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NADINE RACHID Selection of Graphic Design Work 2011. 2016 MS Design & Urban Ecologies The New School

+1 646 249 5638 nadine.a.rachid@gmail.com


HABITAT III CONFERENCE

Habitat III Secretariat United Nations August . November 2016 The Habitat III Secretariat is the United Nations Secretariat responsible for the planning, management and closing of the United Nations Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban Development (Habitat III) that took place in October 2016. As a member of the design and communications team, I was responsible for multiple tasks that focused on developing a consistent branding image from the Conference that extended from printable

Images from Habitat III Conference

material to online visuals to internal and external communication and publication of documents or other related material. Contribution: • Designing visuals, illustration and infographs for the unit’s social media and print materials • Designing the template for of an annual magazine (scheduled to be released in December) • Design of programs, schedules, maps and logos for the conference itself, and presentations and visuals that recap the process of the conference • Coordinating with teams in multiple locations: New York, Nairobi, Geneva, and Quito


Twitter posts: Top - Habitat III Village Bottom - Urban Breakfast event

HABITAT III SECRETARIAT

Inforgraph visiulizing data from The New Urban Agenda

Habitat III Village

Experience the New Urban Agenda come to life in the streets of Quito

Foldable daily schedule: below is for Thursday October 20

8:00 am 11:00 am

TRAINING EVENTS Enabling Institutional Change through National Urban Policies (UN-Habitat) Room: R19

SIDE EVENTS See Detailed List of Events on Opposite Side Room: Several STAKEHOLDER ROUNDTABLE Children and Youth Room: R21

8:30 am 10:00 am

STAKEHOLDER ROUNDTABLE Womens Room: National Library 8:00 am 10:00 am

SPECIAL SESSIONS Urban Culture and Heritage (UNESCO) Room: R16 SPECIAL SESSIONS Urban Ecosystems and Resource Management (CBD; UNEP)) Room: R1 SPECIAL SESSIONS Jobs and Livelihood (ILO; UN-Habitat; World Bank) Room: Teatro Aguilera TRAINING EVENTS The Transformative Power of Communities – Inclusive and Integrated Citywide Slum Upgrading (UN-Habitat) Room: R4

8:00 am 11:00 am

TRAINING EVENTS Delivering the New Urban Agenda through Sustainable Urban Mobility Solutions (UN-Habitat& UNCRD) Room: R5 TRAINING EVENTS Urban Planning for City Leaders (UN-Habitat) Room: R6 TRAINING EVENTS Provision of Shelters in Post-Disaster Context (IFRC & InterAction) Room: R9

9:00 am 9:45 am

9:30 am 10:30 am

10:00 am 10:45 am

10:00 am 11:30 am

Room: Agora

10:00 am 1:00 pm

ONE UN PAVILLION Harnessing Sustainable Urbanisation for Human and Planetary Health (IUNU) Room: A ONE UN PAVILLION Climate Change & Urban Disaster Resilience: Current and Future Challenges (UNESCO, UNU, WMO) Room: B URBAN FUTURE Cities, Citizens, Resilience: Tools & People (Cerema – Centre D’études Et D’expertise Sur Les Risques L’environnement, La Mobilité Et L’aménagement) Room: Urban Future SIDE EVENTS See Detailed List of Events on Opposite Side Room: Several

ONE UN PAVILLION Urban Labs: A Tool for Integrated and Participatory Urban Planning (UN-HABITAT) Room: A ONE UN PAVILLION Urban Disaster & Climate Risks: Solutions & Ways Forward (UNESCO, UNU, WMO)

10:00 am 11:30 am Room: B

DIALOGUE Urban Services and Technology (UITP; DST) Room: R15

12:00 pm 12:45 pm

URBAN FUTURE After Habitat III: Working Together toward a New Urban Reality (Rosa Luxemburg Stiftung – New York Office) Room: Urban Future

12:30 am 1:30 pm

SIDE EVENTS See Detailed List of Events on Opposite Side Room: Several

DIALOGUE Housing Policies (Habitat For Humanity; IADB) Room: R1 URBAN LIBRARY Foundations of Municipal Fiscal Health (Lincoln Institute of Land Policy) Room: Urban Library 11:00 am 11:45 am

11:00 am 12:00 am

URBAN LIBRARY The Finance for City Leaders Handbook (UN-Habitat) Room: Urban Library URBAN FUTURE Turning roads into streets – Road space allocation and public space resilience (Transitec Ingénieurs-Conseils) Room: Urban Future

HIGH-LEVEL ROUNDTABLE Financing Sustainable Urban Development (Habitat III Secretariat) Room: Teatro Nacional

11:30 am 1:00 pm

12:00 pm 12:45 pm

01:00 pm 01:45 pm

URBAN FUTURE Urban Future: Gathering Video Evidence in Communities at Risk of Exploitation of Forced Eviction in Development Projects (Media Stockade) Room: Urban Future SIDE EVENTS See Detailed List of Events on Opposite Side Room: Several ONE UN PAVILLION Panel Discussion: How Can Volunteerism Help Accelerate the Implementation of the New Urban Agenda? (UNV) Room: A ONE UN PAVILLION City Diagnostic Tool ? Measuring Readiness for the New Urban Agenda and Sustainable Development Goals (UN Global Compact Cities Programme) Room: B URBAN LIBRARY Local Economic Development in the New Urban Agenda (Fondo Andaluz De Municipios Para La Solidaridad Internacional - FAMSI) Room: Urban Library

1:00 pm 3:00 pm

2:00 pm 2:45 pm

2:00 pm 4:00 pm

2:30 pm 4:00 pm

URBAN LIBRARY Investing in Urban Resilience: Making Cities and the Urban Poor More Resilient (Global Facility For Disaster Reduction & Recovery) Room: Urban Future URBAN FUTURE Women-Friendly City Challenge: Make your city the most women-friendly in the world (Women Transforming Cities International Society) Room: Urban Future ONE UN PAVILLION Gender approach: a fundamental element in constructing inclusive cities (UN Women) Room: A

1:00 pm 2:30 pm

ONE UN PAVILLION Strengthening Local Governance and municipal Finance Through Property Taxation (UN Women) Room: A

ONE UN PAVILLION HESI Global meeting of Universities: Action Plan for Universities to maximize impact of higher education in the sustainability of urbanization (UNEP, UN-HABITAT Room: B STAKEHOLDERS ROUNDTABLE Local and Sub-national Authorities Room: National Library

3:00 pm 3:45 pm

3:00 pm 6:00 pm

ONE UN PAVILLION UNFCCC’s Nairobi work programme and the Urban Climate Change Research Network: Catalyzing Climate Change Adaptation Action in Cities Through Knowledge (UNFCCC) Room: B URBAN LIBRARY Ekistics & NUA for Sustainable Development (World Society For Ekistics – Oceanic Group Australia) Room: Urban Library URBAN FUTURE Mujeres En La Ciudad: Construyendo Inclusion Y Sostenibilidad (Red Mujer Y Habitat De América Latina) Room: Urban Future PLENARY MEETING 8 Plenary Meeting 8 Room: R21

4:00 pm 4:45 pm

URBAN LIBRARY Looking Back at Habitat ‘76 (Habitat’76 Canada) Room: Urban Library

5:00 pm 5:45 pm

URBAN LIBRARY Por una Autonomía del Habitar (Frankfurt University Of Applied Sciences) Room: Urban Library

THURSDAY

URBAN LIBRARY Steering the Metropolis to Achieve Sustainable Urban Development (UN-Habitat) Room: Urban Library

OCTOBER 20

URBAN FUTURE Campaña Campus de Pensadores Urbanos MexicoPeru MIRA-FEMUM ALCHUAIROU (MIRA FEMUM ALC) Room: Urban Future NETWORKING EVENTS See Detailed List of Events on Opposite Side Room: Several

In Habitat III, we decide the future of cities together. WELCOME, Habitat III Citizen. WELCOME TO Quito!W

8:00 am 9:00 am

URBAN FUTURE Mobiliseyourcity Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans in 100 Cities (CODATU) Room: Urban Future

PLENARY MEETING 7 Plenary Meeting 7

TRAINING EVENTS Cities for all: Urban Planning Law & Constitutional Defense (Colegio Nacional De Jurisprudencia Urbanística Argentina) Room: R11

www.habitat3.org #Habitat3 #NewUrbanAgenda

8:00 am 8:45 am

URBAN LIBRARY UN-Habitat Global State of Urban Youth Report (UN-Habitat) Room: Urban Library

WELCOME TO Quito! Events in One UN Pavilion

SCHEDULE OF THE DAY’S EVENTS

Events in Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana “Benjamín Carrión” Official Events - limited Access please refer to information points

Front side when folded


HCI REPORT

The Global Urban Futures The New School June 2016 . Present The Global Urban Futures is “Global Urban Futures is a learning network of scholars and activists who are changing the conversation about urban policy. GUFP highlights the major challenges facing cities around the world; rising inequality, uneven growth and climate change.” The Habitat Commitment Index is a research initiative and report developed by the GUFP.

I was joined the graphic design team of the GUFP, where my initial task was to create data visualization for the report, and the support the team, in addition to contribute with the research and report writing. Contribution: • Designing the cover of the report • Creating data visuals (graphs, tables, etc.…) for all data entries • Selection of images used in the report • Contributed to the font selection and format of the report • Contributed to the overall layout

Global Urban Futures Project at The New School Contact Information 72 5th Ave, 7th Floor New York, NY 10011 +1 212 229 5600 ext. 1516 globalurbanfutures@newschool.edu @GUFPMilano www.globalurbanfutures.org

the

Habitat commitment index report Assessing Performance In Light Of Capacity

HCI report cover


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INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY

SUSTAINABILITY

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20

EMPLOYMENT

RESIDENTIAL INFRASTRUCTURE 15 10 5

POVERTY East Asia & Pacific

Europe & Central Asia

Latin America & the Caribbean Middle East & North Africa

North America

Sub-Saharan Africa

South Asia

EQUATORIAL GUINEA

CHAD

LIBERIA

SUDAN

GHANA

ETHIOPIA

NIGERIA

COTE D'IVOIRE

MAURITANIA

SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE

LESOTHO

MOZAMBIQUE

CABO VERDE

TOGO

MADAGASCAR

BURKINA FASO

SOUTH AFRICA

UGANDA

ZIMBABWE

BENIN

ZAMBIA

MAURITIUS

KENYA

ERITREA

NAMIBIA

SENEGAL

RWANDA

CAMEROON

CONGO, REP.

SWAZILAND

GUINEA

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC

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MALI

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TANZANIA

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Three different types of visualizations used in the report to express different types of data.

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HCI REPORT

60

40

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-20


THESIS

KEY FINDINGS

Syrian Refugee Population Density in Istanbul by City 2013

My work through this project addresses a fraction of the questions that are related to the process of Urbanization in Motion. However, it aims to paint a picture of what this process entails. My interest is twofold, one is in the global forces that instigate this process, while the other is the simple question of what happens when people make it to the city, taking Istanbul as an example. This is repeated in Lebanese, Jordanian, Turkish, Greek and other European cities today.

Urbanization in Motion Forced Displacement, Crises & Cities Dec 2015 . May 2016

On the Global level, Urbanization in Motion goes against the predominant notion of rural-to-urban migration, associated with the Industrial Age, but at the same time, is a continuation of it. This new process of mobility is one that does not entirely fall under the conventional migration theory, even though its destination is also the city. The key difference in this process is that it is rooted in, caused by, and occurs during moments of upheaval, crisis and despair. It takes place when that conditions that sustain life, abruptly and almost entirely cease to exist, leading large numbers of people to leave their countries, cities or towns in search of spaces where their livelihoods will not be uprooted again. This form of urbanization is associated with humanitarian disasters that involved loss of life and property. However, I consider it a continuation of the rural-to-urban urbanization, based on the understanding the climate change related events will become the new norm for human existence and will be the main cause for mass displacement and migration in the near future.

Syrian Refugee Population Density in Turkey in 2013

As for the city scale, I tried to unpack the experience of refugees in the city by focusing on the different types of support networks that are visible and obscure; or in other words formal and insurgent. I defined them as such: which if approved, can lead to citizenship and relocation to a third-country.4 Everyone who holds a refugee status has the right to apply for asylum keeping in mind that being a refugee does not guarantee being approved for asylum. However, different countries have different regulations for ORSAM Data 2013 granting asylum, which in many cases are very restrictive. For example, the United States, at the Map Generated With Cartodb Nadine was Rachid time ofBywriting, only accepting a small number of refugees withORSAM a condition that they must Data 2014 have family connections in the US.5 Another example is what is known as the European Dublin Regulation which states that regulation of asylum seekers to the EU territory will be regulated “predominantly on the basis of family links followed by responsibility assigned on the basis of the State through which the asylum seeker first entered, or the State responsible for their entry into the territory of the EU Member States.”6 This regulation proved to be problematic when the Syrian refugee crisis reached Europe. Due to its geographic location, Greece, currently struggling economically, received the majority of the migrants and asylum seekers and was not able to regulate, host or process asylum application effectively.

Formal Networks included Turkish, Syrian and international NGOs. After further research, I was able to make distinctions between the groups that have been present before the Syrian refugees (which mainly served other immigrant communities including Kurds), and other NGOs that were specifically created to address the Syrian presence in Istanbul. The later groups are mainly Syrian NGOs based in Istanbul and Turkey.

Urbanization in Motion is the title of my thesis project for my masters of science in Design and Urban Ecologies. The project examined the link between forced displacement, crises and the future of cities. I take the case of Syrian urban refugees in Istanbul as a case study to look at how the city and both the Syrian and Turkish communities are adapting to the influx of refugees.

The Insurgent Networks included solidarity networks, grassroots organizations and private sector initiative. These are not politically or religiously affiliated and have been initiated either by Syrians or Turks or by collaboration between both. I refer to this network as insurgent because it is embedded within the urban sphere. The groups that belong to this network are not officially funded or supported, and some of them are privately owned. I was able to connect with individuals who provided a form of assistance on small scale and on the level of the city. These individuals vary between being community leaders, business owners or professionals.

The second group of people who are forcibly displaced are migrants, a term which economic migrants. Migrants have a very different story from refugees. Migrants are considered to have made a conscious decision about leaving their country. They are not considered to be under life threatening danger and therefore, should be able to return at any point in time to their home without fear to their wellbeing. This means that they are not protected by international law.7 Migrants, if not granted proper paperwork will be considered illegal and risk deportation.

As you may have noticed, I included the private sector as part of the insurgent networks. Here, I am not referring to major donors or large-scale investors. As you see above, I am referring to people who own business, have started community centers or provide support through their business structure. The private sector plays a major role in Istanbul within the Syrian community: many Syrians who arrived to Istanbul with some financial capital were able to start businesses in different areas in the city. The case of Syrian investment ventures is unique to Turkey because the government allows Syrians to obtain an investor’s visa at an affordable price as long as they have a Turkish partner. The private businesses also function as a solidarity networks that supports the Syrian community both socially, but providing networks of fellow Syrians, and financially by providing jobs to the Syrian communities.

Syrian Refugee Population Density in Turkey in 2014

I conducted fieldwork in Istanbul; built connections with local and international not-for-profit organizations, and local initiatives; researched various mechanisms that were put into place by aid organizations and government agencies; and developed a proposal for an urban strategy in cities receiving a sudden influx of people.

Another aspect of my research focused on the physical features of the urban space. Here, I looked at how new communities and social networks impacted the physical space of the city, the role of public transit in the location of these networks and role of public space. For this aspect, which if approved, can lead to citizenship and relocation to a third-country.4 Everyone who holds I focused on the Fatih area in the city center of Istanbul since it has the most concentration of a refugee status has the right to apply for asylum keeping in mind that being a refugee does not Syrian refugees and businesses. This portion of the research was essential in understanding how guarantee being approved for asylum. However, different countries have different regulations for the process of Urbanization in Motion manifests on the ground. I was also able to connect with granting asylum, which in many cases are very restrictive. For example, the United States, at the several Syrian refugees and business owners. The main findings of this section of my research time of writing, was only accepting a small number of refugees with a condition that they must are the importance of the social networks in the lives of the refugees in city. Contrary to what I have family connections in the US.5 Another example is what is known as the European Dublin was expecting, the location of public transit was not essential for the Syrian refugees as they Regulation which states that regulation of asylum seekers to the EU territory will be regulated settled in the city. What affected their locations were two main and, arguably obvious points, “predominantly on the basis of family links followed by responsibility assigned on the basis of the State through which the asylum seeker first entered, or the State responsible for their entry into the territory of the EU Member States.”6 This regulation proved to be problematic when the Syrian refugee crisis reached Europe. Due to its geographic location, Greece, currently struggling economically, received the majority of the migrants and asylum seekers and was not able to regulate, host or process asylum application effectively.

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The project as whole addressed the future of cities under climate change, considering that forced displacement due to environmental events and related conflict is expected to dramatically increase.

The second group of people who are forcibly displaced are migrants, a term which economic migrants. Migrants have a very different story from refugees. Migrants are considered to have made a conscious decision about leaving their country. They are not considered to be under life threatening danger and therefore, should be able to return at any point in time to their home without fear to their wellbeing. This means that they are not protected by international law.7 Migrants, if not granted proper paperwork will be considered illegal and risk deportation.

Climate Change Global Forced Displacement

Michel Agier, an ethnologist and anthropologist who focuses on forced displacement, critically refers to this process of categorizing the displaced as a process of “management” and logistics.8 This process “classifies and sorts” people into groups with the aim of controlling their circulation

I was responsible for conducting my research locally and remotely, developing an urban strategy and putting together an analytical report, the report was a total of 100 pages.

4 Action Alerts. (n.d.). Retrieved December, 2015, from http://www.refugees.org/about-us/faqs.html

The map below shows the displacement caused by environmental events including events caused by climate change across the world in 2014.

5 Bonar, Emma, phone interview with Youth Project Manager at the Norwegian Refugee Council, November, 2014. 6 Dublin Regulation - European Council on Refugees and Exiles. (n.d.). Retrieved April, 2016, from http://www.ecre.org/ topics/areas-of-work/protection-in-europe/10-dublin-regulation.html 7 Action Alerts. (n.d.). Retrieved December, 2015, from http://www.refugees.org/about-us/faqs.html 8 Agier, M., & Fernbach, D. (2011). Managing the undesirables: Refugee camps and humanitarian government. Cambridge, UK: Polity.

Responsibilities included: • Qualitative and quantitative research • Data visualization • Diagramming • Filed work • Developing and giving several presentations on the topic • Produce an analytical and report. Data From International Displacement Monitoring Center 2015 Map Generated With Cartodb By Nadine Rachid

36

Michel Agier, an ethnologist and anthropologist who focuses on forced displacement, critically refers to this process of categorizing the displaced as a process of “management” and logistics.8 This process “classifies and sorts” people into groups with the aim of controlling their circulation

4 Action Alerts. (n.d.). Retrieved December, 2015, from http://www.refugees.org/about-us/faqs.html

and access to different territories, whether those are nation-states, evenManager temporary 5 Bonar, Emma, phone interview withcities Youthor Project at the Norwegian Refugee Council, November, settlements that shows are specifically created 2014. for the displaced.9 With that, people become deprived The map below the Dublin Regulation European Council on Refugees and Exiles. (n.d.). Retrieved April, 2016, from http://www.ecre.org/ of their right to caused practice placed in a- temporary category that offers to realistic displacement by their rights6and topics/areas-of-work/protection-in-europe/10-dublin-regulation.html environmental events including time frame. Although the time frame for people displaced due to environmental and economic 7 Action Alerts. (n.d.). Retrieved December, 2015, from http://www.refugees.org/about-us/faqs.html events caused climate conditions is notbyaccurately monitored as that of the refugees, we are able to grasp the scale of 8 Agier, M., & Fernbach, D. (2011). Managing the undesirables: Refugee camps and humanitarian government. Cambridge, change across the world in the2014. displacement challenge from the UK:recent Polity. statistics that show that the average displacement time of refugees “has increased from nine years in 1993 to 17 years at the end of 2003.”10

Syrian Refugee Population Density in Istanbul by City 2013

Although in legal terms these forces produce different groups of displaced people, it is important to remember that the forces do not exist in voids where they are independent from each other. Each one of the forces, maybe with the exception of war, when taken alone rarely results in mass displacement. However, it is the interplay of two or more of these conditions that force people to lose hope in the status quo and thus are forced to leave their homes. Between 2006 and 2009, the region historically known as the Fertile Crescent, went through a devastating drought that affected farmlands in both northern Syria and Iraq. This has directly impacted the livelihoods of many, who were already marginalized by the authoritative regime. Three years later, a social uprising started in the northern cities and towns of Syria, where people took to the streets after the “arrest and torture of some teenagers who painted revolutionary slogans on a school wall.”11 What does the drought have to do with the authoritative regime one might ask. A study published in early 2015 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, linked the uprising of the Syrian people that started in northern Syria and consequently lead to the civil war to the drought and climate change effects.12 The study does not jump to the claim that climate change led to the war in Syria and this would be a too simplistic approach.

9 Agier, M., & Fernbach, D. (2011). 10 Chapter 5: Protracted refugee situations: The search for practical solutions. (UNHCR, 2007). The State of the World’s Refugees 2006, ATCR Agenda, 4a, 105-197. Retrieved March, 2016, from http://www.unhcr.org/4444afcb0.pdf 11 Rodgers, L., Gritten, D., Offer, J., & Asare, P. (2016, March 11). Syria: The story of the conflict - BBC News. Retrieved April, 2016, from http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-26116868 12 Fountain, H. (2015, March 02). Researchers Link Syrian Conflict to a Drought Made Worse by Climate Change. Retrieved February, 2016, from http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/03/science/earth/study-links-syria-conflict-to-drought-caused-by-climate-change.html?_r=0 Data From International Displacement Monitoring Center 2015

Map Generated With Cartodb By Nadine Rachid

In 2014 over 60 million people were 73 displaced due to conflict & environmental events

The map below shows the displacement caused by both Displacement By Extreme environmental events including Environmental Conditions events caused by climate change & conflict across the world in 2014.

36

Climate Change & Conflict Related Global Forced Displacement Displacement By Both Forces

Displacement By Extreme Environmental Conditions

Displacement By Conflict & War

Displacement By Extreme Environmental Conditions

Data From International Displacement Monitoring Center 2015 Map Generated With Cartodb By Nadine Rachid

37

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9 Agier, M 10 Chapt Refugees 11 Rodge April, 201 12 Founta February, mate-cha


THESIS FROM CAMP TO CITY In the second half of 2014, hundreds of thousands of people made their way across the Mediterranean Sea seeking refuge in European countries. Thousands of people, many of whom were women and children, died as they risked their lives in the hopes for a better future. These events awakened the rest of the world to the levels of despair associated with forced displacement. Reports, articles and videos educated people about international law and the differences between a “refugee” and a “migrant.” Coastal cities in both Turkey and Greece that rarely made it to the news became destinations for foreign correspondents, aid workers and volunteers looking for a way to help. A less obvious insight that the Syrian refugee crisis brought to light is that the future of forced displacement can no longer be contained to camps; instead, the future is in urban settings.1 Knowing that the numbers of people forced to leave their homes is expected to dramatically increase with the impacts of climate change, the reality of the critical interconnection between forced displacement and the future of cities becomes more evident. The common perception about refugees is that they predominantly live in refugee camps. The reality, in fact is different. In the case of the Syrian refugee crisis for example, In Jordan, almost 80% of the refugees live in urban areas not in camps. In fact, the Zaatari camp, which has been a symbol for portraying the gravity of the refugee crisis since 2012, only hosts 20% of the refugees in Jordan.2 The story is repeated in Turkey as well. At the time of writing, the Turkish government had set up 23 refugee camps on its borders with Syria. Out of the estimated 2 million refugees in Turkey 85% live in urban areas,3 despite the fact the conditions in the Turkish refugee camps4 are considered to be in a “foremost position” when compared to other camps in the region.5 David Miliband, the president and CEO of International Rescue Committee, wrote in an article for the Guardian in October 2015 clarifying that refugees in Jordan do not “flee to urban areas because camps are full: Azraq camp in the Jordanian desert has plenty of vacancies. Only 14,000 places were filled by the end of 2014, when it has capacity for 60,000. Thousands of refugees who have been sent to Jordanian camps have left as quickly as they can – legally or illegally – preferring to fend for themselves in an urban environment rather than live in isolation and dependence.”6 In Turkey, despite the fact that the refugees “have good conditions in the camps and their basic needs are met, the majority of the refugees choose to live outside of camps.”7 The reasons are similar to the ones in Jordan: limited options for economic growth and personal freedom.8

Selected page from the report

60% OF REFUGEES LIVE IN CITIES

Refugees have little opportunities to make choices: they had no choice when they were forced to leave their homes, they are stripped from all agency about the future of their lives, and most of the options they have are governed and controlled by national and international policies and laws. However, it is becoming apparent that refugees prefer to live outside of refugees camps and seek that option when available legally and even illegally at times, depending on the policies of the countries that are hosting them. The quest for refuge in the city is not unique to the Syrian refugee crisis; the fact is, almost 60% of the world’s 20 million refugees live in urban areas. These numbers do not include the millions of people who are displaced internally and therefore are not considered refugees. There are almost 38 million people who are displaced in their own countries due to conflict or extreme

1 World Humanitarian Summit (WHS) Secretariat in collaboration with UN-Habitat. City Haven: People on the Move/ humanitarian aid and restrictive policies on the bodies of the (n.d.). people involved Harbouring the Displaced. is essential for understanding theOutside restrictions theyVisitface in the cities 2 Syrian refugees Living Camps in Jordan (Home Data Findings, 2013, new Rep.). (2013). Jordan:they UNHCR. 3 Effects of Syrian Refugees on Turkey (Rep. No. 129). (2015). Orsam. seek.1 4 The Turkish government built and manages that refugee camps in Turkey, unlike other countries where The UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) is responsible for building and managing camps. In Turkey, the role of UNHCR in the camps is advisory. 5 The Situation of Syrian Refugees in the Neighboring Countries: Finding Conclusions and Recommendations. (Rep. No.

189). (2014). Orsam. In addition to being separated from support systems and emotional ecosystems, 6 Miliband, D. (2015). David Miliband | Cities are where the Syrian refugee crisis is at its worst. Retrieved May 2, 2016, from http://www.theguardian.com/cities/2015/oct/30/cities-are-at-the-centre-of-the-syrian-refugee-crisis-so-why-are-they-being-igHannah Arendt points out to the one’s political identity, which goes deeper nored 7 Orsamgiven Report (2014) and is harder to rebuild that it is dependent on political systems and 8 Orsam Report (2014) international and local policies. Arendt refers to this loss as “public invisibility”2 12 comes with the condition of “statelessness,” a notion that Agier also builds that on when he refers to the “citizenless.” This notion occurs when people lose their “rights to rights,” or to practice their citizenship with displacement. I do not associate the loss of the political identity as an effect of forced displacement Apolitical QUEST FOR since it a result of restrictive policy and decision. This loss I believe,

sits perfectly between the crisis narrative and the city. Again, going back to Agier, the visible and invisible borders3 built around the citizenless are a result of collaboration between the humanitarian aid approaches that adheres to the restrictive policies of nation states, usually in the global north. Thus, the continuous struggle of the citizenless is, intentionally or not intentionally, supported by the systems that are put into place to support them. Finally, the city here is a space that presents possibilities for social production, political agency and economic interactions, where social networks act as safety 13 nets and navigating tool, and where means of economic production, physical infrastructures and services are centralized. It is the space that Hannah Arendt refers to as “spaces of interactions”4 “where [she] appear[s] to others as they appear to [her],” as people perform actions and share arguments and opinions. The “spaces of interactions” are where one’s public visibility, which allows

URBANIZATION IN MOTION

CONNECTIONS & NETWORKS 1 Agier, M., & Fernbach, D. (2011). Managing the undesirables: Refugee camps and humanitarian government. WITHIN SYSTEMS Cambridge, UK: Polity.

2 Borren, M. (2010). Amor mundi: Hannah Arendt’s political phenomenology of world (Ch. 6: Public visibility and private invisibility). University of Amsterdam. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/11245/1.325974

3 Agier, M., & Fernbach, D. (2011). Managing the undesirables: Refugee camps and humanitarian government. Cambridge, UK: Polity. 4 Borren, M. (2010).

CHALLENGE

CITY

Visualization of Urbanization in Motion

ABILITY TO ACT AS MEDIATORS PROVIDING BASIC NEEDS

CRISIS APPROACH

PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURES SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURES ECONOMIC INFRASTRUCTURES SOCIAL INTERACTION

HUMAN RIGHTS

HEALTH CARE, EDUCATION

ADVOCACY ACCESS TO GOVERNMENT AGENCIES, LOCAL INSTITUTIONS & DEVELOPMENT AGENCIES

ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES

FORCES OF DISPLACEMENT

POLITICAL PARTICIPATION ANCHOR INSTITUTIONS SUPPORT NETWORKS

EXCLUSIONARY POLICIES DISCRIMINATION / MARGINALIZATION INEQUALITY POVERTY UNEMPLOYMENT INFLATION COMPETITION

MECHANISMS DESIGNED CONTROLLED SPACES OPERATE IN SILOS TEMPORARY SETTLEMENTS SHORT-TERM SOLUTIONS CHALLENGES IN OUT REACH IN URBAN SETTING

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REFUGEES ECONOMIC MIGRANTS CLIMATE MIGRANTS

LOSS OF SYSTEMS & NETWORKS

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MOBILITIES

Parallel Movement, Systems & Flows Participatory Transit Plan for Red Hook Jan 2015 . May 2015 Parallel Movement, Systems and Flows is a design project that I collaborated on with a team of four other designers and planners, part of my masters of science in Design and Urban Ecologies. The project examined the transportation systems across the Brooklyn Queens waterfront, and took Redhook in Brooklyn as a case study. As a team we conducted fieldwork and developed a participatory planning plan for future transit options in the neighborhood. By the end of the project we produced a report that highlighted our findings and outlined the planning process using graphics, maps, images, diagrams and text. Contributions included: • Creating analytical transportation maps along the waterfront • Create visualizations for the participatory planning process • Document the research process through images and maps • Contribute to the over all layout of the report • Contribute to the font and format selection • Contribute to the production of the analytical and report

Map of the Brooklyn Queens waterfront visualizing median income and transportation data


MOBILITIES

Visualizations of proposed stations in Redhook

Visualizations of participatory planning process


VENDING NEGOTIATIONS

NANA MARKET LOCATION: SUKHUMVIT ROAD, BANGKOK HOURS: 17:00 - 22:00 LENGTH: 000 M

Workshop Facilitator Bangkok & Chaing Mai, Thailand January 2015

Nana Market is located on Sukhumvit Road in Bangkok. During the day the sidewalk between BTS Nana to BTS Asok stations is a busy business and shopping district but at the night the sidewalk transforms into a collection of vendor stalls selling an array of dry goods and street food.

I was selected as a facilitator for an architecture and design workshop in the International Program in Design and Architecture of Chulalongkorn University in Bangkok, Thailand. The workshop was organized in collaboration with The New School. The aim of the workshop was to research street vending habits in two cities in Thailand, Bangkok and Chiang Mai. The final product of the workshop was to create a Zine that highlighted the research process of the students and presented their design proposals.

In this case study, Nana Market falls under the permanent typology. Through our research we explore how street vendors on Nana Street Market negotiate sidewalk space looking at three main angles: Logistics, Hygiene and Utilities.

In this workshop we will look at street vending in and around Sukhumvit Road, Central Bangkok as a way of understanding the processes by which multiple actors, often with conflicting goals, negotiate urban public space. We will look at how seemingly independent negotiations by institutions and individuals aggregate into what could be considered a type of urban practice actively producing and changing urban environments.

As one of the two appointed facilitators, my task included designing the Zine, documenting the student’s progress, and assisting them in the production of their final slides. Responsibilities included: • Documenting the workshop through photography and video • Contribute to the over all layout of the Zine • Contribute to the font and format selection • Contribute to the production and printing of the Zine

Selected pages from the zine

TOOLS

DESCRIPTION

This workshop will use inclusive participatory design processes.Meaning that we will create research and design proposals after in depth conversations with local actors.

TThis studio asks you to develop the following digital and analog skills: • Diagramming • Mapping tools • Graphic tools • Interviewing and field research skills In this workshop you will need to mostly know how to useAdobe graphic suite tools such as Illustrator, InDesign and Photoshop; 2-D CAD tools such as Autocad and Vectorworks; and, finally, 3D tools such as Rhino, SketchUp, etc. The goal is to learn how to critically think about design problems and use any tool available to us to respond to it.

OBJECTIVES To learn how to use design tools (maps, diagrams and models) to create comprehensive research of the conditions of urban street vendors, including their existing environmental, built, social, cultural and political conditions : • To do field research and interviews as a way to study urban practices that re-articulate the boundary between formality and informality in public space. • To develop both long-term strategic and shortterm tactical design scenarios for various actors to improve the quality of life of street vendors. • To learn how to create documents that clearly and simply communicate complex ideas for actors on the ground to be able to apply design ideas.

Finally, we will look at the official and unofficial rules that govern street vending through design research and interviews, focusing on how those visible and invisible rules help dictate production of spatial outcomes. All of those involved in this workshop will work as a team and should expect a lot of field and group work.

STRUCTURE In the initial research phase we will break in groups to do both secondary source and field research to: • create a comprehensive map of all the vending conditions we can identify in Sukhumvit Road; • diagram laws and other official rules that may dictate how public and/or private spaces; • conduct interviews with street vendors to ask about unofficial rules and other negotiations that take place between vendors. After the research phase, we will use the information gathered to identify needs of the Sukhumvit Road street vendors and how the existing practices found could be used to speculate about strategic spatial designs and programs for street appropriation. The final outcome of the workshop is a short zine (a short magazine that can be reproduced easily) encompassing: • the maps, diagrams and interviews gathered in the initial research phase; • design and program proposals. The zine will function as a guide of potential interventions and will be given to those street vendors we engaged during our research phases.

REQUIREMENTS • On-time attendance and active participation in workshop and any discussions is mandatory • Group work, being able to contribute to larger conversations and allowing work to develop according to a mutually developed process • Completion of assignments and readings • The production of a fully-developed design proposal. • Creation of a collective documentation and communication tool :: a short publication that can be distributed to our target populations.

FINAL OUTCOMES At the end of this workshop we will produce a “zine” a short magazine that can be easily reproducible to disseminate both the research and design proposals developed in this studio. The goal is to learn how to disseminate ideas to alarger public that can put your ideas into action.


WEDDING INVITATIONS Wedding Cards

September 2011 For my wedding, I designed and produced the wedding invitation cards. The cards were designed as foldout pamphlets that included venue directions with a map from the city and the local airport, hotel options, and events planed for the weekend of the wedding, in both Arabic and English. Responsibilities included: • Designing the layout and format • Prototyping • Designing a logo • Deciding on the paper and font • Printing • Creating a website

The logo inspired by Arabic letters


+1 646 249 5638 nadine.a.rachid@gmail.com


Work Samples