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Tome CCLX VIII. 1980. 12. Jatindra Bimbal Chaudhurie & Roma Chaudhurie in Pracyavani-Mandiva, Comparative Religion and Philosophy Series , Vol. 2, A Critical study 01 Oara Shikuh's $amudra Sangama, 195< 13. Bib/iothaca Indica, No. 246, Calcutta, 1929. • 14. Oaryush Shayegan, Hindowsme et Soufisme d'apres Ie Maima' al-8ahrayn de DarB Shokuh, Editions de la Difference. Paris, 1979. 15. Michel Foucault. Les mots et les choses, Paris, 1966.

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3. Palliot P. "Les influences iraniennes en Asie Centraleet en Extreme Orient, " Revue d'HistOire

et de Litt~rature Refigieuses, Paris, 1911, p. 8.

4. De Lubac H" Amida, Paris, 1955. p. 237. 5. Petrucci R. Essa; sur les pelntures bouddhlques de Touen-houang les Mandalas, dans Stein A. Serindia, t. 111. Oxford, 1921, p. 1404. 6. Du Breuil P. Zarathoustra et la transfiDuration du monde. Paris. 1978, p. 367. Etiemble, Meuwese C., L 'lnde du Bouddha vue par les pelerms chinois sous la dynastie

Tang (VIII siecle), Paris, 1968, pp. 115-127. 7. Staviskij B.J.A .. La Bac/riane sous les Kushans.. Paris. 1986. O. 217. 8. Eliade M., Hlslaire du croyances l et du idees (aUgieuses, t. II, Paris, 1984, p. 212. 9. Foucher A .• La Viel/e route de I'Inde, t. II, Paris, 1947, pp. 288-289. Grunwedel A , Mythologle du Bouddhisme, Paris. 1900 . p . 39. 10. Du 8reuil. P.. Zarathoustra. Paris. 1978. P. 368. 11 . Levi S.. L'lnde et Ie monde, Paris, 1925, p. 45. '12. Havret P.. La st~le chaitlenne du Si·ngan· (ou, Changhai, 1902. 13. Oa gin jing jiao san wei meng du zan, (Eloge de la Sainte Tnnite), Bibliotheque Nationale. Don 4502, coil Pelliol, Inv. No. 3847 14. Chavannes Ed. et Pelliot P., " Un traile manicheen retrouve en Chine". Journal Asiallque, Nov.·Dec. 1911 , Paris, p. 158. 15. Zhi Pan. Fo zu tong ji (Anna/es des palriarches du Bouddhisme), Tripitika de Tokyo, chap. 54. fol. 151 v. 16. Pelliol P.. "Le sabao ". Bulletin de I'Ecole Fran9alse d'Extreme· Onent, t. Iff, p. 670. 17. Chavannes Ed. et Pelliot P., Ibid, p. 47. 18. Haloun G. el Henning W.B. "The Compendium of Ihe Doctrines and Styles of Ihe Teaching of Mani, 1he Buddha of Lighl ", Asia Major, 1.111 (1952), pp . 184-212. 19. Zhi Pan, Fo zu long ji (Anna/es du patriarches du Boudhisme), chap, 41 . fol. B2v. el chap. 54, foL 151 v. 20. 10, Ibid. 21. 10. Ibid. chap. 41 . fol. 83 v. Zhang Zhao. Jiu tanq shu (Anclenne hlstoire dynast lque des Tang), zhong hua Shu ju. Pekin. 1975. chap. 195, fol. 8 v. Wang Quimuo. Ce tu yuan gw Zhang hua shu ju, Pekin 1960, chap. 999. fol. 20 v. 22. Zhi Pan Fo zu tong ji (Anna/es du patriarches du Bouddhisme). chap. 42, tol. 88 v., et chap. 54, 101. 151 r. 23. Tuo Tuo el Shen Vao. Song Shi (H lstolre dynastique des Song), Zhong hua shu ju, Pekin. 1977. chap . 490, fol. 2 v. 24. Hamilton J .R.. Les Ouighours a I'epoque des cinq dynasties, Paris. 1955, p. 6. 25. 10 , Ibid, pp. 145-164. 26. Lou Xinyuan. Bi song lou cang shu zhe, chap. 66.101. 26v.-2Bv.; cf. a ce sujel Bulletin de I'Ecole Franca/se d'Extreme·Orient, t. IX, pp. 427 · 428. 27. Wang Fu, Hua hu jlng (Livre saini de /a conversion des Hu), Dunhuang shi shi yi shu, 101. 4v. 5 r. 2B. Xu Xuan, Ji shen lu, Jin dai bi shu. chap. 3. fol. 6·7. Pelliol P. "Code des Mlng". Bulletm de rEcole Franyaise d 'Extreme·Onent, t. IX. pp. 132· 139. 29. Chavannes Ed. e~ Pellio! P.. "Un Iraile manicheen retrouve en Chine", Journal Asiatique Nov.· Dec. 1911 . Pans, pp. 3· 140. ' Haloun G. et Henning W.B .. Ibid .. pp. 184· 212. 30. Pellio! P., " Les plus anciens monuments de I'ecrilure arabe en Chine" . JournalAsiatique, Juillet-Aout 1913. Paris. pp. 9· 13. 31. 10, Ibid, p. 13. 32. /0, Ibid, p. 13.


YVY

33. Ibn Battula, Voyages, t III, Paris, 1982, p, 338, 34, Pelliol P" Ibid, p. 24, 35. Eliade M" Ibid, till, p. 279. 36 ID, Ibid, p 280 37. Stein A.A .. La civilisation tibetaine, Paris, 1962. p. 209. 38. Tucci G. Les religions du Tibet el de Mongolie. Paris, 1973. p. 98. 39, Eliade M. Ibid" p. 291. 40, ID, Ibid, p. 17, 41. ID, Ibid, p, 23,


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cf.ib

: ~ J.,:S' tr; .~ Yo .,. W. Madelung, "The Early Murji'a in Khurasan and Transoxania and the Spread of Hanafism", Der Islam, 59 (t 982), pp. 32·39; reprinted in his Religious Schools and. Secls in Medieval Islam, London, t 985, Article III.

: ~ J.,:S' tr;

.!

W. Madelung, "Fatimiden und Bahrainqarmaten ", Der Islam, 34 (t 959), pp. 34·88; and his "Das Imamat in der fruhen ismailrtischen Lehre," Der Islam, 37 (t 96t), pp. 43· t 35. .

F. Richard Calalogue des manuscrils Persans de Bibliolheque Nalionale de Paris, Vol. I, 8+436 p., Paris, 1989

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Dear Sir, o

I am writing with regard to a matter arising from my article on

Ferdowsi that you published in volume VII of Iran Nameh. I am pleased that it appeared in such a graceful Persian translation. If you recall, on p. 625 of the Persian version I acknowledged my debt to the research of Professor Richard Davis ... The research of Prof. Davis that I alluded to was reported in a paper read by him at a meeting devoted to Middle Eastern literature held in April, 1988. That paper, or a version of it, was planned to be published in an issue of Edebiyal devoted to the papers of the meeting in question. We hope that this issue will appear sometime before the summer of this year. However, because of your efficiency in publishing my article in Iran Nameh, the results of Prof. Davis' research have actually appeared in print in my article before he himself has published them .. I have discussed this matter with Prof. Davis, and have agreed to request that you print the note on the accompanying page in the next issue of Iran Nameh .. William L. Hanaway 5 February, 1990

In my article on Ferdowsi's Shahnameh (Iran Nameh, 7, 4, pp. 618-638) I acknowledged that I had drawn on the researches of Richard Davis of Ohio State University. I should like to take this opportunity to clarify which aspects of my article draw on Davis's work.

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Davis directs attention to two kinds of conflict within the poem, that between fathers and sons, and that between kings and their subjects and champions. The kingchampion conflict he traces as a constantly deteriorating relationship - passing gradually from unconditional loyalty to outright rebellion between the family of Nariman (Sam, Zal, Rostam, Faramarz) and the kings they serve, and continuing with the examples of Ardeshir and Bahram Chubineh. The father-son relation he traces in the stories of Sohrab, Seyavosh and Esfandyar, showing how while the political theme shows constant deterioration the familial, father-son relationship is presented as virtually unvarying. He shows how in almost every case the social superior (king, father) is shown as morally inferior to his apparent subordinate (Subject, son) . Of particular importance is the

ambivalent role of Rostam who appears both as superior (father) and inferior (subject) . Davis suggests that the stories which incorporate these conflicts are the best known and probably the best written of the poem, and he concludes that it is an extraordinary irony that a poem popularly thought of as a celebration of Iranian royal authority should be best known by a character (Rostam) and stories (e.g. those of Seyavosh and Esfandyar) which show this authority in a very bad light and whose implications amount to a radical critique of it. H is conclusions appear in summary form in the forthcoming subordinate (subject, son) . . Of issue of Edebiyat, in an article Shahnameh", and he has recently completed a book called A Seditious Book? An Essay on the Shahnameh of Ferdowsi, setting out this thesis in detail.

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Hamid Dabashi , Authority in Islam, New Brunswick and London, 1989. R.K. Ramozani (ed .), Iran's Revolution, Indiana University Press, 1990. Mary Boyce, A Persian Stronghold of Zoroastrianism, 2nd print, New York-London , 1989. o Jill Sanchia Cowen, Kalila wa Dimna , An Animal Allegory of the Mongol Court, The Istanbul University Album, New York-Oxford , 1989.


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Contents Iran Nameh Vol. VIII, No.2, Spring 1990

Persian: Articles Selections Book Reviews Communications

English: Abstract of Articles: The Indian Cultural Heritage and Its Effect on the Enrichment of the Islamic Civilization in Iran M. Dj. Mahdjoub Prince Dara Shokuh: Pioneer in Comparative Mysticism Daryush Shayegan Thoughts on the Language of Persian Poetry in India Ahmad Karimi-Hakkak Woman's Body as Sign and Symbol: on Veiling and Footbinding Farzaneh Milani The Role of Iranian Languages in the Spread of Religions in Central Asia and China Nahal Tajaddod Persian Art and Japan Jay Gluck Toward a "Geohistory" of Iran Shahrokh Meskoob References to Buddhism in the Persian Literature of the Early Islamic Period A.S. Melikian-Chirvani Canons of Proportions in Achaemenid Art: Abstract of Ph.D. Dissertation Jeannine Davis-Kimball

14

15 16 17

18

19 20

21

23


15

Indian astronomy, into Arabic. The author then discusses Abu Rayhan Biruni and the significance of his Indological works.

This article also explores the way Indian and Buddhist mysticism broadened the scope of Islamic mystical thought. The influence of Indian mystics is also pronounced, in the practices, customs, and spiritual pathways of Muslim gnostics. In Khorasan, the birthplace of Islamic mysticism, the effect of Buddhism is especially apparent. Abstract translated by Paul Sprachman

Prince Dara Shokuh: A Pioneer in Comparative Mysticism Daryush Shayegan

The translation of classical Sanskrit texts into Persian in Mughal India was a process of great cultural importance. It can be compared to the translation of classical Greek texts into Arabic. Many Sanskrit texts were

translated during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Akbar [(r. 1556-1605), which was characterized by an exceptional religious tolerance and a devotion to scholarship. During the reign of Akbar's successor Jehangir (1605-27), ecumenism waned, but later revived in the person of his son Crown Prince

Dara Shokuh (1615-1659). The author examines the role of Dara Shokuh in the translation of sacred Hindu texts into Persian (e.g., his translation of fifty Upanishads). He also details the Crown Prince's original, syncretic works on mysticism. One work

majmae al-Bahrayn was particularly successful in reconciling two strong mystic traditions: Hindu and Muslim. The work was so influential that Dara was accused of heresy by clerics and eventually put to death. From his close examination of the two mystical traditions Dara found little to distinguish

them; he was able to identify a remarkable symmetry in the technical vocabularies and actual practices of Hindu and Muslim devotees.


16

The author of this article goes on to show that despite the differences of approach to mythological and cosmological realities, Dara's attempt to compare the two esoteric doctrines of Hinduism and Islamic Sufism remains justified. In the case of mystical Hinduism, man strives to reach the ontological state of liberated soul. The Sufi travels a similar path toward annihilation in the Essence of God. The Divine Love of Islam can be compared to the idea of Cosmic Illusion (maya) in the Hindu mystic school of Advaita Vedanta. The article also tries to study Dara's syncretism from a modern point of view. When Dara's thought is examined in the light of modern epistemology, his ecumenical analogizing breaks down. Today there are basic differences between the Hindu and Islamic traditions on the one hand, and the premises of modern thought on the other. An evolution in the conceptualization of "spirit," Geist in Hegel's formulation , has caused epistemological gaps to appear. Abstract prepared by the author

Behind Autumnal Colors: Thoughts on the Language of Persian Poetry in India Ahmad karimi-Hakkak

In this essay, a new conceptual approach to the problematic of literary historical thinking is proposed through an analysis of the process of the rise and demise of Persian poetry in the Insian subcontinent. After an initial ctiric of the theoretical underpinnings of the chronological-biographical approach adapted by such historians of Persian literature as Browne, Safa and Rypka , the essay argues that the evolution of the Persian language and the poetry written in that language in India must be viewed in the context of an accompanying ethnic subculture with all its attendant complications such as a gradually shifting self-perception and an ever changing relationship with the Persian speaking Iranian culture of which it considered itself an offshoot and a variation. Because of their Iran-centered bias , the above-mentioned scholars and others influenced by their work, often present a normative view of the Persian


17

poetic tradition in India which depicts it as a deviation from the Persian

poetry of Iran, thus failing to acknowledge and appreciate the internal conventions and characteristics, as well as problems and tensions which it had

developed over many centuries . In this approach, such images as the rising and setting of the sun , or the joyful vernal beauty and sad autumnal decay lurking behind the colorful leaves of autumn, reveal the biases and assumptions of a seemingly objective scholarly discourse. Concentrating on

the demonstration of such assumptions, the essay suggests an "archeological approach" to the problem in hand. To illustrate the ideals and aspirations of Persian-speaking poets of India, as well as the internal and external tensions to which their literary tradition

had been subjected, the essay next unearths some new texts, hitherto unexplored by literacy historians. The most important is Dad-e Sokhan (The Integrity of Speech), a book written in mid-eighteenth century by the Persianspeaking Indian poet Saraj aI-Din Ali, known as Arezu. In it, Arezu passes judjrnent in the controversy over a poem written by a previous poet named Qodsi and commented upon or criticized in verse by two other poets. Arezu's

discourse focusses on the relative merits of Indian versus Iranian poets; his

final judjment being expectedly a vindication of the former's style and speech mannerisms. In the process, however, many relevant issues thus far ignored

by modern scholars are treated in a way that only contemporary participants in cultural disputations could perceive. Other texts have also been cited as evidence.

The upshot of the argument presented is a proposal to rethink the history of Persian poetry in India in the light of new theoretically advances made by semiotics, discourse theory and the archeological approach exemplified in such works as Michel Foucault's historical analyses. Abstract prepared by the author

Woman's Body as Sign and Symbol: On Veiling and Footbinding Farzaneh Milani

Women's body has been a source of fascination and terror for patriarchal societies. Now idealized now demonized, now reviled now desired, it has


18

embodied dreams and nightmares, fears and fantasies, nurturance and destruction. Mysterious and mystified, it has been handled with unrestrained creativity. Revealed, mutilated, concealed, and objectified, its significance has been both as a physical entity and as a symbolic construct - a striking formulation in the construction of the low-Other.

Veiling and footbinding, two such practices. manifest differently the same cultural patterns, mainly sexual segregation and male dominationยงfemale subordination. Both institutions cement a woman to the private domain

where she presumably belongs. But whereas footbinding physically mutilates, veiling does not. And herein lies one fascinating feature of Iranian culture: it has no tradition of mutilating the female body. If thousands upon thousands of women were burned as witches or widows, if countless number of them were subjected to various forms of clitoridectomy, if their feet were bound, their necks elongated, their lips flattened, the body of the Iranian woman has not undergone any such maiming.

What is socially peripheral however becomes symbolically central in both cultures. Denied access to the public domain and excluded at the social level, woman becomes an important feature of the imaginary repertoires of the dominant culture. Veiled or footbound, she emerges with astounding vitality from her place of seclusion to dominate the psychic domain and invert

hierarchical ranks, norms, and forms.

Abstract prepared by the author

The Role of Iranian Languages in the Spread of Religions in Central Asia and China Nahal Tajaddod

The author's research, which is based on primary archaeological sources and Chinese historical texts and European scholarship, examines the

important role of eastern Iranian languages, especially Soghdian and Tokharian, in the dissemination of Buddhism in China . It also studies the corresponding spread of the Iranian religions Zoroastrianism and the Manichaeism into China and their intermixing with Buddhist and Taoist

beliefs.


19

There is no doubt that Iranians played an important role in the spread of Buddhist belief in China; the first great translator of Buddhist texts into Chinese was a Parthian prince of the second century A.D. Moreover, the concepts of the "Never-ending Light" and "the Western Heaven" in Buddhism were borrowed from Iran, and to decipher the names of some of the Buddhist gods of the Turkic region of ancient China one needs to resort to their Iranian originals. Documents and names that have survived from the period also show the role of Iranians in the spread of the Nestorian sect in China. Likewise Zoroastrianism remained an important religion in China for

two centuries. Though the artifacts ofthe religion there are nearly gone, some historical texts attest the existence of Zoroastrian fire temples. Documents of the spread of the Manichaean religion in Central Asia, on the other hand, are plentiful. and although the struggle between Buddhism and Manichaeism had ended in Buddhist victory before the Mongol Empire, the effects remain even after the Turks were converted to Islam. The advent of

the indelible traces of Manichaeism can be seen inTurkish Buddhism . Study of Manichaean Chinese shows how the religion achieved a beautiful synthesis with Buddhism and Taoism and how Iranian dualism took on the Chinese. The writer also refers to the Persian language as the medium of the spread of Islam in China and the influence of the Iranian dualism of light and darkness in Tibetan religion.

Abstract translated by Paul Sprachman

Persian Art and Japan Jay Gluck

This is a synopsis of a slide presentation and lecture held on November 8, 1987 at the second meeting of the Hyogo Orient Association and published as an article in Oriens 2 (October 1988). The author's purpose is to show how Iranian art directly and indirectly influenced Japanese art. The Iranian influences on many arts, from ceramics to metalwork and weaving are obvious. The "rooster-head" pitchers and glazed water decanters with golden earthenware of Japan and China are


20

Iranian in origin. The Persian influence on Chinese 3rt via Central Asia dates

back to the Parthian period (330 B.C.-300 A.D.). Among the pieces of fabric in the Shosoin Collection in Japan is a cloth decorated with a large-antlered stag standing under a tree. This is a direct borrowing of Hvarnah, the Zoroastrian deity of success and patron of merchants. The many lions used as symbols of power and sovereignty in China and Japan are other examples of the Iranian influence in the arts of those countries where the lion has never

existed in the wild. In Iran the lion was a symbol of kingship from Achaemenian times. One of the contributions of Iranian 3rt to the ceramic

techniques of the Far East is a color that Europeans term "blue and white," which is the very color found more than any other in Persian pottery. In China this color is called "Islamic blue." The azure which forms the motive of this color was brought to China by the Mongols in the twelfth century. The first Chinese silverworks are a direct copy of the silverworks found in Central

Asia, Balkh, and Iran. China also influenced the art of Iran; Iranians imported the thick pottery of China through the Persian Gulf. However, when Persian craftsmen, who lacked the proper ingredients, tried to imitate

the thick white "china" they were forced to produce thinner and whiter products. The Mongols brought these delicate, pale comparisons back to China where they "reinfluenced" indigenous art. In this way Iran and the Far East engaged in a process of reciprocal artistic enrichment. Abstract translated by Paul Sprachman

Toward a "Geohistory" of Iran Shahrokh Meskoob

In this general view of the geographical situation of Iran and its relationship to the history of the country, the writer builds a "schema" of Iranian history as it relates to her distinctive geography. His article goes back to the farthest reaches of the prehistory of the area, proceeds to the coming of the Aryans - who gave their name to the country - and continues into the nineteenth century. During this long history. Iran has occupied a central

geographical - and therefore mediating political and cultural position in Asia. Sharing borders with Greece and Rome on the one hand and India and China on the other, Iran played an important role in the multi-directional


21

transference and nurture of basic elements of world culture. It was only during the nineteenth century, i.e., the period of the rise of the modern colonialist powers Great Britain and Russia that this important political and cultural role began to disappear, and the ancient face of Asia began to take a new shape. Each of the great actors on the ancient stage also gave up their traditional roles. In this article Meskoob draws the reader's attention away from the Iran's external geography to her internal, "geohistoricat" situation.

He discusses the effects of being in a particular Asian nexus (bounded by two large bodies of water, with one face toward India and the othertoward Rome, one hand on the Oxus and the Jumna and the other on the Tigris and the Euphrates) on Iranian history. He examines the cultural and political stamps left on the country from two specific directions: the northeast (Khorasan and Central Asia) and from the southwest (Mesopotamia and Arabia). Abstract translated by Paul Prachman

References to Buddhism in the Persian Literature of the Early Islamic Period

A.S. Melikian-Chirvani

This article is a summary translated version of A.S . Souren MelikianChirvani's detailed article "L'evocation literaire de Boudhisme dans I'lran musulman," which was published in Le monde iranien etl'islam. 2 (Geneva, 1974). The existence of such Buddhist monuments as the large and well-known temples of Bamyan, Balkh, Merv, and of other parts ofKhorasan and Central Asia, as well as the gargantuan statues of the Buddha of Bamyan and the murals of Tajikestan attest to the fact that during the early growth and spread of Islam, Iranians in these Eastern areas lived in close contact and were familiar with Buddhism. Many of them were indeed Buddhists. It is only natural, then , that many references to the religion would exist in the Persian literature of the time. In addition to the poet Fakhr AI-din As'ad Gorgani, whose works refer to Buddhist temples, the historian Ebn Faqih (10th cen!.)


22

and the geographer Yaqut Hamawi describe the "Nowbahar" Temple of Balkh. After them Mas'udi, author of Moruj al-Dhahab. Biruni in his Athar alBaqiya. and Narshakhi in his Tarikh-e Bokhara. also mention this temple. The author points out that Persian poetry took shape in a region bounded by Bokhara and Samarqand in the north and Merv, Herat , and Balkh in the south. This is the same region where Buddhism also flourished . Persian'S openness to the Soghdian language influence also rests on this geographical fact. The writer also presents a philological analysis of words found in Persian literature such as "bot" (idol) and its compounds, which are of Buddhist origin.

Abstract translated by Paul Sprachman


Abstract:

Canons of Proportions in Achaemenid Art

by Dr. Jeannine Davis-Kimball University of California, Berkeley Winner of the Foundation for Iranian Studies' Award, Best Ph.D. Dissertation on Iran, 1989

Using methodologies not previously applied to art historical or archaeological studies, canons of proportions are revealed for the social hierarchies represented in the Achaemenid sculptural bas-reliefs. The result of the research discloses, through interpretation of the proportional hierarchies, that the Achaemenids pictorially represented the changing political and social character of their era.

Scholars, intrigued by the fact , that in Egyptian tombs, images were painted on a grid, ultimately deduced that the grid was the substructure of an Egyptian canon of proportions. Greek texts disclosed that Polyclitus devised a theory and a canon of proportions based upon beauty and harmony. These harmonious proportions contrast with the technical manifestations of the

Byzantine canon of proportions chronicled in the ninth century A.D., as well as with

OUf

twentieth century's canon based on beauty.

The Achaemenid Persians dominated the world from India to Egypt between the sixth and fourth centuries B.C. Culturally, they had been nomadic peoples before establishing an elaborate court protocol. Without a monumental art form to draw upon, they imported foreign artisans, not only

to construct magnificent buildings, but to embellish architectural facades with glazed brick or stone-carved images. However. until this study on Achaemenid proportions we have not known if the foreign proportions dictated Achaemenid sculpture.


24

To form a basis for the study of Canon of Proportions in Achaemenid Art, we isolate and discuss the earliest recorded metrologies and mensuration systems from the ancient texts. We also explore the known ancient canons of proportions; i.e .. the system of establishing the mathematical relationships between the various members of a living creature, particularly those of a human being. In addition, we examine the technical processes used in the Achaemenid world by sculptors working on the stone reliefs, and by master ceramists who created the brick-glazed bas-reliefs. Chemically oriented analyses of faiences and glazes used by precursor Elamite and Hasanlu cultures are compared with those of the Achaemenid brick reliefs. The results of the analyses suggest that the ceramic technology employed by the Achaemenids came from peripheral, rather than the traditionally assumed Babylonian, culture. Photogrammetry, adapted to the specific needs of bas-relief sculpture, is the cardinal methodology employed to measure the Achaemenid bas-relief sculpture from Susa, the Bisitun Reliefs, Persepolis and Naqsh-i Rustam. Special photographs of the reliefs are prepared; tilted and oblique photographs are rectified. Images, which include kings, nobles, guards and tribute bearers, are assigned identification codes and a chronology. Using a devised formula, standing heights of enthroned kings and grand viziers are calculated. Anatomical units and costume divisions to be measured are identified, then measurements of these units, accurate to 10 mm, are taken. Using historical information from the ancient metrology texts, and inferred

data from the Susa Archer reliefs, we chose primary units to measure, and then ratioed these measurements against those from secondary units. These data were entered into a specially prepared spread-sheet to produce computer generated numerical data, which are identified as proportional relationships.

The proportional relationships are arranged by Image Code groups; these groups are subsequently arranged into chronological groups. Averages and

standard deviations for all proportional relationships are calculated and added to the matrices (the matrices data are included in an appendix). The ancient ceramic masters had, by virtue of using bricks as their media, placed the Susa Archers on a grid. In this study the "Susian Grid" is developed into a computer generated 'Susa canon of proportions'. Using the

Susa canon of proportions as the base data, datasets for each chronological period - the period defined by the ru Ie of one king - are compared with that of the other chronological periods. Additionally. data pertaining to a specific social class - the king, the grand vizier, the king's attendants and the nobles - are compared both internally as well as externally with that of other social classes of the chronological group. Statistical tests are made on groups with sufficient data to support the

hypothesis that definite canons of proportions can be identified from numerical measurements. These tests answer questions such as: . Are the data


25

consistent?' lWhat clear patterns do they containT and, "Oa the data demonstrate a clear trend with timeT The statistics reveal the occurrence of significant, moderately significant and non -significant ratios. We therefore

can identify those ratios which played a major role in the canons of proportions, and those which appear to have had only a minimal influence upon the Achaemenid art sytle. Image Code types are depicted using line drawings of the image. Primary and Secondary Measurements chosen for the diverse image types are also

illustrated on line drawings. After the canons of proportions were identified using the numerical data, the canons were graphically illustrated with bar charts. Statistic variables are also illustrated using the same method. Among the conclusions which we draw from the data is that the Achaemenids cleverly devised three levels of hierarchical canons of proportions. One of these, an internal hierarchical scheme, uses a canon of proportions closely related to the social position of the depicted image. Inasmuch as proportions are one consideration of a cultural style,

deviations in the images' proportions help to reveal some aspects of the Achaemenid king's philosophy in relation to his attendants and nobles. For instance, as the king's face is depicted proportionately larger than that of any other personage, the magnification of the royal face is dramatic, emphasizing the power of the king. and further stressing his preeminent earthly position.

The proportions for each royal image are also the graphic representation of the king's ego and self-image. Furthermore, the proportions employed by kings at the inception of the Achaemenid Empire (Darius and Xerxes) expose tendencies which appear to become obsessive-compulsive in the succeeding dynasties.


Editor: Daryush Shayegan Managing Editor: Daryush Ashouri A Persian Journal of Iranian Studies A Publication of the Foundation for Iranian Studies

Advisory Board:

Guilty Azarpay, University of California, Berkeley Peter 1. Chelkowski, New York University The Foundation for Iranian Studies is a nonRichard N. Frye, Harvard University

profit. non-political, educational and research

M. OJ. Mahdjoub

center, dedicated to the preservation, study and

S. H . Nasr, George Washington University Roger M. Savory, University of Toronto Ehsan Yarshater, Columbia University

transmission of the cultural heritage of Iran. The Foundation is classified as a Section 501 (e) (3) organiwtion under the Internal Revenue

Service Code. It is/urtherclassjfied as Q publicly supported Foundation under Section 170 (b) (I) (A) (VI) and Section 509 (A) (2) of the Code.

The views expressed in the articles are tho~ of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Journal.

The system of transliteration used by fran Nameh is the Persian Romanization

~~!I~~!~ rOr I~! !I~rn~ ~I C~~I[m I~~ I~~mw~ ~~ I~~ Amf!I~~~ lI~rn!~ Association and the Canadian Library Association

All contributions and correspondence should be addressed to: Editor, Iran Nameh 4343 Montgomery Ave., Suite 200 Bethesda, MD 20814, U.S.A.

Telephone: (301) 657-1990 Iran Nameh is copyrighted 1982 by the Foundation for Iranian Studies

RequestS for permission to reprint mort than short quotations should be addressed to the Editor

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FOUNDt\TION FOR IRt\NIt\N STUDIE:S

CJraIV A Persian Journal 01 Iranian Studies

The Indian Cultural Heritage and Its Effect on the Enrichment of the Islamic Civilization in Iran M Dj. Mahdjoub Prince Dara Shokuh: Pioneer in Comparative Mysticism Daryush Shayegan Thoughts on the Language of Persian Poetry in India Ahmad Karimi-Hakkak Woman's Body as Sign and Symbol: on Veiling and Footbinding Farzaneh Milani The Role of Iranian Languages in the Spread of Religions in Central Asia and China Nahal Tajaddod Persian Art and Japan Jay Gluck Toward a "Geohistory" of Iran Shahrokh Meskoob References to Buddhism in the Persian Literature of the Early Islamic Period A.S. Melikian -Chirvani Canons of Proportions in Achaemenid Art: Abstract of Ph.D. Dissertation Jeannine Davis-Kimball

VOl. VIII , No .2, Spring 1990


Iran Nameh, Vol. 8, No. 2, (Spring 1990)  

سال هشتم، شماره ۲، بهار ۱۳۶۹ Published regularly since 1982 Editor-in-Chief: Mohamad Tavakoli-Targhi Foundation for Iranian Studies Dep...

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