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‫ﺑﻪ ﻧﺎﻡ ﺁﻥ ﻛﻪ ﺟﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﻓﻜﺮﺕ ﺁﻣﻮﺧﺖ‬

‫ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ﺳﻰ ﻭ ﻧﻬﻢ ‪90 -‬‬

‫ﻧﺸﺮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ﻣﻰﺧﻮﺍﻧﻴﺪ‪:‬‬

‫ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﺑﻴﻦﺍﻟﻤﻠﻠﻰ‪:‬‬ ‫‪1684-4270‬‬

‫ﻛﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪﺍﺻﻠﻰ)ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ‪(1‬ﻭﻭﺍﺣﺪﻓﺮﻭﺵ‪:‬ﻛﺮﺝ‪،‬ﻧﺴﻴﻢﺷﻬﺮ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺳﻪﺭﺍﻩ ﺁﺩﺭﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺷﻬﺮﻳﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﻯ ﺧﻴﺎﺑﺎﻥ ﺳﻌﺪﻯ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩﻫﺎﻯ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻓﺮﻭﺵ )ﻛﺪ ‪:(021‬‬ ‫‪ 88802677-8‬ﻭ ‪ 88739880-2‬ﻭ ‪88504770-4‬‬ ‫ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩﻫﺎﻯ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻓﺮﻭﺵ )ﻛﺪ ‪:(0229‬‬ ‫‪ 4586036 -4585899‬ﻭ ‪ 4584983-7‬ﻭ ‪4584996-7‬‬ ‫ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩﻫﺎﻯ ﻓﺎﻛﺲ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻓﺮﻭﺵ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ 0229-4585079‬ﻭ ‪021-88766794‬‬ ‫ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩﻫﺎﻯ ﻛﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪ )ﻛﺪ ‪:(0229‬‬ ‫‪ 4585657-8‬ﻭ ‪ 4584998‬ﻭ ‪4584717‬‬ ‫ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ﻓﺎﻛﺲ ﻛﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪ )ﻛﺪ ‪:(0229‬‬ ‫‪4584198‬‬ ‫ﭘﺴﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﻜﻰ ﺑﺎﺯﺭﮔﺎﻧﻰ‪:‬‬ ‫‪info@arvandcorp.com‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻓﺮﻭﺵ‪:‬‬ ‫‪sales@arvandcorp.com‬‬

‫ﻧﺸﺎﻧﻰ ﺍﻳﻨﺘﺮﻧﺖ‪:‬‬ ‫‪w w w. a r v a n d c o r p . c o m‬‬

‫ﺗﺎﺯﻩﻫﺎﻯ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ‪2 ...................................................................................................‬‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻻﻳﻨﺪﻩﻫﺎﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳﻜﻰ ﻫﻮﺍ‪4 ..............................................................................‬‬ ‫ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﻫﻮﺍﻯ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮ‪9 .............................................................................‬‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﻫﺎﻯﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﻯﺗﺒﺨﻴﺮﻯ‪13 .................................................................‬‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﺑﻂ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‪17 ........................................................................................‬‬ ‫ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﻳﻰ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮژﻯ ﻭ ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻂ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ‪20 ..........................................‬‬ ‫ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻫﻤﻴﺖ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻨﻮﻥ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺍﻧﺮژﻯ ﻭ ﻓﻦﺁﻭﺭﻯﻫﺎﻯ ﻧﻮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎ‪31 ..................................................................................‬‬

‫ﻛﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﺷــﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪ :2‬ﻛﻴﻠﻮﻣﺘﺮ ‪ 26‬ﺍﺗﻮﺑﺎﻥ ﺗﻬﺮﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻗﻢ ‪ -‬ﺷــﻬﺮﻙ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﻌﺘﻰ ﺷﻤﺲﺁﺑﺎﺩ ‪ -‬ﺑﻠﻮﺍﺭ ﮔﻠﺴﺘﺎﻥ ‪ -‬ﮔﻠﺸﻦ ‪ - 10‬ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ‪.10‬‬ ‫ﭘﺴﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﻜﻰ‪:‬‬ ‫‪gac@arvandcorp.com‬‬

‫ﺗﻠﻔﻦﻫﺎﻯ ﺗﻤﺎﺱ ﻭ ﻓﺎﻛﺲ‪:‬‬ ‫‪021-56230345-9‬‬

‫ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻣﺘﻴﺎﺯ‪ :‬ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﺻﻨﺎﻳﻊ ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮ ﻣﺴﻮﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺱ ﻣﻨﻮﭼﻬﺮ ﺷﺠﺎﻋﻰ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﺩﺑﻴﺮ‪ :‬ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺱ ﺣﺴﻦ ﺑﻬﺮﺍﻣﻰ‬

‫ﻋﻼﻗﻪﻣﻨﺪﺍﻥ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺩﺭﻳﺎﻓﺖ ﺭﺍﻳﮕﺎﻥ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﺸﺮﻳﻪ ﻭ ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪ ﺑﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺭﻭﺍﺑﻂﻋﻤﻮﻣﻰ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﺻﻨﺎﻳﻊ ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﭘﺴﺘﻰ ‪ 37685 - 113‬ﺍﻗﺪﺍﻡ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﻭ ﺗﺼﺎﻭﻳﺮ ﻧﺸﺮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻣﻨﺒﻊ ﺑﻼﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﻪﻣﻨــﺪﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺭﺝ ﻣﻄﻠﺐ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﺸــﺮﻳﻪ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎﻧﻰ ﻧﺸﺮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ ﺩﺭ ﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﻳﺎ ﺍﺻﻼﺡ ﻭ ﻭﻳﺮﺍﻳﺶ ﻣﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺁﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻟﻰ ﻋﻮﺩﺕ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻧﺨﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪ARVAND Internal Magazine‬‬ ‫‪Managing Director: M. Shojaei‬‬ ‫‪Editor in chief: H. Bahrami‬‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 2‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪39‬‬

‫ﺗﺎﺯﻩﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ‬

‫ﺷﮑﺴـﺖ ﺍﺗﺼـﺎﻝ ﻟﻮﻟـﻪ ﺗﺒﺮﯾﺪ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻔﺠﺎﺭ ﯾﮏ ﺳﻮﭘﺮ ﻣﺎﺭﮐﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﮑﺴﺖ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﯾﮏ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﺒﺮﯾﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺩﯼﺍﮐﺴﯿﺪﮐﺮﺑﻦ ﺗﺤﺖ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﮐﺎﻫـﺶ ﻫﺰﯾﻨـﻪ ﺳﯿﺴـﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺭﺷﯿﺪﯼ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻭﻟﺘﺎﯾﯿﮏ‬

‫ﺧﺎﻃﺮ ﻧﻘﺾ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ‪ 57‬ﻣﺎﺩﻩ ﺳﻤﯽ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﮔﺰﺍﺭﺵ ﻣﺤﻘﻘﺎﻥ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﯾﺸــﮕﺎﻩ ﻣﻠﯽ‬

‫ﺧﺒﺮ ﺩﺍﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﯾﻦ ﺷــﺮﮐﺖ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺁﻏﺎﺯﯾﻦ‬

‫‪ ،Lawrence Berkeley‬ﻣﯿﺎﻧﮕﯿﻦ ﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪ‬

‫ﺗﺤﻘﯿﻘــﺎﺕ ﺧــﻮﺩ‪ EPA ،‬ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﺧﻄﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ‬

‫ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺧﻮﺭﺷــﯿﺪﯼ ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻭﻟﺘﺎﯾﯿﮏ‬

‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﻪ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺷﯿﻤﯿﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﯼ‬

‫)‪ (PV‬ﺩﺭ ﺳــﺎﻝ ‪ 2010‬ﺑﺎ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﺷﺪﯾﺪﯼ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﺼﺎﻟــﺢ ﺑﻨﺎﯾــﯽ‪ ،‬ﻣــﻮﺍﺩ ﺩﻓﻊﮐﻨﻨــﺪﻩ‬

‫ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﯾﻦ ﺩﺭ ﺷﺮﺍﯾﻄﯽ ﺍﺳﺖ‬

‫ﺣﺸــﺮﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭﺯﮔﯿﺮ ﻭ ﺭﻧﮓﻫــﺎ ﺁﮔﺎﻩ ﻧﮑﺮﺩﻩ‬

‫ﮐﻪ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺳــﺎﻝ ‪ 2008‬ﺗﺎ ‪2009‬‬

‫ﺑﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺳﻤﯽ ﺷﺮﮐﺖﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ‬

‫ﺗﻐﯿﯿــﺮﯼ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺠﺮﺑﻪ ﻧﮑــﺮﺩﻩ ﺑﻮﺩﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﯾﻦ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﺍﻃﻼﻉﺭﺳﺎﻧﯽ ‪ EPA‬ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺗﺤﻘﯿﻘﺎﺗﯽ‬

‫ﮔﺰﺍﺭﺵ ‪ 78‬ﻫﺰﺍﺭ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ‪ PV‬ﺩﺭ ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ‬

‫ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﻣﻤﮑﻦ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﺳــﻼﻣﺖ ﺑﺸﺮ‬

‫ﺳــﺎﻝﻫﺎﯼ ‪ 1998‬ﺗــﺎ ‪ 2009‬ﺩﺭ ‪ 16‬ﺍﯾﺎﻟﺖ‬

‫ﻭ ﻣﺤﯿﻂ ﺯﯾﺴــﺖ ﺑــﻪ ﺧﻄﺮ ﺍﻓﺘــﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻠﺰﻡ‬

‫ﺁﻣﺮﯾــﮑﺎ ﻣــﻮﺭﺩ ﺑﺮﺭﺳــﯽ ﻗــﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﺷــﺪ ﻣﯿﺎﻧﮕﯿﻦ ﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬

‫ﻧﻤﺎﯾﺸﮕﺎﻩ ‪AHR 2011‬‬

‫ﺫﮐﺮ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺎ ﮐﺎﻫﺸــﯽ ‪ 13‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪﯼ ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﺑــﻮﺩﻩ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﯾﻦ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﯽ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺷــﺪ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﺖ ﺍﺻﻠــﯽ ﺍﻧﻔﺠــﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﺍﺯﺩﻫﻢ‬

‫ﺷــﺶ ﺗﺎ ﺩﻩ ﻣﺎﻩ ﻧﺨﺴﺖ ﺳــﺎﻝ ‪ 2010‬ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺩﺳﺎﻣﺒﺮ ﺳــﻮﭘﺮ ﻣﺎﺭﮐﺖ ﺑﺰﺭﮒ ﺣﻮﻣﻪ ﺷﻬﺮ‬

‫ﺗﺮﺗﯿﺐ ‪ 14‬ﻭ ‪ 16‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺩﯾﮕﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ‬

‫ﻣﻨﭽﺴﺘﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻧﮕﻠﺴــﺘﺎﻥ ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﮐﺎﺳﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﯾﻦ ﺳــﺎﻧﺤﻪ ﻫﺸــﺖ ﻧﻔﺮ ﺩﭼــﺎﺭ ﺻﺪﻣﺎﺗﯽ‬ ‫ﭼﻮﻥ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﮕﯽ ﮔﻮﺵ‪ ،‬ﻣﺸﮑﻼﺕ ﺗﻨﻔﺴﯽ ﻭ‬ ‫‪ ...‬ﺷــﺪﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻫﻤﯿﻦ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺳﺨﻨﮕﻮﯼ‬ ‫ﺷــﺮﮐﺖ ‪ ،Tesco‬ﭼﻬﺎﺭﻣﯿــﻦ ﺷــﺮﮐﺖ‬ ‫ﺧﺮﺩﻩﻓﺮﻭﺷــﯽ ﺑﺰﺭﮒ ﺩﺭ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﯽ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﺖ ﺧﺮﺍﺑﯽ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻮﺳــﻂ ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺼﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻃﻪ ﺧﺒﺮ ﺩﺍﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺮﺩﯼ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺛﺮ ﺳـﻘﻮﻁ ﯾﮏ ﯾﺨﭽﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﮐﺸﺘﻪ ﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺩﯼ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺛﺮ ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﯾﺨﭽﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﻃﺒﻖ ﺑﺎﻻﯾﯽ ﯾﮏ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﮐﺸﺘﻪ ﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳــﺎﺱ ﺍﻋﻼﻡ ﻧﯿﺮﻭﯼ ﭘﻠﯿﺲ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﯽ‬ ‫ﮐﻪ ﮐﺎﺭﮔﺮﺍﻥ ﻣﺸــﻐﻮﻝ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﺩﺍﺩﻥ ﺍﺛﺎﺛﯿﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺑﺎﻟﮑﻦ ﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﺑﻮﺩﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﯾﮑﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺑﻘﯿﻪ‬

‫ﻣﯿﻠﯿﻮﻥ ﺩﻻﺭﯼ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺷﺮﮐﺖ ‪ DuPont‬ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺑﺰﺭﮒﺗﺮﯾﻦ ﻧﻤﺎﯾﺸــﮕﺎﻩ ‪AHR 2011‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻏﺮﺏ ﺁﻣﺮﯾــﮑﺎ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻻﺱﻭﮔﺎﺱ ﺑﺮﮔﺰﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺷــﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﯾــﻦ ﺭﻭﯾﺪﺍﺩ ﻧﺰﺩﯾــﮏ ﺑﻪ ‪1900‬‬ ‫ﺷﺮﮐﺖ‪ ،‬ﻓﻀﺎﯾﯽ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺴــﺎﺣﺖ ‪ 34‬ﻫﺰﺍﺭ ﻭ‬ ‫‪ 700‬ﻣﺘﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﭘﯿــﺶ ﺭﺯﺭﻭ ﮐﺮﺩﻩ ﺑﻮﺩﻧﺪ ﻭ‬

‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﺶ ‪ 20‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪﯼ ﺑﺎﺯﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺗﺎ ﺳﺎﻝ ‪2020‬‬

‫ﺷــﺮﮐﺖ ﺑﯿﻦﺍﻟﻤﻠﻠﯽ ﺍﺯ ‪ 31‬ﮐﺸــﻮﺭ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ‬

‫ﺷــﻌﺒﻪ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥﮔﺬﺍﺭﯼ ﺍﺗﺤﺎﺩﯾﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﭘﺎ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺗﺸﮑﯿﻞ ﻣﯽﺩﺍﺩﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﻣﻀﺎﻑ ﺑﺮ ﺍﯾﻦﮐﻪ ﭘﯿﺶ‬

‫ﺗﻮﺍﻓﻘــﯽ ﻣﺒﻨﯽ ﺑــﺮ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾــﺶ ‪ 20‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪﯼ‬

‫ﺛﺒﺖﻧــﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﺯﺩﯾﺪﮐﻨﻨــﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻤﺎﯾﺸــﮕﺎﻩ‬

‫ﺑﺎﺯﺩﻩ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺗﺎ ﺳــﺎﻝ ‪ 2020‬ﺩﺳــﺖ ﯾﺎﻓﺘﻪ‬

‫ﺳــﺎﻝ ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻭﺭﻻﻧﺪﻭ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻎ ﺑﺮ ‪45‬‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﯼ ﺁﻥ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺗﺤﻘﻖ ﺗﻤﺎﻣﯽ‬

‫ﻫﺰﺍﺭ ﻧﻔــﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺟــﺬﺏ ﮐﺮﺩﻩ ﺑﻮﺩ‪،‬‬

‫ﺳﯿﺎﺳــﺖﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺨﺶﻫــﺎﯼ ﺍﻗﺘﺼــﺎﺩﯼ‬

‫ﺁﻏﺎﺯﺷــﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥﭘﺬﯾﺮ ﺧﻮﺍﻫــﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻗﻄﻌﻨﺎﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺮ ﺗﺤﻘــﻖ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﯿﻦ ﻓﻌﻠﯽ ﺑــﺎﺯﺩﻩ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﻧﯿﺰ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﮐﯿﺪ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﺷــﻌﺒﻪ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﯾﯽ ﺧﻮﺍﺳــﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺳــﺖ ﺗﺎ ﺍﺭﺯﯾﺎﺑﯽ ﭼﮕﻮﻧﮕــﯽ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﯿﻦ ﺟﺎﺭﯼ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﯼ ﭘﺎﯾﺪﺍﺭ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﭼﺴــﺐ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﮕﻨﺠﺎﻧﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﺮﮔﺰﺍﺭﮐﻨﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﻧﯿﺰ ﻧﺰﺩﯾﮏ ﺑﻪ ‪400‬‬

‫ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻘـﺖ ﻟﻨﻮﮐـﺲ ﺑـﺮﺍﯼ ﺧﺮﯾـﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﻬﺎﻡ ﮐﯿﺴﻮﺭ‪/‬ﻭﺍﺭﻥ‬ ‫ﺷــﺮﮐﺖ‬

‫ﻟﻨﻮﮐــﺲ‬

‫ﺍﯾﻨﺘﺮﻧﺸــﻨﺎﻝ‬

‫)‪ (Lennox International‬ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻘﺖ ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺧﺮﯾﺪ ﺳــﻬﺎﻡ ﺷﺮﮐﺖ ﮐﯿﺴﻮﺭ‪/‬ﻭﺍﺭﻥ‬ ‫)‪ ،(Kysor/Warren‬ﺷﺮﮐﺖ ﺗﺎﺑﻊ ﺷﺮﮐﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻧﯿﺘﻮﻭﻭﮎ )‪ ،(Manitowoc‬ﺗﻮﻟﯿﺪﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ‬

‫ﺟﺪﺍ ﻭ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺳــﺎﻧﺤﻪ ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﺍﻭ ﺭﺥ ﻣﯽﺩﻫﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﻮﺍﻓـﻖ ‪ DuPont‬ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺧﺖ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﯾﻤﻪ ‪ 3.3‬ﻣﯿﻠﯿﻮﻥ ﺩﻻﺭﯼ‬

‫ﺩﻻﺭ ﺍﻋــﻼﻡ ﮐﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺎﺭ ﻣــﯽﺭﻭﺩ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ‬

‫ﺣﺎﻝ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﯽ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺷﺶ‬

‫ﺳــﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺖ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺤﯿﻂ ﺯﯾﺴــﺖ‬

‫ﻭﺍﮔﺬﺍﺭﯼ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺷــﺮﮐﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻪﻣﺎﻫﻪ ﻧﺨﺴﺖ‬

‫ﻣﻘﺎﻣــﺎﺕ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻃﻪ ﺍﻋــﻼﻡ ﮐﺮﺩﻩﺍﻧﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻩ ﻧﯿﺰ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻣﯿﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺁﻣﺮﯾــﮑﺎ )‪ ،(EPA‬ﺍﺯ ﭘﺬﯾــﺮﺵ ﺟﺮﯾﻤﻪ ‪3.3‬‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺗﺒﺮﯾﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﺍﺯﺍﯼ ‪ 138‬ﻣﯿﻠﯿﻮﻥ‬

‫ﺳﺎﻝ ﺁﺗﯽ ﺑﻪ ﭘﺎﯾﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﺪ‪.‬‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 3‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪39‬‬

‫ﺍﻫﻤﯿﺖ ﻭﯾﮋﮔﯽﻫﺎﯼ ﺳﺒﺰ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺟﺎﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﯾﮏ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ‬

‫ﺳـﺎﺧﺖ ﯾﮏ ﻣﺤﻮﻃـﻪ ﮐﻢﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺑﺎﺯﯼﻫﺎﯼ ﻫﺎﮐﯽ‬

‫ﻧﺘﺎﯾﺞ ﯾﮏ ﻧﻈﺮﺳــﻨﺠﯽ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﯽﺩﻫﺪ‬

‫ﺷــﻬﺮ ﮐﻮﭼﮑﯽ ﺩﺭ ﺷﻤﺎﻝ ﺷﺮﻗﯽ ﺍﯾﺎﻟﺖ‬

‫ﮐﻪ ﻭﯾﮋﮔﯽﻫﺎﯼ ﺳــﺒﺰ ﺗﺒﺪﯾﻞ ﺑﻪ ﯾﮏ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ‬

‫ﺁﻟﺒﺮﺗﺎ ﺭﻭﺵ ﮐﻢﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪﺍﯼ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﻃﻮﻻﺗﯽﺗﺮ‬

‫ﺗﺎﺛﯿﺮﮔﺬﺍﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺼﻤﯿﻢﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺍﺟﺎﺭﻩﮐﻨﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ‬

‫ﮐﺮﺩﻥ ﻓﺼﻞ ﻫﺎﮐﯽ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ‪ 1007‬ﺳﮑﻨﻪ ﺧﻮﺩ‬

‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﯼ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﯼ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮﺳﻨﺠﯽ ﺑﺎ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﯽ ﺗﺼﻤﯿﻢﮔﯿﺮﯼ ‪2220‬‬ ‫ﻣﺴــﺘﺎﺟﺮ ﺩﻓﺎﺗﺮ ﺍﺩﺍﺭﯼ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ‪ ،‬ﮐﺎﻧﺎﺩﺍ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺍﻧﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺁﻟﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺳــﻮﺋﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﯾﺘﺎﻧﯿﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﭙﺎﻧﯿﺎ‬ ‫ﻭ ﮊﺍﭘــﻦ ﻧﺸــﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩ ﮐــﻪ ‪ 50‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ‬

‫ﮐﺸﻒ ﮐﺮﺩﻩ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﺫﻭﺏ ﺷﺪﻥ ﺑﺮﻑ ﻭ‬ ‫ﯾﺦ ﺩﺭ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺑﻬﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺳــﯽ ﺑﻪ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺷﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﯾﻖ ﻗﺎﯾﻖ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥﭘﺬﯾﺮ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻭ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﮔﻮﻧﻪﺍﯼ ﺟﺪﺍ ﺍﻓﺘﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺍﻣﺎ ﭼﻨﺪﯼ ﭘﯿﺶ‬

‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻﺕ ﺩﺭﯾﺎﻓﺖ ﮐﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺩﺍﻧﻠﻮﺩ ﺭﺍﯾﮕﺎﻥ ﺍﺳـﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ‪-9.1‬‬ ‫‪2007‬‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ‪ ASHRAE‬ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺳﯽ ﺭﺍﯾﮕﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺍﺳــﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ‪ 2007-9.1‬ﺧــﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺕ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﯼ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥﭘﺬﯾﺮ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﯾــﻦ ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻣﻀــﺎﯼ ﯾﮏ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﻪﮔﺬﺍﺭﯼ ﺑﺎ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺕ ﻧﯿــﺮﻭﯼ ﺍﯾﺎﻻﺕ‬

‫ﻣﯿــﺪﺍﻥ ﻫﺎﮐﯽ ﺑﺎ ﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪ ‪ 559‬ﻫﺰﺍﺭ ﺩﻻﺭ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﻣﺘﺤﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺳــﯽ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺴﺨﻪ ‪l-P‬‬

‫ﺍﯾﻦ ﺷــﻬﺮ ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ ﺷــﺪ ﮐﻪ ﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪ ﺗﻌﻤﯿﺮﺍﺕ‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ‬

‫‪NASI/ASHRAE/IES‬‬

‫ﺳــﺎﻻﻧﻪ ﺁﻥ ‪ 300‬ﻫــﺰﺍﺭ ﺩﻻﺭ ﺗﺨﻤﯿﻦ ﺯﺩﻩ‬

‫‪ ،2007-Standard 90.1‬ﺑــﺎ ﻣﺤﻮﺭﯾــﺖ‬

‫ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺳــﻄﺢ ﺗﺮﮐﯿﺒﯽ ﺁﻥ ﻣﺘﺸﮑﻞ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺖ ﺍﺯ ﺻﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﻫﻢﺑﻨﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﻨﺪﻩﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﺍﺳــﺘﺜﻨﺎﯼ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺴــﮑﻮﻧﯽ‬

‫ﻧﯿــﺰ ﺍﻫﻤﯿــﺖ ﺑﺎﻻﯾﯽ ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﺍﯾــﻦ ﭼﻨﯿﻦ‬

‫ﺷﯿﻤﯿﺎﯾﯽ ﭘﻠﯿﻤﺮﯼ‪.‬‬

‫ﮐﻢﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺻــﻮﺭﺕ ﯾﮏ ﻓﺎﯾﻞ ‪PDF‬‬

‫ﻭﯾﮋﮔﯽﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﻗﺎﺋﻞ ﻫﺴــﺘﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﺑﯿﺎﻥ ﺩﯾﮕﺮ‬

‫ﻣﺤﺼـﻮﻻﺕ ﻫﻮﺷـﻤﻨﺪ ﺑﻪ ﮐﻤﮏ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﯿﻂ ﺯﯾﺴﺖ ﻣﯽﺁﯾﻨﺪ‬

‫ﻣﻌﺘﻘﺪﻧﺪ ﺍﻗﺪﺍﻣﺎﺗﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺭﺍﺳــﺘﺎﯼ ﺳــﺒﺰ‬ ‫ﮐﺮﺩﻥ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎ ﺍﻧﺠــﺎﻡ ﻣﯽﭘﺬﯾﺮﺩ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻫﻤﯿﺖ ﺑﺴــﯿﺎﺭﯼ ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﯾﻦ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﯽ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻧﺰﺩﯾﮏ ﺑــﻪ ‪ 60‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﺳــﺦﺩﻫﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﮊﺍﭘﻨﯽ ﺑﻪ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻧﻈﺮﺳﻨﺠﯽ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﮐﺸــﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﺯﺩﻩ ﺍﻧــﺮﮊﯼ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻭﻟﻮﯾﺖ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﻣﺴﺘﺎﺟﺮﺍﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺷــﺮﮐﺖ & ‪GE Appliances‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺩﺍﻧﻠﻮﺩ ﻣﻬﯿﺎ ﮐﺮﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﮔﻔﺘﻪ ﻟﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺟــﯽ‪ .‬ﺑﻠﻨﺠــﺮ )‪،(Lynn G.Bellenger‬‬ ‫ﻣﺪﯾﺮ ‪ ،ASHRAE‬ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺳﯽ ﺭﺍﯾﮕﺎﻥ ﺍﯾﻦ‬

‫ﺍﻗﺪﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﺗـﺎﺯﻩ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺣﻔﻆ ﻣﺤﯿﻂ‬ ‫ﺯﯾﺴﺖ‬

‫ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺩﺭ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻓﻀــﺎﯼ ﺑــﺎﺯﺍﺭ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ ﻭ ﻣﺎﻟﮑﺎﻥ‪،‬‬

‫ﺳــﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻈﺖ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺤﯿﻂ ﺯﯾﺴﺖ‬

‫ﻣﺴــﮑﻮﻧﯽ ﻣﺤﺼــﻮﻻﺕ ﺗــﺎﺯﻩﺍﯼ ﺭﺍ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬

‫ﭘﯿﻤﺎﻧــﮑﺎﺭﺍﻥ ﻭ ﺗﯿﻢﻫــﺎﯼ ﻃﺮﺍﺣــﯽ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥ‬

‫ﺁﻣﺮﯾــﮑﺎ )‪ ،(EPA‬ﺍﺯ ﺁﻏــﺎﺯ ﺳــﺎﻝ ‪2011‬‬

‫ﺑــﺎﺯﺍﺭ ﮐﻨــﺪ‪ .‬ﺳــﻨﺠﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﻫﻮﺷــﻤﻨﺪ ﻭ‬

‫ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺳﯽ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﯾﺎﻓﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﮔﺎﻡﻫــﺎﯼ ﺗــﺎﺯﻩﺍﯼ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺭﺍﺳــﺘﺎﯼ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ‬

‫ﻧﺮﻡﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻫــﺎﯼ ﻣﺪﯾﺮﯾــﺖ ﺍﻧــﺮﮊﯼ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ‬

‫ﻣﯿــﺰﺍﻥ ﭘﺮﺍﮐﻨﺪﮔــﯽ ﮔﺎﺯﻫــﺎﯼ ﮔﻠﺨﺎﻧﻪﺍﯼ‬

‫ﺍﯾﻦ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻﺕ ﻫﺴــﺘﻨﺪ ﮐــﻪ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ‬

‫ﭘﺎﻻﯾﺸــﮕﺎﻩﻫﺎﯼ ﻧﻔــﺖ ﻭ ﻧﯿﺮﻭﮔﺎﻩﻫﺎﯼ ﺑﺮﻕ‬

‫ﺭﺍ ﺑــﻪ ﻣﺼﺮﻑﮐﻨﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﻣﯽﺩﻫﻨﺪ ﺗﺎ ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ‬

‫ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺷــﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ﻧﺨﺴﺘﯿﻦ ﺍﻗﺪﺍﻣﺎﺗﯽ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﻣﺼــﺮﻑ ﺍﻧــﺮﮊﯼ ﻭ ﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﺧــﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺩﺳــﺘﻮﺭ ﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﺮﻓﺖ‬

‫ﺷــﮑﻞ ﮐﺎﺭﺁﻣﺪﺗــﺮﯼ ﻣﺪﯾﺮﯾــﺖ ﮐﻨﻨــﺪ ﺍﻣﺎ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺗــﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺍﺩﻥ ﻣﻬﻠﺖ ﺑــﻪ ﻫﻔﺖ ﺍﯾﺎﻟﺖ‬

‫ﺗﻮﻟﯿﺪﮐﻨﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﺩﯾﮕﺮﯼ ﻧﯿﺰ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ‬

‫ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺗﺠﺪﯾﺪﻧﻈﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﯼ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﯿﻦ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻃﻪ‬

‫ﻭ ﻋﺮﺿــﻪ ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭﻫــﺎﯼ ﻫﻮﺷــﻤﻨﺪ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬

‫ﺍﺷﺎﺭﻩ ﮐﺮﺩ‪ EPA .‬ﻫﻤﭽﻨﯿﻦ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﯿﻨﯽ ﻃﺮﺡ‬

‫ﺧﺎﻧﻪﻫﺎ ﻫﺴــﺘﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻫﻤﯿــﻦ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﻧﯿﺰ‬

‫ﮐﺮﺩﻩ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻣﺒﺘﻨﯽ ﺑﺮ ﺁﻥ ﮐﻪ ﻫﯿﭻ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬

‫ﮔﻔﺘﻪ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺷﺮﮐﺖ ‪Whirlppool‬‬

‫ﺍﻣﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻋﻮﺽ ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﭘﯿﻤﺎﻧﮑﺎﺭﺍﻥ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪ‬

‫ﻓﺪﺭﺍﻟﯽ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻧﺨﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺩﺍﺷــﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺍﯾﺎﻟﺘﯽ‬

‫ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺴــﺘﻪ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻤﮏﻫﺰﯾﻨــﻪﺍﯼ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺑﺎ‬

‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈــﺎﺕ ﺍﺳــﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ‪2007-90.1‬‬

‫ﺭﺍ ﻣﻠــﺰﻡ ﺑﻪ ﺻﺪﻭﺭ ﻣﺠﻮﺯ ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﭘﺮﺍﮐﻨﺪﮔﯽ‬

‫‪ 19.3‬ﻣﯿﻠﯿــﻮﻥ ﺩﻻﺭ ﺍﺯ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺕ ﻧﯿــﺮﻭﯼ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺠﻤــﻦ ‪ ASHRAE‬ﺭﺍ ﺭﻋﺎﯾــﺖ ﮐﻨﻨــﺪ‪،‬‬

‫ﮔﺎﺯﻫــﺎﯼ ﮔﻠﺨﺎﻧــﻪﺍﯼ ﭘﺎﯾﯿﻦﺗﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺳــﻄﻮﺡ‬

‫ﺁﻣﺮﯾــﮑﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﻣﺪﺕ ﺩﻭ ﺳــﺎﻝ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ‬

‫ﺍﺟﺎﺯﻩ ﺳــﺎﺧﺖ ﯾﮏ ﻃﺒﻘﻪ ﺍﺿﺎﻓﯽ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺗﻌﯿﯿﻦ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺳﺎﺯﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺑﺨﺸــﯿﺪﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻓﺮﺁﯾﻨﺪ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺍﯾﻦ‬

‫ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫‪ Lighting‬ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈــﺮ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﺑــﺎ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﺍﻣﺘﯿﺎﺯ ﺗﺮﺍﮐﻢ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﺑﺎﺯﺩﻩ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺑﺎﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﯾﺎﻟــﺖ ﻭﻧﮑﻬــﻮﻭﺭ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈــﺮ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ‬ ‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﯼ ﺟﺪﯾﺪ ﺑــﺎ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﺑﺎﺯﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺑــﺎﻻ »ﺍﻣﺘﯿﺎﺯ ﺗﺮﺍﮐﻢ« ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﯿﺮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳــﺎﺱ ﻗﺎﻧــﻮﻥ ﺟﺪﯾﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻃــﻮﺭ ﮐﻠﯽ ﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ ﺗﺮﺍﮐﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﯽ ﺍﻓﺰﻭﺩﻩ ﻧﻤﯽﺷﻮﺩ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺍﻃﻤﯿﻨــﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﻣﯽﺩﻫﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺍﺳــﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 4‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪39‬‬

‫ﻓﻦﺁﻭﺭﻯ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﭘﺎﻻﻳﻨﺪﻩﻫﺎﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳﻜﻰ ﻫﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﻬﯿــﺰﺍﺕ ﭘﺎﮐﺴــﺎﺯﯼ ﻫــﻮﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻧــﻮﺍﻉ‬

‫ﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﺭﺍﯾﺠﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺕ ﭘﺎﮐﺴــﺎﺯﯼ ﻫﻮﺍ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻭﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﺮﮐﺰﯼ ﻭ ﻣﺤﻠﯽ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﻧﻘﻄــﻪ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ ﺍﻫﻤﯿﺖ ﺑﯿﺸــﺘﺮﯼ‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗــﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﯽﮔﯿﺮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﻗﺴــﻤﺖ ﺍﺻﻠﯽ‬

‫ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﻃــﺮﺡ ﺩﺭ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﭘﯿــﺪﺍ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﻨﺪ‪،‬‬

‫ﭘﺎﮎﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩﻫــﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺍﻧــﻮﺍﻉ ﻓﯿﻠﺘﺮﻫــﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ‬

‫ﭘﺎﮎﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩﻫﺎﯼ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﺍﺳﺘﺎﺗﯿﮏ‬

‫ﻓﯿﻠﺘﺮﻫﺎﯼ ﮐﯿﺴــﻪﺍﯼ‪ ،‬ﻫﭙــﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﻭﻟﭙﺎ‪ ،‬ﺭﻭﻏﻨﯽ‬

‫ﯾﺎ ﭘﺎﮎﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩﻫﺎﯼ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻧﯿﮑﯽ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻧﯿﮑﯽ ﺗﺸــﮑﯿﻞ ﻣﯽﺩﻫﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ‬

‫ﻓﯿﻠﺘﺮﻫﺎﯼ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﺍﺳــﺘﺎﺗﯿﮏ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﯼ ﺩﻭ‬

‫ﻣﺮﮐﺰﯼ‪ ،‬ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺕ ﺗﺼﻔﯿﻪ‪ ،‬ﺟﺰﯾﯽ ﺍﺯ ﻫﻮﺍﺳﺎﺯ‬

‫ﺑﺨﺶ ﺍﺻﻠﯽ ﻫﺴــﺘﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺍﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮﺍ‬

‫ﻭ ﺷــﺒﮑﻪ ﻫﻮﺍﺭﺳــﺎﻧﯽ ﻣﺤﺴــﻮﺏ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬

‫ﺗﺤﺖ ﺗﺎﺛﯿﺮ ﻭﻟﺘﺎﮊ ﺯﯾﺎﺩ ﯾﻮﻧﯿﺰﻩ ﻭ ﺑﺎﺭﺩﺍﺭ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‬

‫ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺍﯾــﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻃــﻮﺭ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻝ ﻓﺎﻗﺪ ﻓﻦ‬

‫ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺨــﺶ ﺩﻭﻡ ﻫﺮ ﯾﮏ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺎﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﻨﻔﯽ ﻭ‬

‫ﺟﺪﺍﮔﺎﻧﻪﺍﯼ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺑﺎﺯﭼﺮﺧﺎﻧﯽ ﻫﻮﺍ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺍﻣﺎ‬

‫ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﯾﻮﻧﯿﺰﻩ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺻﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﻭ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻣﺤﻠــﯽ‪ ،‬ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺕ ﺗﺼﻔﯿﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻏﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﻓﯿﻠﺘــﺮ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺭﺍﯼ ﻓﻦ ﻭ ﭘﻮﺷــﺶ ﻣﺨﺼﻮﺹ‬ ‫ﻧﯿﺰ ﻣﯽﺑﺎﺷــﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻣﺤﻠﯽ‪ ،‬ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﮐﺴﺎﺯﯼ ﻓﺎﺭﻍ ﺍﺯ ﺷﺒﮑﻪ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻞ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺯﻣﯿﻨﯽ‪ ،‬ﺩﯾﻮﺍﺭﯼ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺳﻘﻔﯽ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻞ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻧﺼﺐ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﭘﻴﺶ‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﻓﻴﻠﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻠﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻦ‬ ‫ﺯﻏﺎﻟﻰ ﺳﻪﺳﺮﻋﺘﻪ ﺟﻤﻊﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﻳﻮﻧﻴﺰﻩ‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (2‬ﻧﻮﻋﯽ ﭘﺎﻻﯾﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻠﯽ ﻭ ﺯﻣﯿﻨﯽ‬

‫ﺧﺮﻭﺝ‬ ‫ﻫﻮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﻴﺰ‬

‫ﺧﺮﻭﺝ‬ ‫ﻫﻮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﻴﺰ‬

‫ﻓﻴﻠﺘﺮ ﺯﻏﺎﻟﻰ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﺭﺩﺍﺭ ﺟﻤﻊﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺫﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﻢﻫﺎﻯ ﻳﻮﻧﻴﺰﻩ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﺟﺬﺏ ﺫﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﺎ ﺑﺎﺭ ﻣﺜﺒﺖ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻠﺘﺮ ﺗﻮﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻭﺩ ﻫﻮﺍﻯ ﻛﺜﻴﻒ‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (1‬ﭼﮕﻮﻧﮕﯽ ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮﺩ ﻓﯿﻠﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﺍﺳﺘﺎﺗﯿﮏ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (3‬ﻧﻮﻋﯽ ﭘﺎﻻﯾﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺩﯾﻮﺍﺭﯼ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺩﺭﯾﭽﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺴﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﯼ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺗﺎﻕ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﯽﮔﯿﺮﺩ‪.‬‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 5‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪39‬‬

‫ﻣﻨﻔﯽ ﺟﺬﺏ ﻭ ﺟﻤﻊﺁﻭﺭﯼ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﯾﺮﻭﺱﻫــﺎ ﻭ ﻗﺎﺭﭺﻫــﺎ ﺑﺴــﯿﺎﺭ ﻣﻮﺛﺮ ﻋﻤﻞ‬

‫ﯾــﮏ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﺠﺰﺍ ﻭ ﯾﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺻــﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﺮﮐﺰﯼ ﻭ‬

‫ﭘﺎﮎﮐﻨﻨــﺪﻩ ﻫــﻮﺍ ﺍﺯ ﻧــﻮﻉ ﻓﺮﺍﺑﻨﻔــﺶ‬

‫ﻣﯽﮐﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻻﻣﭗﻫﺎﯼ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﺍﯼ ﺷﮑﻞ ﻓﺮﺍﺑﻨﻔﺶ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺟﺰﯾﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﻫﻮﺍﺳﺎﺯ ﯾﺎ ﺷﺒﮑﻪ‬

‫ﻧﯿــﺰ ﻧﻮﻋــﯽ ﺗﺼﻔﯿﻪﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩﻫــﺎﯼ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ‬

‫ﺷــﺒﺎﻫﺖﻫﺎﯼ ﺑﺴــﯿﺎﺭﯼ ﺑــﻪ ﻻﻣﭗﻫــﺎﯼ‬

‫ﮐﺎﻧــﺎﻝ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﯿﺮﻧــﺪ‪ .‬ﺗﻮﺍﻥ‬

‫ﻣﺤﺴــﻮﺏ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﮐــﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺯ ﺑﯿﻦ ﺑﺮﺩﻥ‬

‫ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﭘﺎﮎﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩﻫﺎﯼ ﻓﺮﺍﺑﻨﻔﺶ‬

‫ﻣﺼﺮﻓﯽ ﻻﻣﭗﻫــﺎﯼ ﻓﺮﺍﺑﻨﻔﺶ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ ﺑﯿﻦ‬

‫ﻣﯿﮑﺮﻭﺍﺭﮔﺎﻧﯿﺴﻢﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺑﺎﮐﺘﺮﯼﻫﺎ‪،‬‬

‫ﻣﻤﮑﻦ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﺤﻠــﯽ ﺩﺭ ﻗﺎﻟﺐ‬

‫‪ 15‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 50‬ﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫‪ -1‬ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻰ‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻯ‬ ‫‪ –3‬ﭘﻴﺶﻓﻴﻠﺘﺮ‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﭼﻔﺖ‬ ‫‪ –5‬ﺳـﻠﻮﻝﻫﺎﻯ ﺍﺻﻠـﻰ ﻛـﻪ ﺑـﺮﺍﻯ ﻳﻮﻧﻴﺰﻩ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻊﺁﻭﺭﻯ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻰﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -6‬ﺭﻳﻞ ﻓﻴﻠﺘﺮ‬ ‫‪ -7‬ﺗﻴﻐﻪﻫﺎﻯ ﻫﻮﺍﻯ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻰ‬ ‫‪ -8‬ﻣﻨﺒﻊ ﺗﻐﺬﻳﻪ‬ ‫‪ -9‬ﻛﻠﻴـﺪ ﻛﻨﺘـﺮﻝ ﭼﻬﺎﺭﺣﺎﻟﺘﻪ ﺑـﺮﺍﻯ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺷـﻦ ﻭ ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺵ ﻭ ﺳـﻪ ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺖ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻛﻨﺪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﻭ ﺗﻨﺪ ﻓﻦ‬ ‫‪ -10‬ﻛﻠﻴﺪ ﻫﻢﺑﻨﺪ ﺍﻳﻤﻨﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺴﻴﺮ ﺩﻭ ﺧﻂ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺯ ﻭ ﻧﻮﻝ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻯ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻴﻠﺘﺮ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻰﮔﻴﺮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ –11‬ﻛﻠﻴﺪ ﻧﺸﺎﻧﮕﺮ ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺖ ﻓﻴﻠﺘﺮ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺭﻭﺷﻦ‪ ،‬ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻭ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺑﻪ ﺷﺴﺖﻭﺷﻮ‬ ‫‪ -12‬ﺗﺮﻣﻴﻨﺎﻝﻫﺎﻯ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳﻜﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻠﺘﺮ ﺍﺻﻠﻰ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻳﻮﻧﻴﺰﺍﺳﻴﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺟﻤﻊﺁﻭﺭﻯ ﺫﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫‪ -13‬ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﻐﺬﻳﻪ‬ ‫‪ -14‬ﺧﺎﺯﻥ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﻓﻦ‬ ‫‪ -15‬ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﻧﺼﺐ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ‬ ‫‪ -16‬ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ‬ ‫‪ -17‬ﻭﺍﺷﺮ ﻻﺳﺘﻴﻜﻰ‬ ‫‪ -18‬ﻓﻦ‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (4‬ﻧﻮﻋﯽ ﻓﯿﻠﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻧﯿﮑﯽ ﺳﻘﻔﯽ ﺭﻭﮐﺎﺭ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 6‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪39‬‬

‫ﺷﺴﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺶ‬

‫ﻣﻨﺒﻊ ﺗﻐﺬﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻴﺪ ﺑﻬﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ‬

‫ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﻧﻴﺰﻩ‬

‫ﺷﺴﺖﻭﺷﻮ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺷﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻴﺪ ﺳﻪ ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺵ ﻭ ﺭﻭﺷﻦ‬

‫ﻛﻠﻴﺪ ﻫﻢﺑﻨﺪ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻓﺎﺯ ﻭ ﻧﻮﻝ‬

‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬

‫ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻯ ﺗﻐﺬﻳﻪ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻴﻮﺯ ﻳﺎ ﺭﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺿﺎﻓﻪﺑﺎﺭ ﻋﺒﻮﺭ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺷﺴﺘﻰﻫﺎ‬

‫ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺯﻣﻴﻦ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (5‬ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ ﻧﻮﻋﯽ ﭘﺎﻻﯾﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻧﯿﮑﯽ ﺳﻘﻔﯽ‬ ‫ﺷﺴﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﻻﻣﭗ‬ ‫ﻧﺌﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﻧﻴﺰﻩ‬

‫ﻣﻨﺒﻊ ﺗﻐﺬﻳﻪ‬

‫ﻛﻠﻴﺪ ﻫﻢﺑﻨﺪ‬

‫ﻛﻠﻴﺪ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻧﻰ‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (6‬ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ ﭘﺎﻻﯾﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺩﯾﻮﺍﺭﯼ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺩﺭﯾﭽﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺴﯿﺮ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺭﻓﺖ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﯽﮔﯿﺮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 7‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪39‬‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (7‬ﻧﻮﻋﯽ ﭘﺎﻻﯾﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﺮﮐﺰﯼ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺴﯿﺮ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝ ﯾﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﻫﻮﺍﺳﺎﺯ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﯽﮔﯿﺮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫‪ -1‬ﺩﺭﻳﭽﻪ ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺳﻰ‬ ‫‪-2‬ﻛﻠﻴﺪ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺶ‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻓﻴﻠﺘﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﻜﻰ‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﺩﺳﺘﻪ‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﭘﻴﺶ ﻓﻴﻠﺘﺮ‬ ‫‪ -6‬ﻗﻔﻞ ﻓﻴﻠﺘﺮ‬ ‫‪ - 7‬ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋـﻪ ﺟﻌﺒﻪ ﺑـﺮﻕ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﻣﻨﺒـﻊ ﺗﻐﺬﻳﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻣﻴﻨﺎﻝﻫﺎﻯ ﺑﺮﻕ ﻭ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳﻜﻰ‬ ‫‪ -8‬ﻛﻠﻴﺪ‬ ‫‪ -10‬ﻣﻨﺒﻊ ﺗﻐﺬﻳﻪ‬ ‫‪ -11‬ﻛﻠﻴـﺪ ﻫﻢﺑﻨـﺪ ﺍﻳﻤﻨﻰ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻗﻄـﻊ ﻭ ﻭﺻﻞ ﻓﺎﺯ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻝ)ﺑﺎ ﺑﺎﺯ ﺷـﺪﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻓﻴﻠﺘـﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻛﻠﻴﺪ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺭﺍ ﻗﻄﻊ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﻛﺮﺩ(‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -12‬ﺗﺮﻣﻴﻨﺎﻝﻫﺎ‬ ‫‪ -13‬ﺟﻌﺒﻪ ﺗﺮﻣﻴﻨﺎﻝ ﺟﻠﻮﻳﻰ‬ ‫‪ -14‬ﺟﻌﺒﻪ ﺗﺮﻣﻴﻨﺎﻝ ﭘﺸﺖ‬ ‫‪ -17‬ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ﻭ ﺩﻭ ﺷﺎﺧﻪ ﺑﺮﻕ‬ ‫‪ -19‬ﻧﺌﻮﻥ‬ ‫‪ -20‬ﻛﻠﻴﺪ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻧﻰ‬ ‫‪ -21‬ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳﻜﻰ ﺳﻠﻮﻝﻫﺎﻯ ﻓﻴﻠﺘﺮ‬ ‫‪ -22‬ﻓﻴﻠﺘﺮ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻰ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 8‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪39‬‬

‫ﺳﺮ ﺳﻴﻢﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺳﻴﻢﻫﺎﻯ ﻻﻣﭗ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﻝ ‪ 10‬ﻓﻮﺕ‬

‫ﭼﻮﻙ‬

‫ﭘﻴﭻ‬

‫ﮔﻴﺮﻩ‬

‫ﮔﻴﺮﻩ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﻯ ﺁﺑﻰ‬

‫ﻣﻨﺘﺸﺮﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ‬

‫ﻗﻄﻊ ﻛﻦ ﺍﻳﻤﻨﻰ‬

‫ﻻﻣﭗ ﻓﺮﺍﺑﻨﻔﺶ‬

‫ﺑﺎﺯﺗﺎﺏﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ‬

‫ﺑﺎﺯﺗﺎﺏﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ‬

‫ﻻﻣﭗ ﻓﺮﺍﺑﻨﻔﺶ‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (9‬ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪﺍﯼ ﺩﻭﺗﺎﯾﯽ ﺍﺯ ﻻﻣﭗ ﻓﺮﺍﺑﻨﻔﺶ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﯼ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﻫﻮﺍﺳﺎﺯ ﻭ ﯾﺎ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺗﺎﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭﺳﻮﻳﻴﭻ ‪10A‬‬

‫‪AGC-1‬‬

‫ﻓﺎﺯ‬

‫ﻓﻴﻮﺯ ‪VAC 120‬‬

‫ﻓﺎﺯ‬

‫ﺗﺮﺍﻧﺴﻔﻮﺭ ‪1‬‬ ‫ﺁﻣﭙﺮ‬ ‫‪VAC 120‬‬ ‫‪VAC 12‬‬

‫ﻧﻮﻝ‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (10‬ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪﺍﯼ ﺍﺯ ﻻﻣﭗﻫﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺍﺑﻨﻔﺶ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﻮﺍﺳﺎﺯ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺴﯿﺮ ﻫﻮﺍ‬

‫ﻧﻮﻝ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (8‬ﻻﻣﭗ ﻓﺮﺍﺑﻨﻔﺶ ﻭ ﺍﺟﺰﺍﯼ ﺟﻨﺒﯽ ﺁﻥ‬

‫ﺗﺮﻣﻴﻨﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺑﻠﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ‬

‫ﭼﻮﻙ‬

‫ﻻﻣﭗ ﻓﺮﺍﺑﻨﻔﺶ ‪20W‬‬

‫‪ MA 350‬ﺭﺍﻩ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﭼﻮﻙ‬

‫ﻻﻣﭗ ﻓﺮﺍﺑﻨﻔﺶ ‪20W‬‬

‫‪MA 350‬‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻩ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (11‬ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ ﻧﻮﻋﯽ ﭘﺎﮎﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﻮﺍ ﻣﺠﻬﺰ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻭ ﻻﻣﭗ ﻓﺮﺍﺑﻨﻔﺶ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 9‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪39‬‬

‫ﻓﻦﺁﻭﺭﻯ‬

‫ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﻫﻮﺍﻯ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻠــﯽ ﮐﻪ ﻣﺴــﺘﻘﯿﻤﺎ ﺑــﺮ ﮐﯿﻔﯿﺖ‬

‫ﻣﺸــﮑﻼﺕ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺎ ﮐﯿﻔﯿﺖ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﺳــﺘﺨﺮ ﺗﺎﺛﯿﺮ ﻣﯽﮔﺬﺍﺭﻧﺪ ﺭﺍ‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺘﺨﺮﻫﺎ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺍﺳﻄﻪ ﻭﺍﮐﻨﺶ ﮔﺎﺯ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺯﯾﺮ ﺧﻼﺻﻪ ﮐﺮﺩ‪:‬‬

‫ﮐﻠﺮ ﺑــﺎ ﺁﻻﯾﻨﺪﻩﻫــﺎﯼ ﺑﯿﻮﻟﻮﮊﯾﮑﯽ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ‬

‫ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﮐﻠﺮ ﺁﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﭼﮕﻮﻧﮕﯽ ﺗﺨﻠﯿﻪ ﻫﻮﺍ‬

‫● ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮ ﺑﺎ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺁﻣﻮﻧﯿــﺎﮎ ﺩﺭ ﻭﺍﻗــﻊ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ‬

‫ﺩﺭﯾﭽﻪﻫــﺎﯼ ﻫــﻮﺍﯼ ﺗﺨﻠﯿــﻪ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺩﺭ‬

‫● ﭼﮕﻮﻧﮕﯽ ﺗﺨﻠﯿﻪ ﻫﻮﺍ‬

‫ﺟﺎﻧﺒــﯽ ﺗﺠﺰﯾﻪ ﺍﺩﺭﺍﺭ ﻭ ﻋﺮﻕ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺷــﺪﻩ‬

‫ﻣﺤﻠﯽ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷــﻮﻧﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺗﺎ ﺣﺪ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ‬

‫● ﻧﺮﺥ ﺗﻌﻮﯾﺾ ﻫﻮﺍ‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﺑﺪﻥ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﮐﻠــﺮ ﺑﺎ ﺿﺎﯾﻌﺎﺕ ﯾﺎﺩ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺗﺎﺳﯿﺴﺎﺕ ﺁﺏﮔﺮﻡ ﻧﺰﺩﯾﮏ‬

‫ﺷــﺪﻩ ﻭﺍﮐﻨــﺶ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻭ ﻣــﺎﺩﻩﺍﯼ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺎﻡ‬

‫ﺑﺎﺷــﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻧﺼﺐ ﺗﺠﻬﯿــﺰﺍﺕ ﻭ ﺩﺭﯾﭽﻪﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﮐﻠﺮﺁﻣﯿــﻦ )ﻣﻮﻧﻮﮐﻠﺮﺁﻣﯿﻦ‪ ،‬ﺩﯼﮐﻠﺮﺁﻣﯿﻦ ﻭ‬

‫ﻫﻮﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﻓﻮﻗﺎﻧﯽ ﺟﮑﻮﺯﯼﻫﺎ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ‬

‫ﻧﯿﺘﺮﻭﮊﻥ ﺗﺮﯼﮐﻠﺮﺁﻣﯿﻦ( ﺗﻮﻟﯿﺪ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﺑﻬﺘﺮﯾﻦ ﮐﯿﻔﯿﺖ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﺳــﺘﺨﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻣﺘــﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺩﺭ ﺭﺩﻩ ﺗﺮﮐﯿﺒﺎﺕ ﮐﻠﺮﺩﺍﺭ‬

‫ﻫﻤــﺮﺍﻩ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺩﺍﺷــﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪(35‬‬

‫ﻃﺒﻘﻪﺑﻨﺪﯼ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﺷﺪﻥ ﺍﯾﻦ‬

‫ﺭﻭﺵ ﺑﻬﯿﻨﻪ ﭼﮕﻮﻧﮕﯽ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﻓﻦ ﺗﺨﻠﯿﻪ‬

‫ﺗﺮﮐﯿﺒﺎﺕ ﺑﻪ ﺁﺏ ﺍﺳــﺘﺨﺮ ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﺶ‬

‫ﻭ ﻣﺴــﯿﺮ ﺗﺨﻠﯿﻪ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ‬

‫ﮐﯿﻔﯿﺖ ﻭ ﺧﻮﺍﺹ ﺷﯿﻤﯿﺎﯾﯽ ﺁﺏ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﺳــﺘﺨﺮﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺟﮑﻮﺯﯼﻫــﺎ ﺑﺨــﺶ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﺪﻩﺍﯼ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺸــﮑﻼﺕ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺎ ﮐﯿﻔﯿﺖ‬ ‫ﻫﻮﺍ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ ﻧﺎﺷــﯽ ﺍﺯ ﮐﯿﻔﯿﺖ ﭘﺎﯾﯿﻦ ﺁﺑﯽ‬ ‫ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﺩﺭ ﮔﺮﺩﺵ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﯾــﻦ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﺶ ﯾﮏﺟﺎﻧﺒــﻪ ﻧﺮﺥ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﮐﯿﻔﯿﺖ ﺁﺏ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻭﻩ ﺑــﺮ ﺗﺤﻤﯿﻞ ﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪﻫــﺎﯼ ﮔﺰﺍﻑ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋــﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑــﻪ ﻧﺘﯿﺠﻪ ﻣﻄﻠــﻮﺏ ﻣﻨﺘﻬﯽ‬ ‫ﻧﺨﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪‬ﮐﯿﻔﯿـﺖ ﺁﺏ ﺍﺳـﺘﺨﺮ ﻧﻪﺗﻨﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﺑـﺮ ﺳـﻼﻣﺖ ﺷـﻨﺎﮔﺮﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﺑﻠﮑـﻪ‬

‫ﺁﻟﻮﺩﮔﯽ ﮐﻠﯽ ﺁﻥ ﻣﯽﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺟﮑﻮﺯﯼﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺩﻟﯿﻞ ﺑﯿﺸــﺘﺮ ﺑــﻮﺩﻥ ﺩﻣــﺎﯼ ﮐﺎﺭﮐﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﯾﺴــﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳــﺘﺨﺮﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺑﯿﺸﺘﺮ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﻧﺴــﺒﺖ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﻧﻔﺮﺍﺕ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺁﺏ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‪ ،‬ﺷﺪﺕ ﺁﻟﻮﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻥ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﯿﺰ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﯿﺸﺘﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺟﮑﻮﺯﯼﻫـﺎ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭﯾﭽﻪ ﺗﺨﻠﯿﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﻮﺍ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﻣﺴـﺘﻘﯿﻤﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻗﺴـﻤﺖ‬ ‫ﻓﻮﻗﺎﻧـﯽ ﮐﺎﺳـﻪ ﺍﺳـﺘﺨﺮ ﺗﻌﺒﯿﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﯿﺐ ﺁﻻﯾﻨﺪﻩﻫﺎﯾﯽ‬ ‫ﮐﻪ ﻏﻠﻈﺖ ﺑﯿﺸﺘﺮﯼ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﭘﯿﺶ‬

‫ﺑـﺮ ﮐﯿﻔﯿـﺖ ﻫـﻮﺍ ﻭ ﻋﻤﻠﮑـﺮﺩ‬

‫‪‬ﺷﺎﯾﺪ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺑﺴﯿﺎﺭﯼ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺟﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﺘﺸـﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ ﻓﻀﺎﯼ ﺍﺳـﺘﺨﺮ ﻭ‬

‫ﺗﺎﺳﯿﺴـﺎﺕ ﻣﮑﺎﻧﯿﮑـﯽ ﻣـﻮﺭﺩ‬

‫ﺗﻌﺠﺐ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻮﯼ ﺗﻨﺪ‬

‫ﺗﺎﺛﯿـﺮ ﻧﺎﻣﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﺑﺮ ﮐﯿﻔﯿﺖ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ‬

‫ﺍﺳـﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﻧﯿﺰ ﺗﺎﺛﯿﺮ‬

‫ﮐﻠـﺮ ﮐﻪ ﺍﻏﻠـﺐ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺳـﺘﺨﺮﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺍﺗﺎﻕ ﺑﻪ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺗﺨﻠﯿﻪ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﯽﮔﺬﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﮐﯿﻔﯿﺖ ﻧﺎﻣﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﺁﺏ‬

‫ﺳﺮﭘﻮﺷﯿﺪﻩ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺸﺎﻡ ﻣﯽﺭﺳﺪ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮ ﯾﮑﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺻﻠﯽﺗﺮﯾﻦ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺑﻮﯼ ﮐﻠﺮ ﺁﺯﺍﺩ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺁﺏ‬

‫ﺑــﺮ ﻣﺒﻨــﺎﯼ ﺍﮐﺜــﺮ ﮐﺪﻫــﺎ ﻭ‬

‫ﺁﻻﯾﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﻮﺍ ﻭ ﻣﻨﺸـﺎ ﺑﺴﯿﺎﺭﯼ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﻧﯿﺴـﺖ‪ ،‬ﺑﻠﮑﻪ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺑﻮ ﺩﺭ ﻧﺘﯿﺠﻪ‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳــﺘﺨﺮﻫﺎ‪،‬‬

‫ﻣﺸﮑﻼﺕ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺎ ﺧﻮﺭﺩﮔﯽ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﺗﺮﮐﯿﺐ ﺷـﺪﻥ ﮐﻠﺮ ﺁﺯﺍﺩ ﺑﺎ ﺳـﺎﯾﺮ‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺑﺮﮔﺸــﺘﯽ ﺍﺳــﺘﺨﺮ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺷﻤﺎﺭ ﻣﯽﺭﻭﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣـﻮﺍﺩ ﻣﻮﺟـﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺁﺏ ﻭ ﮐﺎﻫـﺶ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨــﻮﺍﻥ ﻫــﻮﺍﯼ ﺟﺒﺮﺍﻧــﯽ ﺗﻮﺍﻟﺖﻫﺎ‪،‬‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫● ﮐﯿﻔﯿﺖ ﻭ ﺧﻮﺍﺹ ﺷﯿﻤﯿﺎﯾﯽ ﺁﺏ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﺳــﺘﺨﺮ ﺑــﻪ ﻭﯾــﮋﻩ ﺁﻣﻮﻧﯿــﺎﮎ ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 10‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪39‬‬

‫ﺭﺧﺘﮑﻦﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺣﻤﺎﻡﻫﺎ ﻣﺠﺎﺯ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻭﻟﯽ‬

‫ﻧﺮﺥ ﺗﻌﻮﯾﺾ ﻫﻮﺍ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺘﯽ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﺳــﺘﺨﺮﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻟﯿﻞ ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ ﮐﻮﺭﺍﻥ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻫﻤﭽﻨﯿﻦ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺘﺨﺮﻫﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺗﻬﻮﯾــﻪ ﻣﮑﺎﻥﻫﺎﯼ ﯾﺎﺩ‬

‫ﻭ ﺗﺎﺛﯿﺮ ﺧﻨﮏﮐﻨﻨﺪﮔﯽ ﻧﺎﺧﻮﺷــﺎﯾﻨﺪ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺮ‬

‫ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﻧﻔــﺮﺍﺕ ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﻭ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﯼ ﺍﺳــﺘﺨﺮ‬

‫ﺭﻭﯼ ﭘﻮﺳــﺖ ﺧﯿﺲ ﺷــﻨﺎﮔﺮﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ‬

‫ﮔﺎﻫــﯽ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻧﺮﺥ ﺗﻌﻮﯾــﺾ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﺗﻌــﺪﺍﺩ ﺩﻓﻌــﺎﺕ ﺗﻌﻮﯾﺾ ﻫــﻮﺍ ﺍﺯ ﭼﻬﺎﺭ ﺗﺎ‬

‫ﺷــﺶ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ ﻧﯿﺰ ﺑﯿﺸــﺘﺮ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ‬

‫ﺷﺶ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ ﺑﯿﺸﺘﺮ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ‬

‫ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ‬

‫ﻧﻤﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﻫﺎ ﻃﺒﻖ ﺗﻮﺻﯿﻪ ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ‬

‫ﺷــﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﺍﯾــﻦ ﻣﮑﺎﻥﻫــﺎ ﺑﺎﯾــﺪ ﻣﺠﻬﺰ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﯾﺴﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﺜﺒﺘﯽ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺑـﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺟﻠﻮﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﺘﺸـﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﻃﻮﺑـﺖ ﻭ ﺗﺮﮐﯿﺒـﺎﺕ ﮐﻠـﺮﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳـﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺳـﺘﺨﺮﻫﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﯾـﻦ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﯾﺴـﻪ ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻃـﻖ ﻣﺠﺎﻭﺭ ﺩﺭ ﻓﺸـﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻔﯽ‬ ‫ﺑﯿـﻦ )‪(0.16in. H2O−0.06‬‬ ‫‪ 40Pa−15‬ﻧﮕﻪ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﯾﮏ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﻩ ﺳﺮﺍﻧﮕﺸﺘﯽ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺩﺳـﺘﯿﺎﺑﯽ ﺑﻪ ﻓﺸـﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻔﯽ‬ ‫ﯾﺎﺩ ﺷـﺪﻩ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺗﺨﻠﯿﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ‪ 10‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺑﯿﺸـﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺩﺭﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭﺵﻫﺎﯼ ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻣﻨﻄﻘــﻪﺍﯼ ﻧﯿﺰ‬

‫‪ ASHRAE‬ﺩﺭ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ )‪ (1‬ﺁﻣﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬ﺑـﺮ ﻣﺒﻨـﺎﯼ ﺍﮐﺜـﺮ ﮐﺪﻫـﺎ ﻭ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺩﺳﺖﯾﺎﺑﯽ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺩﻓﻌﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺍﺳـﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻧﺮﺥ ﺗﻌﻮﯾﺾ ﻫﻮﺍ‬

‫ﻣﻄﻠــﻮﺏ ﺗﻌﻮﯾــﺾ ﻫــﻮﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ﺳــﺎﻋﺖ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﺳـﺘﺨﺮﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺣﺪﺍﮐﺜﺮ ﺷﺶ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺗــﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻦﻫــﺎﯼ ﭘﺮﻩﺍﯼ ﺳــﻘﻔﯽ ﯾﺎ‬

‫ﺑﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺳــﺎﯾﺮ ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺕ ﺑﺎﺯﭼﺮﺧﺎﻧﯽ ﻫــﻮﺍ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺩﺳــﺘﮕﺎﻩﻫﺎﯼ ﻫﻮﺍﺭﺳﺎﻥ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﮐﺮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﻨﻬــﺎ ﺍﺳــﺘﺜﻨﺎ ﻣــﻮﺍﺭﺩﯼ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﮐﺮﺩﻥ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ‬

‫ﺑــﻪ ﮐﺎﺭﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‬

‫ﺁﺏ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺭﺍ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬

‫ﻣﮑﺎﻧﯿﮑــﯽ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﯼ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ )‪ (1‬ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﮐﺮﺩ‪:‬‬

‫ﻣﯽﺗــﻮﺍﻥ ﺑــﻪ ﺍﺳــﺘﺨﺮﻫﺎﯼ ﻗﻬﺮﻣﺎﻧــﯽ ﺑﺎ‬

‫)‪(1‬‬

‫])‪Q = wp / [ρ (Wi – Wo‬‬

‫ﺟﺎﯾﮕﺎﻩ ﺗﻤﺎﺷﺎﮔﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﺷﺎﺭﻩ ﮐﺮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ‬

‫ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﻓﻮﻕ‪:‬‬

‫ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺗﺎﻣﯿﻦ ﺷﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﺁﺳﺎﯾﺶ ﺗﻤﺎﺷﺎﮔﺮﺍﻥ‪،‬‬

‫‪ = Q‬ﺩﺑــﯽ ﺣﺠﻤﯽ ﻫــﻮﺍﯼ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ‬ ‫)‪(m3/s‬‬ ‫‪ = ρ‬ﭼﮕﺎﻟــﯽ ﻫــﻮﺍﯼ ﺍﺳــﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫)‪(1.204kg/m3‬‬ ‫‪ = Wi‬ﻧﺴــﺒﺖ ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮ‬

‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺷﯿﻤﯿﺎﯾﯽ ﺗﺨﻠﯿﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺷــﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﻃﺮﺍﺣــﯽ )‪(kg/kg‬؛ ﻣﻘــﺪﺍﺭ‬

‫ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺎ ﻓﻦ ﺗﺨﻠﯿﻪ‬

‫ﺁﻥ ﺑﺎﯾــﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭﯼ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﺳــﺎﯾﮑﺮﻭﻣﺘﺮﯾﮏ‬ ‫ﺩﯾﻮﺍﺭ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﯽ‬

‫ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝ ﻫ‬

‫ﺧﻮﺍﻧﺪﻩ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ = WO‬ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﻮﺍﯼ ﺭﻓﺖ‬

‫ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﻣﻤﻠﻮ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻻﯾﻨﺪﻩﻫﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﺷﯿﻤﯿﺎﯾﯽ‬

‫ﺷــﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ )‪(kg/kg‬؛ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭﯼ ﻧﻤــﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﺳــﺎﯾﮑﺮﻭﻣﺘﺮﯾﮏ ﺧﻮﺍﻧﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑــﺮ ﻣﺒﻨﺎﯼ ﻧــﺮﺥ ﺗﻌﻮﯾﺾ ﻫــﻮﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ‬ ‫ﺳــﺎﻋﺖ )‪ (ACH‬ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﻘــﺪﺍﺭ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ‬ ‫ﺭﻓﺖ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭﺍﺑﻂ ﺯﯾﺮ‬

‫ﺟﮑﻮﺯﯼ‬

‫ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﮐﺮﺩ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺘﺮﯾﮏ‪:‬‬ ‫)‪(4‬‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (1‬ﻣﺴﯿﺮ ﺑﻬﯿﻨﻪ ﺗﺨﻠﯿﻪ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﻫﺎ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫)‪ACH = (VL / 3600 × Q‬‬

‫ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﻓﻮﻕ‪:‬‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 11‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪39‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ )‪ (1‬ﻧﺮﺥ ﺗﻌﻮﯾﺾ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺳـﺮﻋﺖ ﻫـﻮﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻓﺎﺻﻠـﻪ ‪2.4m‬‬

‫ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺩﻓﻌﺎﺕ ﺗﻌﻮﯾﺾ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ‬

‫)‪ (7.9ft‬ﺍﺯ ﺳﮑﻮﯼ ﺣﺎﺷﯿﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﻫﺎﯼ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺟﺎﯾﮕﺎﻩ ﺗﻤﺎﺷﺎﮔﺮﺍﻥ‬

‫ﭼﻬﺎﺭ ﺗﺎ ﺷﺶ ﺑﺎﺭ‬

‫ﻧﺒﺎﯾـﺪ ﺍﺯ )‪0.13m/s (25.6fpm‬‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﻫﺎﯼ ﺑﺎ ﺟﺎﯾﮕﺎﻩ ﻭﯾﮋﻩ ﺗﻤﺎﺷﺎﮔﺮﺍﻥ‬

‫ﺷﺶ ﯾﺎ ﻫﺸﺖ ﺑﺎﺭ‬

‫ﺑﯿﺸـﺘﺮ ﺑﺎﺷـﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻨﺎﺑـﺮ ﺗﻮﺻﯿـﻪ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﻫﺎﯼ ﺩﺭﻣﺎﻧﯽ‬

‫ﭼﻬﺎﺭ ﺗﺎ ﺷﺶ ﺑﺎﺭ‬

‫ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮ‬

‫‪ = ACH‬ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺩﻓﻌــﺎﺕ ﺗﻌﻮﯾﺾ ﻫﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ‬

‫ﻧﯿـﺎﺯ ﺑـﻪ ﺍﺯﺍﯼ ﻫﺮ ﻣﺘـﺮ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺍﺯ‬

‫‪ = Q‬ﻣﻘــﺪﺍﺭ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺭﻓﺖ ﺍﺭﺳــﺎﻟﯽ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮ )‪(cfm‬‬

‫‪ = VL‬ﺣﺠﻢ ﻓﻀﺎﯼ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ )‪(m3‬‬ ‫‪ = Q‬ﻣﻘــﺪﺍﺭ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺭﻓﺖ ﺍﺭﺳــﺎﻟﯽ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﻧﺮﺥ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﻫﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﺧﺼﻮﺻــﯽ ﮐﻪ ﻣــﺪﺕ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﯾﺴــﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺘﺪﺍﻭﻝ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮ )‪(m3/hr‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﻫﺎﯼ ﺍﻧﮕﻠﯿﺴﯽ‪:‬‬ ‫)‪(5‬‬

‫ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ‪ ،ASHRAE‬ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ‬

‫‪ACH = (60 × Q) / VL‬‬

‫ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﻓﻮﻕ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ = ACH‬ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺩﻓﻌــﺎﺕ ﺗﻌﻮﯾﺾ ﻫﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ‬

‫ﺳﻄﺢ ﮐﺎﺳﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮ ﻭ ﻣﮑﺎﻥﻫﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻃﻮﺏ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ‪) 9.1m3/hr‬ﺑﻪ ﺍﺯﺍﯼ‬ ‫ﻫﺮ ﻓﻮﺕ ﻣﺮﺑـﻊ ‪ (0.5cfm‬ﺩﺭﻧﻈﺮ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺟــﺪﻭﻝ )‪ (1‬ﺧﻮﺍﻫــﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ﺳــﻮﯼ‬

‫ﮐﻨﺘـﺮﻝ ﺗﻘﻄﯿـﺮ ﺑﺨـﺎﺭ ﺁﺏ ﺭﻭﯼ‬ ‫ﺳﻄﻮﺡ‬

‫ﺩﯾﮕﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﯾﻦ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﻫﺎﯼ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﯽ‬

‫ﺗﻘﻄﯿﺮ ﺑﺨــﺎﺭ ﺁﺏ ﺩﺭ ﻓﻀــﺎﯼ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﯽ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﻣــﻮﺍﺭﺩﯼ ﮐﻪ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﻧﻔﺮﺍﺕ ﺑﯿﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺪ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﻫﺎ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﺁﺳﯿﺐ ﺩﯾﺪﻥ ﺳﺎﺯﻩ‬

‫ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻝ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﺶ ﭘﯿﺪﺍ ﮐﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭ ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺕ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮ ﻧﻤﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺑﻠﮑﻪ ﺑﺴﺘﺮ‬

‫ﮐﻮﺗﺎﻩ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﭘﺎﯾﯿﻦﺗﺮ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻘﺎﺩﯾﺮ ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ‬

‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﯽ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺭﺷﺪ ﻗﺎﺭﭺﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺑﺎﮐﺘﺮﯼﻫﺎ‬

‫‪ = VL‬ﺣﺠﻢ ﻓﻀﺎﯼ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ )‪(ft3‬‬

‫ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ ﻧﺘﯿﺠﻪ ﺁﻥ ﺷــﯿﻮﻉ ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻤﺎﺭﯼﻫﺎﯼ ﭘﻮﺳﺘﯽ‪ ،‬ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﮐﯿﻔﯿﺖ ﻫﻮﺍ‬

‫ﺍﮔﺮ ﺑﺎﺯﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪﻩ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻧﺸﻮﺩ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺤﻞ ﺗﻘﻄﯿﺮ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺁﺏ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﻣﺮﻃﻮﺏ ﺷﺪﻥ ﻋﺎﯾﻖ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺳﻤﺖ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﯽﮐﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮ‬

‫‪‬ﺗﻘﻄﯿـﺮ ﺑﺨـﺎﺭ ﺁﺏ ﻣﻮﺟـﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻫـﻮﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻓﻀـﺎﯼ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﺳـﺘﺨﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺛﯿﺮ ﺑﺴـﯿﺎﺭ ﻣﺨﺮﺑـﯽ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮ ﺟﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺁﺏ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ ﻋﺎﯾﻖ‬ ‫ﺩﯾﻮﺍﺭ ﺗﻘﻄﯿﺮ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﯽﮔﺬﺍﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﯾﻦ ﺟﻠﻮﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻄﯿﺮ ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻫﺮ ﻗﯿﻤﺘﯽ ﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﮐﻪ ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺷﻮﺩ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﮔﯿﺮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﮔﺮ ﺑﺎﺯﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪﻩ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﻮﺩ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻤﺘﯽ ﺍﺯ ﻋﺎﯾﻖ ﮐﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺎ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺷﺒﻨﻢ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮ‬

‫ﺍﻭﻟﯿــﻦ ﻗﺪﻡ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺟﻠﻮﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻘﻄﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺳــﺘﺨﺮﻫﺎ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺷــﺒﻨﻢ ﻣﺤﯿﻂ ﺑﺮ ﻣﺒﻨﺎﯼ ﺷــﺮﺍﯾﻂ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﯿﻄــﯽ ﻣﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﺗﻌﯿﯿﻦ ﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﻋﺎﯾﻖ ﺧﺸﮏ‬

‫ﺑﺎﺯﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺎﺭ‬

‫ﻣﺸــﺨﺺ ﮐﺮﺩﻥ ﺍﯾــﻦ ﺩﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻃــﺮﺍﺡ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺎﻃــﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺗﻘﻄﯿــﺮ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺁﺏ ﺑﺮ‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (2‬ﻧﺤﻮﻩ ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮﺩ ﺑﺎﺯﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪﻩ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﺭﻭﯼ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺯﯾﺎﺩ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﺭﺍ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﮐﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﯾﻦ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﺟﺰﺍﯾﯽ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﻭ ﺍﻧﺘﺸــﺎﺭ ﺑﻮﻫﺎﯼ ﻧﺎﺧﻮﺷــﺎﯾﻨﺪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 12‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪39‬‬

‫ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺭﻓﺖ ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻟﯽ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻄﺢ ﻧﻮﺭﮔﯿﺮ ﺳﻘﻔﯽ‬

‫ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﻫﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﻫﻮﺍ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻄﺢ ﭘﻨﺠﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﻮﺭ ﻧﮑﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﻗﻄﺮﺍﺕ ﺁﺏ ﻣﻘﻄﺮ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ‬ ‫ﭘﻨﺠﺮﻩﻫﺎ ﺟﻤﻊ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (3‬ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﮔﺮﻡ ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻟﯽ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺍﯾﻦ ﭘﻨﺠﺮﻩﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺟﺎﺭﻭ ﮐﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺳﻄﺢ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﭘﺎﯾﯿﻦﺗﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺷﺒﻨﻢ‬

‫ﺑﺎﺯﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪﻩﻫﺎﯼ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ‬

‫ﻫﻮﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺷــﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﺯﻣﺴﺘﺎﻧﯽ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﻫﺪﻑ ﺍﺯ ﺑــﻪ ﮐﺎﺭﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺑﺎﺯﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪﻩﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﻣﻬﻢﺗﺮﯾﻦ ﻧﮑﺘﻪ ﺗﻌﯿﯿﻦ ﻣﺤﻞ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ‬

‫ﺑﺨــﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻣﺴــﺪﻭﺩ ﮐــﺮﺩﻥ ﺭﺍﻩ ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖ ﻭ‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﻧﻊ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ ﻣﯿﺎﻥ ﺩﯾﻮﺍﺭﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺟﻠﻮﮔﯿــﺮﯼ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻔﻮﺫ ﺁﻥ ﺑــﻪ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺩﯾﻮﺍﺭ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﯾــﺎ ﺳــﻘﻒ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩﯼ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ‬

‫‪‬ﻣﺘﺪﺍﻭﻝﺗﺮﯾـﻦ ﺷـﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﻃﺮﺍﺣـﯽ‬ ‫ﺍﺳـﺘﺨﺮ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺩﺍﺧـﻞ ‪27.8ºC‬‬

‫)‪ (82ºF‬ﻭ ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖ ﻧﺴـﺒﯽ ﭘﻨﺠﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺻـﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺩﻣـﺎﯼ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺷـﺒﻨﻢ‬ ‫)‪ 16.7ºC (62ºF‬ﺍﺳـﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﯼ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮ ﻣﺒﻨﺎﯼ ﻣﻘﺎﺩﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﯾﺎﺩ ﺷـﺪﻩ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﺷـﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺗﻤﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﺳﻄﻮﺣﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﮐﻤﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫)‪ 16.7ºC (62ºF‬ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﺳﻄﻮﺣﯽ‬ ‫ﻫﺴـﺘﻨﺪ ﮐـﻪ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺁﺏ ﺑـﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ‬ ‫ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺗﻘﻄﯿﺮ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺳــﻄﺢ ﺁﻥﻫــﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻣــﺎﯼ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺷــﺒﻨﻢ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﯾﯿﻦﺗﺮ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﺎﺯﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪﻩ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﻣﻬﻢﺗﺮﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﺟﺰﯾــﯽ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐــﻪ ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻈﺖ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺯﻩ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﯽﮔﯿــﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪(2‬‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻮﻩ ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮﺩ ﺑﺎﺯﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪﻩ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﺎﺯﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪﻩﻫﺎﯼ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺩﺭ ﺳــﻤﺖ ﮔﺮﻡ ﻣﺤﻞ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺷــﺒﻨﻢ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﺐ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺟﻠﻮﮔﯿـﺮﯼ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻘﻄﯿـﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ‬ ‫ﭘﻨﺠﺮﻩﻫﺎﯼ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺁﻧﺠــﺎ ﮐــﻪ ﺍﺟﺰﺍﯾﯽ ﻣﺎﻧﻨــﺪ ﺩﺭﻫﺎ ﻭ‬ ‫ﭘﻨﺠﺮﻩﻫﺎ ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻣــﺖ ﺗﻘﺮﯾﺒﺎ ﮐﻤﯽ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘــﺎﻝ ﺣــﺮﺍﺭﺕ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺳــﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺧﻠــﯽ ﺁﻥﻫــﺎ ﺍﻏﻠــﺐ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻣــﺎﯼ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ‬ ‫ﺷــﺒﻨﻢ ﭘﺎﯾﯿﻦﺗﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺣﺘﺎ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﭘﻨﺠﺮﻩﻫﺎﯼ ﺩﻭ ﯾﺎ ﺳــﻪ ﺟــﺪﺍﺭﻩ ﻧﯿﺰ ﮔﺎﻫﯽ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺩﻣــﺎﯼ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺷــﺒﻨﻢ ﻓﻀــﺎﯼ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬

‫ﺗﻤﺎﻣــﯽ ﺟﻬﺖﻫﺎ ﮐﺎﻣﻼ ﺁﺏﺑﻨﺪ ﺷــﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮ ﭘﺎﯾﯿﻦﺗﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﯾﻦ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ‬

‫ﺗﻤﺎﻣﯽ ﺩﯾﻮﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺳﻘﻒﻫﺎﯼ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ‬

‫ﺟﻠﻮﮔﯿــﺮﯼ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻘﻄﯿــﺮ ﺭﻃﻮﺑــﺖ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ‬

‫ﻣﺠﻬﺰ ﺑــﻪ ﺑﺎﺯﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪﻩ ﺑﺨﺎﺭﯼ ﺑﺎﺷــﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﺳﻄﻮﺡ ﺳــﺮﺩﯼ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﭘﻨﺠﺮﻩﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮﺍﯼ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻞ ﻣﻨﺎﺳــﺒﯽ ﺗﻌﺒﯿﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﮔﺮﻡ ﺍﺭﺳــﺎﻟﯽ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺳــﺘﺨﺮ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺍﯾﻦ‬

‫ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﯾﮏ ﻗﺎﻋــﺪﻩ ﮐﻠﯽ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺯﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪﻩ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ‬

‫ﭘﻨﺠﺮﻩﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺟﺎﺭﻭ ﮐﻨﺪ )ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ ‪.(3‬‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 13‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪39‬‬

‫ﻓﻦﺁﻭﺭﻯ‬

‫ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﻫﺎﻯ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﻯ ﺗﺒﺨﻴﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺩﺭ ﺷﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﺁﺳﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺁﺳــﺎﯾﺶ ﺍﻓــﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻮﺍﻣــﻞ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﯼ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﮐﺜﺮ ﺳــﺎﮐﻨﺎﻥ ﺍﺯ ﺧﻨﮏﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺍﺯﻗﺒﯿﻞ ﺩﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﺭﻃﻮﺑــﺖ ﻭ ﺟﺎﺑﻪ ﺟﺎﯾﯽ ﻫﻮﺍ‪،‬‬

‫ﺗﺒﺨﯿﺮﯼ ﻣﺴــﺘﻘﯿﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﺎ‬

‫ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺗﺒﺨﯿﺮﯼ ﺑﺴــﯿﺎﺭ ﮐﻤﺘﺮ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﯾﺎ‬

‫ﭘﻮﺷــﺶ ﻭ ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮓ ﺑﺴــﺘﮕﯽ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺁﻧﭽﻪ‬

‫ﻋﻼﻭﻩﺑﺮ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺧﻨﮏﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺗﺒﺨﯿﺮﯼ ﺑﺎﺯﭘﺮﺩﺍﺧﺖ ‪ 10‬ﺳﺎﻟﻪ‬

‫ﮐــﻪ ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﯾﮏ ﺷــﺨﺺ ﺩﺭ ﯾــﮏ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ‬

‫ﻏﯿﺮﻣﺴﺘﻘﯿﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﯿﺸــﺘﺮ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩﯼ‬

‫ﻧﺪﺍﺷــﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷــﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﻧﯿﺎﺯﻣﻨﺪﯼﻫﺎﯼ ﺍﺷــﺎﺭﻩ‬

‫ﺁﺭﺍﻣﺶﺑﺨــﺶ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﮑﻦ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﮐــﻪ ﺑــﻪ ﺩﻣــﺎﯼ ﺭﻓــﺖ ﮐﻤﺘﺮ ﻭ ﺳــﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﻓﻮﻕ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌــﻪ ﺩﯾﮕﺮﯼ ﺍﯾﻦﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﻧﺒﺎﺷــﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩﯼ‬

‫ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺑﯿﺸﺘﺮ ﺗﻤﺎﯾﻞ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺷﺪﻩ‬

‫ﻣﺤﺎﺳــﺒﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺩﻗﯿﻖ ﻭ ﻣﺴــﺘﻨﺪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﮐﻪ ﻣﺪﺕﻫﺎﯼ ﻃﻮﻻﻧﯽ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﻃﺒﻖ ﮔﺰﺍﺭﺷﺎﺕ ﻣﻮﺳﺴﻪ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‬

‫ﻣﺪﺍﺭﺳﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﮔﺮﻡ ﻭ ﺧﺸﮏ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ‬

‫ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺗﺮﺍﮐﻤﯽ ﺯﻧﺪﮔﯽ‬

‫ﺗﺒﺨﯿﺮﯼ‪ 90٪ ،‬ﺍﻣﺎﮐﻦ ﻣﺴــﮑﻮﻧﯽ ﻭ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ‬

‫ﺷﺪﻩﺍﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﻋﯿﻦ ﺣﺎﻝ ﮐﻪ ﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪ ﻣﺼﺮﻓﯽ‬

‫ﮐﺮﺩﻩﺍﻧــﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﮑﻦ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻣﺤﯿﻂﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﺭﺍ‬

‫‪ 40٪‬ﺍﺯ ﺗﺎﺳﯿﺴــﺎﺕ ﺗﺠــﺎﺭﯼ ﺩﺭ ﺍﯾﺎﻟــﺖ‬

‫ﺭﺍ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﻣﯽﺩﻫﻨﺪ ﺁﺳﺎﯾﺶ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﯽ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ‬

‫ﮐﻪ ﺑــﻪ ﺭﻭﺵ ﻣﺼﻨﻮﻋــﯽ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺳــﯿﻠﻪ ﺍﯾﻦ‬

‫ﻧﯿﻮﻣﮑﺰﯾﮑــﻮ‪ ،‬ﻣﺠﻬﺰ ﺑــﻪ ﺧﻨﮏﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ‪ 100‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺍﺯ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﯽ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎ ﺧﻨﮏ ﺷــﺪﻩﺍﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑــﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ‬

‫ﺗﺒﺨﯿﺮﯼ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﻋﻼﻭﻩ ﺑﺮ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺑﯿﺸــﺘﺮ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﺱ‬

‫ﻓﻀﺎﯾــﯽ ﺭﺍﺣﺖ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﻧﺪﺍﺷــﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷــﻨﺪ‪،‬‬

‫ﻣﺪﺍﺭﺱ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﻃــﯽ ﮔﺮﻡﺗﺮﯾﻦ ﻭ ﻣﺮﻃﻮﺏﺗﺮﯾﻦ ﻣﺎﻩﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺩﺭﺣﺎﻟﯽﮐــﻪ ﺍﻓــﺮﺍﺩﯼ ﮐــﻪ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺸــﯽ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻨﺎﺯﻝ ﻭ ﻣﺤﻞ ﮐﺎﺭﺷﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣــﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﻣﯽﺩﻫﻨــﺪ‪ ،‬ﺳــﻌﯽ‬ ‫ﻣﯽﮐﻨﻨﺪ ﺩﺭ ﻃــﻮﻝ ﺭﻭﺯﻫﺎﯼ ﮔﺮﻡ ﺍﺯ ﺑﯿﺮﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺁﻣﺪﻥ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻨﺰﻝ ﺍﺟﺘﻨﺎﺏ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻣﺎﮐﻦ ﻣﺴﮑﻮﻧﯽ‬

‫ﻻﺯﻡ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﺩﺭ ﻣــﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺟﺪﯾــﺪ‬

‫ﺳﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﻄﯿﻞ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﯾﻦ‪ ،‬ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‬

‫ﻧﯿﻮﻣﮑﺰﯾﮑــﻮ‪ ،‬ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺗﺒﺨﯿــﺮﯼ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﺗﺒﺨﯿﺮﯼ ﻣﻨﺎﺳــﺐﺗﺮﯾﻦ ﮔﺰﯾﻨﻪ ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﺍﯾﻦ‬

‫ﻃــﻮﻝ ﻣﺮﺣﻠــﻪ ﻃﺮﺍﺣــﯽ‪ ،‬ﻧﯿﺎﺯﻣﻨﺪﯼﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﻣــﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺎﻟﻌﮑﺲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﺶ‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩﻫﺎﯼ ﺑﺎﺯﺩﻫﯽ ﺍﻧــﺮﮊﯼ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ‬

‫ﻃﻮﻝ ﺳــﺎﻝ ﺗﺤﺼﯿﻠﯽ ﺗﺎ ﺁﮔﻮﺳﺖ ﯾﺎ ﮊﻭﺋﻦ‪،‬‬

‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺖ ﻭ ﺗﻌﻤﯿــﺮ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻣــﺪﺍﺭﺱ‬

‫ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﯾﺎ ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ ﺭﺍﺣﺘﯽ ﮐﻼﺱﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ‬

‫ﻋﻤﻮﻣــﯽ ﺩﺭ ﺳــﭙﺘﺎﻣﺒﺮ ‪ ،1995‬ﻣــﻮﺭﺩ‬

‫ﺑﺎﻻ ﻣﯽﺑﺮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‬

‫ﺍﺭﺯﯾﺎﺑﯽ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﮔﯿﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﯾﻦ ﻧﯿﺎﺯﻣﻨﺪﯼﻫﺎ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ‬

‫ﻣــﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺗﺮﺍﮐﻢ ﺑﯿﺸــﺘﺮﯼ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺧﻮﺩ‬

‫ﺗﺒﺨﯿــﺮﯼ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺮﺍﺳــﺮ ﻣﻨﺎﻃــﻖ ﮔــﺮﻡ ﻭ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺗﺒﺨﯿﺮﯼ‬

‫ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﻣﯽﺩﻫﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﺟﻬﺖ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺖ ﺑﺎ‬

‫ﺧﺸــﮏ ﺟﻨــﻮﺏ ﻏﺮﺑــﯽ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﺮﯼ ﻣﺮﺳــﻮﻡ‬

‫ﻏﯿﺮﻣﺴﺘﻘﯿﻢ ﻭ ﺗﺮﺍﮐﻤﯽ ﺭﺍ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩﻫﺎﯼ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﻭ ﻣﺘــﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ‬

‫ﻫﯿﺒﺮﯾــﺪﯼ ﻭ ﺗﺒﺨﯿــﺮﯼ ﻣﺴــﺘﻘﯿﻢ؛ ﯾﺎ ﺩﺭ‬

‫‪ ،ASHRAE 62‬ﻣــﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺣﻔﻆ‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺨﺶﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺴﮑﻮﻧﯽ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ‬

‫ﻣﺠﺎﻭﺭﺕ ﻓﻀﺎﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﭘﯿﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺍﯾﻦ‬

‫ﮐﯿﻔﯿــﺖ ﻣﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻫــﻮﺍﯼ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﯽ ﺩﺭ ﻃﻮﻝ‬

‫ﺑــﻪ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺗﺠــﺎﺭﯼ ﮐﻮﭼﮏﺗــﺮ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﮐﻤــﮏ ﻣﺒﺮﺩﻫﺎ ﺧﻨﮏ ﺷــﺪﻩﺍﻧﺪ؛ ﯾﺎ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﺳﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺩﺭﺳﯽ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺯﺍﯼ ﻫﺮ ﻧﻔﺮ ﺣﺪﻭﺩﺍ‬

‫ﻫﺴــﺘﻨﺪ ﺍﻣﺎ ﺍﺟﺰﺍﯼ ﺍﺳﺎﺳﯽ ﻭ ﺍﻭﻟﯿﻪ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻓﻀﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺸﯽ ﺑﺎﻻﯾﯽ‬

‫‪ 15‬ﻓــﻮﺕ ﻣﮑﻌﺐ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻗﯿﻘﻪ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﯽ‬

‫ﺍﺯﻗﺒﯿﻞ ﻓﻦ ﺭﻓﺖ‪ ،‬ﺗﺸــﺘﮏ ﺁﺏ‪ ،‬ﭘﻤﭗ ﺁﺏ‬

‫ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻣــﺪﺕ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﮐﻮﺗﺎﻫــﯽ ﺗﺠﺮﺑﻪ ﮐﺮﺩﻩ‬

‫ﺗﺎﻣﯿﻦ ﻧﻤﺎﯾﻨــﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﯾﻦ ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ‪ 20‬ﺗﺎ‬

‫ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ﺗﺒﺨﯿــﺮﯼ‪ ،‬ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﺍﻧﺸــﻌﺎﺑﯽ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺳﺎﻟﻦﻫﺎﯼ ﺳﺨﻨﺮﺍﻧﯽ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ‬

‫‪ 40٪‬ﺍﺯ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻉ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺁﺏ ﻭ ﺑﺴــﺘﺮﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺮﻃﻮﺏ ﻭ ﺻﻠﺐ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ‬

‫ﻣﯽﻧﻤﺎﯾﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﯽﮐﻪ ﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪ ﺳــﺎﺧﺖ‬


‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 14‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪39‬‬

‫ﺗﺮﺍﮐﻤﯽ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪ .‬ﻫــﻮﺍﯼ ﺧﺎﺭﺟــﯽ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺗﺎ‬

‫ﭘﻮﺷــﺎﻟﯽ ﮐﻢﻇﺮﻓﯿﺖ ﺍﺣﺘﯿﺎﺝ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﻃﻮﻝ‬

‫ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﯽ ﺳــﯽﻭﭘﻨﺞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﭘﺸﺖﺑﺎﻣﯽ‪،‬‬

‫ﺣﺪﺍﮐﺜﺮ ‪ 90ºF‬ﻭ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ‪ 50ºF‬ﺳﺮﺩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ‬

‫ﻋﻤــﺮ ﺑﺴــﺘﺮﻫﺎﯼ ﺁﻥﻫــﺎ ﺑﯿﺸــﺘﺮ ﻭ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬

‫ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺍﺗﺎﻕﻫﺎ ﻭ ﮔﺰﺍﺭﺵ ﻫﺸﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬

‫ﺁﻥﮔﺎﻩ ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﯾﮏ ﺑﺎﺭ ﻋﺒﻮﺭ ﺍﺯ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ‪،‬‬

‫ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﯼﺷــﺎﻥ ﮐﻤﺘــﺮ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﻫﻤﺎﻧﻄﻮﺭ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﭘﺮﺳﻨﻞ ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﯼ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎ ﺑﺮ‬

‫ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ‬

‫ﮐــﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺨﺶ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺑﺴــﺘﺮﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﯼ ﮔﺴــﺘﺮﺩﻩ ﺗﺎﮐﯿﺪ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ ﻭ ﺗﻮﺻﯿﻪ‬

‫ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺸــﯽ‪ ،‬ﺑﺴﯿﺎﺭ ﭘﺮﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪ‬

‫ﺗﺒﺨﯿﺮﯼ ﺍﺷــﺎﺭﻩ ﺷــﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﻭﺍﺳــﻄﻪ ﺳﻄﺢ‬

‫ﻣﯽﮐﻨﻨــﺪ ﮐﻪ ﻧﺒﺎﯾﺪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺪﺕ ﻫﻔﺖ ﺳــﺎﻝ‬

‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺨﺶﻫﺎﯼ ﺧﺎﺻﯽ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﺱ‬

‫ﺑﺰﺭﮒﺗﺮ ﺑﺴﺘﺮﻫﺎﯼ ﺻﻠﺐ‪ ،‬ﺗﺎﺛﯿﺮ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺸﯽ‬

‫ﮐﺎﺭﮐﺮﺩ ﺑﺴــﺘﺮ ﺻﻠﺐ‪ ،‬ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻌﻮﯾﺾ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﮐﻪ ﺑــﻪ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺯﯾــﺎﺩ ﺍﺣﺘﯿﺎﺝ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪،‬‬

‫ﺑﯿﺸﺘﺮ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﯼ ﺟﺪﯾﺪ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻣﺸﮑﻼﺗﯽ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﺍﺯﻗﺒﯿﻞ ﺁﺷﭙﺰﺧﺎﻧﻪﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺭﺳﺘﻮﺭﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﺳﺎﻟﻦﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺳــﺎﯾﺮ ﺍﻧــﻮﺍﻉ ﺑﺴــﺘﺮﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺮﮐﯿــﺐ‬

‫ﻭﺭﺯﺷﯽ‪ ،‬ﺭﺧﺘﮑﻦﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺳﺎﻟﻦ ﺳﺨﻨﺮﺍﻧﯽ‪ ،‬ﺗﺎ‬

‫ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺗﺒﺨﯿﺮﯼ ﻭ ﺗﺮﺍﮐﻤﯽ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻫﯿﺒﺮﯾﺪﯼ‬

‫ﺣﺪ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﻮﺟﻬﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‬

‫ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﯽﮔﯿﺮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﯾﮑﯽ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝﮔﺮﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﺗﺒﺨﯿﺮﯼ ﺑﻬﺮﻩ ﻣﯽﺑﺮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﯾﻦ ﺑﺨﺶﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺎﺭ‬

‫ﺭﻭﺵﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺗﺒﺨﯿﺮﯼ ﻏﯿﺮﻣﺴﺘﻘﯿﻢ‬

‫ﻧــﮑﺎﺕ ﮐﻨﺘــﺮﻝ ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺗﺒﺨﯿــﺮﯼ ﺭﺍ‬

‫ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺸﯽ ﻭ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺸﯽ ﺑﺎﻻ ﻭ ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ‬

‫)ﮐﻪ ﺑــﻪ ﻫــﻮﺍ ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺘــﯽ ﻧﻤﯽﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾــﺪ( ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺑــﺎ ﮐﻨﺘــﺮﻝ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺳــﺮﺩ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﯾﮑﭙﺎﺭﭼﻪ‬

‫ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺑﯿﺸــﺘﺮﯼ ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩﺍﺭ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ‬

‫ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﭘﯿﺶﺳــﺮﺩﮐﻨﯽ ﺩﺭ ﮐﻮﯾﻞ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‬

‫ﻣﯽﮐﻨﻨــﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﯾﻦ ﺍﻣﺮ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝﮔﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺗﺒﺨﯿﺮﯼ ﮐﻪ ‪100٪‬‬

‫ﺗﺮﺍﮐﻤــﯽ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﯽﮐﻨــﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﯾﻦ ﺭﻭﺵ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺩﻫﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻃــﻮﺭ ﺧﻮﺩﮐﺎﺭ ﺭﺍﺣﺘﯽ ﻓﻀﺎ‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺧﺎﺭﺟــﯽ ﺑﻬﺮﻩ ﻣﯽﮔﯿﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﯾﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‬

‫ﺍﻣــﮑﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﮔﺸــﺖ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺭﺍ‬

‫ﺭﺍ ﺗﺤــﺖ ﺷــﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﺁﺏﻭﻫﻮﺍﯾــﯽ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‪،‬‬

‫ﺗﺮﮐﯿﺒﯽ ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺗﺒﺨﯿﺮﯼ ﻣﺴــﺘﻘﯿﻢ ‪+‬‬

‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺳــﺮﺩﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺗﺒﺨﯿﺮﯼ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ‬

‫ﺣﻔﻆ ﻧﻤﺎﯾﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻣﯿﮑﺮﻭﭘﺮﻭﺳﺴــﻮﺭﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺒﺴﺎﻁ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﯿﻢ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﯽﮐﻨــﺪ‪ .‬ﺭﻭﺵ ﺩﯾﮕﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺗﺒﺨﯿﺮﯼ‪،‬‬

‫ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧــﺪ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺭﻓﺖ‬

‫ﺑﺮﺧﯽ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‬

‫ﮐﻤﮏ ﻣﯽﮐﻨــﺪ ﮐﻪ ﮐﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴــﻮﺭ ﻫﻮﺍﯾﯽ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﻭ ﺑﺮﮔﺸــﺖ ﻭ ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﻓﺼــﻞ ﺗﺎﺑﺴــﺘﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ﮐﻼﺱ ﺍﺯ ﯾﮏ‬

‫ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ﺗﺮﺍﮐﻤﯽ ﺑــﺎ ﺑﺎﺯﺩﻫﯽ ﺑﯿﺸــﺘﺮﯼ‬

‫ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺧﻮﺩﮐﺎﺭﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺸــﯽ‬

‫ﺧﻨﮏﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻟﯽ ﺑﺎ ﺑﺴــﺘﺮ ﭘﻮﺷــﺎﻟﯽ‬

‫ﻓﻌﺎﻟﯿﺖ ﮐﻨﻨــﺪ ﺍﻣﺎ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺍﻣﺮ ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ‬

‫ﻣﺴــﺘﻘﯿﻢ ﻭ ﻏﯿﺮﻣﺴــﺘﻘﯿﻢ‪ ،‬ﮐﻮﯾﻞ ﺗﺒﺮﯾﺪﯼ‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﻨــﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﯾــﻦ ﻣــﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﺳــﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﮐﺎﺭﮐﺮﺩ ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳــﻮﺭ ﻧﻤﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭ ﺩﻣﭙﺮﻫﺎﯼ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺭﺍ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻫﺮ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻫﺰﯾﻨــﻪ ﺍﻭﻟﯿﻪ ﺍﻧﺪﮎ‪ ،‬ﻧﺼﺐ ﺁﺳــﺎﻥ‪،‬‬

‫ﭘﯿﺶﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺗﺒﺨﯿﺮﯼ ﮐﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴﻮﺭ ﻫﻮﺍﯾﯽ‬

‫ﺗﺮﮐﯿﺒﯽ ﮐﻪ ﻣﻮﺛﺮ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﯽ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬

‫ﮐﻨﺘــﺮﻝ ﺭﺍﺣــﺖ ﻭ ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮﺩ ﺍﻗﺘﺼــﺎﺩﯼ ﺭﺍ‬

‫ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺗﺮﺍﮐﻤــﯽ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﺟــﺐ ﺫﺧﯿﺮﻩ‬

‫ﺩﻫــﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﯾﻦ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝﮔﺮﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻃﻮﻝ ﻣﺪﺗﯽ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﺗﺮﺟﯿــﺢ ﻣﯽﺩﻫﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻣﻌﺎﯾﺐ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ ﺍﻣﺎ ﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﯼ‬

‫ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ﻏﯿﺮﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺩﻣﭙﺮﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﮐﻮﭼﮏﺗﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﯼ‬

‫ﺭﺍ ﺑــﻪ ﺁﻥ ﻣﯽﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﮑﻦ‬

‫ﻫــﻮﺍﯼ ﺧﺎﺭﺟــﯽ ﺭﺍ ﻣﺴــﺪﻭﺩ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﻨــﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﯿﺸــﺘﺮ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺑــﻪ ﺩﻟﯿــﻞ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺑﯿﺸــﺘﺮ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺖ ﭘﯿﺶﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺗﺒﺨﯿﺮﯼ‪ ،‬ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﯼ‬

‫ﻃﺒﯿﻌﺘﺎ ﭼﻨﯿﻦ ﻫﻮﺍﺳﺎﺯﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﭘﺮﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ‬

‫ﺍﯾــﻦ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺗﺎﺛﯿــﺮ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺸــﯽ ﮐﻤﺘﺮ‪،‬‬

‫ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳــﻮﺭ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺍﺳﻄﻪ ﺩﻣﺎ ﻭ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﮐﻤﺘﺮ‬

‫ﻭ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﻫﺎﯼ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺗﺒﺨﯿﺮﯼ‬

‫ﻧﻔﻮﺫﭘﺬﯾﺮﯼ ﺑﯿﺸــﺘﺮ ﺑﺎﻡ ﻭ ﻃﻮﻝ ﻋﻤﺮ ﮐﻮﺗﺎﻩ‬

‫ﮐﺎﺭﮐﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﺩﻫﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺘــﺪﺍﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﺑــﻪ ﺗﮑﻨﺴــﯿﻦﻫﺎﯼ ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﯼ‬

‫ﻟﺤﺎﻅ ﮐﯿﻔﯿﺖ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﯽ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﺴﺘﺮﻫﺎﯼ ﺗﺒﺨﯿﺮﯼ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﺭﻭﺵ ﻓﻌﻠــﯽ ﺑﺨﺶﻫــﺎﯼ ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‬

‫ﮐﺎﺭﺁﺯﻣــﻮﺩﻩﺍﯼ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺑــﺎ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‪،‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪﻫــﺎﯼ ﺑﺴــﺘﺮ ﺻﻠــﺐ ﻫﻤــﺮﺍﻩ ﯾﺎ‬

‫ﺗﺒﺨﯿــﺮﯼ ﻣﺴــﺘﻘﯿﻢ ﻭ ﻏﯿﺮﻣﺴــﺘﻘﯿﻢ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ‬

‫ﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪ ﺩﻭﺭﻩ ﺑﻬﺮﻩﺑــﺮﺩﺍﺭﯼ ﺍﺯ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﻫﺎ‪،‬‬

‫ﺑــﺪﻭﻥ ﺑﺨﺶﻫــﺎﯼ ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺗﺒﺨﯿﺮﯼ‬

‫ﺑﺎﺯﯾﺎﺑــﯽ ﺣــﺮﺍﺭﺕ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺗﺨﻠﯿــﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻼﻭﻩ‬

‫ﮐﻤﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻟﯽ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﻧﻈﺎﺭﺕ‬

‫ﻏﯿﺮﻣﺴــﺘﻘﯿﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﮔﺴﺘﺮﺵ ﺷﺮﺍﯾﻂ‬

‫ﮐﻮﯾــﻞ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺳــﺮﺩ ﺷــﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﯾﮏ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‬

‫ﺯﻭﺩﻫﻨــﮕﺎﻡ ﺑﺮﺑﺎﺯﺩﻫﯽ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﺍﺗﺮ ﺍﺯ ﻋﻤﺮ‬

‫ﺭﺍﺣﺘــﯽ ﺑــﻪ ﮐﺎﺭﺑــﺮﺩﻩ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﭼﻨﯿﻦ‬

‫ﺗﺮﮐﯿــﺐ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﯾﮑــﯽ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﺳــﯽ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﯾﯽ ﺩﺭ ﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪ‬

‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﻓﻀﺎﻫﺎﯼ ﺑــﺰﺭﮒ ﯾﺎ ﮐﻮﭼﮑﯽ ﺭﺍ‬

‫ﻣﻮﻓﻖ ﺷــﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ﻫﯿﺒﺮﯾﺪﯼ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻮﻉ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﻃﺒــﻖ ﻣﺤﺎﺳــﺒﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﺧــﻮﺩ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﻣﯽﺩﻫﻨــﺪ؛ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻟﯿﻞ‬

‫ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺗﺒﺨﯿﺮﯼ ‪ -‬ﺗﺮﺍﮐﻤﯽ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬

‫ﮐﺎﺭﮐﺮﺩ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩﻫﺎﯼ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﺗﻘﺮﯾﺒﺎ‬

‫ﺗﻌــﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﻫــﺎﯼ ﮐﻤﺘــﺮﯼ ﮐﻪ ﻧﺴــﺒﺖ‬

‫ﻧﻤﺎﯾﺪ‪ ،‬ﺩﺑﯿﺮﺳــﺘﺎﻥ »ﺭﯾﻮ ﺭﺍﻧﺸــﻮ« ﺑﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ‬

‫‪ 35‬ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪ ﺍﻭﻟﯿﻪ ﻋﻤﺮ ﯾﮏ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ‬

‫ﺑــﻪ ﺧﻨﮏﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩﻫــﺎﯼ ﻣﺠﻬــﺰ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺴــﺘﺮ‬

‫ﮐﻨﺘــﺮﻝ ﻣﯿﮑﺮﻭﭘﺮﻭﺳﺴــﻮﺭﯼ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻧﯿﮑﯽ‪،‬‬

‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 15‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪39‬‬

‫ﺍﻣﺎﮐﻦ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﯼ‬

‫ﺗﺒﺨﯿــﺮﯼ ﺍﺯ ﻟﺤﺎﻅ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﯼ ﺑﻪ ﻭﯾﮋﻩ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ‬

‫ﯾﺎ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﭘﻮﺩﺭﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﯾﮏ‬

‫ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺗﺒﺨﯿﺮﯼ‪ ،‬ﺭﻭﺵ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺸﯽ‬

‫ﻓﺮﺍﯾﻨﺪﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ ﻓﺮﺍﻭﺍﻧﯽ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ‬

‫ﻫﯿﻮﻣﯿﺪﯾﺴــﺘﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﻓﻀﺎﯼ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﺗﺤﺖ‬

‫ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﯽ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ‪ 40٪‬ﺍﺩﺍﺭﻩﻫﺎ‪،‬‬

‫ﺧﺎﺭﺟﯽ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺭ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺸﯽ ﺑﺎﻻ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‬

‫ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﯽﮔﯿﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﯿﺪ‬

‫ﻓﺮﻭﺷﮕﺎﻩﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺒﺎﺭﯼﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺭﺧﺘﺸﻮﯼﺧﺎﻧﻪﻫﺎ‪،‬‬

‫ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺕ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺸــﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺁﺏ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬

‫ﮐﻪ ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖﺯﻧﯽ ﺗﺒﺨﯿــﺮﯼ ﺩﺭ ﻓﺼﻞ ﮔﺮﻣﺎ‪،‬‬

‫ﺁﺷــﭙﺰﺧﺎﻧﻪﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻣﮑﺎﻥﻫﺎﯼ ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺷﯽ ﺍﯾﺎﻟﺖ‬

‫ﻣﯽﮐﻨﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﺑﻞﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﺟﺒــﺮﺍﻥ ﻭ ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ ﺗﺎﺛﯿﺮ ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫ﺗﺒﺨﯿــﺮﯼ‪ ،‬ﺑــﻪ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯼ ﺑﯿﺸــﺘﺮﯼ ﺍﺣﺘﯿﺎﺝ‬

‫ﻧﯿﻮﻣﮑﺰﯾﮑﻮ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﺷﻤﺎﺭ ﻣﯽﺭﻭﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﯿﺸﺘﺮ ﻣﺮﺍﮐﺰ‬

‫ﺑﺴــﯿﺎﺭﯼ ﺍﺯ ﻓﺮﺍﯾﻨﺪﻫــﺎﯼ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗــﯽ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﺟﺪﯾﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻣﺎﮐﻦ‬

‫ﻗﺒﯿﻞ ﺟﻮﺷــﮑﺎﺭﯼ‪ ،‬ﻓــﺮﺯﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﻭ ﺁﻫﻨﮕﺮﯼ‬

‫ﺗﺠﺎﺭﯼ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﯼ ﺑﺴﺘﺮ‬

‫ﺑــﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺧــﺎﺭﺝ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻥ ﻫــﻮﺍﯼ ﮔﺮﻡ ﻭ‬

‫ﺻﻠﺒﯽ ﺑﻪ ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ ‪ 12‬ﺍﯾﻨﭻ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺧﯽ‬

‫ﺗﻌﻮﯾﺾ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺎ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺗﻤﯿﺰ ﺳــﺮﺩ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﻣﻮﻗﻌﯿﺖﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﺑﺎﺯﺩﻫﯽ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﻭ‬

‫ﻧﯿﺰ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺑﻬﺘــﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﺑﺨﺶﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺭﻭﺵ ﺗﺒﺨﯿﺮﯼ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‬

‫ﺭﺍﺣﺘﯽ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺑﺴــﯿﺎﺭﯼ ﺍﺯ ﺷــﻬﺮﻫﺎﯼ ﺍﯾﺎﻟﺖ‬

‫ﺧﻨﮏﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺗﺒﺨﯿﺮﯼ ﻏﯿﺮﻣﺴــﺘﻘﯿﻢ ﺑﻬﺮﻩ‬

‫ﺗﺒﺨﯿﺮﯼ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‬

‫ﻧﯿﻮﻣﮑﺰﯾﮑــﻮ ﻭﺟــﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺑﺮﻧــﺪ‪ .‬ﭼﻨﯿﻦ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﻫﺎﯾــﯽ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﺟﻬﺖ‬

‫ﻣﻮﺿﻌــﯽ ﺩﺭ ﮐﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﺑــﺰﺭﮒ‪ ،‬ﺗﻮﻟﯿﺪ‬

‫ﻣﺪﺭﺳــﻪﺍﯼ‪ ،‬ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺕ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺸــﯽ ﻧﺼﺐ‬

‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﺶ ﺑﯿﺸــﺘﺮ ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﯾــﯽ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ‪،‬‬

‫ﺑﺮﻕ‪ ،‬ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﻭ ﻣﺮﺍﮐﺰ ﻣﻮﻧﺘﺎﮊ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻧﯿﮑﯽ‪،‬‬

‫ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻩ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺗﺎ ﺣﺪﯼ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﻭﺳــﯿﻠﻪ ﺗﺮﻣﻮﺳــﺘﺎﺕ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺗﺒﺨﯿﺮﯼ ﺑﻬﺮﻩ ﮔﺮﻓﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺸــﺨﺺ ﻭ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪ ﺍﻭﻟﯿﻪ ﻭ‬

‫ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺗــﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺷــﺪﯾﺪ ﺩﻣﺎ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ‬

‫ﻣﻔﯿﺪﺗﺮﯾــﻦ ﻭ ﺑﯿﺸــﺘﺮﯾﻦ ﺯﻣﯿﻨــﻪ ﻣﺼﺮﻓﯽ‬

‫ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﯼ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ ﺍﻗﻼﻡ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺗﯽ ﺭﺍ ﺷــﺎﻣﻞ‬

‫ﺩﺍﺭﻧــﺪ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﻫــﻮﺍﯼ ﺳﺮﺩﺷــﺪﻩ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬

‫ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺳــﺮﺩ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺑﻪ ﺭﻭﺵ ﺗﺒﺨﯿﺮﯼ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭﯼﮐــﻪ ﺍﺭﺯﯾﺎﺑﯽ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ‬

‫ﻣﯽﮐﻨﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪ ﺟﻬﺖ ﭘﯿﺶﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‬

‫ﭘﯿﺶﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻫﻮﺍﯾﯽ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﯾﻖ‬

‫ﺳــﺎﻟﯿﺎﻧﻪ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺩﺭ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﮔﻮﻧﺎﮔﻮﻥ‬

‫ﻫﻮﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺟﻬﺖ ﮐﻮﯾﻞ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺳﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﺗﻮﺭﺑﯿﻦ ﮔﺎﺯﯼ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﮊﻧﺮﺍﺗﻮﺭﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺗﺒﺨﯿﺮﯼ ﻧﯿﺰ ﺑﻬﺮﻩ ﺑﺒﺮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﭘﺎﯾﯿﻦﺗﺮ‬

‫ﯾﮑﯽ ﺩﯾﮕــﺮ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺼﺎﺭﻑ ﮔﺴــﺘﺮﺩﻩ ﺗﺎﺛﯿﺮﺍﺕ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﻋــﻼﻭﻩ ﭼﮕﺎﻟﯽ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﺶ ﯾﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﻭ ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖ‬

‫ﺗﺒﺨﯿــﺮﯼ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺨــﺶ ﺗﺠــﺎﺭﯼ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺝﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﻫﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﻃﺮﺯ ﭼﺸــﻤﮕﯿﺮﯼ ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮﺩ ﺍﯾﻦ‬

‫ﺧﻨﮏﮐﻨﻨــﺪﻩ ﺗﺒﺨﯿﺮﯼ ﻭ ﮐﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴــﻮﺭﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﺶ ﻣﯽﺩﻫﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﺒﺨﯿﺮﯼ ﻫﺴــﺘﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺩﻓﻊ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺕ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖﺯﻧﯽ‬

‫ﻣﯽﮔﯿﺮﻧــﺪ‪ .‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯼ ﻧﻬــﺎﻥ ﺗﺒﺨﯿﺮ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ‬

‫ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﺴــﯿﺘﻪ ﺳــﺎﮐﻦ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﺩﺭ ﻓﻀﺎﻫﺎﯾﯽ‬

‫ﻗﺎﺑﻞﺗﻮﺟﻬــﯽ‪ ،‬ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺕ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﯼ ﺗﻮﻟﯿﺪﯼ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﻧﺘﺎﮊ ﯾﺎ‬

‫ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩﻫﺎﯼ ﺩﻓﻊ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﯽ ﺑﺎﻻ ﻣﯽﺑﺮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺁﺯﻣﺎﯾﺸــﮕﺎﻫﯽ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺍﺿﺎﻓﻪ‬

‫ﺷــﺎﻣﻞ ﺁﺷــﭙﺰﺧﺎﻧﻪﻫﺎ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ ‪100٪‬‬

‫ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒــﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﭘﯿﺶ ﺍﺯ ﻫــﺮ ﺍﻗﺪﺍﻣﯽ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺧﺼﻮﺹ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﻭ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ‪ ،‬ﺣﺎﺋﺰ ﺍﻫﻤﯿﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﯽ ﮐﻪ ﯾﮏ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﻧﺼﺐ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪ ﺗﻌﻮﯾﺾ ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ‪ 2‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 3‬ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺑﯿﺸﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪ ﻧﺼﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻭﻟﯿﻪ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ ﮐــﻪ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺍﻣﺮ ﻏﺎﻟﺒــﺎ ﺍﺯ ﻟﺤﺎﻅ‬

‫ﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺭﻓــﻊ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺍﯾﻨﺪ ﺗﺒﺨﯿﺮﯼ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺯﯾﺮﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﯾﻦ ﺭﻭﺵ ﻧﺴــﺒﺖ ﺑــﻪ ﺷــﯿﻮﻩﻫﺎﯼ ﺩﯾﮕﺮ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﭽﻮﻥ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﯾﺎ ﺭﯾﺰﺳــﺎﺯﯼ‪ 1‬ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﻓﺸﺮﺩﻩ‬

‫ﺗﻌﻮﯾﺾ ﻭ ﺍﺻﻼﺡ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺨﯿﺮﯼ ﺑﺎ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺗﺮﺍﮐﻤﯽ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻤــﻮﻻ ﺑﻪ ﺷــﺒﮑﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝ ﮔﺴــﺘﺮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺍﺻﻼﺣــﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ ﻧﯿﺎﺯﻣﻨﺪ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﻤﯿﺸــﻪ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﻫــﺎﯼ ﺗﺮﺍﮐﻤﯽ ﺑــﻪ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﺸﺘﺮﯼ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺗﺒﺨﯿﺮﯼ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﺣﺘﯿﺎﺝ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ )ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ‪ 3‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 5‬ﮐﯿﻠﻮﻭﺍﺕ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﯾﺴﻪ ﺑﺎ ‪ 0.5‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 1.5‬ﮐﯿﻠﻮﻭﺍﺕ(‪ ،‬ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﯾﻦ‬

‫ﻫــﻮﺍﯼ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺗﺒﺨﯿــﺮﯼ‪،‬‬

‫ﺷــﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﮐﻤﺘﺮﯼ ﻣﺼــﺮﻑ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﯾــﻖ ﻫﻮﺩﻫــﺎﯼ ﻭﺳــﺎﯾﻞ ﺁﺷــﭙﺰﯼ‪،‬‬

‫ﺍﯾﻦ ﻓﺮﺍﯾﻨﺪ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺳــﯿﻠﻪ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ‬

‫ﮐﺎﺑﻞﮐﺸﯽ ﻭ ﺳﺎﯾﺮ ﻣﻮﻟﻔﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ ﺁﻥ‬

‫ﮔﻠﺨﺎﻧﻪﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺭﺧﺘﺸــﻮﯼﺧﺎﻧﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﺻﻨﻌﺘﯽ‪،‬‬

‫ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺗﺒﺨﯿﺮﯼ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻟﯽ ﯾﺎ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ ﯾﺎﺑﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﮐﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﺠــﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺒﺎﺭﯼﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻣﺮﺍﮐﺰ ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﯼ‬

‫ﭘﻮﺩﺭﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﮔﺮﯾــﺰ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺮﮐﺰ ﺗﻮﮐﺎﺭ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ‬

‫ﻋــﻼﻭﻩ ﺑــﺮ ﻫﺰﯾﻨــﻪ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺮﻕ‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﺣﯿﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺗﺨﻠﯿﻪ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‬

‫ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮﺩ ﭘﻤﭗ ﺁﺏ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ ﺗﺒﺨﯿﺮﯼ‬

‫ﻣﺼﺮﻓﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻗﺒﻮﺽ ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﮐﯿﻠﻮﻭﺍﺕ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﯾﮏ ﭼﯿﻠﺮ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺸــﯽ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬

‫ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪﻫﺎﯾــﯽ ﺍﺯ ﻓﺮﺍﯾﻨــﺪ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺸــﯽ‪،‬‬

‫ﮐﺎﺭﺍﯾﯽ ﻭ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ‬

‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﯼ ﻣﻘﺮﻭﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺻﺮﻓﻪ ﻧﯿﺴﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﮐﻨﺘــﺮﻝ ﺁﺳــﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺭﻓــﻊ‬

‫ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‬

‫ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 16‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪39‬‬

‫ﺳــﺎﻋﺖ ﻗﯿﺪ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﻤــﻮﻻ ﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻫﯿﺎﻧﻪ ﺩﯾﮕﺮﯼ ﻧﯿﺰ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﮐﻪ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ‬

‫ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺩﺭ ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺗﺒﺨﯿﺮﯼ‬

‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖ ‪ 100٪‬ﺑﯿﺎﻧﮕﺮ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﺑﯿﺸــﺘﺮﯾﻦ ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ ﺑﺮﻕ ﻣــﻮﺭﺩ ﺗﻘﺎﺿﺎﯼ‬

‫ﻫﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺷــﺒﯿﻪ ﺭﻭﺷــﻦ ﻧﻤــﻮﺩﻥ ﯾﮏ ﻻﻣﭗ‬

‫ﮐــﻪ ﻫﻮﺍ ﮐﻞ ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺘﯽ ﺭﺍ ﮐﻪ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧﺴــﺘﻪ‪،‬‬

‫ﻣﺸﺘﺮﮐﯿﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺷﻠﻮﻍﺗﺮﯾﻦ ﺳﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﺟــﺰﺍﯼ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ ﯾﮏ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ‬

‫ﺩﺭﯾﺎﻓﺖ ﮐﺮﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﻫﺮﭼﻪ ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖ ﮐﻤﺘﺮ‬

‫ﺭﻭﺯ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﯽﻧﻤﺎﯾﻨــﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻭﺝ ﺗﻘﺎﺿــﺎ‪،‬‬

‫ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺗﺒﺨﯿﺮﯼ ﺷــﺎﻣﻞ ﯾﮏ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﻓﻦ‬

‫ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﻣﺎﻩﻫﺎﯼ ﺧﺎﺻﯽ ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﺣﺪﺍﮐﺜﺮ ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ‬

‫)‪ 1.3‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 50‬ﺍﺳــﺐ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺍﺳــﺎﺱ ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ‬

‫ﮐﯿﻠﻮﻭﺍﺕ ﻣﺤﺎﺳــﺒﻪ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻋــﻼﻭﻩ ﺑﺮ‬

‫ﺟﺮﯾــﺎﻥ ﻫــﻮﺍ(‪ ،‬ﯾــﮏ ﭘﻤــﭗ ﺁﺏ ﮐﻮﭼﮏ‬

‫ﺍﯾﻦ‪ ،‬ﺑﺴــﯿﺎﺭﯼ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺼﺎﺭﻑ ﺩﯾﮕﺮ‪ ،‬ﺷــﺎﻣﻞ‬

‫)ﻣﻌﻤــﻮﻻ ﮐﺴــﺮﯼ ﺍﺯ ﯾﮏ ﺍﺳــﺐ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ( ﻭ‬

‫»ﺑﺎﺭﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣــﺎﻥ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﯼ« ﯾﺎ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺗﺮﻣﻮﺳــﺘﺎﺕ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺑﺎ ﻭﻟﺘﺎﮊ ﭘﺎﯾﯿﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ ﺩﯾﮕﺮ ﺑﯿﺸــﺘﺮﯾﻦ ﺗﻘﺎﺿﺎﯼ ﺑﺮﻕ )ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﯽ ﮐﻪ ﯾﮏ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ﺗﺒﺨﯿﺮﯼ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ‬

‫ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ ﺩﺭ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺗﺎﺑﺴﺘﺎﻥ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﻣﯽﺍﻓﺘﺪ(‬

‫ﻣﯽﮔﯿﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺗﻐﯿﯿﺮﯼ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﺴــﯿﺘﻪ‬

‫ﻣﻨﺠﺮ ﺑــﻪ ﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪﺍﯼ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ‪ 3‬ﯾــﺎ ‪ 6‬ﻣﺎﻩ ﺑﻌﺪ‬

‫ﻣﺼﺮﻓﯽ ﺁﻥ ﺑــﻪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻧﻤﯽﺁﯾﺪ‪ .‬ﻣﮕﺮ ﺍﯾﻨﮑﻪ‬

‫)ﺑﺮﺍﺳــﺎﺱ ﻗﺮﺍﺩﺍﺩ ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺗﯽ ﺑﺴــﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ(‬

‫ﯾﮏ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﻓﻦ ﺩﻭﺳﺮﻋﺘﻪ ﯾﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻣﺘﻐﯿﺮ‪،‬‬

‫ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﯾــﻦ ﻫﺰﯾﻨــﻪ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧــﺪ ﺑﺨﺶ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﻓﻦ ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﻩ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻋﻤﺪﻩﺍﯼ ﺍﺯ ﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪ ﺑﺮﻕ ﻣﺎﻫﯿﺎﻧﻪ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﮐﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻭﺝ ﺗﻘﺎﺿﺎﯼ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺑﺮﻕ‪ ،‬ﻧﺎﺷﯽ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧــﺪﺍﺯﯼ ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳــﻮﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﺗﺮﺍﮐﻤــﯽ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺗﺒﺨﯿﺮﯼ ﻫﻮﺍ‬

‫ﺍﺷﻐﺎﻝ ﮐﺮﺩﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖ ﻧﯿﺰ ‪20٪‬‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ﺁﻧﺠﺎ ﮐﻪ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺨﯿﺮﯼ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻦﻫﺎﯼ ﺑﺰﺭﮒ‪،‬‬ ‫ﭘﻤــﭗ ﻭ ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺕ ﺭﻭﺷــﻨﺎﯾﯽ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬

‫ﺑﺎ ﺩﺭﮎ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺗﺒﺨﯿﺮﯼ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻧﻮﻋﯽ ﺍﺳﻔﻨﺞ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻧﻈــﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﯾﻦ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺤﺾ ﺍﯾﻨﮑﻪ ﻫﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺑــﺎ ﺁﺏ ﺗﻤﺎﺱ ﭘﯿﺪﺍ ﮐﻨــﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﻗﻄﻌﻪﺍﯼ‬ ‫ﺍﺳــﻔﻨﺞ‪ ،‬ﺁﺏ ﺭﺍ ﺟــﺬﺏ ﻣﯽﮐﻨــﺪ‪ .‬ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﺨــﺎﺭ ﺁﺏ ﺟﺬﺏ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺗﺎ ﺣــﺪ ﺯﯾﺎﺩﯼ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﺗﺒﺨﯿﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ ﺑﯿﺸﺘﺮ ﻭ ﺭﺍﺣﺖﺗﺮﯼ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﯽ ﮐﻪ ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﻮﺍ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻮﺻﯿــﻒ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﯿﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﻭﺍﮊﻩ ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﯽ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﯽﻧﻤﺎﯾﯿﻢ ﺯﯾﺮﺍ ﺧﺎﺻﯿﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﺳــﻔﻨﺠﯽ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻧﺴﺒﯽ ﺑﺎ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﻫﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﯿﯿﺮ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫــﻮﺍﯼ ﮔﺮﻡﺗــﺮ ﺧﺎﺻﯿــﺖ ﺍﺳــﻔﻨﺠﯽ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﺸــﺘﺮﯼ ﭘﯿﺪﺍ ﮐــﺮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﻣﻘــﺪﺍﺭ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺁﺏ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﺸــﺘﺮﯼ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭﺧــﻮﺩ ﺟــﺎﯼ ﻣﯽﺩﻫﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﯿﺠــﻪ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖ ﺭﺍ ﻧﺴــﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﺳــﻔﻨﺠﯽ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺗﻮﺻﯿﻒ ﮐﻨﯿﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺁﯾﺎ ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺕ ﺁﻥ ‪ 50ºF‬ﺍﺳــﺖ ﯾﺎ ‪.80ºF‬‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖ ‪ ،50٪‬ﺍﺳــﻔﻨﺞ ‪ 80ºF‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺁﺏ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﺸﺘﺮﯼ ﺭﺍ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺳﻔﻨﺞ ‪ 50ºF‬ﺩﺭﯾﺎﻓﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﯽﮐﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺁﺑــﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻮﺍ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬

‫ﻧﻤﯽﮐﻨﻨــﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻻ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬

‫ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺑﺴﺘﮕﯽ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﮊﻩ ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖ‪،‬‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﺧﻨﮏﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩﻫــﺎﯼ ﺗﺒﺨﯿﺮﯼ‪ ،‬ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﻭﺝ‬

‫ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺁﺏ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻮﺻﯿﻒ‬

‫ﺗﻘﺎﺿﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ ﻣﯽﻧﻤﺎﯾﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﯽﮐﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﮔﺮ ﻫــﻮﺍ ‪ 20٪‬ﺍﺯ ﻇﺮﻓﯿﺖ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ‬

‫ﭘﯽﻧﻮﺷﺖ‬ ‫‪1- Atomization‬‬

‫‪ -2‬ﻭﺳﯿﻠﻪﺍﯼ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺳﻨﺠﺶ ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖ ﻧﺴﺒﯽ‬

‫ﺳﺎﺯﻧﺪﻩ ﻣﺮﻏﻮﺏﺗﺮﯾﻦ ﻓﻦﮐﻮﯾﻞ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺍﯾﺮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻦﮐﻮﯾﻞﻫﺎﯼ ﻃﺮﺡ ﺻﺒﺎ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺮﻏﻮﺏﺗﺮﯾﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻭﻟﯿﻪ ﻭ‬ ‫ﭘﯿﺸﺮﻓﺘﻪﺗﺮﯾﻦ ﻣﺘﺪﻫﺎﯼ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﻭ ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺕ ﺑﺴﯿﺎﺭ ﭘﯿﺸﺮﻓﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﯼﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺴﮑﻮﻧﯽ‪ ،‬ﺗﺠﺎﺭﯼ ﻭ ﺍﺩﺍﺭﯼ‪ ،‬ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑﻬﺮﻩﺑﺮﺩﺍﺭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﯾﻦ ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺕ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﻃﺮﻑ ﻣﯽﻧﻤﺎﯾﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 17‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪39‬‬

‫ﻓﻦﺁﻭﺭﻯ‬

‫ﺭﻭﺍﺑﻂ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺎﺯﻥ ﺍﻧﺒﺴﺎﻁ‬

‫‪冤冢 冣 冥‬‬ ‫‪冤‬‬ ‫‪冥‬‬

‫‪ν‬‬ ‫‪ᎏᎏ2 − 1 − 3αΔT‬‬ ‫‪ν1‬‬ ‫‪ᎏᎏ‬‬ ‫× ‪VT = VS‬‬ ‫‪PA PA‬‬ ‫‪ᎏᎏ‬‬ ‫‪− ᎏᎏ‬‬ ‫‪P1 P2‬‬

‫ﻣﺨﺎﺯﻥ ﺍﻧﺒﺴﺎﻁ ﺑﺴﺘﻪ‪:‬‬

‫‪ν2‬‬

‫‪− 1 − 3αΔT‬‬ ‫‪冦冢V × 冤冢ᎏ‬‬ ‫‪冧‬‬ ‫‪ν 冣 冥冣‬‬

‫ﻣﺨﺎﺯﻥ ﺍﻧﺒﺴﺎﻁ ﺑﺎﺯ‪:‬‬

‫‪S‬‬

‫× ‪VT = 2‬‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫‪冤冢ᎏννᎏ冣 − 1冥 − 3αΔT‬‬ ‫‪ᎏᎏ‬‬ ‫× ‪V =V‬‬ ‫‪P‬‬ ‫‪1 − ᎏᎏ‬‬ ‫‪冢P 冣‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬

‫ﺩﯾﺎﻓﺮﺍﮔﻢ‪:‬‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫‪S‬‬

‫‪T‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫)‪ΔT = T2 − T1 (°F‬‬ ‫ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ ﭘﺎﯾﯿﻦﺗﺮ ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ = ‪T1‬‬ ‫‪T1 = 45–50°F‬‬ ‫ﺁﺏﮔﺮﻡ‬ ‫ﮐﺮﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﻣﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺷﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﭘﺮ ‪tion‬‬ ‫‪T‬‬ ‫=‬ ‫‪Supply‬‬ ‫ﺫﺧﯿﺮﻩ‬ ‫‪W‬ﺁﺏ‬ ‫ﺩﻣﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﺁﺏ ﺳﺮﺩ‬ ‫‪1‬‬ ‫ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺁﺏ ﺳﺮﺩ‪W‬ﺫﺧﯿﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ = ‪T1‬‬ ‫‪Chilled‬‬ ‫ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺩﻭﮔﺎﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ ﭘﺎﯾﯿﻨﺘﺮ ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ = ‪T2‬‬ ‫‪W‬ﺁﺏ‬ ‫ﺩﻣﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﺫﺧﯿﺮﻩ = ‪T2‬‬ ‫‪Supply‬‬ ‫ﺁﺏﮔﺮﻡ‬ ‫‪T‬‬ ‫=‬ ‫‪95°F‬‬ ‫‪Am‬‬ ‫ﻣﺤﯿﻂ‬ ‫ﺩﻣﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﺁﺏ ﺳﺮﺩ‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ(‬ ‫)ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺁﺏﻭﻫﻮﺍﯾﯽ‬ ‫‪Weather‬‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ = ‪T2‬‬ ‫ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺩﻭﮔﺎﻧﻪ‬ ‫‪Heating‬‬ ‫ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺁﺏﮔﺮﻡ ﺫﺧﯿﺮﻩ‬ ‫)‪ (14.7 Psia‬ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﺗﻤﺴﻔﺮﯾﮏ = ‪PA‬‬ ‫)‪ (Psia‬ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ‪/‬ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﭘﺮ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻥ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ = ‪P1‬‬ ‫)‪ (Psia‬ﺣﺪﺍﮐﺜﺮ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ‪/‬ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺎﺗﯽ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ = ‪P2‬‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺼﻮﺹ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ)‪) T1 (Cu. Ft./Lb.H2O‬ﻃﺒﻖ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ = ‪V1‬‬ ‫‪ 1989‬ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼﻞ‪ ،2‬ﺟﺪﻭﻝ‪25‬‬ ‫ﯾﺎ ﺑﺨﺶ‪ ،27‬ﺧﻮﺍﺹ ﻫﻮﺍ ﻭ ﺁﺏ(‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺼﻮﺹ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ)‪) T (Cu. Ft./Lb.H O‬ﻃﺒﻖ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ‪V2 = 1989‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼﻞ‪ ،2‬ﺟﺪﻭﻝ‪ 25‬ﯾﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺶ‪ ،27‬ﺧﻮﺍﺹ ﻫﻮﺍ ﻭ ﺁﺏ(‬ ‫ﺿﺮﯾﺐ ﺍﻧﺒﺴﺎﻁ ﺧﻄﯽ =‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫‪α‬‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﻣﺨﺰﻥ ﺍﻧﺒﺴﺎﻁ ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﮔﺎﻟﻦ =‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺁﺏ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﮐﺸﯽ ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﮔﺎﻟﻦ =‬

‫‪VT‬‬ ‫‪VS‬‬


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‫ﺍﺭﺯﯾﺎﺑﯽ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ‪:‬‬

‫‪6.5 × 10−6‬‬ ‫‪9.5 × 10−6‬‬

‫‪αSTEEL‬‬ ‫=‬ ‫= ‪αCOPPER‬‬

‫‪12 Gal./Ton‬‬ ‫‪35 Gal./BHP‬‬

‫ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﭘﺮﻧﻤﻮﺩﻥ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ‪/‬ﺍﺭﺯﯾﺎﺑﯽ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ ‪ +5‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 10 Psi‬ﯾﺎ ‪) 5-10 Psi‬ﻫﺮﮐﺪﺍﻡ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺰﺭﮒﺗﺮ ﺑﻮﺩ(‬ ‫ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺎﺗﯽ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ‪/‬ﺍﺭﺯﯾﺎﺑﯽ ﺣﺪﺍﮐﺜﺮ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺎﺗﯽ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ‪ 150‬ﭘﻮﻧﺪﯼ‬ ‫ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ‪ 250‬ﭘﻮﻧﺪﯼ‬

‫‪45–125 Psi‬‬ ‫‪125–225 Psi‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻻﺕ ﺗﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﻫﻮﺍﯾﯽ‬ ‫ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺫﺧﯿﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺑﺎﺯﮔﺸﺘﯽ‬ ‫ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﯽ‬ ‫ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺗﺨﻠﯿﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﮐﻤﮑﯽ‬

‫=‬ ‫=‬ ‫=‬ ‫=‬ ‫=‬

‫‪SA‬‬ ‫‪RA‬‬ ‫‪OA‬‬ ‫‪EA‬‬ ‫‪RFA‬‬

‫‪SA = RA + OA = RA + EA + RFA‬‬

‫ﺍﮔﺮ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ‪) OA‬ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ( ﺑﺰﺭﮔﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ‪) EA‬ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺗﺨﻠﯿﻪ( ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﯿﻢ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ‪:‬‬ ‫‪OA = EA + RFA‬‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺍﮔﺮ ‪) EA‬ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺗﺨﻠﯿﻪ( ﺑﺰﺭﮔﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ‪) OA‬ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ( ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﯿﻢ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ‪:‬‬ ‫‪RFA = 0‬‬

‫ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﭼﺮﺧﻪ ﺫﺧﯿﺮﻩﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﯿﻢ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ‪:‬‬ ‫‪RA = 0‬‬

‫‪OA = EA‬‬

‫‪OA = SA = EA + RFA‬‬

‫ﮐﺎﺭﺍﯾﯽﻫﺎ‬ ‫‪EER‬‬ ‫‪BTU OUTPUT‬‬ ‫‪COP = ᎏᎏ = ᎏ‬‬ ‫‪BTU INPUT‬‬ ‫‪3.413‬‬ ‫‪BTU OUTPUT‬‬ ‫‪EER = ᎏᎏ‬‬ ‫‪WATTS INPUT‬‬ ‫ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﻧﺮﺥ ﺍﺷﺘﻌﺎﻝ‪/‬ﺣﺪﺍﮐﺜﺮ ﻧﺮﺥ ﺍﺷﺘﻌﺎﻝ = ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﻧﺰﻭﻝ‬

‫)‪(i.e., 5:1, 10:1, 25:1‬‬ ‫‪GROSS BTU OUTPUT‬‬ ‫‪OVERALL THERMAL EFF. = ᎏᎏᎏ × 100%‬‬ ‫‪GROSS BTU INPUT‬‬ ‫‪BTU INPUT − BTU STACK LOSS‬‬ ‫‪COMBUSTION EFF. = ᎏᎏᎏᎏ × 100%‬‬ ‫‪BTU INPUT‬‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻩ ﮐﺎﺭﺍﯾﯽ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻞ ‪75%–90%‬‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻩ ﮐﺎﺭﺍﯾﯽ ﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﻕ‬ ‫‪85%–95%‬‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬


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‫ﺑﺮﺝﻫﺎﯼ ﺧﻨﮏﮐﻦ ﻭ ﻣﺒﺪﻝﻫﺎﯼ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﯽ‬ ‫‪ LWT − AWB‬ﺭﻭﺵ ‪CT’S‬‬ ‫‪ EWTHS − LWTCS‬ﺭﻭﺵ ‪HE’S‬‬

‫‪EWT − LWT‬‬

‫ﺗﻘﻄﯿﺮ ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ ﺷﯿﺸﻪ‬

‫ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻩ‬

‫ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺁﺏ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﯼ ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ‪RANGE‬‬ ‫ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺁﺏ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﯽ ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺣﺒﺎﺏ ﻣﺮﻃﻮﺏ ﻣﺤﯿﻂ )ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺣﺒﺎﺏ ﻣﺮﻃﻮﺏ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ( ‪EWT‬‬ ‫ﺳﻤﺖ ﺩﺍﻍ ‪LWT‬‬ ‫ﺳﻤﺖ ﺧﻨﮏ ‪AWB‬‬

‫‪冤‬‬ ‫‪冤‬‬

‫‪冥‬‬ ‫‪冥‬‬

‫‪RIA‬‬ ‫‪TGLASS = TROOM − ᎏ‬‬ ‫)‪× (TROOM − TOA‬‬ ‫‪RGLASS‬‬ ‫‪UGLASS‬‬ ‫‪TGLASS = TROOM − ᎏ‬‬ ‫)‪× (TROOM − TOA‬‬ ‫‪UIA‬‬ ‫ﺩﻣﺎ ﺑﺮ )‬ ‫‪T‬‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ(ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ =‬ ‫‪R‬‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫‪(Hr.‬‬ ‫‪Sq.Ft.‬‬ ‫)‪°F./Btu.‬‬ ‫(‬ ‫‪q‬‬ ‫)‬ ‫‪R‬‬ ‫=‬ ‫‪U‬‬ ‫)‪(Btu./Hr. Sq.Ft. °F.‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ‪= U‬‬ ‫ﻓﯿﻠﻢ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﯽ = ‪IA‬‬ ‫ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﯽ = ‪OA‬‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺷﺒﻨﻢ = ‪DP‬‬

‫ﺍﮔﺮ‪ TGLASS = TROOM −‬ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﺗﻘﻄﯿﺮ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﺴﯿﺘﻪ‬

‫‪KVA = KW + KVAR‬‬

‫ﻭﻟﺘﺎﮊ )ﻭﻟﺖ( =‬ ‫ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ )ﺁﻣﭙﺮ( =‬ ‫ﺿﺮﯾﺐ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ )‪= (0.75–0.95‬‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺗﺮﻣﺰﯼ ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﺳﺐ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ =‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﺳﺐ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ =‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺭﺍﯾﯽ =‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺮﮎ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ =‬

‫‪ .A‬ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺗﮑﻔﺎﺯ‪:‬‬

‫‪V × A × PF‬‬ ‫‪KW1φ = ᎏᎏ‬‬ ‫‪1000‬‬

‫‪ .B‬ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺳﻪﻓﺎﺯ‪:‬‬

‫‪V‬‬ ‫‪A‬‬ ‫‪PF‬‬ ‫‪BHP‬‬ ‫‪MHP‬‬ ‫‪EFF‬‬ ‫‪M/D‬‬

‫‪兹3苶 × V × A × PF‬‬ ‫‪KW3φ = ᎏᎏ‬‬ ‫‪1000‬‬

‫‪V×A‬‬ ‫‪KVA1φ = ᎏ‬‬ ‫‪1000‬‬

‫‪兹3苶 × V × A‬‬ ‫‪KVA3φ = ᎏᎏ‬‬ ‫‪1000‬‬

‫‪V × A × PF × DEVICEEFF.‬‬ ‫‪BHP1φ = ᎏᎏᎏ‬‬ ‫‪746‬‬

‫‪兹3苶 × V × A × PF × DEVICEEFF.‬‬ ‫‪BHP3φ = ᎏᎏᎏᎏ‬‬ ‫‪746‬‬

‫‪BHP1φ‬‬ ‫‪MHP1φ = ᎏ‬‬ ‫‪M/DEFF.‬‬

‫‪BHP3φ‬‬ ‫‪MHP3φ = ᎏ‬‬ ‫‪M/DEFF.‬‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﮐﻞ )ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﮐﯿﻠﻮﻭﻟﺖ ﺁﻣﭙﺮ( = ‪KVA‬‬ ‫‪KW‬‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﯽ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ )ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﮐﯿﻠﻮﻭﺍﺕ( =‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺭﺍﮐﺘﯿﻮ ﯾﺎ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﻏﯿﺮ ﻓﻌﺎﻝ )ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﮐﯿﻠﻮﻭﻟﺖ ﺁﻣﭙﺮ ﺭﺍﮐﺘﯿﻮ( = ‪KVAR‬‬


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‫ﻋﻠﻤﻰ‬

‫ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﻳﻰ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮژﻯ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻂ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ‬

‫ﮐﺪ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ‪ 1989‬ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﺑﺎﺯﺭﺳﺎﻥ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻧﯽ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ‬ ‫‪ .A‬ﮐـﺪ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﺑﺎﺯﺭﺳـﺎﻥ ﺳـﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻧﯽ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ‬ ‫ﻫـﺮ ﺳـﻪ ﮐـﺪ ﺍﺻﻠـﯽ ﺁﻣﺮﯾـﮑﺎ )‪،1988SBCCI ،1990BOCA‬‬ ‫‪ (1988UBC‬ﻣﺸـﺘﺮﮎ ﺑـﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﻣﺒﺘﻨـﯽ ﺑـﺮ ﺍﺳـﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫‪ 90A 1980‬ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﺳـﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﯿﻨـﻪ ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﯾﯽ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺩﺭ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﺳـﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻧﯽ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﯾﺪ ﻣﯽﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫‪ .B‬ﻋﻼﻭﻩ ﺑﺮ ﺁﻥ ﻫﺮ ﺳـﻪ ﮐﺪ ﺍﺻﻠـﯽ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ ﯾﻌﻨﯽ ‪،1990BOCA‬‬

‫‪ 1988UBC ،1988SBCCI‬ﺑـﻪ ﺍﺳـﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ‪ 90A 1980‬ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﯿﻦ ﺍﺭﺟﺎﻉ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﯽﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .2‬ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﺳــﺘﺜﻨﺎ )ﺍﯾﻦ ﻓﻬﺮﺳــﺖ ﺷــﺎﻣﻞ ﺗﻤﺎﻣﯽ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﯽﺑﺎﺷﺪ(‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .a‬ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﮐﯿﻔﯿﺖ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﭘﺎﯾﯿﻦ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻧﯿﺎﺯﻣﻨﺪ ﺗﺼﻔﯿﻪ ﻫﻤﻪ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﻪ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .b‬ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮐــﻪ ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖﮔﯿــﺮﯼ ﻭ ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖﺯﺩﺍﯾﯽ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﯿﺎﺯﻣﻨﺪ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺑﯿﺸﺘﺮﯼ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﯾﯽ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﻣﯽﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .c‬ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﮐﻠﯽ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺳﺎﯾﺮ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﺶ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺩﺍﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .d‬ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺗﯽ ﻏﯿﺮ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺕ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺸــﯽ ﻣﺘﺪﺍﻭﻝ )ﺍﺯ ﻗﺒﯿﻞ ﺑﺮﺝﻫﺎﯼ ﺧﻨﮏﮐﻦ( ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﯽﺭﺳﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .C‬ﺷﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﮐﺪ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﺷــﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﺧﺎﺭﺟــﯽ ﻃﺒــﻖ ﺁﺧﺮﯾــﻦ ﻧﺴــﺨﻪ ﺍﺯ ‪ .E ASHRAE‬ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻌﯽ ﮐﻪ ﻧﯿﺎﺯﯼ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻧﯿﺴﺖ‬ ‫‪ Fundamentals HNBK‬ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺯﯾﺮ ﻣﯽﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪:‬‬ ‫)ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺯﻣﺎﻥﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﻣﺤﻞ ﺧﺎﻟﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺳﮑﻨﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ(‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﻗﻄﻊ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ‬

‫‪ .a‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﻣﻘﺎﺩﯾﺮ ‪971/2%‬‬ ‫‪ .b‬ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺣﺪﺍﮐﺜﺮ ﻣﻘﺎﺩﯾﺮ ‪21/2%‬‬

‫)ﺩﻣﭙﺮﻫﺎﯼ ‪ (OA‬ﻣﺠﻬﺰ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .2‬ﺷــﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﺩﺍﺧﻠــﯽ ﻃﺒــﻖ ﺁﺧﺮﯾــﻦ ﻧﺴــﺨﻪ ﺍﺯ ‪ .F ASHRAE‬ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻫﻤﺰﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫‪ Fundamentals HNBK‬ﺑﻪ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺯﯾﺮ ﻣﯽﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺩﺳﺖﯾﺎﺑﯽ ﺑﻪ ﺷﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﺁﺳﺎﯾﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‬ ‫‪ .a‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾــﺶ ﺣﺪﺍﮐﺜﺮ ‪ 30%‬ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖ ﻧﺴــﺒﯽ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ‪70‬‬

‫ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ‬ ‫‪ .b‬ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ‪ 30‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 60%‬ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖ ﻧﺴﺒﯽ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ‪ 78‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ‬

‫ﻭ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻫﻤﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﯿﺖﻫﺎﯾﯽ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺭﻭﺵﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﻮﺛﺮﺗﺮ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺗﺎﻣﯿﻦ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻣﻮﺛﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺑﻬﺮﻩﺑﺮﺩﺍﯼ ﻧﺒﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻣﺠﺪﺩ ﯾﺎ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻣﺠﺪﺩ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺫﺧﯿﺮﻩ ﯾﺎ‬

‫‪ .D‬ﺿﻮﺍﺑﻂ ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﯾﯽ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ‬

‫ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮﺩ ﻫﻤﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫‪ .1‬ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﺑﺎ ‪ 5,000 CFM‬ﻭ ﺑﯿﺸﺘﺮ ﯾﺎ ﻇﺮﻓﯿﺖ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‬

‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻞ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺯﯾﺮ ﺳﺎﻣﺎﻧﺪﻫﯽ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪:‬‬

‫ﮐﻠــﯽ ‪ 134,000Btuh‬ﯾﺎ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﯽﮐﻪ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ‬

‫‪ .a‬ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾــﺶ ﻣﺠﺪﺩ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﻣﺠﻬﺰ ﺑــﻪ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺧﺎﺭﺟﯽ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﭘﺎﯾﯿﻦﺗﺮ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﻣﻨﺠﺮ ﺷــﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﺧﻮﺩﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺷــﻮﻧﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺫﺧﯿﺮﻩ ﺳﺮﺩ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮﯾﻦ‬

‫‪ 100‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﻇﺮﻓﯿﺖ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ﻓﻦ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺧﻮﺩﮐﺎﺭ ﺑﺎ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ‬

‫ﺩﻣﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺁﻥ ﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺳﺮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﻣﯽﺳﺎﺯﺩ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺳﺎﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .b‬ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﭼﻨﺪﺭﺍﻫﻪ ﻭ ﺩﻭﮐﺎﻧﺎﻟﻪ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﻣﺠﻬﺰ ﺑﻪ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 21‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪39‬‬

‫ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻟﯽ ﺧﻮﺩﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺫﺧﯿﺮﻩ ﺳﺮﺩ ﻭ ﮔﺮﻡ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺮﺗﯿﺐ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮﯾﻦ ﻭ ﭘﺎﯾﯿﻦﺗﺮﯾﻦ ﺩﻣﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺁﻥ ﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺳﻮﺧﺖ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫‪ .3‬ﺗﺸــﻮﯾﻖ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭﺵﻫﺎﯼ ﺍﺑﺘﮑﺎﺭﯼ ﻭ ﺭﻭﺵﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺖﯾﺎﺑﯽ ﺑﻪ ﺑﻬﺮﻩﺑﺮﺩﺍﯼ ﻣﻮﺛﺮﺗﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ‬

‫ﺳﺮﺩ ﻭ ﮔﺮﻡ ﺭﺍ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﻣﯽﺳﺎﺯﺩ ﺑﺮﺳﺎﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .4‬ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩﻫﺎﯼ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﻣﻮﺛﺮ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫‪ .G‬ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺟﺪﯾﺪﯼ ﮐﻪ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﭘﯿﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﻧﯿﺰ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬

‫‪ .1‬ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝﻫﺎﯼ ﺩﻣﺎ‪:‬‬

‫ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﯿﺮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .a‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻩ ‪ 55‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 75‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ‬

‫‪ .B‬ﮔﺴﺘﺮﻩ‬

‫‪ .b‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻩ ‪ 70‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 85‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ‬ ‫‪ .c‬ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻩ ‪ 70‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 85‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ‬ ‫‪ .2‬ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖ‪:‬‬

‫‪ .1‬ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﯼ ﺟﺪﯾﺪ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺳﮑﻮﻧﺖ ﺍﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫‪ .2‬ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫‪ .3‬ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺗﯽ ﺍﺯ ﻗﺒﯿﻞ‪:‬‬

‫‪ .a‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺩﺭ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺯﻣﺴﺘﺎﻥ ﺣﺪﺍﮐﺜﺮ ‪30%‬‬

‫‪ .a‬ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ‪ .b -‬ﺳﺮﻭﯾﺲ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‬

‫‪ .b‬ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺩﺭ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺗﺎﺑﺴﺘﺎﻥ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ‪60%‬‬

‫ﺁﺏ ‪ .c -‬ﺗﻮﺯﯾﻊ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ‪ .d -‬ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺭﻭﺷﻨﺎﯾﯽ‬

‫‪ .c‬ﻻﺯﻡ ﺑﻪ ﯾﺎﺩﺁﻭﺭﯼ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺫﮐﺮ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺎﻻ ﺷــﺎﻣﻞ‬

‫‪ .4‬ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎ‬

‫ﻣﻘﺎﺩﯾﺮﯼ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖﺯﻧﯽ‪/‬‬

‫‪ .a‬ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺍﻭﺝ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﮐﻤﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ‪3.5‬‬

‫ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﯽﮔﯿﺮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪ Btu/Hr. sq.Ft.‬ﺍﺯ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺖ ﻧﺎﺧﺎﻟﺺ ﻫﺮ ﻃﺒﻘﻪ ﻣﯽﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .3‬ﭘﺴﺮﻭﯼ ﻭ ﻗﻄﻊ‪ :‬ﻫﺮ ﯾﮏ ﺍﺯ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‬

‫‪ .b‬ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬

‫ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾــﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﻣﺠﻬﺰ ﮔﺮﺩﻧﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﻧﻤﯽﮔﯿﺮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺭﺍﺣﺘﯽ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺳــﯽ ﺑﺎﺷــﻨﺪ ﻭ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫‪ .5‬ﺍﯾﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﻣﻌﯿﺎﺭ ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮﺩ ﻭ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮ ﻧﻤﯽﮔﯿﺮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻭﺭﻩﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ‪ .C‬ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺳﮑﻨﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ ﯾﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩﻫﺎﯼ ﺩﻭﺭﻩﺍﯼ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﯽﮔﯿﺮﺩ‪،‬‬

‫‪ .1‬ﺭﻭﺵﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺸﯽ ﻭ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺸﯽ – ‪ASHRAE‬‬

‫ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﺩﻫﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ ﯾﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭﺵﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﺎﺗﯽ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﺑﺎ ﺁﻥ‬

‫‪ .a‬ﭘﺴﺮﻭﯼ ﺩﺭ ﺷﺐﻫﺎﯼ ﺯﻣﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬

‫‪ .2‬ﺷــﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﻃﺮﺍﺣــﯽ ﺩﺍﺧﻠــﯽ‪ :‬ﺍﺳــﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ‪ 55-1974‬ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ‬

‫‪ .b‬ﭘﯿﺸﺮﻭﯼ ﺩﺭ ﺷﺐﻫﺎﯼ ﺗﺎﺑﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫‪ .c‬ﺩﻭﺭﻩﻫﺎﯼ ﺳﮑﻮﻧﺖ‪ ،‬ﺳﺎﻋﺖﻫﺎﯼ ﺣﻀﻮﺭ ﻭ ﻏﯿﺎﺏ ﻭ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺧﻮﺩﮐﺎﺭ‬ ‫‪ .d‬ﺩﻭﺭﻩﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺧﺎﻟﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺳــﮑﻨﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﺯﻣﺎﻥﺳﻨﺠﯽ ﺧﻮﺩﮐﺎﺭ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ ﺩﺳﺘﯽ‬

‫ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ‪/‬ﻣﻮﺳﺴﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩﻫﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﯽ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﯿﻨﻪ ﺷﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﻣﺤﯿﻄﯽ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﯽ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺳﮑﻮﻧﺖ ﺍﻧﺴﺎﻥ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .a‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ )ﺩﺭ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺯﻣﺴﺘﺎﻥ(‪:‬‬ ‫‪ (1‬ﺍﺳــﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ‪ 90A-1980‬ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ‪ 72 :‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺧﺸﮏ ﺗﻮﺻﯿﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ‪،‬‬

‫ﺍﺳـﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ‪ 90A-1980‬ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﺳـﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﯿﻨﻪ ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﯾﯽ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺩﺭ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﯼ ﺟﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫‪ .A‬ﻫﺪﻑ‬

‫ﺣﺪﺍﮐﺜﺮ ‪ 30%‬ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖ ﻧﺴﺒﯽ‬ ‫‪ (2‬ﺭﺍﯾﺞﺗﺮﯾﻦ ﺷﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ‪ 72 :‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺧﺸﮏ‬ ‫‪ .b‬ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ )ﺩﺭ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺗﺎﺑﺴﺘﺎﻥ(‪:‬‬ ‫‪ (1‬ﺍﺳــﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ‪ 90A-1980‬ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ‬

‫‪ .1‬ﺗﺎﻣﯿــﻦ ﺷــﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﻃﺮﺍﺣــﯽ ﮐــﻪ ﺑﻬﺮﻩﺑــﺮﺩﺍﺭﯼ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧــﺮﮊﯼ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ‪ 78 :‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺗﻮﺻﯿﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﯼ ﺟﺪﯾﺪ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ ﺑﺨﺸﺪ ﻭ ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺗﻌﯿﯿﻦ ﺗﺎﺛﯿﺮ‬

‫‪ (2‬ﺭﺍﯾﺞﺗﺮﯾﻦ ﺷﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ‪ 75 :‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ‬

‫ﭘﯿﺶﺑﯿﻨﯽ ﺷﺪﻩﯼ ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﯾﯽ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺗﺎﻣﯿﻦ ﻧﻤﺎﯾﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺧﺸﮏ ﻭ ‪ 50%‬ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖ ﻧﺴﺒﯽ‬

‫‪ .2‬ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻥ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﻣﻮﺛﺮ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻤﺎﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻧﺎﺯﮎﮐﺎﺭﯼﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫‪ .3‬ﺷﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﯽ‪ :‬ﻫﻨﺪﺑﻮﮎ ﻭ ﮐﺘﺎﺏ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺎﺗﯽ ﺭﺍﻫﻨﻤﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﻣﻮﺛﺮ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﮑﺎﻧﯿﮑﯽ‪،‬‬

‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻﺕ ‪ 1977‬ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ‬

‫ﺑﺮﻗﯽ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺁﺏ‪ ،‬ﺭﻭﺷــﻨﺎﯾﯽ ﻭ ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺕ ﻭ ﺗﺎﻣﯿﻦ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﻭ‬

‫ﯾﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺁﺏ ﻭ ﻫﻮﺍﯾﯽ ﻣﺤﻠﯽ‪:‬‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫‪ Fundamentals HNBK‬ﺍﻧﺠﻤــﻦ ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 22‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪39‬‬

‫‪ .a‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ )ﺩﺭ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺯﻣﺴﺘﺎﻥ(‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ‪ 97.5%‬ﻣﻘﺎﺩﯾﺮ‬

‫ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺳﺮﺩ ﻭ ﮔﺮﻡ ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎﺭ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﺑﺴﺖ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .b‬ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ )ﺩﺭ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺗﺎﺑﺴﺘﺎﻥ(‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺍﮐﺜﺮ ‪ 2.5%‬ﻣﻘﺎﺩﯾﺮ‬

‫‪ .F‬ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝﻫﺎﯼ ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﯾﯽ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .4‬ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .a‬ﺑﺮﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻥ ﺍﺳــﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ‪ 62-1973‬ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪،‬‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ‪/‬ﻣﻮﺳﺴﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﻠﯽ‬ ‫ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﯿﻨﻪ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﮑﺎﻧﯿﮑﯽ ﻭ ﻃﺒﯿﻌﯽ‬ ‫‪ .b‬ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺟﺒﺮﺍﻥ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﯽ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﺁﻻﯾﻨﺪﻩ ﯾﺎ ﮐﺪﻫﺎ‬

‫‪ .2‬ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .a‬ﺑﺎﺩﺯﻥﻫﺎﯾــﯽ ﺑﺎ ﻇﺮﻓﯿﺘﯽ ﮐﻤﺘــﺮ ﺍﺯ ‪ 5000CFM‬ﯾﺎ ﻇﺮﻓﯿﺖ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺸﯽ ﮐﻠﯽ ﮐﻮﭼﮏﺗﺮ ﺍﺯ ‪.134,000Btuh‬‬ ‫‪ .b‬ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺭﻭﺯﺍﻧﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺳﺎﻝ ﮐﻤﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ‪ 1,200‬ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .c‬ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﯽﮐﻪ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ ﻣﻮﺭﺩﻧﻈﺮ ﮐﻤﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ‪ 30‬ﺳﺎﻋﺖ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻔﺘﻪ‬

‫‪ .D‬ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝﻫﺎ‬

‫ﮐﺎﺭ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .1‬ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ‪ 1‬ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺩﻣﺎ‪:‬‬

‫‪ .d‬ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﯼ ﺗﮏﺧﺎﻧﻮﺍﺭﯼ ﯾﺎ ﭼﻨﺪ‬

‫‪ .a‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺧﺎﻟﺺ‪ 55 :‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 75‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ‬

‫ﺧﺎﻧﻮﺍﺭﯼ ﺳﺮﻭﯾﺲ ﻣﯽﺩﻫﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .b‬ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺧﺎﻟﺺ‪ 70 :‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 85‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ‬ ‫‪ .c‬ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ 55 :‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 85‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ‬ ‫‪ .2‬ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .a‬ﺩﺳــﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖﺳــﻨﺞ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖﺯﻧــﯽ ﺩﺭ ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﺯﻣﺴــﺘﺎﻥ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﺍﮐﺜﺮ ﺳــﻄﺢ ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ ﺯﻣﺴﺘﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺗﺎﻣﯿﻦ ﺁﺳﺎﯾﺶ ‪ 30%‬ﻣﯽﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .b‬ﺍﮔــﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖﺳــﻨﺞ ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖﮔﯿــﺮﯼ ﺩﺭ ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺑﺴﺘﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺯﻣﺴﺘﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺗﺎﻣﯿﻦ ﺁﺳﺎﯾﺶ ‪ 60%‬ﻣﯽﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫‪ .1‬ﺫﺧﯿﺮﻩﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩﻫﺎﯼ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﯽ‪ :‬ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺧﺸﮏ ﯾﺎ ﺁﻧﺘﺎﻟﭙﯽ‬

‫‪ .3‬ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪﺍﯼ‪:‬‬

‫‪ .G‬ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﮑﺎﻧﯿﮑﯽ‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺫﺧﯿﺮﻩ ﻭ ﺗﺨﻠﯿﻪ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺳﺎﯾﻠﯽ ﻣﺠﻬﺰ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺍﺣﺘﯽ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺳﯽ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺎﯾﯽ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ﺗﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻌﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺧﺎﻟﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺳﮑﻨﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﺭﺍ ﻗﻄﻊ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻩ ﯾﺎ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﺩﻫﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .H‬ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﺗﻤﺎﻣﯽ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﻫﻮﺍﯾﯽ‪ ،‬ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺁﺑﯽ ﻭ ﻫﻮﺍﯾﯽ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺁﺑﯽ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺿﺮﯾﺐ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ‪ 5.5‬ﯾﺎ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺿﺮﺍﯾــﺐ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺩﺭ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯼ ﻣﺤﺴــﻮﺱ ﻣﺤﯿﻂ ﻫﺴــﺘﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ‬

‫‪ .a‬ﺍﻣﺎﮐﻦ ﻣﺴــﮑﻮﻧﯽ‪ :‬ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝﻫﺎﯼ ﺗﺮﻣﻮﺳﺘﺎﺗﯽ ﻣﺠﺰﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ‬

‫ﺑﺮﺣﺴــﺐ ‪ Btu/Hr‬ﺑﯿﺎﻥ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﺗﻘﺴــﯿﻢ ﺑﺮ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻉ ﺑﺎﺩﺯﻥﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﻫﺮ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ ﯾﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺁﭘﺎﺭﺗﻤﺎﻧﯽ‬

‫)ﮐﻤﮑﯽ(‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺩﺯﻥﻫﺎﯼ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ‪ ،‬ﻓﻦﻫﺎﯼ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﯽ ﻭ ﭘﻤﭗﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫‪ .b‬ﺗﻤﺎﻣﯽ ﺳﺎﯾﺮ ﭼﯿﺪﻣﺎﻥﻫﺎ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﯼ ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ‪Btu/Hr‬‬

‫‪ (1‬ﻫﺮ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ‬

‫‪ .I‬ﻋﺎﯾــﻖﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫﺎ‪ :‬ﻋﺎﯾﻖﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺯﯾﺮ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﯼ‬

‫‪ (2‬ﻫﺮ ﻃﺒﻘﻪ‬ ‫‪ (3‬ﻫﺮ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﻣﺠﺰﺍ‪ :‬ﯾﮏ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﯾﺎ ﮔﺮﻭﻫﯽ ﺍﺯ ﻣﮑﺎﻥﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺸﯽ ﯾﺎ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺸﯽ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻬﯽ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .4‬ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝﻫﺎﯼ ﺍﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺑﯿﮑﺎﺭﯼ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .a‬ﻫﺮ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺳــﺎﯾﻠﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺍﺣﺘﯽ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺳﯽ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷــﻨﺪ ﻣﺠﻬﺰ ﻧﻤﺎﯾﯿﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺩﺳــﺘﯽ ﯾﺎ ﺧﻮﺩﮐﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻗﻄﻊ‬ ‫ﯾﺎ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻭﺭﻩﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺳﮑﻨﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺭﺍ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺩﻫﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺸﯽ )ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﺁﺏ ﺩﺍﻍ‪ ،‬ﺑﺨﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺁﺏ ﮐﻨﺪﺍﻧﺲ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺎﺭ( ﺑﺎ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ‪ 120‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ ﯾﺎ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮ‬ ‫‪ .2‬ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺸﯽ )ﺷــﺎﻣﻞ ﺁﺏ ﺧﻨﮏ‪ ،‬ﺁﺏ ﻧﻤﮏ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺮﺩ( ﺑﺎ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ‪ 55‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ ﯾﺎ ﭘﺎﯾﯿﻦﺗﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .3‬ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺳﺮﻭﯾﺲ ﺁﺏﮔﺮﻡ ﺑﻬﺪﺍﺷﺘﯽ ﺑﺎ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ‪ 100‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ ﯾﺎ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮ‬ ‫‪ .4‬ﻋﺎﯾــﻖﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺩﺭ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺳــﯿﺎﻝ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ‬

‫‪ .E‬ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻫﻤﺰﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻫﻤﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺷــﺮﺍﯾﻄﯽ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺑﺎ ﮐﺎﺭﺍﯾﯽ ﺑﯿﺸﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺮﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻥ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻧﺒﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .2‬ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻣﺠﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﭼﻨﺪ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪﺍﯼ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻣﺠﺪﺩ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝﻫﺎﯼ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﯼ ﻣﺠﺪﺩ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺧﻮﺩﮐﺎﺭ ﺭﺍ‬

‫ﺑﯿﻦ ‪ 55‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ ﻭ ‪ 120‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ ﻣﯽﺑﺎﺷــﺪ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﯼ‬ ‫ﻧﯿﺴﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .5‬ﺿﺨﺎﻣــﺖ ﻋﺎﯾﻖ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺳــﯿﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻧﻮﻉ ﻋﺎﯾﻖ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﺑﺴﺘﮕﯽ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .6‬ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ ﻋﺎﯾﻖ ﺩﺭ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪:‬‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 23‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪39‬‬

‫‪ .K‬ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝ‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩﻫﺎﯼ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﻭ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺸﯽ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﻣﻠﯽ ﭘﯿﻤﺎﻧﮑﺎﺭﺍﻥ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﻭ ﻭﺭﻗﮑﺎﺭ ﻭ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝﺳﺎﺯ ﻓﻠﺰﯼ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﯾﺮﺍﯾﺶ ﺳﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﺭﯾﻪ ‪1977‬‬

‫‪ .2‬ﺍﺳــﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩﻫﺎﯼ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﺿﻌﯿﻒ ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﻣﻠﯽ‬ ‫ﭘﯿﻤﺎﻧﮑﺎﺭﺍﻥ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﻭ ﻭﺭﻗﮑﺎﺭ ﻭ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝﺳﺎﺯ ﻓﻠﺰﯼ‪ ،‬ﻭﯾﺮﺍﯾﺶ ﭘﻨﺠﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻮﺭﯾﻪ ‪1976‬‬

‫‪ .3‬ﺍﺳــﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩﻫﺎﯼ ﺳــﺎﺧﺖ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﻗــﻮﯼ ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﻣﻠﯽ‬ ‫ﭘﯿﻤﺎﻧﮑﺎﺭﺍﻥ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﻭ ﻭﺭﻗﮑﺎﺭ ﻭ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝﺳﺎﺯ ﻓﻠﺰﯼ‪ ،‬ﻭﯾﺮﺍﯾﺶ ﺳﻮﻡ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻮﺭﯾﻪ ‪1975‬‬

‫‪ .4‬ﺍﺳــﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩﻫﺎﯼ ﺳــﺎﺧﺖ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝ ﺑﺎ ﭘﺸﻢ ﺷﯿﺸﻪ ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﻣﻠﯽ‬

‫ﺗﺬﮐﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﺿﺨﺎﻣــﺖ ﻋﺎﯾﻖﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﻣﺒﺘﻨﯽ ﺑﺮ ﻋﺎﯾﻖﻫــﺎﯼ ﺑﺎ ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾــﯽ ﺑﯿﻦ ‪ 4.0‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 4.6‬ﻓﻮﺕ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺩﺭ ﺳــﺎﻋﺖ ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫‪ Btu‬ﺍﯾﻨﭻ ﻣﯽﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .2‬ﻓﻀﺎﯼ ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮﺩ ﯾﮏ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ﺗﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﻫﺎﯼ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﯽ ﻣﺠﺰﺍ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫‪ 12‬ﻓﻮﺕ ﺗﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﻧﮑﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .3‬ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﮐﺸﯽﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻌﺮﺽ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﻣﺤﯿﻂ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ ﻋﺎﯾﻖﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ‪ 0.5‬ﺍﯾﻨﭻ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﺶ ﺩﻫﯿﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭ ﻣﺤﻔﻈﻪﻫﺎ ﺍﻣﺮﯼ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﯼ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﻋﺎﯾــﻖﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩﯼ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺑﯿﻦ ﻫﻮﺍ ﻭ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﯿﻂ ﺑﯿﺶ ﺍﺯ ‪ 25‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﺿﺮﻭﺭﯼ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .2‬ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .a‬ﺩﺭ ﻣﮑﺎﻥﻫﺎﯾــﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺩﻣــﺎ ‪ 14‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ ﯾﺎ‬

‫‪ .c‬ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝﻫﺎﯼ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺗﺨﻠﯿﻪ‬ ‫‪ .3‬ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ ﻋﺎﯾﻖ ﺩﺭ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺯﯾﺮ ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪:‬‬

‫‪ .5‬ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝﻫﺎﯼ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﻭ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﻗﻮﯼ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻧﺸﺘﯽ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻖ ﺍﺳــﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﻣﻠﯽ ﭘﯿﻤﺎﻧﮑﺎﺭﺍﻥ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﻭ ﻭﺭﻗﮑﺎﺭ ﻭ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝﺳﺎﺯ ﻓﻠﺰﯼ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺑﺎﺯﺭﺳﯽ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﯿﺮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .L‬ﺗﻌﺎﺩﻝ‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﻭﺳﺎﯾﻠﯽ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺗﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺁﺑﯽ‬

‫‪ .M‬ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺕ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﮐﺎﺭﺍﯾﯽﻫﺎﯼ ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺕ‬ ‫‪ .2‬ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎﺕ ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺕ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺗﻮﺳــﻂ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩﻫﺎﯼ ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ ﻣﻠﯽ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺗﺎﯾﯿﺪ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ‪ 90A-a-1987‬ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﯿﻨﻪ ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﯾﯽ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺩﺭ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺟﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫‪ .A‬ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﺭﻭﺵﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺸﯽ ﻭ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺸﯽ‪ASHRAE :‬‬

‫‪ Fundamentals HNBK 1981‬ﺍﻧﺠﻤــﻦ ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ ﯾﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭﺵﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﺎﺗﯽ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﺑﺎ ﺁﻥ‬ ‫‪ .2‬ﺷــﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﻃﺮﺍﺣــﯽ ﺩﺍﺧﻠــﯽ‪ :‬ﺍﺳــﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ‪ 55-1981‬ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ‪/‬ﻣﻮﺳﺴﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩﻫﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﯽ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ ﺩﺭﺑﺎﺭﻩ ﺷﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﯽ ﻣﺤﯿﻂ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺳﮑﻮﻧﺖ ﺍﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫‪ .a‬ﺑﯿﺶ ﺍﺯ ‪ 80%‬ﺳﺎﮐﻨﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺭﺍﺿﯽ ﻧﮕﻪ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .b‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ )ﺩﺭ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺯﻣﺴﺘﺎﻥ(‪:‬‬ ‫‪ (1‬ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ‪ 90A-a-1987‬ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ‪ 72 :‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺧﺸﮏ ﺗﻮﺻﯿﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ‪،‬‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﻋﺎﯾﻖﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺗﻤﺎﻣﯽ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﮑﺎﻥﻫﺎﯼ ﺍﺷﻐﺎﻝ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬

‫‪ .b‬ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺕ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﭼﻬﺎﺭﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﺭﯾﻪ ‪1975‬‬

‫ﻭ ﻫﻮﺍﯾﯽ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﻧﻤﺎﯾﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .J‬ﻋﺎﯾﻖﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻫﻮﺍ‬

‫ﮐﻤﺘﺮ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﭘﯿﻤﺎﻧــﮑﺎﺭﺍﻥ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒــﻮﻉ ﻭ ﻭﺭﻗﮑﺎﺭ ﻭ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝﺳــﺎﺯ ﻓﻠﺰﯼ‪ ،‬ﻭﯾﺮﺍﯾﺶ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 24‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪39‬‬

‫ﺣﺪﺍﮐﺜﺮ ‪30% RH‬‬

‫‪ (2‬ﺍﺳــﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ‪ 55‬ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾــﺶ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ‪ :‬ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺧﺸــﮏ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻩ ﺩﻣﺎﯾﯽ ‪68-74‬‬

‫ﺩﺭﺟــﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ ﻭ ‪ ،60% RH‬ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺧﺸــﮏ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺩﻣﺎﯾــﯽ ‪ 69-76‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ ﻭ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺷــﺒﻨﻢ ‪ 36‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ‬ ‫‪ (3‬ﺭﺍﯾﺞﺗﺮﯾﻦ ﺷــﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷــﺪﻩ‪ 72 :‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺣﺒﺎﺏ ﺧﺸﮏ‬

‫‪ .A‬ﻫﺪﻑ‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﺗﻌﯿﯿــﻦ ﺣﺪﺍﻗــﻞ ﺷــﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﻣﻮﺛــﺮ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ‬ ‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﯼ ﺟﺪﯾﺪ ﺑــﻪ ﻃﻮﺭﯼﮐﻪ ﺳــﺎﺧﺖ‪ ،‬ﺑﻬﺮﻩﺑﺮﺩﺍﺭﯼ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﯼ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺷــﯿﻮﻩﺍﯼ ﺍﺟﺮﺍ ﺷــﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺑــﺪﻭﻥ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩ‬

‫‪ .c‬ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ )ﺩﺭ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺗﺎﺑﺴﺘﺎﻥ(‪:‬‬ ‫‪ (1‬ﺍﺳــﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ‪ 90A-a-1987‬ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺁﻣﺮﯾــﮑﺎ‪ 72 :‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺣﺒﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺧﺸﮏ ﺗﻮﺻﯿﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺁﺳــﺎﯾﺶ ﯾﺎ ﺑﻬﺮﻩﻭﺭﯼ ﺳــﺎﮐﻨﺎﻥ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﺑﺮﺳﺎﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .2‬ﺗﺎﻣﯿــﻦ ﻣﻌﯿﺎﺭﯼ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﻃﺮﺍﺣــﯽ ﻣﻮﺛﺮ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﻭ ﺭﻭﺵﻫﺎﯾﯽ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺗﻌﯿﯿﻦ ﺳﺎﺯﮔﺎﺭﯼ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻣﻌﯿﺎﺭﻫﺎ‬

‫‪ (2‬ﺍﺳــﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ‪ 55‬ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾــﺶ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ‬

‫‪ .3‬ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢﺁﻭﺭﺩﻥ ﺭﺍﻫﻨﻤﺎﯼ ﺩﻗﯿﻖ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﻣﻮﺛﺮ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ‬

‫ﻣﻄﺒــﻮﻉ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ‪ :‬ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺣﺒﺎﺏ ﺧﺸــﮏ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻩ ﺩﻣﺎﯾﯽ‬

‫‪ .4‬ﻃﺒﻖ ﺍﺭﺯﯾﺎﺑﯽﻫﺎﯼ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ‪ 40% ،‬ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﻣﺼﺮﻓﯽ‬

‫‪ 73-79‬ﺩﺭﺟــﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾــﺖ ﻭ ‪ ،60% RH‬ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺧﺸــﮏ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺭﻭﺷﻨﺎﯾﯽ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺗﺎﻣﯿﻦ ﺁﺏ‬

‫ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻩ ﺩﻣﺎﯾﯽ ‪ 74-81‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ ﻭ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺷــﺒﻨﻢ ‪36‬‬

‫ﺩﺍﻍ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻮﺛﺮ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻨﺎﻭﺭﯼ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ‬

‫ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ‬

‫ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮﺩ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺁﺳﺎﯾﺶ ﺍﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﯾﯽ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (3‬ﺭﺍﯾﺞﺗﺮﯾﻦ ﺷــﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷــﺪﻩ‪ 75 :‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺧﺸﮏ ﻭ ‪50% RH‬‬ ‫‪ .3‬ﺷــﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﺧﺎﺭﺟــﯽ‪ :‬ﻫﻨﺪﺑــﻮﮎ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺎﺗﯽ ‪1981‬‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ‪ 90.1-1989‬ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾـﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺁﻣﺮﯾـﮑﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﯿﻨـﻪ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﻣﻮﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻧـﺮﮊﯼ ﺩﺭ ﺳـﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﯼ ﺟﺪﯾـﺪ ﺑـﻪ ﺍﺳـﺘﺜﻨﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺴﮑﻮﻧﯽ ﮐﻢ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ ﯾﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺁﺏ ﻭ ﻫﻮﺍﯾﯽ ﻣﺤﻠﯽ‪:‬‬

‫‪ .B‬ﮔﺴﺘﺮﻩ‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﻧﺎﺯﮎﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫‪ .2‬ﺗﻮﺯﯾﻊ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ‬ ‫‪ .3‬ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺕ‪:‬‬

‫‪ .a‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾــﺶ )ﺩﺭ ﻓﺼــﻞ ﺯﻣﺴــﺘﺎﻥ(‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ‪97.5%‬‬

‫‪ .a‬ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺕ ﺟﺎﻧﺒــﯽ ‪ .b -‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ‪ .c -‬ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ‪ .d -‬ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ‬

‫ﻣﻘﺎﺩﯾﺮ‬

‫ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ‪ .e -‬ﺳﺮﻭﯾﺲ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺁﺏ ‪ .f -‬ﺭﻭﺷﻨﺎﯾﯽ‬

‫‪ .b‬ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ )ﺩﺭ ﻓﺼــﻞ ﺗﺎﺑﺴــﺘﺎﻥ(‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺍﮐﺜﺮ ‪2.5%‬‬

‫‪ .4‬ﻣﺪﯾﺮﯾﺖ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ‬

‫ﻣﻘﺎﺩﯾﺮ‬

‫‪ .C‬ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ‬

‫‪ .B‬ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝ‬

‫‪ .1‬ﺗﻤﺎﻣــﯽ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﯼ ﺟﺪﯾــﺪ ﯾــﺎ ﺑﺨﺶﻫﺎﯾــﯽ ﺍﺯ‬

‫‪ .1‬ﺍﺳــﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩﻫﺎﯼ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺸﯽ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ‬

‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺗﺴﻬﯿﻼﺕ ﯾﺎ ﺳﺮﭘﻨﺎﻫﯽ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺳﮑﻮﻧﺖ ﺍﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬

‫ﻣﻄﺒــﻮﻉ ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﻣﻠﯽ ﭘﯿﻤﺎﻧــﮑﺎﺭﺍﻥ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒــﻮﻉ ﻭ ﻭﺭﻗﮑﺎﺭ ﻭ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﯿﺎﺭ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﯽﺩﻫﻨﺪ ﻭ ﻋﻤﺪﺗﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺗﺎﻣﯿﻦ ﺁﺳــﺎﯾﺶ‬

‫ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝﺳﺎﺯ ﻓﻠﺰﯼ‪ ،‬ﻭﯾﺮﺍﯾﺶ ﺳﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﺭﯾﻪ ‪1977‬‬

‫ﺍﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﻬﺮﻩﺑﺮﺩﺍﺭﯼ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .2‬ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩﻫﺎﯼ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺿﻌﯿﻒ ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﻣﻠﯽ‬ ‫ﭘﯿﻤﺎﻧﮑﺎﺭﺍﻥ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﻭ ﻭﺭﻗﮑﺎﺭ ﻭ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝﺳــﺎﺯ ﻓﻠﺰﯼ‪ ،‬ﻭﯾﺮﺍﯾﺶ‬ ‫ﭘﻨﺠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﺭﯾﻪ ‪1976‬‬

‫‪ .3‬ﺍﺳــﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩﻫﺎﯼ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﻗﻮﯼ ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﻣﻠﯽ‬ ‫ﭘﯿﻤﺎﻧﮑﺎﺭﺍﻥ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﻭ ﻭﺭﻗﮑﺎﺭ ﻭ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝﺳــﺎﺯ ﻓﻠﺰﯼ‪ ،‬ﻭﯾﺮﺍﯾﺶ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﺭﯾﻪ ‪1975‬‬

‫‪ .4‬ﺍﺳــﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩﻫﺎﯼ ﺳــﺎﺧﺖ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝ ﺑﺎ ﭘﺸــﻢ ﺷﯿﺸﻪ ﻓﺸﺮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﻣﻠــﯽ ﭘﯿﻤﺎﻧﮑﺎﺭﺍﻥ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﻭ ﻭﺭﻗﮑﺎﺭ ﻭ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝﺳــﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﺰﯼ‪ ،‬ﻭﯾﺮﺍﯾﺶ ﭘﻨﺠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﺭﯾﻪ ‪1979‬‬

‫‪ .2‬ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎ‪ :‬ﻗﺴﻤﺖﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﻓﺮﺁﯾﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺖ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﻮﺭ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﯼ ﯾﺎ ﺻﻨﻌﺘﯽ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﯽﮔﯿﺮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .D‬ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ‪ B‬ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﻣﻠﯽ ﺳـﺎﺯﻧﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﻗﯽ؛ ﺗﮏ ﺳﺮﻋﺘﻪ؛‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﺳـﺮﻋﺖ ‪ 1800 ،1200‬ﻭ ‪ 3600‬ﺩﻭﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻗﯿﻘﻪ؛ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﻫﺎﯼ‬ ‫‪ ODP‬ﯾـﺎ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﺧﻨﮏﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺷـﺪﻩ ﺗﻮﺳـﻂ ﺑﺎﺩﺯﻥﻫﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﻣﻼ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﺭ )‪ (TEFC‬ﺑﺎ ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ‪ 1‬ﺍﺳـﺐ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﯾﺎ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮ ﮐﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﺶ ﺍﺯ ‪ 500‬ﺳﺎﻋﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻝ ﮐﺎﺭ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﻨﺪ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﺑﺎﺯﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﻤﯽ ﻓﻬﺮﺳﺖ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺯﯾﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﻧﻤﺎﯾﻨﺪ‪:‬‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 25‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪39‬‬

‫ﺑﺎﺯﺩﻩﻫﺎﯼ ﺑﺎﺭ ﮐﺎﻣﻞ – ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﺑﺴﺘﻪ‬

‫ﺗﺬﮐﺮ‪ :‬ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻣﺒﺘﻨﯽ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ‪ 90.1‬ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪،‬‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾــﺶ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ ﭘﯿﺶ ﺍﺯ ﭘﺬﯾــﺮﺵ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻗﯿﻪ ‪90.1c‬‬

‫ﺗﻮﺳــﻂ ﻫﯿﺎﺕ ﻣﺪﯾﺮﻩ ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ ﻣﯽﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﺎﺯﺩﻩﻫﺎﯼ ﺑﺎﺭ ﮐﺎﻣﻞ – ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﺑﺎﺯ‬

‫ﺗﺬﮐﺮ‪ :‬ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻣﺒﺘﻨﯽ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ‪ 90.1‬ﻭ ﺿﻤﯿﻤﻪ ‪90.1c‬‬

‫ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ ﻣﯽﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .F‬ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﺭﻭﺵﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺸﯽ ﻭ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺸﯽ‪ASHRAE :‬‬

‫‪ Fundamentals HNBK 1985‬ﺍﻧﺠﻤــﻦ ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ ﯾﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺭﻭﺵﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﺎﺗﯽ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .a‬ﺑﺎﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﭘﻮﺷﺸــﯽ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻣﺒﺘﻨﯽ ﺑﺮ ﻣﻌﯿﺎﺭ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ‬ ‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻧﯽ ﻃﺒﻖ ﺍﺳــﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ‪ 90.1‬ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪،‬‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ ﻣﯽﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .b‬ﺑﺎﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﺭﻭﺷــﻨﺎﯾﯽ ﻣﺒﺘﻨﯽ ﺑﺮ ﺳــﻄﺢ ﺭﻭﺷــﻨﺎﯾﯽ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﯽ‬ ‫ﯾﺎ ﺑﻮﺩﺟﻪ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﯽ ﺳــﺎﺯﮔﺎﺭ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﺭﻭﺷــﻨﺎﯾﯽ ﺍﺳــﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫‪ 90.1‬ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﯽﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .c‬ﺳﺎﯾﺮ ﺑﺎﺭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻭ ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺕ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ (1‬ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﯿﻘﯽ ﺑﺮ ﻣﺒﻨﺎﯼ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ ﻣﻮﺭﺩﻧﻈﺮ‬ ‫‪ (2‬ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺳﺎﺯﻧﺪﻩ‬ ‫‪ (3‬ﻧﺸﺮﯾﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﯽ ﺍﺯ ﻗﺒﯿﻞ ‪ASHRAE‬‬

‫‪ (4‬ﺳﺎﯾﺮ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ‬ ‫‪ (5‬ﺗﺠﺮﺑﻪ ﻃﺮﺍﺡ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫‪ .E‬ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ‪ A‬ﻭ ‪ B‬ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﻣﻠﯽ ﺳﺎﺯﻧﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﻗﯽ؛ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﻫﺎﯼ ‪ ODP‬ﯾﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﺧﻨﮏﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺑﺎﺩﺯﻥﻫﺎﯼ ﮐﺎﻣﻼ ﺑﺴﺘﻪ )‪(TEFC‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ‪ 1‬ﺍﺳـﺐ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﯾﺎ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮ ﮐﻪ ﺑﯿﺶ ﺍﺯ ‪ 1000‬ﺳﺎﻋﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺭ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﻨﺪ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﺑﺎﺯﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﻤﯽ ﺯﯾﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﻧﻤﺎﯾﻨﺪ؛ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯﺩﻩ ﺍﺳـﻤﯽ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﺑﺎ ﺑﺎﺭ ﮐﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﯾﯽ‬ ‫ﻗﻔﺲ ﺳـﻨﺠﺎﺑﯽ ﭼﻨﺪ ﻓﺎﺯﯼ ﺗﮏ ﺳﺮﻋﺘﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖﻫﺎﯼ ﺳﻨﮑﺮﻭﻥ‬ ‫‪ 1200 ،1800 ،3600‬ﻭ ‪ 900‬ﺩﻭﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻗﯿﻘﻪ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺗﻨﺪ ﺍﺯ‪:‬‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 26‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪39‬‬

‫‪ .d‬ﺿﺮﺍﯾﺐ ﺍﻃﻤﯿﻨﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺍﮐﺜﺮ ‪10%‬‬

‫‪ .a‬ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﺣﺠﻢ ﻣــﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺣﻔﻆ ﮐﯿﻔﯿﺖ ﻣﻄﻠﻮﺏ‬

‫‪ .e‬ﺑﺎﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﺷﺘﺎﺏ‪:‬‬

‫ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﯽ‬

‫‪ (1‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾــﺶ‪ 30% :‬ﺣﺪﺍﮐﺜﺮ ﻇﺮﻓﯿﺖ ﻣﺠﺎﺯ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ‬

‫‪ .b‬ﺑﺮﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ‪ 62-1989‬ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪،‬‬

‫ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺩﻭﺭﻩﻫﺎﯼ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺻﺒﺤﮕﺎﻫﯽ‬

‫ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾــﺶ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒــﻮﻉ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﯿﻨــﻪ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ‬

‫‪ (2‬ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ 10% :‬ﺣﺪﺍﮐﺜﺮ ﻇﺮﻓﯿﺖ ﻣﺠﺎﺯ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺩﻭﺭﻩﻫﺎﯼ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺻﺒﺤﮕﺎﻫﯽ‬ ‫‪ .f‬ﻣﮑﺎﻥﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﻧﯿﺎﺯﻣﻨــﺪ ﺿﻮﺍﺑﻂ ﻓﺮﺍﯾﻨﺪﯼ ﻭﯾﮋﻩ‪ ،‬ﺿﻮﺍﺑﻂ‬ ‫ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖﺯﻧــﯽ‪ ،‬ﯾــﺎ ﻫــﺮ ﺩﻭﯼ ﺿﻮﺍﺑﻂ ﯾﺎﺩﺷــﺪﻩ ﻣﯽﺑﺎﺷــﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﺍﮔﺎﻧﻪﺍﯼ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺤﺖ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﻫﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .2‬ﺷــﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﻃﺮﺍﺣــﯽ ﺩﺍﺧﻠــﯽ‪ :‬ﺍﺳــﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ‪ 55-1981‬ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ‪/‬ﻣﻮﺳﺴﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩﻫﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﯽ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﯿﻨﻪ ﺷﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﻣﺤﯿﻄﯽ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﯽ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺳﮑﻮﻧﺖ ﺍﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﯾﺎ ﻓﺼﻞ )‪ ASHRAE Fundamentals HNBK 1985 (8‬ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ‪:‬‬

‫‪ .c‬ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺟﺒﺮﺍﻥ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺗﺨﻠﯿﻪ ﺟﻬﺖ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﺁﻻﯾﻨﺪﻩ‬

‫‪ .G‬ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝﻫﺎ‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﯾﮏ ﻭﺳﯿﻠﻪ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺩﻣﺎ‬ ‫‪ .2‬ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ‪ :‬ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝﻫﺎﯼ ﺗﺮﻣﻮﺳﺘﺎﺗﯽ ﻣﺠﺰﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ‬ ‫‪ .3‬ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝﻫﺎﯼ ﺍﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺑﯿﮑﺎﺭﯼ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .a‬ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝﻫــﺎﯼ ﺧــﻮﺩﮐﺎﺭ ﺳــﺎﺯﮔﺎﺭ ﺑﺎ ﺩﻣﺎﻫﺎﯼ ﭘﺴــﺮﻭﯼ ﯾﺎ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺷﯽ ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺕ‬ ‫‪ .b‬ﺣﺠــﻢ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﯽ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﯾﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﯾﺎ ﺧﻮﺩﮐﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺣﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﻩﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺧﺎﻟﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺳﮑﻨﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .4‬ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖ‪:‬‬

‫‪ .a‬ﺑﯿﺶ ﺍﺯ ‪ 80%‬ﺳﺎﮐﻨﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺭﺍﺿﯽ ﻧﮕﻪ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .a‬ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖﺳﻨﺞ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖﺯﻧﯽ ﺩﺭ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺯﻣﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬

‫‪ .b‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ )ﺩﺭ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺯﻣﺴﺘﺎﻥ(‪:‬‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﮐﯿﻔﯿﺖ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﯽ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ‬

‫ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﺍﮐﺜﺮ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖ ﺩﺭ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺯﻣﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬

‫‪ (1‬ﺍﺳــﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ‪ 55‬ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ‬

‫ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺗﺎﻣﯿﻦ ﺁﺳﺎﯾﺶ ‪ 30%‬ﻣﯽﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ‪ :‬ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺣﺒﺎﺏ ﺧﺸﮏ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻩ ‪68-‬‬

‫‪ .b‬ﺍﮔﺮ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖﺯﺩﺍﯾﯽ ﺩﺭ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺗﺎﺑﺴﺘﺎﻥ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖﺳﻨﺞ‬

‫‪ 74‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ ﻭ ‪60% RH‬؛ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺣﺒﺎﺏ ﺧﺸﮏ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷــﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺩﺭ ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻩ ‪ 69-76‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ ﻭ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺷﺒﻨﻢ ‪36‬‬

‫ﺯﻣﺴﺘﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺗﺎﻣﯿﻦ ﺁﺳﺎﯾﺶ ‪ 60%‬ﻣﯽﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .5‬ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝﻫﺎﯼ ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﯾﯽﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺯﯾﺮ‬

‫ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ‬ ‫‪ (2‬ﺭﺍﯾﺞﺗﺮﯾﻦ ﺷﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ‪ 72 :‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺣﺒﺎﺏ ﺧﺸﮏ‬

‫ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .a‬ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﯾﯽﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩﻫــﺎﯼ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧــﺮﮊﯼ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﯽ ﻫﻮﺍﯾﯽ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺣﺒﺎﺏ ﺧﺸﮏ ﯾﺎ ﺁﻧﺘﺎﻟﭙﯽ‬

‫‪ .c‬ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ )ﺩﺭ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺗﺎﺑﺴﺘﺎﻥ(‪:‬‬ ‫‪ (1‬ﺍﺳــﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ‪ 55‬ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ‪ :‬ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺣﺒﺎﺏ ﺧﺸﮏ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻩ ‪73-‬‬

‫‪ 79‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ ﻭ ‪60% RH‬؛ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺣﺒﺎﺏ ﺧﺸﮏ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻩ ‪ 74-81‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ ﻭ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺷﺒﻨﻢ ‪36‬‬

‫ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ‬ ‫‪ (2‬ﺭﺍﯾﺞﺗﺮﯾﻦ ﺷﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ‪ 75 :‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺣﺒﺎﺏ ﺧﺸﮏ ﻭ ‪50% RH‬‬

‫‪ .3‬ﺷــﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﯽ‪ :‬ﻫﻨﺪﺑﻮﮎ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺎﺗﯽ ‪ 1985‬ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ ﯾﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﮐﺰ ﻫﻮﺍﺷﻨﺎﺳﯽ ﻣﻠﯽ ﯾﺎ ﻣﻨﺒﻊ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﯽ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺗﺎﯾﯿﺪ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺁﻥ‪:‬‬

‫‪ .b‬ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﯾﯽﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﯽ ﺁﺑﯽ‪ :‬ﺗﺒﺨﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﯿﻢ‪ ،‬ﺗﺒﺨﯿﺮ ﻏﯿﺮﻣﺴﺘﻘﯿﻢ ﯾﺎ ﻫﺮ ﺩﻭﯼ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ‬ ‫‪ .c‬ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ (1‬ﻓﻦﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﺑﺎ ﻇﺮﻓﯿﺖ ﮐﻤﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ‪ 3000CFM‬ﯾﺎ ﻇﺮﻓﯿﺖ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺸﯽ ﮐﻠﯽ ﮐﻮﭼﮑﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ‪.90,000Btuh‬‬ ‫‪ (2‬ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻣﺎﮐﻦ ﻣﺴــﮑﻮﻧﯽ‪ ،‬ﺍﺗﺎﻕﻫﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﻫﺘﻞﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻣﺘﻞﻫﺎ ﺳﺮﻭﯾﺲ ﻣﯽﺩﻫﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .6‬ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺯﯾﺮ ﺟﻠﻮﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺁﻭﺭﻧﺪ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .a‬ﮔﺮﻡ ﺷﺪﻥ ﻣﺠﺪﺩ‬ ‫‪ .b‬ﺳﺮﺩ ﺷﺪﻥ ﻣﺠﺪﺩ‬

‫‪ .a‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ )ﺩﺭ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺯﻣﺴﺘﺎﻥ(‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ‪ 99%‬ﻣﻘﺎﺩﯾﺮ‬

‫‪ .c‬ﺗﺮﮐﯿﺐ ﻫﻤﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺳﺮﺩ ﻭ ﮔﺮﻡ‬

‫‪ .b‬ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ )ﺩﺭ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺗﺎﺑﺴﺘﺎﻥ(‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺍﮐﺜﺮ ‪ 2.5%‬ﻣﻘﺎﺩﯾﺮ‬

‫‪ .d‬ﺳﺎﯾﺮ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﻫﻤﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‬

‫‪ .4‬ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ‪:‬‬

‫‪ .e‬ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎ‪:‬‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 27‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪39‬‬

‫‪ (1‬ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺣﺠﻢ ﻣﺘﻐﯿﺮﯼ ﮐﻪ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﻫﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﭘﯿﺶ ﺍﺯ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻣﺠﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻣﺠﺪﺩ ﯾﺎ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ‬

‫‪ .3‬ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺳــﺮﻭﯾﺲ ﺁﺏﮔﺮﻡ ﺧﺎﻧﮕﯽ ﺑﺎ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ‪ 105‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ ﯾﺎ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮ‬ ‫‪ .4‬ﻋﺎﯾﻖﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺩﺭ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺳﯿﺎﻝ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺑﯿﻦ‬

‫ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻁ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﻣﯽﺭﺳﺎﻧﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ (2‬ﻣﺤﯿﻂﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﻧﺴــﺒﺖ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﯾﺎ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﺁﻻﯾﻨﺪﮔﯽ‬

‫‪ 55‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ ﻭ ‪ 105‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ ﻣﯽﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﯼ ﻧﯿﺴﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﺯﯾﺮﺯﻣﯿﻨﯽ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﻏﯿﺮﻋﻤﻠﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ )ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺑﯿﻤﺎﺭﺳﺘﺎﻥﻫﺎ‬

‫‪ .5‬ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﻋﺎﯾﻖ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺳﯿﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻧﻮﻉ ﻋﺎﯾﻖ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﺑﺴﺘﮕﯽ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﯾﺸﮕﺎﻩﻫﺎ(‬ ‫‪ (3‬ﺑﺎﺯﯾﺎﺑﯽ ﮔﺮﻣﺎ ﺟﻬﺖ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻣﺠﺪﺩ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬

‫‪ .6‬ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ ﻋﺎﯾﻖ ﺩﺭ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺯﯾﺮ ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪:‬‬

‫ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﯽﮔﯿﺮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ (4‬ﻣﺤﯿﻂﻫﺎﯾــﯽ ﮐــﻪ ﺣﺪﺍﮐﺜــﺮ ﺫﺧﯿﺮﻩ ﻫــﻮﺍﯼ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ‬ ‫‪ 300CFM‬ﯾﺎ ﮐﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﯽﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .7‬ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ ﻣﺠﺪﺩ ﺩﻣﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .a‬ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﻫﻮﺍﯾﯽ‪ :‬ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﮔﺮﻡ ﯾﺎ‬ ‫ﺳــﺮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﻣﺤﯿﻂﻫﺎﯼ ﭼﻨﺪﮔﺎﻧﻪ ﺫﺧﯿﺮﻩ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝﻫﺎﯾــﯽ ﺭﺍ ﮐﻪ ﺗﻮﺳــﻂ ﺑﺎﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻧﯽ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻃﻪ‬ ‫ﯾــﺎ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﯽ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﺧــﻮﺩﮐﺎﺭ ﺩﻣﺎﻫﺎﯼ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ‬ ‫ﺫﺧﯿﺮﻩ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻣﺠﺪﺩ ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﮔﯿﺮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ (1‬ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ (a‬ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﻣﺘﻐﯿﺮ‬ ‫‪ (b‬ﻣﮑﺎﻥﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ ﻣﺠﺪﺩ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﻫﻮﺍ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ‬ ‫‪ .b‬ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﻫﯿﺪﺭﻭﻧﯿﮏ‪ :‬ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺫﺧﯿﺮﻩﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺁﺏ ﺳــﺮﺩ ﯾﺎ ﮔــﺮﻡ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﺭﺍ ﮐﻪ ﺗﻮﺳــﻂ ﺑﺎﺭﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫‪ .1‬ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻩ ﻫﺪﺍﯾﺖ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﯽ )ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ‪ Btu‬ﺍﯾﻨﭻ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ ﻓﻮﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ(‬

‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻧﯽ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻃﻪ ﯾﺎ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺧﺎﺭﺟــﯽ‪ ،‬ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺁﺏ‬

‫‪ = MRT .2‬ﻧﺮﺥ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬

‫ﺫﺧﯿﺮﻩ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻃــﻮﺭ ﺧﻮﺩﮐﺎﺭ ﻣﺠﺪﺩﺍ ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮ‬

‫‪ .3‬ﻓﻀﺎﯼ ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮﺩ ﯾﮏ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ﺗﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﻫﺎﯼ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﯽ ﻣﺠﺰﺍ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﺑﮕﯿﺮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪ 12‬ﻓﻮﺕ ﺗﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﻧﮑﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (1‬ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎ‪:‬‬

‫‪ .4‬ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﮐﺸــﯽ ﺍﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻣﺎﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺤﯿﻂ‪ ،‬ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬

‫‪ (a‬ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﭘﻤﭙﺎﮊ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻐﯿﺮ‬

‫ﻋﺎﯾﻖﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ‪ 0.5‬ﺍﯾﻨﭻ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﺶ ﺩﻫﯿﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (b‬ﻣﮑﺎﻥﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ ﻣﺠﺪﺩ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺁﺏ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺖ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﺶ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ (c‬ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﺑــﺎ ﻇﺮﻓﯿﺖ ﻃﺮﺍﺣــﯽ ﮐﻤﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫‪.600,000Btuh‬‬

‫ﻋﺎﯾﻖﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺯﯾﺮ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﯼ ﺍﺳﺖ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻧﯽ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﯽ‪ :‬ﺿﺨﺎﻣــﺖ ﻋﺎﯾﻖﮐﺎﺭﯼ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺘﻨﯽ ﺑــﺮ ‪ CDD65‬ﯾﺎ ‪) HDD65‬ﻫﺮ ﮐــﺪﺍﻡ ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ ﻋﺎﯾﻖﮐﺎﺭﯼ‬

‫‪ .H‬ﻋﺎﯾﻖﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﮐﺸﯽ‬

‫ﺑﯿﺸﺘﺮﯼ ﺭﺍ ﭘﯿﺸﻨﻬﺎﺩ ﮐﻨﺪ( ﻣﯽﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻋﺎﯾﻖﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﮐﺸﯽ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺯﯾﺮ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﯼ ﺍﺳﺖ‪:‬‬

‫‪ .2‬ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻧﯽ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﯽ‪ :‬ﻋﺎﯾﻖﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩﯼ ﮐﻪ‬

‫‪ .1‬ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺸﯽ )ﺷــﺎﻣﻞ ﺁﺏ ﺩﺍﻍ‪ ،‬ﺑﺨﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﭼﮕﺎﻟﻨﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺎﺭ( ﺑﺎ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ‪ 105‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ ﯾﺎ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮ‬

‫ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺑﯿﻦ ﻫﻮﺍ ﻭ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﻣﺤﯿﻂ ﺑﯿﺶ ﺍﺯ ‪ 15‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪ ،‬ﺿﺮﻭﺭﯼ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ ﻋﺎﯾﻖ ﻣﺒﺘﻨﯽ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺩﻣﺎ ﻭ ﻧﻮﻉ‬

‫‪ .2‬ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺸﯽ )ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﺁﺏ ﺧﻨﮏ‪ ،‬ﺁﺏ ﺷﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻣﺒﺮﺩ(‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ‪ 55‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ ﯾﺎ ﭘﺎﯾﯿﻦﺗﺮ‬

‫‪ .I‬ﻋﺎﯾﻖﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻫﻮﺍ‬

‫ﻋﺎﯾﻖ ﻣﯽﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .3‬ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ ﻋﺎﯾﻖ ﺩﺭ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺯﯾﺮ ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪:‬‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺟﻬﺖ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﺶ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﺬﮐﺮﺍﺕ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 28‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪39‬‬

‫ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .2‬ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﺬﮐﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺯﯾﺮ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .a‬ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﯼ ﻣﺘﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ‬ ‫‪ .b‬ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺷــﮑﻞﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﺎﺭﯾﻒ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﯼ ﻭ ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ‬

‫‪ .L‬ﺁﺯﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ ﻭ ﺗﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﻃﺒﻖ ﺍﺳـﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩﻫﺎﯼ ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﻫﻮﺍﯾﯽ ﯾﺎ ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﻣﻠﯽ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﻣﺤﯿﻄﯽ ﯾﺎ ﺭﻭﺵﻫﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﻣﻌـﺎﺩﻝ ﻣﺎﻧﻨـﺪ )ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﺳـﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾـﺶ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺁﻣﺮﯾـﮑﺎ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﻣﻠﯽ ﭘﯿﻤﺎﻧﮑﺎﺭﺍﻥ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒـﻮﻉ ﻭ ﻭﺭﻕﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﻭ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝﺳﺎﺯﯼ( ﺑﻪ ﺍﺟﺮﺍ ﺩﺭﺁﯾﺪ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﺗﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ﻫﻮﺍﯾﯽ‪ :‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﺭﺳــﺎﻧﺪﻥ‬

‫ﺗﺬﮐﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫‪) ∆T .1‬ﺍﺧﺘــﻼﻑ ﺩﻣﺎ( ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﻣﺤﯿﻂ ﻭ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﺩﺭ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝ ﻣﯽﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .a‬ﺍﺧﺘﻨﺎﻕ ﺩﻣﭙﺮﯼ ﻣﻤﮑﻦ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺷــﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﺯﯾﺮ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ‬ ‫ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﻫﻮﺍﯾﯽ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﯿﺮﺩ‪:‬‬

‫‪ .2‬ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿــﺎﺯ ﻋﺎﯾﻖ‪ :‬ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﯾﻖﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺷــﺪﻩﺍﻧﺪ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ ﺍﺯ ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ ‪ 1‬ﺍﯾﻨﭻ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﻋﺎﯾﻖﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺷﺪﻩﺍﻧﺪ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ ﺍﺯ ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ ‪11/2‬‬ ‫ﺍﯾﻨﭻ ﺗﺎ ‪ 2‬ﺍﯾﻨﭻ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺍﺗﻼﻑﻫﺎﯼ ﺍﺧﺘﻨﺎﻗﯽ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻧﺒﺎﻝ ﺁﻥ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺑﺎﺩﺯﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺟﺮﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻣﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .3‬ﺍﯾــﻦ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﻣﺒﺘﻨــﯽ ﺑــﺮ ﺍﺳــﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ‪ 90.1-1989‬ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ‬

‫‪ (1‬ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﺑﺎﺩﺯﻥ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ‪ 1‬ﺍﺳﺐ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﯾﺎ ﭘﺎﯾﯿﻦﺗﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ‬ ‫‪ (2‬ﺍﮔــﺮ ﺍﺧﺘﻨﺎﻕ ﻣﻨﺠﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﯽ ﺑﯿﺶ ﺍﺯ ‪ 1/3‬ﺍﺳــﺐ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﻧﺸــﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎ ﻓﺮﺽ ﺁﻥﮐﻪ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺑﺎﺩﺯﻥ ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .2‬ﺗﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ﻫﯿﺪﺭﻭﻧﯿــﮏ‪ :‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍ ﺟﻬــﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﺎﻧﺪﻥ ﺍﺗﻼﻑﻫﺎﯼ ﺍﺧﺘﻨﺎﻗﯽ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺟﺮﺍ ﺩﺭﺁﻣﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺳﭙﺲ ﭘﺮﻭﺍﻧﻪ ﭘﻤﭗ ﯾﺎ‬

‫ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ ﻣﯽﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﭘﻤﭗ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .J‬ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝ‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩﻫﺎﯼ ﺳــﺎﺧﺖ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﻣﻠﯽ ﭘﯿﻤﺎﻧﮑﺎﺭﺍﻥ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﻭ ﻭﺭﻕﻫﺎﯼ ﻓﻠﺰﯼ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺯﻣﯿﻨﻪ ﻓﻠﺰ ﻭ ﺍﻧﻌﻄﺎﻑﭘﺬﯾﺮﯼ ‪1985‬‬

‫‪ .2‬ﺍﺳــﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﺳــﺎﺧﺖ ﮐﺎﻧــﺎﻝ ﺑــﺎ ﻓﺎﯾﺒــﺮﮔﻼﺱ ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﻣﻠﯽ‬ ‫ﭘﯿﻤﺎﻧﮑﺎﺭﺍﻥ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﻭ ﻭﺭﻕﻫﺎﯼ ﻓﻠﺰﯼ‪1979 ،‬‬

‫‪ .3‬ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻧﺸــﺘﯽ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﻬﻮﯾــﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﻣﻠﯽ ﭘﯿﻤﺎﻧﮑﺎﺭﺍﻥ ﺗﻬﻮﯾــﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﻭ ﻭﺭﻕﻫﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﺰﯼ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﯿﻨﻪ ﻓﻠﺰ ﻭ ﺍﻧﻌﻄﺎﻑﭘﺬﯾﺮﯼ ‪1985‬‬

‫‪ .a‬ﻣﻘــﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻨﺎﻕ ﻣﻤﮑﻦ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺷــﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﺯﯾﺮ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ‬ ‫ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﻫﯿﺪﺭﻭﻧﯿﮏ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﯿﺮﺩ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ (1‬ﭘﻤﭗﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﺑﺎ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﻫﺎﯼ ‪ 10‬ﺍﺳﺐ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﯾﺎ ﭘﺎﯾﯿﻦﺗﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ‬ ‫‪ (2‬ﺍﮔﺮ ﺍﺧﺘﻨﺎﻕ ﻣﻨﺠﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﯽ ﺑﯿﺶ ﺍﺯ ‪ 3‬ﺍﺳــﺐ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﻭ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﻧﺸــﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎ ﻓﺮﺽ ﺁﻥﮐﻪ ﺳــﺮﻋﺖ ﺑﺎﺩﺯﻥ ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .3‬ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺖ ﺗﻀﻤﯿﻦ ﺁﻥﮐﻪ ﺍﺟﺰﺍﯼ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺭﺳــﺘﯽ ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ ﺷﺪﻩﺍﻧﺪ ﻭ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻃﻮﺭ ﺻﺤﯿﺢ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﮐﺎﺭ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﯿﺮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .4‬ﺍﮔﺮ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ﮐﺎﻧــﺎﻝ ﺑﯿــﺶ ﺍﺯ ‪ 3in.wc.‬ﮐﺎﺭ ﮐﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺷــﺒﮑﻪ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻧﺸــﺘﯽ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﯿﺮﺩ ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺁﺯﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻧﺸــﺘﯽ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻠــﯽ ﭘﯿﻤﺎﻧﮑﺎﺭﺍﻥ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﻭ ﻭﺭﻕﻫــﺎﯼ ﻓﻠﺰﯼ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﯿﻨﻪ ﻓﻠﺰ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻌﻄﺎﻑﭘﺬﯾﺮﯼ ‪ 1985‬ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺖ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .M‬ﺗﻌﯿﯿﻦ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺕ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﻣﻤﺎﻧﻌﺖ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺑﺎﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻃﺒﻖ ﺍﺳــﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ‪ 90.1‬ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ ﺗﻌﯿﯿﻦ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎ‪:‬‬

‫‪ .K‬ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮﺩ ﻭ ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﯼ‬

‫‪ .a‬ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﯾﺖﻫﺎﯼ ﺗﻌﯿﯿﻦ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺕ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ‬

‫‪ .1‬ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮﺩ ﻭ ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﯼ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎﺭﻓﺮﻣﺎﯼ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ‬

‫‪ .b‬ﺍﮔﺮ ﺗﻌﯿﯿﻦ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﺑﯿﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺪ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺭﺍ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﺶ ﻧﺪﻫﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 29‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪39‬‬

‫‪ .c‬ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺕ ﮐﻤﮑﯽ ﺑﺎ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺗﻐﯿﯿﺮ ﺧﻮﺩﮐﺎﺭ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩﯼ ﮐﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺕ ﺍﺻﻠﯽ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﮐﺎﺭ ﻧﺒﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .d‬ﻭﺍﺣﺪﻫﺎﯼ ﭼﻨﺪﮔﺎﻧﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺕ ﯾﮑﺴــﺎﻥ )ﺍﺯ ﻗﺒﯿﻞ ﭼﯿﻠﺮﻫﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺩﯾﮓﻫﺎﯼ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﻭ ‪ (...‬ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﯽﮐﻪ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝﻫﺎﯼ ﺑﻬﯿﻨﻪﺳﺎﺯﯼ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺗﻌﺒﯿﻪ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﮑﻦ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﮐﺎﺭ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎﺭ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .b‬ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ ﻣﺠﺪﺩ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺁﺏ ﺫﺧﯿﺮﻩ‬

‫‪ .P‬ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺕ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﺑﺎﺯﺩﻩﻫﺎﯼ ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺕ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .a‬ﺑﺎﺯﺩﻩﻫﺎﯼ ﺑﺎﺭ ﮐﺎﻣﻞ )ﺗﻤﺎﻡﺑﺎﺭ(‬ ‫‪ .b‬ﺑﺎﺯﺩﻩﻫﺎﯼ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺟﺰﯾﯽ )ﭘﺎﺭﻩﺑﺎﺭ(‬ ‫‪ .c‬ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺕ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺁﺏ‬

‫‪ .N‬ﻣﻌﯿﺎﺭ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ ﺑﺎﺩﺯﻥ‪ :‬ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺫﺧﯿﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺑﺎﺯﮔﺸﺘﯽ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻫﻮﺍﮐﺶﻫﺎﯼ ﺗﺨﻠﯿﻪ‬

‫‪ .d‬ﺷــﺎﻣﻞ ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺕ ﻣﻮﻧﺘﺎﮊ ﺷــﺪﻩ‪ :‬ﺍﺟﺰﺍﯼ ﻣﺠﺰﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺑﺮﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻧﻤــﻮﺩﻥ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻣــﺎﺕ )ﮐﻮﯾﻞﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻦﻫﺎ(‪ ،‬ﻣﺠﻤــﻮﻉ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﻣﺼﺮﻓﯽ‬

‫‪ .1‬ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‪ 0.8W/CFM :‬ﺍﺯ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺫﺧﯿﺮﻩ‬

‫ﺗﻤﺎﻣﯽ ﺍﺟﺰﺍ‬

‫‪ .2‬ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﻣﺘﻐﯿﺮ‪ 1.25W/CFM :‬ﺍﺯ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ‬

‫‪ .2‬ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎﺕ ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺕ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺗﻮﺳــﻂ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩﻫﺎﯼ ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ ﻣﻠﯽ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺗﺎﯾﯿﺪ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﯿﺮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺫﺧﯿﺮﻩ‬ ‫‪ .3‬ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﻣﺘﻐﯿﺮ ﺑــﺎ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﺑﺎﺩﺯﻥ ‪75‬‬

‫‪ .3‬ﻋﻤﻠﮑــﺮﺩ ﻭ ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﯼ‪ :‬ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻋﻤﻠﮑــﺮﺩ ﻭ ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﯼ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺐ ﺑﺨﺎﺭﯼ ﻭ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻧﯿﺎﺯﻣﻨﺪ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝﻫﺎ ﯾﺎ ﻭﺳﺎﯾﻠﯽ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﺑﺎ ﻣﻠﺰﻭﻣﺎﺗﯽ ﺷــﺎﻣﻞ ﻧﺴﺨﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﭼﺎﭘﯽ ﻣﮑﺎﻧﯿﮑﯽ‪ ،‬ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺑﯿﺶ ﺍﺯ ‪ 50%‬ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴــﺐ ﻭﺍﺕ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ‪ 50%‬ﺭﺍ‬

‫ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺭﻭﺵﻫﺎﯼ ﭘﯿﺸــﮕﯿﺮﺍﻧﻪ ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﯼ ﻭ ﺟﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺯﻣﺎﻥﺑﻨﺪﯼ‪،‬‬

‫ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻧﺪﻫﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﺳﺎﻣﯽ ﻭ ﺁﺩﺭﺱﻫﺎﯼ ﺁﮊﺍﻧﺲﻫﺎﯼ ﺳﺮﻭﯾﺲ ﻭﺍﺟﺪ ﺷﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﯿﺎﺭ‬

‫‪ .4‬ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ‪ 90.1‬ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ ﻧﯿﺎﺯﻣﻨﺪ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺑﻬﺮﻩﺑﺮﺩﺍﺭﯼ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺯﯾﺮ ﻣﯽﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪:‬‬

‫ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﻫﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .Q‬ﻣﺪﯾﺮﯾﺖ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﻫﺮ ﺳــﺮﻭﯾﺲ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻧﯽ ﻣﺠﺰﺍ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﯾﮏ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ‬

‫‪ .a‬ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﻣﺘﻐﯿﺮ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﮔﺮﺩﺁﻭﺭﯼ ﯾﮏ ﺳﻨﺪ ﯾﺎ ﻧﺸﺎﻧﮕﺮ ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﻣﻘﺎﺩﯾﺮ‬

‫‪ .b‬ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ ﻣﺠﺪﺩ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺫﺧﯿﺮﻩ‬

‫‪ .O‬ﻣﻌﯿﺎﺭ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ ﭘﻤﭙﺎﮊ‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﺣﺪﺍﮐﺜﺮ ﻧﺮﺥ ﺍﺻﻄﮑﺎﮐﯽ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﮐﺸــﯽ‪4.0 :‬‬

‫ﻓﻮﺕ ﺩﺭ ‪ 100‬ﻓﻮﺕ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ‬ ‫‪ .2‬ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻐﯿﺮ‪ :‬ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﺑﺎ ﺷﯿﺮﻫﺎﯼ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻟﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺟﻬﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻥ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﯾﺎ ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻐﯿﺮ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﯾﻦ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﭘﻤﭗﻫﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﭼﻨﺪ ﺳﺮﻋﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﭘﻤﭙﺎﮊ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪﺍﯼ‪ ،‬ﯾﺎ ﭘﻤﭗﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﻣﻨﺤﻨﯽﻫﺎﯼ ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﭘﻤﭗ ﺭﺍ ﻃﯽ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﺗﺎ ‪ 50%‬ﯾﺎ ﭘﺎﯾﯿﻦﺗﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .2‬ﺗﻤﺎﻣﯽ ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺕ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾــﻪ ﻣﻄﺒــﻮﻉ ﮐــﻪ ﺍﻧــﺮﮊﯼ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﯼ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺑﯿــﺶ ﺍﺯ ‪ 20KVA‬ﯾﺎ‬ ‫‪ 60,000Btuh‬ﻣﯽﺑﺎﺷــﺪ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺑﻪ ﮔﻮﻧﻪﺍﯼ ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﮐﻪ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﯼﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﯽﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ ﻗﺒﯿﻞ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺩﻣﺎ ﻭ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺗﻌﯿﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧــﺮﮊﯼ ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﺑﻠﯿﺖﻫــﺎ ﻭ ﺑﺎﺯﺩﻩﻫﺎﯼ ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﺁﻥﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻣﺠﺰﺍ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﻧﺼﺐ ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺕ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ‬ ‫ﺿﺮﻭﺭﯼ ﻧﯿﺴﺖ ﻭﻟﯽ ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺳﯽ ﺻﺤﯿﺢ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼﻫﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﺁﺗﯽ ﺍﻣﺮﯼ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﯼ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .3‬ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺮﮐﺰﯼ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻭ ﻧﻈﺎﺭﺕ‪:‬‬

‫‪ .3‬ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .a‬ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺑﯿﺶ ﺍﺯ ‪ 50%‬ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ )ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﭼﯿﻠﺮ(‪.‬‬

‫‪ .a‬ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺪﯾﺮﯾﺖ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻧﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫‪ 40,000‬ﻓــﻮﺕ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺩﺭ ﺳــﻄﺢ ﻣﻘﻄﻊ ﻧﺎﺧﺎﻟــﺺ ﻃﺒﻘﻪ ﺗﺠﺎﻭﺯ‬

‫‪ .b‬ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ ﻣﺠﺪﺩ ﺩﻣــﺎﯼ ﺁﺏ ﺫﺧﯿﺮﻩ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮ‬

‫ﻣﯽﮐﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﻪ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﯿﺮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﯽﮔﯿﺮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .b‬ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﯿﺖﻫﺎﯼ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ ﻣﺪﯾﺮﯾﺖ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ‪:‬‬

‫‪ .4‬ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ‪ 90.1‬ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫‪ (1‬ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺭﻭﺯﺍﻧﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﻭ ﺗﻘﺎﺿﺎﯼ ﺑﺮﻕ‬

‫ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ ﻧﯿﺎﺯﻣﻨﺪ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﭘﻤﭙﺎﮊ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺑﻬﺮﻩﺑﺮﺩﺍﺭﯼ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺯﯾﺮ‬

‫‪ (2‬ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺭﻭﺯﺍﻧﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﯽ ﻭ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺳﻮﺧﺖ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪:‬‬

‫ﻓﺴﯿﻠﯽ‬

‫‪ .a‬ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﭘﻤﭙﺎﮊ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻐﯿﺮ‬

‫‪ (3‬ﺛﺒﺖ‪ ،‬ﺧﻼﺻﻪﺑﺮﺩﺍﺭﯼ ﻭ ﺣﻔﻆ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﻫﻔﺘﮕﯽ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﮐﻠﯽ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺁﺯﺍﺩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺭﺍ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 30‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪39‬‬

‫‪ (4‬ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﯽ ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺕ ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺕ ﺳﺮﻭﯾﺲ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺁﺏ‬

‫ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫‪ (5‬ﺗﻨﻈﯿــﻢ ﻣﺠﺪﺩ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺣﻠﻘﻪ ﻣﺤﻠﯽ ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺕ‬

‫‪ .E‬ﮐﻨﻮﮐﺘﻮﺭ ﻗﺮﻧﯿﺰﯼ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ ﺑﻪ ﮐﻮﺭﻩ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﮔﺮﻡ‬

‫ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫‪ .1‬ﮐﯿﻠﻮﻭﺍﺕ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ × ‪ = 1.19‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﮐﯿﻠﻮﻭﺍﺕ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ‬

‫‪ (6‬ﻧﻈﺎﺭﺕ ﻭ ﺑﺮﺭﺳــﯽ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺁﺯﺍﺩﺳــﺎﺯﯼ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﻭ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‬

‫ﺩﯾﮓ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﻗﯽ‬ ‫‪ .2‬ﮐﯿﻠﻮﻭﺍﺕ ﺳــﺎﻋﺖ × ‪ = 0.039‬ﻣﻘــﺪﺍﺭ ﮔﺎﻟﻦ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺩﯾﮓ‬

‫‪ (7‬ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺭﻭﺷﻨﺎﯾﯽ ﺯﻣﺎﻥﺑﻨﺪﯼ ﺷﺪﻩ‬

‫ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﻧﻔﺖﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫‪ (8‬ﺗﺎﻣﯿﻦ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝﻫﺎﯼ ﺑﺮﺗﺮﯼ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻬﻮﻟﺖ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺳﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .3‬ﮐﯿﻠﻮﻭﺍﺕ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ × ‪ = 0.054‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺗﺮﻡ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺩﯾﮓ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ‬

‫‪ (9‬ﺗﺎﻣﯿﻦ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺷﺮﻭﻉ‪/‬ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﺑﻬﯿﻨﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪،‬‬

‫ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫‪ .F‬ﮐﻮﺭﻩ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ ﺑﻪ ﮐﻮﺭﻩ ﻧﻔﺖ ﺳﻮﺯ‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﮐﯿﻠﻮﻭﺍﺕ ﺳــﺎﻋﺖ × ‪ = 0.032‬ﻣﻘــﺪﺍﺭ ﮔﺎﻟﻦ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺩﯾﮓ‬

‫‪ 10-5‬ﺿﺮﺍﯾﺐ ﺗﺒﺪﯾﻞ ﺳﻮﺧﺖ‬ ‫‪ .A‬ﮐﻨﻮﮐﺘﻮﺭ ﻗﺮﻧﯿﺰﯼ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ ﺑﻪ ﮐﻨﻮﮐﺘﻮﺭ ﻗﺮﻧﯿﺰﯼ ﻫﯿﺪﺭﻭﻧﯿﮏ‬

‫ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﻧﻔﺖﺳﻮﺯ‬ ‫‪ .2‬ﮐﯿﻠﻮﻭﺍﺕ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ × ‪ = 0.045‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺗﺮﻡ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺩﯾﮓ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ‬

‫‪ .1‬ﮐﯿﻠﻮﻭﺍﺕ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ × ‪ = 1.19‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﮐﯿﻠﻮﻭﺍﺕ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ‬

‫ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫‪ .2‬ﮐﯿﻠﻮﻭﺍﺕ ﺳــﺎﻋﺖ × ‪ = 0.033‬ﻣﻘــﺪﺍﺭ ﮔﺎﻟﻦ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺩﯾﮓ‬

‫‪ .G‬ﮐﺎﺑﻞ ﺳﻘﻔﯽ ﺑﻪ ﮐﻮﺭﻩ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﮔﺮﻡ‬

‫ﺩﯾﮓ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﻗﯽ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﻧﻔﺖﺳﻮﺯ‬ ‫‪ .3‬ﮐﯿﻠﻮﻭﺍﺕ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ × ‪ = 0.046‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺗﺮﻡ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺩﯾﮓ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫‪ .1‬ﮐﯿﻠﻮﻭﺍﺕ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ × ‪ = 1.06‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﮐﯿﻠﻮﻭﺍﺕ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ‬ ‫ﺩﯾﮓ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﻗﯽ‬ ‫‪ .2‬ﮐﯿﻠﻮﻭﺍﺕ ﺳــﺎﻋﺖ × ‪ = 0.034‬ﻣﻘــﺪﺍﺭ ﮔﺎﻟﻦ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺩﯾﮓ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﻧﻔﺖﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫‪ .B‬ﮐﻮﺭﻩ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ ﺑﻪ ﮐﻨﻮﮐﺘﻮﺭ ﻗﺮﻧﯿﺰﯼ ﻫﯿﺪﺭﻭﻧﯿﮏ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫‪ .3‬ﮐﯿﻠﻮﻭﺍﺕ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ × ‪ = 0.073‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺗﺮﻡ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺩﯾﮓ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ‬

‫‪ .3‬ﮐﯿﻠﻮﻭﺍﺕ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ × ‪ = 0.048‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺗﺮﻡ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺩﯾﮓ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ‬

‫‪ .1‬ﮐﯿﻠﻮﻭﺍﺕ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ × ‪ = 1.0‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﮐﯿﻠﻮﻭﺍﺕ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ‬

‫ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫‪ .2‬ﮐﯿﻠﻮﻭﺍﺕ ﺳــﺎﻋﺖ × ‪ = 0.028‬ﻣﻘــﺪﺍﺭ ﮔﺎﻟﻦ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺩﯾﮓ‬

‫‪ .H‬ﭘﻤﭗ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﯽ ﺑﻪ ﮐﻮﺭﻩ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﮔﺮﻡ‬

‫ﺩﯾﮓ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﻗﯽ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﻧﻔﺖﺳﻮﺯ‬ ‫‪ .3‬ﮐﯿﻠﻮﻭﺍﺕ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ × ‪ = 0.038‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺗﺮﻡ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺩﯾﮓ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ‬

‫ﺩﯾﮓ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﻗﯽ‬ ‫‪ .2‬ﮐﯿﻠﻮﻭﺍﺕ ﺳــﺎﻋﺖ × ‪ = 0.061‬ﻣﻘــﺪﺍﺭ ﮔﺎﻟﻦ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺩﯾﮓ‬

‫ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﻧﻔﺖﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫‪ .C‬ﮐﺎﺑﻞ ﺳﻘﻔﯽ ﺑﻪ ﮐﻨﻮﮐﺘﻮﺭ ﻗﺮﻧﯿﺰﯼ ﻫﯿﺪﺭﻭﻧﯿﮏ‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﮐﯿﻠﻮﻭﺍﺕ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ × ‪ = 1.06‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﮐﯿﻠﻮﻭﺍﺕ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ‬ ‫ﺩﯾﮓ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﻗﯽ‬ ‫‪ .2‬ﮐﯿﻠﻮﻭﺍﺕ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ × ‪ = 0.03‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﮔﺎﻟﻦ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺩﯾﮓ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺖﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫‪ .3‬ﮐﯿﻠﻮﻭﺍﺕ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ × ‪ = 0.085‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺗﺮﻡ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺩﯾﮓ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫‪ .I‬ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﮔﺮﻡ ﺑﻪ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ ﮐﻨﻮﮐﺘﻮﺭ ﻗﺮﻧﯿﺰﯼ ﻫﯿﺪﺭﻭﻧﯿﮏ‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﻣﻘــﺪﺍﺭ ﮔﺎﻟﻦ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﻧﻔﺖ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ‪ = 0.857 × W.A.‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﮔﺎﻟﻦ‬

‫‪ .3‬ﮐﯿﻠﻮﻭﺍﺕ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ × ‪ = 0.041‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺗﺮﻡ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺩﯾﮓ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﻫﯿﺪﺭﻭﻧﯿﮏ‬ ‫‪ .2‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺗﺮﻡ ﮔﺎﺯ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ‪ = 0.857 × W.A.‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺗﺮﻡ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﻫﯿﺪﺭﻭﻧﯿﮏ‬

‫‪ .D‬ﭘﻤﭗ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﯽ ﺑﻪ ﮐﻨﻮﮐﺘﻮﺭ ﻗﺮﻧﯿﺰﯼ ﻫﯿﺪﺭﻭﻧﯿﮏ‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﮐﯿﻠﻮﻭﺍﺕ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ × ‪ = 1.88‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﮐﯿﻠﻮﻭﺍﺕ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ‬

‫‪ .3‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﮔﺎﻟﻦ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﻧﻔﺖ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ‪ = 1.2 × W.A.‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺗﺮﻡ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﻫﯿﺪﺭﻭﻧﯿﮏ‬

‫ﺩﯾﮓ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﻗﯽ‬ ‫‪ .2‬ﮐﯿﻠﻮﻭﺍﺕ ﺳــﺎﻋﺖ × ‪ = 0.052‬ﻣﻘــﺪﺍﺭ ﮔﺎﻟﻦ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺩﯾﮓ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﻧﻔﺖﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫‪ .1‬ﮐﯿﻠﻮﻭﺍﺕ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ × ‪ = 1.88‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﮐﯿﻠﻮﻭﺍﺕ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ‬

‫‪ .4‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺗﺮﻡ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ‪ = 0.612 × W.A.‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﮔﺎﻟﻦ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﻫﯿﺪﺭﻭﻧﯿﮏ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 31‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪39‬‬

‫ﺗﺨﺼﺼﻰ‬

‫ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻫﻤﻴﺖ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻨﻮﻥ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺮژﻯ ﻭ ﻓﻦﺁﻭﺭﻯﻫﺎﻯ ﻧﻮﻳﻦ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﮐﺒﺮ ﻃﻠﻮﻋﯿﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻋﻀﻮ ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳﺎﻥ ﻣﮑﺎﻧﯿﮏ ﺍﯾﺮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻭ ﮐﺎﺭﺷﻨﺎﺱ ﻣﺴﻮﻭﻝ ﺷﻮﺭﺍﯼ ﻓﻨﯽ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻥ ﺁﺫﺭﺑﺎﯾﺠﺎﻥ ﺷﺮﻗﯽ*‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺑﺴــﯿﺎﺭﯼ ﺍﺯ ﮐﺸــﻮﺭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﺿــﻮﻉ‬

‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﯼ ﺍﺻــﻮﻝ ﻣﺸــﺘﺮﮎ ﻭ‬

‫ﻣﺒﺤﺚ ﻧﻮﺯﺩﻫﻢ ﻣﻘﺮﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻠﯽ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ‬

‫ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﯾــﯽ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺼــﺮﻑ ﺍﻧــﺮﮊﯼ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺳﺮﺍﺳــﺮ ﮐﺸــﻮﺭ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺍﻻﺟﺮﺍ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺑﺮ‬

‫ﺭﻋﺎﯾﺖ ﻧﻤﯽﮐﻨﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺗﻌﯿﯿﻦ ﺟﺮﯾﻤﻪﯼ ﻣﺎﻟﯽ‬

‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎ ﺑــﻪ ﺻــﻮﺭﺕ ﮔﺴــﺘﺮﺩﻩ ﻭ‬

‫ﻫﺮﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺎﺕ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻧﯽ ﻣﻼﮎ ﻋﻤﻞ‬

‫ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳــﺎﺱ ﺷــﺎﺧﺺﻫﺎﯼ ﻗﯿﻤﺖ ﺳﻮﺧﺖ‬

‫ﺑــﺎ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪﺭﯾــﺰﯼ ﭘﻮﯾــﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﯾــﻖ ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪ .‬ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺑﺎ ﻣــﺎﺩﻩﯼ ‪ 34‬ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺑﺎﺯﺍﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﺑﯿﻦﺍﻟﻤﻠﻠﯽ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺻﺪﻭﺭ‬

‫ﻓﺮﺁﯾﻨﺪ ﺳﺎﺧﺖﻭﺳــﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﮐﺎﺭﺑــﺮﺩﯼ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻥ‬

‫ﻧﻈــﺎﻡ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳــﯽ ﻭ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ‬

‫ﭘﺎﯾﺎﻧﮑﺎﺭ ﺍﯾﻦ ﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ‬

‫ﻓﻦﺁﻭﺭﯼﻫــﺎﯼ ﻧﻮﯾﻦ ﺻﻨﻌﺖ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ‬

‫)ﻣﺼﻮﺏ ﺍﺳــﻔﻨﺪ ‪ ،(1374‬ﺷــﻬﺮﺩﺍﺭﯼﻫﺎ‬

‫ﻣﻮﺛﺮ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭ ﻃﺮﺍﺣــﯽ ﻣﻨﺎﺳــﺐ ﮐﺎﻟﺒﺪﯼ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬

‫ﻭ ﺳــﺎﯾﺮ ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﺻﺪﻭﺭ ﭘﺮﻭﺍﻧــﻪ‪ ،‬ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻭ‬

‫ﮐﺎﺭﺷﻨﺎﺳــﺎﻥ ﺍﻣﺮ ﺑﺮ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻋﻘﯿﺪﻩﺍﻧﺪ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﻣﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺍﺳــﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ ﺑــﺎ ﮐﯿﻔﯿﺖ ﺗﺤﺖ‬

‫ﻧﻈﺎﺭﺕ ﺑــﺮ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﯼ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻣﺠﺮﯾﺎﻥ‬

‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﯼ ﮐﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﺒﺤﺚ ﻧﻮﺯﺩﻫﻢ ﻣﻘﺮﺭﺍﺕ‬

‫ﺑﺮﺭﺳــﯽ‪ ،‬ﻧﻈــﺎﺭﺕ ﻭ ﭘﯽ ﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﻣﺴــﺘﻤﺮ‬

‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺗﺎﺳﯿﺴــﺎﺕ ﺩﻭﻟﺘــﯽ ﻭ‬

‫ﻣﻠﯽ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﺎ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ »ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﯾﯽ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺑﺎﺷــﺪ؛ ﺑﻪ ﻃــﻮﺭﯼ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﯾــﻦ ﮔﻮﻧﻪ‬

‫ﻋﻤﻮﻣﯽ‪ ،‬ﺻﺎﺣﺒﺎﻥ ﺣﺮﻓﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳــﯽ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ«‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺗﺎ‬

‫ﺟﻮﺍﻣﻊ‪ ،‬ﻗﻮﺍﻧﯿﻦ ﻭ ﺍﺳــﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩﻫﺎﯼ ﻭﺿﻊ‬

‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺷﻬﺮﺳــﺎﺯﯼ‪ ،‬ﮐﺎﺭﻓﺮﻣﺎﯾﺎﻥ ﻭ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﻣﺼﺮﻓﯽ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﮐﺸﻮﺭ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺑﺎ ﮐﻤــﮏ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﯾﯽ ﻭ‬

‫ﭘﯿﻤﺎﻧــﮑﺎﺭﺍﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻘــﺎﻁ ﻭﺍﻗــﻊ ﺩﺭ ﺣﻮﺯﻩﯼ‬

‫ﺑﯿﺶ ﺍﺯ ‪ 2.6‬ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﺑﯿﻦﺍﻟﻤﻠﻠﯽ ﻭ‬

‫ﻣﺪﯾﺮﯾــﺖ ﺻﺤﯿﺢ ﻧﺘﺎﯾﺞ ﻣﺜﺒﺘــﯽ ﺭﺍ ﻧﯿﺰ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺷــﻤﻮﻝ ﻣﻘﺮﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻠﯽ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻣﮑﻠﻔﻨﺪ‬

‫‪ 2.7‬ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﻇﺮ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺭ ﮐﺸﻮﺭﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺑﺎﺭ ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻘــﺮﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﺰﺑﻮﺭ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻃــﻮﺭ ﮐﺎﻣﻞ ﺭﻋﺎﯾﺖ‬

‫ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪﯾﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﺑﺮﺳﺪ‪ .‬ﻣﺪﯾﺮﯾﺖ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭﯼ‬

‫ﻣﺘﻮﻟﯿــﺎﻥ ﺳﺎﺧﺖﻭﺳــﺎﺯ ﺩﺭ ﮐﺸــﻮﺭ‬

‫ﻧﻤﺎﯾﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻣﺘﺎﺳــﻔﺎﻧﻪ ﺍﮐﺜﺮ ﻗﺮﯾــﺐ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻕ‬

‫ﺗﻮﺍﻧﻤﻨﺪ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺑﻬﯿﻨﻪﺳﺎﺯﯼ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ‪،‬‬

‫ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟــﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﯾﻦ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺨــﺶ ﺍﻋﻈﻢ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ‬

‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﮐﺸــﻮﺭ ﻓﺎﻗﺪ‬

‫ﺻﯿﺎﻧــﺖ ﺍﺯ ﺫﺧﺎﯾــﺮ ﻣﻠــﯽ ﻭ ﺟﻠﻮﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺧﺪﻣــﺖ ﻣﺴــﮑﻦ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﺑﯿﺸــﺘﺮﯾﻦ‬

‫ﺿﻮﺍﺑﻂ ﻓﻨــﯽ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﺟﻠﻮﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﺁﻟﻮﺩﮔﯽ ﻣﺤﯿﻂ ﺯﯾﺴﺖ ﻣﯽﺑﺎﺷﺪ؛ ﻣﺎﻫﯿﺖ‬

‫ﻣﺴــﻮﻭﻟﯿﺖ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ ﻭﺿﻌﯿﺖ ﻭ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﻫــﺪﺭ ﺭﻓﺖ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﯽ ﻭ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﯽ‬

‫ﻣﺪﯾﺮﯾﺖ ﺍﻧــﺮﮊﯼ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻌﻨــﺎﯼ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺩﺍﺩﻥ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩﺳــﺎﺯﯼ ﻣﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻧﯽ ﻭ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﻫﯿﭻ ﺗﻤﻬﯿﺪﺍﺗﯽ ﺍﻧﺪﯾﺸﯿﺪﻩ ﻧﺸﺪﻩ‬

‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺩﺳﺘﯿﺎﺑﯽ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥﭼﻪ ﮐﻪ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﺳﺖ‬

‫ﺭﻭﺯ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻥ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ؛ ﺍﺯ ﺍﯾﻦ‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺳﺎﮐﻨﺎﻥ ﺍﮐﺜﺮ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ‬

‫ﻧﺒــﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺩﺍﺩﻥ ﺑﺎ ﺁﻥ ﭼﯿﺰﯼ ﺍﺳــﺖ‬

‫ﺭﻭ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺩﺍﺩﻥ ﻣﻄﻠــﻮﺏ ﻭﻇﯿﻔﻪﯼ ﻣﺰﺑﻮﺭ‬

‫ﺩﺳــﺘﯿﺎﺑﯽ ﺑﻪ ﺷﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﺁﺳــﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺭﺍﺣﺘﯽ‪،‬‬

‫ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺱ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺳﺎﻝﻫﺎﯾﯽ‬

‫ﺑﺎ ﺭﻭﺵﻫﺎﯼ ﺳــﻨﺘﯽ ﺳﺎﺧﺖﻭﺳــﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﻏﯿﺮ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺯﻣﺴﺘﺎﻥﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﺳﺮﺩ‬

‫ﮐﻪ ﻗﯿﻤــﺖ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺩﺭ ﺳــﻄﺢ ﭘﺎﯾﯿﻨﯽ ﻧﮕﻪ‬

‫ﻣﻤﮑﻦ ﺑــﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﻓﻦﺁﻭﺭﯼﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮﯾﻦ‬

‫ﻭ ﺗﺎﺑﺴــﺘﺎﻥﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮔﺮﻡﺗــﺮ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺤﯿﻂ ﺑﯿﺮﻭﻥ‬

‫ﺩﺍﺷــﺘﻪ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺑﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺭﻭﺣﯿــﻪﯼ ﻋﺎﺩﺕ ﻭ‬

‫ﮐﺎﺭﺁﯾﯽ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﻭ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﻃﺒﯿﻌﯽ‬

‫ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﺠﺒﻮﺭﻧﺪ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺑﯿﺸــﺘﺮﯼ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ‬

‫ﻫﻤﭽﻨﯿــﻦ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺣﺴــﺎﺱ ﻣﺴــﻮﻭﻟﯿﺖ ﻭ‬

‫ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ ﻣﯽﺑﺎﯾﺴــﺖ‪ ،‬ﺑﯿــﺶ ﺍﺯ ﭘﯿﺶ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ‬

‫ﮐﻨﻨــﺪ؛ ﺍﻣﺎ ﺍﮔﺮ ﯾﮏ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺻﻮﻝ‬

‫ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮓ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺑﯽﺭﻭﯾﻪﯼ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺩﺭ ﮐﺸﻮﺭ‬

‫ﺣﻤﺎﯾﺖ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﯿﺮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻓﻨﯽ ﻭ ﺍﺳــﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻣﺸﮑﻞ‬

‫ﺭﻭﺍﺝ ﯾﺎﻓﺖ ﺍﻣﺎ ﺑــﺎ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﯼ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻫﺪﻓﻤﻨﺪ‬

‫ﻣﺰﺑﻮﺭ ﺗﺎ ﺣﺪﻭﺩﯼ ﺑﺮﻃﺮﻑ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻧﻈﺮ‬

‫ﮐــﺮﺩﻥ ﯾﺎﺭﺍﻧﻪﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺧﻮﺷــﺒﺨﺘﺎﻧﻪ ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﻭ‬

‫ﭼﮑﯿﺪﻩ‬

‫ﻣﺒﺤــﺚ ﻧﻮﺯﺩﻫــﻢ ﺑــﻪ ﻋﻨــﻮﺍﻥ ﯾﮑﯽ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﻣﺒﺎﺣــﺚ ﺑﯿﺴــﺘﮕﺎﻧﻪﯼ ﻣﻘــﺮﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻠﯽ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺭﺳﺪ ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﯽ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺎﺯﻧﺪﮔﺎﻧﯽ ﮐﻪ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 32‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪39‬‬

‫ﺑﺎﻭﺭ ﺩﺍﺷــﺘﻦ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺎﯾــﯽ ﺩﺭ ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﯾﯽ‬

‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻭ ﺗﻮﺳــﻌﻪ ﺁﺗﯽ ﮐﺸــﻮﺭ ﻣﺤﺴــﻮﺏ‬

‫ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻝ ‪ 580‬ﮐﯿﻠﻮﻭﺍﺕ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ ﺍﺳﺖ؛ ﺍﯾﻦ‬

‫ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧــﺮﮊﯼ ﻭ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺎ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥﺟﺎ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺨــﺶ ﺑﺰﺭﮔﯽ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﺩﺭﺣﺎﻟﯽ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺳــﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﺟﻬﺎﻧﯽ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﺗﺮﮎ ﻋﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ ﮐﻢﮐﻢ ﺗﻘﻮﯾﺖ ﯾﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﻭ‬

‫ﻣﺼــﺎﺭﻑ ﺍﻧــﺮﮊﯼ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑــﻪ ﺑﺨﺶﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺍﯾﻦ ﺯﻣﯿﻨــﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻘﯽ ﺑﺎ ﺁﺏ ﻭ ﻫﻮﺍﯾﯽ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﺗﺒﻊ ﺁﻥ ﺍﻫﻤﯿﺖ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻣﺰﺑﻮﺭ ﺑﯿﺸــﺘﺮ‬

‫ﺧﺎﻧﮕــﯽ ﻭ ﺗﺠــﺎﺭﯼ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ‬

‫ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﯾﺮﺍﻥ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ‪ 120‬ﮐﯿﻠﻮﻭﺍﺕ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ‬

‫ﻣﻄﺮﺡ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ ﺭﺍﻧﺪﻣﺎﻥ‬

‫ﺑﺮ ﻣﺘﺮﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺍﺳــﺖ؛ ﯾﻌﻨــﯽ ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ‬

‫ﭘﺎﯾﯿــﻦ ﻧﯿﺮﻭﮔﺎﻩﻫــﺎ ﺑﺎﺯ ﻫﻢ ﻣﯿــﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﺗﻼﻑ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺩﺭ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﯼ ﺍﯾﺮﺍﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺁﺷﮑﺎﺭﺗﺮ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺣﺎﺿﺮ‬

‫‪ 2.6‬ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﺑﯿﻦﺍﻟﻤﻠﻠﯽ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻣﻨﺎﺯﻝ ﻣﺴﮑﻮﻧﯽ ﺩﺭ ﺍﯾﺮﺍﻥ‬

‫ﺑﻌﻀﯽ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺳﺮﺩ ﺍﯾﺮﺍﻥ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺧﻠﺨﺎﻝ ﺍﯾﻦ‬

‫ﺯﯾﺴﺖ ‪ -‬ﻣﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺯﺍﯼ ﻫﺮ ﻣﺘﺮﻣﺮﺑﻊ ‪310‬‬

‫ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ ﺣﺘﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺑﯿﺶ ﺍﺯ ‪ 4‬ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺍﺳــﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ‬

‫ﮐﯿﻠﻮﻭﺍﺕ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ ﺑﺮ ﻣﺘﺮﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ‬

‫ﺑﯿﻦﺍﻟﻤﻠﻠﯽ ﻣﯽﺭﺳﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﻪ‬

‫ﻣﯽﮐﻨﻨﺪ ﻭ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺭﺷﺪ ﺟﻤﻌﯿﺖ‪ ،‬ﺭﻓﺎﻩﻃﻠﺒﯽ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻭ‬

‫ﻓﺮﺳﻮﺩﻩ ﺩﺭ ﮐﺸﻮﺭﻣﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﯾﮏ ﻣﺘﺮ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ‬

‫ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺳــﯽ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﻭ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﺎﺕ‪،‬‬

‫ﮐﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﮐﻠﯿﺪﯼ‬ ‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ‪ -‬ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ‪ -‬ﻣﻘﺮﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻠﯽ ‪-‬‬ ‫ﻓﻦﺁﻭﺭﯼﻫﺎﯼ ﻧﻮﯾﻦ ‪ -‬ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﯾﯽ ‪ -‬ﻣﺤﯿﻂ‬

‫ﭘــﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻭﻟﯿــﻦ ﺑﺤــﺮﺍﻥ ﻧﻔﺘــﯽ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺳــﺎﻝ‪1973‬ﻣﯿﻼﺩﯼ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﯾﯽ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺑﯿﺸــﺘﺮ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻓــﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻃــﻮﺭﯼ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﻄــﻊ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﯽ‬ ‫ﺩﻫﻪﻫــﺎﯼ ﻫﻔﺘــﺎﺩ ﻭ ﻫﺸــﺘﺎﺩ ﺍﺣﺴــﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻮﻭﻟﯿﺘﯽ ﺟﺪﯼ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺑﻬﯿﻨﻪ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺍﺑﺴــﺘﮕﯽ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻔﺖ ﮐﺸﻮﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﺻﺎﺩﺭ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﻧﻔﺖ )ﺍﻭﭘﮏ(‪ ،‬ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﺶ ﺭﺍﻧﺪﻣﺎﻥ ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻣﺴــﺎﻟﻪﯼ ﺣﻤﺎﯾﺖ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺤﯿﻂ ﺯﯾﺴﺖ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ ﮔﺮﺩﯾﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺳــﺎﻝﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﻗﯿﻤﺖ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺳــﻄﺢ ﭘﺎﯾﯿﻨــﯽ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺷــﺖ )ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺣﺴــﺎﺱ ﻣﺴــﻮﻭﻟﯿﺖ(‪ ،‬ﻋــﺎﺩﺕ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮓ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺑﯽﺭﻭﯾﻪ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺩﺭ ﮐﺸﻮﺭﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺳﻬﻢ ﻫﺮ ﯾﮏ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺨﺶﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺼﺮﻑﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺒﺪ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﮐﺸﻮﺭ‬

‫ﺭﻭﺍﺝ ﯾﺎﻓــﺖ‪ ،‬ﻃﻮﺭﯼ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺛــﺮﺍﺕ ﺁﻥ ﺗﺎ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺮﻭﺯ ﺑﺎﻗﯽ ﻣﺎﻧﺪﻩ ﺍﺳــﺖ؛ ﻣﺘﺎﺳــﻔﺎﻧﻪ ﺍﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﻠﺐ ﺩﺭ ﻣــﻮﺭﺩ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﯼ ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﭘﺮﺳــﺘﯽ ﺩﻭﻟﺖ ﻧﯿــﺰ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﺱ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺳــﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺳــﺎﻟﻦﻫﺎﯼ ﮔﺮﺩﻫﻤﺎﯾــﯽ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺳــﺎﻟﻦﻫﺎﯼ ﻭﺭﺯﺷــﯽ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺍﮐــﺰ ﺁﻣــﻮﺯﺵ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﯽ‪ ،‬ﺁﺗﺶﻧﺸــﺎﻧﯽﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﯿﻤﺎﺭﺳــﺘﺎﻥﻫﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﺠــﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺍﮐﺰ ﻣﺬﻫﺒــﯽ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﺯﻩﻫﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﮐﺘﺎﺑﺨﺎﻧﻪﻫﺎ ﻭ ‪ ...‬ﺑﯿﺸــﺘﺮ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ ﭘﯿﺪﺍ ﮐﺮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺩﺭ ﺍﯾــﺮﺍﻥ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻠﻔﺎﺗﯽ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ‪ 30‬ﺩﺭﺻــﺪ‪ ،‬ﺿﺎﯾﻌﻪﺍﯼ ﺑﺰﺭﮒ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ‬

‫ﻣﯿﺎﻧﮕﯿﻦ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺧﺎﻧﮕﯽ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 33‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪39‬‬

‫ﺧﻮﺍﺳــﺘﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﺟﻤﻌﯿــﺖ ﺭﻭ ﺑــﻪ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﺶ‬

‫ﻣﮑﺎﻧﯿﮑــﯽ ﻭ ﺑــﺮﻕ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﯾﺠــﺎﺏ‬

‫ﺍﺭﮔﺎﻥﻫــﺎﯼ ﺫﯾﺮﺑﻂ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺮﺍﺗﺐ ﺑﻬﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺎﻝ‬

‫ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺗﻘﺎﺿﺎﯼ ﺭﻭﺯﺍﻓﺰﻭﻥ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﻭ‬

‫ﻣﯽﮐﻨــﺪ ﺑﯿــﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺍﻧــﺶ ﻓﻨﯽ ﻭ‬

‫ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ؛ ﺩﺭ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺭﺍﺳﺘﺎ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺕ ﺻﻨﺎﯾﻊ‬

‫ﺍﻧﮕﯿﺰﻩﻫــﺎﯼ ﺗﺎﻣﯿﻦ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺗﻘﺎﺿﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ‬

‫ﺗﺠﺮﺑﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﻭ ﭘﯿﺸﺮﻓﺖﻫﺎﯼ ﺟﻬﺎﻧﯽ‬

‫ﻭ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﯿﻨﻪﯼ ﮐﻤﮏ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻮﺳــﻌﻪﯼ‬

‫ﺩﺍﺷــﺘﻪ ﻭ ﻃﯽ ﺳﯽ ﺳﺎﻝ ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ ﻧﯿﺎﺯﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺧﻮﺷﺒﺨﺘﺎﻧﻪ ﺍﻣﻮﺭ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ‬

‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪﻫﺎﯼ ﺗﻮﻟﯿﺪ ﻋﺎﯾﻖﻫﺎﯼ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﯽ ﻭ ﺳﺎﯾﺮ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺑﺎ ﺭﺷﺪ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺳﺎﻻﻧﻪ ‪3.3‬‬

‫ﺑــﻪ ﺗﺪﻭﯾﻦ ﻣﻘﺮﺭﺍﺕ ﻭ ﺿﻮﺍﺑــﻂ ﻓﻨﯽ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ‬

‫ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻧﯽ )ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﭘﺮﻭﻓﯿﻞ ﻭ‬

‫ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﻪﺍﯼ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﺶ‬

‫ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪﯼ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺗﺤﺖ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﺒﺤﺚ‬

‫ﺷﯿﺸﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﻨﺎﺳــﺐ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺩﺭ ﻭ ﭘﻨﺠﺮﻩ(‪،‬‬

‫ﯾﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﻧﻮﺯﺩﻫﻢ ﻣﻘﺮﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻠﯽ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻝ‬

‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺕ ﻋﻠــﻮﻡ ﺗﺤﻘﯿﻘــﺎﺕ ﻭ ﻓــﻦﺁﻭﺭﯼ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﺑﺨﺶ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺩﺭ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﯿﺶ ﺍﺯ‬

‫‪ 1369‬ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻝ ‪1370‬ﺑﻪ ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺐ‬

‫ﺯﻣﯿﻨــﻪﯼ ﺗﺒﯿﯿﻦ ﺩﺍﻧﺶ ﻓﻨــﯽ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﯾﮏ ﺳﻮﻡ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﻣﺼﺮﻓﯽ ﮐﺸﻮﺭ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺧﻮﺩ‬

‫ﻫﯿــﺎﺕ ﻭﺯﯾﺮﺍﻥ ﺭﺳــﯿﺪ؛ ﺍﻟﺒﺘﻪ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻣﺒﺤﺚ‬

‫ﺍﻧــﺮﮊﯼ ﺩﺭ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺁﻣــﻮﺯﺵ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﻣﯽﺩﻫﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺭﺯﺵ ﺁﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻗﯿﻤﺖ‬

‫ﭼﻨﺪﯾﻦ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﺯﻧﮕﺮﯼ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﮐﻪ ﺁﺧﺮﯾﻦ ﺁﻥ‬

‫ﺩﺍﻧﺸــﮕﺎﻩﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺳــﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳﯽ‬

‫ﺟﻬﺎﻧﯽ‪ ،‬ﺳــﺎﻟﯿﺎﻧﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻎ ﺑﺮ ‪ 6‬ﻣﯿﻠﯿﺎﺭﺩ ﺩﻻﺭ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺳــﺎﻝ‪1381‬ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺑﻌــﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺎﺯﻧﮕــﺮﯼ‬

‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﯿﻨــﻪﯼ ﺗﺮﻭﯾﺞ ﻭ ﺗﻌﻤﯿﻖ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳــﺎﺱ ﺁﻣﺎﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﻨﺘﺸﺮﻩ‪40 ،‬‬

‫ﭼــﺎﭖ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺳــﺘﮕﺎﻩﻫﺎﯼ ﺫﯾﺮﺑــﻂ ﺍﺑﻼﻍ‬

‫ﻋﻠﻢ ﻭ ﻋﻤــﻞ ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﺑﺎ ﻧﻈــﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﯾﯽ‪،‬‬

‫ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺗﻮﻟﯿﺪﯼ ﮐﺸــﻮﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺨﺶ‬

‫ﻭ ﺍﺟــﺮﺍﯼ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﯼ ﮐﺸــﻮﺭ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪ ﻣﻔﯿﺪ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﮔﺮﺩﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ )ﺧﺎﻧﮕﯽ ﻭ ﺗﺠــﺎﺭﯼ( ﻣﺼﺮﻑ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻣــﯽ ﮔﺮﺩﯾﺪ‪ .‬ﻻﺯﻣــﻪﯼ ﺗﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ‬

‫ﺗﻨﻮﻉ ﺷﺎﺧﺼﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﯿﺎﯾﯽ )ﺁﺏ ﻭ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻣﺘﻮﺳــﻂ ﺳﺎﻻﻧﻪ ‪1.6‬‬

‫ﺑﻬﯿﻨﻪ ﻭ ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﯾﯽ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ‬

‫ﻫﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺍﻗﻠﯿﻢ ﻭ ﻃﺒﯿﻌﺖ( ﻭ ﺯﻣﯿﻦﺷــﻨﺎﺧﺘﯽ‬

‫ﺩﺭﺻــﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﯿــﺰﺍﻥ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﮐﺸــﻮﺭ‬

‫ﺍﯾﻦ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐــﻪ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳــﺎﻥ ﺭﺷــﺘﻪﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺳــﺮﺯﻣﯿﻦ ﭘﻬﻨــﺎﻭﺭ ﺍﯾــﺮﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻫﻤﭽﻨﯿﻦ‬

‫ﺍﻓﺰﻭﺩﻩ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺍﮔﺮ ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ‬

‫ﻣﻌﻤﺎﺭﯼ‪ ،‬ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ ﻭ ﻣﮑﺎﻧﯿﮏ )ﮐﻪ ﻣﺴﻮﻭﻝ‬

‫ﮔﻮﻧﺎﮔﻮﻧﯽ ﻭ ﮔﺴﺘﺮﻩﯼ ﺍﻗﻮﺍﻡ ﺑﺎ ﻭﯾﮋﮔﯽﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﮐﺸــﻮﺭ ﺑﺎ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺭﻭﻧﺪ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﯾﺎﺑﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﯾﺮﺍﻥ ﺗﺎ‬

‫ﻃﺮﺍﺣــﯽ ﻋﺎﯾﻖﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﯽ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ‬

‫ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮕــﯽ‪ ،‬ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋــﯽ )ﺁﺩﺍﺏ ﻭ ﺭﺳــﻮﻡ‪،‬‬

‫ﺍﻓﻖ ﺳﻨﺪ ﭼﺸــﻢﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ ﺑﯿﺴﺖﺳﺎﻟﻪ ﯾﮑﯽ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﻭ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺗﺎﺳﯿﺴــﺎﺕ ﻣﮑﺎﻧﯿﮑــﯽ‬

‫ﺭﻭﺵﻫﺎﯼ ﺯﯾﺴــﺖ ﺟﻤﻌــﯽ ﻭ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﯽ‪،‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﺭﺩﮐﻨﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻧﯿﺎ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ(ﻣﯽﺑﺎﯾﺴــﺖ ﺑﺎ ﻃﺮﺍﺣــﯽ‪ ،‬ﺍﺟﺮﺍﯼ‬

‫ﻣﻌﻤﺎﺭﯼ ﻭ…(‪ ،‬ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﯼ )ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻌﯿﺸﺖ‪،‬‬

‫ﺍﮐﺜﺮ ﻗﺮﯾﺐ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﻣﻨﻄﺒﻖ ﺑﺮ ﺿﻮﺍﺑﻂ ﻣﺒﺤﺚ ﻣﺰﺑﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺗﮑﻠﯿﻒ‬

‫ﺗﻮﻟﯿــﺪ ﺍﺭﺯﺵ ﺍﻓــﺰﻭﺩﻩ‪ ،‬ﮐﺎﺭﺑــﺮﺩ ﻣﺼﺎﻟــﺢ‬

‫ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﮐﺸــﻮﺭ ﻓﺎﻗﺪ ﺿﻮﺍﺑﻂ ﻓﻨﯽ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ‬

‫ﺧــﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﻭ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﯼ ﻣﻘﺮﺭﺍﺕ‬

‫ﻭ ﺭﻭﺵﻫــﺎﯼ ﺳــﺎﺧﺖ ﺑﻮﻣــﯽ ﻭ…( ﻭ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﻭ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺟﻠﻮﮔﯿــﺮﯼ ﺍﺯ ﺑﻪ ﻫﺪﺭ ﺭﻓﺖ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ‬

‫ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑــﺎ ﻣﻮﺿــﻮﻉ ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﯾﯽ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ‬

‫ﻣﻮﺍﺯﺍﺕ ﺁﻥ ﺗﻘﺎﺿﺎﯼ ﻓﺰﺍﯾﻨﺪﻩ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﻣﺴﮑﻦ‬

‫ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﯽ ﻭ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﯽ ﺩﺭﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﻫﯿﭻ ﺗﻤﻬﯿﺪﺍﺗﯽ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﺧﻮﺑﯽ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺩﻫﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭ ﻭﺟــﻮﺩ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﯾﺖﻫــﺎ ﻭ ﭼﺎﻟﺶﻫــﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺪﯾﺸــﯿﺪﻩ ﻧﺸــﺪﻩ ﺍﺳــﺖ؛ ﻟــﺬﺍ ﺟﻬــﺖ‬

‫ﻻﺯﻡ ﺑــﻪ ﺫﮐﺮ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﺿﻮﺍﺑــﻂ ﻓﻨﯽ ﻭ‬

‫ﺭﺍﻫﺒﺮﺩﯼ )ﻓﻨﯽ ﻭ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﯼ(‪ ،‬ﺍﺳــﺘﺨﺮﺍﺝ‬

‫ﺑﻬﯿﻨﻪﺳــﺎﺯﯼ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﻭ ﺗﻐﯿﯿﺮ ﻭﺿﻊ‬

‫ﺍﺟﺮﺍﯾﯽ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﯿﻨــﻪﯼ ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﯾﯽ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ‬

‫ﻭ ﻣﺼــﺮﻑ ﺑﯽﺭﻭﯾــﻪﯼ ﻓﺮﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ‬

‫ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﻗﻄﻌﺎ ﺗﻼﺵ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﭘﻮﺳــﺘﻪﯼ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﯼ ﺑﺎ‬

‫ﻓﺴــﯿﻠﯽ ﻭ ﺷــﯿﻮﻩﯼ ﺑﻬﺮﻩﺑﺮﺩﺍﺭﯼ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ‬

‫ﻋﻈﯿﻢ ﻭ ﻫﻤﺎﻫﻨﮓ ﻫﻤﻪ ﻣﺮﺩﻡ ﻭ ﻣﺴﻮﻭﻻﻥ‬

‫ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﯼ ﭘــﺮ ﺍﻫﻤﯿﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺯﯾــﺮ ﺑﻨﺎﯼ ﺯﯾﺎﺩﯼ‬

‫ﺗﻮﺟﯿﻪ ﻧﻤﯽﻧﻤﺎﯾﺪ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻉ ﺁﻥ ﭼﻨﺎﻥ‬

‫ﺭﺍ ﻣﯽﻃﻠﺒــﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺣــﺎﻝ ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﺳــﺮﺍﻧﻪﯼ‬

‫ﺩﺍﺷــﺘﻪ ﻭ ﯾــﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻨﺎﻃــﻖ ﺍﻗﻠﯿﻤﯽ ﺣﺎﺩ ﻭ‬

‫ﻭﺿﻌﯿﺖ ﻭ ﺷــﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﺣــﺎﺩﯼ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻤﺎﯾﺶ‬

‫ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺩﺭﮐﺸــﻮﺭ ﺳــﺎﻻﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻝ‬

‫ﺷــﻬﺮﻫﺎﯼ ﺑﺰﺭﮒ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺷــﺪﻩﺍﻧﺪ ﻣﻔﺼﻞﺗﺮ‬

‫ﻣﯽﮔﺬﺍﺭﺩ ﺗﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺧــﺮﻭﺝ ﺍﺯ ﺍﯾﻦ ﭼﺎﻟﺶ‪،‬‬

‫‪ 3.4‬ﺑﺸــﮑﻪ ﻧﻔﺖ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺍﯾــﻦ ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ‬

‫ﻭ ﺳــﺨﺖ ﮔﯿﺮﺍﻧﻪﺗﺮ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ ،‬ﻫﻤﭽﻨﯿﻦ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﺑﯿﺶ ﺍﺯ ﭘﯿﺶ ﺑﻪ ﺳــﯿﺮ ﭘﮋﻭﻫﺶ ﻭ ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪﯼ‬

‫ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ‪ 3‬ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﮐﺸــﻮﺭﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺍﯾﻦ ﺯﻣﯿﻨﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﯼ ﻋﺎﺩﯼ ﻭ‬

‫ﻧﻈﺮﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻤﯽ‪ ،‬ﻣﺒﺘﮑﺮﺍﻧﻪ ﻭ ﻣﺒﺘﻨﯽ ﺑﺮ ﻓﮑﺮ‪،‬‬

‫ﺻﻨﻌﺘﯽ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﮐﻮﭼﮏ ﻧﯿﺰ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺭﺍﻫﮑﺎﺭﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺗﺠﺮﺑﻪ ﻭ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺷﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﻓﻌﻠﯽ ﮐﺸــﻮﺭ ﺑﺎ ﻋﻨﺎﯾﺖ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﻣﺸــﺨﺺ‪ ،‬ﺑــﺪﻭﻥ ﻣﺤﺎﺳــﺒﻪ ﻭ ﺗﻔﺼﯿﻞ‬

‫ﺍﯾــﺮﺍﻥ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮﯾــﻦ ﺳــﺮﺍﻧﻪﯼ ﻣﺼــﺮﻑ‬

‫ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻧــﺎﺕ ﺟﺪﯾﺪ ﺻﻨﻌﺘﯽ ﺑــﻪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺁﻣﺪﻩ‬

‫ﺧﺎﺹ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺍﺳــﺖ؛ ﺑﺎ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬

‫ﺍﻧــﺮﮊﯼ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺘﻪ ﻣﺎﯾﻪﯼ‬

‫ﻭ ﻧﯿــﺰ ﻧﺒــﻮﺩ ﺿﻮﺍﺑﻂ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﺻﺮﻓﻪ‪-‬‬

‫ﺿﺮﻭﺭﯼ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﺟﻬــﺖ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﯾــﯽ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻓﺘﺨﺎﺭ ﻧﯿﺴــﺖ ﺯﯾــﺮﺍ ﮐﻪ ﻫﻤﯿــﻦ ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﭘﺮﻭﺳﻪﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺗﮑﻨﻮﻟﻮﮊﯼﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﭘﺎﺳﺨﮕﻮﯼ‬

‫ﺟﻮﯾﯽ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺼــﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺎﺳﯿﺴــﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺿﻮﺍﺑﻂ ﻣﺰﺑــﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻫﻤﮑﺎﺭﯼ ﺳــﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥﻫﺎ ﻭ‬


‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 34‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪39‬‬

‫ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧﺴــﺖ ﺩﺭ ﮔﺮﺩﺵ ﭼﺮﺥﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻝﻫﺎﯼ ﺍﺧﯿﺮ ﺑﺎ ﻋﻨﺎﯾﺖ ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ‬

‫ﮐﻨﻨــﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﺍﻧــﺮﮊﯼ ﻭ ﻣﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﻫﺴــﺘﻨﺪ ﻭ‬

‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼــﺎﺩﯼ ﮐﺸــﻮﺭ ﻣﻮﺛﺮ ﻭ ﻣﻔﯿﺪ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﻓﺴــﯿﻠﯽ‪ ،‬ﺑﺤﺚ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ‬

‫ﻣﻘﻮﻟﻪﯼ ﺍﻧــﺮﮊﯼ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﻧﻘﺶ ﻣﻬﻤﯽ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﻃﺒــﻖ ﺑﺮﺁﻭﺭﺩﻫــﺎﯼ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﯾﺎﻓﺘــﻪ ﻧﻔﺖ ﻭ‬

‫ﻋﺎﯾﻖﻫــﺎﯼ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﯽ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﯾﯽ‬

‫ﭘﺎﯾﺪﺍﺭﯼ ﺳــﮑﻮﻧﺖﮔﺎﻩﻫﺎ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﯾﻦ ﻣﻘﻮﻟﻪ‬

‫ﮔﺎﺯﯼ ﮐــﻪ ﺣــﺪﻭﺩ ‪ 300‬ﻣﯿﻠﯿــﻮﻥ ﺳــﺎﻝ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﺼــﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺑﻪ ﻃــﻮﺭ ﺟﺪﯼ ﻣﻄﺮﺡ‬

‫ﺑــﻪ ﺩﻟﯿﻞ ﻭﺟــﻮﺩ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﺍﻧــﺮﮊﯼ ﻓﺮﺍﻭﺍﻥ ﻭ‬

‫ﻃﻮﻝ ﮐﺸــﯿﺪﻩ ﺗﺎ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺪﻭﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﻮﺩ‪،‬‬

‫ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻭ ﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﺑﺎﻻﯼ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ‪،‬‬

‫ﺍﺭﺯﺍﻥ ﺍﺯ ﯾــﮏ ﻃــﺮﻑ ﻭ ﻫﺰﯾﻨــﻪﯼ ﺑﺎﻻﯼ‬

‫ﮐﻤﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ‪150‬ﺳــﺎﻝ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺍﻋﻈــﻢ ﺁﻥ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﻓﻌﺎﻟﯿﺖﻫــﺎﯼ ﻭﺳــﯿﻌﯽ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﯿﻨــﻪﯼ‬

‫ﭘﮋﻭﻫﺶ ﻭ ﺗﺤﻘﯿﻖ ﺳــﺎﺧﺖ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺭﺳــﯿﺪﻩ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺁﯾﺎ ﻧﺴــﻞ ﺍﻣﺮﻭﺯ‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩﯼ ﻣﻮﺛﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ‪ ،‬ﺳــﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﺪﻫﯽ‬

‫ﻧﻮﯾﻦ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻧﯽ ﻭ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺼﺎﻟﺢ‬

‫ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺣﻖ ﺭﺍ ﻗﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺍﯾﻦ‬

‫ﮐﺮﺩﻩ ﮐــﻪ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻣﻬــﻢ‪ ،‬ﺧــﻮﺩ ﻫﻤﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﺑﺎ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﮐﻤﺎ ﻓﯽﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﻣﻐﻔﻮﻝ ﻣﺎﻧﺪﻩ‬

‫ﭼﻨﯿﻦ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺪﻧﻪﯼ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﮐﺸــﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻣﺤﯿﻂ‬

‫ﺗﺤﻮﻻﺕ ﺷــﮕﺮﻓﯽ ﺩﺭ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳــﯽ ﻭ‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺩﻫﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﮔﺬﺷــﺘﻪ ﺑــﻪ ﺧﺎﻃﺮ‬

‫ﺯﯾﺴــﺖ ﻭ ﺣﯿﺎﺕ ﻧﺴﻞﻫﺎﯼ ﺁﯾﻨﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﺁﺳﯿﺐ‬

‫ﺻﻨﻌﺖ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﺭﺗﻘﺎﯼ ﺳــﻄﺢ ﺯﻧﺪﮔﯽ ﻭ ﻣﻌﯿﺎﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﺁﻥ ﻭ‬

‫ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﮐﻨﺪ؟ﭼﻨﺎﻥﭼــﻪ ﻣﯽﺩﺍﻧﯿــﻢ ﺑﺨــﺶ‬

‫ﻣﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﯾﺴﻪ ﻗﯿﻤﺖ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺗﻐﯿﯿﺮ ﺩﺭ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﯿﺖﻫﺎﯼ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﯼ‪ ،‬ﺳﺮﺍﻧﻪﯼ‬

‫ﺍﻋﻈﻢ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺩﺭ ﺧﺪﻣﺖ ﻣﺴــﮑﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ‬

‫ﺳــﻨﺘﯽ ﻭ ﺻﻨﻌﺘﯽ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ‬

‫ﻣﺼــﺮﻑ ﺍﻧــﺮﮊﯼ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺳــﮑﻮﻧﺖ ﮔﺎﻩﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﻣﺘﻮﻟﯿﺎﻥ ﺳﺎﺧﺖﻭﺳﺎﺯ ﺩﺭ ﮐﺸﻮﺭ ﺑﯿﺸﺘﺮﯾﻦ‬

‫ﻣﯽﮔﯿﺮﯾﻢ ﻭ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻧﮑﺘﻪ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬

‫ﺷــﻬﺮﯼ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺭﻭﺳﺘﺎﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﺶ‬

‫ﻣﺴــﻮﻭﻟﯿﺖ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ ﻭﺿﻌﯿﺖ ﻭ‬

‫ﮐﺸﻮﺭ ﭼﻪ ﻧﻘﺸﯽ ﺍﯾﻔﺎ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﮐﺮﺩ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ‬

‫ﯾﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﺍﺳــﺖ؛ ﻟﺬﺍ ﭘﺘﺎﻧﺴــﯿﻞ ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﯾﯽ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩﺳــﺎﺯﯼ ﻣﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻧﯽ ﻭ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﻧﯿﺴﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﮐﺸﻮﺭﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺭﻭﺯ ﮐﺮﺩﻥ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻧﯽ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑــﻪ ﺩﻟﯿﻞ ﮐﻤﺒﻮﺩ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﺍﻧــﺮﮊﯼ‪ ،‬ﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪﯼ‬

‫ﭼﺸــﻤﮕﯿﺮ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﻟﺤﺎﻅ ﺍﺭﺯﺵ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻦﺁﻭﺭﯼﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮐــﻪ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮﯾﻦ‬

‫ﺗﺤﺼﯿــﻞ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺯﯾﺎﺩ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ ،‬ﺑــﻪ ﺩﻧﺒﺎﻝ‬

‫ﺩﺭﺧﻮﺭ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﮐﺎﺭﺁﯾﯽ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﻭ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﻃﺒﯿﻌﯽ‬

‫ﺭﺍﻩﻫﺎﯾــﯽ ﻫﺴــﺘﻨﺪ ﺗــﺎ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧــﺮﮊﯼ ﺭﺍ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺑﺴــﯿﺎﺭﯼ ﺍﺯ ﮐﺸــﻮﺭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﺿــﻮﻉ‬

‫ﺩﺍﺷــﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ﻣﯽﺑﺎﯾﺴــﺖ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺣﻤﺎﯾﺖ‬

‫ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﺩﻫﻨــﺪ‪ .‬ﻧﻔــﺖ ﻭ ﮔﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﯾــﯽ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺼــﺮﻑ ﺍﻧــﺮﮊﯼ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﯿﺮﺩ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﯽﺭﺳــﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺭﻭﺵﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺍﺭﺯﺍﻧﯽ ﺩﺭ ﮐﺸــﻮﺭ ﻣﺎ ﻣﺤﺴﻮﺏ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪،‬‬

‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎ ﺑــﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﮔﺴــﺘﺮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺑﺎ‬

‫ﺳــﻨﺘﯽ ﺳﺎﺧﺖﻭﺳــﺎﺯ ﺗﻘﺮﯾﺒﺎ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺍﻣﺮ ﻏﯿﺮ‬

‫ﻟﺬﺍ ﺑﻬﺘﺮ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺎﯼ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪﺭﯾﺰﯼﻫﺎﯼ ﭘﻮﯾﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﯾﻖ ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ ﻓﺮﺁﯾﻨﺪ‬

‫ﻣﻤﮑﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺭﺷﺪ ﺟﻤﻌﯿﺖ ﮐﺸﻮﺭ ﻭ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ‬

‫ﮔﺮﻡ ﮐﺮﺩﻥ ﯾﺎ ﺳﺮﺩ ﮐﺮﺩﻥ ﺧﺎﻧﻪﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺻﻨﺎﯾﻊ‬

‫ﺳﺎﺧﺖﻭﺳــﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻦﺁﻭﺭﯼﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﺑﯿﺶ ﺍﺯ ﯾﮏ ﻣﯿﻠﯿﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﺴــﮑﻮﻧﯽ‬

‫ﮐﺸﻮﺭ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺟﻬﺖ ﭘﯿﺸﺮﻓﺖ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﺭﺩ‬

‫ﻧﻮﯾﻦ ﺩﺭ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻧﯽ ﻭ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺳــﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻋﺮﺻﻪﯼ ﺳﺎﺧﺖﻭﺳﺎﺯ ﮐﺸﻮﺭ ﺭﺍ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﻫﯿﻢ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﮐﺸﻮﺭ ﻋﺰﯾﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺍﺳــﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻩﯼ ﺗﻔﮑﺮ ﺳــﻨﺘﯽ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﮐﺮﺩﻩ ﻭ‬

‫ﺑﯿﺶ ﺍﺯ ‪ 75‬ﻣﯿﻠﯿﻮﻥ ﻧﻔﺮ ﺯﻧﺪﮔﯽ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﻨﺪ‪،‬‬

‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳــﺐ ﮐﺎﻟﺒــﺪﯼ‪ ،‬ﻣﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺑﺮﺭﺳــﯽ‬

‫ﻧﯿﺎﺯﻫﺎﯼ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﻣﯽﻃﻠﺒﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﮔﺮ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﻧﯿﻢ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﯼ ﺍﻧﮕﺸﺖﺷــﻤﺎﺭﯼ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬

‫ﻭ ﻧﻈــﺎﺭﺕ ﺑــﻮﺩﻩ ﺑــﻪ ﻃﻮﺭﯼ ﮐــﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﯾﻦ‬

‫ﺳﺎﺧﺖﻭﺳــﺎﺯ ﺻﻨﻌﺘﯽ ﺑﻪ ﺭﻗﻤﯽ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ‬

‫ﮐــﻪ ﻣﺠﻬﺰ ﺑﻪ ﻋﺎﯾﻖﻫــﺎﯼ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﯽ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﯾﺎ‬

‫ﺟﻮﺍﻣﻊ‪ ،‬ﻗﻮﺍﻧﯿﻦ ﻭ ﺍﺳــﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩﻫﺎﯼ ﻭﺿﻊ‬

‫‪ 30‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﯿﻨﻪﯼ ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﯾﯽ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﻣﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻧﯽ ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩﺍﺭ‬

‫ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺑﺎ ﮐﻤــﮏ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﯾﯽ ﻭ‬

‫ﺩﺳــﺖ ﭘﯿﺪﺍ ﮐﻨﯿــﻢ )ﮐــﻪ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﺯ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﯿﺖ‬

‫ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﮐﻤﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ﯾﮏ ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺳﺎﺧﺖﻭﺳﺎﺯ‬

‫ﻣﺪﯾﺮﯾــﺖ ﺻﺤﯿﺢ ﻧﺘﺎﯾﺞ ﻣﺜﺒﺘــﯽ ﺭﺍ ﻧﯿﺰ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﻫﻢ ﻧﯿﺴــﺖ(‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻃﺮﯾﻖ ﺑﻪ ﭘﯿﺸــﺮﻓﺖ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﮐﺸﻮﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺭﻭﺵ ﺻﻨﻌﺘﯽ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﯽﮔﯿﺮﺩ‬

‫ﺑــﺎﺭ ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﮐﻞ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﮔﻔﺖ‬

‫ﺻﻨﻌﺖ ﮐﺸﻮﺭ ﮐﻤﮏ ﮐﺮﺩﻩﺍﯾﻢ ﻭ ﭼﻨﺎﻥﭼﻪ‬

‫ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻣﯿﻠﯿﻮﻥﻫﺎ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻧﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺭﻭﺵ‬

‫ﻫﺰﯾﻨــﻪﺍﯼ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺟــﺮﺍﯼ ﻣﺒﺤﺚ ﻧﻮﺯﺩﻫﻢ‬

‫ﺍﯾــﻦ ﻣﯿــﺰﺍﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ‪ 40‬ﺩﺭﺻــﺪ ﺍﻧــﺮﮊﯼ‬

‫ﺳﻨﺘﯽ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﺩﯾﻮﺍﺭﻩﻫﺎﯼ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﯽ‬

‫ﻣﻘﺮﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻠﯽ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﺑﺖ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﻣﺼﺮﻓــﯽ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺴــﮑﻮﻧﯽ ﻭ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﯼ‬

‫ﺗﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺯﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺩ ﻭ ﺑﺎﺭﺍﻥ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺣﻔﻆ‬

‫ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳــﺎﻥ ﺗﺎﺳﯿﺴﺎﺕ ﻣﮑﺎﻧﯿﮑﯽ‬

‫ﺿﺮﺏ ﮐﻨﯿﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﯽ ﻓﻮﻕﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻩ ﺩﺳــﺖ‬

‫ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺕ ﯾﺎ ﺑﺮﻭﺩﺕ ﺩﺭ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺑﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺳﻮﺧﺖ‬

‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻟﺤﺎﻅ ﻣﯽﮔﺮﺩﺩ ﺟــﺰﻭ ﺭﺩﯾﻒ‬

‫ﻣﯽﯾﺎﺑﯿــﻢ‪ .‬ﺍﯾﻦ ﻣﻄﻠﺐ ﯾﮑﯽ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺤﺎﺳــﻦ‬

‫ﻓــﺮﺍﻭﺍﻥ ﮔﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﺑــﺮﻕ ﻭ ﺳــﺎﯾﺮ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ‬

‫ﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺤﺾ ﻧﺒﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻧﻮﻋﯽ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺎﺧﺖﻭﺳﺎﺯ ﺻﻨﻌﺘﯽ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﺗﺎﻣﯿﻦ ﻣﯽﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﻪﮔﺬﺍﺭﯼ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﮔﺮ‬

‫ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻧﻤﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﺭﺯﺗﺮﯾــﻦ ﻣﺼــﺮﻑ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﺳــﺎﯾﺰ ﻣﻨﺒﻊ ﺩﻭﺟﺪﺍﺭﻩ ﺩﺭﺳــﺖ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ‪،‬‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 35‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪39‬‬

‫ﻧﺼﺐ ﻭ ﻋﺎﯾﻖﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺷﻮﺩ ﺑﯿﺶ ﺍﺯ ‪ 7‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪ‬

‫ﺍﮐﺜﺮ ﻣﺮﺩﻡ ﺑﺮ ﺍﯾــﻦ ﺗﻔﮑﺮﻧﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﯼ‬

‫ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳــﯽ ﮐﺸــﻮﺭ ﻣﺴــﻮﻭﻟﯿﺖ ﻧﻈــﺎﺭﺕ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﺼــﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﯾــﯽ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﯿﻢ‬

‫ﻣﺒﺤﺚ ﻧﻮﺯﺩﻫﻢ ﻣﻘﺮﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻠﯽ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ‬

‫ﻋﺎﻟﯿــﻪ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﯼ ﺿﻮﺍﺑــﻂ ﻭ ﻣﻘﺮﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻠﯽ‬

‫ﺩﺍﺷــﺖ ﺩﺭ ﻧﺘﯿﺠــﻪ ﻫﺰﯾﻨــﻪﯼ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﻭ‬

‫ﺳــﺒﺐ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾــﺶ ﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ‬

‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﻭ ﺍﺟــﺮﺍﯼ ﺗﻤﺎﻣﯽ‬

‫ﻋﺎﯾﻖﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﯾــﮏ ﻣﻨﺒﻊ ﺩﻭﺟﺪﺍﺭﻩ ﺩﺭ ﻇﺮﻑ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﯽ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺍﮔﺮ ﺍﯾﻦ‬

‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎ ﺑــﺮ ﻋﻬﺪﻩ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺕ ﻣﺴــﮑﻦ‬

‫ﻣﺪﺕ ﮐﻤﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ‪ 5‬ﻣﺎﻩ ﻣﺴﺘﻬﻠﮏ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ‬

‫ﻣﺒﺤﺚ ﺩﺭ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺭﺳــﺘﯽ ﺍﺟﺮﺍ‬

‫ﻭ ﺷﻬﺮﺳــﺎﺯﯼ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺕ ﻣﺴــﮑﻦ ﺑﺮ‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﻣﺎﻩ ﺷﺸﻢ ﺑﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻮﺩﺩﻫﯽ ﻣﯽﺭﺳﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺷــﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻋﻼﻭﻩ ﺑﺮ ﺍﯾﻦﮐــﻪ ﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﺍﻭﻟﯿﻪ‬

‫ﻣﺒﻨﺎﯼ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻣﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﻗﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﻣﻘﺮﺭﺍﺕ‬

‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺖ ﺭﺍ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﻣﯽﺩﻫــﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﻣﻠﯽ ﺩﺭ ﺑﯿﺴــﺖ ﻣﺒﺤﺚ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻩ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﯾــﯽ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﻣﺒﺤﺚ ﻧﻮﺯﺩﻫﻢ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﯾﮑﯽ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺒﺎﺣﺚ‬

‫ﺍﺟﺮﺍﯼ ﻣﺒﺤـﺚ ﻧﻮﺯﺩﻫﻢ ﻣﻘﺮﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﯽ ﺳـﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨـﻮﺍﻥ ﮔﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺛﺮ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺴﯿﺮ ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪﯼ ﭘﺎﯾﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﻣﺰﺍﯾــﺎﯼ ﻣﺒﺤﺚ ﻧﻮﺯﺩﻫــﻢ ﻣﻘﺮﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻠــﯽ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻣــﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺯﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﺷﺎﺭﻩ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﺶ ﺭﻓﺎﻩ ﻧﺴﺒﯽ ﺩﺭ ﻧﺘﯿﺠﻪﯼ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ‬‫ﺻﺤﯿﺢ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ‬ ‫ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺳــﻮﺧﺖ ﻭ ﺁﻟﻮﺩﮔﯽﻫﺎﯼ‬‫ﻧﺎﺷﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ‬

‫ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﻣﺼﺮﻑﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺳــﻮﺩﺁﻭﺭ ﻧﯿﺰ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﺟﺮﺍﯼ ﻣﺒﺤﺚ ﻧﻮﺯﺩﻫﻢ ﻣﻘﺮﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻠﯽ‬ ‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺷــﺎﻣﻞ ﻋﺎﯾﻖﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺳﯿﺴﺎﺕ ﻭ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻋﺎﯾﻖﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺟﺪﺍﺭﻩﯼ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺭﺟﯽ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻭ ﻧﺼــﺐ ﭘﻨﺠﺮﻩﻫﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺟﺪﺍﺭﻩ ﺍﺳــﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺳﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﺶ ﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ‬ ‫‪ 5‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ؛ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﯽ ﺍﺳــﺖ‬ ‫ﮐﻪ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﻇﺮﻓﯿﺖ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ‬

‫‪ -‬ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﻗﺮﺍﺭﯼ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‬

‫ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺎ ‪40‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ ﺩﻣــﺎﯼ ﺍﺗﺎﻕ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈــﻮﺭ ﺗﺎﻣﯿﻦ‬

‫ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﻧﺴــﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺎﻟﺘﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻣﺒﺤﺚ‬

‫ﺷــﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﺁﺳــﺎﯾﺶ )‪ 18-21‬ﺩﺭﺟــﻪﯼ‬

‫ﺍﺟﺮﺍ ﻧﻤﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﮐﻤﺘﺮ ﺍﻧﺘﺨــﺎﺏ ﮐﺮﺩ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﺳﺎﻧﺘﯽﮔﺮﺍﺩ(‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﻧﻮﺑــﻪﯼ ﺧﻮﺩ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﺯﯾــﺎﺩ ﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﻇﺮﻓﯿﺖ ﺍﻭﻟﯿﻪ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‬‫ﻭ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺗﺎ ‪ 40‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪ‬ ‫ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﺍﺳــﺘﻬﻼﮎ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ‬‫ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‬ ‫ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ‪ 50‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪﯼ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺳــﻮﺧﺖ ﻭ‬‫ﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ ﺗﻮﺯﯾﻊ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﻗﺮﺍﺭﯼ‬‫ﺩﻣﺎﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ﺍﺗﺎﻕ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻡ ﺁﻭﺭ ﺯﯾﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﻋﺎﯾﻖﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺩﯾﻮﺍﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﯽ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ‬‫)ﻋﺎﯾــﻖﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺩﯾﻮﺍﺭﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮐــﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺤﯿﻂ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﺮﻭﻥ ﯾــﺎ ﻓﻀﺎﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮐــﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺩﻣﺎﯾﯽ‬ ‫ﮐﻨﺘــﺮﻝ ﻧﻤﯽﺷــﻮﻧﺪ »ﻧﻈﯿــﺮ ﭘﯿﻠــﻮﺕ«‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻣﯽ ﺍﺳﺖ‪(.‬‬ ‫ ﻧﺼــﺐ ﭘﻨﺠﺮﻩﻫﺎﯼ ﺩﻭﺟﺪﺍﺭﻩ ﺑﺎ ﻗﺎﺏﻫﺎﯼ‬‫ﻓﻠــﺰﯼ ﺗﺮﻣﺎﻝﺑﺮﯾــﮏ‪ ،‬ﭼﻮﺑــﯽ ﯾﺎ ‪PVC‬‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻣﺎ ﻭ ﻣﺎﻭﺭﺍﯼ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻔﺶ ﺩﻓﻊﺷﺪﻩ‬

‫ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﯿﻂ‬

‫ﺟﺎﺭﯼ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ؛‬ ‫ﻟﺬﺍ ﺍﮔﺮ ﺩﺭ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﻭ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻭﻟﯿﻪ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳﯽ ﺭﻋﺎﯾﺖ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻋﻼﻭﻩ‬ ‫ﺑــﺮ ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ ﻓﻀﺎﯼ ﻣﻨﺎﺳــﺐ ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﺯﻧﺪﮔﯽ‬ ‫ﺳــﺎﮐﻨﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﺶ ﺳــﻄﺢ ﺭﻓﺎﻩ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﺍﻭﻟﯿﻪ ﻧﯿﺰ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬

‫ﻧﻮﺭ ﻣﺮﯾﯽ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﻮﺭﯾﺎﻓﺘﻪ‬

‫ ﻋﺎﯾــﻖﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝﻫﺎﯼ ﻫــﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫﺎﯼ‬‫ﺗﺎﺳﯿﺴﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ ﺗﻮﻟﯿﺪ ﺁﺏﮔﺮﻡ‬ ‫ ﻧﺼــﺐ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﮐﻨﺘــﺮﻝ ﮐﻨﻨــﺪﻩ‬‫ﻣﻮﺿﻌﯽ ﺩﻣﺎ ﻧﻈﯿﺮ ﺷﯿﺮﻫﺎﯼ ﺗﺮﻣﻮﺳﺘﺎﺗﯿﮏ‬

‫ﺍﻓﺘﺎﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺑﺎ ﻣــﺎﺩﻩﯼ ‪ 33‬ﻗﺎﻧــﻮﻥ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﺭﺍﺩﯾﺎﺗﻮﺭﻫﺎ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫‪ -‬ﮐﻤﮏ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻣﻠﯽ ﻭ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺧﺎﻧﻮﺍﺩﻩ‬

‫ﺑﻬﺮﻩﺑﺮﺩﺍﺭﯼ ﻭ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ‪،‬‬

‫ﺑﯿﺴــﺘﮕﺎﻧﻪﯼ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻣﺰﺑــﻮﺭ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﯼ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 36‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪39‬‬

‫ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﯼ ﻋﺎﯾﻖﮐﺎﺭﯼ‬

‫ﺗﻦ ﻋﺎﯾﻖ ﺩﺭ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺳــﺎﻟﯿﺎﻧﻪ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﺳــﺎﻝ ‪1969‬ﻣﯿــﻼﺩﯼ ﺷــﺮﻭﻉ ﻭ ﻫﺮ ‪5‬‬

‫ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺳــﻮﺧﺖ ﻣﻌــﺎﺩﻝ ‪ 30‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 200‬ﺗﻦ‬

‫ﺳــﺎﻝ ﻧﯿﺰ ﺗﻐﯿﯿﺮﺍﺗﯽ ﻃﺒــﻖ ﻫﻤﺎﻫﻨﮕﯽ ﺑﺎ‬

‫ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﯾﯽ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﯿﻢ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ؛ ﻋﻼﻭﻩ ﺑﺮ ﺍﯾﻦ‬

‫ﺗﮑﻨﻮﻟﻮﮊﯼ ﺟﺪﯾﺪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﯽﮔﯿﺮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﺭﻩﯼ ﺑﺎﺯﮔﺸــﺖ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﻪﯼ ﭼﻨﯿﻦ‬

‫ﻧﻘﺶ ﻋﺎﯾﻖﻫﺎﯼ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﯽ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ‬

‫ﺍﻗﺪﺍﻣــﯽ ﻧﯿﺰ ﮐﻤﺘــﺮ ﺍﺯ ‪ 1‬ﺍﻟﯽ ‪ 1.5‬ﺳــﺎﻝ‬

‫ﺁﻥﭼﻨﺎﻥ ﺣﯿﺎﺗﯽ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺑــﺪﻭﻥ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﮐﻪ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺍﻣﺮ ﺑﻬــﺮﻩ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺭﯼ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﯼ‬

‫ﺑــﺎ ﺍﺗﻼﻑ ﺷــﺪﯾﺪ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺩﺭ ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎﺭﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﻋﺎﯾﻖﻫﺎﯼ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﯽ ﺩﺭ ﺻﻨﻌﺖ‬

‫ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎ ﻣﻮﺍﺟــﻪ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﯿﻢ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺭﺍ ﻧﺸــﺎﻥ ﻣﯽﺩﻫﺪ‪ .‬ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﺻﺮﻓﻪ‪-‬‬

‫ﺑــﻮﺩ؛ ﻟﺬﺍ ﯾﮑــﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭﺵﻫﺎﯼ ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺳــﯽ‬

‫ﺟﻮﯾــﯽ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﻭ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﮐﺮﺩﻥ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﻣﺼــﺮﻑ ﺳــﺮﺍﻧﻪﯼ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪﺭﯾﺰﯼ ﺷــﺪﻩ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘــﺎﻝ ﮔﺮﻣــﺎ‪ ،‬ﺗﻤﺎﻣﯽ ﺍﺟﺰﺍﯼ ﺗﺸــﮑﯿﻞ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﮐﺸــﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎﺭﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﻣﻨﺎﺳــﺐ ﺁﻥ‬

‫ﺩﻫﻨﺪﻩ ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪﯼ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺯ ﯾﮏ ﻃﺮﻑ‬

‫ﺑـﻪ ﮐﺎﺭﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﻋﺎﯾﻖﻫـﺎﯼ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﯽ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺖ ﮐﻨﺘـﺮﻝ ﺍﯾﻨﺮﺳـﯽ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﯽ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺑﺨﺶﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﺎ ﻓﻀﺎﻫﺎﯼ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺩﯾﮕﺮ‬

‫ﻣﺘﺎﺳﻔﺎﻧﻪ ﻃﯽ ﺳﺎﻝﻫﺎﯼ ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺑﺎ ﻓﻀﺎﯼ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﯾﺎ ﻓﻀﺎﯼ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻧﺸﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﻣﺴــﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺩﺭ ﮐﺸﻮﺭ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺪ ﻻﺯﻡ ﻭ‬

‫ﺗﻤﺎﺱ ﻫﺴــﺘﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﻋﺎﯾﻖﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻋﺎﯾﻖﻫــﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺻﻨﻌــﺖ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﮐﺎﻓﯽ ﻧﺒﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﯾﺎﺭﺍﻧﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﺁﺷــﮑﺎﺭ ﻭ ﭘﻨﻬﺎﻥ‬

‫ﻋﺎﯾــﻖﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗــﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺍﺧــﻞ ﻭ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ‬

‫ﺩﻭ ﮔــﺮﻭﻩ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﭘﺎﯾــﻪ ﻣﻌﺪﻧﯽ )ﺷــﺎﻣﻞ ﺭﺱ‬

‫ﺩﻭﻟﺘﯽ ﻫﻤﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻣﺮﺩﻡ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﯽ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﯾﺎ ﺑــﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻻﯾــﻪﺍﯼ ﺩﺭ ﻣﯿــﺎﻥ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬

‫ﻣﻨﺒﺴﻂﺷﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﭘﺮﻟﯿﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻣﯿﮑﻮﻟﯿﺖ‪ ،‬ﭘﺸﻢ‬

‫ﺍﺭﺯﺵ ﺍﻧــﺮﮊﯼ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺷــﮑﺎﻝ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺎﺯ‬

‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻧﯽ ﺍﺟﺮﺍ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ؛ ﺍﻟﺒﺘﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﯾﻦ‬

‫ﺳــﻨﮓ‪ ،‬ﭘﺸﻢ ﺷﯿﺸﻪ ﻭ ‪ (...‬ﻭ ﻏﯿﺮ ﻣﻌﺪﻧﯽ‬

‫ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺍﺳــﺖ؛ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﯿﻦ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﯽ‬

‫ﺑﯿﻦ‪ ،‬ﻗﺴــﻤﺖﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺯ‬

‫)ﺷــﺎﻣﻞ ﻋﺎﯾﻖﻫــﺎﯼ ﭘﻠﯿﻤــﺮﯼ‪ ،‬ﮔﯿﺎﻫﯽ ﻭ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺪﯼ ﺭﺷــﺪ ﺩﺍﺷــﺘﻪ‬

‫ﻣﺼﺎﻟﺤﯽ ﺑﺎ ﺿﺮﯾﺐ ﻫﺪﺍﯾﺖ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﯽ ﺍﻧﺪﮎ‬

‫ﺣﯿﻮﺍﻧﯽ( ﺟﺎﯼ ﻣﯽﮔﯿﺮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺳﺎﺑﻘﻪﯼ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ‬

‫ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺭﻭﻧﺪ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺗﻮﺳــﻌﻪﯼ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﻧﻔﺘﯽ‬

‫ﺗﺸــﮑﯿﻞ ﺷــﺪﻩﺍﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻨﻬﺎﯾﯽ‬

‫ﻭ ﺩﺍﻧــﺶ ﻋﺎﯾﻖﻫﺎﯼ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗــﯽ ﺑﻪ ﺑﯿﺶ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﻧﯿــﺰ ﺩﺭ ﺁﯾﻨﺪﻩ ﺩﯾﮕﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺻﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﻧﻔﺖ‬

‫ﻣﺎﻧﻨــﺪ ﻋﺎﯾﻖﻫــﺎﯼ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗــﯽ )ﻋﺎﯾﻖﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﻧﯿــﻢ ﻗﺮﻥ ﮔﺬﺷــﺘﻪ ﺑﺮ ﻣﯽﮔــﺮﺩﺩ‪ ،‬ﻃﻮﺭﯼ‬

‫ﻧﺨﻮﺍﻫﯿﻢ ﺑﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻫﻤﮕﻦ( ﻋﻤﻞ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻋﺎﯾﻖﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬

‫ ﻧﺼــﺐ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﮐﻨﺘــﺮﻝ ﻣﺮﮐﺰﯼ‬‫ﻫﻮﺷﻤﻨﺪ ﻭ ﻣﺠﻬﺰ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻨﺴﻮﺭ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﻣﺤﯿﻂ‬

‫ﮐﻪ ﮐﺸــﻮﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﺻﻨﻌﺘﯽ ﻭ ﺍﺭﻭﭘﺎﯾﯽ ﺩﺭ ﺍﯾﻦ‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩﯼ ﺻﺤﯿﺢ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﻭ ﻣﺼﺎﻟﺢ‬

‫ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﺭﺳﺎﻧﺪﻥ ﺍﯾﻨﺮﺳﯽ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﯽ‬

‫ﺧﺼﻮﺹ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺘﺎﯾﺞ ﺟﺎﻟﺐ ﺗﻮﺟﻬﯽ ﺩﺳــﺖ‬

‫ﻋﺎﯾﻖ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﯽ ﺩﺭ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﯿﺖﻫﺎﯼ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻧﯽ‪،‬‬

‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺭﻭﺵ‬

‫ﯾﺎﻓﺘﻪﺍﻧــﺪ ﻭ ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺼــﺎﻥ ﺍﻣــﺮ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﻟﺤﺎﻅ‬

‫ﺗﺎﺛﯿــﺮ ﺯﯾــﺎﺩﯼ ﺭﻭﯼ ﺗﻘﻠﯿﻞ ﺍﻓــﺖ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺕ‬

‫ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﯼ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻨﻘﻄﻊ‬

‫ﺍﻫﻤﯿﺖ ﺍﻧــﺮﮊﯼ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻭ ﺩﻫــﻪﯼ ﺍﺧﯿﺮ ﺍﯾﻦ‬

‫ﺩﯾﻮﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﯾﯽ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ‬

‫)ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﻫﺘﻞﻫﺎ ﻭ ‪(...‬ﻣﻨﺎﺳــﺐﺗﺮﯾﻦ ﺭﻭﺵ‬

‫ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ ﺭﺍ ﻋﺼﺮ»ﻋﺎﯾﻖﮐﺎﺭﯼ« ﻧﺎﻣﯿﺪﻩﺍﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﻣﺼﺮﻓﯽ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﺑﻪ ﮔﻮﻧﻪﺍﯼ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﻫﺮ‬

‫ﻣﺤﺴﻮﺏ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻋﺎﯾﻖﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺍﺯ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ‪،‬‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 37‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪39‬‬

‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ‪ :1‬ﺧﻮﺍﺹ ﺍﺻﻠﯽ ﻋﺎﯾﻖﻫﺎﯼ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﯽ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻧﺴﯿﺘﻪ‬ ‫]‪[Kg/m3‬‬

‫ﺿﺮﯾﺐ ﻫﺪﺍﯾﺖ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﯽ‬ ‫]‪[W/m.K‬‬

‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﯽ ﯾﮑﺴﺎﻥ )ﻣﯿﻠﯿﻤﺘﺮ(‬

‫ﭘﻠﯽ ﺍﻭﺭﺗﺎﻥ ﺳﺨﺖ‬

‫‪32‬‬

‫‪0.017‬‬

‫‪20‬‬

‫ﮐﺎﭘﻮﮎ ﻣﺎﺑﯿﻦ ﮐﺎﻏﺬ‬

‫‪16‬‬

‫‪0.035‬‬

‫‪44‬‬

‫ﭘﺸﻢ ﺳﻨﮓ )ﺩﺍﻧﺴﯿﺘﻪ ﭘﺎﯾﯿﻦ(‬

‫‪100‬‬

‫‪0.037‬‬

‫‪46‬‬

‫ﭘﺸﻢ ﺳﻨﮓ )ﺩﺍﻧﺴﯿﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﻻ(‬

‫‪300‬‬

‫‪0.041‬‬

‫‪51‬‬

‫ﭘﺸﻢ ﺷﯿﺸﻪ‬

‫‪5-160‬‬

‫‪0.041‬‬

‫‪51‬‬

‫ﭘﻠﯽ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﯾﺮﻥ‬

‫‪175‬‬

‫‪0.044‬‬

‫‪50‬‬

‫ﻭﺭﻕ ﭼﻮﺏ ﭘﻨﺒﻪ )ﺩﺍﻧﺴﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﻻ(‬

‫‪220‬‬

‫‪0.049‬‬

‫‪61‬‬

‫ﻧﺎﻡ ﻋﺎﯾﻖ‬

‫ﺍﯾﻨﺮﺳــﯽ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﯽ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺪﺍﮐﺜﺮ‬

‫ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻝ ﺍﺯ ‪ 3‬ﺩﺭﺻــﺪ ﺣﺠﻤﯽ ﭘﻠﯿﻤﺮ ﻭ ‪97‬‬

‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻧﻤــﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﻣﺘﻮﺟــﻪ ﺷــﺪﻩﺍﻧﺪ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺭﺳﺎﻧﺪ ﻭ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﻧﻮﺳﺎﻥﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺣﺠﻤﯽ ﮔﺎﺯ ﺗﺸﮑﯿﻞ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﮐــﻪ ﺗﻨﻬــﺎ ‪ 3‬ﺩﺭﺻــﺪ ﺍﺯ ﭘﻮﺷــﺶ ﺑﯿﺮﻭﻧﯽ‬

‫ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﯾﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﻭ ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ‬

‫ﻃﻮﺭﯼ ﮐﻪ ﮔﺎﺯ ﺩﺭ ﺳــﻠﻮﻝﻫﺎﯼ ﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﻓﻮﻡ‬

‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎ ﮐﺎﺭﺍﯾــﯽ ﻣﻄﻠــﻮﺏ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺩﻣــﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺳــﺎﺩﮔﯽ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﭘﺬﯾــﺮﺩ؛ ﻟﺬﺍ ﺍﯾﻦ‬

‫ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﺮﻓﺘــﻪ ﻭ ﮔﺬﺭﺩﻫــﯽ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﯽ ﻓﻮﻡ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﺎﺕ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﮐﻤﺒﻮﺩﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﺑﻪ ﺷــﺮﺡ ﺯﯾﺮ‬

‫ﺭﻭﺵ ﺩﺭﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﯼ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﺪﺍﻭﻡ‬

‫ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ ﺯﯾﺎﺩﯼ ﻭﺍﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﺑﻪ ﮔﺬﺭﺩﻫﯽ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﯽ‬

‫ﺭﺍ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺑﺮﻃﺮﻑ ﻣﯽﺷﺪﻧﺪ‪:‬‬

‫)ﻭﺍﺣﺪﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺴﮑﻮﻧﯽ ﻭ ‪ (...‬ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎﺭ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ‬

‫ﮔﺎﺯ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺳــﻠﻮﻝﻫﺎﯼ ﻭﺍﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﻣــﻮﺍﺩ ﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﻧﻔــﻮﺫ ﻫــﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﮐﺎﻣﻼ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻋﺎﯾــﻖﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﯽ‪ ،‬ﮐﺎﺭﺍﺗﺮﯾﻦ ﺗﮑﻨﯿﮏ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺑــﺎ ﻣﺒﺤﺚ ﻧﻮﺯﺩﻫﻢ‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﻋﺎﯾــﻖﮐﺎﺭﯼ‪ ،‬ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ‬

‫ﻣﻘﺮﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻠﯽ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺑــﻪ ﻋﺎﯾﻖﻫﺎﯾﯽ‬

‫ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﺴــﺘﺎﻥ ﭘﻨــﺞ ﺩﺭﺟــﻪ ﮔﺮﻡﺗﺮ ﻭ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﮔﻔﺘﻪ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺿﺮﯾﺐ ﻫﺪﺍﯾﺖ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﯽ‬

‫ﺗﺎﺑﺴﺘﺎﻥ ﺩﻩ ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﺧﻨﮏﺗﺮ‪ ،‬ﻧﮕﻪ ﻣﯽﺩﺍﺭﺩ؛‬

‫)‪ (λ‬ﺁﻥﻫــﺎ ﮐﻤﺘــﺮ ﺍﺯ ‪ 0.065W/m.K‬ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻣــﺖ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﯽ ﻣﺴــﺎﻭﯼ ﯾﺎ ﺑﯿﺸــﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫‪ 0.5m².K/W‬ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ )ﻣﻘﺎﺩﯾﺮ ﺫﮐﺮ ﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺩﺭ ﺷﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﯽ‬ ‫ﺍﺳــﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﺳــﺖ(‪ .‬ﺟــﺪﻭﻝ ‪ 1‬ﺧﻮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﻠﯽ ﺑﺮﺧﯽ ﺍﺯ ﻋﺎﯾﻖﻫﺎﯼ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﯽ ﺭﺍ ﺑﯿﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﯽﮐﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻟﺬﺍ ﺗﻮﺟــﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﮐــﻪ »ﻫﺮ ﯾﮏ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﺶ ‪ 7‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪﯼ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻧﺒﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﺩ« ﺍﻫﻤﯿﺖ ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎﺭﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﻋﺎﯾﻖﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺩﻭ‬ ‫ﭼﻨﺪﺍﻥ ﻣﻄﺮﺡ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ ﻣﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺳﺪ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻞ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﯿﺖ‬‫ﺍﻧﻌﻄﺎﻑ ﭘﺬﯾﺮﯼ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺼﺎﻟــﺢ ﺳــﺪ ﻫــﻮﺍ )‪(Air barrier‬‬‫ﺧﻮﺏ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻈﺖ ﻧﺸﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺳــﺪ ﻫﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﺑــﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﯾﻖ ﻭ ﯾﺦ ﺯﺩﻥ‬‫ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺖ ﻧﺸﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻋﺎﯾﻖﻫــﺎﯼ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﯽ ﮐﺎﻣﻼ ﺑﻪ ﺳــﺪ ﻫﻮﺍ‬‫ﻧﭽﺴﺒﯿﺪﻩﺍﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﭘﻞ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﯽ‬‫ﺍﺭﺯﯾﺎﺑﯽﻫﺎﯼ ﻓﻨﯽ ﻭ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﯼ ﻧﺸــﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﯽﺩﻫﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻋﺎﯾﻖﻫﺎﯼ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﯽ‬

‫ﭘﻠــﯽ ﺍﻭﺭﺗــﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﯼ ﭘﺎﯾﯿﻦﺗﺮﯾــﻦ ﺿﺮﯾﺐ‬

‫ﺍﻫـﺪﺍﻑ ﻋﻤـﺪﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻋﺎﯾـﻖﮐﺎﺭﯼ‬ ‫ﺳـﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺑﻬﯿﻨﻪﺳﺎﺯﯼ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺮﻓﯽ‬

‫ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﯾﯽ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ‬

‫ﻧﺸــﺎﻥ ﻣﯽﺩﻫﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﻋﺎﯾﻖﮐﺎﺭﯼ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﻃﯽ ﺩﻫﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﻧﺸﻤﻨﺪﺍﻥ‬

‫ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﻋﻠــﺖ ﻋــﺪﻡ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑــﻪ ﻋﺎﯾﻖﮐﺎﺭﯼ‬

‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖﻫــﺎﯼ ﮐﻤﺘــﺮ ﻋﺎﯾﻖ ﭘﻠــﯽ ﺍﻭﺭﺗﺎﻥ‬

‫ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻧﯽ‪Public Works Can-‬‬

‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﮐﺸــﻮﺭ ﻣﺎ ﺑﯿــﺶ ﺍﺯ ﻫﺮ‬

‫ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭﯼ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﻡ ﭘﻠﯽ‬

‫‪ ada‬ﺩﻭﺭﺑﯿﻦﻫــﺎﯼ ﻋﮑﺲ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺭﯼ ﻣﺎﺩﻭﻥ‬

‫ﻋﻠﺖ ﺩﯾﮕﺮ ﻧﺎﺷــﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺑﯽ ﺗﻮﺟﻬﯽ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺭﺯﺵ‬

‫ﺍﻭﺭﺗﺎﻥ ﺑﺎ ﺩﺍﻧﺴــﯿﺘﻪﯼ ‪ 32Kg/m3‬ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ‬

‫ﻗﺮﻣﺰ ﺧــﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﻣﺘﻮﺟــﻪ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺯﯾــﺎﺩﯼ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﺍﻧــﺮﮊﯼ ﺗﻠﻒ ﺷــﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﺿﻌﻒ ﺩﺍﻧــﺶ ﻓﻨﯽ‬

‫ﭼﻨﺎﻥﭼــﻪ ﻣﯽﺑﯿﻨﯿــﻢ ﻓــﻮﻡ ﺳــﺨﺖ‬ ‫ﻫﺪﺍﯾﺖ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﯽ )‪ (λ‬ﻣﯽﺑﺎﺷــﺪ ﻭ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺍﻣﺮ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﻣﻄﻠــﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﺿﻤــﻦ ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﯾــﯽ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺑﻌﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﮐﻮﭼﮏ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﻠﯽ ﻧﯿﺰ ﻣﯿﻠﯿﺎﺭﺩﻫﺎ ﺭﯾﺎﻝ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﻋﺎﯾﻖﻫﺎﯼ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﯽ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩﯼ ﻫﻮﺷــﻤﻨﺪﺍﻧﻪﯼ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ‬

‫ﻧﯿﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪.‬‬


‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 38‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪39‬‬

‫ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ ﻣﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﻭ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺖ‬

‫ﻫﻤﺎﻫﻨﮓﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋــﻪ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﯿﺖﻫﺎﯾﯽ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﯾﮏ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻭ ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ‬

‫ﺻﺤﯿــﺢ ﻭ ﮐﺎﻓﯽ ﺍﺯ ﻋﻨﺎﺻــﺮ ﻭ ﺟﺰﯾﯿﺎﺕ ﻭ‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﯿﻨﻪﯼ ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﯾﯽ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ‬

‫ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩﻫﺎﯼ ﺷﻮﻓﺎﮊ‪ ،‬ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺕ‬

‫ﻓﻦﺁﻭﺭﯼ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻣﺮ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻣﯽﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﺤﺖ ﯾﮏ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﮋﯼ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﯽﭘﺬﯾﺮﺩ‬

‫ﻓﻀــﺎﯼ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﯽ‪ ،‬ﻧﮕﻬــﺪﺍﺭﯼ ﻭ ﻣﺮﺍﻗﺒﺖ ﺍﺯ‬

‫‪ 50‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺗﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﯽ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﯾﯽ‬

‫ﻭ ﺣﻮﺯﻩﯼ ﻭﻇﺎﯾﻒ »ﻣﺪﯾﺮﯾﺖ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ« ﺷﺎﻣﻞ‬

‫ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺳﺮﻭﯾﺲ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻻﺯﻡ‬

‫ﮐﻪ ﻋﺎﯾﻖﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﻧﺸﺪﻩﺍﻧﺪ ﻧﺎﺷﯽ ﺍﺯ ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪﯼ‬

‫ﺭﻫﺒﺮﯼ ﺩﺳــﺘﮕﺎﻩﻫﺎﯼ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗــﯽ ﺻﻨﺎﯾﻊ‪،‬‬

‫ﻭ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﯼ ﻣﯽﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺐ‬

‫ﺧﺎﺭﺟﯽ )ﺩﯾﻮﺍﺭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺳﻘﻒ ﻭ ﮐﻒ( ﻣﯽﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﺭﺗﻘﺎﯼ ﮐﻤﯽ ﻭ ﮐﯿﻔﯽ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩﯼ ﺑﻬﯿﻨﻪ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﮔﻔﺘﻪ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﺪﯾﺮﯾــﺖ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﺑﺮﺭﺳــﯽﻫﺎ ﻧﺸــﺎﻥ ﻣﯽﺩﻫﺪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻨﺎﺯﻟﯽ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺩﺭﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺴﺎﻟﻪﯼ‬

‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﮐﺎﻣﻞ ﻋﺎﯾﻖﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺷــﺪﻩﺍﻧﺪ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ‬

‫ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﯾﯽ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺩﺭ ﮐﺎﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﺗﻌﻤﯿﺮﺍﺗﯽ‪،‬‬

‫ﺯﯾﺮ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﯽ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺩﺍﺩ‪:‬‬

‫ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿــﺎﺯ ﺟﻬﺖ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‬

‫ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧــﺮﮊﯼ‪ ،‬ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺵ ﮐﺎﺭﮐﻨﺎﻥ‬

‫‪ -‬ﻣﺤﻞ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ‬

‫ﺣــﺪﻭﺩ ‪ 30‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﯾﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﺍﺳــﺖ؛‬

‫ﺷﺎﻏﻞ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩﮐﻨﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ‬

‫‪ -‬ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ‬

‫ﻫﻤﭽﻨﯿﻦ ﺩﺭﺯﺑﻨﺪﯼ ﺑﺎﺯﺷــﻮﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩ‬

‫ﺩﺳــﺘﮕﺎﻩﻫﺎﯼ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼﺑﺮ ﻭ ﻏﯿﺮﻩ ﻣﯽﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺗﺎﺳﯿﺴــﺎﺕ ﻣﮑﺎﻧﯿﮑﯽ ﻭ‬

‫ﮐﺮﺩﻥ ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﺗﻼﻑ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﻧﻘﺶ ﺍﺳﺎﺳــﯽ‬

‫ﺟﻬــﺖ ﮐﺴــﺐ ﻣﻮﻓﻘﯿــﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﯿﻨــﻪﯼ‬

‫ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﺩﺭ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ‪ ،‬ﺳــﺎﺧﺖ‬

‫»ﻣﺪﯾﺮﯾــﺖ ﺍﻧــﺮﮊﯼ« ﺑــﻪ ﻣﻌﻨــﺎﯼ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﯽ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﻣﺤــﻞ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﯿﯿﻦ‬

‫ﻭ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺗﻮﺟــﻪ ﺧﺎﺻﯽ ﺑﻪ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻧﮑﺘﻪ‬

‫ﮐﻠﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻭ ﺯﻣﯿﻨﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﺩﻗﯿﻖ ﮐﺎﺭ‬

‫ﮐﻨﻨــﺪﻩﯼ ﺷــﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﺁﺏ ﻭ ﻫﻮﺍﯾــﯽ ﺍﺳــﺖ‬

‫ﺷــﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ ﺩﯾﮕﺮ »ﻣﺪﯾﺮﯾﺖ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ«‬

‫ﮐــﻪ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻌــﺮﺽ ﺁﻥ ﻗــﺮﺍﺭ‬

‫ﻭﻇﯿﻔﻪ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﺗﺎ ﺍﺳــﺘﺮﺍﺗﮋﯼ ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ ﺷــﺮﺍﯾﻂ‬

‫ﻣﯽﮔﯿــﺮﺩ ﻭ ﭘﻮﺷــﺶ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺗﻌﯿﯿﻦ‬

‫ﻭ ﻣﺤﯿﻂ ﻣﻨﺎﺳــﺐ ﺭﺍ ﺟﻬﺖ ﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺷــﺪﻥ‬

‫ﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩﯼ ﺍﺛﺮ ﺷــﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﻣﺤﻠﯽ ﺑﺮ ﺳــﺎﮐﻨﺎﻥ‬

‫ﻭ ﺗﺤﻘــﻖ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺳــﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺗﻌﯿﯿﻦ ﮐﻨﺪ‪،‬‬

‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﯾﻦ ﭘﻮﺷــﺶ ﺩﺭ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ‬

‫ﺯﯾــﺮﺍ ﻣﻬﻢﺗﺮﯾﻦ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﻫﻤﺎﻫﻨﮕﯽ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ‬

‫ﯾــﮏ ﭘﻮﺳــﺘﻪﯼ ﻣﺘﺨﻠﺨــﻞ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐــﻪ‬

‫ﻭﻇﺎﯾــﻒ ﻭ ﺗﺪﺍﻭﻡ ﺍﻣﻮﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺷــﻤﺎﺭ ﻣﯽﺭﻭﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ‪ ،‬ﻧــﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﮔﺎﺯﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺁﺏ ﺭﺍ ﺑﯿﻦ ﺩﻭ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﻧﺠــﺎﻡ ﻭﻇﺎﯾﻒ ﻭ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﯿﺖﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ‬

‫ﻃﺮﻑ ﺧــﻮﺩ ﯾﻌﻨﯽ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻭ ﻣﺤﯿﻂ‬

‫ﺍﺷﺎﺭﻩ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺑﺴﯿﺎﺭﯼ ﺍﺯ ﻫﻤﮑﺎﺭﺍﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻃــﺮﺍﻑ ﻣﻨﺘﻘــﻞ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺑﺨﺶﻫــﺎﯼ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺳــﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ )ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ‬

‫ﺗﺎﺳﯿﺴــﺎﺕ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺗﮑﻤﯿﻞﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩﯼ‬

‫ﻣﺴﻮﻭﻻﻥ ﺗﺎﺳﯿﺴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻣﺪﯾﺮﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﮐﺎﺭﮐﻨﺎﻥ ﻭ‬

‫ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾــﺶ ﻭ ﻧﻮﺭ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ‬

‫ﻣﺪﯾﺮﯾﺖ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﻣﺼﺮﻓﯽ ﻭ ﺭﻋﺎﯾﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﻮﻝ ﮐﻠﯽ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎ‬

‫‪ (...‬ﻫﻤﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻧﻘﺶ ﻣﻮﺛﺮﯼ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﯾﯽ‬

‫ﺣﺼﻮﻝ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺤﯿﻂ ﺍﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﻣﯽﺑﺎﺷــﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﮔﺮ‬

‫ﺍﻧــﺮﮊﯼ ﺍﯾﻔﺎ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﻨــﺪ‪ .‬ﻫﻤﭽﻨﯿﻦ ﻭﻇﺎﯾﻒ‬

‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ‬

‫ﻣﺪﯾﺮﯾــﺖ ﺍﻧــﺮﮊﯼ ﺭﺍ ﻣﯽﺗــﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﯾــﻦ‬

‫»ﻣﺪﯾﺮﯾــﺖ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ« ﺩﺭ ﺭﺍﺑﻄــﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺪﯾﺮﯾﺖ‬

‫ﻣﺤﯿﻄﯽ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ ﻭ ﺷــﮑﻞ‬

‫ﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﺗﻌﺮﯾــﻒ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ‪» :‬ﻣﺪﯾﺮﯾــﺖ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ«‬

‫ﻓﻨﯽ ﻭ ﮐﺎﺭﮔﺎﻫﯽ ﺩﺳــﺘﮕﺎﻩﻫﺎﯼ ﺗﺎﺳﯿﺴﺎﺗﯽ‬

‫ﭘﻮﺷــﺶ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﺑــﺎ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ‬

‫ﻣﺒــﺬﻭﻝ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺑﯿﻦ ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺕ ﻧﺮﻣﯽ‬ ‫ﮐﻪ ﺟﻬــﺖ ﻫﻮﺍﺑﻨــﺪﯼ ﻓﺼﻮﻝ ﻣﺸــﺘﺮﮎ‬ ‫ﻗﺴــﻤﺖﻫﺎﯼ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻭ ﻣﺘﺤﺮﮎ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﯾﺨﺒﻨﺪﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﺷﻌﻪﯼ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺍﺑﻨﻔﺶ ﻭ ﺩﯾﮕﺮ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻣﺨﺮﺏ ﻣﺤﯿﻄﯽ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻣﺖ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ؛ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺛﺮ ﭘﻞ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗــﯽ ﺩﺭ ﭘﺮﻭﻓﯿﻞﻫﺎﯼ ﻓﻠﺰﯼ ﮐﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﮔﺴــﺘﺮﺩﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺳــﺎﺧﺖ ﺑﺎﺯﺷﻮﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﻧﯿﺰ ﻧﺒﺎﯾــﺪ ﻧﺎﺩﯾﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻓﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 39‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪39‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﻤﺎﺭﯼ ﺗﻌﯿﯿﻦ ﻭ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺗﺎﺳﯿﺴﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺍﺟــﺮﺍﯼ »ﻣﺪﯾﺮﯾﺖ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﻣﺪﻭﺍﻡ ﻭ ﭘﺎﯾﺪﺍﺭ«‬

‫ﻣﮑﺎﻧﯿﮑﯽ ﻭ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻣﺴــﺘﻘﻞ ﻭ‬

‫ﻫﻤﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﺯﯾﺮﺑﺨﺶﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﻬﻢ ﺳــﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻧﯿﺰ‬

‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﺎ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺩﯾﮕﺮ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷــﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺎﺭ ﻣﯽﺭﻭﺩ ﮐﻪ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﺑــﻪ ﺣﺪﺍﮐﺜــﺮ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺑﺮﺳــﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﺤﺖ ﺗﺎﺛﯿﺮ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﻭ ﺣﺘﺎ ﻣﻤﮑﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻣﺖﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺣﺴﺎﺳــﯿﺖﻫﺎﯼ ﺯﯾﺎﺩﯼ ﻫﻢ‬

‫ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭﺍ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﯿﺖﻫﺎﯾــﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﻣﺪﯾﺮﯾﺖ‬

‫ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ ﺷﻮﺩ؛ ﻟﺬﺍ ﺣﻤﺎﯾﺖ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺻﻮﻝ ﻣﺪﯾﺮﯾﺖ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﯼ ﺩﻭﻟﺘﯽ‪ ،‬ﻋﻤﻮﻣﯽ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺗﻮﺳــﻂ ﻣﺪﯾﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﺭﺷــﺪ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥﻫﺎ‬

‫ﻭ ﺗﺠــﺎﺭﯼ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﮔﯿﺮﺩ ﺷــﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ‬

‫ﺣﺎﺋﺰ ﺍﻫﻤﯿﺖ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﺯﯾﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿــﺮﯼ ﻭ ﺗﻌﯿﯿــﻦ ﻣﺸــﺨﺼﺎﺕ‬‫ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮﺩﯼ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ ﻣﻤﯿﺰﯼ ﺍﻧــﺮﮊﯼ ﻭ ﺍﺟــﺮﺍﯼ ﺭﺍﻫﮑﺎﺭﻫﺎﯼ‬‫ﺑﻬﯿﻨﻪﺳﺎﺯﯼ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ‬

‫ﻣﺒﺤـﺚ ﻧﻮﺯﺩﻫـﻢ ﻣﻘـﺮﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻠﯽ‬ ‫ﺳـﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﺯ ﺩﯾﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳـﯽ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺳﯿﺴﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺑــﺎ ﭘﯿﺸــﺮﻓﺖ ﺗﮑﻨﻮﻟﻮﮊﯼﻫــﺎ ﻭ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺗﺒــﻂ ﺑﺎ ﺗﺎﺳﯿﺴــﺎﺕ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗــﯽ ﻋﻼﻭﻩ ﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭﺵ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﻣﺤﻠﯽ ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺮﻣﻮﺳﺘﺎﺕ )ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺷﯿﺮ ﺗﺮﻣﻮﺳﺘﺎﺗﯿﮏ ﺭﺍﺩﯾﺎﺗﻮﺭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﻣﻮﺳﺘﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﻋﻤﻮﻣــﯽ ﻭ ﻓﺮﺍﮔﯿــﺮ‬

‫ﺍﺗﺎﻗﯽ ﻭ ‪ (...‬ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬

‫ﺗﺎﺳﯿﺴــﺎﺕ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗــﯽ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﮐﺸــﻮﺭ‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭ ﺭﻭﺵ ﺯﯾــﺮ ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﮐﻨﺘــﺮﻝ ﺩﻣــﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺗﺎﺳﯿﺴﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ ﺁﺳﺎﯾﺶ‬

‫ﺑــﻪ ﺩﻟﯿــﻞ ﺑﻬﺮﻩﮔﯿــﺮﯼ ﺍﺯ ﺗﮑﻨﻮﻟــﻮﮊﯼ‬

‫ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ‬

‫ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﯽ ﺳﺎﮐﻨﺎﻥ‬

‫ﻗﺪﯾﻤــﯽ ﻓﺎﻗﺪ ﮐﺎﺭﺁﯾــﯽ ﻭ ﺭﺍﻧﺪﻣﺎﻥ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ ﺍﺭﺍﺋــﻪﯼ ﺭﺍﻫﮑﺎﺭﻫــﺎﯼ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﺭﻓﻊ‬‫ﻣﺸــﮑﻼﺕ ﻣﻮﺟــﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎ‪،‬‬

‫ ﺗﻬﯿﻪﯼ ﺩﺳــﺘﻮﺭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞﻫﺎﯼ ﺑﻬﺮﻩﺑﺮﺩﺍﺭﯼ‬‫ﻭ ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﯼ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﺶ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺑﻬﯿﻨﻪﺳﺎﺯﯼ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﮐﺜﺮ‬

‫ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺟﻤﻌﯽ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺭﺍﯾﺎﻧﻪ‬‫‪ -‬ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ ﻫﻮﺷﻤﻨﺪ‬

‫ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗــﯽ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺭﻭﺵ ﺳــﻨﺘﯽ ﻭ‬

‫ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻋــﺪﻡ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑﻪ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾــﺶ‪ ،‬ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﺶ‬

‫ﻭ ﺭﻭﺵﻫــﺎﯼ ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﯾــﯽ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺼــﺮﻑ‬

‫ﺗﻮﺳــﻂ ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺕ ﺗﺮﻣﻮﺳﺘﺎﺕ‬

‫ﻭ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﺳــﺐ ﺑﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪ ،‬ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻤﺎﺕ ﻣﺰﺑﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ‬

‫ﺗﺎﺳﯿﺴﺎﺕ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎ‬ ‫‪ -‬ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮓﺳﺎﺯﯼ ﻭ ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺵ ﻣﺪﯾﺮﯾﺖ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ‬

‫ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ(‬

‫ﺍﺳـﺘﺮﺍﺗﮋﯼ ﻭ ﺗـﺪﻭﺍﻡ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﯾﺮﯾﺖ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ‬

‫ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺁﺏﮔﺮﻡ ﭼﺮﺧﺸــﯽ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺎﺳﯿﺴــﺎﺕ‬

‫ﻧﺘﯿﺠﻪﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﻭ ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪﯼ ﭘﯿﺸﻨﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ‬

‫)‪ (C.H.W‬ﻭ ﺑــﻪ ﺗﺒﻊ ﺁﻥ ﺁﺏﮔﺮﻡ ﻣﺼﺮﻓﯽ‬

‫‪ -1‬ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺩﺳﺘﯿﺎﺑﯽ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺪﯾﺮﯾﺖ ﻣﻄﻠﻮﺏ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈــﻮﺭ ﺗﻀﻤﯿﻦ ﺗﻤﺮﮐــﺰ ﻣﺪﯾﺮﯾﺖ‬

‫)‪ (D.H.W‬ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﯾــﻦ ﺭﻭﺵ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺳــﺘﺮﺍﺗﮋﯼ ﮐﻠﯽ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻫــﺪﺍﻑ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺟﻬــﺖ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪﻫــﺎﯼ ﻣﻬﻢ‬

‫ﻫﯿﭻﮔﻮﻧــﻪ ﮐﻨﺘــﺮﻝ ﻭ ﻧﻈــﺎﺭﺕ ﺩﻗﯿﻘﯽ ﺑﺮ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺍﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺳــﺘﺮﺍﺗﮋﯼ ﮐﻠﯽ‬ ‫ﺳــﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺟﻬــﺖ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺳــﻮﻕ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷــﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﻣﻬﻢﺗﺮﯾﻦ ﻭ ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺮﯾﻦ‬

‫ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺁﺏﮔﺮﻡ ﭼﺮﺧﺸــﯽ‬

‫ﺍﻫﺪﺍﻓــﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺪﯾﺮﯾﺖ ﺍﻧــﺮﮊﯼ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ‬

‫ﺍﻫــﺪﺍﻑ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺪﯾﺮﯾﺖ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺩﺭ ﺭﺍﺳــﺘﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺸــﯽ ﻭ ﺁﺏﮔــﺮﻡ‬

‫ﺳــﻬﻢ ﺑﺴــﺰﺍﯾﯽ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪ ،‬ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ ﻭ‬

‫ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ ﻭ ﻫﺪﺍﯾﺖ ﺑﻮﺩﺟﻪﯼ ﺳــﺮﺍﻧﻪ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ‬

‫ﻣﺼﺮﻓــﯽ ﺻــﻮﺭﺕ ﻧﻤﯽﮔﯿﺮﺩ ﻭ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ‬

‫ﻫﺪﺍﯾــﺖ ﺑﻮﺩﺟــﻪﯼ ﺳــﺮﺍﻧﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺭﺍﺳــﺘﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺑــﺎ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﯿﺖﻫﺎﯼ ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﯾﺎﻧﻪ ﻭ ﺣﻤﺎﯾﺖ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺭﮎ ﻭ ﺷﻨﺎﺳــﺎﯾﯽ ﻣﻨﺎﺳــﺐﺗﺮﯾﻦ‬

‫ﻓﻌﺎﻟﯿﺖﻫــﺎﯼ ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﯾﺎﻧــﻪ ﻭ ﺣﻤﺎﯾﺖ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﺳﻮﻕ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷــﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﻣﻬﻢ ﺗﺮﯾﻦ ﻭ ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺮﯾﻦ‬

‫ﻣﺤﯿﻂ ﺯﯾﺴــﺖ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻣﺪﯾﺮﯾﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻧــﺮﮊﯼ ﺑﺎﯾــﺪ ﺍﺫﻋــﺎﻥ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ ﮐــﻪ ﻣﺪﯾﺮﯾﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺰﺑﻮﺭ ﯾــﮏ ﻭﻇﯿﻔــﻪ ﺗﻠﻔﯿﻘﯽ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻭ ﺑﺎ‬

‫ﻭﺿﻌﯿﺖ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺭﮊﯾﻢ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﯽ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺖ ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺳﯽ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﮕﻮﯼ ﺻﺤﯿﺢ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ‬

‫ﺑﺴــﯿﺎﺭﯼ ﺍﺯ ﻭﻇﺎﯾﻔــﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺳــﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺗﻮﺃﻡ ﺑﺎ ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻩﯼ ﺁﺳــﺎﯾﺶ‬

‫ﻭﺟــﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﺯﯾﺮﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺛﺮ‬

‫ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﯽ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺳﺎﮐﻨﺎﻥ ﻧﯿﺴﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﻣﺤﯿﻂ ﺯﯾﺴــﺖ ﺍﺳــﺖ؛ ﻟﺬﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺧﺼﻮﺹ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﭘﯿﺸــﻨﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺯﯾــﺮ ﺩﺭﺧﻮﺭ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻒ‪ -‬ﻣﻌﺮﻓﯽ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﮐﻢﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﻭ ﺗﺸــﻮﯾﻖ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﺳــﺎﺱ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺩﻣﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺎﺳﯿﺴــﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺗﻌﺪﯾﻞ ﺩﻣﺎ )ﺷــﺎﻣﻞ ﻗﻄﻊ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ﺩﺭ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 40‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪39‬‬

‫ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﯾﻖ ﺍﻋﻄﺎﯼ ﻭﺍﻡﻫﺎﯼ ﮐﻢﺑﻬﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﺷــﺘﺎﺏ ﺑﺨﺸــﯿﺪﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ ﻭ‬

‫ﮐﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑــﺎ ﮐﻢ ﺗﻮﺟﻬﯽ ﺑﻪ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﯿﻦ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺩﻡ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﺍﯾﻦ‬

‫ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ ﻋﻤﻠــﯽ ﻓﻦﺁﻭﺭﯼﻫﺎﯼ ﻧﻮﯾﻦ ﺻﻨﻌﺖ‬

‫‪ -3‬ﭘﯿﺸــﻨﻬﺎﺩ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﺯﻩﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﯾﯽ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﯾﻖ‬

‫ﺑﺎ ﺍﻫﻤﯿﺖ ﺑﺎﻻ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﺷﯿﺸــﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﺩﻭ ﺟﺪﺍﺭﻩ‬

‫‪ -7‬ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥﺟــﺎ ﮐــﻪ ﻣﺴــﺎﯾﻞ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺍﻋﻄﺎﯼ ﯾﺎﺭﺍﻧﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ‬

‫ﮐﻪ ﻓﻀــﺎﯼ ﻣﯿﺎﻧﯽ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺎ ﮔﺎﺯﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ‬

‫ﺗﻮﻟﯿــﺪ‪ ،‬ﺗﻮﺯﯾﻊ ﻭ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﮐﺸــﻮﺭ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﺝ‪ -‬ﺗﺪﻭﯾــﻦ ﻣﻌﯿﺎﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ‬

‫ﺁﺭﮔﻮﻥ ﻭ ﮐﺮﯾﭙﺘﻮﻥ ﭘﺮ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﻮﺩ ﺗﺎ‬

‫ﺳــﻄﺢ ﮐﻼﻥ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﯾــﻖ ﺩﻭﻟــﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ‬

‫ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎﺭﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﻣﻨﺎﺳــﺐ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺨﺶﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺭﺍﻧﺪﻣﺎﻥ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ‪ 10‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪ‬

‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪﺭﯾﺰﯼ ﻭ ﺍﺟﺮﺍ ﺍﺳــﺖ؛ ﻟــﺬﺍ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﯼ‬

‫ﺧﺎﻧﮕﯽ ﻭ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﯼ ﻭ ‪...‬‬

‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﺶ ﯾﺎﺑﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﺳﺖ ﺗﺎ ﺩﺭ ﮐﻨﺎﺭ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﯿﺖﻫﺎﯼ ﻓﻮﻕ‪ ،‬ﺑﺨﺶ‬

‫ﺧﺪﻣﺖ ﻭ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺗﺨﺼﺺ ﻣﺤﺮﻭﻡ ﻧﮑﻨﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺩ‪ -‬ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺵ ﻭ ﺁﮔﺎﻩﺳﺎﺯﯼ ﻋﻤﻮﻡ ﻣﺮﺩﻡ ﺑﻪ‬

‫‪ -4‬ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺤــﺪﻭﺩ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ‬

‫ﻣﺼــﺮﻑ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﯾﻖ ﺍﺭﺍﺋــﻪﯼ ﺭﺍﻫﺒﺮﺩﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﯾﯽ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ‪ ،‬ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻭ ﺑﻬﯿﻨﻪ ﺳﺎﺯﯼ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺁﻥ‬

‫ﻋﻤﻠﯽ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﺳــﺐ ﺑﺎ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺻﻨﻌﺘﯽ ﻫﺮ‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭﺵﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻃﻼﻉﺭﺳﺎﻧﯽ‬

‫ﯾﮏ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺕ ﺍﺟﺘﻨﺎﺏﻧﺎﭘﺬﯾﺮ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭﯼ‬

‫ﯾﮏ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺨﺶﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻫﺪﺍﯾﺖ ﻭ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻫـــ‪ -‬ﮔﺴــﺘﺮﺵ ﺑﺮﭼﺴــﺐ ﺍﻧــﺮﮊﯼ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺗﻘﺎﯼ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺕ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼﺑﺮ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﻣﻨﺎﺑــﻊ ﻃﺒﯿﻌﯽ ﻣﻠﯽ ﺗﺠﻠــﯽ ﻭ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ ﭘﯿﺪﺍ‬

‫ﻣﺰﺑﻮﺭ ﺭﺍ ﻧﻮﻋﯽ ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﻪﮔﺬﺍﺭﯼ ﺩﺍﻧﺴﺘﻪ ﻭ‬

‫ﮐﻪ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺕ ﻣﻄﻠﻮﺏ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺗﺎﺳﯿﺴــﺎﺕ ﻣﮑﺎﻧﯿﮑﯽ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ‬

‫ﻭ‪ -‬ﺗﻘﻮﯾﺖ ﻫﻤﮑﺎﺭﯼﻫــﺎﯼ ﺑﯿﻦﺍﻟﻤﻠﻠﯽ‬

‫ﺯﻧﺪﮔﯽ ﺭﺍﺣﺖ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺑﺸﺮ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﻧﻤﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺟﻬﺖ ﺗﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻭ ﻧﻈﺮﺍﺕ ﻭ ﮐﻤﮏ‬

‫‪ -5‬ﻣﺘﺎﺳــﻔﺎﻧﻪ ﻃﯽ ﺳﺎﻝﻫﺎﯼ ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ‬

‫ﺑــﻪ ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﯾﯽ ﺍﻧــﺮﮊﯼ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﯾــﻖ ﺍﻋﺰﺍﻡ‬

‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺴﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺩﺭ ﮐﺸﻮﺭ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺪ‬

‫ﮐﺎﺭﺷــﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﭘﺬﯾــﺮﺵ ﮐﺎﺭﺁﻣــﻮﺯ ﻭ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﯼ‬

‫ﻻﺯﻡ ﻭ ﮐﺎﻓــﯽ ﻧﺒﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺗﺰﺭﯾــﻖ ﯾﺎﺭﺍﻧﻪﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩﻫﺎﯼ ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﯾﯽ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ‬

‫ﺁﺷــﮑﺎﺭ ﻭ ﭘﻨﻬﺎﻥ ﺩﻭﻟﺘﯽ ﻫﻤــﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻣﺮﺩﻡ ﺭﺍ‬

‫‪ -2‬ﻧﻘــﺶ ﻋﺎﯾﻖ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗــﯽ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﯽ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺭﺯﺵ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺷﮑﺎﻝ‬

‫ﺍﻧــﺮﮊﯼ ﺁﻥ ﭼﻨﺎﻥ ﺣﯿﺎﺗﯽ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ‬

‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺎﺯ ﺩﺍﺷــﺘﻪ ﺍﺳــﺖ؛ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻓﯽ‬

‫ﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎ ﺍﺗﻼﻑ ﺷــﺪﯾﺪ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‬

‫ﻣﺼــﺮﻑ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﯽ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺪﯼ‬

‫ﻭ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﯿﻢ‬

‫ﺭﺷــﺪ ﺩﺍﺷــﺘﻪ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺣﺘﻤــﺎﻝ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﺑﺎ ﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬

‫ﺑﻮﺩ؛ ﻟﺬﺍ ﯾﮑﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭﺵﻫﺎﯼ ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺳــﯽ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺗﻮﺳــﻌﻪﯼ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﻧﻔﺘﯽ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺁﯾﻨﺪﻩ‬

‫ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺳــﺮﺍﻧﻪﯼ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪﺭﯾﺰﯼ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ‬

‫ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺻﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﻧﻔﺖ ﻧﺒﺎﺷﯿﻢ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﻭ ﻣﺂﺧﺬ‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻣﺎﻫﺎﺟــﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﮐﺎﯾــﻼﺵ ﭼﺎﻧــﺪﺭ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﺪﯾﺮﯾــﺖ ﺍﻧــﺮﮊﯼ )ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩﯼ ﮐﺎﺭﺁﻣﺪ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻧــﺮﮊﯼ(‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﺟﻤــﻪﯼ ﮔــﺮﻭﻩ ﻣﺘﺮﺟﻤــﺎﻥ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﺼﯿﺮ‪ ،‬ﺗﻬﺮﺍﻥ‪1378 ،‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﮐــﺮﮒ ﺑــﯽ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳــﻤﯿﺖ‪ ،‬ﺍﺻــﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﯾﺮﯾــﺖ ﺍﻧــﺮﮊﯼ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﺟﻤــﻪﯼ ﺻﺎﺩﻗﯽ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﮑﺎﺭﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻧﺸﺮ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﺗﻬﺮﺍﻥ‪1376 ،‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﺍﺳــﻼﻣﯽ‪ ،‬ﺣﺴــﯿﻦ‪ ،‬ﻋﻤﻠﮑــﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﯾــﻖﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗــﯽ ﺩﺭ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﯿﻨﻪﺳﺎﺯﯼ ﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﺗﻬﺮﺍﻥ‪1369 ،‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻣﺒﺤــﺚ ﻧﻮﺯﺩﻫــﻢ ﻣﻘــﺮﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻠﯽ‬ ‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﯾﺮﺍﻥ )ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﯾﯽ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ‬

‫ﮐﺸــﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎﺭﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻋﺎﯾﻖﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ‬

‫‪ -6‬ﺍﺟﺮﺍﯼ ﻣﺒﺤــﺚ ﻧﻮﺯﺩﻫﻢ ﻣﻘﺮﺭﺍﺕ‬

‫ﺑﺨﺶﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻠــﯽ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭﺑﺨﺶ ﺗﺎﺳﯿﺴــﺎﺕ‬

‫ﻋﺎﯾﻖﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﻣﻨﺎﺳــﺐ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬

‫ﻣﮑﺎﻧﯿﮑــﯽ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﺩﻣﺎﯼ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ‪ 5‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﮔﺮﻡﺗﺮ ﻭ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳــﺎﻥ ﺗﺎﺳﯿﺴﺎﺕ ﻣﮑﺎﻧﯿﮑﯽ‬

‫ﺗﺎﺑﺴﺘﺎﻥ ‪ 10‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﺧﻨﮏﺗﺮ ﻧﮕﻪ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻋــﺚ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾــﺶ ﺍﯾﻤﻨــﯽ‬

‫ﺁﻥﺟﺎ ﮐﻪ ﺍﯾﺮﺍﻧﯿــﺎﻥ ﺍﺯ ﺩﯾﺮﺑﺎﺯ ﺑﺎ ﻋﺎﯾﻖﮐﺎﺭﯼ‬

‫ﺑﻬﺮﻩﺑــﺮﺩﺍﺭﯼ ﺍﺯ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎ ﻭ ﮐﺎﻫــﺶ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﺭﻭﺵﻫﺎﯼ ﺳﻨﺘﯽ ﻣﺨﺼﻮﺹ ﺑﻪ ﺧﻮﺩ ﻭ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﻣﺼﺮﻓﯽ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺗﺎﻣﯿﻦ ﺁﺳــﺎﯾﺶ‬

‫ﻧﺤﻮﻩﯼ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩﯼ ﺑﻬﯿﻨﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺁﺷﻨﺎ‬

‫ﻭ ﺁﺭﺍﻣﺶ ﺳــﺎﮐﻨﺎﻥ ﺧﻮﺍﻫــﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ ﻭ ﻣﺒﻠﻐﯽ‬

‫ﺑﻮﺩﻩﺍﻧﺪ ﻟﺬﺍ ﺟﺎﯼ ﺍﻣﯿﺪﻭﺍﺭﯼ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎﺑﺖ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪ‬

‫ﭘﯽﻧﻮﺷﺖ‪:‬‬

‫ﻋﺼﺮ ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﺑﺎ ﻫﻤﺖ ﮐﻠﯿﻪ ﺩﺳﺖﺍﻧﺪﺭﮐﺎﺭﺍﻥ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ ﺣﺪﺍﮐﺜﺮ ﺩﺭ ﯾﮏ ﺳﺎﻝ ﻣﺴﺘﻬﻠﮏ‬

‫* ﺁﺩﺭﺱ ﭘﺴـﺘﯽ‪ :‬ﺁﺫﺭﺑﺎﯾﺠـﺎﻥ ﺷـﺮﻗﯽ‪ ،‬ﺗﺒﺮﯾﺰ‪ ،‬ﺍﻭﻝ‬

‫ﺑﺨﺶ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺑــﺎﺭ ﺩﯾﮕــﺮ ﺟﻠﻮﻩﺍﯼ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ؛ ﻟﺬﺍ ﺷﺎﯾﺴﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﺎﺭﻓﺮﻣﺎﯾﺎﻥ‪،‬‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﺗﻤــﺪﻥ ﺩﯾﺮﯾﻨــﻪﯼ ﺍﯾﺮﺍﻧــﯽ ﺩﺭ ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮓ‬

‫ﺷﺮﮐﺖﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳﯿﻦ ﻣﺸﺎﻭﺭ ﻭ ﭘﯿﻤﺎﻧﮑﺎﺭ‬

‫ﺗﻠﻔﻦ ﺗﻤﺎﺱ‪۰۹۳۶۷۲۱۸۵۷۵ :‬‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩﯼ ﺑﻬﯿﻨﻪﯼ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧــﺮﮊﯼ ﻭ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ‬

‫ﻭ ﺍﺭﮔﺎﻥﻫــﺎﯼ ﻧﻈﺎﺭﺗــﯽ ﺫﯾﺮﺑﻂ ﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫‪Email:akbar_toloian@Yahoo. com‬‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ(‪ ،‬ﺩﻓﺘﺮ ﺗﺪﻭﯾﻦ ﻭ ﺗﺮﻭﯾﺞ ﻣﻘﺮﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻠﯽ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻧﺸﺮ ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ ﺍﯾﺮﺍﻥ‪1381 ،‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﻃﺮﺡ ﺗﺤﻘﯿﻘﺎﺗــﯽ ﮐﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻃﻬﺎﺭﯼ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺳﺴﻪﯼ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﺎﺕ ﺑﯿﻦﺍﻟﻤﻠﻠﯽ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ‬ ‫‪ -6‬ﺧﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪﯼ ﻧﻔﺖ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ‪ ،‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩﯼ‬ ‫ﻫﻔﺪﻫﻢ )ﺩﻭﺍﺯﺩﻫﻢ ﺷﻬﺮﯾﻮﺭ ‪(1384‬‬ ‫‪www. ifco. ir -7‬‬

‫ﺯﻋﻔﺮﺍﻧﯿـﻪ‪ ،‬ﺳـﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺷـﻤﺎﺭﻩﯼ ‪ ۲‬ﺍﺳـﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﯼ‬ ‫ﺁﺫﺭﺑﺎﯾﺠﺎﻥ ﺷﺮﻗﯽ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻧﺖ ﺍﻣﻮﺭ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻧﯽ‬


Arvand-39  

‫ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺮﻳﻪ‬ 31 ..................................................................................‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ 2 ....................

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