy wisely, as an individual, or in our professional capacity as a seafarers or port employee.

Effects of acidification on monuments

IMO CONVENTIONS

In addition to the six MARPOL Annexes, IMO conventions address antifouling systems used on ships, the transfer of alien species by ships’ ballast water and the environmentally sound recycling of ships.

Scrubbing biofouling from a ship

International Paint

Antifouling TBT Over time, different systems have been used to stop organisms growing on the ship’s hull. During the 1960s, a highly effective solution was found: a biocide (a substance that kills living organisms) called Tributyltin (TBT). It was embedded in a self-polishing anti-fouling paint. TBT has been described as the most toxic substance ever deliberately introduced into the marine environment. Besides the wanted effect of TBT (killing fouling organisms), TBT proved to be harmful for a great number of marine species, specifically shellfish species, such as the dog whelk. Female dog whelks developed male characteristics such as a penis: a syndrome called Imposex.

International Paint

ANTIFOULING The settlement and growth of organisms on the hull of ships (biofouling) is a problem as old as man sailing the seas. Marine organisms growing on the ship’s hull include micro-organisms such as algae, shellfish larvae, or seaweeds, barnacles, sponges, and more. Fouling leads to increased fuel consumption (up to 15%), lower sailing speeds and lower maneuverability. Biofouling communities can also be found on docks, marinas, fences, and other hard surfaces in the water.

Other antifouling systems While TBT is banned by the antifouling convention, many antifouling paints used today also contain toxic substances, such as copper, zinc, and (agricultural) pesticides. Several antifouling systems are developed that do not use biocides, including: • Non-stick coatings: organisms cannot attach to very smooth surfaces • Technical systems based on creating an electrical powered field or vibrations • Prickly coatings: covering the ship hull surface with hairs or tiny spines  DID YOU KNOW?

The development of prickly coatings is inspired by looking at nature – sea otters have as many as 1 million hairs per square inch on the densest parts of their body.

Ships with non-stick coatings

OPERATION: COMPLIANCE – Tools for Effective Environmental Compliance

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Impacts of Shipping on the Marine Environment

Impacts of invasive species Invasive species can have serious impacts on ecology, economy and human health. Two cases of invasive species that were introduced by ballast water and which caused severe damage are:

USFWS

INVASIVE SPECIES The introduction of alien species has been identified as one of the four greatest threats to marine ecosystems. When an alien species is introduced into a new region it may establish a population. Often, the newly introduced species does not have natural enemies and its population can grow without limits (it becomes invasive). Once established, an invasive species is difficult to get rid of and the far-reaching effects on marine ecosystems are irreversible in most cases. The largest source for the global introduction of marine invasive species is shipping. Species migrate by travelling in ballast water tanks, on ship hulls or other locations on the ship.

Zebra mussels that invaded North America by ballast water

Steven G. Johnson

• The golden mussel in Brazil. Huge quantities of clustered mussels have taken the physical place of other species in Brazilian coastal waters. These mussels clog all sorts of infrastructure, such as hydropower plants. • The comb jelly in the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. This jellyfish eats enormous quantities of larvae and zooplankton that are also food for native fish species. Consequently, the anchovy ‘Kilka’ has become nearly extinct in the Black and Caspian Sea. This has had huge social and economic impacts on the fishing industry. • The Asian shore crab invaded the East coast of the United States and parts of Europe. This crab lives under rocks, protecting it from many predators, and has a very broad diet. It reproduces multiple times a year, causing populations to grow exponentially. It is taking resources such as space and food from native species (like the blue crab), causing them to die off. Scientists believe the Asian shore crab was distributed in ballast water. The comb jelly

 DID YOU KNOW?

Every year, over 10 billion tons of ballast water is carried around the world’s seas. In this ballast water, an estimated number of 10,000 marine species are present at any given moment.

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OPERATION: COMPLIANCE – Tools for Effective Environmental Compliance

The Internet Ships Register

SHIP RECYCLING Ships have an average life expectancy of 25-30 years (Mikelis 2008). After that they are replaced by new, technologically more advanced ships. In 2014, 1026 end-of-life vessels were recycled (Shipbreaking Platform Website). Up to 97% of all the ship material collected in dismantling is re-used in onshore industries: hence the term ship recycling. But ships also contain many hazardous and toxic materials that should be handled with care when dismantling a ship. Examples of such potentially dangerous substances are oil, sludge, paints, heavy metals, ozone depleting substances, and asbestos. Ship recycling is labor intensive, and most ships are recycled in countries where labor is cheaper and national laws for infra-structure and environment are less strict. The leading five states in terms of numbers and tonnage of ships recycled are India, China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Turkey (Mikelis 2008). Many ship recycling ‘yards’ on the Indian sub-continent are tidal beaches. Ships are beached by grounding them at high tide, which leaves them stranded at low tide. This is referred to as ‘the beaching method’. Local

Ships dismantled in different countries between January and November 2010, in numbers


Impacts of Shipping on the Marine Environment people dismantle the beached ships by hand, often under dangerous and polluting circumstances. People work in unregulated dismantling operations where protective equipment, heavy machinery (such as cranes), and training are lacking. This often leads to health problems, injuries, and death. In addition to injuries and chronic diseases, people regularly get killed during accidents. For instance, when workers use burners to open tanks, the liquids inside can explode. The total number of deaths on ship recycling yards worldwide over the years is estimated to run into the thousands (FIDH 2005). According to the European Commission, none of the sites used for ship dismantling on the Indian sub-continent has a system to prevent pollution of soil and water, few have waste reception facilities, and the treatment of waste rarely conforms to even minimum environmental standards (COM 2007). It is common practice that holes are drilled in the ship, and liquids such as bunker oil, lubricants, and chemicals drain into the sea (Blankestijn and Jager 2010). Also, pollutants such as oil and sludge seep away in soft coastal sediments.

Child labour_platform shipbreaking

î‚Š DID YOU KNOW?

According to the International Labor Organization (ILO), working on a ship recycling beach is one of the most dangerous jobs in the world. WHAT CAN YOU DO? The antifouling, ballast water and ship recycling conventions require companies to use procedures and (technical) installations on board in order to minimize the negative impacts of antifouling installations, the introduction of invasive species and the recycling of ships. As a seafarer or port employee, you can contribute by following the procedures and using the technical means available to you.

Dismantling the ship on scrap metal ready for recycling.

Wahid Adnan/Marine Photobank

Pollution resulting from uncontrolled ship dismantling in Bangladesh

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Compliance and Enforcement THERE ARE NUMEROUS REASONS TO COMPLY WITH SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS: • Compliance is required by law • Compliance improves business performance • Compliance is necessary for environmental protection • Compliance is important for the safety of the crew, as well as morale • Compliance is the right thing to do

ENFORCING IMO REGULATIONS The principal responsibility for enforcing IMO regulations concerning ship safety and environmental protection rests with the flag States (i.e., the countries in which commercial ships are registered – which may be different than the country in which they are owned). Flag States enforce IMO requirements through inspections of ships, typically conducted by a network of international surveyors working on behalf of the flag Administration. Much of this work is delegated to “responsible organizations,” called classification societies. Flag State enforcement is supplemented by what is known as Port State Control, whereby officials in any country which a ship may visit can inspect foreign flag ships to ensure that they comply with international requirements. The Port State Control authority in the United States is the United States Coast Guard (USCG). The USCG can exercise several means of control over foreign flag ships, including detaining them in port if they do not conform to international standards. As a consequence, most IMO regulations are enforced on a more or less global basis. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (EMS) Many companies go beyond the legal requirements and operate in accordance with the requirements of ISO 14001, the international certification standard for Environmental Management Systems (EMS). These EMSs augment the requirements contained in the ISM Code for a Safety Management System, which includes environmental components. Most companies use the EMS type protocol to have checks and balances for all involved and to insure compliance throughout the company. EMS goals include: • Improving environmental performance • Preventing pollution and reducing waste • Improving overall operation of business • Lowering operating costs • Reducing risk of fines and penalties • Improving overall company reputation PROACTIVE COMPANIES Many charterers, vessel owners and technical managers have become more proactive regarding MARPOL compliance as the pace of enforcement has increased, as have the associated penalties. Some companies have elected to strengthen their compliance programs by implementing EMSs, recognizing both the importance of protecting the environment and minimizing

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OPERATION: COMPLIANCE – Tools for Effective Environmental Compliance

the risks of non-compliance. Many Banks, Insurance Companies and Charterers have unilaterally elected to employ, finance or support more efficient vessel which have a smaller carbon foot print per ton mile. Environmental compliance is dependent primarily on the ship’s crew and officers, the shoreside management oversight, and the strength of the overall corporate compliance culture. Companies have programs to ensure compliance on vessels including: 1. Management Systems – design clear procedures at all levels for handling waste stream and other processes onboard vessels. 2. Increased Compliance Training – must be repeated and reinforced regularly and updated due to new and changing requirements. 3. Open Reporting System – provides internal procedures for reporting, as well as a hotline and anonymous electronic reporting options. 4. Audit Programs – critical element of a robust environmental compliance program as it provides a means of independently verifying compliance. 5. Role of Superintendent – periodic shipboard visit by technical superintendent familiar with vessel can identify and inform on compliance risks, as well as reinforcing the company’s commitment to compliance. 6. Internal Investigations – this is the first course of action for any possible non-compliance question. Any concerns should first be reported through the ranks and onboard command. COMPLIANCE BY COMMITMENT Each seafarer, including ratings and officers, and shoreside personnel (member of the Maritime Supply Chain), is required to follow the procedures of their company and the regulations at hand. The company benefits if every employee follows international, national, and local laws and company policies, though compliance and a proactive attitude also have a personal element. In addition to the benefits to the company, compliance with environmental and safety regulation is simply the right thing to do. It is critical for the seafarer to believe that the company is committed to compliance. By being involved and having a pro-active attitude, individuals show they care for company, colleagues and the environment. Personal motivation leads to compliance by commitment.


Non-Compliance and Reporting Methods THE UNITED STATES HAS LONG BEEN aggressively enforcing compliance with the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, as amended (“MARPOL”), which is implemented in the United States by the Act to Prevent Pollution from Ships (“APPS”). Since the early 1990s, the effort has been directed at all types of registered and domestic tonnage – the full spectrum of waterborne commerce irrespective of the type of ship or flag. Those entities and individuals prosecuted for MARPOL violations also span a wide spectrum of owners, operators, technical managers, masters, engineers, shoreside personnel and corporate officers. MARPOL Annex I prosecutions commonly involve bypasses of the oily water separator or discharges of sludge overboard rather than through incineration. Few of these prosecutions involve illegal discharges in U.S. waters – virtually all involve false, inaccurate, or incomplete entries in the Oil Record Book (“ORB”). Maintaining an inaccurate ORB while in domestic waters or presenting an inaccurate ORB to the U.S. Coast Guard may be a crime and a basis for prosecution, along with post-incident conduct such as obstruction of justice or false statements made to investigators following commencement of the investigation. There are also numerous prosecutions for illegal discharges of garbage under MARPOL Annex V. In the United States, non-compliance with MARPOL may have some serious consequences: • Fines of millions of dollars for companies • Prison sentences in the U.S. for individuals • Vessel detention leading to increased costs for delays or, alternatively, entering into a Security Agreement, commonly requiring a bond and numerous engineers staying ashore for an indefinite period of time while the company pays full wages and living expenses • Diverting management time from running the business to dealing with an investigation

Person Ashore and the internal Environmental department. The company should be given the chance to fix the problem themselves while statutory reports are made to governmental authorities. Response back to the reporter regarding the findings is crucial so they feel their concerns are being responded to and not just ignored. Therefore, internal procedures of how to deal with open reporting (Ombudsman), must be in place. After any reports are made, it is very important to have correct chains for investigation and follow up, and that the reporter is always protected from retaliation. REPORTING NON-COMPLIANCE OUTSIDE THE COMPANY (WHISTLEBLOWER) If the concerns of non-compliance are not properly responded to by onboard command or by the shoreside management, then reporters may go outside of the company (commonly called a whistleblower) by reporting wrongdoing directly to the U.S. Coast Guard. Some companies have a hotline on their web page to encourage that such reports are made first to shoreside management so they can be dealt with promptly. Whistleblowers have been part of the seascape in APPS prosecutions for years and more than 50% of the new cases stem from whistleblowers, probably because of the lucrative rewards DOJ is requesting and courts are awarding. This can amount to as much as 50% of any penalty paid for APPS violations and can sometimes incentivize crew members to bypass the company’s internal reporting systems. Unfortunately – and because of the reward prospects, whistleblowers often ignore company policies and the ISM Code by reporting wrongdoing directly to the U.S. Coast Guard rather than through the chain of command or to the Designated Person Ashore. Such actions serve to undermine international systems in place to deal with potential violations, as well as the company’s compliance program.

REPORTING NON-COMPLIANCE WITHIN THE COMPANY Ideally, every company has procedures and protocols in place to comply with environmental requirements. This management system focuses on environmental compliance for the maritime industry. The goal is to be in compliance with regulations and exceed them in the interest of personnel safety, environmental protection and sustainability of the company. Responsible companies should condemn wrongful actions and non-compliance and should have procedures in place for individuals to report non-compliance with environmental requirements, including MARPOL, within the company. It is imperative to train and make it known internally, that the company encourages an internal report before any external reports. As an initial matter, any concerns should primarily be taken up onboard and through the ranks and onboard command. If not, or if reporters don’t feel comfortable, then there should be a list of contact people, from superintendent, Designated

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OPERATION: COMPLIANCE Test your knowledge of MARPOL regulations, compliance, and the marine environment after completing the training course. To take this assessment test online, visit MARPOL Assessment Test https://goo.gl/forms/sbASvuRqwwzl5InI2 1. What does “MARPOL” refer to? A. The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships B. The Global Agreement for Endangered Species Management C. The International Agreement for the Reduction of Invasive Species 2. What is the objective of MARPOL? A. To preserve the marine environment B. To minimize oil pollution in the ocean C. To reduce pollution from garbage in the ocean D. To minimize sewage pollution in the ocean E. To limit chemical harm from noxious liquids in the ocean F. To limit air pollution from ships G. All of the above 3. How much oxygen we breathe is produced in the ocean? A. 10% B. 25% C. 50% D. 75% 4. True or False: A typical marine food chain starts with phytoplankton 5. The maritime sector is essential for the world economy, because___ of world trade is carried by sea. A. 30% B. 50% C. 75% D. 90% 6. What is an environmental hazard associated with oil spills? 7. True or False: All small ships must have the capacity to hold all oil generated onboard and may not discharge oil unless it is treated. 8. What is a noxious liquid? A. Warm seawater from the surface of the ocean enriched with nitrogen B. Liquids leftover after cooking containing oils C. Liquids with chemicals that are poisonous to marine life, can contaminate freshwater drinking supply, and can contaminate seafood D. Sewage 9. True or False: According to MARPOL Annex II, Category X liquids are not hazardous and may be discharged anywhere at sea. 10. What is considered sewage on a ship? A. Waste from toilets and urinals B. Liquids and fluids from medical areas or sick bays C. Liquids from where live animals are kept onboard D. All of the above 11. True or False: Ships over 400 gross tons, or smaller ships that are approved to carry over 15 persons are NOT required to have an approved sewage treatment system or holding tank. 12. Name a risk associated with garbage in the ocean, or marine debris. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 13. True or False: It is illegal to discharge plastic materials, synthetic lines, fishing nets, ash from incinerating garbage, or residue from the cargo section of oil tanker anywhere at sea from any vessel. 14. Why do chemical compounds, including CO2, Sox and NOx, emitted into the air from ships pose a threat to living things? A. They can cause respiratory problems B. They can cause heart problems C. They accelerate climate change D. They can damage ecosystems as a whole E. All of the above

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OPERATION: COMPLIANCE – Tools for Effective Environmental Compliance

15. True or False: Ships operating in designated Emission Control Areas must comply with more stringent fuel standards regarding sulfur emissions (SOX) and/or nitrogen oxides (NOX). 16. Potential consequences of climate change are: A. A higher frequency of extreme weather conditions B. Change in geographical distribution of species C. Change in geographical distribution of some infectious diseases D. Flooding of land areas E. Ocean acidification, F. All of the above 17. The IMO convention on antifouling systems used on ships prohibits the use of: A. Tributyltin (TBT) B. All toxic substances C. Prickly coatings D. Systems using electricity 18. True or False: A newly introduced species becomes invasive when it likes the physical circumstances (like temperature) in the new environment better than where it came from. 19. True or False: According to the International Labor Organization (ILO), working on a ship recycling beach is one of the most dangerous jobs in the world. 20. Why is it important to protect the marine environment? ________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 21. Why is compliance with MARPOL Regulations important (mark all that apply): A. Safety of the crew B. Improve business performance C. Keep cargo tied to the vessel D. Protect the environment E. Required by law 22. Which of the following are goals set forth in a standard EMS ? A. Lower operating costs B. Prevent pollution and reduce waste C. Reduce risk of penalties D. Overall company reputation E. All of the above 23. Who in the maritime industry is prosecuted for MARPOL violations (mark all that apply)? A. Technical managers B. Shoreside personnel C. Corporate officers D. Students at a local college E. Owners 24. True or False: The first step to reporting a non-compliance issue onboard ship is to call the US Coast Guard. 25. Should companies have policies and procedures in place to report non-compliance issues internally? Yes or No


OPERATION: COMPLIANCE – Tools for Effective Environmental Compliance

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OPERATION: COMPLIANCE – Tools for Effective Environmental Compliance

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OPERATION: COMPLIANCE - MARPOL  

NAMEPA has developed the Operation: Compliance program to help seafarers better understand MARPOL regulations and the need for MARPOL compli...

OPERATION: COMPLIANCE - MARPOL  

NAMEPA has developed the Operation: Compliance program to help seafarers better understand MARPOL regulations and the need for MARPOL compli...

Profile for namepa6
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