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Volume V /I. , V ,"\ ;;(;,)

Fascicle 6 (Chehrdad Nask -- Class System V) Fascicle 7 (Class System V -- Clothing IX) Fascicle 8 (Clothing X -- Coffee)

Mazda Publishers P.

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1. Fram; Kafb. "Die Verwandlung" in $anllJiche EtuhIUllsen, ed. Paul Raabe, Frankfurt, FischerTascbenbuch Verbg.I978, p. 56. 2. FlllIlz Kafka, "1be Mewnorphosis," TlllIll. SWlley Comgold, in The NortorJ Anfhol&r of world Masterpiece" Vol. 2, fihh ed.,New York, W. W. Norton, 1985,p. 1605.

J . Stanley

Comgold,

The Qxnmenra!Of',

Despair.

The

lntcrpteUUoo

of KaIk,',

MelmWrpl/o$u, Port Wubingt()(l, N.Y.• Kennibt P",u , 1913, p . 10. . \ \ V'" "

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LaM~,

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..,~ ..... 'e-" 10. '"Verwandlung,H p. 77.

11. "The Metamorpbosi.; p. 1624. 12.uMeWno~e,p.SS.

'4. '"Verwand1ung," p. 92.

IS . La Mecamoq:.bose, p. 89.

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21. Riu:hie Robertson,

Kafb. Judaimt, Policia,

and Iiref3ture, OdOl'd,

C1ateodon Pm. 1985,

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24. Husan Kamshad, Modem Penian Prose Iiltnlwre, Cambridge, Cambridge Universil)' Prell, 1966, p.lSO.

25. Ibid. .Of> ..... ,leW

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27. Stanley ComgoJd, The Commentator's Despair, p. 27. 28. laj 8ashiri, The Fiction of Sadeq HedllY1I1, Lexington, Kentucky, Muda Publishen. 1984,

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-Srudia lranica, Vol. 20. fascicule 2. Leuven . -Hamdard Is/amicus. Vol. XIV, no. 2. Karachi.

..,..L:S ,....b..,.L


Persian Jounal for Science and Society P.O.Box 7353 A1ex .. ndri ... Virgin.. 22307


Contents

Iran Nameh Vol. X, No.3, Summer 1992

Persian:

Articles Book Reviews English: Afterword

MiciuJel Hillmann At the Tomb of Sadeq Hedayat Youssef IsiuJghpour Nationalism and Hedayat MasiuJl/ah Ajowiani Language and Style in Hedayat's Writing Simin Karimi

The Lantern of Imagination in the Works of Hedayat MiciuJel Beard "Dash Akol" and the Luti Film Genre Hamid Naficy Sadeq Hedayat's Psych<>-Fictions M A. Homayoun Katouzian

The Problem of The Blind Owl Azar Nafisi

Hedayat's Metamorphosis of the MetanwrpiuJsis Nasrin Rahimieh

Am I Not Writing My Own Tale and Story? M. Razin


FROM DURHAM TO TEHRAN: PERSIANIST IMPRESSIONS

Michael Hillmann writes on: JaIal Al-e Ahmad, Gertrude Nye Doll)'. Parvtz Ahour. Pari Ahour. KarIm Emami. Goll EmamI. All Dehbashi. Shams A]...e Ahmad. Mahmud Borujerdl. Slmln Daneshvar. Zohreh Ra'ln, Reza Navabpour. John Steinbeck. Ehsan Yarshater. Sadeq Chuba](, Sandy Morton. Ebrahim Golestan, Esma'n Faslh, Nader Naderpour, Ahmad Ashraf, All Banuazlzl, JaIal MaUnJ, Habib LadJevatdl. Leonardo A1lshan. Farzaneh Milani, I''arhad Kaz.eml, L.P. Elwell-Sutton, All Dashtl, Omar Khayyam, Michael Beard. Ahmad Karlml-Hakkak., Forough Farrokhzad, Jerome Clinton, Gemot Windfuhr. A.J. Arnell)', Ahmad KasraVi, All Jazayery, Hushang Goishirt, Marzlyeh Samn. Frank Bagley, Mehrt Bharter, Mahmud Dowlatabadl, Gertrude L. Bell. J.T.P. Bruljn, Basil Buntlng. Rudakt, Ferdows!. Rum!. Sa·dl. Dick DaVis, Sadeq Hedayal, Reza Shah. Gene Garthwaite, William Beeman, Joeillettgcr, Bruce Craig, Wheeler Thackston, Paul Luft, CoUn MacKinnon. Bahram Meghdadl, Partchehr Kasrn. Peter Chelkowskf. Kate Millet, Sabak Zahra·l. Ruhollah Rhomeln!. Shahrokh Mescoub. Mohammad Mossadeq. Hafez Fnrrnanfarmayan. Hennan Bicknell. Bill Ochsenwald. James Bill, Peter Avery, James Joyce, Sheragulme Youchldje, All Shariatl, Behruz Vosuql, All Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjanl, Ayatollah Milani, Erwin Gans-Ruedln. Daryush Mehrju'l, Gholam .. Hosseln Saedl, Behruz Nelraml, Mike Jerald. Ghassem Zamn, Nasrollah Pourjavady, Peter Lamborn Wilson, Masu'd Klmlya'I, Manuchehr Hezarkhanl, Eslam Kaz.emlye h. Hushang Vazlri. Parviz Shahpour, Donald Wilber. Najaf Daryabandan. Azar NaflsL Ali Mohammad Afghani. Goll Taraghi, Tahereh Saffarzadeh, Mohsen Makhmalbaf, John Gurney. E.G. Browne, WUferd Madelung, Anne Tyler, Taghl Modaress!. Nahld Rachlin, Manuchehr Parvin, M.R. Ghanoonparvar, Parvlz Natel Khanlari, Zablhollah Mansun, Nahld Musavt. Shahrn011sh Parslpour, Roxanne Zand, Khosrow Shahanl, All Mohammad Haghshen:.s. Slmln Behbehanl, Sohrab Sepehrl. Hosseln Zenderoudl. Parvl...: Kalantari. Yasal ShaJanlan. AfzaJ Vossoughl, Gholam-Hosseln Yuson. Julie Scott Melsaml, Hamid Nancy. Hamid Dabashl, Mchdl Akhavan-Sales. M.E. Beh'Azln, Hamed Razlec. Ghasem Khosrovan. Mostafa Farzaneh. Nasser Ovissl, Do Utas ... From Durham to TehrllD presents Images. Impressions and reflections about Involvement of a Persian literature specialist In his field of study. The Impressions derive from two trips, one to Durham. England In 1986 and the other to Tehran. Iran In 1989. The author Michael CrailllUllmann first travelled to Iran as an American Peace Corps volunteer In 1965. He thereafter studied Persian. Arable. and Islam at the The University of Chicago and Tehran University. Since 1974 he has taught Persian literature and Iranian culture at The University of Texas at Austin. He writf"S on classical Perstan epic and Iyrtc poetry, modem Persian ficUon and lyric poetry. Persian carpets, and Iranian palnUng. • 128 pages. photographS. clo1h $25.00 . ,SBN o-936347·18-X. soflcover $15.00 • • ISBN 0-36347·19-8 . library 01 Congess Catalog Card Number: 91·73515 .

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Afterword: Sadeq Hedayat and the 'American' School of Persian Studies Michael Hillmann In January 1991. commemorating the fonieth anniversary of the death of Sadeq Hcdayat (1903-1951) and the fiftieth anniversary of the pUblication of Hcdayat's BII/-e Kur (The Blind Owl). upwards of thiny Persian literature amateurs gathered at The University of Texas at Austin to panicipate in a conference called "Sadeq Hedayat and Persian Literature." These Hedayat Conference participants comprised three generations of Iranian academics and a spectrum of critical orientations from traditionaJist to modernist and from philological to feminist. They represented specific expertise in Cinema, Comparative Literature, English Literature, Folk1ore. Literary HislOry, Linguistics, Orientalist Persian Studies, Psychology, Sociology, World Literature, and Women's Studies. They had come (at mostly their own expense) from Tehran, London, Oxford, Albena, Portland (Oregon), Los Angeles, Tucson, Salt Lake City, Washington, D.C., and New York. They presented and discussed sixteen papers on such topics as Hedayat's folk1oristic writing (Mahmoud Omidsalar), Hedayat's Irarophilic inteUechlalism (Jalal Matini), writing as therapy in The Blind Owl (M.R. Ghanoonparvar), The Blind Owl as an artistic manifesto (Hamid Dabashi), and the Iranian roots of Hedayat's popuJarity (L.P. Alishan). Nasser Ovissi's contribution was a painting called "The Faces of Sadeq Hedayat," while Dariush Dolalshahi performed a Hedayat.esque monologue as a conference entertainment. The very fact of such a gathering involving such disparate origins, orientations and perspectives intimates Hedayat's spedaJ place in the minds and heans of many educated Iranians and the speciaJ importance and reicvance which his work wouJd appear to hold for critics and scholars in a wide range of disciplines. Few other Iranian literary figures or subjects might attract such a disparate group of expcns. Funhermore, this Hedayat issue of Iran NaJ1U!h, only the second issue in the journal's ten-year history to focus exclusively on a post-fourteenth century Iranian literary figure, emphaLicaJly reinforces the twin suppositions of Hedayat's preeminence as the best known, most discussed. and most controversial Persian literary artist since the ghazal poet Hafez (c.I320-c.1390) and of his chef d'oeuvre The Blind Owl (1941) as the most discussed and influential Persian prose work since Golestan [(The) Rose Garden) (1258) by Sa'd! (c.1215-c.1290). This Hedayat issue of Iran Nameh, to which this essay serves as a tangenLia1 "Afterword," has brought rogetber half of lhe papers from the 1991 Hcdayat Conference--those by MashaJ1ah Ajoudani, Michael Beard, Simin Karimi, Homa Katouzian, Hamid Naficy, Azar Nafisi, and Nasrin Rahimieh, along with a new paper by conference participant M. Razin, and reviews by conference panicipants Ariz Arai-Langroudi, William Hanaway, Abbas Milani, and Kazem Tehrani. The volume aJso features Youssef Ishaghpour's essay called "At the Grave of Sadeq Hedayat." For the most part <md in comparison with Hedayat Studies to date in


20 Iran and Europe, the genesis of and the bulk of the writing in this volume may stand as a statement of a relatively new cluster of attitudes and approaches toward the critical appreciation of Persian Iiterauu-e. For lack of a bettec

designation, the phrase 'American School' might serve to describe this emerging perspective. seen mainly in English and Persian writings published in North America. In ilS cursory review of America-based Hedayat Sludies, encompassing translations of Persian Iranian short stories and novels and the publication of critical writing on twentieth-century Persian literature. this" Afterword" suggests the range and characteristics of this' American School.'

...

The most popular Persian literary medium in twentieth-cemury Iran has been the soon slOry. Before this century. Persian verse had reigned almost supreme in the Iranian literary arena. Then, because modernist Persian poetry represented a threat to uaditional poetic practice and taste, it has had almost as many detractors as suptxJrters throughout most of lite century. while traditional(ist) verse did nOl continue to spark the imagination of most postWocld War II readers. As foc the Iranian novel, mostly because of the availability of Western novels in Persian translation, it began only in The Islamic Republican Era (1979- ) to attract a substantial Iranian readership. But the Iranian short story, suitable foc publication in newspapers and magazines, as well as in collections, became an accepted form by mid-century. The first Persian short story to achieve popularity and notoriety was "Persian Is (as Sweet as) Sugar" (192112) by the prominent expatriate writer Mohammad Ali Jamalzadeh (h.I892). However. the leading figure in Persian short fiction turned out to be Sadeq Hedayat, who published four collections of short stories between 1930 and 1942: Buried Alive (1930), Three Drops of Blood (1932), Chiaroscuro (1933), and The Stray Dog (1942). along with the separately printed Madame 'Alaviyeh (1933). a volume of satirical narratives co-authored with Mas'ud Farzad called Mr. Bow Wow (1933), and scattered short stories, most of which appeared in the posthumous volume called Scaflered Writings of Sadeq Hedayat (1955. 1971). The chief short story writers from the 1940s. Sadeq Chubak (b. 1916) and Jalal Al-e Ahmad (1923-1969), and their successors in the 1950s and after, starting with Gholamhosayn Sa'edi (1935/6-1985) and Hushang Golshiri (b.1937), almost uniformly pay lip service to Hedayat as having influenced the development of their own techniques and styles, while critics have routinely evaluated short fiction after Hed.ayat using his achievements as a yardstick. Much represemative shaner Persian fiction is available in English translation, chiefly in the following publications:

Alavi, Bozorg. The Prison Papers of Bo"Zorg Alavi. Syracuse. NY: Syracuse Univer<:ity Press, 1985. pp. Il5-196. Al-e Ahmad, Jaial. Iranian Society: An Anlhclogy. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers, 1982. .


21 Behrangi, Samad. The Little Black Fish and Other Modern Persian Short Stories. Washington, D.C.: Three Continents Press, 1976. Chubak. Sadeq. Sadeq Chubak: An Anthology. Delmar, NY: Caravan Books,

1982. Daneshvar. Simin. Daneshvar's Playhouse: A Collection o/Stories. Washington.

D.C.: Mage Publishers, 1989. Hedayat. Sadeq. "Buried Alive" and "Three Drops of Blood. n Hedayat's 'The Blind Ow/' Forry Years After. Austin, TX: UT Austin Center for Middle Eastern Studies and UT Press, 1978. pp. 43-67.

_ _ _-,--_."The Mongol's Shadow." Chicago Review 20, pt. 4 (1969): 95+ 104. ------::-c-' Sodeq Hedayal: An Anthology. New York. NY: Bibliotheca

Persica. 1978. fran. The Literary Review 18. no. 1 (FaJl 1974). locludes U'allslalions of short stories by Samad Behrangi. Sadeq Chubak, Ebrahim Goiestan, 5adeq Hedayat, and Bahram Sadeqi. Jamalzadeh, Mohammad Ali. Once upon a Time. New York, NY: Bibliotheca

Persica. 1985. Major Voices in Contemporary Persian Lilerature. Literature East & West 20 (1981). Includes trnnslations of short stories by Jalal AI-e Ahmad, Sadeq Chubak, Nader Ebrahimi. Ebrahim Golestan. Sadeq Hedayat. and M.A. Jama17.adeh. Modern Persian Short Stories. WashinglOn. D.C.: Three Continents Press. 1980. Includes translations of short slOries by Jalal Al-e Aronad, Mahshid Amirshahi, Sadeq Chubak. Simin Daneshvar, Ebrahim Golestan. Sadeq Hedayat. Nader Ebrahimi. Mahmud Kiyanush. Ahmad Mahmud, Jamal Mirsadeqi. Shapur Qarib. Bahram Sadeqi, Gholamhosayn Sa'edi, Khosrow Shahani, Naser Taqva'i. New Writing from the Middle East. New York, NY: A MenlOr Book, New American Library, 1918. Includes shon fiction by Bozorg Alavi, Massud Farzan, Hushang Golshiri, Sadeq Hedayal, and Gholamhosayn Sa'edi. Sa'edi, Gholamhosayn. Dandil: Stories from Iranian Life. New York, NY:

Random House, 1981. _ _----:=:-.. Fear and Trembling. Washington, D.C.: Thee Continents Press, 1984. Stories by Iranian Women since the Revolution. Austin, TX: UT Austin's CMES and Texas Press, 1991. Includes stories by Fatemeh Ablah.i. Mihan Bahrami, Simin Dancshvar, Mahdokht Dowlatabadi, Nasrin Ettehad. Ghodsi Ghazinur, Mahdokht Kashkuli. Fereshteh Kuhi, A. Rahmani, Lili Riyahi, Mojdeh Shahriari. Shahrzad. and Goli Taraghi. Stories from Iran ... 1921-/991. WashinglOn, D.C.: Mage Publishers, 1991. Includes stories by Bozorg Alavi, Jalal AI-e Ahmad, Mahshid Amirshahi, M.E. 8eh'wn, Sadeq Chubak, Simin Daneshvar, Mahmud Dowlatabadi, Nader Ebrahimi. Amin Faqiri, Esma'il Fasih, Ebrahim


22 Golestan. Hushang Goishiri, 5adeq Hedayat, M.A. Jamalzadeh, Nasim Khaksar. Ahmad Mahmud, Jamal Mirsadeqi, Shahmush Parsipur,

Moniru Ravanipur, Bahram Sadeqi, Gholamhosayn Sa'edi, Goli Taraqi, Feraydun Tonokaboni, and severa] others. The list reveals that Hcdayat is onc of only seven Iranian authors featured to date in separate anthologies of English lranSiations. aJthough Gholamhosayn Sa'ed.i. and not Hedayat, is the only Iranian short SllX)' writer whose stories in translation have appeared under the aegis of a major trade publisher. 1be list funher shows that every anthology of Iranian short stories by multiple authors, except naturally for one anthology of women's stories. includes a1 least onc Hedayat slOry. The list implies Hedayal's continuing role as a model, foil, and competitor for Iranian short slOry writers coming after him. But Hedayal casts an equaJJy pervasive shadow over Iranian novelwriting. His The Blind Owl, distributed in a small, private printing in 1937 and published in Tehran in 1941. was the first critically significam Iranian novel, a species and medium which did not reach maturity until the 1960s. The development of the Iranian novel from Al-e Ahmad's The Schbol Principal (1958) to Hushang Golshiri's Prince Ehtejab (1969) owed much to the inspiration of The Blind Owl for then younger writers in the generation(s) after Hedayat. Iranian novels began to compete for readers with translations of Western fiction in the 1980s, when several novelists were making a living from their craft, an unprecedented situation in Persian literature. Regardless, even in novels of the 1990s. for example Shahmush Parsipur's Women without Men (I990), readers can discern the presence of The Blind Owl as a literary forebear. English translations of the following Persian Iranian novels are available:

Alavi, Bozorg. Her Eyes. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1989. Al-e Ahmad, Jatal. By the Pen. Austin, TX: lIT Austin's CMES and tIT Press, 1989. __----:=;-. The School Principal. MinneaJXllis, MN: Bibliotheca Islamica,

1974. _ _ _ _ _ . The School Principal. New Delhi: Hamam Publications, 1986. 8araheni, Reza. "The Dismemberment." New Writing from the Middle East. New York, NY: A Mentor Book, New American Library, 1978. pp. 292-326. _ _ _ _ _ . The InjerMI Days of Aqa-ye Ayaz. In Caner Harrison Bryant II, "Reza Baraheni's The Infernal Days of Aqa-ye Ayaz: A Translation and Critical Imroduction." Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin, 1982. Chubak, Sadeq. The Patient Stone. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers, 1990. _ _----,,..,-_. Tangsir [Man with a Gun]. In Sadeq Chubak.: An Anthology. Delmar, NY: Caravan Books, 1982. Daneshvar, Simin. A Persilln Requiem. New York, NY: Braziller, 1992. _ _ _ _ _ . Savushun. Washington, D.C.: Mage Publishers, 1990.


23 Fasih, Esma'il. Sorayya in a Coma. London: Zed Press, 1985. Goishiri. Houshang. Prince Ehlejab. In Major Voices ill Contemporary Persian Literature. Austin, TX: LiteralUre East & West, 1980. Irani, Manuchehr (pseudonym). King of the Benighted. Washington, D.C.: Mage

Publishers. 1990. Hedayal, Sadeq. The Blind Owl. London: Calder. 1957; New York, NY: Evergreen Black Cal Edition. 1969; New York, NY: Grove Weidenfcld. 1989. _ _ _:::::-_. Haji Agha. Austin, TX: UT Austin's CMES and lIT Press, 1979. Taraghi, GaiL Winter Sleep. [n Francine Timothy Mahak, A Critical Analysis and Translation of a Modem Persian Novel: Winter Sleep by Goli Taraqqi." Ph.D. Dissenation, The University of Utah, 1986. ft

This list shows that The Blind Owl was lhe first Persian Iranian novel to appear in an English version. Actually. five or six English translations of it exist in manuscript. but only two have been published (D.P. Costello's lisled above and lraj Bashiri's, privately published in two versions, neither anracting critical attention or approval). Moreover, The Blind Owl remains the only Iran-produced Persian novel in translation marl:::etcd by a commerciaJ publisher, thus relatively available to the general English-speaking reading public. (Because Taghi Modarressi's The Book. of Absent People and The Pilgrim's Rules of Etiquette fIrst appeared in English, they have not figured in the foregoing list). Other Persian novels in English translation have the imprims of small Iranian-American and academic presses, which carer lO libraries and deaJ through mail orders with mostly Iranian-American customers. As for critical writing on Hedayat in English, it probably exceeds that on any other Iranian author. A Saturday Review piece by William Kay Archer ir. December 1958 first drew attention to the then recently published English translation of The Blind Owl. Eight years later the fIrst significant study of Hedayat in English appeared in the second half of Hasan Kamshad's Modern Persian Prose Literature (1966). In some respects, this speciaJ Hedayat issue of Iran Nameh traces itself back lO Kamshad and lO several articles in Iran in the 1950s, among them A1-e Ahmad's ~The Hedayat of The Blind Owi (1951). Here follows a list of major critical writing on Hedayat in English, not including the many articles on mCHJemist Persian literawre in general which nawrally deal with Hedayat, among other major figures: Archer, William Kay. "The Terrible Awareness of Time.~ Saturday Review 41, no. 52 (17 December 1958): 2A-25. Bashiri, Iraj. The Fiction of Sadeq lIedayat. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers,

1984. Beard, Michael. lIedayat's Blind Owl as a Western Novel. PrincelOn, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1990. _ _ _ _ _ . "The Hierarchy of lhe Am in The Blind Owl." Iranian Studies


24 15 (1982): 53-67.

"Psychology and Character in Hedayat's The Blind Owl," Edebiyat 1 (1976): 207-218. _ _- ,:-;::--;-. and Ehsan Yarshater. "Sadeq Hedayat." Persian UteratlUt.

-

-

-

-=C"CC-'

Edited by Ehsan Yarshater. Albany. NY: State University of New York Press. 1988. pp. 318-335. Fischer, Michael. "Past and Present, Art and Psyche: The Blind Ow/." Knowledge and Society: StudUs in the Sociology of Culture Past and Present 5 (1984): 207-213. Hillmann, Michael. Compiler and edioor. Hedayat's 'The Blind Owl' Forty Years After. Austin, TX: lIT Austin's CMES and lIT Press, 1978. "Hedayat's The Blind Owl: An AUlDbiographical

Nightmare." /ranshenasi 1. no. 1 (Spring 1989): 1-21 (English section). Iranian Anist's Almost Inevitable Nightmare." Iranian Cullure: A Persianisl View. Lanham, MD: University Press of America. 1989. pp. 119-158 and 21Q.211. Kamshad, Hasan. "Pan Two." Mofhrn Persian PrOSt literature. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1966. pp. 135-208. KalOuzian. M.A. Homayoun. Sadeq Hedayal: The Life and LiteratUTe of an Iranian Writer. London: LB. Taurus, 1991. Mohandessi, ManoulChehr. nHedayat and Rilke." Comparative LiteratUTe 23 ( 1971),209-216. Ricks, Thomas M. Editor. Critical Perspectives on Modern Persian Lilerature. WashingtOn, D.C.: Three Continents Press, 1984.

- - - ; : - c - ' "The

Arguably the chief event in Hedayat swdies in the two decades after the 1957 publication of the English translation ofTM Blind Owl, Kamshad's Modern Persian Prose Literature put Hedayal into the context of modem Persian prose writing in Iran, asserted his preeminence, and offered readers a tentative paradigm for the swdy of Hedayat's carea. Kamshad saw that career as having these five stages: early years (1923-1930), creative period (1930路1937), barren period (1937-1941). period 01 h;gh hopes (1941-1947). and altennatlt (19471951). Kamshad also highlighted approaches to the study of the enigmatic Blind Owl and staked out the position that readers should submit to its atmosphere and mystery and not endeavor to analyze it as in the case of more straightforward fictions. At the same time, Kamshad pointed to other critica1 approaches, among them, echoing Al-e Ahmad, foreign inspiration, specifically The Notebooks of Malle Lauricis Brigge (1910) by Rainer Maria Rilke (1875-1926). Mohandessi's 1971 article on the subject called "Hedayat and Rilke" was conclusive in its demonstration of Hedayat's deNIO Rilke and particularly imponant in that it appeared in a mainstream academic journal, rather than in an Iranian studies publication. In other words, its pUblication in Comparative Literature implied that academtc readers in the English-speaking world should have read or should read The Blind Owl. Hedayat' s The Blind Owl Forry Years After (1979) took. up


25 interpretation of The Blind Owl through a comprehensive, multifaceted approach to analysis. Besides a transla1ion of Al-e Ahmad's ~The Hedayat of The Blind

Owl" (1951), Forty Years After contains essays on the book's tille, Hindu imagery, history as a theme in the novel. Khayyamic echoes. possible Buddhist influences. a Jungian analysis, Oedipal features, affmities with NervaJ, Kafka, Poe, and the Surrealists. and the conflict among the narrator, the odds-and-ends man, and the wife. The book suggested that literary critical inquiry hencefonh

needed groWlding anew in the facts of the text rather than further impressionistic speculation. cultwal appreciation, or persona] reaction, which constituted critical directions which much writing on the subject in Iran had taken. Earlier. also with an eye to Mohandessi's seminal essay on literary innuences in The Blind Owl. Michael Beard had completed a doctoral dissertation caBed "Sadeq Hedayal's The Blind Owl and the West: A Study in the Transmission of Genre" (Indiana University, 1974). This work marked the beginning of a series of significam articles during the 1970s and 1980s and a definitive monograph in 1990 called Hedayat's Blind Owl as a Western Novel. In that book, Beard paradoxically suggests salient aspects of Hedayat's genius through a scrutiny of certain and likely foreign literary sources of inspiration and analogues. His final chapler called ~Prolegomenon to The Blind Owl as an Eastern Novel~ reminds readers that adequate critical appreciation of The Blind Owl as an Iranian literary masterpiece is still a long way off. SpecifICs of the appreciation of The Blind Owl as an Iranian masterpiece have obviously attracted critical attention. For example, in ~Hedayat's The Blind Owl: An Autobiographical Nightmare" (1989, Iranshenasl1, Michael Hillmann pursues one line of speculation and inquiry through the assertion that the book may reveal its secrets to readers if they approach it as autobiography, as Hedayat's use of melaphor and mask in relating the true story of his interior, mental life. Hardly grounded in conclusive textual evidence, Hillmann's argument nevenheless alleast reminds Hedayat readers that Western distinctions between fact and fiction may not hold in Persian literature, even modernist, Wcslem-inspired prose fICtion, and that Hedayat drew on his personal experiences, extema1 and interior (including his reading), for his narratives, even if they lUm out as anifacts far from everyday life owing to his self-censorship and unique personality and creative imagination. As for another avenue of dealing critically with Hedayat's fiction in Iranian tenns, Horna Katouzaian's Sadeq Hedayat: The Life and Lilerature of an Iranian Writer (1991), a culmination of earlier essays dealing with psychology and Hedayat narratives, gives readers a feel for how The Blind Owl and earlier "psycho-fictions" relate to Hedayat's personality. Katouzian's book, in addition, is the fIrSt to present a relatively detailed biographical sketch of the writer. Katouzian's approach and views appear in this issue of Iran Nameh in the essay called "Hedayat's Psycho-fictions," as do Michael Beard's in "The Lantern of Imagination in Hedayat's Works." AJong with them are Simin Karimi's "Language and Style in Hedayat's Fiction," Nasrin Rahimieh's "Hedayat's Metamorphosis of Kafka's Metamorphosis," Hamid Naficy's"Dash


26 Akal and the Luti Film Genre," Masha1lah Ajoudani's "NationaJism and Hedayat,~ and AzN Nafisi's "The Problem of T~ Blind Owf. Collectively, the bulk of these articles and other writings in the foregoing lists may signal the development in Persian literntnre study of an 'American' orieniabon or school, which would appear to exhibit at least six characteristics. FltSt is lhe imponance which some America-based Persianists and such publishers as Three Continents Press, Mazda Publishers. and Mage Publishers give to literary translation. implying their sense of the significance of Persian literature as a window into Iranian culture, which translations can provide for English-speaking readers in societies which routinely demonstrate inadequate underslallding and appreciation of Iranian culture. Prominent among doctoral dissenation projects in North American university programs in Persian studies ft

are literary translations with critical introductions. Teacher-scholars willingly undertake translations of short stories and novels. lhe while knowing that Ole

circulation of the finished PrOOucLS may not extend beyond academic library shelves and book collections of readers who know Persian. But that may suite them as good enough for the time being, insofar as academically oriented readers who do not know Persian can avail lhemselvcs of such translations and thereby begin 10 influence changes in attitudes among orner academics, studenLS, and acquaintances. A second feature of Persian literature study in North America is the tendency in writing on Persian literature in lhe States toward a discipline-oriented focus. Whether writers choose to ground their analyses in anthropology, linguistics, a specific literary critical approach, psychology, or sociology, they would seem 10 avoid the generalized approaches of many critics and scholars in Iran and Europe who come 10 a text wilh knowledge of Persian, language hislOry, literary history, and major antecedent texts, but without an emphasis of a specific disciplinary approach or terminology. Only a trained literary critic also familiar with cinema could write Michael Beard's "The Lantern of Imagination in lhe Works of Hedayal." Only a uained film expen could write Hamid Naficy's "Dash Akol and the Luti film Genre." A linguist's expertise was needed for Simin Karimi's "The Language and Style of Hedayat's Works," while comparative literature interests are palpable in Nasrin Rahimieh's "The Metamorphosis of Kafka's Metamorphosis" and Azac Nafisi's "The Problem of The BUnd Owl." The bringing together of such discrete disciplinary perspectives was a deliberate organizational and thematic SlCalegy at the 1991 Hedayal Conference. Although the combination of the varied perspectives may not lead to a seamless critical discussion or publication, a consistent critical and scholarly rigor may ensue in lIDle with North American emphasis of specialization in critical inquiries in general. As a third arguable characteristic of American Persian studies, one might point to this anthologizing of various discipline-specific perspectives. Examples prior 10 this special Iran Nameh volume and after f/edayat's 'The Blind Owl' Forty Years After (1978), include: Literature and Socrety in Iran (1982), The Sociology of the Iranian Writer (1985), Nirnrye Digar-Spedal Issue


27 on 5imin Daneshvar (1988), Forugh Farrokhuui A Quarter·Century Later (1988), Iran Nameh·Specia/ Issue on Malek aJ-Sho'ara Bahar (1987), and Iranshenasi-Specia/ Issue on Parvin E 'tesami (1989). In Europe and Iran, this has nOl been a tradition with respect to modernist literature, except in Ali

DehOOshi's admirable work on Sadeq Chubak, Nima Yushij, Sohrab Sepehri. cl aI. But even there Dehbashi does not consciously endeav(K' to provide multidisciplinary treatments. Moreover, and fourthly, as some of the titles in the previous paragraph suggest, American Persian Srudies has focussed speciaJ and characteristic

auention on women as writers and as critics on women's studies issues since the mid-1970s. Nearly ha1f of the fonnal participants (speakers, chairs, and discussants) at the 1991 Hcdayal conference were women. Paremhetica1ly, Hcdayat's The Blind Owl, not to mention other narratives of his, is an interesting text in terms of this new balance because women therein, even if a man's depiction of women or merely feminine dimensions of a male narrator, arc special because they are not subordinate and submissive lO men. Fifth, American Persian Studies would appear in general to pay no special lip service or respect lO classical or uaditional Persian literature merely because of ilS classical SlaWS. Rather, a premise of the •American' school would appear lO be that each generation of scholars, critics, and readers shoold freshly engage works of the past which need to prove themselves generation by generation as having aesthetic appeal and human relevance. The facts that Persian dcpartments at Imnian universities have never offered courses in modernist Persian literature in a comprehensive or systematic way and that Persian programs at European universities would not appear 10 acknowledge the possibility lhat lwentieth-century Persian literature might be as rich and varied as that in any olher period of Persian literature highlight a perhaps distinctively •American' attitude toward past and present in this regard. FinaJly, and sixth, in American Persian Studies. no special reverence toward lhe literary artist comes, as it were, with the terrilOry. Critics deal routinely with writers not as a special class of human on a pedestal, but as human beings like other human beings with special skills at writing. Mashallah Ajoudani's nNationalism and Sadcq Hedayat n presents the brilliant prose artist as the racist nationalist he was without diminishing his significance in the arena of creative writing. Straighlforward and unvarnished biographical writing in America, from the short blurbs in Stories from Iran (1991) to articles and monographs on A1-e Ahmad, Forugh Farrokhzad, arid Nima Yushij, happens infrequently elsewhere. All of this neither says nor suggests that Persian Studies scholarship and criticism elsewhere do not have more value than Amcrica-based writing in general or that Hedayat studies owe as much to America-based work as to work in Iran or in Europe. AJthough now in the States, Mohammad Ja'far Mahjoub was in Europe when he wrote a review article in Ket(u,..e Djom 'eh-ha (Fall 1987) taking lhe Mazda edition of Hedayat's Pearl Cannon (1989) to lask for serious shoncomings in textua1 criticism, reminding America-based scholars that solid


28 expertise in textual criticism is not a matter of personal preference and tasle or familiarity with the Persian language even as a mother tongue. In this volume. Youssef Ishaghpour's "At The Grave of Sadeq Hedayat~ clearly represents the thoughtfulness and breadth of vision associated with the lranian路European tradition of Persian literature study. M.F. Farzaneh's AcquainlOllce with Sadeq Hedayat (paris, 1985) is as important a book on Hcdayat to appear in years. Fananeh's A Critique of The Blind Owl. with a Compleu Tat of Buried Alive and The Blind Owl (1991) is another most useful book. In Iran, Mohammad Gathon's Bibliography of Sadeq Hedayat (1977) set a Slafldard which bibliogtaphica1 work outside of Iran could do wen to emulate. 8Ul as this

Hedayat issue of Iran Nameh implies, the die is cast for Persian literature study to reflect, alongside other approaches, discipline-based premises, including women's swdies, and mulLidisciplinary analyses, and to engage texts and issues on their own terms without a priori assumptions.

...

In conclusion, thanks go to the Foundation for Iranian Studies for its support of the 1991 Hedayat Conference which inspired this volume, and to Foundation Executive Director Mahnaz Afkhami for encowaging the publication of a Hedayat issue of Iran Nameh based on conference papers. Further thanks go to Mahnaz Afkhami for inviting this writer to serve as co-editor of this issue. The consequent association on this project with my friend and prominent Iranian academic intellectual Daryush Shayegan has been a pleasure. Further appreciation goes to Honnoz Helonal, who has orchestrated the compilation of materials for this special issue through undertaking most of the translations and much of the editing and by coordinating communication between Paris and Austin. My University of Texas at Austin colleagues Aziz Atai路Langroudi and Mohammad Mehdi Khorrami deserve thanks for their expert translation services and M. Razin for her indispensable editorial expertise and advice. Deparunent of Oriental and African Languages and Literatures staff person Anne Brokaw deserves special mention for her work with the Hedayat Conference. Final and primary thanks naturally go to Hedayat Conference participants. Besides those named in various contexts above, Katayoun Begiari , Derayeh Derakhshesh, Farzaneh Milani, Malekeh Taleghani, and, especially, Ehsan Yarshatcr played important and appreciated pans in the conference. The list of mu1tidisciplinary conferences and publications on Persian literary figures continues to grow. Mahmoud Dowlatabadi's Klidar, Parvin E'tesami's poetry, Fomgh Farrokhzad and her poetry, Ferdowsi's Shahnameh, Nezami's poetry, and Nima Yushij and his poetry have received such attention to date. Contributors to this special Hedayat issue of Iran Nameh should lake some satisfaction in recognizing their collaborative effort as a significant addition to the list through their multifaceted contributions to the understanding and appreciation of a great twentieth芦ntury writer.


ABSTRACTS At tbe Tomb of Sadeq Hedayat

Youssef Ishaghpour Characterizing Sadeq Hedayat as the greatest oontemporary Iranian writer and The Blind Owl as a world class literary masterpiece. this article juxtaposes glimpses of Hedayat's life and personal experiences with the philosophical and historical underpinnings of his writings. and with the author' s own views on western social and Literary tradition and its impact on Iranian

writers. Hedayat was, according to the writer, the quimessemiaJ by-product of a society ravaged by the onslaught of Western modernity; a society wrenched from its past and left rudderless in a sea of conflicting and contradictory forces and emotions. His writings, therefore, reflected the pathos of a people neither comfortably beholden to its decaying mysticaJ and religKlus values- which, in

retrospect, seemed nothing more than echoes of bygone superstitions--nor in tune with the impecatives of the new age of modernity and enlightenmenL Thus, in their uneven literary quality. Hedayat's works were by themselves representative symbols of a fractured and fragmented world where man's loneliness had made the lure and fear of death an ever-prescm obsession. It is particularly in The Blind Owl, the longest and most famous of his works, that Hedayat alludes to the confrontation between Eastern fascination with mysticism and Western obsession with objectification. It is also in this work that Hedayat presents a stream of mystical and psychological reflections through images and mirrors in the protagonist's tortuous and circular journey in search of his "self' in a place no longer in existence.

Nationalism and Hedayat

Mashal1ah Ajoudani The article attempts to review the nature of Hedayat's nationalism in the light of the nationalistic ideas expressed by Iranian writers and poets during the constitutional movement and to assess its impact upon the structure and literary form of some of his works. Hedayat's brand of nationalism, influenced by the pervasive socia-political turmoil wracking his world, differed in one imponant dimension from that prevalent in the constitutionalist period at the tum of the century: it was nourished almost exclusively by a nostalgia for the lost glories of ancient Iran and was tinged by a deep sense of despair about Iran's future. The other side of Hedayat's fascination with pre-Islamic Iranian civilization --which at times bordered on ethnic chauvinism--was his abhorrence


30 of the culwraJ herilage left by the Arab conquest of the old Iranian empire.

Islam, in his eyes, was the source of Iran's cultural decadence and moral decay_ The effect of this profoundly biuer attitude towards all things Arab is quite evident in many of Hedayat's short stories, and even in some of his historical essays. all of which are overwhelmed by a heavy ideological-polemical load.

The Blind Owl, howevec, stands out as one of Hedayat's few works which do not suffer such a burden. This work, too, reflects Hedayat's nationalistic values and his reading of Iranian history. However, in its treatment of Hedayat's main lhemes. Le .â&#x20AC;˘ ~past" and "present~, The Blind Owl, in a truly modem narrative style and literary structure which is replete with symbolic images and subtle allegoric references. avoids the pitfall of unmitigated sloganeering about Iran's glorious past and Islam's baneful presence.

Language and Style in Hedayat's WritingsSimin Karimi The Russian writer and thinker, M. M. Bakhtin, states that "language, like the living concrete environment in which the consciousness of the verbal artist lives, is never unitary. It is unitary only as an abstract grammatical system of nonnative fonns ... " Bakhtin also assel1S that "the novel can be defmed as a diversity of social speech types and a diversity of individual voices, artistically organized ... while the artificially created language of poetry must be directly intentional and singular." This article examines the variety of Hedayat's language in his fictions, combined in his unique style, a style which itself is a combination of "styles", a system of "languages". The body of the paper consists of five distinct, but interrelated, sections. First comes a look at the development of Hedayat's language in its grammatical as well as artistic aspects. The second section lrealS the language and the style of the context of his fictions, and his imaginative descriptions. A sociolinguistic approach to Hedayal's writings in the third section takes into account the interaction of linguistic and social variables and their reflections in his short stories and novels. Hedayat's symbolic works. specifically The Blind Owl, are discussed in the fourth part of this article. The fmal section examines Hedayat's writings from Bakhon's point of view. In this context, a basic distinction is made regarding the language of his nonsymbolic fictions, on the one hand, viewed as a sociolinguistic discourse which exhibits the internal suatificatioo of language, and his symbolic writings, on the other hand, regarded as a poetic discourse, divorced from the concrete levels of language and disconnected from specific contexts. Also the "double voice" in Hedayat's writings is briefly addressed and discussed in the final section of this work . â&#x20AC;˘ Abstracts marked by an asterisk are prepared by their respective authors.


31 The l..aDtem of Imagination in the Works of Heclayat· Michael Beard

There is a painting by Nasser Ovissi, an homage to Sadeq Hedayat entitled Chehre-ha-ye Hedayat [Faces of Hcdayat], whose esthetic effect works

through conflicting visual styles: he juxtaposes replicas of a famous studio pholOgraph of Hedayat against a painterly background, an austere, empty landscape which becomes emptier and more stark from the juxtapOSition. This painting can be used as a starting point for an examination of Hedayat's work, which occasionally uses an anaJogous device, juxtaposing distinct or discordant narrative modes, allowing the reader to uace a seam or rift that runs through his writing. The opening scene of "Zendeh be-gUT" [Buried Alive] in which the

narrator describes himself watching a r.Jm. provides a SlaIting point for a calalogue of such effects in Hedayat's work. Here the narrative cemer of aucRtian shifts from active to passive. from the narrator's story of his own life to an account of himself as a member of an audience. This essay pursues that device or trope first thematically· ·through a sequence of passages that dea1 with film specifically··and then formally, through a series of comparable scenes which show characters observing images. designs. or shadows on walls. the most famous of which is the narrator' s shadow as described in Buf-I! KIlT [The Blind Owl}. As an analysis of Hedayat's recurring interest in the mechanics of visual imagery. from film to magic lanterns to shadows and murals; as an analysis of fonns it seems to me a device which allows a story to look momentarily at the limits of story-telling, as if from outside, stepping beyond the narrated events onto a second level of representation. They are moments which call the mimetic effect in question. in much the same way as Nasser Ovissi's "Faces of Hedayat".

"Dasb Akol" and the Lad Film Genre Hamid Naficy Sadcq Hedayat's short story, "Dash Akol," which underlines some of the social values and moral dilemmas reflected in Iranian popular romances, is one of the most weU·known cinematic adaptations in Iran. Luri films, as exe mplified by Dash Alcot, were informed by not only the contents but also the formal auributes of these romances. The pleasure involved in watching twi fIlms, which were quite popular in pre-revolutionary Iran, stemmed from a search for the schema. recognition of the familiar, the pull of the permanent, and, in the words of Umberto £CO, the "return of the identical." Public popularity notwithstanding, lwi films have long been considered by critics and intellectuals (religious and secular alike) to be frivolous, empty of meaning and even demeaning. In fact, no study has considered luri films as a


32 distinct genre whose conventions and narrative structures are wonhy of study because Ihey reveal processes by which Iranian culture and literature evolve and respond to change. Many generic elements of plOl, acting and character type, dialogue, dress code and life style were codified recurrently and consistently in lllli films. These elements, like stock phrases of ora] epics and romances, and well-known to male movie-goers. were rearranged each time a filmmaker made a film. These recurrent features and elements created a sense of familiarity and anticipation in audiences, a mythic sense of deja-vu. a ritualistic experience, which further endeared these films and their characters to the pUblic.

Sadeq Hedayat's Psycbo-Fictions· M.A. Homayoun KalOuZian Hedayat's works of fiction may be broadly divided into four groups: critical realist shan stories such as n Asking for Absolution"; romantic nationalist fictions such as "Maziar"; social and cultural satire such as Haji Aqa; and his psycho-fictions which include many of his best works such as the 'Three drops of Blood: 'Buried Alive,' 'Dark. Room,' and 'Stray Dog,' and especially TM Blind Owl. Predictably, there are some overlaps among these four groups, but each group would appear sufficiently distinct to justify the above classification. The style, technique and poetics of the psycho-fictional stories sometimes vary considerably. However, what binds this group of Hedayat's Stories together is that they pose questions, address problems, and contain puzzles which are··10 a great or lesser extent·.of a psychological, metaphysical and ontologicaJ nature. Therefore, a1though their linguistic and cultural content is inevitably Iranian, the intellectual plane is universal in both time and space. In this sense, they can nol be described as being specifiCa1ly Eastern or Western stories except 10 the extent that they inevitably bear the general imprint of bolh Eastern and Western cultures and literatures. All of the psycha.fictional works have been interpreted in the light of Freudian, Indo·Buddhist and other theories. But the fundamental pattern that emerges is a yeaming for perfection and liberation. perfect love, and total securily. even a 'rerum to the womb'. 11lese are of course 811 aspects of the same goa1 which in Sufi doclrine necessitates the desU'Uction of the and in modem psychology requires the attainment of natural awareness. But in Hedayat's psyctxrfictions this goal is never achieved, which results in the despair, death and suicide for which they are commonly known.

nats


33

The Problem of The Blind Owl

Azar Nafisi TIle problem of The Blind Ow/-which conwns such elements in Hedayat's earlier writings as his fascination with ancient Iranian culture and his etema1 hate-love relationship with death路-continues to preoccupy Iranian readers

and literary critics alike. In a sense, the problem is rooted in fundamental paradoxes gripping Iranian culture with its persistent fractions and contradictions. The Blind Owl deftly manages to juxtapose many of these contradictions, among them, life and death. light and darkness, and past and present. In a sense, it simuhaneously embraces two different yet inseparable worlds and exhibits a magical capacity to dissect, wilhin its complex narrative slrUclure, age-old conuadictions of the Iranian society without becoming their victim. In The Blind Owl Hedayat has succeeded in creating a unique narrative style inspired more by the contradiction between me old Persian art and the modem Western arts than by such Western writers as Poe, Kafka. Rilke and Nerval who have purportedly influenced his writing. Although lhe presence of strange and contradictory elements in a narrative is nothing elttraordinary, these elemenlS reach unusual dimensions in The Blind Owl. Finally, in its narrative

style, Hcdayat's novel plunges the reader into a world of doubt and uncertainty where Ihe writer provides no clues and leads for answering questions that have been raised only implicitly. It is perhaps this feat.me that most distinguishes The Blind Owl from other contemporary Iranian novels.

Hedayat's Metamorphosis of the Metamorplwsis*

Nasrin Rahimieh Sadeq Hcdayat's translation of Franz Kafka's The Metamorphosis has often been regarded as a fertile ground for traditional influence studies. The very existence of this translation is taken as prima facie evidence of Hedayat's indebledness to Kafka. Overlooked in these assumptions is Hedayat's own highly creative manipulations of Kafka's text which he was, in addition, only able to read through the barrier of Alexandre Vialatte's 1938 French uanslation,ftLa Metamorphose." Although Hedayat's text bears witness to having cut across unnecessary linguistic and cultural mters, it nevertheless manifests a degree of artistic independence that goes beyond the work of Kafka's French translator. Hedayat may be said to have subjecled Kafka's text to a certain kind of metamorphosis. Close readings and comparisons among the original Gennan, Vialatte's translation, and the Persian text indicate that Hedayat's choices were


34 not necessarily of a purely linguistic or stylistic nature. Read against his 1948

essay "Kafka's Message," the Persian translation of The Metanwrphosis rcvea1s even more about Hedayat's aesthetics. The Kafka Hedayat presents to his Iranian readers, in his essay and in his U'anslation, is molded in his own image much in the same way that he reinterpreted Khayyam's works to fit his own outlook on

life and literalUre. Hedayat's translation of Kafka's novella can, lherefore. be seen as a catalyst to the consolidation of Hedayat's own ideas.

Am I Not Writing MY Own Tale aDd Story?路 M. Razin Referring to Michael Hillmann'sjudgement thatlhe prOlagonist's failure

in The Blind Owl symbolizes Hedayat's own sense of personal, social and elhnic defeat. the author poses the Question whether one can fathom the depths of a writer's mind through an analysis of the character and behavior of his protagonist. In chapter four of his Iranian. Culture: A PersianiSI View (1990), Hillmann suggests that The Blind Owl is "a novel of obsession with the past,

confusion about its relation to the present and fear of the future" (p. 5). Hedayat's awareness of an ethnic failure may also be traced to a number of his shon stories. Not only in his private letters but also in such stories as ~Haji Aqa: "Haji Morad," "Abji Khanom and "Mardi ke Nafsash ra Kosht" Hedayat projecLS his belief in the connection between ethnic and social failure. What also comes through from the deeper layers of an of Hedayat's writings is the link that he creates between traditiona1 socio-ethnic values on the one hand, and love and sexual frustration on the other. Such a link is particularly evident in "Buf-e Kur," "Zende be Gur," and Arusak-e Posht-e Parde." In his works, Hedayat seems bent on escaping more from his "self' than the society. Thus, each of the male protagonists in his stories somehow try to distance themselves from, and ultimately reject, their own existence. Most of Hedayat's short stories exhibit this trait by using religious symbolism. It can, therefore, be said that not only the protagonist in "Buf-e Kur," but also most of Hedayat's imaginary characters are all echoes of his own personal outlook that he has anfuUy and poignantly brought to life. R

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A Persian Journal of Iranian Studies Published by The Foundation lor Iranian Studies

Editor;

Editorial Board:

Advisory Board :

Oaryush Shayegan Book Review Editor:

Ahmad Karimi-Hakkak

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~OUNDf>.TION ~OR

IRf>.NIf>.N STUDIâ&#x201A;ŹS

CJraIV A Pefsian Journal of Iranian Studtes

Afterword

Michael Hillmann

At the Tomb of Sadeq Hedayat Youssef Is/wghpour

Nationalism and Hedayat Mas/w/lah Ajoudani Language and Style in Hedayat's Writing

Sim;n Karimi The Lantern of Imagination in the Works of Hedayat Mic/wel Beard "Dash Akol" and the Luti Film Genre

Hamid Najicy

Sadeq Hedayat's Psycho-Fictions

MA. Homayoun Katouzian The Problem of The Blind Owl Azar Najisi

Hedayat's Metamorphosis of the Metamorphosis Nasrin Rahimieh

Am I Not Writing My Own Tale and Story? M . Razin Vol. X, No.3, Summer 1992

Iran Nameh, Vol. 10, No. 3, (Summer 1992)  

سال دهم، شماره ۳، تابستان ۱۳۷۱ Published regularly since 1982 Editor-in-Chief: Mohamad Tavakoli-Targhi Foundation for Iranian Studies D...