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TRA-DIGITAL HYBRIDS TECHNICAL RESEARCH PAPER // ARCHITECTURAL RESEARCH PAPER Using digital fabrications to create a hybrid design for developing countries

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NADIA REMMERSWAAL 4115996

Architectural Engineering Graduation Studio Delft University of Technology Department of Architecture // August 2014

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TABLE OF CONTENTS TECHNICAL RESEARCH PAPER

ARCHITECTONIC RESEARCH PAPER

ABSTRACT P. 7 INTRODUCTION P. 7 RESEARCH METHODS P. 8

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS P. 69

A.

RESEARCH LOCAL BUILDING METHODS

P. 12

+

THE MAKE-UP OF THE INDONESIAN HOUSE

P. 28

B.

RESEARCH DIGITAL FABRICATION

P. 33

+ THE SITE P. 14 + MATERIAL CATALOGUE P. 20 + STUDY LOCAL BUILDING METHODS P. 24

+ STRUCTURING RESEARCH DIGITAL FABRICATION P. 34 + DIGITAL FABRICATION METHODS P. 38 Bricks P. 40 Steel P. 42 Wood P. 44 Concrete P. 48 Fabric P. 52 Mud P. 54

CONCLUSIONS P. 56 LITERATURE LIST P. 60

A.

RESEARCH ARCHITECTURE BANDUNG

P. 72

B.

RESEARCH INCREMENTAL BUILDING SYSTEM

P. 100

+ VALUES KAMPUNG P. 74 + PRIVACY ZONING P. 76 + INCREMENTAL EXPANSION P. 78 + TYPOLOGY KAMPUNG HOUSING P. 80 + RESEARCH INCOME SHOPS KAMPUNG P. 82 + ELABORATION HOUSE B P. 86 + CATALOGUE EXTERNAL ELEMENTS P. 88 Roofs / Floors / Stairs / Facades / Windows + LOCATION /ARCHITECTURAL INTEGRATION P. 90 Site / Housing matrix

+ INTERVIEWS CONSTRUCTION TEAMS KAMPUNG P. 102 + COST CALCULATION SYSTEM FORMWORK P. 114 + DESIGN SYSTEM FORMWORK P. 116 How does it work P. 116 CNC milled elements P. 119 Cost calculation matrix P. 120

C. MODEL MAKING P. 122 +

1:1 / 1:7 / 1:50 / 1:100

P. 124

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NADIA REMMERSWAAL // 4115996 STUDIO ARCHITECTURAL ENGINEERING TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY DELFT 6


TECHNICAL RESEARCH PAPER TRA-DIGITAL HYBRID Using digital fabrications to create a hybrid design for developing countries

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NADIA REMMERSWAAL 4115996

Architectural Engineering Graduation Studio Delft University of Technology Department of Architecture // January 2014

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ABSTRACT Can improved technology make a difference in under-served communities to improve the existing build environment in a cultural sustainable way and make possible endogenous solutions? This research paper highlights the technical research done to answer this particular question. The research, that focusses on technical solutions to serve the urban poor of the Indonesian kampung, is aimed at providing both self-build solutions as self-sustaining manufacturing processes, making use of both Computer-Aided Design (CAD) and Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM). The research is twofold; first the kampung of Indonesia are researched; the site, building methods, materials and the make-up of the Indonesian house are discussed. Second, digital-manufacturing processes are researched using both general literature and reference projects. These reference projects are tested on eight sets of criteria to research their potential when applied in the Indonesian urban kampung. In order of priority they are; Durability, Multi Storey Height, Cost material, Cost Machinery, Local Assembly, Difficulty Assembly, Personalization and Local Materials. From the technical research two most promising project-references were chosen and combined with local building methods in a hybrid to construct both re-usable CNC milled moulds for multi-storey construction, as for constructing bricks. KEY WORDS: Digital Manufacturing Processes, Kampung, Self-Build, Self-sustaining Manufacturing Processes, CAD, CAM, Urban Poor, Under-served Communities, Cultural Sustainable Way, Endogenous Solutions

In Indonesia, a new industrial revolution is brewing, the urban kampungs are modernising and most inhabitants look to the western world for new technologies. Each urban kampung, however poor, has access to internet, smartphones and tablets. Peinovich (2012) states that developing countries have the most to gain from cutting-edge technology available today. In his book ‘Making Do’, Steve Daniels states “The new Industrialization has the potential to rework globalisation in the favour of the informal sector, allowing them to grow on a foundation of indigenous innovation that both provides for the needs of the local economy and brings in new capital through investment and export.” (Daniels & Bull, 2010) Griffith et al. (2012) state that in these under-served communities there is a greater need for systems that offer ways of building infrastructure through repeatable production, using accessible and precision-driven technologies to mitigate the absence of professional labour. Also Peinovich (2013) states that there is great potential in the usage of CAD/CAM technologies combined with sustainable technologies to design safe housing in underdeveloped countries. This paper will therefore research if CAD/CAM technology indeed has the potential to improve the current unsafe building construction of the kampungs of Indonesia. To research a CAD/CAM solutions the following Overall Design Question is formulated, this question is relevant to the overall graduation project: how to use THE POTENTIAL OF COMPUTER AIDED MANUFACTURING TO DESIGN SAFE, DURABLE AND AFFORDABLE SELF-BUILD HOUSING within THE URBAN KAMPUNG OF iNDONESIA? Herein fits the Technical Research Question, researched in this paper:

INTRODUCTION In the poorest areas of the urban kampungs of Indonesia, floods, earthquakes, polluted riversides, poor living conditions and risk of eviction are serious threats to the safety and health of the kampung-inhabitants (Reerink, 2011). For anyone walking around in these urban kampung it is clear that the current practice of unregulated self-build housing is not equal to the task of solving all these problems. Conventional vernacular building practices are lacking proper constructional knowledge, this leads to unsustainable living environments. Due to lack of access to long-term resources the conventional practice often invests precious capital into non-longevity structures. (Griffith et al., 2012)

COULD computer aided manufacturing BE USED TO CREATE DURABLE, SAFE AND AFFORDABLE SELF-BUILD HOUSING?

If this technical research doesn’t produce a suitable CAD/CAM solution with enough potential, technically, contextually or financially, a different solution will be pursued. In the next paragraph will be explained how the research to answer this question is structured. From this research the two most potential reference projects were chosen to serve as inspiration for the design of CNC milled reusable moulding systems. This system could be used to produce reusable concrete formwork for self-build of the main construction, but also to produce brickwork and staircases. The next half year of graduation will be used to conduct research into this topic.

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RESEARCH METHODS The research presented in this paper is split in two parts, the first part focusing on the local building methods of the Indonesian urban kampung and the second part researching digital fabrication methods. The local building methods were researched during the three week researchperiod that was spend in Bandung Indonesia. In advance as much as possible was researched on the city, kampung and inhabitants both online as in literature. Most of the data was collected by either observation of- or interviews in the kampung. In the kampung multiple informal interviews with inhabitants of the kampung were done during our visits. Three in-depth interviews were conducted with one former government official, Ramalis Sobandi, and two construction foreman, Pak Komar and Pak Mardi. In the chapter on digital fabrication methods two research methods are applied, the chapter starts with the literature research. Three literary sources by Iwamoto (2009) , Hauschild et al. (2011) and Beorkrem (2013) are used to discuss structuring of research into digital fabrication methods. From these literary sources the structuring of research for this paper was chosen. Since the topic is relatively new, other forms of research were necessary. For this, relevant project references have been chosen to investigate. The research on these reference projects is structured by their materiality. By choosing different references per materialgroup, a catalogue of sorts has been created. When picking out references to fit into this catalogue, three criteria were used to check if these project references could potentially be used in an urban kampung. They had to be practically applicable in the building of small scale building constructions like dwellings, and they had to either partially or fully make use of digital fabrication techniques. If not practically applicable, they would be of no use in the kampung of Indonesia. Since this research focusses on improving the build environment of the kampung, a dwelling-scale can be deemed suitable. As the technical research question on page 3 explains, digital fabrication techniques are the focus of this paper, this is therefore an important criteria. As seen on page 5, eight of these project references were chosen to investigate further.

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To study how these eight project references were applicable in the chosen context, they were tested against eight different criteria. In order of priority these criteria were; Durability, possibility for multi-storey height, material- and machinery costs, possibility of local assembly, difficulty level of assembly, room for personalization and the usage of local materials. As is explained in the introduction, unsafe living environments are the reason this paper researches digital fabrication methods to check if they can be used to improve the current situation. A durable construction equals a safe construction, therefore durability has the highest priority of all these criteria. The ongoing urbanisation of Bandung has overcrowded the kampung, and a possible solution should facilitate therefore a multi-storey construction. Neither durable- nor multi-storey buildings can currently be constructed in the kampung. For this solution to be an improvement to current building practices, it must comply with both. Since the kampung inhabitants have limited financial means, the proposed solution must be suited to these means, both in used materials, as in used machinery. These are therefore chosen as the third and fourth criteria. The fifth criteria, local assembly, refers to the infrastructure within a kampung. Only scooters, bikes and hand-cars can reach into the kampung. The solution therefore needs to facilitate local assembly. The research focusses on self-build solutions, to achieve self-sustenance, the difficulty level of assembly, criteria number six, must therefore be suited to the local ‘know-how’. Personalization and the usage of local materials are, although important, not of the highest priority in this research. All eight reference projects were tested on these criteria on a scale from one to five, this enables not only a comparison between all references, but also shows if a reference project has the potential to be better than the current building practices of the kampung. Since the chosen criteria are not effortless translated into a scale of one to five, per chapter a full argumentation is given per reference how the measurement of the scale is calculated. Important is that this scale is based on what possibilities the researched building method has in a kampung. This ensures that the full potential of the discussed digital fabrication method is researched in this paper. In the concluding chapter future research is briefly examined. The two most potential reference projects have been chosen to develop further. Fig 1.

Visualisation most important urban elements kampung Cigondewah (own ill.)


RESEARCH METHODS LOCAL BUILDING METHODS

INTERVIEWS

LITERATURE

INTERNET

LITERATURE

4.

REFERENCES

PRACTICALLY APPLICABLE APPLICABLE TO DWELLINGS DIGITAL FABRICATION METHODS

CHOSEN DIGITAL FABRICATION METHODS

CRITERIA

3.

2.

REFERENCE PROJECTS

1. THE SITE 2. MATERIAL CATALOGUE 3. STUDY LOCAL BUILDING METHODS 4. THE MAKE-UP OF THE INDONESIAN HOUSE

1.

INTERNET

CRITERIA

OBSERVATION

DIGITAL FABRICATION METHODS

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT P. 7 INTRODUCTION P. 7 RESEARCH METHODS P. 8 A. RESEARCH LOCAL BUILDING METHODS P. 12 + THE SITE P. 14 + MATERIAL CATALOGUE P. 20 + STUDY LOCAL BUILDING METHODS P. 24 + THE MAKE-UP OF THE INDONESIAN HOUSE P. 28 B. RESEARCH DIGITAL FABRICATION P. 33 + STRUCTURING RESEARCH DIGITAL FABRICATION P. 34 + DIGITAL FABRICATION METHODS P. 38 Bricks P. 40 Steel P. 42 Wood P. 44 Concrete P. 48 Fabric P. 52 Mud P. 54 CONCLUSIONS P. 56 LITERATURE LIST P. 60

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A. RESEARCH LOCAL BUILDING METHODS + + + +

THE SITE MATERIAL CATALOGUE STUDY LOCAL BUILDING METHODS THE MAKE-UP OF THE INDONESIAN HOUSE

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THE SITE // BANDUNG CIGONDEWAH In this project, the aim was to improve the kampung of Indonesia. It proved difficult to find an exact definition of the word kampung. As the kampung are wide, diverse and informal, so is the definition of the word. In my thesis on the kampungimprovementprograms of Indonesia a definition was destilled from similar research by experts on the topic like Colombijn (2010), Benjamin (1985) and Reerink (2011): The kampung are housing areas which arise without preconceived plan for either infrastructure or the built environment, inhabited by the urban poor of Indonesia. (Remmerswaal, 2014) In Bandung it was found that while the urban poor dominated these areas, also a higher income-class chose to live in the kampung to profit from the kampungs informality, cheap ground and flexible building codes. According to Ford (1993) four different types of kampung can be distinguished; the inner city-kampung, the industrial kampung, the

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squatter kampung and the rural kampung. The inner-city kampung transformed from colonial times to highly urbanized areas. In these areas there is not a lot of space available for improvement, and these kampungs have already been upgraded to a large extent by its richer inhabitants. The squatter kampung are comparable to slums, and while interesting for my research, these areas can be found everywhere in Bandung, including in our chosen location, the industrial kampung. The squatter kampung can be found illigally on municipal land, alongside railway tracks, next to riversides, underneath tollroad overpasses and even in graveyards (Reerink, 2011). The rural kampungs do not occor in urbanized areas and were therefore less interesting for this research. For the chosen location it was deemed that the industrial kampung was the most interesting subject to study and research. The industrial kampungs still have some room for growth, they are developing areas and offer a lot of opportunities. These industrial kampungs are next to the factories on the outside of the city. Fig A1.

Visualisation kampung Cigondewah (own ill.)


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JAVA ISLAND

BANDUNG

LOCATION The chosen location is an urban industrial kampung called ‘Cigondewah’. It is situated in the south-west of the city at approximately six kilometres from the centre of Bandung. The site is sandwiched between the big toll road and the main road to the Kahatex factory. The only access to the site is from this main road to the north, both the river and the toll road close off the kampung to the south. The kampung is densely populated, locals mingle with the migrant workers that work in the factories. The river system is running through and around the kampung. The water from this river ends up in one of the most polluted rivers in the world, 4 kilometer downstream, the so called Ciberem. Only the main road into the kampung is accessible by car, the rest of the kampungroads are so small that only scooters, bikes and handcars can be allowed through. Fig A2. Fig A3.

Visualisation location kampung Cigondewah (own ill.) Visualisation most important urban elements kampung Cigondewah (own ill.)

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CITY CENTRE

THE SITE Fig A2.


The kahatex factory is situated on the other side of the main road to the north. This factory is the reason the kampung developed on this location. Migration workers work in the factory and live in rented rooms in the kampung. The kampung thrives from the waste of the Kahatex factory. The discarded garments and pieces of cloth are processed and sold in the kampung. The waste is first gathered and organised. It is then either sold or it will be processed into garments or yarn and then sold.

RICE FIELDS

In the kampung housing is interspersed with rice fields, a graveyard and a common area field. The rice fields are fed with water from the river that flows through the kampung. The rice fields are a left over from the time when the kampung was still a rural area. Slowly most of the rice fields had to make place for housing, these fields are one of the few left. These are the only public open spaces the kampung has. The open public square is not developed, it is undeveloped land owned by the factory, they deposit their waste here.

KAMPUNG

MA

FACTORIES

KAHATEX

The kampung is gradually becoming more urbanized. The migration workers mingle with the original local inhabitants of the kampung. Ground is becoming more sparse and the number of inhabitants per m2 house is increasing. The housing is mostly self-build and constructed in an incremental way. The kampung leader, is called the RW in Indonesia, for the Cigondewah kampung this is Apek Asep, he was interviewed for the research. This person is the link between the government and the kampung.

IN R

OAD

OAD

LR TOL

Fig A3.

RIVERSYSTEM

N

The rivers running through Bandung originate from the mountains to the north. Throughout their run in the city the river system is being heavily poluted by both the cities inhabitants and its factories. In the kampung the river is used as both sewage, washing facilities and garbage disposal. Also it is used to grow the crops on the rice fields in our chosen kampung. Due to this pollution the river is not a suitable place to live next to. Only the urban poor choose these areas to build their (often) illegal houses on.

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PROBLEMS KAMPUNG The kampung of Indonesia are known for their versatility, flexibility and informality, there are however known problems too, these problems are visualized in the infographics on the right. Poverty often reigns these areas, indirectly causing problems like a very poor quality housing stock (Guinness, 2009). This is especially the case next to the rivers, the river is not only polluted, but overflows each season during the monsoons. The housing next to the river are considered to be among the poorest quality. This land is owned by the government, and inhabitants of the riverbank often live on these grounds illegally. The river is traditionally used for washing and sewage, which in old times was not a problem. When the kampung were however heavily urbanized more problems arose. There is usually no or a very poor garbage collection systems, so the people will either burn their trash or throw it into the river. The pollution is being further worsened by factories that use the river to get rid of their waste. During

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interviews in the kampung inhabitants described the river turning blue or red from the dyes being discarded by the factories into the riversystem. Nowadays the river is so polluted only the very poor live next to this ‘sewage’ system. In the kampung this is considered a way of life and many inhabitants do not see a problem with the poluted rivers. Many of the poorest kampung, the so called ‘squatter kampung’, as discussed in the beginning of this chapter, choose the riverside to build their poorly constructed, often illegal dwellings. The riverside can be considered to be of very poor quality everywere Bandung. These riverside-urban poor can usually not improve their situations on their own, an external force like the government, an NGO or the local factories have to contribute for this situation to change. Fig A4.

Visualisation problem kampungs Bandung Indonesia (own ill.)


€ poverty

poor quality riverside

SQUATTER SETTLEMENTS RIVER

poor construction

GOVERNMENT OWNED LAND

flood cibarem

monsoons

GARBAGE RIVER

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MATERIAL CATALOGUE // MATERIALS KAMPUNGS BANDUNG In the kampung of Bandung, often the chosen material fits both the building methods as the budget. More on these building methods is explained in the next paragraph. Usually simple building methods are applied to construct the often one-, or maximum two-storey houses of the kampong. Materials used are often bricks, cement and corrugated steel for the foundations and wooden construction and tiles for the roof. Wood is also used to construct doors and windows. In the poorest area’s of the kampong, for example next to a riverside as described in the last paragraph, poorer materials are used; such as untreated bamboo, corrogated steel sheets and asbestos sheets. People are often unaware of the dangers of asbestos on their health. Building constructors usually just stand with bare feet into the mixed concrete and protective clothing is not used very often. The ground floor is usually made up of a concrete slab on which the house is build to prevent the yearly floods from flowing into the house.

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If there is a second floor it is usually made up of a light wooden construction. In the poorer parts of the kampung the materials used are often discarded building materials that can be bought cheap. The walls can be constructed from split bamboo mats which are insulated with newspapers and dyed in bright colours. We found it striking that while bamboo was always found to be a poor man’s construction in the kampong, architecture in richer area’s often used treated bamboo combined with modern materials like concrete. So while modern construction are reversing to the usage of traditional materials, working with these materials is still deemed poor in the kampung. The materials are usually bought in local shops that are either situated inside the kampung, or in close proximity of the kampung. See for an example of such a shop the first image on the next page. The prices which are organised on the next page are taken from a shop in Jakarta, but were found to be similar to Bandung prices. Fig A5. Fig A6.

Right: Visualisation materials kampungs Bandung (own ill.) Next page: Material catalogue with prices per unit (own ill.)


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MATERIAL

UNIT

MATERIAL 21.00

RIVER SAND

per ‘Isunhi’ +/- 1 m3

350.000

24.50

per ‘Isunhi’ +/- 1 m3

300.000

21.00

per ‘Isunhi’ +/- 1 m3

350.000

`

WHITE SAND PASIR PUTIH

24.50

CEMENT

300.000

COST Rp (IDR)

HOLLOW CEMENT DRY WALL BLOCKS DUROCK

per ‘Isunhi’ +/- 1 m3

UNIT

ROOF TILES

€ (EUR)

BLACK SAND PASIR HITAM

Rp (IDR) GRAVEL BATU SPLIT

24

COST

50 kg 1 kg

€ (EUR)

70.000 1.400

4.90 0.10

Per tile

4.000

0.28

Per m3 Height: 7.5 cm

730.000

51.10

In cm: 120 X 240

60.000

4.20


MATERIAL

UNIT

COST

WOODEN BLOCKS WOODEN BOARD PAPAN

In cm: 4 X 6 X 400 5 X 7 X 400 5 X 10 X 400 6 X 12 X 400 8 X 12 X 400

In cm 2 X 20 X 4 M 3 X 20 X 4 M

BAMBOO

6 m length Untreated Treated

15.000.000 5.000.000 2.000.000

1.050.00 350.00 140.00

30.000 45.000 65.000 85.000 90.000

2.10 3.15 4.55 5.95 6.30

55.000 90.000

3.85 6.30

5.000 12.000 60.000

0.35 - 0.84 4.20

Rp (IDR)

€ (EUR)

Per sheet

40.000

2.80

12 m length 6 mm 8 mm 10 mm 12 mm 13 mm 16 mm

24.000 40.000 60.000 90.000 98.000 150.000

1.68 2.80 4.20 6.30 6.86 10.50

STEEL C-PROFILE ‘LIGHT STEEL’

WOOD

Jati Borneo Recycled

COST

CORRUGATED STEEL RE-BAR

€ (EUR)

Per m3

`

UNIT

ZINC SHEETS CORRUGATED

Rp (IDR)

MATERIAL

Per 6 m1 Baja Ringan

80.000

5.60

Reng Baja Ringan

50.000

3.50

The conversion of Indonesian Rupee to euro’s have been calculated on 9-122014. The original value taken was that of the Rupee. Missing in this catalogue are the recycled materials, the value of these items differs too much to catalogue.

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LOCAL BUILDING METHODS // THE BANDUNG KAMPUNG Since informality prevails in the kampung, the study of local building methods was conducted not via literature study but more was to be gained via interviews and observation. In the kampung, interviews were conducted with two construction foreman; Pak Komar and Pak Mardi. A former architect and governmental official, ms. Ramalis Sobandi, was also interviewed, she was refurbishing one of her houses when we were in Bandung, Pak Komar was her appointed foreman. Furthermore we spend three weeks in the kampung observing several building sites and talking to locals. All information discussed in this chapter derives from these sources. This paragraph investigates several topics; the construction process, the structure of the construction team, the application of specific materials in building elements and safety issues within the building process. In the kampung a new house is usually initiated by the owner of a plot of land. This person or family hires a subcontractor that is either a relative,

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or a very good acquaintance of the family. Usually there is one construction team active per area, this could either be a bigger kampung, or several kampungs combined. Ms. Sobandi explained that a construction team is made up of one foreman, the person with the most building knowledge and the subcontractors working under him. These construction workers are trained by this ‘mandor’ in a specific trade, like masonry, plastering, or woodworking. There are few to none construction educational centres in Indonesia, knowledge is passed on from uncle to nephew or father to son. In Pak Komars case, he had his nephew and brother working for him, and depending on the size of the job he could ask for different subcontractors to join the team. His nephew had dropped out of school and was learning the construction trade with Pak Komars construction team. The construction teams are not registered as a company, and no licencing of any kind is needed to build a house. Pak Komar explained that in many kampungs the building code is not strictly followed and regulated. Fig A6.

Right: Visualisation building practices kampungs Bandung (own ill.)


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In general, Pak Komar explained, no architect is used for a kampung house, construction drawings are made by hand and discussed with the home owner. Usually the person drawing these plans is also the person who does calculations if needed. This person is hired as an external party and is not a part of the construction team as described. Overall the construction knowledge in the kampung can be described as vernacular, the available building knowledge derives from tradition and experience rather than from education. In the poorest area of the kampung often there are not enough financial means available to hire these construction teams. Pak Mardi explained that these houses are constructed from waste or cheap materials with the help of family and friends. On page 23 the most common construction methods and combinations of facade materials are analysed. Figure A7 represents the most basic of dwellings, a wooden construction, often made of non-treated wood or bamboo is closed with bamboo mats that have been lined on the interior with newspapers, painted in a bright colour. These bamboo mats are easy to construct, but when nontreated, a short term solution. Housing in the kampung is incremental, the build environment reflects the current financial means, when new funds are available a more solid construction can be made from brick as seen in figure A8. A slanted roof is constructed to protect against monsoons. The next step could be the build of a second- or third storey, in the kampung these second storeys

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are often rickety and unsafe. In poorer areas again wood or bamboo is used for the main construction of these two storeys as visualized in figure A9. These constructions often made from untreated, cheap wood are not only unstable but can also become a serious fire threat to the kampung More often however, a solid base like bricks or cement blocks is used to construct the second storey on in wood as shown in figure A9. These second storeys are almost always cladded with light materials like wood, bamboo mats, corrugated steel sheets or simply lined with a banner for privacy. When the funds allow it, a tiled roof is constructed. This is a clear sign of prosperity, and is often used for the roof above the front facade. We have seen many examples where the back part of the house was still covered with corrugated steel sheets. There are only a few houses in the kampung with three floors, usually the first two floors are then constructed from cement blocks of which only the first floor is plastered and painted. The top storey is again made from wood. and light facade materials. These constructions as described are often build on foundation platforms made from big river stones combined with cement, this prevents the floods from entering the house during monsoon season. Both the floods and the local humid climate affect the building materials, kampung dwellings collapse due to decayed foundations or walls. (Usman Nasrulloh, 2014) The available vernacular knowledge is simply inadequate to cope with these forces of nature.


A7. 1 storey Construction: wood/bamboo Walls: Bamboo mats Roof: corrugated steel (own ill.)

A8. 1 storey Construction: brick Walls: Brick Roof: gable wood structure slanted corrugated steel (own ill.)

A9. 2 storeys Construction: wood Walls: 1st: Bamboo mats 2nd: corrugated steel sheets Roof: corrugated steel (own ill.)

A10. 2 storeys Construction: 1st: bricks / 2nd: wood Walls: 1st: bricks / 2nd: Bamboo mats Roof: gable wood structure / slanted corrugated steel (own ill.)

A11. 3 storeys Construction: 1st& 2nd: cementblocks 3rd: wood Walls: 1st: plastered cementblocks 2nd: cementblocks 3rd: bamboo mats Roof: Wooden gable roof structure tiled (own ill.)

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MAKE UP INDONESIAN HOUSE // EXAMPLE KAMPUNG HOUSE & KAMPUNG FLOORPLANS In this paragraph the make-up of the Indonesian house is explained through the analysis of a kampung house and the analysis of kampung floorplans. The examined house is that of Nyang Nyang. Pictures of the inhabitants, the exterior and interior can be seen in figure A12. In Figure A13 the interview with the inhabitants is visualised. Nyang Nyang, age 32 is a bird salesman and lives in this 18 m2 house with his wife and his two children. Outward appearances are important to families in the kampung, this is expressed in their architecture. The front of the house is usually decorated with tiles on both the floor, walls and roof. This front room is where guests are received and doubles often as living room. In the sketches made in the kampung (see fig. A14) it is clear that in the kampung houses circularion areas like hallways rare, this is usually due to the limitations of space. Often the bedrooms open directly into this living room. Due to lack of space rooms are often used for multiple purposes. The

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living rooms doubles as both a parlor, bedroom and sometimes also as a kitchen. Toilets and bathrooms are often not a commodity in the kampung. Sewage systems are not available for all kampungs in Bandung, so often washing facilities and toilets are clustered in strategic places in the kampung. These facilities dispose of their waste in the riversystem of Bandung. Since the climate allows for outside activities, this is an important part of the Indonesian way of life. Outside areas are important places to meet the community. Despite limited space almost each house had therefore a covered outside area with either a bale bale, a wooden or bamboo bed to rest on, or a bench. Often space is taken from the street to build porches, balconies and adjoining small shop-spaces.

Fig A12. House Nyang Nyang, bird salesman: the exterior, interior and inhabitants (own ill.)


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WE BOUGHT THIS LAND BECAUSE IT WAS CHEAP. IT IS NEXT TO THE RIVER THAT OVERFLOWS EACH SEASON.

A NEPHEW BUILD OUR HOUSE FOR US, STARTING WITH THE PLINTH MADE OF STONE AND CONCRETE.

WE LIVE HERE WITH TWO CHILDREN AND MY WIFE. OUR HOUSE IS 18 M2

IN THIS BACKROOM WE WATCH TV, COOK AND OUR CHILDREN SLEEP HERE. WE SLEEP IN THE ADJOINING BEDROOM.

AFTER THIS THE BRICK WALLS ARE CONSTRUCTED ON THESE FOUNDATIONS

WE HAVE OUR OWN WELL AND WASHING ROOM, THE TOILET AND WASH WATER GOES STRAIGHT INTO THE RIVER

THIS IS BOTH OUR RECEPTION ROOM, AS BIRD ROOM

WE WANTED A TILED ROOF ABOVE OUR RECEPTION ROOM. THIS IS WERE WE HAVE GUESTS

WE ALSO PLASTERED AND TILED JUST THE FRONT ROOM. APPEARANCE IS IMPORTANT TO US.

Fig A13. Left page: Example make-up Indonesian house House Nyang Nyang, (own ill.) Fig A14. Right page: Sketches plans housing kampung (own ill.) b: Bedroom B: Bathroom K: Kitchen L: Living room P: Parlor s: Shop S: Storage Hatched: Porch or balcony

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33


34


B. RESEARCH DIGITAL FABRICATION + STRUCTURING RESEARCH DIGITAL FABRICATION + DIGITAL FABRICATION METHODS Bricks Steel Wood Concrete Fabric Mud

35


STRUCTURING RESEARCH DIGITAL FABRICATION // IWAMOTO, HAUSCHILD, BEOKREM & REMMERSWAAL When researching digital fabrication methods there is a massive amount of innovative techniques and methods that is only recently being mapped. In her book ‘Digital Fabrications’, Iwamoto (2009) uses digital fabrication techniques to structure her overview of digital fabrication. These techniques are; sectioning, tessellating, folding, contouring and forming. None of these techniques however are applicable in practical architectural solutions. Most of them are applicable in interior situations and/or used as installations to showcase the particular technique. A more practical overview of digital fabrication techniques is that of Hauschild, Karzel, & Hellstern (2011). In their book ‘Digital Processes’ they give both an overview of digital production techniques as some project examples. While the production methods are better applicable in practical architectural solutions, many of the project examples are either still in the conceptual phase, or are also used in interior projects. From their research on digital fabrication methods two procedures can be derived, digital fabrication methods are either additive or subtractive. As seen

36

on the right page Hauschild et al. (2011) state that there are two additive procedures; the first being 3-d printing, in which for example concrete or mud is extruded from a 3-D printer to produce an architectural element. The advantage is that this offers great form-freedom so for example double curved structures are easily constructed. In the second additive procedure a CNC controlled moulding robot is used, producing complete building elements like fully assembled walls. These accordingly have to be transported to a building site. This method is called moulding. The subtractive methods do not add but remove parts of the raw material to split, shear or mill a material. Hauschild et al. (2011) make a distinction between cutting, shearing and milling of a material. The cutting can be done either by jet cutting or thermo-cutting. In jet cutting no cutting edge is used but rather a jet, this jet is either made up of bundled energy (laser jet cutting), gas (plasma cutting) or water (water jet cutting). The very low material loss on the edges make this method suitable for friction lock connections. Fig B1.

Page right: Visualisation production methods Hauschild et al. (2011) (own ill.)


PRICES! SUBTRACTIVE PROCEDURES WATERJET: OMAX 120X -4m x 3m tot 14m - vanaf 100.000 PLASMA: Trotec - Microstep plasma cutting machine - Trotec MILLING: 2-d axes = IMA BIMA 310 - X-4360 mm / Y-1580 mm / Z 440 mm 19,900 EUR

3D PRINTING

}

}

ADDITIVE PROCEDURES

CNC precast concrete elements

HOT-WIRE CUTTING

PUNCHING / NIBBLING

MILLING

} }

}

} moulding

jet cutting

CUTTING

shearing

MILLING

} NO ASSEMBLY

ASSEMBLY

37


Cutting can also be done by a so called punching-machine, this is called shearing or nibbling. These machines stamp a shape out of the material using a so called die-head. Moving this die-head over a material while repeatedly punching down is called shearing or nibbling. Often metal sheets are used for this method.

building element is produced in repetition a hundred times, or if each produced element is unique. In this, digital fabrication has a big advantage over prefabrication methods. Stoutjesdijk (2013) calls this the revolution of ‘mass customization’. It could prove the solution for building cheap customized housing on a large scale.

When milling a material, for example wood, a motor head is rotated and moved over the material, scraping off the material in its way. There are now 3-, 5- and even 7- axial machines available that can mill material from multiple angles and can therefore create highly complex geometries. This technique is mainly used for wood and plastics. The milled form can directly be used in a building to form an architectural wooden element, but the shape can also be used as a mould to produce for example concrete elements. In the next chapter more will be explained about this in the example reference of Peinovich (2012). Thermo cutting is the last of the subtractive methods. An electrical current is send through a metal wire heating it in the process, herewith large blocks of foam can be cut. In architectural applications large scale hot-wire cutting can be used to complete concrete formwork or the construction of light, voluminous construction parts. The Rotterdam based Rapid studio (Beerendonk, 2014) developed a 7m high Styrofoam arch for the 2014 Venice Biënnale using this technique. When the hot wire is mounted on a multi-axes robot all sorts of three-dimensional shapes can be created.

In the table on the right method properties have been given for all methods discussed by Hauschild et al. (2011). It is an adjusted version of the table as presented in the book ‘Digital processes’. Useful in this graph is the information on what material to combine with what technique. Also clear from these numbers is that laser cutting is clearly the quickest method for cutting out 2-D shapes, it however also consumes the highest amount of energy.

When discussing the aspects of assembly of these subtractive and additive digital fabrication methods only when using full scale 3-D printing there is no further assembly needed. All other digital fabrication methods create building components that need to be assembled on site. In this they are similar to prefabricated building methods. There is however one big difference between prefabricated building methods and digitally fabricated building methods. The advantage of prefabrication is that repetitive construction is possible in an controlled environment. Also, because the building elements are produced on a large scale the costs go down. There is however no customisation of the produced building elements possible. For CNC machines it does not matter if a

38

Two sources for structuring research into digital fabrication have been discussed, Iwamoto (2009) and Hauschild et al. (2011). For this research a third useful source was found. Beorkrem (2013) is structuring available digital fabrication methods by material used. Per material chapter a minimum of six references are used to showcase what can be done with this material when digitally fabricated. This is not giving a very clear overview into methods like Hauschild, Karzel, & Hellstern (2011), but it does showcasts many techniques, possibilities and especially relevant references. For this research only certain specific digital fabrication techniques were of interest. The digital fabrication methods had to be practically applicable in the building of dwellings, they had to either partially or fully make use of digital fabrication techniques and the techniques had to be suitable for small scale building constructions like dwellings. The structuring as used by Beokrem (2013) is employed in this paper to frame the discussion on project references that make up the rest the research. As explained, there are not enough literary sources to study digital production methods so for each material group one or two references are discussed that are either already build, or hold very practical applications even in its concept phase. The next paragraph will elaborate on these references. Fig B2.

Page right: Properties digital fabrication methods, based on Hauschild et al. (2011)


CUTTING -LASER

-WATER

-PLASMA

Almost all materials

Rubber Plastic Textiles Paper

Conductive & raw materials

MATERIAL THICKNESS

400 mm

Up to 350 mm

SIZE SEAM

0.1 - 0.5 mm

MILLING

NIBBLING

PUNCHING

Wood Foam Cardboard (aluminium)

Steel Brass Aluminium Copper

Steel Brass Aluminium Copper

‘Structural ink’ Concrete Mud

Expanded materials: polystyrene Styrodur

3000 mm

Up to approx. 250 mm (with 100 mm drill)

Up to 8 mm

Up to 8 mm

Variable to materials and machinery

Unlimited, only limited by size of the wire

0.1- 0.25 mm

0.8-1.5 mm

1 mm dependent on the milling head

0 to 5 mm

0 to 3 mm

Not applicable

Depending on thickness wire and height electricity

SPEED

300 m/min

35 m/min

6 m/min

Approx. 10 m/min

1200-2800 strokes/min

1400 strokes/min

Variable to both machinery and materials

Variable to both machinery and materials

FINISHING NEEDED?

Dependent on material

Dependent on material

Yes, grinding

Yes, grinding

Yes, grinding the edges

Yes, grinding the edges

Usually not

No

GEOMETRY OPTIONS

2-D

2-D

2-D

3-D

2-D

2-D

3-D

2-D & 3-D

ENERGY CONSUMPTION

100 kW

37 kW dependent on pump

Approx. 80 A

18 kW

25-50 kW

25-50 kW

Variable to both machinery and materials

Variable to both machinery and materials

MATERIALS

HOT-WIRE

3-D PRINTING

39


DIGITAL FABRICATION METHODS // REFERENCE RESEARCH STRUCTURED BY MATERIALS This paragraph will discuss the results of the digital research methods research. Per material one or two references are discussed that were practically applicable on an architectural scale. Each of these references were tested on a number of criteria. These criteria were linked to the chosen context: the kampung of Indonesia as discussed in the first chapter. The chosen criteria; - How durable would this method be compared to local building methods? - What would be the possibility for constructing multi-storey? - How high would the material cost be? - Cost for needed machinery? - Possibility for local assembly? - What is the difficulty level of assembly? - Does the method leave room for personalization? - Usage of local material?

40

These criteria are organised based on priority, with safety being one of the main reasons to improve the current building methods, durability is of the greatest priority. The build of multiple storeys is linked to this, currently there is no safe method for building above one storey, with the increasing densification of the kampung in mind, building height is important. The chosen building method should therefore provide in this. After these two priorities, cost is a very important third priority. The solution should be realizable and therefore cheap, both in used machinery and materials. Since the aim of my research to provide a solution that is self-build, local assembly and ease of assembly will be discussed next. Local assembly represents the way the materials are brought into the kampung, since no car can reach into every kampung this is of importance. Personalization and the usage of local materials are, although important, not of the highest priority in this research. Each reference plots these criteria’s against the technique in a graph. This graph represents the possibilities of the technique when used in the kampung.


MATERIALS

Fig B3.

REFERENCES

1. BRICKS

// GRIFFITH

2. STEEL

// CARLOW & CROLLA

3. WOOD

// SASS // STOUTJESDIJK

4. CONCRETE

// PEINOVICH // WINSUN

5. FABRIC

// ENDESA

6. MUD

// WASP

DIGITAL FABRICATION METHOD

Chosen references sorted by materials, with their given digital fabrication methods (own ill.)

41


# 1. BRICKS // REFERENCE GRIFFITH

Griffith, Williams, Knight, Sass, & Kamath (2012) have developed a method where CAD (Computer Aided Design) and CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing) have been combined in the manufacturing of building assembly systems. In their method a mouldable composite material like concrete, concrete-mix, adobe, cob or poured earth is combined with a digitally fabricated moulding device to create block assemblies. Griffith et al. (2012) argue that this system offers ways of building infrastructure through repeatable production while using accessible and precision-driven technologies to mitigate the absence of professional labour. They also argue that these precision-driven technologies facilitate the improvement of the build environment, and therefore diminish the need for strict quality control. As shown on the right page the process for creating the proposed brickwork is quite simple. After development of the digital 3-D model of the moulds, this data is translated into 2-d drawings and send to the CNC laser cutter. In the laser cutter low-grade 13 mm CDX-plywood is used for the outside moulds. Inside these moulds equine recyclable rubber material is used to extract the bricks easily when cured. They form an inner pocket volume to stack the moulding layers in. Usually an agitation mechanism like a vibrator is used to distribute the composite throughout the mould, in this construction a rocking device is designed to facilitate this agitating through human-powered means. After curing, the complete mould can be reused to construct more bricks. The internal rubber pocket volume can change easily to construct different types of bricks. (See also fig. B4)

// GRIFFITH VS KAMPUNG Griffith et al. (2012) designed their bricks for seismic active zones, tests done in their research showed these bricks are suitably safe in usage. They can therefore be deemed durable in use. This method alone does not allow for construction of multiple stories, an external construction like a concrete frame is needed. The material-costs for this method can be considered low. The moulding devices, once printed can be reused, same as the rubber pocket volume. The

42

1

2

3

4

5

DURABILITY

NO

YES

MULTI STOREY

NO

YES

HIGH HIGH

LOW LOW

COST MATERIAL COST MACHINERY LOCAL ASSEMBLY DIFFICULTY ASSEMBLY

PREFAB HARD

IN SITU EASY

Personalization

NO

YES

LOCAL MATERIAL

NO

YES

biggest material cost is the material that makes up the bricks like concrete, concrete-mix, adobe, cob or poured eart, which are, as seen in the Material Catalogue of Bandung, relatively cheap in this region. The machinery is only needed to create the mould once, so again, while using a CNC laser cutter is usually quite expensive, these costs are limited. Once production is executed on larger scale the purchase of a CNC laser cutter might be unavoidable. The estimated cost of such a machine is around â‚Ź 30.000 (Grant Graphics, n.d.) Only the moulds are produced off-site, so the assembly is very much on-site. The curing can be done in the kampungs. The assembly of the moulds are very easy, as is the rocking device. Only a rubber mullet needs to be used, the connections are friction locked. The craft of bricklaying is known in the kampungs and does not need to be tought. Once produced the bricks can be plastered and painted, same as in traditional architecture, allowing for personalization. All in all this is a very interesting method to use in the kampungs of Bandung Indonesia to improve the self-build structures. However, it will need to be combined with a different method to allow for the build of multiple storeys. Fig B4.

Visualisation production method Griffith, based on visuals from Griffith et al. (2012)


CNC LASERCUTTER

LASERED WOODEN SHEETS

ASSEMBLY COMPONENTS

ASSEMBLY MOLDS

PREPARATION

/ CURING

43


# 2. STEEL // REFERENCE CARLOW & CROLLA

Carlow & Crolla (2013) from the University of Hong Kong have designed a method wherein double curved structures can be constructed in remote communities through the use of both a digital model (CAD), and digital printing (CAM). This method focusses on producing the joints in metal and to use mostly locally available materials like wooden beams. The process starts by creating a digital model in which the curved structure is designed, this model calculates what kind of joints are needed when using specific parameters, like the size of the local materials, or height differences in the site, or the shape and form of the chosen structure. From these calculations 3-D joints are flattened into 2-D drawings that can be lasered from metal sheets. An example of one of these joints can be seen on the right page. These joints are flat packed and shipped from the design-lab to the remote location. Since a double curved structure has many different joints, each and every piece is unique and needs to be marked so they can be correctly constructed on site. In the design as visualized on the right, 240 pieces need to be printed and shipped to create 49 joints. Each joint also holds information on how long the joining wooden members should be. Carlow & Crolla (2013) state that this method could be suitable for not only wooden profiles, but also steel, aluminium and bamboo. (See also fig. B5)

// CARLOW & CROLLA VS KAMPUNG When looking at this system it has a lot of potential. The free-form structures Carlow & Crolla (2013) are trying to make produce for developing countries are however not very suitable for the kampung. The system needs to be considerably simplified to facilitate self-build construction. The graph with the criteria is based on an altered version of the technique, suitable for the kampung. The durability of this construction is untested in the article of Carlow & Crolla (2013), the assembly and bending of the flat packed joints on location, unless very carefully engineered, could influence the durability of the construction. When properly engineered however the joints, suitable for dome constructions can certainly be used to build up to three storeys high.

44

1

2

3

4

5

DURABILITY

NO

YES

MULTI STOREY

NO

YES

HIGH HIGH

LOW LOW

COST MATERIAL COST MACHINERY LOCAL ASSEMBLY DIFFICULTY ASSEMBLY

PREFAB HARD

IN SITU EASY

PERSONALIZATION

NO

YES

LOCAL MATERIAL

NO

YES

The production of these flat packed joints could be produced in the country to avoid higher transportation costs. The joints can be used to put together a wooden basic construction on which a secondary structure like walls and doors would be added, this secondary structure can be completely personalized. The machinery costs would be relative low since only the joints would need to be digitally fabricated. The biggest material cost would be the sheet-metal needed for the joints, apart from this only local materials like wood would be used. Metal however is not easily available in the kampung and is considered a more expensive building material that is unknown in the kampung. This design method definetely has some potential, it can be locally assembled without much effort, the joints can be designed in such a way it takes no effort to put up the wooden structure. It could be deemed circuitous however to construct all joints from an expensive material. And, same as the bricks-method by Griffith, this method will only give you only a wooden structure, not a full house.

Fig B5.

Visualisation production method Carlow & Crolla, based on illustrations from Carlow & Crolla (2013)


CNC LASERCUTTER

CONSTRUCT FREE FORM STRUCTURE

LASERED FLAT PACKED METAL JOINTS

ASSEMBLY WOOD AND METAL JOINTS

TRANSPORTATION DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

ASSEMBLY JOINT BY BENDING

45


# 3. WOOD // REFERENCE SASS

Larry Sass of the MIT is one of the first pioneers who started his research on digitally fabricated architecture already from the turn of the century. His research into mass customized housing for emergency and poverty stricken locations led him to construct housing with CAM lasered wood elements. In ‘The Instant House’ (Sass & Botha, 2006) Sass argues that this method provides great freedom for personalization, since for this printer it does not matter if a hundred similar houses, or a hundred completely different houses are printed. (See also fig. B6 and B8) In this method the house is completely constructed from wooden elements. These wooden elements are joined by friction lock joints, so on location only a rubber mallet and crowbar is used to connect the puzzle pieces. The process starts with a 3-D model that is being translated into wooden flat packed elements that can be printed from plywood on a CNC laser printer. These elements are being moved to the location where they are being constructed.

// SASS VS KAMPUNG The downside to this method is that the used material is not (yet) waterproof, so once the house is constructed, additional materials are needed in order to make the house waterproof and insulated. When using only materials that are waterproof the material costs rise significantly. Also, the boards that are needed for the CNC printer have to comply with a certain properties, the used wood needs to be treated and reasonably flat and even, so the laser can properly cut out the friction lock joints. These kind of plywood is to our knowledge not readily available in the Kampung nor cheap. Compared to the materials used in the kampung, like concrete, or untreated wood, these treated wooden boards are expensive. The great advantage of this method is that it can be very easily assembled on site, providing a great self-build method that creates safe housing in the kampung. The problem is that this method is most likely too expensive for the kampung. A CNC machine on location is needed to produce all the elements of the house, not only is this expensive, but also the material needed for this machine is relatively expensive in the kampung.

46

1

2

3

4

5

DURABILITY

NO

YES

MULTI STOREY

NO

YES

HIGH HIGH

LOW LOW

COST MATERIAL COST MACHINERY LOCAL ASSEMBLY DIFFICULTY ASSEMBLY

PREFAB HARD

IN SITU EASY

PERSONALIZATION

NO

YES

LOCAL MATERIAL

NO

YES

Also, all the elements of the house need to be transported into the kampung, the infrastructure in the kampung does not allow for transport of large elements, only scooters, handcars and bikes can drive on the small roads of the kampung. In the kampung there are almost no houses constructed of wood or bamboo, many people find it a status symbol to be living in a concrete structure. Wood and bamboo are usually only found in the poorest areas, where untreated wood and bamboo cause unsafe living conditions. This image problem could prevent people from wanting to live in these all-wooden houses.

Fig B6. Fig B7. Fig B8. Fig B9. Fig B10.

Sass, The Instant House (Sass & Botha, 2006) Foundation element ‘Home Delivery’ exhibition museum of modern art display Sass, ‘The Digitally Fabricated House for New Orleans’ (Digital Design Fabrication Group, 2008) Model, The Instant House (Sass & Botha, 2006) Exterior ‘The Digitally Fabricated House for New Orleans’, designed and build by Sass (Digital Design Fabrication Group, 2008) Visualisation production method Sass (own ill.)


B6.

B7. B8.

digital design

component assemblage on site B10.

print local cnc mill

prefab building components B9.

47


# 3. WOOD // REFERENCE STOUTJESDIJK

Pieter Stoutjesdijk designed for his graduation project of the TU Delft emergency housing for Haiti using similar techniques. Whereas Sass was building for the people stricken by huricanes in New Orleans, and thus focussing on rebuilding the rich local architecture, Stoutjesdijk focussed on the area of Haiti affected by earthquakes and tropical storms. The difference between Sass and Stoutjesdijk lies mostly in the chosen context and architecture. Stoutjesdijk (2013) designed a catalogue of printable houses that represent the local architecture of Haiti. (See also fig. B11-13-15 and 17) This shows how the houses are easily personalized. The production method is very similar to that of Larry Sass. From a digital design 2-D flat packed wooden elements are produced that are joined by friction lock joints. Accordingly they are assembled on site using only a mullet. (See also fig. B16)

1

5 YES

MULTI STOREY

NO

YES

HIGH HIGH

LOW LOW

COST MATERIAL COST MACHINERY LOCAL ASSEMBLY DIFFICULTY ASSEMBLY

PREFAB HARD

IN SITU EASY

PERSONALIZATION

NO

YES

LOCAL MATERIAL

NO

YES

This is a good example of how a hybrid between traditional and modern techniques is the best way to involve the community. Local culture and customs are taken into account. The graph on the right is adjusted to this hybrid variety. The cost of the earth bricks is significantly lower than building solely with lasered wooden elements, not only the material costs are lower, but also the machine costs are lower since less elements have to be lasered.

48

4

NO

// STOUTJESDIJK VS KAMPUNG

Catalogue printable houses Stoutjesdijk (Stoutjesdijk, 2013) Parts CAM printed hot wire lasercutter (Stoutjesdijk, 2014) Interior graduation project Haiti (Stoutjesdijk, 2013) Friction lock examples (Stoutjesdijk, 2013) Exterior graduation project Haiti (Stoutjesdijk, 2013) Visualisation production method Stoutjesdijk (own ill.) Architectural elements graduation project Haiti (Stoutjesdijk, 2013)

3

DURABILITY

This project was chosen to be build in Africa. Both cost and the image of living in a wooden house created a problem in this area. Instead of building only out of wood the construction is combined with earth bricks which are common in this area.

Fig B11. Fig B12. Fig B13. Fig B14. Fig B15. Fig B16. Fig B17.

2

B11.


B12.

digital design

B13.

B14.

B15.

print local cnc mill

B17. component assemblage on site

prefab building components

B16.

49


# 4. CONCRETE // REFERENCE PEINOVICH

In her graduation project Peinovich (2012) designed a project which states a solution for creating culturally sustainable architecture for developing countries. Peinovich promotes localisation of the design-manufacture process to encourage cultural sustainability. This project was focussed on researching the build of reusable. low-cost moulds build from CNC milled parts. This process starts by building a digital 3-d model. Information from this model is used by a CNC machine to mill 2-dimensional elements from wooden boards. These boards are then aligned and laminated with screws, creating the wanted double curved mould. After sanding and plastering of these elements, they are painted and covered with fiberglass. This ensures the mould is reusable more than once. These moulds are then used to pour concrete over a reinforcement, in this case chicken wire, to create the double curved building elements. As seen in figure B18, there are two kind of elements, a wall element, and a ‘roof’ element. These elements are connected by metal connections at the top, and masonry connections at the bottom, these have to be fabricated on site. As a result an undulating architectural form is fabricated. All construction is to be done by local labourers that have previous knowledge of working with thin-shell structures from ferro-cement.

// PEINOVICH VS KAMPUNG

1

4

5

NO

YES

MULTI STOREY

NO

YES

HIGH HIGH

LOW LOW

COST MATERIAL COST MACHINERY LOCAL ASSEMBLY DIFFICULTY ASSEMBLY

PREFAB HARD

IN SITU EASY

PERSONALIZATION

NO

YES

LOCAL MATERIAL

NO

YES

Putting this solution in the perspective of the kampung these double curved structures are not only unnecessarily difficult to produce, but also have no cultural connection to its surroundings. As seen in fig. B18 it is almost as if an alien structure has landed in the slums. It could be applicable in emergency housing, as shown by Woods Baggots ‘Folded Home’ (Carsen, 2013) who uses the same formwork, but made from fabric. While having a similar impractical interior-space, these structures have the advantage of being light, foldable and temporal, practical for temporary housing. When building long-term housing, this build form is not the right solution.

50

3

DURABILITY

// PEINOVICH VS KAMPUNG

Fig B18. Render of modules along the road in underdeveloped areas (Peinovich 2012) Fig B19. Visualisation production method Peinovich - based on illustrations from Peinovich (2012) Fig B20. Original build form to new build form - based on illustrations from Peinovich (2012)

2

B18.


B19.

B20.

51


# 4. CONCRETE // REFERENCE WINSUN

The chinese company Winsun build in 2014 ten houses in one day with the use of a giant 3-d printer. Build from predominantly recycled materials Winsun claims these houses cost less than 5.000 dollar (Winsun, 2014). The build starts with a threedimensional model wherein not only the design of the building can be changed, but also additions like insulation materials, plumbing, electrical lining and windows can be taken into account. The data from this digital model is sent to the 3-d printer that uses a special ‘ink’, made from construction waste, tailings and industrial waste to produce the building elements. The printer is measured 150 x 10 x 6.6 meters and ‘spouts’ out the recycled cement-mix, building the walls up layer by layer. While the elements are relatively quick to dry, they have to be transported and assembled on site. See also fig. B22 for the building process.

1

52

4

5

NO

YES

MULTI STOREY

NO

YES

HIGH HIGH

LOW LOW

COST MATERIAL COST MACHINERY LOCAL ASSEMBLY DIFFICULTY ASSEMBLY

PREFAB HARD

IN SITU EASY

PERSONALIZATION

NO

YES

LOCAL MATERIAL

NO

YES

There are several problems to this production method when applying this construction method in the kampung of Indonesia. The most important one is the need for transportation of the biggest elements. Since the kampung are only accessible via scooters and handcars this rules out this method for the kampung. The second issue is the ease of assembly, specialized knowledge and machinery is needed to put together these big building elements, none of which is readily available in the kampung. While the solution would be durable and a safe way of building multi-storey housing, there is not a lot of room for personalization. The plots of the kampung are almost never in a square shape, each house needs to be different, in the current form this technique does not provide in this. Also, the 3-d printed elements need to be affixed with extra elements like windows and roofs. House-sized 3-d printer creates corner wall (Winsun, 2014) Visualisation production method Winsun (own ill.) Stack of 3-d printed walls (Winsun, 2014) Assembled dwelling with 3-d printed elements (Winsun, 2014) Assembly on site of 3-d printed elements (Winsun, 2014) More complex assembled dwelling using 3-d printed elements (Winsun, 2014)

3

DURABILITY

// WINSUN VS KAMPUNG

Fig B21. Fig B22. Fig B23. Fig B24. Fig B25. Fig B26.

2

B21.


B22.

B25.

B23.

B24.

B26.

53


# 5. FABRIC // REFERENCE ENDESA

The Endesa pavilion, also known as the ‘World Fab Condensor’ was designed by the Margen-lab, produced by the IAAC and collaborative designed, build, and customized by the FabLab Network. (Fab10, 2014) The design of the pavilion was designed, written in code, in two months. After this initial design the parts were manufactured in five days and assembled in four (see also fig. B28) Only the platform is CNC milled from local materials, in this case wooden boards. The construction of both the wooden frame and the linnen covers are made by traditional machinery (see also fig. B32)

// ENDESA VS KAMPUNG Since the pavilion was intended to be a temporal exhibition the construction is not durable enough to use in the kampung. While the construction is very lightweight and uses mostly local materials, there is no possibility for multiple storeys. It would be possible to transport the smaller elements via handkart into the kampung, but the milled foundation would already be too big to transport into the kampung. Also, same as Winsun, this structure would need building expertise and machinery that is unavailable in the kampung. The most interesting thing I took from this reference is that the structure is very lightweight. While not very suited to the local cultural architecture, it is a nice example of a hybrid between digital architecture and more traditional building methods.

Fig B27. Fig B28. Fig B29. Fig B30. Fig B31. Fig B32.

World Fab Condensor exhibition Barcelona (Fab10, 2014)| Construction Endesa pavilion on site (Fab10, 2014) Interior Endesa pavilion (Fab10, 2014) Facade Endesa pavilion (Fab10, 2014) Assembly of the Endesa pavilion (Fab10, 2014) Visualisation production method Endesa pavilion (own ill.)

54

1

2

3

4

5

DURABILITY

NO

YES

MULTI STOREY

NO

YES

HIGH HIGH

LOW LOW

COST MATERIAL COST MACHINERY LOCAL ASSEMBLY DIFFICULTY ASSEMBLY

PREFAB HARD

IN SITU EASY

PERSONALIZATION

NO

YES

LOCAL MATERIAL

NO

YES

B27.


B28.

digital design

component assemblage on site B23. B32.

B29.

B30.

print cnc mill

milling elements

linnen material

prefab building components B31.

55


# 6. MUD // REFERENCE WASP

Wasproject (World’s Advance Saving Project) is developing a 6 meter high portable three-armed delta digital printer. According to the CEO of WASP Massimo Moretti the machine can be assembled on site in two hours. This method starts, as all methods discussed before, with a digital model. With this printer there is a great deal of form freedom possible in the design. WASP decided to design traditional adobe houses as can be seen in figure B36. When the printer is erected on site, this design can be sent to the printer. When the printer is filled with local materials like mud and fibres it can start printing immediately. The walls are filled with triangular shapes to save on material and to increase the weight bearing capability (see also figure B35). The mud is not fired but sundried, and the current maximum height is 3 meters tall. The printer has not yet printed a full size house, WASP is planning on building the first 3-D printed home in 2015. (Krassenstein)

1

56

4

5

NO

YES

MULTI STOREY

NO

YES

HIGH HIGH

LOW LOW

COST MATERIAL COST MACHINERY LOCAL ASSEMBLY DIFFICULTY ASSEMBLY

PREFAB HARD

IN SITU EASY

PERSONALIZATION

NO

YES

LOCAL MATERIAL

NO

YES

In some ways this is a very interesting option for the kampung of Indonesia, it is very easy to assemble, to produce on site and it makes use of local materials. It would build on the tradition of self-build. The building material however is not yet used in the kampung of Indonesia, and the adobe houses do not fit in the local cultural context. Furthermore, it is an untried concept with a lot of problems still to work out. The building height for example cannot exceed three meters. In this it does not provide a structural solution for the kampungs.

6-meter tall 3d printer by WASP project (Krassenstein, 2014) Visualisation production method WASP (own ill.) Half scale printed adobe house by WASP (Krassenstein, 2014) 1/10th scale printed adobe structures by WASP (Krassenstein, 2014)

3

DURABILITY

// WASP VS KAMPUNG

Fig B33. Fig B34. Fig B35. Fig B36.

2

B33.


B34.

B35.

B36.

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58


C. CONCLUSION

59


3 3 1 2 1 2

1 1 4 4 2 4

4 1 3 1 0 1 1 3

0 0 3 2 2 1 1 2

1 0 5 1 5 5 2 4

D HO IN G M ET HY BR ID  B UI LD

LO CA L B UI LD IN G  M ET HO

AS P W

EN DE

SA

W IN SU N

DS

5 5 1 2 1 5

0 0 5 5 4 4 4 4

4 5 4 3 4 4 4 4

CONCLUSION // COMPARISON DIGITAL FABRICATION METHODS ENDESA

SASS 5

DURABILITY

CROLLA

Since the topic of digital fabrication is relatively new, existing literature DURABILITY LOCAL MATERIAL STOREY on this topic is sparse. Therefore itMULTI was chosen to focus the research LOCAL MATERIAL on the study of reference projects to find inspiration for a digitally fabricated solution for the kampung of Indonesia. Of importance was, if PERSONALISATION would not result in a solution COST MATERIAL this research that hadPERSONALISATIO enough potential; N technically, financially and contextually, this graduation project would be continued without making use of these methods. DIFFICULTY ASSEMBLY 4What became clear in the early research was that there was no perfect DIFFICULTY ASSEMBLY COST MACHINERY 4 LOCAL 1solution that could be imediately implemented in the kampung. There ASSEMBLY 1 ASSEMBLY 4was however a lot of LOCAL potential in each of the chosen reference projects. 4

5

3,5

4

3

MULTI STOREY

2,5

1

PE

1

L

COST MATERIAL

AT ER IA AL M

COST MACHINERY

LO C

AL IS AT RS ON

LT Y AS

FI CU

4 3 L BLY 5 5 1 2 1 5 VICH

0

0

IO N

SE M

BL Y

COST MATERIAL

2

1

0,5

3 4 3 3 1 2 1 2

4 2 4

WINSUN A summary of the biggest potential per project is concluded in the WASP spiDURABILITY LOCAL MATERIAL MULTI STOREY der diagrams on the right. In the first graph the local building methods MATERIAL are analysed, this graph serves as baseline. It is clear LOCAL from this graph that the local building methods score well on all criteria except safety, 1durability 0 and the construction 4 PERSONALISATIO of multi-storey buildings. In this research PERSONALISATION COST MATERIAL N 0 0 5 5it was essential 5 that4 a building method was found that could both com1 5 3 5pete with 4 the local building 4 methods, it had to therefore score well on all DIFFICULTY 5 4 4 ASSEMBLYthat both aim of 4the research was to find a hybrid method 2criteria. The 4 DIFFICULTY ASSEMBLY COST MACHINERY 4 4 4 LOCAL used what was available in the kampung and what could be used from ASSEMBLY the digital fabrication LOCAL methods. ASSEMBLY

4 3

2

1,5

The bricks, designed with the ‘Griffith-method’, could be used in this building DURABILITY system as facade material and the needed CNC router could not only produce LOCAL MATERIAL MULTI STOREY the moulds, but also tricky building elements like stairs, windows and doors. These digital poduction methods hold enough potential to conduct more rePERSONALISATIO COST MATERIAL search N for the graduation project. Further research needs to be done on how to construct the reusable mould and how to provide clear instructions for the kampung inhabitants. So inCOST short: how to apply this chosen hybrid building DIFFICULTY ASSEMBLY MACHINERY method in the kampung. 5

MULTI STOREY

3

2

COST MACHINERY

0

LOCAL ASSEMBLY

local building methods LOCAL BUILDING METHOD

DURABILITY 5

4,5

4 1 3 1 0 1 1 3

0 0 3 2 2 COST 1 MACHINERY 1 2

COST MATERIAL

VICH

RI D BU ILD

HY B

4

DURABILITY

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3,5

4

3

2,5 2

1,5 1

5

MULTI STOREY

LOCAL MATERIAL

3

2

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0,5

0

0

ENDESA SASS When analysing the reference projects, two projects had a lot of potential DURABILITY for designing such a hybrid. The first the brick technology develLOCAL MATERIAL MULTIbeing STOREY MATERIAL oped by Griffith and the second the reusable mouldingLOCAL systems as researched by Peinovich. Since the bricks, designed by Griffith, would not be suited for building multi-storey height buildings,PERSONALISATIO a combination with PERSONALISATION COST MATERIAL N a second digital fabrication method had to be found. For me the method developed by Peinovich had a lot of potential to produce reusable moulds DIFFICULTY ASSEMBLY for building safe, multiple-storey height structures.

COST MACHINERY

PERSONALISATIO N

MULTI STOREY

DIFFICULTY ASSEMBLY

4

3 2

1,5 1

COST MACHINERY

Fig C1.

COST MACHINERY

DURABILITY WINSUN 5 4,5

LITY LOCAL MATERIAL

4 3,5

MULTI STOREY

LOCAL MATERIAL

MULTI STOREY

4 3

2

2

LOCAL ASSEMBLY

Spiderdiagrams visualizing LOCAL ASSEMBLYthe biggest potentials per reference project (own ill.)

60

5

3

0

0

DIFFICULTY ASSEMBLY

DURABILITY

1

0,5

COST MATERIAL

COST MACHINERY

hybrid building method HYBRID BUILDING METHOD

5

2,5

COST MATERIAL

0

LOCAL ASSEMBLY

5 4

MULTI STOREY

1

COST MATERIAL

4,5 3,5

4

3

DURABILITY

CROLLA

LITY

AL BLY

LO C

AS P W

EN DE

SA

W IN SU N

MULTI STOREY

AL B UI LD IN G  M

ET

IN G M ET

HO

HO

D

DS

LITY

L BLY

HYBRID BUILDING METHOD

4,5

LITY

MULTI STOREY

1

COST MATERIAL

COST MACHINERY

PERSONALISATIO N

COST MATERIAL

0

COST MACHINERY

DIFFICULTY ASSEMBLY LOCAL ASSEMBLY

WASP

LOCAL BUILDING METHOD

DURABILITY

DURABILITY

5

5

The local building methods excel in all criteria with the exception of safety, durability and the possibility for multi-storey height. This graph shows the exactly why research discussed in this paper was conducted. This graph serves as baseline to enable a comparison to researched building methods. The proposed building method as explained in the conclusion text has the potential to excel in all needed criteria. Further research is needed to check if the costs are not too high for the chosen location.


LO CA L M AT ER

4

3

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2 332 114 221 113 225

carlow & crolla

5 11 5 44 1 44 2 SASS 22 1 PEINOVICH 44 5

IO N

5

4

CCO OSST T M  MA ATTE ERRI DU AIAL RA L BI LIT CCO Y OSST T M  MA ACCH M HINI UL NEER TI  ST RYY OR EY LLO   OCCA ALL A CO  ASSSE SEM ST MB  M AT BLLYY ER IA DDI L FIFF FICI CO CUULT ST LTYY A  M  ASS AC SSEEM M HI NE BBLLY RY Y PPE LO ERRSO CASON L ANAAL SS LISISA EMATTI BL OIONN Y

MM UUL LTTI IS ST TOOR REEY Y 

DDU URRA ABBI LILIT ITY Y

LO CA L M AT ER IA L

IO N

AT

2

5 5 2 4

COST 1 MACHINERY 1

2

DIFFICULTY ASSEMBLY

COST MACHINERY

DIFFICULTY ASSEMBLY

COST MACHINERY

DIFFICULTY ASSEMBLY

LO ASSE

LOCAL ASSEMBLY

LOCAL ASSEMBLY

3 3 1 2 1 2

5 4 3 2 1 0

5

5 5

5

5

4

4 4

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4

3

3 3

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1 1 4 4 PEINOVICH 2 4

55

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55

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5 5

5

5

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44

SSA ASSS S GR IF FI TH SST TOOU CA UTTJ RL JEESSD OW DIJ IK & JK  C RO LL A PPE EINI NOO VVI CICH H SA SS

44

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00

CARLOW&&CROLLA CROLLA CARLOW

DURABILITY DURABILITY DURABILITY 55

DURABILITY DURABILITY

55 44 33

ISATIO SATIO COST MATERIAL COST MATERIAL

5 44 4 33 3 22 2 11 1 COSTMATERIAL MATERIAL COST 00 0

MULTISTOREY STOREY MULTI LOCAL MATERIAL MATERIAL LOCAL LOCAL MATERIAL

22 11

PERSONALISATIO 0 0PERSONALISATIO

PERSONALISATIO N N N

COST COST DIFFICULTY DIFFICULTY MACHINERY DIFFICULTY MACHINERY ASSEMBLY ASSEMBLY ASSEMBLY

DIFFICULTY DIFFICULTY OST COST ASSEMBLY ASSEMBLY HINERY CHINERY LOCAL LOCAL ASSEMBLY ASSEMBLY

AL MATERIAL LI STOREY MATERIAL

ISATIO SATIO COST MATERIAL

DIFFICULTY DIFFICULTY COST COST COST ASSEMBLY ASSEMBLY MACHINERY MACHINERY MACHINERY

22

2 2

11

1 1

00

0 0

44

LOCAL MATERIAL LOCAL MULTIMATERIAL STOREY

11

COSTMATERIAL MATERIAL COST 00

COST COST DIFFICULTY MACHINERY MACHINERY ASSEMBLY

PERSONALISATIO PERSONALISATIO NN COST MATERIAL

DIFFICULTY DIFFICULTY COST ASSEMBLY ASSEMBLY MACHINERY LOCAL ASSEMBLY

5 4 3 2 1

SA

AS P

44 33 22 11 00

0

5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 0 0

WINSUN WINSUN

55

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00

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wasp WASP WASP

WASP

DURABILITY DURABILITY

DURABILITY

55

55

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55

44

44

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22

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55

WASP PEINOVICH WINSUN Stoutjesdijk has taken the technique DURABILITY DURABILITY DURABILITY DURABILITY DURABILITY developed by Sass and applied it in develMULTI STOREY LOCALMATERIAL MATERIAL MULTI STOREY LOCAL MATERIAL MULTI STOREY LOCAL MULTI STOREY LOCAL MATERIAL MULTI LOCAL MULTISTOREY STOREY LOCALMATERIAL MATERIAL MULTI STOREY oping countries in Afrika. Building withLOCAL MATERIAL solely wood was not only too expensive, it PERSONALISATIO PERSONALISATIO PERSONALISATIO PERSONALISATIO PERSONALISATIO PERSONALISATIO PERSONALISATIO COSTMATERIAL MATERIAL also did not fit the local context. COSTMATERIAL MATERIAL COST COST COSTMATERIAL MATERIALTherefore COST MATERIAL NN NN COST NN N a hybrid of both wooden elements and baked earth bricks are used to construct DIFFICULTY COST DIFFICULTY COST DIFFICULTY COST DIFFICULTY COST DIFFICULTY COST DIFFICULTY COST DIFFICULTY COST MACHINERY ASSEMBLY MACHINERY ASSEMBLY MACHINERY ASSEMBLY MACHINERY ASSEMBLY ASSEMBLY MACHINERY ASSEMBLY MACHINERY cheap and safe housingMACHINERY for the poor. As ASSEMBLY LOCAL LOCAL LOCAL LOCAL LOCAL LOCAL LOCAL seen in the graph this hybrid scoresASSEMBLY well. ASSEMBLY ASSEMBLY ASSEMBLY ASSEMBLY ASSEMBLY ASSEMBLY 55

33

11

LOCAL LOCAL ASSEMBLY ASSEMBLY

3 3

DURABILITY

MULTISTOREY STOREY MULTI LOCAL MATERIAL

DIFFICULTY DIFFICULTY OST ASSEMBLY ASSEMBLY HINERY

4 4

33

DURABILITY DURABILITY

22

N

44

PEINOVICH PEINOVICH

55

0 0PERSONALISATIO

5 5

WINSUN

55

33

PERSONALISATIO PERSONALISATIO COST MATERIAL MATERIAL NN COST COST MATERIAL

55

stoutjesdijk STOUTJESDIJK

DURABILITY DURABILITY 44

LOCAL MATERIAL LOCAL MULTIMATERIAL STOREY MULTI STOREY MULTI STOREY

LOCAL LOCAL LOCAL ASSEMBLY ASSEMBLY ASSEMBLY

STOUTJESDIJK STOUTJESDIJK

endesa ENDESA SASS ENDESA SASS ENDESA ENDESA SASS CARLOW & CROLLA WASP WINSUN Sass applies is, The building method DURABILITY DURABILITY DURABILITY DURABILITY DURABILITY DURABILITY DURABILITY DURABILITY DURABILITY DURABILITY as seen in the graph, very good in one MULTISTOREY STOREY LOCALMATERIAL MATERIAL MULTISTOREY STOREY LOCAL MATERIAL MULTISTOREY STOREY MULTI LOCAL MULTI LOCAL MATERIAL MULTI MULTI STOREY LOCAL LOCAL MATERIAL MULTI STOREY LOCAL MATERIAL MULTI STOREY LOCALMATERIAL MATERIAL MULTI STOREY MULTI STOREY LOCAL MATERIAL aspect; the ease of assembly on site. It LOCAL MATERIAL however scores less well on material and PERSONALISATIO PERSONALISATIO PERSONALISATIO PERSONALISATIO PERSONALISATIO PERSONALISATIO PERSONALISATIO PERSONALISATIO COSTMATERIAL MATERIAL COSTMATERIAL MATERIAL COST MATERIAL This is a COST COST COST MATERIAL MATERIAL machinery costs. building methCOST MATERIAL COST MATERIAL PERSONALISATIO PERSONALISATIO NN NN COST NN N N COST MATERIAL COST MATERIAL N N od well applicable in richer countries to COST DIFFICULTY COST DIFFICULTY COST disaster struck provide for areas in Amer-DIFFICULTY COST DIFFICULTY COST DIFFICULTY COST COST DIFFICULTY DIFFICULTY COST COST DIFFICULTY MACHINERY ASSEMBLY MACHINERY ASSEMBLY MACHINERY COST DIFFICULTY COST DIFFICULTY MACHINERY ASSEMBLY MACHINERY ASSEMBLY MACHINERY MACHINERY ASSEMBLY ASSEMBLY MACHINERY ASSEMBLY MACHINERY MACHINERY ASSEMBLY MACHINERY ASSEMBLY ica. InASSEMBLY the kampung of Indonesia however LOCAL LOCAL LOCAL LOCAL LOCAL LOCAL LOCAL LOCAL LOCAL LOCAL ASSEMBLY ASSEMBLY ASSEMBLY LOCAL LOCALexpensive. ASSEMBLY ASSEMBLY ASSEMBLY this method isASSEMBLY too ASSEMBLY ASSEMBLY ASSEMBLY ASSEMBLY ASSEMBLY

GRIFFITH SASS PEINOVICH

DURABILITY DURABILITY

AL MATERIAL LI STOREY MATERIAL LTI STOREY

00

0

sass

GRIFFITH GRIFFITH

11

W

1

22

EN DE

2

33

WW W AASSP IN P SU N

11

3

PEEENN INDDE OEVSSA IAC H

22

IJK

33

W STWININS OU SU TJUNN ES D

CCA ARRL LOOW W &  & C  CR ROOL LLLA A

GGR RIFI F FFIT ITH H

W

EN DE

AS P

SA

winsun ENDESA WASP WINSUN WASP WINSUN While Carlow and Crolla have developed a The building method developed by Winsun DURABILITY DURABILITY DURABILITY DURABILITY DURABILITY DURABILITY DURABILITY DURABILITY DURABILITY DURABILITY DURABILITY very interesting technique, it is less appliexcells in both durability and the usage of LTI STOREY MULTI STOREY LOCAL MULTI STOREY LOCALMATERIAL MATERIAL MULTI STOREY LOCALMATERIAL MATERIAL MULTI STOREY LOCAL MATERIAL MULTI STOREY LOCAL MULTI STOREY MATERIAL MULTI STOREY LOCAL MATERIAL MULTI STOREY LOCAL MULTI STOREY LOCAL MATERIAL MULTI STOREY LOCAL MATERIAL MULTI STOREY LOCALMATERIAL MATERIAL cable in the kampung LOCAL for the price of the local materials. Unfortunately this method metal joints. Also, since this technique could never be used in the kampung since DURABILITY 1 44 33 22 22 33 2 44 2 003 11 4 0 DURABILITY DURABILITY 4 3 0 1 PERSONALISATIO PERSONALISATIO PERSONALISATIO PERSONALISATIO PERSONALISATIO PERSONALISATIO PERSONALISATIO PERSONALISATIO PERSONALISATIO PERSONALISATIO PERSONALISATIO is used by Carlow and Crolla to produce MULTI STOREY  3 3 3 0 1 0 0 COST MATERIAL 0 COST MATERIAL COST MATERIAL COST MATERIAL 11 3 3 3 0 1 0 0 COST MATERIAL COST MATERIAL the transportation of building elements COST MATERIAL COST MATERIAL COST MATERIAL COST MATERIAL 0 MULTI STOREY  COST MATERIAL COST MATERIAL MULTI STOREY  1 3 3 3 0 1 0 0 NN N NN N N NN N N COST MATERIAL 44 00 11 13 33 1 33 3 333 55 3 3 COST MATERIAL 5 COST MATERIAL 4 0 double curved structures it32makes51 sense COST MACHINERY 33 11 22 24 22 2 11 4 222 11 1 into the kampung is impossible. 2 COST MACHINERY 1 COST MACHINERY 3 1 LOCAL ASSEMBLY 4 4 2 2 4 0 2 5 4 4 2 2 4 0 2 24 5 0 2 LOCAL ASSEMBLY 5 LOCAL ASSEMBLY 4 4 2 2 5 to use digital fabrication since each joint DIFFICULTY DIFFICULTY ASSEMBLY 5 1 44DIFFICULTY 33 55 5COST 00 5 11 5 DIFFICULTY 55 1 1 DIFFICULTY ASSEMBLY 5 COST DIFFICULTY ASSEMBLY 4 5 COST COST1 COST3 DIFFICULTY COST 1 0 DIFFICULTY COST DIFFICULTY COST DIFFICULTY COST DIFFICULTY COST DIFFICULTY COST DIFFICULTY COST DIFFICULTY PERSONALISATION 3 33ASSEMBLY 44 33 3ASSEMBLY 00 3 11 3 ASSEMBLY 110 22 1 CHINERY MACHINERY MACHINERY ASSEMBLY 1 PERSONALISATION 2 MACHINERY ASSEMBLY PERSONALISATION 3 4 1 2 MACHINERY MACHINERY MACHINERY ASSEMBLY MACHINERY ASSEMBLY MACHINERY MACHINERY ASSEMBLY MACHINERY ASSEMBLY MACHINERY ASSEMBLY is different. for the kam- ASSEMBLY LOCAL MATERIAL 44 33 11 14 33 1 33 4 223When 44simplified 2 LOCAL MATERIAL 4 LOCAL MATERIAL 4 3 3 2 4 LOCAL LOCAL LOCAL LOCAL LOCAL LOCAL LOCAL LOCAL LOCAL LOCAL LOCAL pung this might not be the case. ASSEMBLY ASSEMBLY ASSEMBLY ASSEMBLY ASSEMBLY ASSEMBLY ASSEMBLY ASSEMBLY ASSEMBLY ASSEMBLY ASSEMBLY 4

11 00

WA

DURA

LO CA L M AT ER IA L

5

3

3 2 PERSONALISATIO 2 3 4PERSONALISATIO 0 MATERIAL 0 0 COST DURABILITY DURABILITY N N 3 DURABILITY 3 DURABILITY3 0 1 0 0 1 3 3 3 3 1 2 4 2 1 2 4 2 2 4 0 2 DIFFICULTY COST 3 5 5DIFFICULTY 0 1 1 ASSEMBLY MACHINERY ASSEMBLY 4 3 3 0 1 1 MULTI STOREY  3 GRIFFITH 1 3 2 343 113 33 44 LOCAL44 3 GRIFFITH 4 COST MATERIAL GRIFFITH 3 1 CARLOW & CROLLA 22 33 11 33 44 ASSEMBLY 4 CARLOW & CROLLA 4 COST MACHINERY CARLOW & CROLLA 2 3 SASS 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 22 1 3 SASS 1 LOCAL ASSEMBLY SASS 2 2 2 2 STOUTJESDIJK 22 22 11 22 22 1 55 2 3 STOUTJESDIJK 1 DIFFICULTY ASSEMBLY STOUTJESDIJK 2 2 PEINOVICH 3 1 3 3 3 1 3 3 44 3 11 3 1 PEINOVICH 4 PERSONALISATION PEINOVICH 3 1 WINSUN 44 22 33 11 11 3 22 1 2 WINSUN 4 LOCAL MATERIAL WINSUN 4 2 ENDESA 3 CARLOW & 3CROLLA 11 11 STOUTJESDIJK 11 33 3 11 1 STOUTJESDIJK 1 ENDESA 2 ENDESA 1 1 WASP 11 55 11 55 5 55 1 2 WASP 4 WASP 11 1 1

LIS

LOCAL ASSEMBLY

4

AT

W

EN DE

1

0 1 1 3

5 5 2 4

5

AS P

SA

UN IN S

2 4 2 5 DIFFICULTY 0 1 3 ASSEMBLY 0 1 1 3 2

LIS

H IN OV IC PE

ST

2

0 1 1 3

ON A

JK SD I OU TJ E

SS SA

LOCAL MATERIAL MULTI STOREY

3

W

&  C RO LL A

LO W

AR

4

2 5 3 1

4 0 0 3

peinovich ENDESA SASS ENDESA CARLOW & CROLLA SASS CARLOW & CROLLA STOUTJESDIJK PEINOVICH WINSUN The building DURABILITY method as proposed by PeiGriffith is one DURABILITY of the most promising refDURABILITY DURABILITY DURABILITY DURABILITY DURABILITY DURABILITY DURABILITY novich does not score well on the kamerence projects. Excellent in almost all MULTI STOREY MULTI STOREY LOCAL MATERIAL MULTI STOREY LOCAL MATERIAL MULTI STOREY LOCAL MATERIAL MULTI STOREY LOCAL MATERIAL MULTI STOREY LOCAL MATERIAL MULTI STOREY LOCAL MATERIAL MULTI STOREY LOCAL MATERIAL MULTI STOREY LOCAL MATERIAL LOCAL MATERIAL MULTI STOREY LOCAL MATERIAL pung criteria. When adjusted to the kamkampung criteria it unfortunately does pung it could however provide a sollution not imediately offers a possibility for PERSONALISATIO PERSONALISATIO PERSONALISATIO PERSONALISATIO 1 PERSONALISATIO PERSONALISATIO COST MATERIAL COST MATERIAL COST MATERIAL PERSONALISATIO COSTbuild MATERIAL of multi-storey PERSONALISATIO COST MATERIAL COST PERSONALISATIO COST MATERIAL forN the The multi-storey height.PERSONALISATIO This COSTMATERIAL MATERIAL N COST MATERIAL N N NN building method COSThousing. MATERIAL N 0 N N N 5 reusable moulding systems could be used therefore always has to be combined with 1 5 COST COST DIFFICULTY COST DIFFICULTY COST DIFFICULTY COST COST DIFFICULTY to construct concrete frame-work. There DIFFICULTY eitherDIFFICULTY local building methods COST COST DIFFICULTYor another DIFFICULTY 5 COST DIFFICULTY COST DIFFICULTY MACHINERY MACHINERY ASSEMBLY MACHINERY ASSEMBLY MACHINERY ASSEMBLY MACHINERY ASSEMBLY MACHINERY ASSEMBLY MACHINERY ASSEMBLY MACHINERY ASSEMBLY MACHINERY ASSEMBLY 2 ASSEMBLY MACHINERY ASSEMBLY is therefore great potential in this referdigital fabrication method. 4 4 3 4 4 3 34 LOCAL LOCAL LOCAL LOCAL 4 LOCAL 3 4 LOCAL LOCAL4 4 LOCAL LOCAL LOCAL 33 3 444 44 3 ASSEMBLY ASSEMBLY ASSEMBLY ASSEMBLY ASSEMBLY ASSEMBLY ASSEMBLY 1 4 4ASSEMBLY ence project. ASSEMBLY ASSEMBLY 55 33 11

5

LOCAL MATERIAL

4 3 4 3

RS

griffith

42 45 33 41

PE

PE

RS

ON A

LIS

A

Y AS

IC U

FF

DI

4LOCAL ASSEMBLY 2 3DIFFICULTY ASSEMBLY 5 4PERSONALISATION 3 3LOCAL MATERIAL 1 3 4 4 4 3 1 3 1 1 4 2 4 GRIFFITH 1 2 2 4 DURABILITY

L DILOOC FFCAAL IC L M UL MA TYATTE  AERRIA SS IAL EML BL Y

3 3 2 2 3 1 1 1

4 4 3 4

LT

LO CA L A SS EM

HI N ST M AC CO

ST M AT ER I 4 1 1 1 3 3 3 5

ON A

RS

CO

M UL TI ST OR E 1 3 2 2 1 2 1 1

LOCAL ASSEMBLY DIFFICULTY ASSEMBLY PERSONALISATION LOCAL MATERIAL 4 4 4 3 2 5 2 5 4 1 1 GRIFFITH2 3 1 5 DURABILITY 5

5

MULTISTOREY STOREY MULTI LOCAL MATERIAL

4 3 2 1

N

COSTMATERIAL MATERIAL COST 0

COST COST DIFFICULTY MACHINERY MACHINERY ASSEMBLY LOCAL LOCAL ASSEMBLY ASSEMBLY

While the building method developed for the Endesa pavilion was never intended forMULTI theSTOREY build of dwellings, nor for underdeveloped countries. This results in a bad scoreCOST asMATERIAL seen in the graph. Of all reference projects presented this project is the leastCOSTrelevant. MACHINERY

The developers of the 6 meter high 3-d printer have found a very interesting MULTI STOREY building method. While it would be very easy to construct with local materials, the resulting architecture is like nothing ever COST MATERIAL build before in a kampung. Also, the technique does not provide (yet) in building in COST MACHINERY multiple storeys.

LOCAL ASSEMBLY

61

LO ASSE


62


D. LITERATURE LIST

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Aarhus School of Architecture. (2014). Digital Tectonics. Denmark: Østbanegård-fonden. Advanced Architecture, C., Cappelli, L., Guallart, V., Institut d’Arquitectura Avançada de, C., & Actar. (2009). Self-fab house : 2nd Advanced Architecture Contest, Barcelona; Distribution, Actar D. Beerendonk, W. (2014). The Venice Biënnale Retrieved 17-12-2014, 2014, from http://rapidstudio.nl/ Benjamin, S., Arifin, M. A., & Sarjana, F. P. (1985). The housing costs of low-income kampung dwellers: A study of product and process in Indonesian cities. Habitat international, 9(1), 91-110. Beorkrem, C. (2013). Material strategies in digital fabrication. Carlow, J. F., & Crolla, K. (2013). Shipping Complexity: Parametric Design for Remote Communities. Colombijn, F. B. M. (2010). Under construction : the politics of urban space and housing during the decolonization of Indonesia, 1930-1960. Leiden: KITLV Press. Daniels, S., & Bull, C. (2010). Making do: innovation in Kenya’s informal economy. S. l.: Lulu. Dave, B., Li, A., Gu, N., & Park, H. The next revolution building kits. Digital Design Fabrication Group. (2008). Digitally Fabricated House for New Orleans Retrieved 2-1-2015, 2015, from http://ddf.mit.edu/milestones/03 Dunn, N. (2012). Digital fabrication in architecture. London: Laurence King. Fab10. (2014). The Endesa World Fab Condenser Retrieved 2-1-2015, 2015, from https://www.fab10.org/es/fab-condenser Ford, L. R. (1993). A model of Indonesian city structure. Geographical Review, 374396. Grant Graphics. (n.d.). Techno Router LC Series 4896 Retrieved 18-12-2014, 2014, from http://store.grantgraphics.com/techno-router-lc-series-4896/ Griffith, K., Williams, R., Knight, T., Sass, L., & Kamath, A. (2012). Cradle molding device: An automated CAD/CAM molding system for manufacturing com-

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posite materials as customizable assembly units for rural application. Automation in Construction, 21, 114-120. Guinness, P. (2009). Kampung, Islam and state in urban Java. Honolulu: University of Hawai`i Press. Hauschild, M., Karzel, R., & Hellstern, C. (2011). Digital processes : planning, design, production. Basel; Munich: Birkhaüser ; Edition Detail : Institut fur internationale. Iwamoto, L. (2009). Digital fabrications : architectural and material techniques. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. Jensen, A. J. (2014). Rita Nagar: community development of an informal settlement in Ahmedabad, India. Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim. Kieran, S. T. J. (2004). Refabricating architecture : how manufacturing methodologies are poised to transform building construction. New York: McGraw-Hill. Krassenstein, E. (2014). WASP Plans to Demonstrate New 6 Meter Tall 3D House Printer This Week: Will 3D print houses in developing countries next! Retrieved 1-2-2015, 2015, from http://3dprint.com/17179/wasp-3d-printed-houses/ Lipson, H., & Kurman, M. (2013). Fabricated; the new world of 3D printing : the promise and peril of a machine that can make (almost) anything. Indianapolis: J. Wiley & Sons. Milone, P. D. (1993). Kampung improvement in the small and medium sized cities of centra java. Review of Urban & Regional Development Studies, 5(1), 7494. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-940X.1993.tb00124.x Peinovich, E. (2012). Localized design-manufacture for Developing Countries: a methodology for creating culturally sustainable architecture. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Reerink, G. (2011). Tenure Security for Indonesia’s Urban Poor a socio-legal study on land, decentralisation and the rule of law in Bandung. Amsterdam: Leiden University Press. Reerink, G. v. G. J. L. (2010). Land titling, perceived tenure security, and housing consolidation in the kampongs of Bandung, Indonesia. Habitat international, 34(1), 78-85.


Remmerswaal, N. (2014). Kampongverbeteringsprogramma’s Indonesië: Heilzaam of schadelijk? Een studie naar kampongverbeteringen in Indonesië vanaf het koloniale tijdperk tot na de onafhankelijkheid., Technical University Delft, Delft. Sass, L. (2010). The next revolution: Digital building kits. Paper presented at the New Frontiers: Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia CAADRIA, Hong Kong. Sass, L., & Botha, M. (2006). The instant house: A model of design production with digital fabrication. International Journal of Architectural Computing, 4(4), 109-123.

Retrieved 1-2-2015, 2015, from http://www.gizmag.com/china-winsun3d-printed-house/31757/ Yallop, O. (2014). Citarum, the most polluted river in the world? Retrieved 2412-2014, 2014, from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/earth/environment/10761077/Citarum-the-most-polluted-river-in-the-world.html Yeung, W., & Harkins, J. (2011). Digital Architecture for Humanitarian Design in Post-Disaster Reconstruction, from http://cumincad.architexturez.net// doc/oai-cumincadworks.id-ijac20109102

Staib, G. D. A. R. M. J. (2008). Components and systems : modular construction : design, structure, new technologies. München; Basel [Switzerland]; Boston: Edition Detail, Institut für internationale Architektur-Dokumentation ; Birkhäuser. Stoutjesdijk, P. An Open-Source Building System with Digitally Fabricated Components. Stoutjesdijk, P. (2013). Digital design & digital fabrication for ultimate challenges. Technical University Delft, Delft. Stoutjesdijk, P. (2014). CutCase Retrieved 2-1-2015, 2014, from http://www.pieterstoutjesdijk.nl/cutcase/ Taylor, J. L. (1987). Evaluation of the Jakarta Kampung improvement program Shelter upgrading for the urban poor, evaluation of Third World experiences. Manila: Island Publishing House. Tunas, D., & Peresthu, A. (2010). The self-help housing in Indonesia: The only option for the poor? Habitat international, 34(3), 315-322. Usman Nasrulloh, U. (2014). Rumah Warga Runtuh, Satu Orang Tewas Retrieved 24-12-2014, 2014, from http://www.pikiran-rakyat.com/node/279626 van Roosmalen, P. K. M. (2008). Ontwerpen aan de stad. Stedenbouw in Nederlands-Indië en Indonesië (1905-1950). Weel ter, P. (1979). Stedelijk ontwikkelingsbeleid in Indonesie: Jakarta’s kampongverbetering. Technische Hogeschool Delft, Delft Winsun. (2014). Chinese company uses 3D printing to build 10 houses in a day

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ARCHITECTURAL \\ TECHNICAL RESEARCH PAPER TRA-DIGITAL HYBRID Using digital fabrications to create a hybrid design for developing countries

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NADIA REMMERSWAAL 4115996

Architectural Engineering Graduation Studio Delft University of Technology Department of Architecture // June 2014

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS During my research I was greatly aided by my research tutors: Monique Smit, my architecture tutor, has been a source of knowledge of Indonesian culture and a great guide during our time in Indonesia. Despite us getting lost often in Bandung, this always led to more interesting places. Marcel Bilow, my building technology tutor, thank you for your endless enthusiasm and great idea’s during my graduation project. I experienced Marcels tutoring philosophy as such: there are never any unsolvable problems, only opportunities and improvement. Thank you for seeing the potential of this technology in this project. Pieter Stoutjesdijk, my research tutor, thank you for all your help in my academic challenges. For completely revising my technical research report on a Sunday night, despite it being three times the required length, and making it so much better. But also for CNC milling my 1:1 model, on material that was less than ideal, and on a CNC mill that was less than cooperative at quite an inopportune time.

My thanks extends also all the people who supported my research in Bandung Indonesia. In our first trip to Bandung we were greatly helped by Setianingtyas Permatasari (Ayya) an ITB student who volunteered to help us with translating, arranging meetings in Bandung and arranging for her friends Prathito Andy Wisambodhi and Fauzan Wassil to help us in the Kampung. During my second trip in Bandung I was assisted by Kania Thea Pradipta, an ITB Architecture student, she was a great help in translating and helping me navigate the city of Bandung. Ramalis Sobandi, a woman of many talents, thank you for connecting me with local architects, showing me local architecture and changing my mind-set on kampungs in Indonesia.

Last but certainly not least I would like to thank KIVI NIRIA for funding my second research trip to Indonesia.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS P. 69 A. RESEARCH ARCHITECTURE BANDUNG P. 72

+ VALUES KAMPUNG P. 74 + PRIVACY ZONING P. 76 + INCREMENTAL EXPANSION P. 78 + TYPOLOGY KAMPUNG HOUSING P. 80 + RESEARCH INCOME SHOPS KAMPUNG P. 82 + ELABORATION HOUSE B P. 86 + CATALOGUE EXTERNAL ELEMENTS P. 88 - Roofs - Floors - Stairs - Facades - Windows + LOCATION /ARCHITECTURAL INTEGRATION P. 90 - Site - Housing matrix

B. RESEARCH INCREMENTAL BUILDING SYSTEM P. 100 + INTERVIEWS CONSTRUCTION TEAMS KAMPUNG P. 102 + COST CALCULATION SYSTEM FORMWORK P. 114 + DESIGN SYSTEM FORMWORK P. 116 - How does it work P. 116 - CNC milled elements P. 119 - Cost calculation matrix P. 120 C. MODEL MAKING P. 122

+

1:1 / 1:7 / 1:50 / 1:100

P. 124

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A. RESEARCH ARCHITECTURE BANDUNG + + + + + + + +

VALUES KAMPUNG PRIVACY ZONING INCREMENTAL EXPANSION TYPOLOGY KAMPUNG HOUSING RESEARCH INCOME SHOPS KAMPUNG ELABORATION HOUSE B CATALOGUE EXTERNAL ELEMENTS - Roofs - Floors - Stairs - Facades - Windows LOCATION /ARCHITECTURAL INTEGRATION - Site - Housing matrix

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PROBLEMS \\ VALUES KAMPUNG // PRIORITIZED ACCORDING TO THE DIGITAL RESEARCH It is quite easy to pick out obvious problems in the kampung, overcrowding and poor quality were the first problems that came to mind when navigating the kampungs. What took slightly longer was to find the strengths of these areas. It requires a very different mind-set to realise there is great value in these area’s compared to the western ways of building. The kampung are a great source of economic activity and know a very tight knit community. They are more than just housing areas. This is very important to take into account when designing for these areas.

self-build

limited hight

Fig A1. Fig A2.

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Visualisation problems Indonesian kampungs (own ill.) Visualisation most important values Indonesia (own ill.)

Fig A1.

poverty

poor quality

overcrowded

unsafe construction


ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES Workshops Hairdressers etc.

FOOD STALLS ATTACHED TO THE HOUSE

FOOD STALL COMPLEX

COMMUNITY MEETING SPACE Corridor as a place to Go, Sit, Meet

Fig A1.

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PRIVACY ZONING // PRIVACY ZONING AND EXPANSION IMPLICATIONS The Indonesians know quite a specific zoning system with regards to privacy. During our time in Indonesia it became clear that once you step into the kampung it is similar to stepping into someone’s backyard. The very small kampung streets are considered private property. People use this space not only as social meeting space, but also to expand their houses and shops. Almost all houses have some sort of partially covered outside space to hang their laundry, sit with neighboors or be outside when the monsoon hits. The first room in the house is usual the family room with utility spaces further in the back. Bedrooms are either at perpendicular to the living room, when the house is sufficiently broad, but usual the more private rooms like the bedrooms are situated in the back of the house.

Fig A3.

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Visualisation privacy zoning kampung Indonesia (own ill.)


1. Bedrooms 2. Family room Utility spaces 3. Reception room 4. Porch/Balcony 5. Semi-private-public inbetween space 6. Street/Walkway

7. Kampung Entrance

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TYPE A - HORIZONTAL EXPANSION

TYPE B - VERTICAL EXPANSION

INCREMENTAL EXPANSION // ARGUMENTATION EXPANSION, VERTICAL & HORIZONTAL During our time in the kampung it was clear most of the space available was build upon. The Indonesian population had two ways of expanding, vertically and horizontally. The research as visualized on the right is based on the article ‘Considerations on Typology of Kampung House (red..)’ by Shuji Funo. What was most important for my research was the realization that local building knowledge was often not sufficient for building over two storeys high. The expansion was therefore halted at this level while in the kampung much more building space is needed. This is one of the key elements in my final building system design.

Fig A4.

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Visualisation incremental expansion methods kampung Indonesia (own ill. based on data from ‘Considerations on Typology of Kampung House (red..)’ by Shuji Funo)

TYPE C - COMBINATION


1: FAMILY 1:EXPANSION FAMILY EXPANSION

2: BUSINESS 2: BUSINESS VENTURES VENTURES

3: BOTH BUSINESS AS FAMILY EXPANSION

A-1

A-2

A-3

A-1

A-2

- BACK GARDEN - BACK ORGARDEN OR TERRACE TRANS TERRACE TRANS FORMED INTO FORMED KITCHEN INTO KITCHEN - ADDITION -OF ADDITION WASHING OF WASHING ROOM ROOM - ADDITION -OF ADDITION TOILETSOF / TOILETS / SHOWER SHOWER - EXPANSION - EXPANSION OF THE OF THE HOUSE WITH HOUSE EXTRAWITH EXTRA BEDROOMSBEDROOMS INSIDE ANDINSIDE AND UTILITY SPACES UTILITY PLACED SPACES PLACED FURTHER IN FURTHER THE BACK IN THE BACK

B-1

B-1

B-2

C-1

B-3

B-2

- RENTAL ROOMS UPSTAIRS, SEPERATE STAIRCASE VIA OUTSIDE - EXTRA FAMILY BEDROOMS UPSTAIRS

- RENTAL ROOMS - RENTAL ROOMS UPSTAIRS UPSTAIRS - PLACEMENT - PLACEMENT OF BED- OF BEDROOMS UPSTAIRS ROOMSAND UPSTAIRS AND NEW SHOP NEW STORE SHOP STORE DOWNSTAIRS DOWNSTAIRS

C-2

C-3

C-2 C-1

- EXTENSION - EXTENSION OF GUEST OF GUEST AREA AREA - EXTRA BEDROOMS - EXTRA BEDROOMS - EXTRA DINING - EXTRA ROOM DINING ROOM

1ST FLOOR - RENTAL ROOMS - RENTAL TOILETS

BACK EXPANSION BACK EXPANSION - RENTAL TOILETS - RENTAL TOILETS - RENTAL ROOMS - RENTAL ROOMS

- EXTRA FLOOR - EXTRA BUILD FLOOR BUILD OFTEN OF WOODEN OFTEN OF WOODEN CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION - USED FOR:- USED FOR: EXTRA BEDROOMS EXTRA BEDROOMS STORAGE STORAGE LIVING AREA LIVING AREA BALCONY BALCONY

C-1

GROUND FLOOR: - DINING ROOM - BEDROOMS - MORE UTILITY SPACES

FRONT EXPANSION: FRONT EXPANSION: - WARUNG/TOKO/WARTEL - WARUNG/TOKO/WARTEL - HAIRDRESSER - HAIRDRESSER - WORKSHOP - WORKSHOP - GARAGE - GARAGE - STORAGE -SPACE STORAGE SPACE

C-1

- RENTAL ROOMS - RENTAL BOTH ROOMS BOTH UPSTAIRS AND UPSTAIRS DOWN-AND DOWNSTAIRS STAIRS - RENTAL TOILETS - RENTAL IN TOILETS THE IN THE BACK BACK - WASHING -SPACES WASHING SPACES RENTAL HOUSING RENTAL HOUSING

C-1 GROUND FLOOR: - DINING ROOM - BEDROOMS - MORE UTILITY SPACES - TOILETS AND BATHROOM RENTALS 1ST FLOOR - RENTAL ROOMS

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TYPOLOGY KAMPUNG HOUSING // RESEARCH INTO MOST USED TYPOLOGIES Both from research in Indonesia, as from articles like that of Shuji Funo: ‘Considerations on Typology of Kampung House (red..)’ and ‘Typology of the Kampung house and its transformations (red..) ‘ a composition of existing typologies of the Indonesian Kampung was drafted: - Type A - Apartment blocks with one room, no kitchen or private bathroom. Service areas are shared. - Type B - Apartment blocks with private service blocks - Type C - Privately owned housing with only one room and kitchen, service areas like toilets and washing spaces are communal in the kampung - Type D - Privately owned housing with own kitchen and washing areas, often long and narrow. - Type E - Family housing with both wide and long floor plans, bedrooms often situated in the side of the house. Fig A5.

82

Visualisation typology kampung housing Indonesia (own ill.)


EB P TY

D PE Y T C PE Y T

EA P TY

FIELD RESEARCH

E PE Y T

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RESEARCH INCOME SHOP OWNERS // EIGHT SHOP OWNERS INTERVIEWED For the local community a safer way of building is not high on the list of priorities. It is therefore essential to find a different argumentation to convince them of using a different building system. In my system there are two reasons why they should use this system to (re)build their houses. The first being an emotional one: when build up over two stories high, there is more room for the family, children will not have to be sent away to live in a different kampung, as is now often the case. The second reason is an econimical one; when there is more space, more money can be earned with the house by turning the ground floor into a shop, workshop or to use the top floors to rent out rooms. The extension of the house would be paid from the revenues of the economic activities. To calculate how long the repayment period would be it was essential to research how big the revenues from shops were. Fig A6. Fig A7.

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Photo warung shop Kampung Dago Pojok (own ill.) Photo’s shops & shop owners. kampung Cigondewah & Dago Pojok (own Ill.)


85


WATER SHOP

GROCERY SHOP

BIRDS SHOP

GROCERY SHOP

// // //

Kampung Dago Pojok Ibu Dian (32 y/o) Family owns water shop Sels water bottles / gasstoves Gasstove service Does not live next to the shop Monthly income from shop IDR 3.000.000

// // //

Kampung Cigondewah Ibu Ai (54 y/o) She is a widow who inherited the shop from her husband. She supports 6 children + grandchildren with the shop and also rents out rooms Monthly income from shop IDR 1.500.000

// // //

Kampung Dago Pojok Pak Pakedi (35 y/o) House was abandoned, his family fixed it up and has been selling birds there ever since. The family is eight people, two brothers and their family. Monthly income from shop IDR 700.000

// // //

Kampung Cigondewah Ibu Tia (32 y/o) Family owns grocery store Lives behind the shop with her husband and two children. Monthly income from shop IDR 1.500.000

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ANIMAL STORE

// Kampung Cigondewah // Pak Ayep (32 y/o) Rents the shop and does not live there. Has been renting it for 2 years, is supporting his family of four. // Monthly income from shop IDR 2.000.000

GROCERY SHOP

GROCERIES SHOP

MATERIALS SHOP

// // //

Kampung Dago Pojok Ibu Masran (42 y/o) Owns the house, lives with her family in the back, one husband, wife and four children. House was bought for 40.000.000 Monthly income from shop IDR 2.000.000

// // //

Kampung Cigondewah Pak Sanjaya (38 y/o) Family owns grocery store He has a side business of renting out cars (revenue 1.000.000 p/m) Monthly income from shop IDR 2 / 3.000.000

// // //

Kampung Dago Pojok Pak Nagreh (32 y/o) Family owns materials store Monthly income from shop IDR 4.000.000

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Fig. A14 PHASE I // 1ST FLOOR ‘THE RESIDENTIAL’ I.1 I.2 I.3 I.4 I.5

ELABORATION HOUSE B // EXPLODED VIEW HOUSE DURING PHASES In the visuals on the right the economic revenues gained by applying the researched building system are combined with a spatial organisation. As seen in Fig. A16, the first year gaines no extra revenues, the house is simply torn down and replaced by a similar size building, which will serve as foundation for the upper floor to be build upon. In the second year more space is made by adding an extra floor, so a shop can be realised on the ground floor. Revenues made by this shope can be put aside to save up for one extra floor, or if required, two extra floors. If in total four floors are realised, the total term of repayment will be 10 years. This is taking into account only the revenues earned by the shop and rented spaces in the house. The house will therefore in a sense ‘pay for itself’.

88

Outside living space Guest room + Living room Bedroom no. 1 (4 m2) Bedroom no.2 (4 m2) Service area (kitchen + bathroom)

Fig. A15 PHASE II // 2nd FLOOR - ‘THE SHOP’ II.1 II.2 II.3 II.4 II.5 II.6 II.7 II.8

Semi public/private space Porch for shop Food shop: revenues IDR 2.000.000 p/m Living room/guest area + stairs Service area (kitchen + bathroom) Private open space - laundry room Bedroom no. 1 (12 m2) Bedroom no. 2 (7m2)

Fig A16. PHASE III // ‘THE RENTAL’ III.1 III.2 III.3 III.4 III.5

3rd FLOOR -

Private entrance rental rooms Kitchen area rental rooms Rental room no. 1 (7 m2) Rental room no. 2 (7 m2) Rental room no. 3 (9 m2) Revenues: 1.750.000 p/m


HOUSE B - FASE II

III.

5

4 III.

HOUSE B - FASE I III.

1 III.

3

2 III.

II. 8

II. 7

II. 6

II. 5

II. 4

II. 3 II. 2 II. 1

Fig A14.

Fig A15.

Fig A16.

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TRA-DIGITAL HUB BANDUNG

CN HU C B

CATALOGUE EXTERNAL ELEMENTS // INTEGRATION EXTERNAL ELEMENTS TO BUILDING SYSTEM In this research a building system for purely the frame of the building was researched. The reasoning here was when there is a very sound frame, the construction imidiately becomes more safe. There are however of course other building elements that make up a house. Facades, roofs, floors and stairs are not always easy to construct. While this is not completely part of the scope of this research, I made a catalogue of possible elements that could be sold within the CNC hub. As seen in Fig. A8 there is one hub in the city of Bandung where the system is rented out. The building system could be made in such a way it would fit perfectly with current roofing systems, facade materials and floor widths. Stairs could also be poored in CNC milled moulds and both windows and doors could be made by CNC milling. Fig A8. How does it work? (own ill.) Fig A9. External elements building system (own ill.) Fig A10. Create your own house recepy (own Ill.)

90

RETURN

Fig A8.


RENT CNC BEAM: 400.000 IDR (€ 28,-)

FORMWORK SYSTEM

6.000

RENT CNC COLUMN: 300.000 IDR (€ 21,-) RENT SCAFFOLDING 15.000 IDR (€ 1,-) PER MONTH/PIECE REINFORCEMENT BUY PER M1: 30.000 IDR (€ 1,75)

BAMBOO REINFORCEMENT

3.000

GIVE IN PLOT SIZE

CALCULATE CONSTRUCTION

DESIGN ROOFS

BASE CONCRETE FRAME

CREATE YOUR OWN HOUSE

WOODEN ROOF SYSTEM IDR 225.000 (€15,75)/M2

DO IT YOURSELF IDR ? (€ ?)/M2

USE THE HUB FOR DETAILING CONNECTIONS, ALSO FOR STEEL U-SHOES FOR THE WOODEN FLOORS CHICKEN WIRE IDR 27.000 (€2)/M2

STEEL SHEETS (2.10x0.80) IDR 55.000 (€3,85)/SHEET

WOODEN FLOOR, KAMPER BANJAH WOOD IDR 6.500.000 (€ 455)/M3

DO IT YOURSELF IDR ? (€ ?)/M2 FORMWORK CONCRETE FOR RENT, WOODEN STAIRS FOR SALE IN THE HUB.

PICK STAIRS

FIND FLOORS

LIGHT STEEL IDR 150.000 (€10,5)/M2

CONCRETE FORMWORK IDR 250.000 (€17,5)/M2

WOODEN STAIRS IDR 350.000 (€24,5)/M2

DO IT YOURSELF IDR ? (€ ?)/M2 USE THE HUB FOR DETAILING, POSSIBLY FORMWORK FOR CREATIVE BRICKS

CHOOSE FACADES DOORS & WINDOWS Fig A9.

BUY PER ROOF AND CHOOSE IF YOU WANT TO REUSE FOR EACH PHASE (ONLY THE WOOD + LIGHT STEEL)

WINDOWS & DOORS

USE THE HUB FOR CNC MILLING OF DOORS/WINDOWS OR CONNECT WITH SECOND HAND STORES

Fig A10.

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LOCATION VA A J UN ND BA

G

LOCATION/ARCHITECTURAL INTEGRATION LOCATION // RESEARCH INTO MOST USED TYPOLOGIES Y CIT

The integration of the building system in the local architecture could be done in any place in Bandung. Since the kampung Cigondewah was already chosen by the group of students researching Bandung this was also my chosen location. Within Cigondewah a location was chosen next to the municipal road. Here, five houses were chosen, at random, to G UN analyse. In theANDhousing matrix is shown how much the houses change B over time. Each phase of the incremental way of building is shown in the matrix, also the building costs, revenues made by in-house shops and rented rooms, and the calculated repayment period.

RE NT CE

VA A J

ON CIG

E T I S Fig A11. Chosen location: Java - Bandung - Cigondewah (own ill.) Fig A12. Chosen site - Chosen site transformed by building system (own ill.) Fig A13. Housing matrix (own ill.)

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Fig A11.

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: + 200

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+3 CO 00 % ST M CO ORE NS TR SPAC UC RE TIO E (12 3 RD VENU 6 M2 N S E IDR (168 ) 4 TH TOR S R M2 STO Y (3 EN 336 M 2)≈ T/M RY 0 M (€ M 2 TOT O (30 23.5 AL M 2) ) ≈ 1.0 NTH: 00) 50.0 ≈1 ≈2 .05 .1 0.0 00 IR ≈ 2 00.0 TOT 00 D 5.2 0 AL IRD (€7 00.0 0 (€1 TER (€7 4) 47) 0 M 0 4) +2 RE (€1 / PAY .76 MON CO 00 % ME 4) / T ST M NT YEA H CO ORE ≈1 NS R 5Y TR SPAC EA UC RE E RS TIO (27 VEN M2 N UE IDR (40,5 ) S M2 ≈ 1 GRO 81 .5 C M (€ )≈ ≈ 3 00.0 ERY TOT 5 6 0 S .6 .00 0 AL 70) 0.0 (€10 HOP: TER 00 MR (€1 5) / M EPA O .26 3 RD YM 0) / NTH EN RE + 4 TF Y E T NT S AR ≈6 ING TORY YEA +3 SPA : RS CO 00 % CE ST M // 6 CO ORE 4 M2 NS S TR PAC UC RE TIO E (96 3 RD VENU M2 N IDR (128 ) SH + 4 TH ES / OP (45 MO 256 M 2)≈ M 2) NTH M (€ TOT ≈1 : 17.9 AL ≈ 1 .570.0 20) .50 ≈3 0.0 00 IRD .0 00 ≈ 3 70.0 TOT IDR (€11 6.8 00 AL 40.0 (€2 TER (€1 0) 1 00 05) MR (€2 5) / M EPA +2 O .57 YM 9) / NTH EN CO 00 % YEA T≈ ST M R 10 CO ORE YEA NS S TR PAC RS UC RE TIO E (44 VEN M2 N UE IDR (66 M 2 ) S ≈ 1 PET 132 )≈ .80 S M (€ TO ≈2 0 TOT 1.6 .000 RE: 9.2 AL 00.0 (€1 40) TER 2 00 MR (€1 6) / M EPA ON .51 YM 2 T )/Y H EN EA T≈ R 6Y EA RS

2 FAM +3 RD S ILY TOR SPA Y: CE // 2 7 ND

3RD

98

3 RD RE STOR NT ING Y: SPA CE

REV E REP NUES AYM VS EN TS

SP AC E

CO

1 M2

RE

M2

GR PE OUN TS DF TO RE LOOR // 2 : 2 M2

PH ASE

// 8

4 M2

3 RD RE STOR NT ING Y: SPA CE

2ND

Fig A13.

3 RD RE STOR NT ING Y: SPA CE

M2

GR GR OUND FAM OCER FLO ILY Y ST OR: SPA OR CE E // // 5 13 M 2 1 M2

GR FA OUN MIL D Y S FLO O PA CE R: // 2 2 M2

ST

2 M2

1 ST FAM +2 ND S ILY TOR SPA Y: CE // 8

GR FAM OUND ILY F SPA LOOR : CE // 3 2 M2

HO PL USE 5,9 OT S 1 FA 1 S X 4,3 IZE 2 MILY 5,6 TO RE M M2 YH IGH

OR IGIN

1 ST FAM +2 ND S ILY TOR SPA Y: CE // 1 6

HO PL USE 6,2 OT S 1 FA 1 S X 2,6 IZE 1 MILIE 6,5 TO S RE M M2 YH IGH

US

ED T OR

GR FAM OUND ILY F SPA LOOR : CE // 8 1 M2

G

CO

NS


OR

GR FAM OUND ILY F SPA LOOR : CE // 8 1 M2

G

N U

HO PL USE 10, OT S 1 FA 1 S 6 X 4 IZE 4 MILY 8,6 TO RE M M2 YH IGH

1 ST FAM +2 ND S ILY TOR SPA Y: CE // 1

62

GR FAM OUND ILY F SPA LOOR : CE // 4 2

HO PL USE 6,2 OT S 1 FA 1 S X 2,6 IZE 1 MILIE 6,5 TO S RE M M2 YH IGH

GR FAM OUND ILY F SPA LOOR : CE // 1 3,5

HO US OT E 1 F SI AM 3,2 ZE 31 ILY ,8 M RE M 2 YH IGH

T

M ,6 M S 2 SH IGH

EY

GR FAM OUND ILY F SPA LOOR : CE // 3 2

GR FA OUN MI LY D FL SP OO AC R E/ : /2 2

3 RD RE STOR NT ING Y: SPA CE

M2 1 ST FAM +2 ND S ILY TOR SPA Y: CE // 8 4

M2 GR GR OUND OC ER FLO O YS TOR R: E/ /1

3,5

M2

3 RD RE STOR NT ING Y: SPA CE

M2 GR PE OUN TS DF TO RE LOOR // 2 : 2 M2

2

ND

2 ND FA +3 RD MI LY STOR SP AC Y: E/ /4

PH ASE

4 M2

3RD

// 3

2 M2

1 M2

3 RD RE + 4 TF N S // 1 TING TORY 62 : M2 // 4

2 M2 3 RD RE + 4 TF NT S ING TORY SPA : CE //

+3 CO 00 % ST M CO ORE NS M2 TR SP UC RE TI V E 3 RD NU ID 4 TH STOR ES R M2 STO Y ( E RY 30 M 2NT/M TOT O (30 AL M 2) ) ≈ 1.0 NTH 5 ≈1 ≈2 . 050 0.00 . .00 ≈ 2 100.0 TOT 0 5.2 0 AL 00. 0 (€1 TER 000 47) M +2 R ( / € E M 1.7 PAY CO 00 % 64) ON ME ST M / YE NT CO ORE ≈ A NS 15 TR SPAC YEA UC RE RS TIO E (27 VEN M2 N UE IDR (40,5 ) S M2 ≈ 1 GRO 8 1 . C M ( )≈ ≈ 3 500.0 ERY €5 TOT 6.0 00 S .67 AL H 00. ( 0) TER 000 €105 OP: MR )/M ( € EPA 1.2 O 3 RD N 60) YM EN / YE TH RE + 4 TF T≈ NT S AR 6 ING TORY Y +3 EA SPA : 00 RS C CE OS % M // 6 TC 4 M2 ON ORE S STR PA UC CE RE TIO (96 3 RD VENU M2 N + E T 4 IDR (128 ) H S/ SH M OP M2 (45 2 O 5 6 M 2) NTH M ( )≈ TOT ≈1 €1 : . 7.9 AL 5 ≈ 1 70.0 20) .50 0 ≈3 0 0.0 I .07 R D( 00 ≈3 TOT 0.0 € IDR 6.8 0 1 AL 40. 0 (€2 TER (€1 10) 000 15) 05) MR ( / € E 2.5 MON PAY +2 79) ME CO 00 % / YE TH NT ST M ≈ A

2 ND FAM +3 RD S ILY TOR SPA Y: CE // 2 7

M2

// 8

M2

3 RD RE STOR NT ING Y: SPA CE

GR GR OUND FAM OCER FLO ILY Y ST OR: SPA OR CE E // // 5 13 M 2 1 M2

PH ASE

M2

84

99


ILY

F SPA LOOR : CE // 8 1 M2 1 ST FAM +2 ND S ILY TOR SPA Y: CE // 1

62

M2

3 RD RE STOR NT ING Y: SPA CE 1 ST FAM +2 ND S ILY TOR SPA Y: CE // 8 4

1 M2

M2

3 RD RE STOR NT ING Y: SPA CE

DF

LO STO OR: RE // 1 3

2 ND FAM +3 RD S ILY TOR SPA Y: CE // 2 7

3 RD RE + 4 TF N S // 1 TING TORY 62 : M2 // 4

M2

RE 3 RD V 4 TH ST STO R TOT AL ≈4 ≈4 TOT 8 AL TER MR EPA

2 M2 3 RD RE + 4 TF NT S ING TORY SPA : CE

,5 M 2

3 RD RE STOR 100 NT ING Y: SPA C

// 8

+3 CO 00 % ST M // 8 CO ORE 4 M2 NS TR SPAC UC RE TIO E (12 3 RD VENU 6 M2 N IDR (168 ) 4 TH STOR ES R STO Y ( EN 336 M 2)≈ 3 T/ RY 0 M( TOT €2 (30 M 2) ≈ MON T 3.5 AL M 2) H: 1.0 00) 5 ≈ 0 ≈2 1 . 000 .05 .10 0.0 ≈2 TOT 0 00 IRD ( 5.2 .000 AL IRD €7 00. (€1 TER 000 (€7 4) 47) M 4) +2 R ( / € EPA 1.7 MON CO 00 % Y 6 M 4 T ST )/Y H M EN CO ORE T≈ EA NS R 1 S 5Y TR PAC E UC A RE E R S TIO (27 VEN M2 N( UE ) 4 ID S 0,


YS

R PAC Y: E // 27

M2

REV EN REP UES A VS 3 Y M S T RE EN NT ORY: ING TS SPA CE

TOT AL

RD

CO

SP AC E ST

CO

: + 2

NS

00

TR

%M

VEN

OR

ES

UC P/A/ C3 TIO VEN E2(1 N( UE M 62 2 3 TO S 2 M2 I 4 D RE RY M R 2 ) 648 )≈ RY (55 M 2NT/M M O (59 (€ 45. M 2) ) ≈ 1.9 NTH: 000 25. ≈2 ) 0 .06 4.0 5.0 00 IR 00. 00 D 8.0 000 IRD (€1 00. 000 (€280 (€1 35) 45) (€3 ) / M .36 ON AYM 0 T )/Y H EN T≈ EA R 15 YEA RS

M2

RE

+2 CO 00 % ST M CO O NS T

3 RD RE + 4 TF NT S ING TORY SPA : CE //

UE S ≈ 1 GRO . C ≈ 3 500.0 E TOT 6.0 0 AL 00. 0 ( TER 000 MR ( EPA YM EN T≈

+3 CO 00 % ST M CO ORE 64 NS M2 TR SPAC UC RE E (9 T V I E O R 3 D NU N ( 6M 2) + E T 4 H IDR 128 S SH OP (45 /MO 256 M 2)≈ M 2) NTH M( TOT ≈1 €1 : . 7.9 AL 5 7 ≈1 0 20) . 0 .50 0 ≈3 0 0.0 . 00 IRD (€ ≈ 3 070.0 TOT IDR 6.8 0 110 AL 40. 0 (€2 TER ( ) € 0 1 15) 00 0 MR 5 ) (€2 / EPA +2 .57 MON Y ME 9) / TH CO 00 % N Y T E ST M ≈1 AR CO ORE 0 Y NS EA TR SPAC RS UC 101 RE E ( TIO VEN 44 M2 N( UE ) 6


102


B. RESEARCH INCREMENTAL BUILDING SYSTEM + + +

INTERVIEWS CONSTRUCTION TEAMS KAMPUNG COST CALCULATION SYSTEM FORMWORK DESIGN SYSTEM FORMWORK - How does it work - CNC milled elements - Cost calculation matrix

103


INTERVIEWS CONSTRUCTION TEAMS

// // //

Pak Nana (45 y/o) Construction site Project

Leader construction (foreman) Kampung Dago Pojok Student housing (4 floors with atrium)

#

PROFESSIONAL CONSTRUCTION SITE

// PROFESSIONAL / SEMI-PROFESSIONAL / INFORMAL For the second research trip to Indonesia the goal was to visit as much construction sites as possible to asses not only local building knowledge, but also research specific questions like: how to transport material in the kampung, what is the structure of a building team, what are the price of building cost per m2, are there any kind of roof systems in the kampung, prices of building material and so forth. Many of these questions were answered in interviews with construction leaders like Pak Nana, but also by interviewing Pak Apep, the foremen of local architect Ramalis Sobandi. With him I discussed specifically my building system and incorporated his tips and worries into my final design.

104


105


- DINING ROOM - BEDROOMS - MORE UTILITY SPACES 1ST FLOOR - RENTAL ROOMS - RENTAL TOILETS

B-3

// // //

Pak Iwan (32 y/o) Construction site Project

- RENTAL ROOMS UPSTAIRS, SEPERATE STAIRCASE VIA OUTSIDE - EXTRA FAMILY BEDROOMS UPSTAIRS

Carpenter (one of three) Kampung Dago Pojok Extension house (2 floors)

# SEMI - PROFESSIONAL CONSTRUCTION SITE

C-3 C-1 GROUND FLOOR: - DINING ROOM - BEDROOMS - MORE UTILITY SPACES - TOILETS AND BATHROOM RENTALS 1ST FLOOR - RENTAL ROOMS

106


107


// PakFAMILY Thito (18 y/o) Son of owner 1: EXPANSION // Construction site Kampung Dago Pojok // Project Extention house

#

A-1 INFORMAL CONSTRUCTION SITE

108

- BACK GARDEN OR TERRACE TRANS FORMED INTO KITCHEN - ADDITION OF WASHING ROOM - ADDITION OF TOILETS / SHOWER - EXPANSION OF THE HOUSE WITH EXTRA BEDROOMS INSIDE AND UTILITY SPACES PLACED FURTHER IN THE BACK

2: BUSINESS VENTURES A-2

FRONT EXPANSION: - WARUNG/TOKO/WARTEL - HAIRDRESSER - WORKSHOP - GARAGE - STORAGE SPACE BACK EXPANSION - RENTAL TOILETS - RENTAL ROOMS


109


- DINING ROOM - BEDROOMS - MORE UTILITY SPACES 1ST FLOOR - RENTAL ROOMS - RENTAL TOILETS

B-3

// // //

Pak Isun (56 y/o) Construction site Project

- RENTAL ROOMS UPSTAIRS, SEPERATE STAIRCASE VIA OUTSIDE - EXTRA FAMILY BEDROOMS UPSTAIRS

Construction worker (one of 3) Cigondewah Build new house behind existing house

# SEMI-PROFESSIONAL CONSTRUCTION SITE

C-3 C-1 GROUND FLOOR: - DINING ROOM - BEDROOMS - MORE UTILITY SPACES - TOILETS AND BATHROOM RENTALS 1ST FLOOR - RENTAL ROOMS

110


111


2: BUSINESS VENTURES A-2

FRONT EXPANSION: - WARUNG/TOKO/WARTEL - HAIRDRESSER - WORKSHOP - GARAGE - STORAGE SPACE BACK EXPANSION - RENTAL TOILETS - RENTAL ROOMS // // //

Pak Mamat (45 y/o) Construction site Project

#

B-2 INFORMAL CONSTRUCTION SITE

Brother of owner (bank clerk) Kampung Cigondewah Extention house to two floors

- RENTAL ROOMS UPSTAIRS - PLACEMENT OF BEDROOMS UPSTAIRS AND NEW SHOP STORE DOWNSTAIRS

112 C-2


113


2: BUSINESS VENTURES A-2

FRONT EXPANSION: - WARUNG/TOKO/WARTEL - HAIRDRESSER - WORKSHOP - GARAGE - STORAGE SPACE BACK EXPANSION - RENTAL TOILETS - RENTAL ROOMS // // //

Pak Omar (43 y/o) Construction site Project

Construction leader (foreman) Kampung Braga Extention house to two floors

B-2 # SEMI-PROFESSIONAL CONSTRUCTION SITE

- RENTAL ROOMS UPSTAIRS - PLACEMENT OF BEDROOMS UPSTAIRS AND NEW SHOP STORE DOWNSTAIRS

114 C-2


115


COST CALCULATION SYSTEM FORMWORK

The cost calculation for the formwork consists of the sum of the following factors: - Material cost formwork - Maintenence cost CNC mill - Costs milling (electricity + labour) - Rent CNC hub - Labour workers CNC hub Because certain factors are unsure I had to make a rough estimation for some of these factors and make some assumptions for the other. For the startup of the CNC hub I assume some government help is given by funding the labour costs, maintenence of the CNC mill and overhead costs of the CNC hub. This leaves the costs for the material to be paid in terms by renting out the CNC milled formwork to possible house owners. Current building practice in Indonesia is to use Albasia wood, also known as Kaso. This wood is the cheapest option in Indonesia, after use

116

it is sold to garbage companies to be burned. Slightly better wood: Dolken is used for crossbracing the scaffolding of the formwork. When in good condition this wood is sold to furniture makers, or when in bad conditions it is sold together with the Albasia to be burned. A quick comparison of the three materials available for milling the system-formwork shows that cocosboard (by Goodhout) is the best option. Not only is it very sustainable; it uses local cocos husk waste material to press high quality board material, but it can also compete price-wise. Betonplex is very strong and has a surface suited for multiple usage but can not compete pricewise. Moso Bamboo boards is a very sustainable material, but has a rather poreus surface and is therefore less suited for multiple usage, unless it is coated thoroughly.


MATERIALS FORMWORK INDONESIA

//

//

//

//

ALBASIA / KASO Local Indonesian formwork Unknown Kn/m2 € 210,- per m3 15.000 IDR/m2 (5 mm board) Reusability = 1 times, burned after

COCONUT HUSK BOARD (CHB) +/- 5.000 Kn/m2 € 10,- per plaat (1.2 x 2.4 x 0.05 m) 50.000 IDR/M2 Boards of 1.20 x 2.40 m Reusability = 5 times

BETONPLEX +/- 4.500 Kn/m2 € 39,- per plaat (1.2 x 2.4 x 0.18 m) 190.000 IDR/m2 Boards of 1.20 x 2.40 m Reusability = 3-5 times

MOSO BAMBOO unknown Kn/m2 € 39,- per plaat (1.2 x 2.4 x 0.18 m) 190.000 IDR/m2 Boards of 1.20 x 2.40 m Reusability = 3-5 times

CALCULATION MATERIAL FORMWORK - COCONUT HUSK BOARD (CHB)

FORMWORK COLUMN 3,8 m2 needed + 5% lost material = 4 m2 material needed 4 m2 x 50.000 = 200.000 IDR/colom The column can be reused five times so the cost per column per time rented is: 200.000 / 5 = 40.000 IDR Material for a similar sized column using Albasia wood is 60.000 IDR.

FORMWORK BEAM (3 M GRID) 5 m2 needed + 5% lost material = 5,3 m2 material needed 5.3 m2 x 50.000 = 265.000 IDR/beam The 3 m beam can be reused five times so the cost per beam per time rented is: 265.000 / 5 = 53.000 IDR Material for a similar sized beam using Albasia wood is 80.000 IDR.

117


B RIA VA

35

A

DESIGN SYSTEM FORMWORK

Fig B1.

The formwork system was designed in a way that it could provide for most orthogonal floorplan shapes of the kampung. While the columns were always 2.5 m, the length of the beams varies from 2.5 until 4.5. When a longer beam is needed, for example 5 meters long, an extra column is placed in between and two shorter beams are combined. As seen in Fig. B2 the columns determine what kind of corner is poored in concrete, L, T and + shaped corners could provide for all connections neccary. On the next page is shown not only the exploded view of the CNC milled beams and columns, but also the recepy for the milled elements to send to the CNC mill. Everything in grey is neccesary for the milled element, everything in white can be considered extra stock. Fig B1. Fig B2 Fig B3.

118

Variable length beams formwork system (own ill.) Variable shapes columns formwork system, dependend on corner shape (own ill.) Shape formwork system, 3 x3 x 2.5 measured (own ill.)

Fig B2.

S1 AY LW

M 0M

B RIA VA

: LE

2

,5 M

! LE ,5 M

-4


STANDARD 2500

E BL A I R VA VA RIA BL E VA

LE B A RI

Fig B3.

119


BUILDING TECHNOLOGY CNC MILLING

Fig B4. Fig B5. Fig B6. Fig B7. Fig B8. Fig B9.

Exploded view assembly column formwork system (own ill.) Exploded view assembly corner formwork system (own ill.) Exploded view assembly beam formwork system (own ill.) CNC recepy column formwork system (own ill.) CNC recepy beam formwork system (own ill.) Housing matrix construction + costs calculations (own ill.)

Fig B5.

Fig B4.

120 CNC MILLING RECEPY L COLUMN-

REQUIRED

# 44

CNC MILLING RECEPY 3-M BEAM

REQUIRED

# 34


CNC MILLING RECEPY L COLUMNSCALE 1:10

Fig B7.

REQUIRED EXTRA STOCK

# 44

CNC MILLING RECEPY 3-M BEAM SCALE 1:10

Fig B8.

REQUIRED EXTRA STOCK

# 34

121


EM

NG I ILD

N

CO

IO T C U TR S N

BU

S

T YS

CO

ST

RE

NT IN

G

└ T -C C 4 OST - C OR 3 M B ≈ OR NE N R 1 M E 3. CO ,5 M BE AM 000 ER = 4 ST B AM = .00 = 6 x 0I RE ≈ EA = DR x 5 TO N .20 M TA T P 5 (€ 0.0 = L 21 00 6 x └ RE ER 0) ID 2 x T NT PH -C R x C (€ CO AS E: 3 OST - C OR 3 S 64 TS € 2, M B ≈ OR NE ) : € 57 CO 6 M E 1.8 NE R ST B AM 00. R = 4 2.6 4 R ≈ EA = 00 = 2 x 60 2.8 M 0I TO EN x DR 00 = TA T P .00 L 4 (€ RE ER 0I x 12 └ DR 3 x NT PH 6) T A -C (€ CO S C 19 ST E: € 4 OST - C OR 6) S: 3 M B ≈ OR NE 3 € 22 N R 3 M E 3. 1.1 CO ,2 M BE AM 000 ER = 4 62 ST B AM = .00 = 6 x 0I RE ≈ EA = x D 4 TO N M . R 0 00 = TA T P 2 (€ .00 L 21 └ 4 x RE ER 0I 0) T DR 4 x x NT PH -C CO A (€ CO S 3 ST - C OR E 28 ST : € 4, M B ≈ OR NE 0 S: ) CO 3 M E 1.8 NE R € 490 ST B AM 00. R = 4 2.2 R ≈ EA = 00 = 2 x 40 2.8 M 0I TO EN x D 00 = TA T P R .00 L 4 (€ RE ER 0I x 12 DR 3 x NT PH 6) A (€ CO S 19 ST E: € 6 S: ) 3 € 22 1.1 62

Fig B9.

122

BU IL DI NG

SY

T + - C COR C 4 OST - C OR NE M O N R 3 ≈ 1 M BE 3. RN ER = CO ,5 M BE AM 900 ER = 6 4 x ST B AM = .00 0I =3 x RE ≈ EA = DR x 8.8 M TO N 00 = TA T P 9 (€ .00 L E 27 10 x RE R 0I 3) DR 3 x NT PH (€ x CO AS 61 ST E: € 6) S: € 889 4.1 71

ST EM


IN

TO

T

-C CO 4 S C OR 3 M B T≈ OR NE N R 1 M E 3. CO ,5 M BE AM 000 ER = 4 . A ST B M = 00 = 6 x 0I RE ≈ EA = DR x 5.2 M TO N 00 = TA T P ( 5 .00 x €2 L 6 └ 10 RE ER 0I x PH ) T 2 D N -C R x TC A CO ( € OS SE 3 S - C OR 36 TS : € 2, M B T≈ OR NE 4) : € 57 CO 6 M E 1.8 NE R ST B AM 00. R = 4 2.6 4 RE ≈ EA = 00 = 2 x 60 2.8 M 0I TO N DR x 00 = TA T P .00 L 4 (€ RE ER 0I x 12 └ 3 P DR x 123 NT H 6) T A ( CO S € C CO 19 ST E: € 4 S - C OR


124


C. MODEL MAKING + 1:1 + 1:7 + 1:50 + 1:100

125


C1. 1:50 // Travel model

126

C2. 1:7 // Building system 1.0


C3. 1:7 // Building system 2.0

C4. 1:7 // Building system - poored result

C5. 1:100 // Location model kampung Cigondewah

C6. 1:1 // Building system - corner detail out of betonplex

127


C7. 1:7 // Building system 2.0

128


129


C8. 1:7 // Concrete pooring - Building system 2.0

130


C9. 1:7 // Concrete pooring result - Building system 2.0

131


C10. 1:1 // Building system 2.0 - Corner detailing

132


133


134

C11. 1:7 // Exploration Batik patterns CNC Milling formwork


C12. 1:100 // Kampung model - Architectural exploration incremental growth // Clockwise from left above: 1 storey-2 storeys-3 storeys-overvieuw-4 storeys hight

135


136


137


NADIA REMMERSWAAL // 4115996 STUDIO ARCHITECTURAL ENGINEERING TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY DELFT 138

Profile for Nadia Remmerswaal

TRA-DIGITAL HYBRIDS  

Technical and Architectural research paper graduation project Tra-Digital Hybrids

TRA-DIGITAL HYBRIDS  

Technical and Architectural research paper graduation project Tra-Digital Hybrids