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‫ﺑﻪ ﻧﺎﻡ ﺁﻥﻛﻪ ﺟﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﻓﻜﺮﺕ ﺁﻣﻮﺧﺖ‬

‫ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ﺳﻰ ﻭ ﭼﻬﺎﺭﻡ‬

‫ﻧﺸﺮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ﻣﻰﺧﻮﺍﻧﻴﺪ‪:‬‬

‫ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﺑﻴﻦﺍﻟﻤﻠﻠﻰ‪:‬‬ ‫‪1684-4270‬‬

‫ﻛﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪﺍﺻﻠﻰ)ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ‪(1‬ﻭﻭﺍﺣﺪﻓﺮﻭﺵ‪:‬ﻛﺮﺝ‪،‬ﻧﺴﻴﻢﺷﻬﺮ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺳﻪﺭﺍﻩ ﺁﺩﺭﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺷﻬﺮﻳﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﻯ ﺧﻴﺎﺑﺎﻥ ﺳﻌﺪﻯ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩﻫﺎﻯ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻓﺮﻭﺵ )ﻛﺪ ‪:(021‬‬ ‫‪ 88802677-8‬ﻭ ‪ 88739880-2‬ﻭ ‪88504770-4‬‬ ‫ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩﻫﺎﻯ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻓﺮﻭﺵ )ﻛﺪ ‪:(0229‬‬ ‫‪ 4586036 -4585899‬ﻭ ‪ 4584983-7‬ﻭ ‪4584996-7‬‬ ‫ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩﻫﺎﻯ ﻓﺎﻛﺲ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻓﺮﻭﺵ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ 0229-4585079‬ﻭ ‪021-88766794‬‬ ‫ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩﻫﺎﻯ ﻛﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪ )ﻛﺪ ‪:(0229‬‬ ‫‪ 4585657-8‬ﻭ ‪ 4584998‬ﻭ ‪4584717‬‬ ‫ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ﻓﺎﻛﺲ ﻛﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪ )ﻛﺪ ‪:(0229‬‬ ‫‪4584198‬‬ ‫ﭘﺴﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﻜﻰ ﺑﺎﺯﺭﮔﺎﻧﻰ‪:‬‬ ‫‪info@arvandcorp.com‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻓﺮﻭﺵ‪:‬‬

‫ﺗﺎﺯﻩﻫﺎﻯ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ‪2 ...................................................................................................‬‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺎ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﻫﻮﺍﻯ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‪4 .........................................................‬‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻛﺸﻰ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﻯ ﺗﺒﺮﻳﺪ ﻭ ﺗﻠﻪﻫﺎﻯ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ‪8..............................................‬‬ ‫ﻧﻜﺎﺗﻰ ﺩﺭﺑﺎﺭﻩ ﺗﺴﻤﻪﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻛﻮﭘﻠﻴﻨﮓﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﺤﺮﻙ‪17 ...........................................‬‬ ‫ﻭﺳﺎﻳﻞ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﻴﺮﻯ ﻛﻤﻴﺖﻫﺎﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳﻜﻰ‪21 ...................................................‬‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ ﺩﻣﭙﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﻯ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‪27 ............................................‬‬

‫‪sales@arvandcorp.com‬‬

‫ﺩﺭﺯﮔﻴﺮﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻋﺎﻳﻖﻫﺎﻯ ﻛﺎﻧﺎﻝ‪32 ..........................................................................‬‬

‫ﻧﺸﺎﻧﻰ ﺍﻳﻨﺘﺮﻧﺖ‪:‬‬ ‫‪w w w. a r v a n d c o r p . c o m‬‬

‫ﻛﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﺷــﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪ :2‬ﻛﻴﻠﻮﻣﺘﺮ ‪ 26‬ﺍﺗﻮﺑﺎﻥ ﺗﻬﺮﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻗﻢ ‪ -‬ﺷــﻬﺮﻙ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﻌﺘﻰ ﺷﻤﺲﺁﺑﺎﺩ ‪ -‬ﺑﻠﻮﺍﺭ ﮔﻠﺴﺘﺎﻥ ‪ -‬ﮔﻠﺸﻦ ‪ - 10‬ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ‪.10‬‬ ‫ﭘﺴﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﻜﻰ‪:‬‬

‫ﺗﺴﻤﻪﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﭘﻮﻟﻰﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﺣﺎﻛﻢ ﺑﺮ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ‪34 ....................................................‬‬

‫‪gac@arvandcorp.com‬‬

‫ﺗﻠﻔﻦﻫﺎﻯ ﺗﻤﺎﺱ ﻭ ﻓﺎﻛﺲ‪:‬‬ ‫‪021-56230345-9‬‬

‫ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻣﺘﻴﺎﺯ‪ :‬ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﺻﻨﺎﻳﻊ ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮ ﻣﺴﻮﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺱ ﻣﻨﻮﭼﻬﺮ ﺷﺠﺎﻋﻰ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﺩﺑﻴﺮ‪ :‬ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺱ ﺣﺴﻦ ﺑﻬﺮﺍﻣﻰ‬

‫ﻋﻼﻗﻪﻣﻨﺪﺍﻥ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺩﺭﻳﺎﻓﺖ ﺭﺍﻳﮕﺎﻥ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﺸﺮﻳﻪ ﻭ ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪ ﺑﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺭﻭﺍﺑﻂﻋﻤﻮﻣﻰ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﺻﻨﺎﻳﻊ ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﭘﺴﺘﻰ ‪ 37685 - 113‬ﺍﻗﺪﺍﻡ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﻭ ﺗﺼﺎﻭﻳﺮ ﻧﺸﺮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻣﻨﺒﻊ ﺑﻼﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﻪﻣﻨــﺪﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺭﺝ ﻣﻄﻠﺐ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﺸــﺮﻳﻪ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎﻧﻰ ﻧﺸﺮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ ﺩﺭ ﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﻳﺎ ﺍﺻﻼﺡ ﻭ ﻭﻳﺮﺍﻳﺶ ﻣﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺁﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻟﻰ ﻋﻮﺩﺕ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻧﺨﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪ARVAND Internal Magazine‬‬ ‫‪Managing Director: M. Shojaei‬‬ ‫‪Editor in chief: H. Bahrami‬‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 2‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪34‬‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺗﺎﺯﻩﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ‬

‫ﯾﮏ ﻣﺮﮐﺰ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ‬

‫ﺁﺏ ﺻﻨﻌﺘــﯽ ﺩﺭ ﺍﯾﺎﻻﺕ ﻣﺘﺤــﺪﻩ ﻃﯽ ‪30‬‬

‫‪ IT‬ﺗﻘﺴﯿﻢ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻫﻤﯿﻦ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ‪ ،‬ﺗﺎﻡ‬

‫ﺳﺎﻝ ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ ﺧﻮﺍﻧﺪﻩ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺣﺠﻢ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ‬

‫ﺑﺮﯼ )‪ ،(Top Brey‬ﯾﮑﯽ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺪﯾﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﯾﯽ‬

‫ﺗﻮﺟﻬﯽ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﺁﺏ ﻣﺼﺮﻓﯽ ﺩﺭ ﺻﻨﺎﯾﻊ ﺑﻪ‬

‫‪ IBM‬ﻭ ﺩﺑﯿــﺮﮐﻞ ﺷــﺮﮐﺖ ‪،Green Grid‬‬

‫ﺟﺎﯼ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﯿﻢ ﺩﺭ ﺁﺑﯿﺎﺭﯼ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻﺕ‬

‫ﻣﯽﮔﻮﯾﺪ‪» :‬ﻫﺪﻑ ﻧﻬﺎﯾﯽ ﺧﻠﻖ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪﺍﯼ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﮐﺸــﺎﻭﺭﺯﯼ‪ ،‬ﺻﺮﻑ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﻓــﺮﺁﻭﺭﯼ ﭼﻮﻥ‬

‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪﻫﺎﯼ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺑﺎﺯﺩﻩ‬

‫ﺑﺴــﺘﻪﺑﻨﺪﯼ ﻭ ﺍﺭﺳــﺎﻝ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻﺕ ﻏﺬﺍﯾﯽ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﻣﺮﮐﺰ ﺩﺍﺩﻩﻫﺎ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﯾﮑﯽ ﺍﺯ ﻧﺨﺴﺘﯿﻦ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﻓﺮﻭﺷــﮕﺎﻩﻫﺎﯼ ﺑﺰﺭﮒ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﯾﻦ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﻭ ﺷــﺎﯾﺪ ﻣﻬﻢﺗﺮﯾــﻦ ﻋﻮﺍﻣــﻞ ﻣﻮﻓﻘﯿــﺖ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﺷﺮﺍﯾﻄﯽ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺍﻧﺸــﮕﺎﻩ ‪Carnegie‬‬

‫ﺩﺳﺖﯾﺎﺑﯽ ﺑﻪ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻫﺪﻑ‪ ،‬ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ ﯾﮑﭙﺎﺭﭼﮕﯽ‬

‫‪ Mellon‬ﺩﺭ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌــﺎﺕ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺁﺏ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﻗﺮﺍﺭﯼ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﺍﺳﺖ«‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺗﻮﻟﯿﺪ ﺷــﮑﺮ‪ ،‬ﺷــﯿﺮ ﻭ ﻏﺬﺍﯼ ﺳﮓ ﻭ‬

‫ﺗﻐﯿﯿﺮ ﺭﻭﯾﮑﺮﺩ ‪ASHRAE‬‬

‫ﮔﺮﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻫﺮ ﯾﮏ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺭﺯﺵ ‪ 1‬ﺩﻻﺭ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺮﺗﯿﺐ‬

‫ﭼﯿﻦ؛ ﭘﯿﺸـﺮﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺳـﺮﻣﺎﯾﻪﮔﺬﺍﺭﯼ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﭘﺎﮎ‬

‫ﮐﻨﻔﺮﺍﻧﺲ ﺳﺎﻻﻧﻪ ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ‪ASHRAE‬‬

‫ﻟﯿﺘﺮ( ﻭ ‪ 200‬ﮔﺎﻟﻦ )‪ 757‬ﻟﯿﺘﺮ( ﺑﺮﺁﻭﺭﺩ ﮐﺮﺩﻩ‬

‫ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﮔﺮﺩﺁﻭﺭﯼ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﻫﻔﺘــﻪ ﺁﻏﺎﺯﯾﻦ ﻣﺎﻩ ﺟﻮﻻﯼ ﺑﺮﮔﺰﺍﺭ ﻭ ﺧﺎﻧﻢ‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﮐﺘﺮ ﮐﺮﯾﺲ ﻫﻨﺪﺭﯾﮑﺴﻮﻥ )‪Chris‬‬

‫ﻣﻮﺳﺴﻪ ‪ ،Pew Charitable Trusts‬ﭼﯿﻦ‬

‫ﻟﯿﻦ ﺟﯽ‪ .‬ﺑﻠﻨﮕــﺮ )‪(Lynn G. Bellenger‬‬

‫‪ ،(Hendrickson‬ﻣﺤﻘﻖ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺧﺼﻮﺹ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺳــﺎﻝ ‪ 2009‬ﺑﯿﺶ ﺍﺯ ﻫﺮ ﮐﺸــﻮﺭ ﺩﯾﮕﺮﯼ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺭﯾﯿﺲ ﺟﺪﯾــﺪ ‪ 2010-2011‬ﺍﯾﻦ‬

‫ﺍﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺩﺍﺷــﺖ‪» :‬ﻣﺎ ﻣﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺷــﺪﯾﻢ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﯿﻨﻪ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﭘﺎﮎ ﻭ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺷــﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻠﻨﮕﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻣﺮﺍﺳﻢ‬

‫ﺳﺮﺗﺎﺳﺮ ﺯﻧﺠﯿﺮﻩ ﺗﻮﻟﯿﺪ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﻣﯿﺎﻥ ‪ 96‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪ‬

‫ﻓﻨﺎﻭﺭﯼﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﭼﻮﻥ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺑﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﺯﯾﺴــﺖﺗﻮﺩﻩ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺭﻭﯾﮑﺮﺩ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺗﺤﺖ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ »ﺍﻟﮕﻮﺳــﺎﺯﯼ‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﺑﺨﺶﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺭﺯﯾﺎﺑﯽ‪ ،‬ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ‬

‫)‪ (Biomass‬ﻭ ﺧﻮﺭﺷﯿﺪ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﻪﮔﺬﺍﺭﯼ ﮐﺮﺩﻩ‬

‫ﺟﻬﺎﻧﯽ ﺗﺪﺍﻭﻡﭘﺬﯾﺮ« ﺍﺯ ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎﺭﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎﯾﯽ‬

‫ﻏﯿﺮﻣﺴــﺘﻘﯿﻢ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﻣﺴــﺘﻘﯿﻢ ﭘﯿﺸﯽ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﮔﻔﺘﻨﯽ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﻪﮔﺬﺍﺭﯼﻫﺎﯼ ﺍﯾﻦ‬

‫ﭼﻮﻥ ﺷﺒﯿﻪﺳــﺎﺯﯼ‪ ،‬ﺗﺤﻠﯿﻞ ﺭﻭﺷﻨﺎﯾﯽ ﺭﻭﺯ‪،‬‬

‫ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ‪«.‬‬

‫ﮐﺸﻮﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺯﻣﯿﻨﻪ ﺗﻘﺮﯾﺒﺎ ﺩﻭ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻉ‬

‫‪ CFD‬ﻭ ‪ BIM‬ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺗﻤﺎﻣﯽ ﺷﺮﮐﺎ ﺩﺭ ﯾﮏ‬

‫ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﻪﮔﺬﺍﺭﯼﻫﺎﯼ ﺍﯾــﺎﻻﺕ ﻣﺘﺤﺪﻩ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﻓﺮﺍﯾﻨــﺪ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﯾﮑﭙﺎﺭﭼﻪ ﺩﻓــﺎﻉ ﮐﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻭ ﺑﺎ‬

‫‪ 18.6‬ﻣﯿﻠﯿﺎﺭﺩ ﺩﻻﺭ ﻣﯽﺭﺳــﺪ‪ ،‬ﮔﺰﺍﺭﺵ ﺷﺪﻩ‬

‫ﺍﺷــﺎﺭﻩ ﺑﻪ ﺭﻭﯾﮑﺮﺩ ﭘﯿﺸﯿﻦ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﻤﺎﺭ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺳﺎﻝ ‪ 2009‬ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﻪﮔﺬﺍﺭﯼ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ‬

‫ﺷﮑﻞ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﻣﯽﮐﺮﺩ ﻭ ﺳﭙﺲ‬

‫ﭘﺎﮎ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺮﺗﺎﺳﺮ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺑﺎ ‪ 169‬ﻣﯿﻠﯿﺎﺭﺩ‬

‫ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳــﺎﻥ ﻣﮑﺎﻧﯿﮏ ﻭ ﺑﺮﻕ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ‬

‫ﺩﻻﺭ ﺑﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﭘﯿﺶﺑﯿﻨﯽ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺳــﺎﻝ‬

‫ﻣــﯽﺩﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﯾﮏ ﺭﻭﯾﮑﺮﺩ ﺍﻧﺒﺎﺭﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﺧﻮﺍﻧﺪ‬

‫ﺟﺎﺭﯼ ﺍﯾــﻦ ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺑﯿﺶ ﺍﺯ ‪ 200‬ﻣﯿﻠﯿﺎﺭﺩ‬

‫ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺍﺳــﻄﻪ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺴــﯿﺎﺭﯼ ﺍﺯ ﻓﺮﺻﺖﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺩﻻﺭ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﺶ ﯾﺎﺑﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﺭﺯﺷﻤﻨﺪ ﺑﻬﯿﻨﻪﺳــﺎﺯﯼ ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮﺩ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ‬

‫ﺗﻮﺍﻓـﻖ ﺑﺮ ﺳـﺮ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿـﺮﯼ ﺑﺎﺯﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺎﯾﻊ ﻭ ﻣﻮﺳﺴــﺎﺕ ﺩﻭﻟﺘﯽ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎﯾﯽ‪،‬‬ ‫ﮊﺍﭘﻨــﯽ ﻭ ﺍﺭﻭﭘﺎﯾــﯽ ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻘــﺖ ﺧــﻮﺩ ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﺩﻟﯿﻞ ﭘﯿــﺮﻭﯼ ﺍﺯ ﯾﮏ ﺭﻭﯾﮑﺮﺩ ﻣﺸــﺘﺮﮎ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺩﺳــﺖ ﻣﯽﺭﻭﺩ‪ ASHRAE .‬ﻫﻤﭽﻨﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻣﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﺗﺴــﻮﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨــﻮﺍﻥ ﺧﺰﺍﻧﻪﺩﺍﺭ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﺭﻭﺳﺎ ﻭ ﻣﺪﯾﺮﺍﻥ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪﺍﯼ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺳﺎﻝ‬

‫‪ 270‬ﮔﺎﻟﻦ )‪ 1020‬ﻟﯿﺘﺮ(‪ 140 ،‬ﮔﺎﻟﻦ )‪530‬‬

‫‪ 10‬ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﺑﺮﺗﺮ ﻣﻌﻤﺎﺭﯼ ﭘﺎﯾﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺑــﺎ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﺠــﺪﺩ ﺍﺯ ﯾــﮏ‬ ‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﺮﻭﮐﻪ ﺗﺎﺭﯾﺨــﯽ ﺻﻨﻌﺘﯽ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻥﻓﺮﺍﻧﺴﯿﺴﮑﻮ‪ ،‬ﺍﯾﻦ ﺑﻨﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺻﺪﺭ ﻓﻬﺮﺳﺖ‬ ‫‪ 10‬ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﺑﺮﺗﺮ ﻣﻌﻤﺎﺭﯼ ﭘﺎﯾﺪﺍﺭ ﻭ ﺭﺍﻫﮑﺎﺭﻫﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﺳــﺒﺰ ﺑﺮﮔﺰﯾﺪﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺳــﻮﯼ ﻣﻮﺳﺴﻪ‬ ‫ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎﯾﯽ ﻣﻌﻤﺎﺭﯼ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﺮﻓﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻓﻬﺮﺳﺖ‬ ‫‪ 10‬ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ﺑﺮﺗﺮ ﺳــﺒﺰ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﮐﻤﯿﺘﻪ ﻣﺤﯿﻂ‬ ‫ﺯﯾﺴــﺖ )‪ AIA (COTE‬ﻧــﺎﻡ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩﻫﺎﯾﯽ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﮐﺸــﻮﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ‪ ،‬ﮐﺎﻧﺎﺩﺍ ﻭ ﻋﺮﺑﺴــﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺳــﻌﻮﺩﯼ ﻧﯿﺰ ﺑﻪ ﭼﺸــﻢ ﻣﯽﺧﻮﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ﺍﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺎﺭﯾﺦ ‪ 10‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 12‬ﮊﻭﺋﻦ ﺩﺭ ﻣﯿﺎﻣﯽ‬

‫‪ 2010-2011‬ﺍﯾﻦ ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﺑﺮﮔﺰﯾﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻤﺎﯾــﺶ ﻣﻠﯽ ﻭ ﻧﻤﺎﯾﺸــﮕﺎﻩ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ‬

‫ﮐﺎﺭﺍﯾــﯽ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺑــﺮﻕ )‪ (PUE‬ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ‬

‫ﺗﺤﻘﯿـﻖ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳـﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺁﺏ ﺻﻨﻌﺘﯽ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ‬

‫ﺳﺎﻝ ‪ AIA 2010‬ﺗﺠﻠﯿﻞ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺁﻣﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺭﻗﺎﺑﺖ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺍﺭﺗﻘﺎﯼ ﮐﺎﺭﺁﻣﺪﯼ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ‬

‫ﺩﺍﺩﻩﻫــﺎ ﺍﻋــﻼﻡ ﮐﺮﺩﻧــﺪ‪ PUE .‬ﯾﮏ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﻩ‬

‫ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳــﺎﺱ ﺁﻧﭽﻪ ﮐﻪ ﻧﺨﺴــﺘﯿﻦ ﺍﺳﻨﺎﺩ‬

‫ﺁﮊﺍﻧــﺲ ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺖ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺤﯿﻂ ﺯﯾﺴــﺖ‬

‫ﺳــﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻉ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﯼ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﻭ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﮎ ﻣﻮﺟــﻮﺩ ﭘﯿﺮﺍﻣﻮﻥ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ‬

‫ﺁﻣﺮﯾــﮑﺎ )‪ (EPA‬ﺑﺎ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺍﺭﺗﻘﺎﯼ ﺳــﻄﺢ‬

‫ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﯼ ﯾﮏ ﻭﺍﺣــﺪ ﻣﺘﺮﯾﮏ ﺗﺤﺖ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﯿﺎﺳﯽ ﻣﺸــﺘﺮﮎ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺑﺎﺯﺩﻩ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﻣﺮﮐﺰ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 3‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪34‬‬

‫ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﯾــﯽ ﺍﻧــﺮﮊﯼ ﻭ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾــﺶ ﺑﺎﺯﺩﻩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﯿﺰﺑﺎﻧــﯽ ﯾــﮏ ﺭﻗﺎﺑــﺖ ﮐﺸــﻮﺭﯼ ﻣﯿﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﯼ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﯼ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮ ﻋﻬﺪﻩ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻣﺴــﺎﺑﻘﻪ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﯽ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﺗﻼﺵ‬ ‫ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﯾﻖ ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ ﺑﺎﺯﺩﻩ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻫﻨﻤﺎﯾﯽ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣــﻪ ‪ENERGY STAR‬‬ ‫ﺍﯾﻦ ﺳــﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺗﺎ ﺣﺪ ﺍﻣــﮑﺎﻥ ﺍﺯ ﻫﺪﺭﺭﻓﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﮐﺮﺑﻦ ﮐﺎﺳﺘﻪ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﮔﻔﺘﻨﯽ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻤﯿﻦ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ‪ 14 ،‬ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﺍﺳــﺮ ﺍﯾﺎﻻﺕ ﻣﺘﺤﺪﻩ ﺑﺮﮔﺰﯾﺪﻩ ﺷﺪﻩﺍﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻧﯽ ﮐﻪ ﮐﻤﺘﺮﯾﻦ ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﺗﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺷــﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺑﺮﻧﺪﻩ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺭﻗﺎﺑﺖ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻋﻼﻡ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﻣﺎﻫﺎﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻧــﺮﮊﯼ ﻫــﺮ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﺎ ﮐﻤــﮏ ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿــﺮﯼ ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ‪EPA‬‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ ﻭ ﭘﯿﺸﺮﻓﺖ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﺠﺰﯾﻪ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺁﻥ ﮐــﻪ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ‬

‫ﺷﮑﺴﺖ ﯾﮏ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ﺳﺒﺰ‬ ‫ﻃــﺮﺡ ﺳــﺒﺰ ﮐــﺮﺩﻥ ﻣﻨﻄﻘــﻪ‬

‫ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﻣﺒﺮﺩﻫــﺎﯼ ‪ R-134a‬ﺑﺮﺍﺑــﺮ ﺑﺎ ‪13‬‬

‫ﺍﯾﺎﻟــﺖ‬

‫ﺳﺎﻝ ﺗﺨﻤﯿﻦ ﺯﺩﻩ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﭘﺘﺎﻧﺴﯿﻞ‬

‫ﻣﯿﻨﻪﺳــﻮﺗﺎ ﭘــﺮﻭﮊﻩﺍﯼ ﻧﺎﻣﻮﻓــﻖ ﺑــﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺯﻣﯿــﻦ ‪ HFO-1234yf‬ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺑﺎ‬

‫ﻗﺎﺑﻠﯿﺖ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﯼ ﺑﺮﺧﯽ ﺍﺯ ﮐﺎﺭﮐﺮﺩﻫﺎﯼ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ‬

‫‪ 4‬ﻭ ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ‪ R-134a‬ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ‪ 1400‬ﮔﺰﺍﺭﺵ‬

‫ﺭﺍ ﻧﺪﺍﺷــﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﮔﺮﭼﻪ ﻧﺨﺴــﺘﯿﻦ ﺍﯾﺴﺘﮕﺎﻩ‬

‫ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫‪Paul‬‬

‫‪Minneapolis/St.‬‬

‫ﺗﺮﺍﻧﺰﯾﺖ ﺷــﻬﺮ ‪ Scott‬ﮐﻪ ﺳﻪ ﺳﺎﻝ ﭘﯿﺶ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﯼ ﺷــﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻟﯿــﻞ ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩﺍﺭﯼ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺳــﻨﮓﻓﺮﺵﻫﺎﯼ ﺁﺟــﺮﯼ ﻭ ﺟﻨﮕﻞﻫﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺭﺍﻧﯽ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺨﺸﯽ ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﺪ ﮐﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﺷﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﺯﯾﺴﺖﻣﺤﯿﻄﯽ ﻣﺪ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺍﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﯾﻦ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﯾﮏ ﺍﺷﺘﺒﺎﻩ ‪ 50‬ﻫﺰﺍﺭ ﺩﻻﺭﯼ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺁﺟﺮ ﻓﺮﺵﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺘﺨﻠﺨﻞ ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺑــﻪ ﺟﺎﯼ ﺟﺬﺏ ﺁﻻﯾﻨﺪﻩﻫــﺎ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﭘﯿﮑﺮﻩﻫﺎﯼ ﺁﺑﯽ‪ ،‬ﺳﺒﺐ ﻓﺮﻭ ﺭﻓﺘﻦ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﮎ ﺯﯾﺮ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ﺍﺗﻮﺑﻮﺱﺭﺍﻧﯽ ﻣﯽﺷﺪﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺳــﻮﯾﯽ ﺩﯾﮕﺮ ﻧﯿﺰ ﺑﺎﻍﻫﺎﯼ ﺑﺎﺭﺍﻧﯽ ﺁﻥ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺳﯿﺴـﺘﻢ ﺗﻤﯿﺰﮐﻨﻨـﺪﻩ ﻫـﻮﺍﯼ‬ ‫ﯾﮑﭙﺎﺭﭼﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮﺩ ﭼﻨﺪﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪﺍﯼ‬ ‫ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ‪ Quaternity‬ﺷــﺮﮐﺖ‬ ‫‪ Daikin‬ﺑــﺎ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﯿــﺖ ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖﺯﺩﺍﯾــﯽ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧــﻮﺭﺩﺍﺭﯼ ﺍﺯ ﯾــﮏ ﺗﻤﯿﺰﮐﻨﻨــﺪﻩ ﻫــﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﯾﮑﭙﺎﺭﭼﻪ ﺑــﺎ ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮﺩ ﭼﻨﺪﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪﺍﯼ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﯾﻖ ﺟﻤﻊﺁﻭﺭﯼ ﺫﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺁﻟــﺮﮊﯼﺯﺍ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﮐﺘﺮﯼﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺷــﯿﻤﯿﺎﯾﯽ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﻓﯿﻠﺘﺮ ﻧﻮﺭﯼ ‪ -‬ﺷــﯿﻤﯿﺎﯾﯽ ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﮎﺳﺎﺯﯼ ﮐﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻣﻠﻮﮐﻮﻝﻫﺎﯼ ﺟﺬﺏﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻧﯿﺰ ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺨﻠﯿﻪ ﺳﺮﯾﻊ ﺍﮐﺘﺮﻭﻥﻫﺎ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ‪ Flash Streamer‬ﺍﯾﻦ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ‬

‫‪ ASHRAE‬ﺑـﻪ ﺩﻧﺒﺎﻝ ﻣﻘﺎﻻﺗﯽ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﮐﻨﻔﺮﺍﻧﺲ ﺳﺎﻻﻧﻪ ‪2011‬‬

‫ﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﻼﺵ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺟﺎﯾﮕﺰﯾﻨﯽ ﺍﯾﻦ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ‪ ASHRAE‬ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﮐﻨﻔﺮﺍﻧﺲ‬

‫ﺁﺟﺮﻓﺮﺵﻫﺎ ﻫﻢ ﭘﺮﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪ ﻭ ﻣﻮﻗﺘﯽ ﺍﺭﺯﯾﺎﺑﯽ‬

‫ﺳــﺎﻻﻧﻪ ‪ 2011‬ﺧــﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﻧﺘﺮﯾــﺎﻝ‬

‫ﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻫﻤﻪ ﻣﻮﺳﺴﻪ ﺗﺮﺍﻧﺰﯾﺖ ﻣﺤﻠﯽ‬

‫ﺑــﻪ ﺩﻧﺒــﺎﻝ ﻣﻘﺎﻻﺗﯽ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﺑــﺎ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬

‫ﺑﺮ ﺁﻥ ﺷﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺨﺎﻟﻔﺖ ﺑﺎ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺍﯾﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﺑﺘﻦ‬

‫ﭘﯿﺸــﺮﻓﺖ ﺩﺭ ﻓﻨﺎﻭﺭﯼﻫــﺎﯼ ﺟﺎﯾﮕﺰﯾــﻦ‪،‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻟﯽ ﺭﺍ ﺟﺎﯾﮕﺰﯾﻦ ﺁﺟﺮﻓﺮﺵ ﮐﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋــﺎﺕ ‪ BIM‬ﺍﻋــﻢ ﺍﺯ ﺻﻔﺤــﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﺑﺎ ﺻﻔﺮ ﺧﺎﻟﺺ ﻭ ﺍﺻﻮﻝ‬

‫ﺗﻤﺎﯾﻞ ﺟﻨﺮﺍﻝ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﺯ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺒﺮﺩﻫﺎﯼ‬ ‫‪HFO‬‬

‫ﺭﺍﺑﻂ‪ ،‬ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﻓﯿﺒﺮﯼ‪ ،‬ﺻﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﺩﯾﻮﺍﺭﯼ‪،‬‬

‫ﻻﺯﻡ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻣﺒﺎﺣﺜﯽ ﭼــﻮﻥ ﻓﻨﺎﻭﺭﯼﻫﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﯾﮕﺰﯾــﻦ )ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﻓﺘﻮﻭﻟﺘﺎﯾﯿﮏ‪،‬‬

‫ﺷــﺮﮐﺖ ﺟﻨﺮﺍﻝ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﺯ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺗﻤﺎﻣﯽ‬

‫ﻧﺮﻡﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﮐﺎﺭﺑـﺮﺩﯼ ‪ BIM‬ﺑﺎ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﯿﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻧﻠﻮﺩ ﺭﺍﯾﮕﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺷــﺮﮐﺖ ‪ Leviton‬ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋــﻪﺍﯼ‬

‫ﮐﻨﮑﺘﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺗﺠﻬﯿــﺰﺍﺕ ﻣﺪﯾﺮﯾﺖ ﮐﺎﺑﻞ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﯿﺖ ﺩﺍﻧﻠﻮﺩ ﺷﺪﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺭﺍﯾﮕﺎﻥ‬

‫ﺍﺗﻮﻣﺒﯿﻞﻫــﺎﯼ ﻣــﺪﻝ ﺷــﻮﺭﻟﺖ ‪،2013‬‬

‫ﺍﺭﺍﯾﻪ ﮐﺮﺩﻩ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐــﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻧﺮﻡﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ‪BIM‬‬

‫ﻭ ‪ ،(VRV‬ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﯼ ﺧﻮﺩﮐﻔــﺎ‪،‬‬

‫ﮐﺎﺩﯾــﻼﮎ‪ ،‬ﺑﯿــﻮﮎ ﻭ ‪ GMC‬ﺧــﻮﺩ ﺑــﻪ‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ‪ Autodesk Revit‬ﻭ ‪Bentley‬‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺟﺪﯾﺪ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ ﺭﻭﯼ‬

‫‪ Micro Station‬ﻗﺎﺑــﻞ ﺍﺟــﺮﺍ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ‪ ،HVAC‬ﺍﺻﻮﻝ ﻭ ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮﺩ‬

‫ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﻣﺒﺮﺩ ‪ Honeywell‬ﯾﺎ ‪HFO-‬‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﺟﻤﻠــﻪ ﻣــﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺩﯾﮕﺮﯼ ﮐــﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬

‫‪ ،HVAC‬ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺕﻫــﺎﯼ ﺣﺮﻓﻪﺍﯼ ﻭ ﺗﺒﺮﯾﺪ‬

‫‪ 1234yf‬ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﯾﺴﻪ ﺑﺎ ‪ R-134a‬ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬

‫ﺭﺍﯾﮕﺎﻥ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺩﺳــﺘﺮﺱ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﺑﺤﺚ ﮔﺬﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺷﺎﯾﺎﻥ ﺫﮐﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ‬

‫ﮐﻤﺘﺮﯼ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺗﻤﺴﻔﺮ ﺗﺠﺰﯾﻪ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻃﺒﻖ‬

‫ﺍﺟﺰﺍﯼ ﻣﺴــﯽ ﻭ ﻓﯿﺒــﺮﯼ ﻭ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻﺕ‬

‫ﺍﯾــﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺗﺎﺭﯾﺦ ‪ 17‬ﺳــﭙﺘﺎﻣﺒﺮ‬

‫ﺍﻋﻼﻡ ﺟﻨﺮﺍﻝ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﺯ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ‬

‫‪ Connected Home‬ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺩﺭ‬

‫‪ 2010‬ﺍﺭﺍﯾــﻪ ﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﮐﻨﻔﺮﺍﻧﺲ ﺳــﺎﻻﻧﻪ‬

‫ﻣﺒﺮﺩ ﻫﻮﺍﺑــﺮﺩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺗﻮﻣﺒﯿﻞﻫــﺎﯼ ﺟﺪﯾﺪ ﺭﺍ‬

‫ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﺷﺒﮑﻪﺍﯼ ﻭ ﺳﺎﯾﺮ ﺗﺮﺳﯿﻢﻫﺎ ﻭ‬

‫‪ 2011‬ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ‪ ASHRAE‬ﺩﺭ ﺗﺎﺭﯾﺦ ‪25‬‬

‫ﻣﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﺯ ‪ 99‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺩﺍﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺟﺰﯾﯿﺎﺗﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺴــﺘﻨﺪﺍﺕ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻧﯽ‬

‫ﺗﺎ ‪ 29‬ﮊﻭﺋﻦ ﺑﺮﮔﺰﺍﺭ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺒــﺮﺩ ‪ HFO-1234yf‬ﺩﺭ ﻋﺮﺽ ‪ 11‬ﺭﻭﺯ‬

‫ﯾﺎﻓﺖ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﺷﺎﺭﻩ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﺯﻣﯿﻦﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﯽ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺑﺎﺩﯼ‪ ،‬ﺧﻮﺭﺷــﯿﺪﯼ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﻭ ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮﺩ ‪ .HVAC&R‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻻﺕ‬

‫ﺗﻮﺩﻩﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﻣﻤﻠــﻮ ﺍﺯ ﻋﻠﻒﻫﺎﯼ ﻫﺮﺯ ﻣﺒﺪﻝ‬

‫ﺗﺠﺰﯾﻪ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﺷﺪ‪.‬‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 4‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪34‬‬

‫ﻣﻘﺎﻻﺕ‬

‫ﺑﺎ ﻭﺟــﻮﺩ ﺁﻥﮐﻪ ﺑﺨــﺶ ﻋﻤﺪﻩﺍﯼ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﺗﺤﻠﯿﻞ ﻭ ﺍﺩﺭﺍﮎ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺧﻮﺑﯽ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬

‫ﻣﺸﮑﻼﺕ ﮐﯿﻔﯿﺖ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ‬

‫ﮐﻨﯿــﺪ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻧﺒﺎﻝ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ ﻣﺸــﮑﻞ‬

‫ﺑــﺎ ﭼﮕﻮﻧﮕــﯽ ﻋﻤﻠﮑــﺮﺩ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺑﮕﺮﺩﯾﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺘﻨﺎﺳــﺐ ﺑﺎ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩﯼ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ‬

‫ﻭﺿﻌﯿﺖ ﺭﻭﺷﻨﺎﯾﯽ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ‬

‫ﺍﺗﺎﻕ ﻣﺸــﻐﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎﺭ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ‬

‫‪ HVAC‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺩﯾﮕﺮﯼ‬ ‫ﻧﯿﺰ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ ﮐﻪ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪ ﺑﺮ ﮐﯿﻔﯿﺖ‬ ‫ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺗﺎﺛﯿﺮﮔﺬﺍﺭ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻤﮑﻦ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﺑﺮﺧﯽ ﺍﺯ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﯾﺎﺩﺷــﺪﻩ‬

‫ﺍﺭﺗﺒــﺎﻁ ﭼﻨﺪﺍﻧــﯽ ﺑــﻪ ﮐﯿﻔﯿــﺖ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻧﺪﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﯽ‬

‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺷــﮏ ﺑﺎ ﮐﯿﻔﯿــﺖ ﻣﺤﯿﻂ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﻣﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﻫﻮﺍﻯ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬

‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﻣﺴــﺘﻘﯿﻢ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺷﺖ‪ .‬ﻧﺸﺎﻧﻪﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﯽﮐﻨﻨﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺑﺴــﯿﺎﺭﯼ ﺍﺯ ﻋﻼﯾﻢ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺁﻟﻮﺩﮔﯽ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﯾــﻦ ﺗﮑﻨﺴــﯿﻦﻫﺎﯼ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ‬

‫ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺧﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺷـﺪﺕ ﻧﻮﺭ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺳـﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﯽ ﺷﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﯽ ﯾﮏ‬

‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻧﻮﺭﯼ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺭﻭﺷﻦ ﮐﺮﺩﻥ‬

‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﻌﯿﺖ ﺭﻭﺷــﻨﺎﯾﯽ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬

‫ﯾﮏ ﺍﻧﺒﺎﺭ ﯾﺎ ﺍﺗﺎﻕ ﭘﺬﯾﺮﺍﯾﯽ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺍﺳﺖ‬

‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻧﯿﺰ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻠﯽ ﺍﺳــﺖ‬

‫ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ ﺑﺴــﯿﺎﺭ ﮐﻤﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻮﺭﯼ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﮐــﻪ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﻣــﺪ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﯿــﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﺿﻌﯿﺖ‬

‫ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺭﻭﺷــﻦ ﻧﮕﻪ ﺩﺍﺷــﺘﻦ ﻣﺤﯿﻂ ﯾﮏ‬

‫ﻧﺎﻣﻨﺎﺳــﺐ ﺭﻭﺷــﻨﺎﯾﯽ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﻣﻨﺠﺮ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﺩﺍﺭﯼ ﯾﺎ ﺩﻓﺘﺮ ﮐﺎﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ‬

‫ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ ﺳــﺮﺩﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﺧﺴــﺘﮕﯽ‪ ،‬ﺍﻓﺴﺮﺩﮔﯽ‪،‬‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﻣﻘﺎﺩﯾﺮ ﻣﻨﺎﺳــﺐ ﺷــﺪﺕ ﻧﻮﺭ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﺑﻬﺮﻩﻭﺭﯼ ﻭ ﺣﺲ ﻧﺎﺧﻮﺷــﺎﯾﻨﺪﯼ‬

‫ﻫﺮ ﯾﮏ ﺍﺯ ﻣﮑﺎﻥﻫﺎﯼ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﻣﺤﯿﻂ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬

‫ﺗﻮﺳــﻂ ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳــﺎﻥ ﺭﻭﺷــﻨﺎﯾﯽ‬

‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻋﻼﻭﻩ ﺑﺮ ﻧﻮﺭ ﺧﻮﺭﺷﯿﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺯ‬

‫)‪ (IES‬ﻣﻨﺘﺸــﺮ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ‬

‫ﻃﺮﯾــﻖ ﭘﻨﺠﺮﻩﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻧﻮﺭﮔﯿﺮﻫﺎﯼ ﺳــﻘﻔﯽ‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺑﺮﺧﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﺩﯾﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﺸــﺎﻫﺪﻩ‬

‫ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺗﺤﺖ ﺗﺎﺛﯿﺮ‬

‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻧﺸــﺎﻧﻪﻫﺎ ﻧﯿﺰ ﺑﻪ ﺧﻮﺑﯽ‬

‫ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺭﻭﺷــﻨﺎﯾﯽ ﺗﻌﺒﯿﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﺁﮔﺎﻫﯽ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻧﯿﺰ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺤـﻞ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺳﯿﺴـﺘﻢ ﺭﻭﺷـﻨﺎﯾﯽ‬ ‫ﯾﮑﯽ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺴــﺎﯾﻠﯽ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐــﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺎﻣﯿﻦ‬

‫ﺗﮑﻨﺴــﯿﻦ ﮐﯿﻔﯿﺖ ﻫــﻮﺍﯼ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﻣﺸــﮑﻼﺕ ﻣﺮﺗﺒــﻂ ﺑــﺎ ﻭﺿﻌﯿــﺖ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻫﻤﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﻧﺎﻇﺮﯼ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺑﯿﺮﻭﻥ‬

‫ﺭﻭﺷــﻨﺎﯾﯽ ﺩﺍﺧــﻞ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻣﻤﮑــﻦ‬

‫ﻭﺿﻌﯿــﺖ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﯾﺎ ﺑﺨﺸﯽ ﺍﺯ ﻗﺴﻤﺖﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺭﺍ ﺗﺤــﺖ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻗــﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﯽﺩﻫــﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﯾﻦ‬

‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﻣﺸﮑﻼﺕ‬

‫ﺍﺣﺘﻤــﺎﻝ ﺁﻥ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺗﮑﻨﺴــﯿﻦ‬

‫ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑــﺎ ﻭﺿﻌﯿــﺖ ﺭﻭﺷــﻨﺎﯾﯽ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬

‫ﻫــﻮﺍﯼ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ ﺗﻌــﺪﺍﺩﯼ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﮔﺎﻫﯽ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺷﺘﺒﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ‬

‫ﻣﺸﮑﻼﺕ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺳﺎﮐﻨﺎﻥ‬

‫ﻋﻼﯾﻢ ﭘﺎﯾﯿﻦ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﮐﯿﻔﯿﺖ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺷــﺪﺕ ﻧﻮﺭ ﺍﺗﺎﻕ ﻧﯿﺰ ﮐﺎﻓﯽ‬

‫ﺁﻥ ﻋﺎﺩﯼ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻈﺮﻫﺎ ﻏﺎﯾﺐ ﻣﺎﻧﺪﻩ ﺭﺍ‬

‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺗﻌﺒﯿﺮ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻣﺸﮑﻼﺕ‬

‫ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﺩﻟﯿﻞ ﺳــﺎﯾﻪﺍﯼ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺷــﯿﺎ‬

‫ﺷﻨﺎﺳــﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﯾﮏ ﺗﮑﻨﺴﯿﻦ‬

‫ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑــﺎ ﻭﺿﻌﯿــﺖ ﺭﻭﺷــﻨﺎﯾﯽ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬

‫ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ ﺯﻣﯿﻦ ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ ﺷــﺮﺍﯾﻂ‬

‫ﻫــﻮﺍﯼ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺑﺎﯾــﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻤﺎﻣــﯽ ﺣﻮﺍﺱ‬

‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩﯼ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ‬

‫ﭼﻨــﺪﺍﻥ ﺧﻮﺷــﺎﯾﻨﺪﯼ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺍﺧــﻞ ﺍﺗﺎﻕ‬

‫ﭘﻨﺞﮔﺎﻧــﻪ ﺧﻮﺩ ﻭ ﻓﺮﺍﺗــﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﻗﺪﺭﺕ‬

‫ﺷــﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺑﯿﺎﻥ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﯿﻢ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﻭﺟــﻮﺩ ﻧﺨﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺁﻣــﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﯽ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﺷــﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﺭﺍﺣﺘﯽ ﺍﻓــﺮﺍﺩ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﯿﻂ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺗﺎﺛﯿــﺮ ﺑﺴــﯿﺎﺭﯼ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺭﺗــﯽ ﮐــﻪ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺭﻭﺷــﻨﺎﯾﯽ‬ ‫ﺳــﻘﻔﯽ ﺩﺭ ﻓﺎﺻﻠــﻪﺍﯼ ﺑﺴــﯿﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻭ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﭘﺸﺖ ﺳــﺮ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺣﺘﺎ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 5‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪34‬‬

‫ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ ﺭﻭﺷــﻨﺎﯾﯽ ﺳــﻘﻔﯽ ﺩﺭ ﻧﺰﺩﯾﮑﯽ‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻟﻨﺰﻫــﺎﯼ ﺑﺸــﻘﺎﺑﯽ ﺷــﮑﻞ‬

‫ﮐــﻪ ﻧﻮﺭ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺎ ﮐﻢ ﻭ ﺯﯾﺎﺩ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‬

‫ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﻧﻮﺭ ﺧﯿﺮﻩﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺭﻭﺷــﻨﺎﯾﯽ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺗﺎ‬

‫ﻧﯿﺰ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪ ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﺧﺴــﺘﮕﯽ ﭼﺸﻢﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺁﻥ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺮﻭﺯ ﻣﺸــﮑﻞ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﺯﯾﺎﺩﯼ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻨﻌﮑﺲ ﺷــﺪﻥ ﻧﻮﺭ ﺍﯾﻦ‬

‫ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﻋﻼﻭﻩ ﺑﺮ ﺁﻥ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ ﺭﻭﺷﻨﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﻧﻮﻋﯽ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ‬

‫ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺳــﻄﻮﺡ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﯽ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺭﻭﺷــﻨﺎﯾﯽ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺷﺪﺕ ﻧﻮﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ‬

‫ﺭﻭﺷــﻨﺎﯾﯽ ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳــﻨﺖ ﺑﻪ ﮔﻮﻧﻪﺍﯼ ﺍﺳﺖ‬

‫ﺑﮑﺎﻫﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺮﻭﺭ ﺯﻣــﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻧﻮﺭ ﮐﻤﺘﺮﯼ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻮﻟﯿﺪ‬

‫ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﻣﺤﯿﻂ ﮐﺎﺭ ﺭﺍ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺎ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ‬

‫ﺗﻀﺎﺩ ﺩﺭ ﻭﺿﻌﯿﺖ ﺭﻭﺷﻨﺎﯾﯽ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬

‫ﻣﯽﮐﻨﻨــﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈــﻮﺭ ﺟﻠﻮﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺮﻭﺯ‬

‫ﺍﺗﺎﻕ ﯾﮑﯽ ﺩﯾﮕﺮ ﺍﺯ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻠﯽ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ‬

‫ﺍﯾــﻦ ﻣﺸــﮑﻞ‪ ،‬ﻻﻣﭗﻫــﺎﯼ ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳــﻨﺖ‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺟﺘﻨﺎﺏ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻣﺎﻫﯿﭽﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﭼﺸﻢ‬

‫ﺑﺎﯾــﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺻــﻮﺭﺕ ﺩﻭﺭﻩﺍﯼ ﻭ ﻃﺒﻖ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺴــﺎﻥ ﺑﻪ ﮔﻮﻧﻪﺍﯼ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﺷــﺪﻩﺍﻧﺪ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﺯﻣﺎﻥﺑﻨــﺪﯼ ﻣﺸــﺨﺺ ﺗﻌﻮﯾﺾ ﺷــﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬــﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺳــﻄﻮﺣﯽ ﮐــﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻀﺎﺩ‬

‫ﺭﻓﻠﮑﺘﻮﺭ ﻻﻣﭗﻫﺎﯼ ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ ﻭ ﻟﻨﺰﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺧﯿﺮﻩﮐﻨﻨﺪﮔﯽ ﻧﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﯾﮑﯽ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺴﺎﯾﻠﯽ‬

‫ﻧﻮﺭﯼ ﺷﺪﯾﺪ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ ﺧﯿﻠﯽ ﺯﻭﺩ ﺩﭼﺎﺭ‬

‫ﺁﻥﻫــﺎ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨــﮕﺎﻡ ﺗﻌﻮﯾــﺾ‪ ،‬ﺗﻤﯿﺰ‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺑــﻪ ﻭﯾﮋﻩ ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﺍﻓــﺮﺍﺩﯼ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﺧﺴﺘﮕﯽ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﮐﺎﺭ‬

‫ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺸﻐﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﻧﻮﺷــﺘﺎﺭﯼ ﯾﺎ ﮐﺎﺭ ﺑﺎ‬

‫ﮐــﺮﺩﻥ ﺑﺎ ﺻﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﺳــﻔﯿﺪ ﮐﺎﻏﺬ ﺩﺭ ﯾﮏ‬

‫ﻧﺘﺎﯾــﺞ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺮﺧــﯽ ﺗﺤﻘﯿﻘﺎﺕ‬

‫ﻭﺳﺎﯾﻠﯽ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﯿﻮﺗﺮ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ‬

‫ﺯﻣﯿﻨــﻪ ﻧﻮﺭﯼ ﺳــﯿﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻧﻤﻮﻧــﻪﺍﯼ ﺍﺯ ﺍﯾﻦ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺠــﺎﻡ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﭘﯿﺮﺍﻣﻮﻥ ﻧــﻮﺭ ﻻﻣﭗﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﻣﻨﺠﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ ﮐﺴﺎﻟﺖ ﯾﺎ ﺗﺤﺮﯾﮏ ﻋﺼﺒﯽ‬

‫ﺗﻀﺎﺩ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺣﺪ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ‬

‫ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳــﻨﺖ ﻧﺸــﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐــﻪ‬

‫ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺛﯿﺮ ﺧﯿﺮﻩﮐﻨﻨﺪﮔﯽ ﻧﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﯾﺎ‬

‫ﺍﺟﺘﻨﺎﺏ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻻﻣﭗﻫﺎﯼ ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳــﻨﺘﯽ ﮐﻪ ﻧﻮﺭ ﻣﻨﺘﺸــﺮ‬

‫ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﯾﻦ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﯿﺖ ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﺗﺎ ﺷﺪﺕ ﻧﻮﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﻫﺮ ﻣﮑﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﺗــﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑــﯽ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﯽ ﮐﻤﺘﺮﯼ‬ ‫ﻧﺴــﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺿﻌﯿــﺖ ﺭﻭﺷــﻨﺎﯾﯽ ﻋﺎﺩﯼ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﻣﯿﻦ ﮐﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﺛﺮ ﺯﯾﺎﺩ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﺷــﺪﺕ ﻧﻮﺭ ﺗﻮﻟﯿﺪ ﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ﺭﻭﺷﻨﺎﯾﯽ‪ ،‬ﯾﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺍﺳﻄﻪ‬

‫ﺷﺪﺕ ﻧﻮﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﻓﻮﺕ ﮐﺎﻧﺪﻝ‬

‫ﺷﺪﺕ ﻧﻮﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﻓﻮﺕ ﮐﺎﻧﺪﻝ‬

‫ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ﺭﻭﺷﻨﺎﯾﯽ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﯿﺰﻫﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﺷﯿﺸــﻪﺍﯼ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﺗﺎﻕ ﻧﯿﺰ ﯾﮑﯽ ﺩﯾﮕﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻠﯽ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻣﻨﻌﮑﺲ ﮐﺮﺩﻥ ﻧﻮﺭ‬

‫ﻣﮑﺎﻥﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﯼ ﺍﺩﺍﺭﯼ‬

‫ﻣﮑﺎﻥﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪﻫﺎ‬

‫ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﺗﺎ ﻧﻮﺭ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ ﺭﻭﺷﻨﺎﯾﯽ‬

‫ﺍﺗﺎﻕﻫﺎﯼ ﮐﻨﻔﺮﺍﻧﺲ‬

‫‪30-75‬‬

‫ﺧﻂ ﻣﻮﻧﺘﺎﮊ‬

‫‪150-300‬‬

‫ﺑﺨﺶﻫﺎﯼ ﺍﺩﺍﺭﯼ‬

‫‪75-150‬‬

‫ﺑﺨﺶ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﮐﯿﻔﯿﺖ‬

‫‪75-150‬‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺧﯿﺮﻩﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩﺍﯼ ﭼﺸــﻢ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺭﺍ‬

‫ﺑﺨﺶ ﭘﺬﯾﺮﺵ‬

‫‪25-75‬‬

‫ﺧﻂ ﺗﻮﻟﯿﺪ‬

‫‪30-75‬‬

‫ﺁﺯﺍﺭ ﺩﻫﺪ‪ .‬ﻧﻮﻉ ﺩﯾﮕﺮﯼ ﺍﺯ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺍﺛﺮ ﻣﻨﻌﮑﺲ‬

‫ﺑﯿﻤﺎﺭﺳﺘﺎﻥﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺭﺳﺘﻮﺭﺍﻥﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺷــﺪﻥ ﻧــﻮﺭ ﺻﻔﺤــﻪ ﻧﻤﺎﯾﺶﮔﺮﻫﺎﺳــﺖ‬

‫ﺳﺎﻟﻦ ﻏﺬﺍﺧﻮﺭﯼ‬

‫‪30-50‬‬

‫ﺍﺗﺎﻕ ﺍﻭﺭﮊﺍﻧﺲ‬

‫‪75-150‬‬

‫ﮐﻪ ﺑﺴــﯿﺎﺭ ﺁﺯﺍﺭﺩﻫﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ‬

‫ﺁﺷﭙﺰﺧﺎﻧﻪ‬

‫‪30-75‬‬

‫ﺍﺗﺎﻕ ﻣﻌﺎﯾﻨﻪ‬

‫‪25-75‬‬

‫ﺍﺗﺎﻕ ﻋﻤﻞ‬

‫‪75-150‬‬

‫ﺍﺗﺎﻕ ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺎﺭ‬

‫‪15-25‬‬

‫ﺟﻠﻮﮔﯿــﺮﯼ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺮﻭﺯ ﻣﺸــﮑﻼﺕ ﻧﺎﺷــﯽ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺧﯿﺮﻩﮐﻨﻨﺪﮔﯽ ﻧﻮﺭ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ﺭﻭﺷــﻨﺎﯾﯽ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺕ ﺑﺎ ﮐﯿﻔﯿﺖ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻞ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻧﺼﺐ ﮐﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺗﺎﻕﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺨﺶ ﻋﻤــﺪﻩ ﮐﺎﺭ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺎ‬

‫ﻣﺪﺍﺭﺱ‬ ‫ﮐﻼﺱ ﺩﺭﺱ‬

‫‪30-75‬‬

‫ﺁﺯﻣﺎﯾﺸﮕﺎﻩﻫﺎ‪/‬‬ ‫ﮐﻼﺱﻫﺎﯼ ﻧﻘﺸﻪﮐﺸﯽ‬

‫‪75-150‬‬

‫ﻓﺮﻭﺷﮕﺎﻩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻞ ﻓﺮﻭﺵ‬

‫‪50-150‬‬

‫ﻣﻨﺎﺯﻝ‬ ‫ﺭﺧﺘﮑﻦ‬

‫‪30-50‬‬

‫ﺍﺗﺎﻕ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﻪ‬

‫‪50-75‬‬

‫ﺍﺗﺎﻕ ﺧﯿﺎﻃﯽ‬

‫‪100-150‬‬

‫ﻧﻤﺎﯾﺶﮔﺮﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﮐﻠﯿﺪﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﺷــﺪﺕ ﻧﻮﺭ ﺍﺗﺎﻕ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﺍﯼ‬ ‫ﮐﻤﺘــﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺪ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪ .‬ﻫﻤﭽﻨﯿﻦ‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (1‬ﺷﺪﺕ ﻧﻮﺭ ﺗﻮﺻﯿﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﻣﮑﺎﻥﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻓﻮﺕ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﻧﺪﻝ )ﺷﻤﻊ(‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺭﻭﺷﻨﺎﯾﯽ ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳﻨﺖ‬

‫ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﻓﺮﮐﺎﻧــﺲ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮﯼ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 6‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪34‬‬

‫ﻧﺴــﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻮﺭ ﻻﻣﭗﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻟﯽ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﺩﯾﮕﺮﯼ ﺭﺍ ﻧﯿﺰ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ‬

‫ﮐﻢ ﻭ ﺑﯿﺶ ﺑﺎ ﺧﺴــﺘﮕﯽ ﻧﺎﺷﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺮ ﻭ‬

‫ﻓﺮﮐﺎﻧــﺲ ﭘﺎﯾﯿﻨﯽ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ‬

‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﯾﮑﯽ ﺍﺯ ﻋﻼﯾﻤﯽ ﮐﻪ ﻣﻤﮑﻦ ﺍﺳــﺖ‬

‫ﺻﺪﺍ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﺷﺪﻩﺍﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﯽ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﮐﻠﯽ‬

‫ﺳــﺮﺩﺭﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺭﺍ ﮐﺎﻫــﺶ ﻣﯽﺩﻫﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﻭﺍﺳــﻄﻪ ﺳــﺮ ﻭ ﺻﺪﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ‬

‫ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻩ ﻣﺸــﺨﺼﯽ ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﺣﺪ ﺗﺤﻤﻞ‬

‫ﺗﺤﻘﯿﻘﺎﺕ ﺩﺭ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺯﻣﯿﻨﻪ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﺎﻥ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ‬

‫ﺷــﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺳﺮﺩﺭﺩ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻣﻤﮑﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ‬

‫ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ ﺳــﺮ ﻭ ﺻﺪﺍ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬

‫ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﺩﺭﺩ ﻧﺎﺷﯽ ﺍﺯ ﭘﺎﯾﯿﻦ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﮐﯿﻔﯿﺖ‬

‫ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺑﺎﻻ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﺷــﺪﺕ‬

‫ﮐﻤﺒﻮﺩ ﻧﻮﺭ ﺧﻮﺭﺷـﯿﺪ ﯾﮑﯽ ﺩﯾﮕﺮ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﺷﺘﺒﺎﻩ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ‬

‫ﺳــﺮ ﻭ ﺻﺪﺍﯼ ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﯾﮏ ﻣﺤﻞ‬

‫ﻣﺴــﺎﯾﻠﯽ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﻣﺸﮑﻼﺕ‬

‫ﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺳﺮ ﻭ ﺻﺪﺍ ﯾﮑﯽ ﺍﺯ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻠﯽ ﺍﺳﺖ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧــﺪ ﻣﻨﺠﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺮﻭﺯ ﻣﺸــﮑﻼﺗﯽ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﯼ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺳــﻼﻣﺖ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ‬

‫ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻣﺴــﺘﻘﯿﻢ ﺑﺮ ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ ﺭﺍﺣﺘﯽ‬

‫ﻗﺒﯿﻞ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﺑﻬﺮﻩﻭﺭﯼ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻭ ﺧﺴﺘﮕﯽ‬

‫ﺍﻓــﺮﺍﺩ ﺗﺎﺛﯿــﺮ ﻣﯽﮔﺬﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ ﻋــﻼﻭﻩ ﺑﺮ ﺁﻥ‬

‫ﻣﻔﺮﻁ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻤﮑﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺗﺎﺛﯿﺮﺍﺗﯽ ﺟﺪﯼ ﺑﺮ ﺳﻼﻣﺖ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺱ‬

‫ﮐﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﯾﮑﯽ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺸــﮑﻼﺗﯽ ﮐــﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺪﻭﺩﯼ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺍﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺟﺪﯼ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﺑــﺮ ﺟﺎﯼ ﺑﮕــﺬﺍﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻻﺕ ﺭﻭﺣﯽ‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻠــﯽ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐــﻪ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑــﻪ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭ‬ ‫‪ SAD‬ﻣﯽﻧﺎﻣﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﯾﻦ ﻣﺸــﮑﻞ ﺩﺭ ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﺯﻣﺴــﺘﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻌﯽ ﮐﻪ ﻣﺪﺕ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺷــﻨﺎﯾﯽ ﺩﺭ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺭﻭﺯ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﻣﯽﯾﺎﺑﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﯽﺁﯾﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻧﮑﺘﻪ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﯼ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺣﺘﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺍﻓــﺮﺍﺩﯼ ﮐﻪ ﺩﭼﺎﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺣﯽ ﯾﺎﺩ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﻧﯿﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻧﯿﺰ ﮐﺎﺭ ﮐﺮﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﯿﻄــﯽ ﮐﻪ ﻫﯿﭻ ﭘﻨﺠــﺮﻩﺍﯼ ﺭﻭ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺴــﺎﻥ ﺑﺮ ﺟﺎﯼ ﮔﺬﺍﺭﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺱ ﯾﺎ ﺗﻨﺶ ﯾﮑﯽ ﺩﯾﮕﺮ ﺍﺯ ﻋﻼﯾﻢ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺯﯾﺮ ﺍﺷﺎﺭﻩ ﮐﺮﺩ‪:‬‬

‫ﻧﺎﺷــﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺳــﺮ ﻭ ﺻﺪﺍﯼ ﺯﯾﺎﺩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﺷﻨﻮﺍﯾﯽ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﻣﻨﺠﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺮﻭﺯ ﻋﻼﯾﻤﯽ ﺍﺯ ﻗﺒﯿﻞ‬

‫ﺧﺴﺘﮕﯽ‬

‫ﺳــﺮﺩﺭﺩ ﯾﺎ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻉ ﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺎ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺱ‬

‫ﭼﻨﯿــﻦ ﻣﺸــﮑﻼﺗﯽ‪ ،‬ﻋﻼﯾــﻢ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺎ‬

‫ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﺷﻨﻮﺍﯾﯽ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﻫــﺶ ﻗــﺪﺭﺕ ﺷــﻨﻮﺍﯾﯽ ﯾﮑﯽ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﯾﻤﯽ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺛﺮ ﻗــﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻓــﺮﺍﺩ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻌﺮﺽ ﺻﺪﺍﻫــﺎﯼ ﺑﻠﻨﺪ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺕ ﺯﻣــﺎﻥ ﻃﻮﻻﻧﯽ ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﮐﯿﻔﯿﺖ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﻧﯿﺰ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ ﺗﺎﺛﯿﺮ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﯽﺩﻫﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺳﺮ ﻭ ﺻﺪﺍﯼ‬ ‫ﺯﯾﺎﺩ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﯿﻂ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﺠﺮ ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﻗﺪﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺮﮐــﺰ ﺍﻓــﺮﺍﺩ ﻭ ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ ﻋﻼﯾــﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﯿﻨﯽ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﯽ ﺍﺯ ﻗﺒﯿﻞ ﺍﺳــﺘﺮﺱ ﻭ ﺳــﺮﺩﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﯽﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﺳــﺮ ﻭ ﺻــﺪﺍﯼ ﺑﯿﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺪ‬

‫ﻃﺒــﻖ ﺗﺤﻘﯿﻘــﺎﺕ ﺑــﻪ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺁﻣــﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﻫﻤﭽﻨﯿﻦ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺷﮑﺎﯾﺖ ﻭ ﻧﺎﺭﺿﺎﯾﺘﯽ‬

‫ﺍﯾــﻦ ﺯﻣﯿﻨــﻪ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺣــﺪﻭﺩ ‪ 22‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﺍﻓــﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﺯ ﺷــﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺭﺍ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾــﺶ‬

‫ﮐﺎﺭﮔﺮﺍﻧﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻭﺭﻩ ﺳــﯽ ﺳــﺎﻟﻪ ﮐﺎﺭ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺩﻫﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﯾﻦ ﻣﺴﺎﻟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻭﯾﮋﻩ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻌﯽ‬

‫ﺧﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻌﺮﺽ ﺻﺪﺍﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﺑﺎ ﺷﺪﺕ ‪75‬‬

‫ﮐﻪ ﺳــﺮ ﻭ ﺻﺪﺍﯼ ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﻧﺎﺷﯽ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﺩﺳــﯽﺑﻞ ﺑﻮﺩﻩﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻣــﺮﻭﺭ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺩﭼﺎﺭ‬

‫ﺗﺠﻤﻊ ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻌﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻞ ﮐﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻭ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ﺭﻭﺷﻨﺎﯾﯽ‬

‫ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﺷــﻨﻮﺍﯾﯽ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﮔﻮﻧﻪﺍﯼ ﺍﺣﺴﺎﺱ ﺷﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺳﺨﺖ ﻭ‬

‫ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﯾﮏ ﺩﺳــﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﻣﮑﺶ ﺳﺮ ﻭ‬

‫ﻏﯿﺮﺍﺳــﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﭘﺮﺳﻨﻞ ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ ﮐﻨﺪ‬

‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺗــﺎ ﺟﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﻣﻤﮑﻦ‬

‫ﺻﺪﺍﯾــﯽ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ‪ 70‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 75‬ﺩﺳــﯽﺑﻞ‬

‫ﺑﯿﺸﺘﺮ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺖ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺍﺯ ﻻﻣﭗﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﻮﺩ‬

‫ﺗﻮﻟﯿﺪ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺷﺪﺕ ﺻﻮﺕ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ‬

‫ﮐــﻪ ﻧﻮﺭ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺷــﺒﯿﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻮﺭ ﺧﻮﺭﺷــﯿﺪ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﯼ ﺍﺩﺍﺭﯼ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺑﯿﻦ ‪40‬‬

‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﺎ ‪ 55‬ﺩﺳﯽﺑﻞ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺳﺮ ﻭ ﺻﺪﺍ‬

‫ﺧﺴﺘﮕﯽ‬

‫ﺑﯿﺮﻭﻥ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ ﺑﯿﺸــﺘﺮ ﺷﺒﯿﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺯﻧﺪﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺗﻨﺶﺯﺍ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﻧﻮﺭ ﺗﻮﻟﯿﺪ‬ ‫ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺮﺧﯽ ﻻﻣﭗﻫﺎﯼ ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳــﻨﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﮔﻮﻧﻪﺍﯼ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺷﺒﺎﻫﺖ ﺑﺴﯿﺎﺭﯼ‬ ‫ﺑــﻪ ﻧﻮﺭ ﻃﺒﯿﻌﯽ ﺧﻮﺭﺷــﯿﺪ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ‬

‫ﻧﮑﺘﻪ ﺩﯾﮕﺮﯼ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺑﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﺷــﺎﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﮐﻨﯿﻢ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺳــﺮ ﻭ ﺻﺪﺍﯼ ﺑﻠﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺸﮑﻠﯽ ﻧﯿﺴﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﺁﻥ ﺭﻭﺑﺮﻭ ﻫﺴﺘﯿﻢ‪ .‬ﺑﻠﮑﻪ ﺳﺮ ﻭ ﺻﺪﺍﯼ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺷــﯽ ﺍﺯ ﮐﺎﺭﮐــﺮﺩ ﺑﺮﺧــﯽ ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺕ ﻭ‬

‫ﺳــﺮ ﻭ ﺻــﺪﺍﯼ ﺑﯿــﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺣــﺪ‪،‬‬

‫ﺧﺴــﺘﮕﯽ ﯾﮑــﯽ ﺍﺯ ﻋﻼﯾﻢ ﺷــﺎﯾﻌﯽ‬

‫ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻩ ﻓﺮﮐﺎﻧﺲﻫﺎﯾﯽ‬

‫ﺗﺤﺮﯾﮏﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﯾــﺎ ﺍﺻﻮﺍﺗﯽ ﺑﺎ ﻓﺮﮐﺎﻧﺲ‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺛﺮ ﺳــﺮ ﻭ ﺻﺪﺍﯼ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﯽ‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺑﺴﯿﺎﺭﯼ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ‬

‫ﺑﺎﻻ ﻋﻼﻭﻩ ﺑﺮ ﺁﺯﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺩﻥ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﯽ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻓــﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﯽﺁﯾــﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﮐﺜﺮ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ‬

‫ﺷــﻨﯿﺪﻥ ﻧﯿﺴــﺖ ﻭﻟﯽ ﺩﺭ ﻫــﺮ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 7‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪34‬‬

‫ﺍﺻﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﻧﺎﻣﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﺧﻮﺩ‬

‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﺷــﺘﺒﺎﻩ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤــﻞ ﮐﺎﺭ ﭼﻪ ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺎﺭﺍﺗــﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮ ﺟﺎﯼ ﻣﯽﮔﺬﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﺟﻤﻠــﻪ ﻣﻨﺎﺑــﻊ ﺗﻮﻟﯿﺪ ﺍﺭﺗﻌﺎﺷــﺎﺕ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺭﻭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﮑﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺩﭼﺎﺭ ﺳﺮﺩﺭﮔﻤﯽ‬

‫ﺗﮑﻨﺴﯿﻦ ﮐﯿﻔﯿﺖ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ‬

‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑــﻪ ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺕ ﻭ‬

‫ﺷــﻮﻧﺪ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺭﻭﺣﯽ ﺍﺣﺴــﺎﺱ ﻋﺪﻡ‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﺷﺪﺕ ﻣﺠﺎﺯ ﺳﺮ ﻭ ﺻﺪﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ﻣﺤﯿﻂ‬

‫ﻣﺎﺷــﯿﻦﺁﻻﺕ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﮐﺎﺭ ﯾﺎ ﺍﺭﺗﻌﺎﺷﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻣﻨﯿﺖ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭ ﺗﺎﺛﯿﺮ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻟﯽ ﺳــﺮ ﻭ ﺻﺪﺍﯼ ﺑﯿﺶ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﮐﻠﯽ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﺷــﺎﺭﻩ ﮐﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﺧﯽ‬

‫ﺣﺪ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺧﻮﺑﯽ ﺁﮔﺎﻫﯽ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎﯼ ﺑﺴــﯿﺎﺭ ﺑﻠﻨــﺪﯼ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﻣﺴﺎﻟﻪ ﻣﻬﻤﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺑﺪﺍﻥ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﺎﺩﻫﺎﯼ ﺷــﺪﯾﺪ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪،‬‬

‫ﻧﻤﻮﺩ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻪ ﮔﻮﺵ ﺍﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺧﯿﻠﯽ‬

‫ﻣﺸﮑﻼﺕ ﻧﺎﺷﯽ ﺍﺯ ﻟﺮﺯﺵ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﺯﻭﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺮ ﻭ ﺻﺪﺍﯼ ﻣﺤﯿﻂ ﺧﻮﺩ ﻋﺎﺩﺕ‬

‫ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﻭﺯﯾﺪﻥ ﺑﺎﺩ ﮔﺰﺍﺭﺵ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﯽﮐﻨــﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﯾﻦ ﺍﺣﺘﻤــﺎﻝ ﺁﻥ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬

‫ﺑﺮﺧﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺠﻬﯿــﺰﺍﺕ ﻣﮑﺎﻧﯿﮑﯽ ﺩﻭﺍﺭ ﻧﯿﺰ‬

‫ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺳﺎﮐﻨﺎﻥ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﺴﯿﺎﺭﯼ‬

‫ﺗﻮﻟﯿﺪ ﺍﺭﺗﻌﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﺳــﺎﺯﻩﺍﯼ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﺻﺪﺍﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺘﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﯾﺎ ﻏﯿﺮﻣﻌﻤﻮﻟﯽ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﻧﻮﺑﻪ ﺧﻮﺩ ﻣﻤﮑﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﺷﻮﺩ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﻣﺤﯿــﻂ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﺭﺍ ﻧﺸــﻨﻮﻧﺪ‬

‫ﺗﺎ ﺑﺮﺧﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﺣﺴــﺎﺱ ﻧﺎﺧﻮﺷﺎﯾﻨﺪ‬

‫ﯾﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻬﯽ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥ ﻧﺪﺍﺷــﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷــﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷــﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ‬

‫ﺻﻮﺭﺗﯽ ﮐــﻪ ﻫﻤﯿﻦ ﺳــﺮ ﻭ ﺻﺪﺍﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﺗﻮﻟﯿﺪ ﺍﺭﺗﻌﺎﺷــﺎﺕ ﺭﺍ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺎﺩﮔﯽ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﯿﻨــﻪ ﺳــﺎﯾﺮ ﺻﺪﺍﻫــﺎﯼ ﻣﻌﻤــﻮﻝ‬

‫ﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎﯾﯽ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺟــﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﺧﻮﺩ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺴــﯿﺎﺭﯼ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺭﺍﺣﺘﯽﻫﺎﯾــﯽ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐــﻪ ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﺁﺯﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻭ ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ ﺍﺣﺴــﺎﺱ ﻧﺎﺧﻮﺷﺎﯾﻨﺪ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺁﻣﺪﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺮﺧﯽ ﺗﺤﻘﯿﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﯾﻦ ﺯﻣﯿﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﺳــﺮ ﻭ ﺻﺪﺍ ﺣﺘﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﯽ‬ ‫ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﯾﮏ ﻣﺸﮑﻞ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﮔﺰﺍﺭﺵ ﻧﺸــﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪ ،‬ﯾﮑــﯽ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ ﺍﺳــﺘﺮﺱ ﻭ ﻧﺎﺭﺍﺣﺘﯽ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﻤﺎﺭ ﻣﯽﺭﻭﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﺭﺗﻌﺎﺷﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺷــﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﻣﺨﺘﻠــﻒ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧــﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﯾﻢ ﻭ ﻧﺸــﺎﻧﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﺑﻪﺧﺼﻮﺻﯽ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺭﻣﻨﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ ﮐﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺑﯿﺶ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺣﺪ ﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺎﯾﺮ ﻫﻤﮑﺎﺭﺍﻥ ﯾﮑﯽ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺷــﺎﯾﻊﺗﺮﯾﻦ ﺩﻻﯾﻞ ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺱ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻓــﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺷــﻤﺎﺭ ﻣــﯽﺭﻭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻫﺮﭼﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﯿﺎﺭﯼ ﺩﯾﮕﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺷﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺠﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺱ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﮐــﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻣﯽﺗــﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺯﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﺷﺎﺭﻩ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ‪:‬‬

‫ﮐﻼﻣﯽ‪ ،‬ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺸــﻐﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺩﺍﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﺧﻮﺩ ﻫﺴــﺘﻨﺪ ﻣﻤﮑﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻭﺭ ﺩﭼﺎﺭ ﺍﺣﺴﺎﺱ ﺳﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩﮔﯽ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﺸــﮑﻼﺗﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺎﻻ ﺑﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﺷــﺎﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﺷــﺪ ﻫﺮ ﯾﮏ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻨﻬﺎﯾﯽ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪ ﺗﻨﺶ‬ ‫ﺑﺴــﯿﺎﺭ ﺯﯾﺎﺩﯼ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﯿﻂ ﮐﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﮐﻨﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺪﯾــﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﯿﺐ ﺍﺣﺘﻤــﺎﻝ ﺯﯾﺎﺩﯼ‬ ‫ﻭﺟــﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﮐــﻪ ﻋﮑﺲﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞﻫــﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﺰﯾﮑﯽ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻋﻼﯾﻢ ﻧﺎﺷﯽ ﺍﺯ ﭘﺎﯾﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺑــﻮﺩﻥ ﮐﯿﻔﯿﺖ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺩﺍﺧــﻞ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺷــﻠﻮﻍ ﺑــﻮﺩﻥ ﻣﺤــﻞ ﮐﺎﺭ ﻭ ﻋﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺭﻋﺎﯾــﺖ ﺣﺮﯾﻢ ﺷــﺨﺼﯽ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺗﻮﺳــﻂ‬ ‫ﺩﯾﮕﺮﺍﻥ ﯾﮑﯽ ﺩﯾﮕﺮ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺴﺎﯾﻠﯽ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧــﺪ ﻣﻨﺠﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ ﺍﺳــﺘﺮﺱ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻞ ﮐﺎﺭ ﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺷــﻠﻮﻏﯽ ﺑﯿﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺤــﻞ ﮐﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻫﻤﭽﻨﯿﻦ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺸــﮑﻼﺗﯽ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﯿﻞ ﺳﺮ ﻭ ﺻﺪﺍ‪ ،‬ﺑﻮﻫﺎﯼ ﻧﺎﺧﻮﺷﺎﯾﻨﺪ ﻭ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﺳــﻄﺢ ﺍﮐﺴﯿﮋﻥ ﻣﺤﯿﻂ‪ ،‬ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﮑﻨﺴــﯿﻦ ﮐﯿﻔﯿﺖ ﻫــﻮﺍﯼ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﻧﯿﺴــﺖ ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ ﺗﻨﺶ ﻧﺎﺷﯽ ﺍﺯ ﮐﺎﺭ‬

‫ﺍﺭﺗﻌﺎﺷــﺎﺕ ﺑﺎ ﻓﺮﮐﺎﻧــﺲ ﭘﺎﯾﯿﻦ ﯾﮑﯽ‬

‫ﻋﺼﺒــﯽ ﺑــﻮﺩﻥ ﻭ ﭘﺮﺧﺎﺷــﮕﺮﯼ‬

‫ﺩﯾﮕــﺮ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻌــﯽ ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ ﺍﺳــﺘﺮﺱ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﻣﺪﯾــﺮﺍﻥ ﯾﮑــﯽ ﺍﺯ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻠــﯽ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺷــﻤﺎﺭ ﻣﯽﺭﻭﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻭﻗﺎﺕ‬

‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﯿﻤﺎ ﺑﺮ ﭘﺮﺳــﻨﻠﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺨﺶ‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﺩﯾﺪ ﺑﺴــﯿﺎﺭ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﭘﻨﻬﺎﻥ ﻣﯽﻣﺎﻧﺪ‬

‫ﻣﺸﻐﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎﺭ ﻫﺴــﺘﻨﺪ ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ ﺗﻨﺶ ﻭ‬

‫ﻫﯿﭻ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺁﻥ ﻫﻤﺨﻮﺍﻧﯽ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﯽ‬

‫ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﮔﺰﺍﺭﺷــﯽ ﮐــﻪ ﺩﺭﺑﺎﺭﻩ ﻣﺸــﮑﻼﺕ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺱ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻭﯼ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻣﺴــﺎﻟﻪ‬

‫ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻫﺮ ﯾﮏ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿــﺮﯼ ﮐﻨﺪ ﻭ ﻭﻇﯿﻔﻪ ﻭﯼ ﻫﻢ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺗﻬﯿﻪ ﻣﯽﮔﺮﺩﺩ ﺍﺷﺎﺭﻩﺍﯼ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﻋﺼﺒــﯽ ﺑــﻮﺩﻥ ﻭ ﻧﺎﺭﺿﺎﯾﺘــﯽ‬

‫ﺁﮔﺎﻩ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮﺧﯽ ﺍﺯ ﻧﺎﺭﺿﺎﯾﺘﯽﻫﺎ ﻭ‬

‫ﺁﻥ ﻧﻤﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻣﺴــﺎﻟﻪ ﺩﯾﮕﺮﯼ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ‬

‫ﮐﺎﺭﻣﻨــﺪﺍﻥ ﯾﮑﯽ ﺍﺯ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻠﯽ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﻣﺸﮑﻼﺗﯽ ﮐﻪ ﻣﻤﮑﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ‬

‫ﻣــﻮﺭﺩ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻗــﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﯿﺮﺩ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ ﺍﺳــﺘﺮﺱ ﻭ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﻋﺼﺒﯽ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺁﯾﺪ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﻧﺎﺷﯽ ﺍﺯ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻠﯽ‬

‫ﻋﻼﯾﻢ ﻧﺎﺷــﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺭﺗﻌﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﺧﯽ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﺪﯾﺮﺍﻥ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻏﯿﺮ ﺍﺯ ﮐﯿﻔﯿﺖ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ‬

‫ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎ ﻋﻼﯾﻢ ﻧﺎﺷﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻟﻮﺩﮔﯽ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ‬

‫ﮐﺎﺭﻣﻨﺪﺍﻧﯽ ﮐــﻪ ﺩﻗﯿﻘﺎ ﻧﻤﯽﺩﺍﻧﻨﺪ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻃﺒﻖ ﻧﺘﺎﯾﺞ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺳــﺖ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺱﻫﺎﯼ ﮐﺎﺭﯼ‬

‫ﮐﺎﺭﻣﻨﺪﺍﻧﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﮐﻮﭼﮏﺗﺮﯾﻦ‬


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‫ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﻯ‬

‫ﺍﺻﻮﻝ ﻧﺼﺐ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﺍﺣــﯽ ﻭ ﻧﺼــﺐ ﺻﺤﯿــﺢ ﺷــﺒﮑﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻟﻪﮐﺸــﯽ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ﺗﺒﺮﯾــﺪ ﺩﺭ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﯿــﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻗﻄﻊ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺛﺮ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﻣﺸــﮑﻼﺕ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺪﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﯾﮑﭙﺎﺭﭼــﻪ )ﭘﮑﯿﺞ( ﭘﯿﺶ‬ ‫ﻣﯽﺁﯾﺪ ﺯﯾﺮﺍ ﻣﺸﮑﻼﺕ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻟﯽ ﺩﺭ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﮐﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺷــﺪﻩﺍﻧﺪ ﻟﺬﺍ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺩﯾﮕﺮ‪ ،‬ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺧﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺬﻭﻝ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣــﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺗﺎﺳﯿﺴــﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺮﯾﺪ ﺑﺰﺭﮒ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪﺭﯾﺰﯼ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﯽﮔﯿﺮﺩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ ﺑﺮﺭﺳــﯽ ﻭ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺳــﺎﯾﺖ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﯾﻦ ﺍﻣﺮ ﺟﻬﺖ ﻃﺮﺡﺭﯾﺰﯼ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﯿﺮﻫﺎﯼ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﮐﺸﯽ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﯿﯿﻦ ﺭﻭﺵ ﻧﺼﺐ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺍﺟــﺰﺍﯼ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﺍﻃﻤﯿﻨــﺎﻥ ﺍﺯ ﻧﺼﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﯽﻋﯿــﺐ ﻭ ﻧﻘﺺ ﻭ ﻧﯿﺰ ﭘﯿﺶﺑﯿﻨﯽ ﻫﺮ ﮔﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﮑﻞ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻟﯽ ﮐﻪ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﯾﻨﺪﻩ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤﯿــﺮﺍﺕ ﭘﺮﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪ ﻣﻨﺠﺮ ﺷــﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺿﺮﻭﺭﯼ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻧﺼﺐ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﮐﻮﭼــﮏ ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮ ﺗﺸــﺨﯿﺺ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺱ ﻧﺼﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﯽﮔﯿﺮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﻧﺼــﺐ ﯾــﮏ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ﺗﺒﺮﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﻤﺌــﻦ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﻣــﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺯﯾﺮ ﻣــﺪ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﮔﯿﺮﺩ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﭼﮕﺎﻟﺶ ﯾﺎ ﮐﺎﻧﺪﻧﺴﯿﻨﮓ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﯼ ﯾــﮏ ﭘﯽ ﯾﺎ ﻓﻮﻧﺪﺍﺳــﯿﻮﻥ ﻣﺤﮑﻢ ﻭ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺗﺮﺍﺯ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻛﺸﻰ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﻯ ﺗﺒﺮﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺗﻠﻪﻫﺎﻯ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﺑﺎﯾــﺪ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺳــﯽ ﮐﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺎﻣﯽ ﺍﺟﺰﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺗﻌﻤﯿﺮ ﻭ ﻧﮕﻪﺩﺍﺭﯼ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﯾــﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻟــﻪ ﻗﺼﺪ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﯾــﻢ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺟﺰﯾﯿــﺎﺕ ﻋﻤﻠﯿــﺎﺕ ﻧﺼــﺐ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﮐﺸــﯽ‬

‫ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻟﻮﻟﻪﮐﺸــﯽ ﺣــﺪ ﻓﺎﺻــﻞ ﺍﻭﺍﭘﺮﺍﺗﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﮐﺎﻧﺪﻧﺴــﯿﻨﮓ ﺑﺎﯾــﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺣﺪ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﯿﻢ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﻭ ﮐﻮﺗﺎﻩﺗﺮﯾﻦ ﻣﺴﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﮐﺸﯽ ﺑﻪ ﮔﻮﻧﻪﺍﯼ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ‬

‫ﺑﭙﺮﺩﺍﺯﯾﻢ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﺷﺒﮑﻪ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﮐﺸﯽ‬ ‫ﻫﺮﭼﻨــﺪ ﻣﻌﻤــﻮﻻ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﮐﺸــﯽ ﺗﺒﺮﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳــﻂ ﻟﺤﯿﻢﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺳﺨﺖ ﺍﺟﺮﺍ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺎ ﺍﺗﺼــﺎﻻﺕ ﭘﯿﭽﯽ ﻻﻟﻪﺍﯼ ﮐﻤﺎﮐﺎﻥ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ‬

‫ﺷــﻮﺩ ﺗﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺮﻭﺯ ﺍﻓﺖ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﺯﯾﺎﺩ ﺍﺟﺘﻨﺎﺏ‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﯽﮔﯿﺮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺗﻼﺵ ﺷﻮﺩ‬

‫ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﮐــﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﮐﺸــﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺪﺍﻗــﻞ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ‬

‫‪ -5‬ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﺭﻭﺵ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ ﺯﯾﺮﺍ ﺍﮔﺮ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﻧﺼﺐ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﮑﺶ ﻭ ﻣﺎﯾﻊ‬

‫ﺷﺒﮑﻪ ﺑﯿﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺳﺒﺐ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﺶ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﮐﻨــﺎﺭ ﯾﮑﺪﯾﮕﺮ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺷــﻮﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﺗﺎ ﺗﺒﺎﺩﻝ‬

‫ﺍﻓﺖ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﯽ ﻣﻮﺛﺮ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﭘﺬﯾﺮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻬﺮﻩ ﻣﺎﺳــﻮﺭﻩﻫﺎﯼ ﻻﻟﻪﺍﯼ ﻭ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ‬

‫‪ -6‬ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺗﻠﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺗﻌﺒﯿﻪ‬

‫ﺷﯿﺮﻫﺎﯼ ﻗﻄﻊﮐﻦ ﻭ ﺳﺮﻭﯾﺲ‪ ،‬ﻗﻄﺮ ﺷﺒﮑﻪ‬

‫ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺎﺯﮔﺸﺖ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﮐﺎﻓﯽ‬

‫ﻟﻮﻟﻪﮐﺸﯽ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻌﯿﯿﻦ ﻧﻤﯽﮐﻨﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺷﺎﯾﺪ ﮔﺎﻫﯽ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﺳــﻤﺖ ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳــﻮﺭ ﺍﻃﻤﯿﻨــﺎﻥ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ‬

‫ﻻﺯﻡ ﺷﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺟﻠﻮﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻓﺖ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ‬

‫ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ‪ ،‬ﯾﮏ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻣﻬﺮﻩ ﺣﺬﻑ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -7‬ﺷــﺒﮑﻪ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﮐﺸــﯽ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺳﻔﺖ ﻭ ﻣﺤﮑﻢ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﯾﮑــﯽ ﺍﺯ ﻋﻠﻞ ﺭﺍﯾﺞ ﺧﺮﺍﺑﯽ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﮐﺸــﯽ‬ ‫ﻧﺸــﺖ ﺟﺰﯾــﯽ ﯾﺎ ﮐﺎﻣــﻞ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ ﺑــﻪ ﺧﺎﻃﺮ‬

‫‪ -8‬ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩﯼﮐﻪ ﺷــﺒﮑﻪ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﮐﺸﯽ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﯾﮏ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻏﯿﺮﺻﺤﯿﺢ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﯿﺎﻥ ﺩﯾﻮﺍﺭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﮐﻒ ﻭ ﺳﻘﻒ ﻋﺒﻮﺭ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﺪ‬

‫ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﯾﮏ ﻣﻬــﺮﻩ ﻻﻟﻪﺍﯼ ﺿﺪ ﺑﺮﻓﮏ‬

‫ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺍﺯ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻣﻨﺎﺳــﺐ ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩﺍﺭ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎﯾــﺪ ﺩﺭ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫــﺎﯼ ﻣﮑــﺶ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺟﺎﯾﯽ‬

‫ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﻋﺒــﻮﺭ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ ﮐــﻒ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺣﻔﺎﻅ‬

‫ﮐﻪ ﺗﻐﯿﯿﺮﺍﺕ ﺷــﺪﯾﺪ ﺩﻣﺎﯾﯽ ﺩﺍﺭﯾﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬

‫ﻻﺯﻡ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﻧﻤــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻼ ﺩﺭ ﺟﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮﻓﮏ ﺭﻭﯼ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ‬

‫‪ -9‬ﺳــﺎﺯﻩﺍﯼ ﮐﻪ ﺷــﺒﮑﻪ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﮐﺸﯽ ﺑﺮ‬

‫ﻣﮑﺶ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺷﯽ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺫﻭﺏ‬

‫ﺭﻭﯼ ﺁﻥ ﻧﺼﺐ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻗﺖ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ‬

‫ﺷــﺪﻩ ﻭ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺭﻭﺷــﻦ ﺷــﺪﻥ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ‬

‫ﺑﺮﺭﺳﯽ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﯿﺮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺠﺪﺩﺍ ﻣﻨﺠﻤﺪ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬

‫‪ -10‬ﺩﺭ ﺻــﻮﺭﺕ ﺿــﺮﻭﺭﺕ ﺑﺎﯾــﺪ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﺗﺸــﮑﯿﻞ ﯾﺦ ﺑﯿﻦ ﺷــﺎﻧﻪ ﺑﻠﻨﺪ ﯾﮏ‬

‫ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﯾﺎ ﮐﻮﭘﻠﯿﻨﮓﻫــﺎﯼ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﻧﻌﻄﺎﻑ‬

‫ﻣﻬــﺮﻩ ﻻﻟﻪﺍﯼ ﺍﺳــﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫﺎ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 9‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪34‬‬

‫ﻣﻬﺮﻩ ﻻﻟﻪﺍﯼ ﺿﺪ ﺑﺮﻓﮏ )ﮐﻮﺗﺎﻩ(‬

‫ﻣﻬﺮﻩ ﻻﻟﻪﺍﯼ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ )ﺑﻠﻨﺪ(‬

‫ﻧﮕﻪﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪﻩﻫـﺎﯼ )ﺳـﺎﭘﻮﺭﺕ ﯾـﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﮑﯿﻪﮔﺎﻩ( ﺷﺒﮑﻪ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﮐﺸﯽ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺳــﻪ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺳــﺎﭘﻮﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪ :‬ﺳﺎﭘﻮﺭﺕ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﻗﻄﺮ ﮐــﻢ؛ ﺳــﺎﭘﻮﺭﺕﻫﺎﯼ ﭘﯿﺸــﺮﻓﺘﻪﺗﺮ‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (1‬ﻣﻬﺮﻩﻫﺎﯼ ﻻﻟﻪﺍﯼ‬

‫ﻧﻈﯿــﺮ ﻫﯿــﺪﺭﺍ‪-‬ﺯﻭﺭﺏ‪ 1‬ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﻄــﺮ ﺑﺰﺭﮒﺗــﺮ ﻭ ﺣﻠﻘــﻪ ﻣﺎﻧﺴــﻦ‪ 2‬ﺑﺮﺍﯼ‬ ‫ﺷﺒﮑﻪ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﮐﺸــﯽ ﻓﻮﻻﺩﯼ ﻭ ﺁﻫﻨﯽ‪ ،‬ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﭘﻮﺭﺕﻫﺎﯼ ﻗﻮﯼﺗﺮ ﻭ ﻣﺤﮑﻢﺗﺮﯼ ﻧﯿﺎﺯﻣﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ )ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ ‪.(4‬‬ ‫ﺍﺻﻮﻻ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﮐﺸﯽ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺎﭘﻮﺭﺕﻫﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻣﺠﻬﺰ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺴﯽ‬ ‫ﻧﺮﻡ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺳﺎﭘﻮﺭﺕﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻃﻮﻝ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﮐﺸﯽ ﺑﺴﺘﮕﯽ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻟﻪﮐﺸﯽﻫﺎﯼ ﺑﻠﻨﺪ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺎﯾﻊ ﻭ ﻣﮑﺶ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺩﺭ ﻓﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﺳــﺐ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﯼ ﺳﺎﭘﻮﺭﺕ‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (2‬ﻟﻮﭖ ﺍﺭﺗﻌﺎﺵ‬

‫ﺑﺎﺷــﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﯾﻦ ﻓﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﻧﺒﺎﯾﺪ ﺍﺯ ‪ 30‬ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﻗﻄﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﻣﮑﺶ ﺑﯿﺸﺘﺮ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺳــﺎﭘﻮﺭﺕ ﻫﯿﺪﺭﺍ‪-‬ﺯﻭﺭﺏ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﻣﻨﺎﺳــﺐ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺷــﺎﻣﻞ ﯾــﮏ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﺰﯼ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ ﺩﯾﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (3‬ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﻻﻟﻪﺍﯼ‬

‫ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﺒﺴﺎﻁ ﯾﺦ ﻭ ﺍﻧﻘﺒﺎﺽ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫﺎ ﺳﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﺷﮑﺴــﺖ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻻﻟﻪﺍﯼ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ )ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫‪.(1‬‬ ‫ﺍﯾــﻦ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺟــﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﮐﻪ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﯾﮏ ﻣﻬﺮﻩ ﺿﺪ ﺑﺮﻓﮏ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻤﺖ‬ ‫ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻻﯼ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﺭﺗﻌﺎﺵ ﻧﺎﺷﯽ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺿﺮﺑﺎﻥ ﮔﺎﺯ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺗﺨﻠﯿﻪ ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳــﻮﺭ ﯾﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺗﻌﺎﺵ ﻧﺎﺷــﯽ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻦ ﺍﻭﺍﭘﺮﺍﺗــﻮﺭ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ‬

‫ﺩﺭﻭﻥ ﺁﻥ ﻗﻄﻌﻪﺍﯼ ﺍﺭﺗﺠﺎﻋﯽ )ﺟﻬﺖ ﺟﺬﺏ‬

‫ﺟﻠﻮﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪) .‬ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ ‪(1‬‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻟﻮﭖ ﺍﺭﺗﻌﺎﺷﯽ ﺩﺭ ﺧﻂ ﻣﺎﯾﻊ‬ ‫ﯾﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﺑﺎ ﻗﻄﺮ ﮐﻢ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺩﻭ ﻣﺰﯾﺖ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ‪ :‬ﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺍﺭﺗﻌﺎﺵ ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺖ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻫﻢ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﺁﺳﺎﻥﺗﺮ ﺗﻌﻮﯾﺾ ﺷﯿﺮ ﯾﺎ ﻣﺴﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻟﻪﮐﺸﯽ ﺭﺍ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﻣﯽﺁﻭﺭﺩ‪) .‬ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ ‪(2‬‬

‫ﺍﺭﺗﻌﺎﺵ( ﻭ ﺑﺴــﺖ ﻧﮕﻪﺩﺍﺭﻧــﺪﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺣﻠﻘــﻪ ﯾﺎ ﺭﯾﻨﮓ ﻣﺎﻧﺴــﻦ ﺍﺳﺎﺳــﺎ ﯾﮏ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺖ ﺩﻭ ﺗﮑﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎ ﭼﺴﺐ ﯾﺎ ﺳﯿﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺩﯾﻮﺍﺭ ﻭﺻﻞ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺴــﯽ ﻧﺮﻡ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺴﺖﻫﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻤﻪﺍﯼ ﻣﺠﻬﺰ ﺷــﺪﻩﺍﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺎﯾﻊ‬ ‫‪3‬‬

‫ﻭ ﻣﮑــﺶ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻘﺮﯾﺒــﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺠــﺎﻭﺭﺕ ﻫﻢ ﻧﮕﺎﻩ‬

‫ﻫﺘﮕﺎﻣــﯽ ﮐــﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻐﺰﯼﻫــﺎﯼ ﺩﻭ‬

‫ﻣــﯽﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﭼﯿﺪﻣﺎﻥ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫــﺎ ﺭﺍ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺳــﺮﻻﻟﻪﺍﯼ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺎﯼ ﯾﮏﺳــﺮﻻﻟﻪﺍﯼ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ‬

‫ﮔﻮﻧﻪﺍﯼ ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺍﺣﺘﯽ ﺑﺎ ﯾﮑﺪﯾﮕﺮ‬

‫ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽــﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻬــﺮﻩ ﻻﻟﻪﺍﯼ ﻧــﻮﻉ ﺑﻠﻨﺪ‬

‫ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺑﻪ ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭ ﯾﺎ ﺩﯾﮕﺮ‬

‫ﺗﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﯽ ﺩﺍﺷــﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷــﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﯾﻦ ﮐﺎﺭ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷــﻮﺩ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﺖ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻣﺖ‬

‫ﺍﺟﺰﺍ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷــﻮﺩ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﻭﺯ ﻧﺸــﺘﯽ‬

‫ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﻣﺎﺩﻭﻥ ﺳﺮﺩ ﮐﺮﺩﻥ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ ﻣﺎﯾﻌﯽ ﺍﺳﺖ‬

‫ﺑﯿﺸــﺘﺮ‪ ،‬ﺣﺮﮐــﺖ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﯽ ﻟﻮﻟــﻪ ﻭ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ‬

‫ﮐﺎﻫــﺶ ﻣﯽﯾﺎﺑﺪ‪ .‬ﺗﻤﺎﯾﺰ ﺍﯾــﻦ ﺩﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ‬

‫ﮐﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺷﯿﺮ ﺍﻧﺒﺴــﺎﻁ ﻣﯽﮔﺬﺭﺩ ﻭ ﺳﻮﭘﺮﻫﯿﺖ‬

‫ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﺗــﺮ ﮔﺸــﺘﻪ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺮﻭﺯ ﺷﮑﺴــﺘﮕﯽ‬

‫)‪ (3‬ﺑﻪ ﻧﻤﺎﯾﺶ ﮔﺬﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﯾــﺎ ﻣﺎﻓﻮﻕ ﮔﺮﻡ ﮐــﺮﺩﻥ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﺯﮔﺸــﺘﯽ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﻭﺯﻥ ﺷــﯿﺮ ﺍﻧﺒﺴــﺎﻁ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﯿﻦ ﺩﻭ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﮑﺴﺘﻪ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﻣﺴﯽ ﺳــﺨﺖ ﻗﻄﻮﺭﺗﺮ ﻭ ﻧﺼﺐ ﭼﻨﺪ ﺳﺮﯼ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 10‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪34‬‬

‫ﺗﮑﯿﻪﮔﺎﻩ‪ :‬ﺧﻂ ﻣﺎﯾﻊ ﻭ ﻣﮑﺶ ﺩﺭ ﮐﻨﺎﺭ ﻫﻢ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﯽﮔﯿﺮﺩ ﺗﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺕ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﺁﯾﺪ‬

‫ﻧﮕﻪﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪﻩ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﯿﺪﺭﺍ‪-‬ﺯﻭﺭﺏ‬

‫ﺑــﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﻧﺼﺐ ﻟﺮﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﯼ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﺍﻣﺎ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻟﺮﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﻟﺮﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﻮﺍﺯﯼ ﺑﺎ ﺷﺎﻓﺖ ﻣﺤﺮﮎ ﯾﺎ ﮔﺎﺭﺩﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳــﻮﺭ ﻧﺼﺐ ﮔــﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﭼﮕﻮﻧﮕﯽ ﻧﺼﺐ‬ ‫ﻟﺮﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (5‬ﻧﻤﺎﯾﺶ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷــﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﺣﻠﻘﻪ ﻣﺎﻧﺲ‬

‫ﻣﺴﯿﺮﻫﺎﯼ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﮐﺸﯽ‬ ‫ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﮐﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﻻﯼ ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﯾﮏ ﺳــﺮﺩﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺁﻥﮐﻪ ﻣﺴــﯿﺮ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﮐﺸﯽ ﺍﺯ ﻣﯿﺎﻥ ﯾﮏ ﺳﻘﻒ‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (4‬ﻧﮕﻪﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪﻩﻫﺎﯼ ﺷﺒﮑﻪ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﮐﺸﯽ‬ ‫ﻟﺮﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﻮﺍﺯﯼ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺤﻮﺭ ﻣﺤﺮﮎ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﺐ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﻟﺮﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺗﻌﺪﯾﻞ ﮐﺮﺩﻥ ﻟﺮﺯﺵ ﺷﺒﮑﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻟﻪﮐﺸﯽ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﭼﻮﺑــﯽ ﻋﺒــﻮﺭ ﻧﻤﺎﯾــﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟــﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﻟﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻟﻪﮐﺸــﯽ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻌﺮﺽ ﺗﻐﯿﯿــﺮﺍﺕ ﺩﻣﺎ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﮔﺮﻓﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﮔــﺮ ﭼﮕﺎﻟﺶ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ ﺧﻂ‬ ‫ﻣﮑﺶ ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺧﻂ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﯾﻖ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪ ،‬ﻋﺎﯾﻖ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺍﺷﺒﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﯾﻦ ﺍﻣﺮ ﺳــﺒﺐ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﺶ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺭﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﻗــﺎﺭﭺ ﻭ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﻓﺎﺳــﺪﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﻋــﻼﻭﻩ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﮐﯿﺐ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﻣﺎﯾــﻊ ﮔﺮﻡ ﻭ ﻣﺤﯿﻂ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮﺭ ﻣﺤﯿﻄﯽ ﺍﯾﺪﻩﺁﻝ ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﺑﺎﮐﺘﺮﯼﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﯽﺁﻭﺭﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻟﺮﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮ‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (5‬ﻣﺤﻞ ﻧﺼﺐ ﻟﺮﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﻏﻠﺒﻪ ﺑﺮ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻣﺸــﮑﻞ ﯾﮏ ﻏﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﺰﯼ ﯾﺎ ﭘﻼﺳــﺘﯿﮑﯽ )ﺗﺮﺟﯿﺤﺎ ﭘﻼﺳﺘﯿﮑﯽ(‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎﯾــﺪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺠﺮﺍﯼ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﮐﺸــﯽ ﻧﺼﺐ ﮐﺮﺩ‬

‫ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳــﻮﺭ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻧﺘﯿﺠــﻪ ﺑﺎﺯﺩﻫﯽ‬

‫ﺭﻭﯾــﺖ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ ﮐﺎﺭﺗﻞ ﺭﺍ ﺑﮕﯿــﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﻫﻤﭽﻨﯿﻦ‬

‫ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ ﺑﻬﺘﺮ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‪) .‬ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ ‪(4‬‬

‫ﺍﯾﻦ ﺷــﺒﮑﻪ ﺑﺎﯾــﺪ ﻃﻮﺭﯼ ﻃﺮﺍﺣــﯽ ﻭ ﺍﺟﺮﺍ‬

‫ﻣﯽﮔﺬﺭﺩ ﮐﻪ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﻧﺴــﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺩﻭ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺳــﺎﭘﻮﺭﺕ ﺩﯾﮕﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﺗﺒﺎﺩﻝ‬

‫ﺷﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺭﭘﻮﺵﻫﺎﯼ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭ‪،‬‬

‫ﻭ ﺿﺪ ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖ ﻧﯿــﺰ ﺁﺏﺑﻨﺪﯼ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻏﻼﻑ‬

‫ﺣــﺮﺍﺭﺕ ﺭﺍ ﻓﺮﺍﻫــﻢ ﻧﻤﯽﺁﻭﺭﻧــﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﯾﻦ‬

‫ﺩﺭﭘﻮﺵ ﺗﺮﻣﯿﻨﺎﻝﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺗﺴﻤﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺤﺮﮎ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺑﻪ ﯾﮏ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻣﺤﮑﻢ ﺷــﻮﺩ ﺗﺎ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ‬

‫ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﺭﺍ ﮐﻪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺩﻭ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺳﺎﭘﻮﺭﺕ‬

‫ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﺑﺎﺯ ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺟﺎﺑﻪﺟﺎﯾﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺳﻠﺐ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭﺯﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﻣﻮﺛﺮ‬

‫)ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ ‪ .(6‬ﻟﻮﻟﻪﮐﺸﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻏﻼﻑ‬

‫ﺣﻤﺎﯾﺖ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﻧﺪ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎﯾــﺪ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻘﺎﻃﯽ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﻭﻗﺘــﯽ ﮐــﻪ ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳــﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﺑــﻪ ﮐﻤﮏ‬

‫ﻏــﻼﻑ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﻭﺭﻭﺩ ﺟﺎﻧــﻮﺭﺍﻥ ﻭ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﯿﻦ‬

‫ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﺗﺸﮑﯿﻞ ﺑﺮﻓﮏ ﯾﺎ ﺗﻘﻄﯿﺮ ﺁﺏ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ‬

‫ﭘﺎﯾﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﺍﻧﻌﻄﺎﻑﭘﺬﯾﺮ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺍﺳــﺖ‬

‫ﻣﺎﻧــﻊ ﻭﺭﻭﺩ ﻫﻮﺍ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ ﮐــﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬

‫ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻋﺎﯾﻖﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﻮﺻﯿــﻪ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ ﮐــﻪ ﺑﯿﻦ ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳــﻮﺭ ﻭ‬

‫ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺣﺮﯾــﻖ ﺩﺭ ﺯﯾﺮ ﮐﻒ ﻧﺎﻣﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬

‫ﺷﯿﺮﻫﺎﯼ ﺟﺪﺍﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﻭ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺷــﺒﮑﻪ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﮐﺸــﯽ ﻟﺮﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺷﻮﺩ ﺗﺎ‬

‫ﺑﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺗﺮﮐﯿﺒﺎﺕ ﺩﺭﺯﮔﯿﺮ ﻧﺮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎﻧﻊ‬

‫ﺑﺎﯾــﺪ ﻃﻮﺭﯼ ﺩﺭ ﺷــﺒﮑﻪ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﮐﺸــﯽ ﻧﺼﺐ‬

‫ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺭﻭﺷﻦ ﯾﺎ ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺵ ﺷﺪﻥ ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭ‬

‫ﺁﺳــﯿﺐ ﺑﻪ ﺷﺒﮑﻪ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﮐﺸﯽ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺛﺮ ﺍﺭﺗﻌﺎﺵ‬

‫ﺷــﻮﻧﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺗﻌﻮﯾــﺾ ﯾﺎ ﻧﮕــﻪﺩﺍﺭﯼ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺍﺭﺗﻌﺎﺷــﺎﺕ ﻣﯿﺮﺍ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻟﺮﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺭﺍﺣﺘﯽ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥﭘﺬﯾﺮ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ )ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ ‪.(5‬‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳــﻮﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﺑﺴــﺘﻪ ﻭ ﻧﯿﻤﻪﺑﺴــﺘﻪ‬

‫ﺍﺻﻮﻝ ﻣﺸــﺎﺑﻪ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ‬

‫ﻣﺘــﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﯾﻮﻧﯿﺖﻫــﺎﯼ ﻣــﺪﻝ‬

‫ﻋﺒﻮﺭ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺩﯾــﻮﺍﺭ ﻋﻤﻮﺩﯼ‪ ،‬ﻣﺪ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬

‫ﺷﺒﮑﻪ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﮐﺸﯽ ﻧﺒﺎﯾﺪ ﺟﻠﻮ ﺩﯾﺪ ﺷﯿﺸﻪ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 11‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪34‬‬

‫ﺩﺍﺩ‪ .‬ﻏﻼﻑ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺟﻬﺖ ﻋﺒﻮﺭ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﯾﮏ ﺩﯾــﻮﺍﺭ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﯽ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ‪ 25‬ﻣﯿﻠﯽﻣﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺰﺭﮒﺗﺮ ﺍﺯ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺖ ﺗﺎ ﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﻭﺭﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺁﺏ ﺑﺎﺭﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﻏﻼﻑ ﺷﻮﺩ )ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ ‪.(7‬‬

‫ﺗﯿﺮﻫﺎﯼ ﺣﻤﺎﻝ‬

‫ﺗﺤﺖ ﻫﯿﭻ ﺷــﺮﺍﯾﻄﯽ ﻧﺒﺎﯾﺪ ﺳﯿﻢﻫﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﺑــﺮﻕ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺭﻭﻥ ﻏﻼﻓﯽ ﮐﻪ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ ﻋﺒﻮﺭ ﮐﺮﺩﻩﺍﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﮕﺬﺭﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﮐﻨﺪﺍﻧﺲ‬

‫ﺗﻠﻪ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ‬

‫ﻣﻤﮑﻦ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ ﺳﻘﻒ ﯾﮏ ﺳﺮﺩﺧﺎﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﮐﻮﭼﮏ ﻧﺼﺐ ﮔــﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺍﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺣــﺪ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺭﻭﯼ ﺗﯿﺮﻫــﺎﯼ ﺣﻤﺎﻝ ﻧﺼﺐ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﻭﺯﻥ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺳــﻘﻒ ﺳﺮﺩﺧﺎﻧﻪ‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (8‬ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﮐﻨﺪﺍﻧﺲ ﻣﻨﺼﻮﺏ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ ﺑﺎﻡ‬

‫ﺗﺤﻤﯿﻞ ﻧﺸــﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﯾﻦ ﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﺍﺯ ﺷــﮑﻢ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺩﻥ ﯾــﺎ ﻓــﺮﻭ ﺭﯾﺨﺘﻦ ﺳــﻘﻒ ﺳــﺮﺩﺧﺎﻧﻪ‬

‫ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﯽ ﮐﻪ ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳــﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﻻﺗــﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻭﺍﭘﺮﺍﺗﻮﺭ‬

‫ﺑﺮﮔﺸــﺖ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ ﺑﻪ ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬

‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷــﺪ‪ .‬ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪﺍﯼ ﺍﺯ ﻭﺿﻌﯿﺖ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﻧﺼﺐ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻧﺼﺐ ﺗﻠﻪ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﯼ‬

‫ﺑﯿــﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺪ ﺭﻭﻏــﻦ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻭﺍﭘﺮﺍﺗــﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (8‬ﺍﺭﺍﯾﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﯽﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﻇﺮﻓﯿﺖ ﺁﻥ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﭘﺎﯾﯿﻦ ﺩﺭ ﭘﺎﯾﺎﻥ ﺳــﯿﮑﻞ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﺭﻭﻏﻦ‬

‫‪ U‬ﯾﺎ ﺑﺸــﮑﻪﺍﯼ ﺑﺎﺷــﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ ﻫﺮ ﺩﻭ ﯾﮏ ﮐﺎﺭ‬

‫ﺗﻤﺎﯾﻞ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﻣﮑﺶ ﺟﺪﺍ ﺷــﻮﺩ ﻭ‬

‫ﻣﯽﮐﻨﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺗﻠﻪ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ ﺭﺍﯾﺞ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﻣﮑﺶ‬

‫ﺭﺍﯾﺰﺭﻫــﺎﯼ ﺧﻂ ﻣﮑﺶ ﺑــﺎ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺯﯾﺎﺩ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﺳﻄﺢ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﺑﭽﺴﺒﺪ‪ .‬ﺭﻭﻏﻦ ﺩﺭ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ‬

‫ﻧﺼﺐ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (8‬ﺍﺭﺍﯾﻪ ﺷــﺪﻩ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻋــﺪﻡ ﺁﻣﺎﺩﻩﺳــﺎﺯﯼ ﺗﻤﻬﯿﺪﺍﺕ‬

‫ﺗﺨﻠﯿــﻪ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ ﺗﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺷــﯽ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺗﺎﺳﯿﺴﺎﺕ ﺑﺰﺭﮒﺗﺮ‪ ،‬ﺭﺍﯾﺰﺭ ﻣﮑﺶ‬

‫ﻻﺯﻡ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺑﺎﺯﮔﺸــﺖ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ ﺑﻪ ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭ‬

‫ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻭﺍﭘﺮﺍﺗﻮﺭ ﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺗﻠــﻪ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ‪ ،‬ﺭﻭﻏﻦ ﺭﺍ‬

‫ﺑﻠﻨﺪﺗــﺮ ﻧﯿﺎﺯﻣﻨﺪ ﺗﻠﻪ ﺭﻭﻏﻦﻫﺎﯼ ﺑﯿﺸــﺘﺮﯼ‬

‫ﺧﻮﺍﻩ ﻧﺎﺧﻮﺍﻩ ﻣﺸــﮑﻼﺗﯽ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺭﻭﻏﻦﮐﺎﺭﯼ‬

‫ﺟﻤــﻊﺁﻭﺭﯼ ﻣﯽﮐﻨــﺪ ﺗﺎ ﻭﻗﺘﯽ ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳــﻮﺭ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺖ )ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ ‪.(9‬‬

‫ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳــﻮﺭ ﺑــﻪ ﻭﺟــﻮﺩ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨــﺪ ﺁﻭﺭﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺠﺪﺩﺍ ﺭﻭﺷﻦ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﻣﮑﺶ ﺑﺎﻻ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ‬

‫ﺗﻠﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ ﺧﻂ ﺗﺨﻠﯿﻪ‬

‫ﺗﻠﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ ﺧﻂ ﻣﮑﺶ‬

‫ﺍﯾﻦ ﺗﻠﻪﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺭﺍﯾﺰﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﺗﺨﻠﯿﻪ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻻ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﺐ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﻧﺪ )ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ ‪ (9‬ﺗﺎ ﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻏﻦ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺮﺳﯿﻠﻨﺪﺭ ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﮔﺮ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻏﻦ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺮﺳــﯿﻠﻨﺪﺭ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪،‬‬

‫ﻏﻼﻑ ﭘﺮ ﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺑﺪﻧﻪ ﻣﺤﮑﻢ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‬

‫ﻏﻼﻑ ‪ 25‬ﻣﯿﻠﯽﻣﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﺮﻭﻥ ﺁﻣﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺭﻭﺷﻦ ﺷــﺪﻥ ﻣﺠﺪﺩ ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﯾــﮏ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﺩﯾﻨﺎﻣﯿﮑﯽ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺟــﻮﺩ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﺁﻣﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺁﺳــﯿﺐﺩﯾﺪﮔﯽ ﺳﻮﭘﺎﭖﻫﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳــﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﺑﯿﻦ ﺭﻓﺘﻦ ﻭﺍﺷﺮ ﻭ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻻ‬ ‫ﺷﮑﺴﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻥ ﺷﺎﺗﻮﻥ ﻭ ﮔﺎﺭﺩﺍﻥ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺟﺪﺍﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩﻫﺎﯼ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﮔﺎﺯ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭﯼ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ ﻧﯿﺰ‪،‬‬ ‫ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳــﻮﺭ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺮﮎ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (6‬ﺷﺒﮑﻪ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﮐﺸﯽ ﺍﺯ ﻣﯿﺎﻥ ﺳﻘﻒ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﻮﺭ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﺪ‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (7‬ﺷﺒﮑﻪ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﮐﺸﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺩﯾﻮﺍﺭ ﻋﺒﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﯽﮐﻨﺪ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﺟﺪﺍﮐﻨﻨــﺪﻩ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ ﻣﯽﺗــﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﮔﺮﺩﺵ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﺩﯾﺮ ﺯﯾﺎﺩ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ ﺩﺭ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﮐﺜﺮ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﯿﺖ ﺗﺤﺖ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﻣﮑﺶ‬

‫ﺗﻠﻪﻫــﺎﯼ ﺭﻭﻏــﻦ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺷــﮑﻞ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 12‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪34‬‬

‫ﺭﻭﻏﻦ ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎﺭﺗﻞ ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳــﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﺍﯼ ﺑﺎ‬

‫ﺷﯿﺐ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻮﯼ ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭ‬

‫ﻗﻄﺮ ﮐﻮﭼﮏ )‪ 6mm‬ﯾﺎ ‪ (0.25in‬ﯾﺎ ﻣﻮﯾﯿﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﯾﻦ ﺍﻣﺮ ﺳﺒﺐ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻪ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ ‪ 125‬ﻣﯿﻠﯽﻣﺘﺮﯼ ﺩﺭ ﺧﻂ ﻣﮑﺶ‬

‫ﻭ ﺟﻠﻮﮔﯿــﺮﯼ ﺍﺯ ﻟﺠﻨــﯽ ﺷــﺪﻥ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫‪ 4.5‬ﻣﺘﺮ )‪ 15‬ﻓﻮﺕ(‬

‫ﺷــﻤﺎﺭﯼ ﺍﺯ ﺟﺪﺍﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩﻫﺎ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﻌﻤﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺗﻌﻮﯾﺾﺍﻧﺪ )ﻧــﻮﻉ ﭘﯿﭽﯽ( ﺍﻣﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﻧﺼﺐ‬ ‫ﺷــﻤﺎﺭﯼ ﺩﯾﮕــﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﻟﺤﯿــﻢﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺳــﺨﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﯿﺐ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻮﯼ ﺍﻭﺍﭘﺮﺍﺗﻮﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻮﯼ ﺗﻠﻪ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻪ ﻣﻌﮑﻮﺱ ﺧﻂ ﺩﻫﺶ‬

‫‪ 3‬ﻣﺘﺮ )‪ 10‬ﻓﻮﺕ(‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺍﻧــﻮﺍﻉ ﮐﻮﭼﮏﺗــﺮ‬ ‫ﺁﻥﻫــﺎ ﺍﺗﺼــﺎﻻﺕ ﻻﻟــﻪﺍﯼ ﺷــﮑﻞ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺟﺪﺍﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩﻫــﺎﯼ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ ﻧﯿﺎﺯﯼ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻠﻪ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﺪﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (10‬ﯾﮏ ﺭﻭﺵ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﯽﺩﻫﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺟﺪﺍﮐﻨﻨــﺪﻩ ﻧــﻮﻉ ﺍﮐﻮﻣﻮﻻﺗــﻮﺭﯼ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﻟﺮﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺨﺶ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﻘﯽ ﺧﻂ ﺗﺨﻠﯿﻪ‬

‫ﺗﻠﻪ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ ﺧﻂ ﺩﻫﺶ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﯽ ﺍﺯ ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭ‬

‫ﺗﺎﺳﯿﺴــﺎﺕ ﺑﺰﺭﮒﺗﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ﻣﮑﺶ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﯽﮔﯿﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﻧﻮﻉ ﺳــﻄﻠﯽ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺰﺭﮒﺗﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺑﯿﺸﺘﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺻﻨﻌﺘﯽ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﺩﺳــﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﻣﺪﺕ ﻃﻮﻻﻧﯽ‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (9‬ﺗﻠﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ‬

‫ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺵ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﺒﺮﺩ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬

‫ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺍﺯ ﯾﮑﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻪ‬

‫ﺗﺨﻠﯿﻪ ﺟﺪﺍ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ ﭼﻮﻥ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺑﺎ‬

‫ﻧﻮﻉ ﺟﺪﺍﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﻣﺘﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﻨﺪ‬

‫ﻭﺭﻭﺩ ﺑــﻪ ﺟﺪﺍﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﮐﻨﺪ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺘﯽ‬

‫ﮐﻪ ﺭﺍﯾﺞﺗﺮﯾﻦ ﺁﻥ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺷﻨﺎﻭﺭ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﺳــﻄﺢ ﻣﻌﯿﻨﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ ﺣﺎﺻــﻞ ﮔﺮﺩﯾﺪ‪،‬‬

‫ﺭﻭﻏﻦ ﭘــﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺠﻤــﻊ ﺩﺭ ﺟﺪﺍﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ‬

‫ﺷﻨﺎﻭﺭ‪ ،‬ﺷﯿﺮﯼ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎﺯ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳــﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﺯﻣﯽﮔــﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﺭﻭﻏﻦ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ‬

‫ﮐﺎﺭﺗﻞ ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳــﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﺯﮔﺮﺩﺍﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺧﻂ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ‬

‫ﻣﺎﯾــﻊ ﺩﺭ ﺟﺪﺍﮐﻨﻨــﺪﻩ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ ﺟﻤﻊ ﺷــﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﯾﻦ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ ﻣﺎﯾﻊ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﯾﻖ ﺧﻂ ﺑﺎﺯﮔﺸــﺖ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻏﻦ ﺑﻪ ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﺯ ﻣﯽﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ ،‬ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭﺷــﻦ ﺷــﺪﻥ ﻣﺠﺪﺩ ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ ﺁﺳــﯿﺐ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺁﻭﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﯾﮏ ﺷﯿﺮ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺧﺮﻭﺟﯽ ﺑﺨــﺎﺭ ﺟﺪﺍﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ‪ ،‬ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺁﻣﺪﻥ ﺻﺪﻣﻪ ﺑﻪ ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳــﻮﺭ ﺭﺍ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ‬ ‫ﻣﯽﺩﻫﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻧﺼﺐ ﯾﮏ ﺷﯿﺮ ﺑﺮﻗﯽ ﺩﺭ ﺧﻂ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻏــﻦ ﻭ ﺍﺗﺼــﺎﻝ ﺁﻥ ﺑــﻪ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧــﺪﺍﺯ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳــﻮﺭ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻤﻠــﻪ ﺍﻗﺪﺍﻣــﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﺪﺍﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﯾﻦ ﺍﻣﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﻗﻄﻊ ﻣﻮﻓﻘﯿﺖﺁﻣﯿﺰ‬ ‫ﺧﻂ ﺑﺮﮔﺸــﺖ ﻣﻄﻤﺌﻦ ﻣﯽﺳﺎﺯﺩ ﺯﯾﺮﺍ ﺷﯿﺮ‬

‫‪ A‬ﺷﯿﺮ ﺑﺮﻗﯽ‬ ‫‪ B‬ﺳﺎﯾﺖﮔﻼﺱ‬ ‫‪ C‬ﺷﯿﺮ ﻗﻄﻊﮐﻦ ﺩﺳﺘﯽ‬ ‫‪ D‬ﺷﯿﺮ ﯾﮏﻃﺮﻓﻪ‬

‫ﺟﺪﺍﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ‬

‫ﺧﻂ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ ﮐﺎﺭﺗﻞ‬

‫ﺑﺮﻗﯽ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﻗﺘﯽ ﺑﺎﺯ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺭ ﻣﯽﮐﻨــﺪ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺨﻠﯿــﻪ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ ﻭ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (10‬ﺟﺪﺍﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﺩﺭﻭﻥ ﮐﺎﺭﺗﻞ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺷﯽ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻤﺎﻧﻌﺖ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﺪ‪.‬‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 13‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪34‬‬

‫ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﮐــﺮﺩﻥ ﺗﻘﻄﯿﺮ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﺍﮐﻨﻨــﺪﻩ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺎ ﺣﺪ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ‬

‫ﺗﺨﻠﯿﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﻪ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬

‫ﺩﻣــﺎﯼ ﺑــﺎﻻﯼ ﻧﺎﺷــﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺧﺮﺍﺑــﯽ ﻣﻮﺗــﻮﺭ‬

‫ﺑﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭ ﺳــﺒﺐ ﺗﺠﺰﯾﻪ ﺷــﯿﻤﯿﺎﯾﯽ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺭﻭﻏــﻦ ﻭ ﺁﻟﻮﺩﻩ ﺷــﺪﻥ ﮐﺎﻣﻞ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ‬

‫ﻧﺰﺩﯾﮏ ﺑﻪ ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳــﻮﺭ ﻭ ﺗﺮﺟﯿﺤﺎ ﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﮔﺮﻡ‬

‫ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﯾــﻦ ﺗﻮﺻﯿــﻪ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺧﻂ‬

‫ﻧﺼﺐ ﮐﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺟﺪﺍﮐﻨﻨــﺪﻩ ﺭﺍ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﻃﻮﺭﯼ‬

‫ﺗﺨﻠﯿﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻤﺖ ﮐﻒ ﻣﺤﻞ‪ ،‬ﺣﻠﻘﻪ ﺷﻮﺩ ﺗﺎ‬

‫ﻋﺎﯾﻖ ﮐﺮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺷﯽ ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭ‬

‫ﺗﻠــﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺟــﻮﺩ ﺁﻭﺭﺩ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭﯼ ﮐﻪ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ‬

‫ﺍﻣــﺎ ﺩﻭ ﯾــﺎ ﭼﻨــﺪ ﯾﻮﻧﯿﺖ ﺑﺴــﺘﻪ ﯾﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻓﺖ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﯽ ﮐﻤﺘﺮﯼ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻧﺘﻮﺍﻧــﺪ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺮﺳــﯿﻠﻨﺪﺭ ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳــﻮﺭ ﺗﺨﻠﯿﻪ‬

‫ﻧﯿﻤﻪﺑﺴــﺘﻪ ﺭﺍ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺎ ﯾﮑﺪﯾﮕﺮ ﻭ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ‬

‫ﯾﮏ ﺳﺎﯾﺖﮔﻼﺱ ﻭ ﯾﮏ ﺷﯿﺮ ﻗﻄﻊﮐﻦ‬

‫ﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻫﻤﭽﻨﯿــﻦ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺗﻠﻪ ﻫﺮ ﻧــﻮﻉ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ‬

‫ﺟﺒﺮﺍﻥ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﯽ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬

‫ﺩﺳــﺘﯽ ﺩﺭ ﺧﻂ ﺑﺮﮔﺸــﺖ ﺭﻭﻏــﻦ‪ ،‬ﻧﺼﺐ‬

‫ﻣﺎﯾﻌﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺷــﯽ ﺩﺳــﺘﮕﺎﻩ‬

‫ﺩﺍﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﯾــﻦ ﺣﺎﻟــﺖ ﻫﺮ ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳــﻮﺭ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻣﯽﺗــﻮﺍﻥ ﻫﻤــﺮﺍﻩ ﺑــﺎ ﺷﯿﺸــﻪ‬

‫ﭼﮕﺎﻟﯿﺪﻩ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺟﻤﻊ ﻣــﯽﮐﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺪﺍﺭﯼ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻞ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻭﺍﭘﺮﺍﺗﻮﺭ ﻭ ﮐﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴﻮﺭ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺳﺎﯾﺖﮔﻼﺱ ﺷــﯿﺮ ﻗﻄﻊ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﯾﮏ‬

‫ﺍﯾﻦ ﺍﻣﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻭﯾﮋﻩ ﻭﻗﺘﯽ ﻣﻬﻢ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﻭﺻﻞ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺑــﻪ ﻃﻮﺭﯼ ﮐــﻪ ﺁﻟﻮﺩﻩ‬

‫ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻨﺎﻕ ﻧﺼﺐ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﯾﻦ ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭ ﻃﻮﺭﯼ‬

‫ﺧﻂ ﺗﺨﻠﯿﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻠﯽ ﺳــﺮﺩﺗﺮ ﺍﺯ ﮐﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴﻮﺭ‬

‫ﺷــﺪﻥ ﯾﮑﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺑﺮ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ﺩﯾﮕﺮ‪،‬‬

‫ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺘــﻮﺍﻥ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﻣﺎﯾﻊ‬

‫ﯾــﺎ ﺩﺭﯾﺎﻓﺖﮐﻨﻨــﺪﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺷــﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﺎﺛﯿﺮﯼ ﻧﺪﺍﺷــﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪ .‬ﯾﮏ ﮐﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴﻮﺭ‬

‫)ﺭﻭﻏــﻦ ﻭ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ( ﺍﺯ ﺟﺪﺍﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎﺭﺗﻞ‬

‫ﺻﺪﺍﺧﻔﻪﮐﻦﻫﺎ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻋﻤﻮﺩﯼ‬

‫ﻣﻌﻤــﻮﻻ ﺭﺍﺣﺖﺗــﺮ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ ﺍﻣﺎ‬

‫ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﮐﺮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻧﺰﺩﯾﮏ ﯾﻮﻧﯿﺖ ﭼﮕﺎﻟﺶ ﻧﺼﺐ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬

‫ﯾﮏ ﮐﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴﻮﺭ ﻣﺠﺰﺍ ﺭﺍ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﻫﺮ‬

‫ﺗﺎ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ ﺑــﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺑﻬﯿﻨﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬

‫ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭﯼ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﮔﯿﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (11‬ﯾﮏ ﺻﺪﺍﺧﻔﻪﮐﻦ ﺗﺨﻠﯿﻪ‬

‫ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ﺗﺨﻠﯿﻪ‬

‫ﺻﺪﺍﮔﯿﺮﻫﺎﯼ ﺧﻂ ﺗﺨﻠﯿﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺻــﻮﺭﺕ ﺑــﺮﻭﺯ ﺻــﺪﺍ ﻭ ﺍﺭﺗﻌﺎﺵ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺛﺮ ﺿﺮﺑﺎﻥﻫﺎﯼ )ﭘﺎﻟﺲ( ﮔﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺻﺪﺍﺧﻔﻪﮐﻦﻫﺎﯼ ﺗﺨﻠﯿﻪ ﺗﻮﺻﯿﻪ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﯾﻦ ﺻﺪﺍﺧﻔﻪﮐﻦﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺗﺨﻠﯿﻪ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ‬

‫ﺭﺍ ﻧﺸــﺎﻥ ﻣﯽﺩﻫﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻟﻮﭖ ﺧﻂ ﺗﺨﻠﯿﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﺐ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﻟﻮﻟﻪﮐﺸﯽ ﻣﻮﺍﺯﯼ‬

‫ﺧﻄــﻮﻁ ﺗﺨﻠﯿﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎﯾــﺪ ﻃﻮﺭﯼ ﻧﺼﺐ‬ ‫ﮐﺮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺍﻓﻘﯽ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻤﺖ ﭘﺎﯾﯿﻦ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺧﻂ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﻣﺸــﺘﺮﮎ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﻫﻤﺎﻥﻃﻮﺭ ﮐﻪ ﻗﺒــﻼ ﮔﻔﺘﯿﻢ‪ ،‬ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﯽ‬

‫ﻧﺼﺐ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﻧﺪ ﻭ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﯼ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﮑﺶ‬

‫ﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ ﺑﻪ ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭ ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺵ‬

‫ﮐــﻪ ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳــﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﮐﺎﺭ ﻧﻤﯽﮐﻨﻨــﺪ‪ ،‬ﺭﻭﻏﻦ‬

‫ﻭ ﺗﺨﻠﯿﻪ ﻣﺸــﺘﺮﮎ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﭼﺴﺒﯿﺪﻩ ﺑﻪ ﺳــﻄﺢ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﯽ ﺭﺍﯾﺰﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﺧﻂ‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳــﻮﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﺑﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﺳــﻮﺩ ﻣﯽﺟﻮﯾﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺘﯽ ﮐﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴــﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﻻﯼ ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳــﻮﺭ‬

‫ﺗﺨﻠﯿﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﭘﺎﯾﯿﻦ ﺭﺍﯾﺰﺭﻫﺎ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ‬

‫ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﺑﺴــﺘﻪ ﻭ ﻧﯿﻤﻪﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﯾﻦ‬

‫ﻧﺼﺐ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﺭﺍﯾﺰﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﺟﺪﺍﮔﺎﻧﻪﺍﯼ‬

‫ﯾــﮏ ﺭﺍﯾﺰﺭ ‪ 3‬ﻣﺘﺮﯼ‪ ،‬ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﺑﺎ ﺻﺪﺍﺧﻔﻪﮐﻦ‬

‫ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﮐﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﯽﮔﯿﺮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎﯾــﺪ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗــﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﮔﺮ‬

‫ﻧﺼﺐ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻧﺼﺐ ﮐﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴــﻮﺭ ﺑﯿﺸﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ‪ 2‬ﻣﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﻻﺯﻡ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺯﯾﺮ ﻫﺮ ﺭﺍﯾﺰﺭ ﯾﮏ ﺗﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻏﻦ ﺗﻌﺒﯿﻪ ﮔــﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻏﯿﺮ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧﯿﻢ ﺗﻠﻪ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺟﺮﺍ ﻧﮑﻨﯿﻢ‪.‬‬

‫ﺭﻭﺷﯽ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﺍﯼ ﺭﺍﯾﺰﺭ ﺑﻠﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﮐﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴﻮﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﺑﺎﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺭ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (12‬ﭼﯿﺪﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﺻﻠﯽ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﮐﺸﯽ‬ ‫ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ﺗﺨﻠﯿﻪ ﺭﺍ ﻧﻤﺎﯾﺶ ﻣﯽﺩﻫﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺘﻌﺎﺩﻝﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺧﻂ ﺗﺨﻠﯿﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺘــﯽ ﮐﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴــﻮﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺠــﺰﺍ ﻧﺼﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ﺗﺨﻠﯿــﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻭﺩ ﺑﻪ ﮐﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﮐﺮﺩ ﺗﺎ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﯾﮏ ﺧﻂ ﮐﺎﺭ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ )ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ ‪.(13‬‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (11‬ﺻﺪﺍ ﺧﻔﻪﮐﻦﻫﺎﯼ ﺧﻂ ﺩﻫﺶ )ﺗﺨﻠﯿﻪ(‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﺍﻓﺖ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﺩﻝﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﻭﻗﺘﯽ ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳــﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﻮﺍﺯﯼ‬

‫ﺍﯾــﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﯾﮏ ﺗﻠﻪ ﺗﺨﻠﯿــﻪ ﺁﺯﺍﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﯾﻢ ﮐﻪ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 14‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪34‬‬

‫ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳــﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺿﺮﻭﺭﯼ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐــﻪ ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳــﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﯾﮏ‬ ‫ﺳــﻄﺢ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ﯾﺎ ﺳﻄﻮﺡ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ‬ ‫ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﻫﻢﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺷﺎﺳﯽ ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﻣﯽﺗــﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﮔﻮﻧﻪﺍﯼ ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ ﮐﺮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺍﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺘﻌﺎﺩﻝﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺧﻂ ﻣﮑﺶ‬ ‫ﺑــﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﮐﺮﺩﻥ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭﻫﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﻫﺮ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺍﺯ ﮐﻠﮑﺘﻮﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺧﻄــﻮﻁ ﻣﮑﺶ ﻣﺸــﺘﺮﮎ ﺁﺯﺍﺩﺍﻧــﻪ ﺗﺨﻠﯿﻪ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﺷــﺪ؛ ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﯾﻦ ﺍﯾــﻦ ﺭﻭﺵ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (12‬ﺩﻫﺶ )ﺗﺨﻠﯿﻪ( ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻟﯽ‬

‫ﺍﻏﻠــﺐ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎ ﻣﻨﺎﺳــﺐ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ‬ ‫)ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ ‪.(14‬‬ ‫ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣــﯽ ﮐــﻪ ﺍﻭﺍﭘﺮﺍﺗــﻮﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺳــﻄﺢ‬

‫ﺷﯿﺮ ﻗﻄﻊﮐﻦ‬

‫ﭘﺎﯾﯿﻦﺗﺮﯼ ﻧﺴــﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺧﻂ ﻣﮑﺶ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻤﺖ ﭘﺎﯾﯿﻦ ﺧﻢ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺧﻂ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﺩﻝﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺩﻫﺶ )ﺗﺨﻠﯿﻪ(‬

‫ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺭﺍﯾﺰﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﮑﺶ ﺑﯿﺶ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ‪ 3‬ﻣﺘﺮ )‪ 10‬ﻓﻮﺕ( ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭ ﺗﻠﻪ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺍﺭﺗﻔــﺎﻉ ﺗﻘﺮﯾﺒﺎ ‪ 0.5‬ﻣﺘﺮﯼ )‪ 20‬ﺍﯾﻨﭻ( ﺗﻌﺒﯿﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺧﻂ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﺩﻝﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺭﺗﻞ‬

‫ﺍﺟﺮﺍﯼ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﮐﺸﯽ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫــﺎﯼ ﻣﺴــﯽ ﻧــﺮﻡ ﺗــﺎ ﻗﻄــﺮ ‪22‬‬

‫ﻣﯿﻠﯽﻣﺘﺮ ﺭﺍ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﻻﻟﻪﺍﯼ ﯾﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﻟﺤﯿﻢﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺳﺨﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻢ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺷﯿﺮ ﻗﻄﻊﮐﻦ‬

‫ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺴﯽ ﺳﺨﺖ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ ﻟﺤﯿﻢﮐﺎﺭﯼ‬

‫ﺧﻂ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﺩﻝﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﻧﺪ ﻭ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫــﺎﯼ ﻓــﻮﻻﺩﯼ ﻭ ﺁﻫﻨﯽ‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (13‬ﻣﺘﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﮐﺮﺩﻥ ﺧﻂ ﺗﺨﻠﯿﻪ )ﺩﻫﺶ( ﻭ ﮐﺎﺭﺗﻞ ﺩﺭ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﮐﺸﯽ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻟﯽ‬

‫ﺑﺴــﯿﺎﺭ ﻣﻬﻢ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻼ ﻓﺮﺽ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ ﮐﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺖ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﺩﻝﮐﻨﻨــﺪﻩ ‪0.03‬‬

‫ﺑﺎﺭ )‪ (0.5psig‬ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﻣﯿﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﮐﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴﻮﺭ ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺵ ﻭ ﺭﻭﺷﻦ ﺳﺒﺐ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺮﺩ ﭼﮕﺎﻟﯿﺪﻩ ﺍﺯ ﮐﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴــﻮﺭ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﯾﻖ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﯾﻊ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻤﺖ ﮐﻨﺪﺍﻧﺴﻮﺭ ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺵ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﺎ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﮐﺮﺩﻥ ﻓﺸﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﮔﯿﺮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺘﻌﺎﺩﻝﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﮐﺎﺭﺗﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﯾﻬﯽ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺟﻠﻮﮔﯿــﺮﯼ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻮﺯﯾﻊ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ ﺑﯿﻦ ﮐﺎﺭﺗﻞﻫﺎﯼ ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳــﻮﺭﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺟــﻮﺵﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺎﻟﯽ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻮﺵ ﺩﺭ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﺁﻣﻮﻧﯿﺎﮎ ﻭ ﺻﻨﻌﺘﯽ ﺑﺰﺭﮒ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ ﻟﺬﺍ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺭﺳﯽ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻧﻤﯽﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﯾﻢ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﻻﻟﻪﺍﯼ‬

‫ﻧﯿﺰ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺕ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﯾــﻦ ﮐﺎﺭ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﯾﮏ‬

‫ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽــﻪ ﻻﻟــﻪﺍﯼ ﻧﻤــﻮﺩﻥ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﻟﻮﻟــﻪ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﺩﻝﮐﻨﻨــﺪﻩ ﺑــﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ ﻣﺤﻞﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺩﺭﺳــﺘﯽ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﮔﯿﺮﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ‬

‫ﺗﻌﺒﯿﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺭﻭﯼ ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﯽﮔﯿﺮﺩ‬

‫ﻻﻟﻪﺍﯼ ﮐﺎﻣﻼ ﺭﺿﺎﯾﺖﺑﺨﺶ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫)ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ ‪.(13‬‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺮ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﺩﻝﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﻗﻄﺮ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﮐﻢ ﯾﺎ ﺯﯾﺎﺩ ﺷــﺪﻥ ﻻﻟﻪ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﻩ‬ ‫ﻧﺸــﺘﯽ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺁﻭﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 15‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪34‬‬

‫ﻻﻟﻪ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺷﺪﻩ ﮐﻮﭼﮏ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺖ‬

‫ﻣﯽﯾﺎﺑﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺷﺪﻩﺍﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺳــﻄﺢ ﻧﺸــﯿﻤﻦ ﻻﻟﻪ ﮐﺎﻫــﺶ ﻣﯽﯾﺎﺑﺪ ﻭ‬

‫ﯾﮏ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻻﻟﻪ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﺁﻥﮐﻪ‬

‫ﺍﻣــﮑﺎﻥ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺭﺍ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ‬

‫ﻣﻬﺮﻩ ﻻﻟﻪﺍﯼ ﺑﻪ ﺧﻮﺑﯽ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻔﺖ ﺷﺪﻥ‬

‫ﺍﺭﺗﻌــﺎﺵ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺮﻭﺭ‬

‫ﺭﻭﯼ ﻣﺎﺳــﻮﺭﻩ‪ ،‬ﺭﺯﻭﻩﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺑﭙﻮﺷﺎﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ‬

‫ﻣﻌﯿــﻮﺏ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻫﻤﭽﻨﯿــﻦ ﺍﮔﺮ ﻻﻟﻪ‬

‫ﻣﯽﮐﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﺰﺭﮒ ﺍﺟﺮﺍ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﻧﺸﺴﺘﻦ ﺻﺤﯿﺢ ﺑﺮ‬

‫ﻟﺤﯿﻢﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺳﺨﺖ‬

‫ﺭﻭﯼ ﻣﻬﺮﻩ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﮔﺮﭼﻪ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻧﺸﺘﯽ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﻪ ﻧﻤﯽﮔﺮﺩﺩ ﺍﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﺶ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﺩﺭﻭﻥ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ ﻧﺸــﺘﯽ‪ ،‬ﺗﺸﺪﯾﺪ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﻻﻟﻪﻫــﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺼﻮﯾــﺮ )‪ (15‬ﻧﻤﺎﯾــﺶ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ‬

‫ﮔﺸﺎﺩ ﮐﺮﺩﻥ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ ﯾﮏ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻟﺤﯿﻢﺷــﺪﻩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﮔﺸﺎﺩ ﮐﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺍﯾﻦ ﮐﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﯽ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪:‬‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺣــﺎﻝ ﺣﺎﺿــﺮ‪ ،‬ﺑــﻪ ﺩﻟﯿــﻞ ﺻﺮﻓﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼــﺎﺩﯼ ﺍﻏﻠــﺐ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺴــﯽ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ‬ ‫ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺍﺯ ﻟﺤﯿﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻋﻼﻭﻩ ﺍﮔﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ ﻟﺤﯿﻢﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺑﺮﺭﺳــﯽ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺷــﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﻧﺸﺖ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ‬

‫ﺑﺎﺯﮐﻦ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ؛ ﻗﺎﻟﺐﺳﺎﺯ ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﺑﺎ ﯾﮏ‬ ‫ﺑﻠﻮﮎ ﻻﻟــﻪﺍﯼ ﻭ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﺩﻭﮐﯽ ﺷــﮑﻞ‪6‬؛ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﭘﯿﺸﺮﻓﺘﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯﮐــﻦ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﺍﯼ ﻣﻌﻤــﻮﻻ ﺩﺭ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﺍﯼ ﻗﻄــﺮ ﺑﺰﺭﮒ ﮐــﻪ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻨﺲ‬ ‫ﻣــﺲ ﻧﺮﻡ ﯾﺎ ﺳــﺨﺖ ﺑﺎﺷــﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻣﺲ ﺳﺨﺖ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺯ ﮔﺸﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﮐﺮﺩﻥ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﺗﺎﺑﺎﻧــﺪ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﺏﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﯾﮏ ﻓﺮﺍﯾﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﺮﻡﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﮔﺮﻡ ﮐﺮﺩﻥ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺳــﭙﺲ ﺳــﺮﺩ ﮐﺮﺩﻥ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻗﺎﻟﺐﺳــﺎﺯ ﯾﺎ ﺑﺎﺯﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻋﻤﻖ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻟﺐ ﺗﻮﺳــﻂ ﻗﺎﻟﺐﮔﯿﺮ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﮐﻪ ﺗﻘﺮﯾﺒﺎ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﻗﻄﺮ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﯽ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﺮ ﭼــﻪ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻋﻤــﻖ ﮐﻤﺘﺮ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ‬

‫ﻓﺮﺁﯾﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻟﺤﯿﻢﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺭﺍ ﻣﯽﺗــﻮﺍﻥ ﺗﺤﺖ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯼ ﺷــﺪﯾﺪ ﺭﻭﯼ‬ ‫ﯾﮏ ﺁﻟﯿــﺎﮊ ﺑﺎ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺫﻭﺏ ﺑــﺎﻻ ﺗﻌﺮﯾﻒ ﮐﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﮐﻪ ﺳــﺒﺐ ﺫﻭﺏ ﻭ ﺗﺮﮐﯿﺐ ﺳــﻄﺢ ﺩﻭ ﻓﻠﺰ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﻫﻤﺪﯾﮕﺮ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻓﺮﺁﯾﻨﺪ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺵ ﻧﻘﺮﻩ ﮔﻔﺘﻪ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (14‬ﻣﺘﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﮐﺮﺩﻥ ﺧﻂ ﻣﮑﺶ‬

‫ﻣﻔﺘﻮﻝﻫــﺎﯼ ﻟﺤﯿــﻢﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﻋﺎﺭﯼ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﮐﺎﺩﻣﯿــﻮﻡ ﺑﺎﺷــﻨﺪ )‪ .(1845BS‬ﺗﻤﺎﻣﯽ‬ ‫ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﻟﺤﯿﻢ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﯼ ﺷــﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﻣﺬﮐﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ‪ 1723BS‬ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺧﻄﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻻﻟﻪ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬

‫ﻻﻟﻪ ﺑﯿﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺪ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﮐﺎﻣﻼ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﯼ ﺧﻮﺩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻧﮕﯿﺮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻻﻟﻪ ﮐﻤﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ ﻻﺯﻡ‪ ،‬ﻋﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺁﺏﺑﻨﺪﯼ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﯽﺩﻫﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (15‬ﻻﻟﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﻣﺴﯽ‬

‫ﺑﺎ ﺁﻥﮐﻪ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﭘﯿﺶﺳــﺎﺧﺖ ﺷﻤﺎﺭﯼ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺕ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﮐﺸﯽ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺭﮔﺎﻩ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻣﺎ ﻟﺤﯿﻢﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻞ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺿﻌﯿﻒﺗﺮ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ‪) .‬ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ ‪(16‬‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 16‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪34‬‬

‫ﻧﻤﺎﯾﯿﺪ‪ .‬ﻣﺸــﻌﻞ ﺭﺍ ﻃﻮﺭﯼ ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ ﮐﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﻌﻠﻪ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺳﺖ ﺁﯾﺪ )ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ ‪.(17‬‬ ‫ﻟﺒﺎﺱ ﻭ ﺩﺳــﺖﮐﺶ ﻭ ﻋﯿﻨﮏ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻟﺐ ﺑﺴﯿﺎﺭ ﮐﻢ ﺍﺳﺖ‬

‫ﻋﻤﻖ ﻗﺎﻟﺐ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﺳﺖ‬

‫ﺑﭙﻮﺷﯿﺪ ﻭ ﮐﭙﺴﻮﻝﻫﺎﯼ ﺍﮐﺴﯿﮋﻥ ﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﯿﻠﻦ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻨﺒﻊ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﯽ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻧﮕﻪ ﺩﺍﺭﯾﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (16‬ﮔﺸﺎﺩ ﮐﺮﺩﻥ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺴﯽ‬

‫ﺍﭘﺮﺍﺗــﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺑﺎ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﯿﻦ ﻭ ﻣﻘﺮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﯾﻤﻨﯽ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻞ ﮐﺎﺭ ﺁﺷﻨﺎ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻘﺮﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﻣﻤﮑﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺣﻼﻝﻫﺎﯼ ﻭﯾﮋﻩ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﯿﺮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑــﺮﻭﺯ ﺣﺮﯾﻖ ﺗﺒﻌﯿﺖ ﻧﻤﺎﯾﺪ‪ .‬ﺑــﻪ ﻭﯾﮋﻩ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆﻫــﺎﯼ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﯽ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎﯾــﺪ ﻫﻤﻮﺍﺭﻩ‬

‫ﻫﺸــﺪﺍﺭﺩﻫﻨﺪﻩﻫﺎﯼ ﺩﻭﺩ ﻭ ﺣﺮﯾﻖ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ‬

‫ﺟﻬــﺖ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻈﺖ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻮﺍﺣــﯽ ﺍﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﻣﺤﻞ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﯿﺖ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﮐﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ‪،‬‬

‫ﺟــﻮﺵﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗــﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺩ ﺗﺎ‬

‫ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻮﻟﺪﻫﺎﯼ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﺷﺘﻌﺎﻝ ﻧﻈﯿﺮ ﮐﻒﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺕ ﺑﻪ ﺩﯾﮕﺮ ﺑﺨﺶﻫﺎ ﺁﺳﯿﺐ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻧﺴﺎﺯﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﭼﻮﺑﯽ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﮐﺎﺭ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﺍﺟﺰﺍﯼ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ‪ ،‬ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻈﺖ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ ﻭ ﺑﺪﯾﻦ‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﻓﻠﺰ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﯾﺎ ﻭﺭﻕ ﻧﺴﻮﺯ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﯽ‬ ‫ﮐﻪ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺁﺗﺶﺳﻮﺯﯼ ﺯﯾﺎﺩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬

‫ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﯾﮏ ﭘﺎﺭﭼﻪ ﻧﻤﻨﺎﮎ ﻣﻨﺎﺳــﺐ ﺭﺍ ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺟﺰﺍﯼ ﻧﺰﺩﯾﮏ ﻣﺤﻞ ﺟﻮﺵﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺑﭙﯿﭽﯿﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﮐﻨﯿﺪ‪ .‬ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﮐﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ ﯾﮏ ﻣﺤﻞ ﭘﺮﺧﻄﺮ ﻫﻤﻮﺍﺭﻩ‬

‫ﻣﻄﻤﺌﻦ ﺷــﻮﯾﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺗﻤﺎﻣــﯽ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ‬

‫ﮐﭙﺴــﻮﻝﻫﺎﯼ ﺁﺗﺶﻧﺸﺎﻧﯽ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺱ ﺷﻤﺎ‬

‫ﻣﺤﮑﻢ ﻫﺴــﺘﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺯ ﻟﺤﯿﻢﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﺭﺍ‬

‫ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺤﮑﻢ ﻧﮕﺎﻩ ﺩﺍﺭﯾﺪ ﭼــﺮﺍ ﮐﻪ ﻫﺮ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ‬

‫ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﻟﺤﯿﻢﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﻟﺤﯿﻢﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺳﯿﮕﺎﺭ ﻧﮑﺸــﯿﺪ‪ .‬ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ‬

‫ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ ﻭ ﺑﻬﺘﺮ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺴﯽ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺧﻢ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺳﺒﺐ ﺿﻌﯿﻒ ﺷﺪﻥ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻭ ﺑﺮﻭﺯ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺘﯽ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﻤﺎﻣﯽ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫــﺎ ﻭ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻻﺗﯽ ﮐﻪ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﻟﺤﯿﻢﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﻫﺴــﺘﻨﺪ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺟﺮﻡ ﻭ ﺍﮐﺴﯿﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺭﯼ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﯾﻦ ﮐﺎﺭ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻨﺒﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻓــﻮﻻﺩ ﺭﯾﺰ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﺯﺩﻭﺩﻥ‬

‫ﺭﻧــﮓ ﻭ ﮐﺎﺩﻣﯿــﻢ ﺑﺨــﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺳــﻤﯽ ﺗﻮﻟﯿﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﯽﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﻤﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻧﯿﺘﺮﻭﮊﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺭﻭﻥ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﮐﺸــﯽ‬ ‫ﯾﺎ ﺍﺟﺰﺍﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﻟﺤﯿﻢ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﻧﺪ ﻋﺒﻮﺭ ﺩﻫﯿﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺎ ﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﺍﮐﺴﯿﺪﺍﺳــﯿﻮﻥ ﻭ ﺗﺸــﮑﯿﻞ ﺟﺮﻡ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺳﻄﻮﺡ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﯽ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺗﻤﺎﻣﯽ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﻟﺤﯿﻢﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺗﻤﯿــﺰ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﯾﻦ ﮐﺎﺭ ﺑﻪ ﻭﯾﮋﻩ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭﺍﻥﺳﺎﺯ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﻟﺤﯿﻢﮐﺎﺭﯼ‬ ‫ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺕ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﻨــﮕﺎﻡ ﻟﺤﯿﻢﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺴــﯽ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﺤــﻞ ﺍﺗﺼــﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﯾــﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﭼﺮﺧﺸــﯽ‬ ‫ﻣﺸــﻌﻞ ﮔﺮﻡ ﺷــﻮﺩ ﺗﺎ ﺭﻧﮓ ﻣﺲ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻗﺮﻣــﺰ ﺁﻟﺒﺎﻟﻮﯾﯽ ﺩﺭﺁﯾﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻟﺤﯿﻢﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﯾﻦ ﺍﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻭﺳﺎﯾﻞ ﻟﺤﯿﻢﮐﺎﺭﯼ‬

‫ﺁﻣﺎﺩﻩﺳﺎﺯﯼ‬

‫ﺑﺎﺷﯿﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﻟﺤﯿﻢﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﮔﺎﻟﻮﺍﻧﯿﺰﻩ‪،‬‬

‫ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﺷــﺪﻥ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺷــﺪﯾﺪ ﻣﻮﺿﻌﯽ ﻭ‬

‫ﻧﺎﺯﻝ ﻭ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﺎﺳــﺐ ﺟﻮﺵﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺭﺍ‬

‫ﺳﻮﺧﺘﻦ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﮔﺮﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨــﺎﺏ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ )ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ‪ .(1‬ﻫﻤــﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ‬

‫ﻏﯿﺮﻣﺴﺘﻘﯿﻢ ﻭ ﻃﻮﺭﯼ ﺍﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺷﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﻝ‬

‫ﺭﻭﺷﻦ ﮐﺮﺩﻥ ﻣﺸــﻌﻞ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻨﺪﮎ ﻣﺨﺼﻮﺹ‬

‫ﻭ ﭘﻮﺩﺭ ﻟﺤﯿﻢ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺛﺮ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﮔﺮﻣﺎ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻠﺰ ﺍﺻﻠﯽ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﺟﺎﯼ ﮐﺒﺮﯾﺖ ﯾﺎ ﻓﻨﺪﮎ ﺳﯿﮕﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬

‫ﺫﻭﺏ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺭﻭﮐﺶﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﺑﺮﺧﯽ ﺍﺟﺰﺍ ﻭ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺷﻌﻠﻪ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻯ ﺍﻛﺴﻴﮋﻥ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﻟﺤﻴﻢﻛﺎﺭﻯ ﻣﺲ‬

‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﺳﺎﯾﺮ ﻧﺎﺯﻝﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ ﺟﺪﺍﺭﻩ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﻌﻠﻪ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻟﻰ )ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﻣﺴﺎﻭﻯ ﺍﻛﺴﻴﮋﻥ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻠﻦ( ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﺲ‪ /‬ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻞ‬

‫ﺷﻌﻠﻪ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻯ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻠﻦ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﺳﺨﺖﻛﺎﺭﻯ‬

‫ﺷﮑﻞ )‪ (17‬ﻣﻘﺎﯾﺴﻪ ﺷﻌﻠﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﺟﻮﺵ ﺑﺮﻧﺞ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 17‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪34‬‬

‫ﻧﻜﺘﻪ‬

‫ﻧﻜﺎﺗﻰ ﺩﺭﺑﺎﺭﻩ ﺗﺴﻤﻪﻫﺎ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﭘﻠﻴﻨﮓﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﺤﺮﻙ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻤﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺤﺮﮎ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﻧﺼﺐ ﯾﺎ ﺗﻌﻮﯾﺾ ﺗﺴﻤﻪﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﺎ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻫﻢﻣﺤﻮﺭ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻥ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﭼﺮﺥ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ ﮐﺸــﯿﺪﮔﯽ ﺁﻧﺎﻥ ﻣﻮﺛﺮ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬

‫ﻣﺸــﺨﺼﺎﺕ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽﺷــﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‬

‫ﺑﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻋﻼﻭﻩ ﺑﺮ ﺍﯾــﻦ ﻧﯿﺮﻭﯼ ﮔﺮﯾﺰ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺮﮐﺰ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺩﺭﺳــﺖ ﺗﺴــﻤﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻃﻮﻝ‪،‬‬

‫ﻧﯿﺰ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻘﺶ ﺗﺴﻤﻪ ﺍﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ ﻭ ﺳــﻄﺢ ﻣﻘﻄﻊ‪ ،‬ﻣﻬﻢ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﻟﻨﮕﺮ ﻭ ﺗﺴﻤﻪ ﻣﺤﺮﮎ ﻭ ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ ﮐﺸﯿﺪﮔﯽ‬

‫ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﺑﯿﻦ ﭼﺮﺥ ﻟﻨﮕﺮ ﻭ ﭘﻮﻟﯽ ﻧﻘﺶ‬

‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾــﺶ ﻧﯿــﺮﻭﯼ ﮔﺮﯾﺰ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺮﮐــﺰ‪ ،‬ﻧﻘﺶ‬

‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳــﺐ ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﺗﺴــﻤﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺤﺮﮎ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﻣﻬﻤﯽ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﮐﺸــﺶ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺁﻣﺪﻩ ﻭ‬

‫ﻣﻬﻤــﯽ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾــﺶ ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ ﮐﺸــﯿﺪﮔﯽ‬

‫ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺑﺴﯿﺎﺭ ﻣﻬﻢ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﻫﻢﻣﺤﻮﺭ‬

‫ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺒــﻊ ﻧﯿﺮﻭﯼ ﺗﻮﻟﯿﺪ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ‬

‫ﺗﺴــﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﺩﻧﺒﺎﻝ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺩﺍﺷــﺖ‪ .‬ﯾﮏ‬

‫ﺑﻮﺩﻥ )ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺤﻮﺭ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﺗﺴــﻤﻪ( ﻭ‬

‫ﻋﻤﻠﮑــﺮﺩ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﻭ ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳــﻮﺭ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﻟﺬﺍ‬

‫ﺗﺴــﻤﻪ ﺑﺎﺭﯾﮏ ﻧﯿــﺮﻭﯼ ﺑﯿﺸــﺘﺮﯼ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﻧﺎﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ ﮐﺸﺶ‪ ،‬ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺗﺴــﻤﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺤﺮﮎ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳــﺎﺱ‬

‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺁﻭﺭﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻨﺠﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻓﺮﺳــﻮﺩﮔﯽ ﻭ ﻋﻤﺮ ﮐﻢ ﺗﺴﻤﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺖ ﮐﺎﺭﺍﯾﯽ ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳــﻮﺭ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﮐﺎﺭ ﺍﻓﺘﺎﺩﻥ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﯾﺎ ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳــﻮﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻟﯿﻞ ﺑﺮﻭﺯ ﻧﻘﺺ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﯾﺎﺗﺎﻗﺎﻥ ﻣﺤﻮﺭ ﻣﺤﺮﮎ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻫﻢﻣﺤﻮﺭ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﻫﻢﻣﺤــﻮﺭ ﻧﻤــﻮﺩﻥ ﭘﻮﻟﯽ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﭼﺮﺥ ﻟﻨﮕﺮ ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳــﻮﺭ ﻣﯽﺗــﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﺯ ﯾﮏ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﺭﯾﺴﻤﺎﻥ ﯾﺎ ﺗﺮﺟﯿﺤﺎ ﺍﺯ ﯾﮏ ﺷﻤﺸﻪ‬ ‫)ﻧﺒﺸﯽ ﻣﺴــﺘﻘﯿﻢ( ﺳــﻮﺩ ﺑﺮﺩ )‪ AB‬ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ ‪.(1‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻧﺠــﺎﻡ ﺍﯾــﻦ ﮐﺎﺭ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (1‬ﻫﻢﻣﺤﻮﺭ ﮐﺮﺩﻥ ﺗﺴﻤﻪ‬

‫ﺑﺨﺶﻫــﺎﯼ ‪ x‬ﻭ ‪ y‬ﺩﻗﯿﻘــﺎ ﺑــﺎ ﯾﮑﺪﯾﮕﺮ‬ ‫ﻫﻢﻣﺤﻮﺭ ﺷــﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﮐﻨﯿــﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻫﺮ ﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﺗﻐﯿﯿــﺮﺍﺕ ﺩﺭ ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ ﭘﻮﻟﯽ ﻭ‬ ‫ﭼﺮﺥ ﻃﯿﺎﺭ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﻫﻢﻣﺤﻮﺭ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻟﺤﺎﻅ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻧﺤﻮﻩ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺗﺴﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﮐﻠﯿــﻪ ﺗﺴــﻤﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺤــﺮﮎ ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﺧﻤﯿﺪﮔﯽ ﻭ ﻓﺸﺮﺩﮔﯽ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ ﻧﻬﺎﯾﺘﺎ‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (2‬ﮐﺸﺶ ﺗﺴﻤﻪ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 18‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪34‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺘﯽ ﯾﮏ ﺗﺴــﻤﻪ ﺑﺴــﯿﺎﺭ ﺷﻞ ﺑﺴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭﯼ ﻗﺮﻗﺮﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺭﻓﺘﻪ ﻭ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ‬

‫ﻃﻮﻝ ﺗﺴﻤﻪ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻫﺮ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺣﺘﺎ ﺍﮔﺮ ﺗﺴــﻤﻪ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﯼ ﺧــﻮﺩ ﺑﺎﻗﯽ ﻣﺎﻧــﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭﯼ ﻗﺮﻗﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﻧﺸــﻮﺩ ﺩﭼﺎﺭ ﻟﻐﺰﺵ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﺳــﻮﺩﮔﯽ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺺ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﯾﮏ ﺭﻭﺵ ﻣﺘﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ ﮐﺮﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ ﮐﺸﺶ ﺗﺴﻤﻪ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (3‬ﻃﻮﻝ ﺗﺴﻤﻪ‬

‫ﮐﺸﺶ‬

‫ﺩﻧﺒــﺎﻝ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺩﺍﺷــﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ﺳــﻮﯼ ﺩﯾﮕﺮ‬

‫ﺗﺴــﻤﻪﺍﯼ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺷــﻞ ﻋﻤﻞ‬

‫ﺗﺴــﻤﻪﺍﯼ ﮐﻪ ﺑﯿﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺪ ﺳــﻔﺖ ﺑﺴﺘﻪ‬

‫ﻣﯽﮐﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻋــﺚ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﺶ ﻧﯿــﺮﻭﯼ ﮔﺮﯾﺰ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻣﻤﮑﻦ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﯼ ﮐﺎﺭ‬

‫ﻣﺮﮐﺰ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﻟﺬﺍ ﻟﯿﺰ ﺧﻮﺭﺩﻥ ﺗﺴﻤﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭﯼ‬

‫ﭘﺎﺭﻩ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ ﺍﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﯽ ﺑﺮ‬

‫ﭘﻮﻟﯽ ﻭ ﻓﺮﺳــﻮﺩﮔﯽ ﺑﯿــﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺪ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺭﻭﯼ ﯾﺎﺗﺎﻗﺎﻥﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺤﻮﺭ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬‬

‫‪ 25‬ﻣﯿﻠﯽﻣﺘــﺮ )ﯾﮏ ﺍﯾﻨﭻ( ﺟــﺎﯼ ﺑﺎﺯﯼ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻌﻄﺎﻑ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻠﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (2‬ﻧﺸﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺗﺴﻤﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻃﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺗﺴﻤﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﮐﻮﺗﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﺑﯿﻦ ﺩﻭ‬

‫ﺗﺴﻤﻪ ﺑﺎﺭﯾﮏ‬

‫ﺗﺴﻤﻪ ﺿﺨﯿﻢ‬

‫ﻣﺮﮐــﺰ ﻣﺤﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﺣﺪﺍﮐﺜــﺮ ‪ 1.30‬ﻣﺘﺮ )‪130‬‬

‫ﺳﺎﻧﺘﯽﻣﺘﺮ( ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻓﺮﻣﻮﻝ ﺫﯾﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺩﻗﺖ ﺧﻮﺑﯽ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺗﺴﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﺳﺖ‪:‬‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﻧﺼﻒ ﻣﺤﯿﻂ ﭘﻮﻟــﯽ )ﻗﺮﻗﺮﻩ( ‪ +‬ﻧﺼﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﯿﻂ ﭼﺮﺥ ﻃﯿﺎﺭ ‪ +‬ﺩﻭ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﻣﺮﺍﮐﺰ‬

‫ﻧﯿﺮﻭﯼ ﮔﺮﯾﺰ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺮﮐﺰ‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (4‬ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ ﺗﺴﻤﻪ‪-‬ﺗﻐﯿﯿﺮ ﻧﯿﺮﻭﯼ ﮔﺮﯾﺰ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺮﮐﺰ‬

‫ﺑﯿﻦ ﻣﺤﻮﺭﻫﺎ‪:‬‬

‫‪Tir+Tir +2L‬‬

‫ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﻣﺜــﺎﻝ ﺩﺭ ﺷــﻌﺎﻉ ﯾــﮏ ﻗﺮﻗﺮﻩ‬ ‫‪ R=255mm‬ﻭ ﺷــﻌﺎﻉ ﻗﺮﻗــﺮﻩ ﺩﯾﮕــﺮ‬ ‫‪ R=75mm‬ﻭ ﻓﺎﺻﻠــﻪ ﺑﯿﻦ ﻣﺮﺍﮐﺰ ﻣﺤﻮﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫‪ L=750mm‬ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺗﺴــﻤﻪ ﺗﻘﺮﯾﺒﺎ‬ ‫‪ 2.4m‬ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪:‬‬ ‫= ‪706.95 + 235.65 + 1500‬‬ ‫‪2442.6mm ≈ 2.4m‬‬

‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻐﯿﯿﺮ ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ ﻧﯿﺮﻭﯼ ﮔﺮﯾﺰ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﻣﺮﮐﺰ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﺎ ﺗﺴــﻤﻪﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫‪ A‬ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ‬ ‫‪ B‬ﻻﯾﯽ ﺣﻠﻘﻪﺍﯼ‬ ‫‪ C‬ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ‬ ‫‪ D‬ﭘﯿﭻ ﺑﻠﻨﺪ‬

‫‪ I‬ﻓﻠﻨﺞ‬ ‫‪ J‬ﻣﻬﺮﻩ ﻭ ﻭﺍﺷﺮ ﻗﻔﻠﯽ‬

‫‪ E‬ﻓﻠﻨﺞ‬ ‫‪ F‬ﻭﺍﺷﺮ ﭘﺦﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫‪ G‬ﺣﻠﻘﻪ ﻣﯿﺎﻧﯽ‬ ‫‪ H‬ﭘﯿﭻ ﮐﻮﺗﺎﻩ‬

‫)‪ (4‬ﺑﻪ ﻧﻤﺎﯾﺶ ﮔﺬﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﮐﻮﭘﻠﯿﻨﮓﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺤﺮﮎ‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (5‬ﮐﻮﭘﻠﯿﻨﮓ ﻣﺤﺮﮎ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﻣﻤﮑﻦ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳــﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﺁﻥﮐﻪ ﺍﺯ ﭼﺮﺥ ﻃﯿﺎﺭ ﻭ ﻣﺤﺮﮎﻫﺎ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 19‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪34‬‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫)ﻧﻤﺎﯾﺶﮔﺮ(‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎﻥﺩﻫﻨﺪﻩ‬

‫ﺗﺮﺍﺯ‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫ﺁﺯﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺟﻬﺖ ﻧﺎﻫﻢﻣﺤﻮﺭﯼ ﺯﺍﻭﯾﻪﺍﯼ‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻧﻤﺎﯾﺶﮔــﺮ ﺗﺮﺍﺯ ﺭﺍ ﺑــﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ ﻓﻠﻨﺞ‬ ‫ﺳــﻤﺖ ﭼــﭗ ﮐﻮﭘﻠﯿﻨﮓ )ﻣﻄﺎﺑــﻖ ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫‪ (6‬ﺳــﻮﺍﺭ ﻧﻤﺎﯾﯿﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﮔﻮﻧﻪﺍﯼ ﮐﻪ ﺭﻭﯼ ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺳﻤﺖ ﻓﻠﻨﺞ ﺳــﻤﺖ ﺭﺍﺳﺖ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (6‬ﻧﺎﻫﻢﻣﺤﻮﺭﯼ ﻫﻢﺯﺍﻭﯾﻪﺍﯼ‬

‫‪ -2‬ﺗﺠﻬﯿــﺰﺍﺕ ﺭﺍ ﺑﭽﺮﺧﺎﻧﯿﺪ‪ .‬ﺁﻧﭽﻪ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﮐﻪ ﻧﻤﺎﯾﺶﮔﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﻭ ﺣﺪﺍﮐﺜﺮ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﯽﺩﻫﺪ ﯾﺎﺩﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﻧﻤﺎﯾﯿﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻧﻤﺎﯾﺶﮔﺮ‬

‫‪ -3‬ﺗﺠﻬﯿــﺰﺍﺕ ﺭﺍ ﺑــﻪ ﻣﻘــﺪﺍﺭ ﮐﺎﻓــﯽ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﺑﻪﺟــﺎ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ ﺗﺎ ﮐﻞ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻗﺮﺍﺋﺖ ﺷــﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﺎﯾﺶﮔﺮ ﺑﻪ ﮐﻤﺘــﺮ ﺍﺯ ‪ 0.0508‬ﻣﯿﻠﯽﻣﺘﺮ‬ ‫)‪ 0.002‬ﺍﯾﻨــﭻ( ﺩﺭ ﻫــﺮ ﻣﯿﻠﯽﻣﺘﺮ )ﺍﯾﻨﭻ(‬ ‫ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺁﺯﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺟﻬﺖ ﻧﺎﻫﻢﻣﺤﻮﺭﯼ ﺯﺍﻭﯾﻪﺍﯼ‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻧﻤﺎﯾﺶﮔﺮ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (7‬ﺑﺮ‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (7‬ﻧﺎﻫﻢﻣﺤﻮﺭﯼ ﺯﺍﻭﯾﻪﺍﯼ‬

‫ﮐﻨﻨــﺪ ﺍﺯ ﮐﻮﭘﻠﯿﻨﮓ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﺴــﺘﻘﯿﻢ‬

‫ﻣﺤــﻮﺭ ﻣﻮﺗــﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﯾﺎﺗﺎﻗﺎﻥﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺍﺭﺗﻌﺎﺷــﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﮐــﻪ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ ﺩﺭ ﺳــﺮﻋﺖﻫﺎﯼ ﺑــﺎﻻ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻕ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳــﻮﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﮐﻮﭼــﮏ ﻧــﻮﻉ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺍﻓﺘﺪ‪ ،‬ﺟﻠﻮﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -2‬ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺕ ﺭﺍ ﺑﭽﺮﺧﺎﻧﯿﺪ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﺍﮐﺜﺮ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺭﺍ ﻗﺮﺍﺋﺖ ﻧﻤﺎﯾﯿﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﺗﺠﻬﯿــﺰﺍﺕ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻗﺪﺭ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺟﺎﺑﻪﺟﺎ‬

‫ﮐﻮﭘﻠﯿﻨﮓﻫــﺎ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺍﺯ ﻧــﻮﻉ ﻓﻠﻨﺞﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺁﻣﺪ ﺗﺎ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﯾﺎ ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭ‬

‫ﮐﻨﯿــﺪ ﺗﺎ ﻣﻘــﺪﺍﺭ ﻗﺮﺍﺋــﺖ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭﯼ‬

‫ﺻﻠﺐ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳــﻮﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﺑﺰﺭﮒﺗﺮ‬

‫ﺭﺍ ﺗﻌﻮﯾﺾ ﻧﻤﺎﯾﯿــﻢ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻧﮑﺘﻪ ﻣﻬﻢ‬

‫ﻧﻤﺎﯾﺶﮔﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﺑﺮﺳﺪ‪ .‬ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻧﻤﺎﯾﯿﺪ‬

‫ﻧﻈﯿﺮ ﺁﻧﭽﻪ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (5‬ﻧﺸــﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ‬

‫ﺗﻮﺟــﻪ ﮐﺮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺗﺮﺗﯿﺐ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ ﭘﯿﭻﻫﺎ‪،‬‬

‫ﮐــﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﻧﺒﺎﯾــﺪ ﻓﺮﺁﯾﻨﺪﯼ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻮﭘﻠﯿﻨﮓﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ ﻧــﻮﻉ ﻓﻨﺮﯼ‬

‫ﻭﺍﺷــﺮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﯿﻠــﻪ ﺍﺭﺗﺒــﺎﻁ ﻭ ﻣﻬﺮﻩﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ ‪ 1‬ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺩﺍﺩﻩﺍﯾﺪ ﺧﺪﺷﻪﺩﺍﺭ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫)ﺍﻧﻌﻄﺎﻑﭘﺬﯾﺮ( ﮐﻪ ﭘﯿﭽﯿﺪﻩﺗﺮ ﻧﯿﺰ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪،‬‬

‫ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﺯ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻥ ﯾﺎﺩﺩﺍﺷــﺖ ﺷــﻮﺩ ﺗﺎ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪﺍﯼ‬

‫ﺯﻣــﺎﻥ ﻣﻮﻧﺘﺎﮊ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﺻــﻮﺭﺕ ﺩﺭ ﺟﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﻓﻠﻨﺞﻫــﺎ‪ ،‬ﺭﯾﻨــﮓ ﻣﺮﮐــﺰﯼ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌــﺪﺍﺩﯼ‬

‫ﺧﻮﺩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﻭ ﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﺗﺼــﺎﻻﺕ ﺻﻠﺐ‪ ،‬ﭘﯿﭻﻫﺎﯼ ﮐﻮﺗﺎﻩ ﻭ ﺑﻠﻨﺪ ﺑﺎ‬

‫ﺩﻗﯿﻖﺗﺮﯾــﻦ ﺭﻭﺵ ﻫﻢﻣﺤــﻮﺭ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻥ‬

‫ﻣﻬﺮﻩﻫﺎﯼ ﻗﻔﻠﯽ ﻭ ﻭﺍﺷﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﮐﻮﭘﻠﯿﻨﮓ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺮﺍﺯ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﯾﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ‬

‫ﻣﻮﻧﺘﺎﮊ ﻭ ﻫﻢﻣﺤﻮﺭ ﮐﺮﺩﻥ‬

‫ﺭﺍ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺗﻮﺳــﻂ ﯾﮏ ﺷﻤﺸــﻪ ﯾﺎ ﭘﺮﮔﺎﺭ‬

‫ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﯽ ﮐﻪ ﮐﻮﭘﻠﯿﻨﮓ ﻧﺼﺐ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺩﺍﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻫﺮ‬

‫ﺑﺎﯾــﺪ ﺍﺯ ﻫﻢﻣﺤــﻮﺭ ﺑــﻮﺩﻥ ﺻﺤﯿــﺢ ﺁﻥ‬

‫ﺩﻭ ﺭﻭﺵ‪ ،‬ﻣﺘﻌﺎﻗﺒــﺎ ﺗﻮﺿﯿﺢ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬

‫ﺍﻃﻤﯿﻨﺎﻥ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ ﺗﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺮﻭﺯ ﻫﺮ ﮔﻮﻧﻪ‬

‫ﺷــﺪ‪ .‬ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺩﺍﺷــﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷــﯿﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺗﺮﺍﻧﺲ‬

‫ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﻭ ﻟﻄﻤﻪ ﻧﺎﺧﻮﺍﺳــﺘﻪ ﺑﻪ ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭ‪،‬‬

‫ﮐﻮﭘﻠﯿﻨﮓ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳــﺎﺱ ﺗﻮﺻﯿﻪ ﺳﺎﺯﻧﺪﻩ‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫‪ -4‬ﮐﻮﭘﻠﯿﻨﮓ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﭼﻨﺪﯾﻦ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﻣﻞ ﭼﺮﺧﺎﻧﺪﻩ ﺷــﻮﺩ ﺗﺎ ﻣﻄﻤﺌﻦ ﺷــﻮﯾﻢ‬ ‫ﻫﯿــﭻ ﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﺧﺰﺷــﯽ ﺩﺭ ﻫﯿﭻ ﺑﺨﺸــﯽ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﮐﻮﭘﻠﯿﻨﮓ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﺗﻤﺎﻣــﯽ ﭘﯿﭻﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺳــﻔﺖ ﻧﻤﺎﯾﯿﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﭙﺲ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺯ ﭼﻨﺪ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ ﮐﺎﺭﮐﺮﺩ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺳﻔﺖ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﭘﯿﭻﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﺯﺭﺳﯽ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺁﭼﺎﺭﮐﺸﯽ ﻧﻤﺎﯾﯿﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﭘﺮﮔﺎﺭ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮ ﻭ ﺷﻤﺸﻪ‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﺷﻤﺸــﻪ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ ﺳﻄﻮﺡ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺭﻭﯼ ﺳﻄﺢ ﻓﻠﻨﺞ ﻧﺼﺐ ﻧﻤﺎﯾﯿﺪ‪.‬‬


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‫ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺁﭼﺎﺭﮐﺸﯽ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﭘﺮﮔﺎﺭ‬

‫ﻧﻤﺎﯼ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﯼ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣــﯽ ﮐﻪ ﮐﻮﭘﻠﯿﻨﮓ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺭﺳــﺘﯽ‬ ‫ﻫﻢﻣﺤﻮﺭ ﺷــﺪ‪ ،‬ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﺟــﺰﺍﯼ ﻻﯾﻪ ﻻﯾﻪ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺩﺭ ﯾﮏ ﺳــﻄﺢ ﻭ ﺑــﺎ ﯾﮏ ﺯﺍﻭﯾﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺎ ﺧﻂ ﻣﺮﮐﺰﯼ ﻣﺤﻮﺭ ﺷﻔﺖ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﮔﯿﺮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺯﻣﺎﻧــﯽ ﮐﻪ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺳــﺮﻋﺖ ﮐﺎﻣﻞ‬

‫ﺷﻤﺸﻪ‬

‫ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﺭﻭﺷﻦ ﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﺗﻤﺎﻣﯽ ﺍﺟﺰﺍﯼ ﻻﯾﻪ‬ ‫ﻻﯾــﻪ ﮐﻮﭘﻠﯿﻨــﮓ ﺑﺎﯾــﺪ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﯼ ﻭﺿﻌﯿﺘﯽ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (8‬ﺑﺮﺭﺳﯽ ﻫﻢﻣﺤﻮﺭﯼ ﺑﺎ ﭘﺮﮔﺎﺭ‬

‫ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻣﻌﻨﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﻫــﺮ ﺟﻬﺖ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﻪ ﮐﻨﯿﻢ‪ ،‬ﺧﻄﻮﻁ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﯾﻒﺷــﺪﻩﺍﯼ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﻪ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ‬

‫ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﻣﺤﺮﮎ‬

‫ﻭﺿﻌﯿﺖ ﭼﺮﺧــﺶ ﮐﻮﭘﻠﯿﻨﮓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﻌﯿﺘﯽ‬ ‫ﺗــﺎﺭ ﻭ ﻣﺒﻬﻢ ﺩﺍﺷــﺖ ﺑﺎﯾــﺪ ﻫﻢﻣﺤﻮﺭﯼ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪﮔﯿﺮ )ﻻﯾﯽ‪-‬ﻻﺗﻮﻥ(‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ ﺷﺎﺳﯽ ﻭ ﻓﻮﻧﺪﺍﺳﯿﻮﻥ‬

‫ﻣﺠﺪﺩﺍ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﯽ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻧﺼﺐ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﻣﻤﮑﻦ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨــﮕﺎﻡ ﻫﻢﻣﺤﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺭﺍﺥ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﭘﯿﭻ‬

‫ﮐﺮﺩﻥ ﮐﻮﭘﻠﯿﻨﮓ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻻ ﺑﺮﺩﻥ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺷﻔﺖ‬

‫ﭘﯿﭻ ﭘﺎﯾﻪ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﯾﻪ ﺍﺻﻠﯽ‬

‫ﻣﺤﺮﮎ ﺟﻬﺖ ﻫﻢﺗﺮﺍﺯ ﺷﺪﻥ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺎ ﺷﻔﺖ‬ ‫ﮐﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮﺭ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺁﯾﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﯾﻦ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﯾﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻻﯾﯽﻫــﺎ ﺍﻧﺠــﺎﻡ ﻣﯽﭘﺬﯾﺮﺩ‬ ‫)ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ ‪ (9‬ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺩﺭ ﺯﯾﺮ ﺷﺎﺳﯽ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻻﯾﯽﻫﺎ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﯼ ﺳــﻮﺭﺍﺥ ﺟﻬﺖ ﻋﺒﻮﺭ‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (9‬ﻫﻢﻣﺤﻮﺭﯼ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻻﯾﯽ )ﻻﺗﻮﻥ(‬

‫ﺧﺎﺭﺟــﯽ ﻓﻠﻨــﺞ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻤــﺎﻡ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺁﻥ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ‪ 0.39‬ﻣﯿﻠﯽﻣﺘﺮ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪ ،‬ﻫﻢﻣﺤﻮﺭﯼ‬

‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (8‬ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﻫﯿﺪ‪ .‬ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﯽ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻗﺒــﻮﻝ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﮐــﻪ ﮐﻮﭘﻠﯿﻨﮓﻫــﺎ ﺩﻗﯿﻘﺎ ﺑــﺎ ﯾﮑﺪﯾﮕﺮ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺻــﻮﺭﺕ ﻭﺟــﻮﺩ ﺩﺳــﺘﻮﺭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﻫﻢﻣﺤﻮﺭﯼ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺳــﻄﺢ‬

‫ﺳــﻮﯼ ﺳــﺎﺯﻧﺪﻩ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻧﻤﺎﯾﯿﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺷﻤﺸــﻪ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺳﻄﻮﺡ ﺑﯿﺮﻭﻧﯽ ﻓﻠﻨﺞ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﻟﻤﺲ ﮐﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﺍﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺩﺭﻭﻧﯽ ﻓﻠﻨﺞ ﺭﺍ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﺩﺭ‬

‫‪ -3‬ﺩﺭ ﺻــﻮﺭﺕ ﻟــﺰﻭﻡ‪ ،‬ﻗﻄﻌــﻪ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﭼﺮﺧﺎﻧــﺪﻩ ﻭ ﮔﺎﻡ ‪ 1‬ﻭ ‪ 2‬ﺭﺍ ﻣﺠﺪﺩﺍ ﺗﮑﺮﺍﺭ‬

‫ﭘﯿﭻﻫــﺎﯼ ﺛﺎﺑــﺖ ﻧﮕﻪﺩﺍﺭﻧــﺪﻩ ﺷﺎﺳــﯽ‬ ‫ﻫﺴــﺘﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﮔﺬﺷــﺖ ﭼﻨﺪ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺷﺎﺳــﯽ ﻭ ﻗــﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺩﻥ ﻻﯾﯽﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺭﻭﺷﻦ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﺩﺳــﺘﮕﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻻﺯﻡ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺗﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺪﺩﺍ ﻭﺿﻌﯿﺖ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﯽ ﺷﻮﺩ ﺯﯾﺮﺍ‬ ‫ﻣﻤﮑﻦ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﺩﺭ ﻃﯽ ﺍﯾﻦ ﭼﻨﺪ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ‬ ‫ﻻﯾﯽﻫﺎ ﻓﺸﺮﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺷﻔﺖﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ‬ ‫ﻫﻢﻣﺤﻮﺭ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﭘﯽﻧﻮﺷﺖ‬

‫ﮐﻨﯿﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﭼﻬﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺑﻪ ﮐﻤﮏ ﭘﺮﮔﺎﺭ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ‬

‫‪ -4‬ﺗﻤﺎﻣــﯽ ﭘﯿﭻﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺳــﻔﺖ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪1. Overload Protection‬‬

‫ﮐﻨﯿــﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﮔﺮ ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺷــﺪﻩ‬

‫ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﭼﻨﺪ ﺳــﺎﻋﺖ ﮐﺎﺭﮐﺮﺩ ﺩﺳــﺘﮕﺎﻩ‪،‬‬

‫‪2. Level Indicator Gauge‬‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬


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‫ﻓﻦﺁﻭﺭﻯ‬

‫ﻭﺳﺎﻳﻞ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﻴﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻴﺖﻫﺎﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳﻜﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺁﻥﮐﻪ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ‪ HVAC‬ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺍﻣﺮ ﻣﺴــﺘﻠﺰﻡ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺷــﺪﺕ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ‬

‫ﺟﺮﯾــﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﺴــﯿﺘﻪ ﺑﺪﻥ ﺷــﻤﺎ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬

‫ﺩﺭﺳــﺘﯽ ﮐﺎﺭ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺷﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﺁﺳﺎﯾﺶ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ‬

‫ﻣﺼﺮﻓﯽ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﻭ ﮐﺴــﺐ ﺍﻃﻤﯿﻨﺎﻥ ﺍﺯ ﺍﯾﻦ‬

‫ﺑﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻣﺴــﺎﻟﻪ ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ ﺷــﻮﮎ‬

‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺎﻣﯿــﻦ ﻧﻤﺎﯾﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﻫﺮ‬

‫ﻣﺴﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﺶ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻓﻦ ﻣﻮﺟﺐ‬

‫ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑــﯽ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷــﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻣــﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺯﯾﺮ‬

‫ﯾﮏ ﺍﺯ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺯﯾﺮ ﺑﺎﯾــﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺧﻮﺑﯽ‬

‫ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺷــﺪﻥ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺍﺿﺎﻓﯽ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﻧﺨﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬

‫ﺍﺣﺘﻤــﺎﻝ ﺍﯾﻦﮐــﻪ ﺑــﺪﻥ ﺷــﻤﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ‬

‫ﺁﺯﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪:‬‬

‫ﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﻋﻼﻭﻩ ﺑﺮ ﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺗﮑﻨﯿﺴﯿﻦ‬

‫ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﮐﻮﺗﺎﻩ ﮐﻨﺪ ﺑﺴــﯿﺎﺭ‬

‫ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ ﻫﻮﺍ‬

‫ﺑﺎﯾــﺪ ﻭﻟﺘﺎﮊ ﻣــﺪﺍﺭ ﺭﺍ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻧﻤــﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺖ‪:‬‬

‫ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ ﻫﯿﺪﺭﻭﻧﯿﮏ‬

‫ﺻﺤﺖ ﮐﺎﺭﮐﺮﺩ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻤﯿﻨﺎﻥ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ‬

‫ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑــﯽ )ﻧﯿــﺎﺯﯼ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﮐﻨﺪ ﯾﺎ ﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺷﺮﺍﯾﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺘﺎﮊ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﯽ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ‬

‫ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ ﺗﻨﻬــﺎ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺻﺤﺖ ﮐﺎﺭﮐﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺷﻮﺩ(‪.‬‬

‫ﺭﺍ ﺗﻌﯿﯿﻦ ﻧﻤﺎﯾﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ ﺿﻤﻦ‬

‫ﺗﺠﻬﯿــﺰﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﻣﻘﺪﻣــﺎﺕ ﻭ ﻣﺒﺎﻧــﯽ ﺍﻭﻟﯿــﻪ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ‪ HVAC‬ﻣــﻮﺭﺩ ﺑﺮﺭﺳــﯽ ﻗــﺮﺍﺭ‬

‫ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ ﻣﯿﺴﺮ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﯽﮔﯿﺮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺭﻋﺎﯾﺖ ﻧﮑﺎﺕ ﺍﯾﻤﻨﯽ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻝ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻭﻇﯿﻔﻪ ﺗﮑﻨﯿﺴﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻞ ﺧﻮﺩ ﻧﺼﺐ ﻭ ﺻﺤﺖ ﮐﺎﺭﮐﺮﺩ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﯽ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﻫﺪ‪ .‬ﻫﺮ ﭼﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﯾﻦ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺰ ﺩﺭﺳﺖ ﻫﻤﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﺁﺑﯽ ﻭ ﻫﻮﺍﯾﯽ‪ ،‬ﻭﻇﯿﻔﻪ ﺗﮑﻨﯿﺴــﯿﻦ ﮐﯿﻔﯿﺖ‬ ‫ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﯿﻦ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﯼ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﯽﻫﺎﯼ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ﺭﺍ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﮐﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻤــﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﺻﻼﺣﺎﺕ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ‬ ‫ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻧﻤﺎﯾﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﻣﺜــﺎﻝ ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾــﺶ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﻮﺍﺩﻫﯽ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ‪ ،‬ﺗﮑﻨﯿﺴــﯿﻦ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻦ ﺭﺍ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﺶ ﺩﻫﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﺧﯽ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﯾﻦ‬

‫ﺑﺮﺧــﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺧﻄﺮﺍﺗﯽ ﮐﻪ ﻫﻨــﮕﺎﻡ ﮐﺎﺭ ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫــﺎﯼ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ ﻣﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺗﮑﻨﯿﺴــﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺗﻨﺪ ﺍﺯ‪:‬‬

‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺻﻮﺭﺗﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻗﺴﻤﺖﻫﺎﯼ ﻓﻠﺰﯼ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻟﻪﻫﺎ ﯾﺎ ﺳــﺎﺯﻩﻫﺎﯼ ﻓــﻮﻻﺩﯼ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻤﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷﯿﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺻﻮﺭﺗﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﮐﻔﺶ ﺷﻤﺎ ﻭ ﮐﻔﯽ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻮﺍﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﻓﻠﺰﯼ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .2‬ﻫﯿـﭻﮔﺎﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺣـﺪﺱ ﻭ ﮔﻤـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻧﮑﻨﯿﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﺍﯾﻦ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻔﻬﻤﯿﺪ ﺩﺭ ﯾﮏ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﺑــﺮﻕ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﯾﺎ ﻧــﻪ‪ ،‬ﻫﺮﮔﺰ ﺍﺯ‬

‫‪ .1‬ﺩﻗﺖ ﺩﺍﺷـﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷـﯿﺪ ﺑﺪﻥ ﺷـﻤﺎ‬

‫ﺣــﺪﺱ ﻭ ﮔﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻧﮑﻨﯿﺪ‪ .‬ﻋﻼﻭﻩ‬

‫ﻣﻮﺟـﺐ ﺍﯾﺠـﺎﺩ ﺍﺗﺼـﺎﻝ ﮐﻮﺗـﺎﻩ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ‬

‫ﺑــﺮ ﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﮐﺎﺭ ﺑــﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﻧﺸﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ ﺻﺮﻓﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﮐﻠﯿﺪ ﻗﻄﻊ‬

‫ﻣﺎﻫﯿﺖ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﺴﯿﺘﻪ ﺑﻪ ﮔﻮﻧﻪﺍﯼ ﺍﺳﺖ‬

‫ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﺍﮐﺘﻔﺎ ﻧﮑﻨﯿﺪ ﻭ ﭘﯿﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺷــﺮﻭﻉ ﮐﺎﺭ‬

‫ﮐﻪ ﻫﻤﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺳــﺎﺩﻩﺗﺮﯾﻦ ﻣﺴــﯿﺮ ﻣﻤﮑﻦ‬

‫ﺣﺘﻤﺎ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﻗﻄﻊ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ‬

‫ﻋﺒﻮﺭ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﯾــﻦ ﺍﮔﺮ ﺩﺭ ﯾﮏ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ‬

‫ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﻕ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻃﻤﯿﻨﺎﻥ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑــﯽ‪ ،‬ﺑﺪﻥ ﺷــﻤﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻭﺿﻌﯿﺘﯽ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬

‫ﻫﯿــﭻﮔﺎﻩ ﻭﻟﺘﺎﮊ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ‬

‫ﮔﯿــﺮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﺍﯾﺠــﺎﺩ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﮐﻮﺗﺎﻩ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﺣــﺪﺱ ﻭ ﮔﻤــﺎﻥ ﻧﺴــﻨﺠﯿﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻠﮑﻪ‬

‫ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺳــﺎﺩﻩﺗﺮﯾﻦ ﻣﺴﯿﺮ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﻋﺒﻮﺭ‬

‫ﻫﻤﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﺑﺎ ﯾﮏ ﻭﻟﺖﺳﻨﺞ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﯾــﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻟــﻪ ﻭﺳــﺎﯾﻞ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ‬

‫ﺭﻋﺎﯾﺖ ﻧﮑﺎﺕ ﺍﯾﻤﻨﯽ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺳــﺎﯾﻪ ﺁﮔﺎﻫﯽ‬

‫ﺩﺭﺻﻮﺭﺗﯽ ﮐﻪ ﭘﺎﻫﺎﯼ ﺷــﻤﺎ ﺧﯿﺲ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 22‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪34‬‬

‫ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﺯ ﯾﮏ ﺩﺳﺖ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ‪ ،‬ﭼﺮﺍ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﺻﻮﺭﺗﯽ ﮐﻪ ﻣﺠﺒﻮﺭ ﻫﺴﺘﯿﺪ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﯼ‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻫﺮ ﺩﻭ ﺩﺳﺖ ﻣﻨﺠﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ‬

‫ﮐﺎﺭ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ ﮐــﻪ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﻕ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺑﺮﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬

‫ﯾﮏ ﻣــﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ ﺑﺴــﺘﻪ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ ﻭ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﺳﻌﯽ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺳــﯿﻢﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺎ‬

‫ﻋﻼﻭﻩ ﺑﺮ ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ ﺷــﻮﮎ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﺟﺐ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﻮﺭ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﻕ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺴــﯿﺮ ﻗﻠﺐ ﻭ ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺳﮑﺘﻪ ﻗﻠﺒﯽ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (1‬ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﮐﺎﺭ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﻗﻔﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ ﺁﻥ ﯾﺎﺩﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﻫﯿﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﮐﻨﯿﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .5‬ﻫـﺮ ﺁﻧﭽـﻪ ﺭﺍ ﮐـﻪ ﻧﻤﯽﺩﺍﻧﯿـﺪ‪،‬‬

‫ﯾﮏ ﺩﺳــﺖ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻌﺒﻪ ﺧــﺎﺭﺝ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺍﯼ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺍﯾﻦ ﮐﺎﺭ ﺗﺤﺖ ﻫﯿﭻ ﺷﺮﺍﯾﻄﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺁﭼﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﯾﺎ ﭘﯿﭻﮔﻮﺷﺘﯽ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻧﮑﻨﯿﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻟﺖ ‪ -‬ﺁﻣﭙﺮﻣﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﻟــﺖ ‪ -‬ﺁﻣﭙﺮﻣﺘﺮ ﮐﻪ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪﺍﯼ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ‬

‫ﺑﭙﺮﺳﯿﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺻﻮﺭﺗﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺁﺷﻨﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﺎﻓﯽ ﺑﺎ ﯾﮏ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﺧﺎﺹ ﯾﺎ ﯾﮏ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺧﺎﺹ ﺭﺍ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﯾﺪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻤﺎ ﭘﯿﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺷــﺮﻭﻉ ﮐﺎﺭ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺗﺼﻮﯾــﺮ )‪ (2‬ﻣﺸــﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﯿﺪ‪ ،‬ﯾﮑﯽ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﻭﺳــﺎﯾﻞ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩﯼ ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﮐﺜﺮ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ‪ HVAC‬ﻣﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗــﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﯽﮔﯿﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻏﻠــﺐ ﺍﻭﻗﺎﺕ‬

‫ﻫﺮﮔــﺰ ﻓــﺮﺽ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮ ﺍﯾــﻦ ﻧﮕﺬﺍﺭﯾﺪ‬

‫ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﮐﺴــﺐ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ‪ .‬ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪،‬‬

‫ﮐﻪ ﺭﻧﮓ ﺳــﯿﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎﺭ ﺭﻓﺘﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ‬

‫ﺑﺴــﯿﺎﺭﯼ ﺍﺯ ﭘﺎﻧﻞﻫﺎﯼ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ ﻣﺠﻬﺰ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺻﺤﯿــﺢ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﻫﻤــﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺍﻣﺘﺤﺎﻥ‬

‫ﯾﮏ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﯽ ﻫﺴــﺘﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺣﻔﻆ‬

‫ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﺻﺤــﺖ ﺁﻥ ﺍﻃﻤﯿﻨﺎﻥ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ‬

‫ﺍﯾﻤﻨﯽ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﺪﯾﻦ‬

‫ﮐﻨﯿﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﯽﮔﯿﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﺖ ‪ -‬ﺁﻣﭙﺮﻣﺘﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺁﻧﺎﻟﻮﮒ‬

‫ﺗﺮﺗﯿــﺐ ﺍﮔﺮ ﺟﺮﯾــﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﻕ ﺩﺭ ﻣــﺪﺍﺭ ﺑﺮﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬

‫‪ .3‬ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨـﮕﺎﻡ ﮐﺎﺭ ﺑـﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﻭ ﺩﯾﺠﯿﺘﺎﻝ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺎﺯﺍﺭ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭﻟﯽ ﻧﻮﻉ‬

‫ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﯽ ﺍﺟــﺎﺯﻩ ﺑﺎﺯ ﮐﺮﺩﻥ‬

‫ﺩﯾﺠﯿﺘﺎﻝ ﺁﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻟﯿﻞ ﺳﺎﺩﮔﯽ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻭ‬

‫ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑـﯽ ﺩﺭ ﺟﻌﺒﻪ ﻓﯿﻮﺯ ﺭﺍ ﻗﻔﻞ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ ﻭ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﻣــﺪﺍﺭ ﺭﺍ ﻧﺨﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺩﺍﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻟﺰﻭﻡ‬

‫ﮐﺎﻫــﺶ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺑﺮ ﻫﻢ ﺧــﻮﺭﺩﻥ ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ‬

‫ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ ﺁﻥ ﯾﺎﺩﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﻫﯿﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻃﻼﻋــﺎﺕ ﮐﺎﻓﯽ ﺩﺭ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺯﻣﯿﻨﻪ ﺭﺍ ﮐﺴــﺐ‬

‫ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ ﺑﯿﺸﺘﺮﯼ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﭘﯿــﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥﮐﻪ ﺑــﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﮐﺮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺳــﭙﺲ ﮐﺎﺭ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺷﺮﻭﻉ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑــﯽ ﮐﺎﺭ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ‪ ،‬ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﻕ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺭﺍ‬

‫ﺟﺬﺭ ﻣﯿﺎﻧﮕﯿﻦ ﻣﺮﺑﻌﺎﺕ )‪(RMS‬‬

‫ﺧﺎﺯﻥﻫــﺎ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﻗﻄﻊ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﻕ‬

‫ﻗﻄــﻊ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ ﻭ ﺟﻌﺒﻪ ﻓﯿــﻮﺯ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﯾﮏ ﻗﻔﻞ‬

‫ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﻧﯿﺰ ﺑــﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ ﺩﺍﺭﻧــﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﯾﻦ‬

‫ﮐﻮﭼﮏ ﺑﺒﻨﺪﯾﺪ ﻭ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ ﺁﻥ ﯾﺎﺩﺩﺍﺷــﺘﯽ‬

‫ﭘﯿــﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺷــﺮﻭﻉ ﮐﺎﺭ ﺣﺘﻤﺎ ﻫــﺮ ﺁﻧﭽﻪ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎﺕ ﺧﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺗﺎﺭﯾﺦ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﮐﺎﺭ‬

‫ﻧﻤﯽﺩﺍﻧﯿﺪ ﺭﺍ ﺳﻮﺍﻝ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﻫﯿﺪ )ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ ‪.(1‬‬ ‫ﭘــﺲ ﺍﺯ ﻗﻄﻊ ﺟﺮﯾــﺎﻥ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺟﻬﺖ‬ ‫ﮐﺴــﺐ ﺍﻃﻤﯿﻨﺎﻥ ﺍﺯ ﻗﻄﻊ ﺑــﻮﺩﻥ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ ﺩﻗﺖ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭﺏ ﻓﻠﺰﯼ ﭘﺎﻧﻞ‬

‫‪ .4‬ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨـﮕﺎﻡ ﮐﺎﺭ ﺑـﺎ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫـﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﺯ ﯾﮏ ﺩﺳـﺖ ﺍﺳـﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﮐﻨﯿﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩﻫــﺎﯼ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﯾﺶ‪ ،‬ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ ﻭ ﺑﺎﻻﻧﺲ‬ ‫)‪ (TAB‬ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬

‫ﺑــﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ ﺑﺮﺧﯽ ﺍﺯ ﻭﻟــﺖ ‪ -‬ﺁﻣﭙﺮﻣﺘﺮﻫﺎ‬

‫‪ .6‬ﻫﻤﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻫﻮﺷﯿﺎﺭ ﻭ ﺩﻗﯿﻖ ﺑﺎﺷﯿﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨــﮕﺎﻡ ﺑــﺎﺯ ﮐــﺮﺩﻥ ﺩﺭ ﭘﺎﻧﻞﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺣﺘﻤﺎ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻟﺖ ‪ -‬ﺁﻣﭙﺮﻣﺘﺮ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺳــﯿﻠﻪﺍﯼ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﺑﺎ ﮐﻨﺘﺎﮐﺖﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﻮﺟــﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻧﮑﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻏﻠــﺐ ﺍﻭﻗــﺎﺕ ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﮐﻨﺘــﺮﻝ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺁﺯﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﺗﺎ ﺳﯿﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻌﺒﻪ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ‪،‬‬

‫ﺗﮑﻨﯿﺴــﯿﻦﻫﺎ ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺑﺮ‬

‫ﭘﯿﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺍﯾــﻦ ﮐﺎﺭ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﻕ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ‬

‫ﺭﻭﯼ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎﯾــﯽ ﮐﺎﺭ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﻕ‬

‫ﺭﺍ ﺑــﻪ ﮐﻠﯽ ﻗﻄﻊ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ ﻭ ﺍﻃﻤﯿﻨﺎﻥ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺑﺮﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﭼﻨﯿﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻌﯽ‬

‫ﮐﻨﯿــﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﻗﻄﻊ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (2‬ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪﺍﯼ ﺍﺯ ﯾﮏ ﻭﻟﺖ ‪-‬‬ ‫ﺁﻣﭙﺮﻣﺘﺮ ﺩﯾﺠﯿﺘﺎﻝ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 23‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪34‬‬

‫ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ ‪ True RMS‬ﺣﮏ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﻓﺮﺩ ﻭﺳــﺎﯾﻞ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ‪True RMS‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ ‪ 240‬ﻭﻟﺖ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭﯼ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﻧﺸﺎﻥﺩﻫﻨﺪﻩ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻭﻟﺖ ‪ -‬ﺁﻣﭙﺮﻣﺘﺮ‬

‫ﺁﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺣﺘﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ ﺍﻧﺤﺮﺍﻑ‬

‫ﻭﻟﺖﻣﺘﺮ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﺪ ﺑﯿﻦ ‪234.2‬‬

‫ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻃــﻪ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﯿــﺖ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿــﺮﯼ ﻣﻘﺎﺩﯾــﺮ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺝ ﺳﯿﻨﻮﺳــﯽ ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ‬

‫ﻭﻟﺖ ﺗﺎ ‪ 245.8‬ﻭﻟﺖ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺑــﺮ ﻣﺒﻨﺎﯼ ﺟﺬﺭ ﻣﯿﺎﻧﮕﯿﻦ‬

‫ﻧﯿــﺰ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﺑــﻪ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﻣﻘــﺪﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﯽ‬

‫‪(240 × 0.98) - 1 = 234.2‬‬

‫ﻣﺮﺑﻌﺎﺕ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺭﺍ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﺧﯽ ﺷــﺮﺍﯾﻂ‬

‫ﮐﻤﯿﺖﻫــﺎﯼ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ‬

‫)ﺣﺪﺍﻗــﻞ ﻣﻘــﺪﺍﺭﯼ ﮐــﻪ ﻣﻤﮑﻦ ﺍﺳــﺖ‬

‫ﺧﺎﺹ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﻣﻘﺎﺩﯾﺮ ﺷﺪﺕ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ‬

‫ﺑﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭ ﻭﻟﺘــﺎﮊ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫــﺎﯼ ﺟﺮﯾــﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﻭﺏ‬ ‫)‪ (AC‬ﺩﻗــﺖ ﮐﺎﻓﯽ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺷﻮﺩ(‬

‫ﺩﺍﻣﻨﻪ ﻭ ﺩﻗﺖ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ‬

‫‪(240 × 1.02) + 1 = 245.8‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑــﯽ ﺑﺎﯾــﺪ ﻭﺳــﯿﻠﻪ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿــﺮﯼ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺷﻮﺩ(‬

‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳــﺒﯽ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺷــﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺑــﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﻭﺳﺎﯾﻞ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺁﻧﺎﻟﻮﮒ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ‬

‫ﺗﺠﻬﯿــﺰﺍﺕ ﻣﻮﺟــﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﻣــﺪﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﻣﻨﻪ ﻭ‬

‫ﯾــﮏ ﮐﻠﯿﺪ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ ﻭﺳــﯿﻠﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ‬

‫ﺩﻗﺖ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﯽ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻥ‬

‫ﺷــﺪﺕ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﻭ ﻭﻟﺘﺎﮊ ﻣــﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﯾــﮏ ﻭﺳــﯿﻠﻪ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿــﺮﯼ‬

‫ﺩﺍﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﺳﯿﻠﻪ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻐﯿﯿﺮ ﺩﺍﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﮐﻪ ﭘﺎﺳــﺨﮕﻮﯼ ﺩﺍﻣﻨﻪ ﻭ ﺩﻗــﺖ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ‬

‫ﻭﻟــﺖ ‪ -‬ﺁﻣﭙﺮﻣﺘــﺮ ﺁﻧﺎﻟﻮﮔﯽ ﮐــﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ‬

‫ﺁﻥ ﺩﺳــﺘﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻭﻟــﺖ ‪ -‬ﺁﻣﭙﺮﻣﺘﺮﻫﺎﯾــﯽ‬

‫ﻧﺒﺎﺷــﺪ ﺟﺰ ﺍﺗﻼﻑ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻭ ﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺩﯼ‬

‫ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﻫﺎﯼ ‪ HVAC‬ﻣﻨﺎﺳــﺐ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ‬

‫ﮐﻪ ﻋﺒــﺎﺭﺕ ‪ True RMS‬ﺑــﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤــﺮﺍﻩ ﻧﺨﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺩﺍﺷــﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﮔﺮ ﺩﻗﺖ‬

‫ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎﺕ ﺗﻘﺮﯾﺒﯽ ﺯﯾﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪:‬‬

‫ﺣﮏ ﻧﺸــﺪﻩ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ ،‬ﺷــﺪﺕ ﺟﺮﯾــﺎﻥ ﻭ‬

‫ﻭﺳــﯿﻠﻪ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﮐﻤﺘﺮ‬

‫ﺩﺍﻣﻨﻪ‪:‬‬

‫ﻭﻟﺘﺎﮊ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫــﺎﯼ ‪ AC‬ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮ ﻣﺒﻨﺎﯼ ‪0.707‬‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﺣﺪ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪ ،‬ﻧﻤﯽﺗــﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ‬

‫ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﻭﻟﺘﺎﮊ‪:‬‬

‫ﺣﺪﺍﮐﺜﺮ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﻨﺤﻨﯽ ﺳﯿﻨﻮﺳــﯽ ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﻣﻘﺎﺩﯾﺮ ﮐﺎﺭﮐﺮﺩ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬

‫‪ 0‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 600‬ﻭﻟﺖ‬

‫ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺗﺠﻬﯿﺰﺍﺕ‬

‫ﮐــﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻓﯽ ﺍﮔﺮ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺩﻗﺖ ﺑﯿﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺪ‬

‫‪ 0‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 300‬ﻭﻟﺖ‬

‫ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻧﯿﮑﯽ ﺍﻣــﺮﻭﺯﯼ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﻣﺤﺮﮎﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪ ﺍﺿﺎﻓﯽ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ‬

‫‪ 0‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 150‬ﻭﻟﺖ‬

‫ﻓﺮﮐﺎﻧﺲ ﻣﺘﻐﯿﺮ )‪ (VFD‬ﻣﻮﺝ ﺳﯿﻨﻮﺳــﯽ‬

‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫــﺪ ﺩﺍﺷــﺖ‪ ،‬ﺿﻤﻦ ﺁﻥ ﮐــﻪ ﭼﻨﯿﻦ‬

‫ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺷﺪﺕ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺗﻮﺳــﻂ ﻣﻨﺒﻊ ﺗﻐﺬﯾﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺷﮑﻞ‬

‫ﻭﺳﯿﻠﻪﺍﯼ ﻇﺮﺍﻓﺖ ﺑﯿﺸﺘﺮﯼ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺑﺎ‬

‫‪ 0‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 300‬ﺁﻣﭙﺮ‬

‫ﻣﺘــﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺧــﺎﺭﺝ ﻭ ﺩﭼــﺎﺭ ﺍﻧﺤﺮﺍﻑ‬

‫ﺩﻗﺖ ﺑﺴﯿﺎﺭ ﺑﯿﺸﺘﺮﯼ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﯼ ﮐﺮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫‪ 0‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 100‬ﺁﻣﭙﺮ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﭼﻨﯿﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻌﯽ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﻭﺳــﺎﯾﻞ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺩﯾﺠﯿﺘﺎﻝ‪،‬‬

‫‪ 0‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 40‬ﺁﻣﭙﺮ‬

‫ﻭﺳﺎﯾﻞ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﮐﻪ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﯿﺖ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ‬

‫ﻭﻟــﺖ ‪ -‬ﺁﻣﭙﺮﻣﺘــﺮﯼ ﮐــﻪ ﺩﺭ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫‪ 0‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 15‬ﺁﻣﭙﺮ‬

‫ﻣﻘﺎﺩﯾﺮ ﻣﯿﺎﻧﮕﯿﻦ ﺭﺍ ﻧﺪﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ﻣﻮﺟﺐ‬

‫‪ HVAC‬ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ ﺧﻄﺎﯼ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﻮﺟﻬﯽ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﻘﺮﯾﺒﯽ ﺯﯾﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪:‬‬

‫ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎﯼ ‪ AC‬ﻣﻘﺎﺩﯾﺮ ﻣﻮﺝﻫﺎﯼ ﺳﯿﻨﻮﺳﯽ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﺕ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﻭ ﻭﻟﺘﺎﮊ ﺩﺍﯾﻤﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺗﻐﯿﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ ،‬ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﯾﻦ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈــﻮﺭ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ‬ ‫ﺩﻗﯿﻖ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺷــﺪﺕ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﻭ ﻭﻟﺘﺎﮊ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﯾــﺪ ﻣﯿﺎﻧﮕﯿﻦ ﮐﻠﯿــﻪ ﻣﻘﺎﺩﯾﺮ ﺑــﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ‬

‫ﻋﺒــﺎﺭﺕ ﺟﺬﺭ ﻣﯿﺎﻧﮕﯿﻦ ﻣﺮﺑﻌﺎﺕ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺩﻗـﺖ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿـﺮﯼ‪ ±3% :‬ﺩﺍﻣﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﻣﺪﺭﺝ‬ ‫ﺩﻗﺖ ﻣﻘﺎﺩﯾــﺮ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﺩﺍﻣﻨﻪ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ‪ RMS‬ﻧﺸــﺎﻥ ﻣﯽﺩﻫﻨﺪ‬

‫‪ 0‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 999‬ﻭﻟﺖ‬

‫ﻭﺳــﺎﯾﻞ ﺁﻧﺎﻟﻮﮒ ﺑﻪﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺩﺭﺻﺪﯼ ﺍﺯ ﮐﻞ‬

‫ﯾﮏ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺭﯾﺎﺿﯽ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬

‫‪ 0‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 999‬ﺁﻣﭙﺮ‬

‫ﺩﺍﻣﻨــﻪ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﻣــﺪﺭﺝ ﺑﯿﺎﻥ‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﯾﮏ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻘﺎﺩﯾﺮ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺷــﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ‪ AC‬ﺭﺍ ﺑــﻪ ﻣﻘﺎﺩﯾﺮ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ‪ DC‬ﺗﺒﺪﯾﻞ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻭﯾﮋﮔﯽ ﻣﻨﺤﺼﺮ‬

‫ﺩﻗـﺖ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿـﺮﯼ‪ ±2% :‬ﺑـﺎ ‪1‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ﺁﻧﺠﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺩﻗﺖ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺩﺭﺻﺪﯼ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺍﻣﻨﻪ ﺗﻌﺮﯾﻒ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪،‬‬

‫ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﻣﺜــﺎﻝ ﺍﮔــﺮ ﻭﻟﺘﺎﮊ ﯾــﮏ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﺑــﺎ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾــﺶ ﺩﺍﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﺳــﯿﻠﻪ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ‪،‬‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨــﮕﺎﻡ ﮐﺎﺭ ﺑــﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫــﺎﯼ‬

‫)ﺣﺪﺍﮐﺜــﺮ ﻣﻘــﺪﺍﺭﯼ ﮐــﻪ ﻣﻤﮑﻦ ﺍﺳــﺖ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 24‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪34‬‬

‫ﺩﻗــﺖ ﻣﻘﺎﺩﯾﺮ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ‬

‫ﺷــﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿــﺮﯼ ﮐﻤﯿﺖﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﻣﺠﺪﺩ ﻭﺳﺎﯾﻞ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻭ ﻧﻮﻉ‬

‫ﻣﯽﯾﺎﺑﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﮔﺮ ﺩﻗﺖ ﯾﮏ ﻭﺳﯿﻠﻪ‬

‫ﮐﻮﭼﮏﺗﺮ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺗﻘﺴــﯿﻤﺎﺕ ﺑﯿﺸــﺘﺮ ﺑﺮ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺑﺴﺘﮕﯽ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﮔﺮ ﻭﺳﯿﻠﻪ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿــﺮﯼ ‪ ±3%‬ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎ ﺩﺍﻣﻨﻪ ‪ 0‬ﺗﺎ‬

‫ﺭﻭﯼ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﻣﺪﺭﺝ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﺶ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﯾﺎﻓﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺩﺭ ﺣﯿﻦ ﮐﺎﺭ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺳﺖ ﺷﻤﺎ ﺑﺮ‬

‫‪ 600‬ﻭﻟﺖ‪ ،‬ﺩﻗــﺖ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﻭﻟﺘﺎﮊ ‪240‬‬

‫ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻫﻢ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺍﻣﻨﻪ ‪ 0‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 600‬ﻭﻟﺖ‬

‫ﺯﻣﯿﻦ ﺑﯿﻔﺘﺪ ﯾﺎ ﻫﺮ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺿﺮﺑﻪﺍﯼ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬

‫ﻭﻟﺖ‪ ±18V ،‬ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ = ‪(600×0.03‬‬

‫ﻭ ﻫــﻢ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺍﻣﻨــﻪ ‪ 0‬ﺗــﺎ ‪ 150‬ﻭﻟﺖ ﺍﺯ ﮐﻞ‬

‫ﺷﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺻﺤﺖ ﮐﺎﺭﮐﺮﺩ ﺁﻥ ﭘﯿﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬

‫)‪ ،18.0‬ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟــﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺍﮔــﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺍﻣﻨﻪ ‪ 0‬ﺗﺎ‬

‫ﻓﻀﺎﯼ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﻣﺪﺭﺝ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺠــﺪﺩ ﺣﺘﻤــﺎ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺪﯾﻦ‬

‫‪ 300‬ﻭﻟﺖ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﻮﺩ ﺩﻗﺖ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ‬ ‫‪ ±9V‬ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ )‪.(300×0.03 = 9‬‬

‫ﺭﻭﺵ ﺍﺳـﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻭﻟـﺖ ‪ -‬ﺁﻣﭙﺮﻣﺘـﺮ‬ ‫ﺁﻧﺎﻟﻮﮒ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻭﻟﺖ ‪ -‬ﺁﻣﭙﺮﻣﺘﺮﻫﺎﯼ ﺁﻧﺎﻟﻮﮒ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﯾﺴــﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺩﯾﺠﯿﺘﺎﻝ ﻣﺴــﺘﻠﺰﻡ‬ ‫ﺩﻗﺖ ﺑﯿﺸﺘﺮﯼ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﭘﯿﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎﺭﮔﯿﺮﯼ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺖ ‪ -‬ﺁﻣﭙﺮﻣﺘﺮﻫﺎﯼ ﺁﻧﺎﻟﻮﮒ ﺭﻭﺵ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺻﺤﯿﺢ ﺍﺯ ﮐﻠﯿﺪ ﺗﻐﯿﯿﺮ ﺩﺍﻣﻨﻪ ﺭﺍ ﯾﺎﺩ ﺑﮕﯿﺮﯾﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺻﻮﺭﺗﯽ ﮐﻪ ﻫﯿﭻ ﺩﯾﺪﯼ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﻭﻟﺘﺎﮊ ﯾﺎ ﺷــﺪﺕ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﯾﮏ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﯾﺪ‪،‬‬

‫ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﯾﻦ ﺩﺭﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺍﻣﻨﻪ ‪ 0‬ﺗﺎ‬ ‫‪ 600‬ﻭﻟﺖ ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﺑﯿﻦ ﺗﻘﺴــﯿﻢﺑﻨﺪﯼﻫﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﺻــﻮﺭﺕ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺑــﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ ﺻﻔﺤــﻪ ﻣﺪﺭﺝ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﺸــﺘﺮ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﻟﯿﻞ ﺍﯾﻦ ﮐﻪ ﺗﻮﺻﯿﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﯽﮐﻨﯿﻢ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﻧﯿﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻡ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﻣﺪﺭﺝ ﻗــﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﯿﺮﺩ ﻧﯿﺰ ﻫﻤﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺁﻧﺠﺎﯾــﯽ ﮐــﻪ ﺩﻗــﺖ ﻭﺳــﺎﯾﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿــﺮﯼ ﺁﻧﺎﻟﻮﮒ ﺩﺭﺻــﺪﯼ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺍﻣﻨﻪ‬

‫ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧﯿﺪ ﻣﻘﺎﺩﯾﺮ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﯾﮏ ﻭﺳﯿﻠﻪ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺻﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺭﮐــﺮﺩ ﺁﻥ ﻣﻄﺌﻤﻦ ﻫﺴــﺘﯿﺪ ﻣﻘﺎﯾﺴــﻪ‬ ‫ﮐﻨﯿﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺧﺎﻃﺮ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﯿﺪ ﮐﻪ ﭘﯿﺶ ﺍﺯ ﻫﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻭﻟﺖ ‪ -‬ﺁﻣﭙﺮﻣﺘﺮﻫﺎﯼ ﺁﻧﺎﻟﻮﮒ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺻﻔﺮ ﮐﻨﯿــﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺻﻔﺮ ﮐﺮﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺳــﺎﯾﻞ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺁﻧﺎﻟــﻮﮒ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﻋﻘﺮﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺁﻥﻫﺎﺳــﺖ‪ ،‬ﻫﺮﭼــﻪ ﺩﺍﻣﻨــﻪ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ‬

‫ﻧﺸــﺎﻧﮕﺮ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺳــﯿﻢﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﮐﻮﭼﮏﺗﺮ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ ﺩﻗﺖ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮ‬

‫ﺭﺍﺑﻂ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﮐﺎﻣﻼ ﺟﺪﺍ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ‬

‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺻﻔﺮ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻝ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺻﻔﺮ‬

‫ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍ ﺑﯿﺸــﺘﺮﯾﻦ ﺩﺍﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﻤﮑﻦ ﺭﺍ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ‬

‫ﺑﺎﺯ ﻫﻢ ﺗﻮﺻﯿﻪ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﯿﻢ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ‬

‫ﮐــﺮﺩﻥ ﻭﺳــﺎﯾﻞ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﯾــﮏ ﭘﯿﭻ ﯾﺎ‬

‫ﮐﻨﯿــﺪ ﺗﺎ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺣﺪﻭﺩﯼ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺳــﺖ‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻭﺳــﺎﯾﻞ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺁﻧﺎﻟﻮﮒ‬

‫ﮐﻠﯿﺪ ﻣﺨﺼﻮﺹ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﯿﺎﻭﺭﯾﺪ ﻭ ﺳــﭙﺲ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻐﯿﯿﺮ ﺩﺍﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ‬

‫ﻣﺮﺍﻗﺐ ﺧﻄﺎﯼ ﺩﯾﺪ ﺑﺎﺷﯿﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﯾﻦ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﺧﺎﻃﺮ ﺩﺍﺷــﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷــﯿﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺍﮔﺮ ﻭﺳﯿﻠﻪ‬

‫ﺩﻗﯿــﻖ ﺭﺍ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﮐﻨﯿــﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﭼﻨﯿﻦ‬

‫ﺧﻮﺍﻧﺪﻥ ﻣﻘﺎﺩﯾﺮ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺣﺘﻤﺎ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪،‬‬

‫ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻌــﯽ ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﯾــﯽ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻭ‬

‫ﺭﻭﺑﺮﻭ ﻭ ﻫﻢ ﺳــﻄﺢ ﺑﺎ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﻣﺪﺭﺝ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥ‬

‫ﺣﺘــﺎ ﺻﻔﺮ ﮐﺮﺩﻥ ﺁﻥ ﺿﺎﻣﻦ ﺻﺤﯿﺢ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺩﻗﯿﻖ ﻭﻟﺘﺎﮊ ﯾﺎ ﺷــﺪﺕ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ‬

‫ﻧــﮕﺎﻩ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ ﻭ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺭﺍ‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﭘﺎﯾﯿﻦﺗﺮﯾــﻦ ﺩﺍﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﺳــﯿﻠﻪ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ‬

‫ﻣﻘﺎﺩﯾﺮ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻧﺨﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﺨﻮﺍﻧﯿﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭﺻﻮﺭﺗﯽ ﮐﻪ ﭼﺸﻢ ﺷﻤﺎ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻧﮑﻨﯿﺪ‪ ،‬ﺯﯾﺮﺍ‪:‬‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﻋﻘﺮﺑﻪ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﻣﺪﺭﺝ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺯﺍﻭﯾﻪﺩﺍﺭ‬

‫ﺩﺭﺻﻮﺭﺗﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺍﻣﻨﻪﺍﯼ ﮐﻪ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ‬

‫ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ ﻣﻤﮑﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ‬

‫ﮐﺮﺩﻩﺍﯾﺪ ﺑﯿﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺪ ﭘﺎﯾﯿﻦ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪ ،‬ﻋﻘﺮﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼﺷﺪﻩ ﺭﺍ ﮐﻤﺘﺮ ﯾﺎ ﺑﯿﺸﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻧﭽﻪ‬

‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﻣﺪﺭﺝ ﺑﻪ ﺷﺪﺕ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﯼ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ‬

‫ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﻣﺪﺭﺝ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ‬

‫ﻣــﺪﺭﺝ ﺑﺮﺧــﻮﺭﺩ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻣﺴــﺎﻟﻪ‬

‫ﺑﺨﻮﺍﻧﯿﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺭﻭﺵ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨــﮕﺎﻡ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻭﺳــﺎﯾﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺩﯾﺠﯿﺘﺎﻝ ﻭ ﺁﻧﺎﻟﻮﮒ ﻧﮑﺎﺕ ﺯﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﯿﺪ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﺭﺳﺎﻧﺪﻥ ﺧﻄﺎﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﻭﻟــﺖ ‪ -‬ﺁﻣﭙﺮﻣﺘﺮﻫــﺎﯼ ﺁﻧﺎﻟﻮﮒ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻟﯽ‪ ،‬ﻫﺮ ﮐﻤﯿﺖ ﺭﺍ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﺩﻭ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻪ‬

‫ﺻــﻮﺭﺕ ﺩﻭﺭﻩﺍﯼ ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ ﺷــﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﮐﻨﯿــﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭﺻﻮﺭﺗﯽ ﮐﻪ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ‬

‫ﺩﺍﻣﻨــﻪ ﮐﻮﭼﮏﺗﺮ ﺗﻨﻬــﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ‬

‫ﮐﻠﯽ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ ﻭﺳــﺎﯾﻞ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﻭ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ﺩﻭ ﺑﺎﺭ ﯾﮑﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﻮﺩ‬

‫ﺩﺳﺖﯾﺎﺑﯽ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻗﺖ ﺑﯿﺸﺘﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ‬

‫ﺗﺎﺭﯾــﺦ ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ ﻣﺠﺪﺩ ﺁﻥﻫــﺎ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﻣﻌﻨﯽ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ‬

‫ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﯿﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﮐﻠﯽ‬

‫ﺗﻤﺎﻣﯽ ﻭﺳــﺎﯾﻞ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﻗﯿﺪ ﺷــﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺻﺤﯿﺢ ﻭ ﻗﺎﺑــﻞ ﺗﮑﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﻫﺮﭼﻪ ﺩﺍﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﺳﯿﻠﻪ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﺗﺮ‬

‫ﻓﺎﺻﻠــﻪ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﯽ ﻣــﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ‬

‫ﺻﻮﺭﺗــﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺩﻭ ﻣﻘــﺪﺍﺭ ﺑﺎ ﻫﻢ ﺗﻔﺎﻭﺕ‬

‫ﻣﻤﮑﻦ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻣﻨﺠﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺁﺳﯿﺐ ﺩﯾﺪﻥ ﻭ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺭ ﺍﻓﺘﺎﺩﻥ ﻭﺳﯿﻠﻪ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 25‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪34‬‬

‫ﻭ ﻭﺳﯿﻠﻪ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺳﺖ ﺑﮕﯿﺮﯾﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿــﺮﯼ ﻭﻟﺘــﺎﮊ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﺳــﻪ ﻓﺎﺯ ﻧﯿﺰ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧﯿﺪ ﺍﺯ ﻫﻤﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺵ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﺳﻪ ﻓﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﮕﻮﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (4‬ﺍﺭﺍﯾﻪ‬ ‫ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ ،‬ﻣﻘﺎﺩﯾﺮ ﻭﻟﺘﺎﮊ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﭼﭗ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺳﺖ ﺑﺨﻮﺍﻧﯿﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑــﺎ ﺍﺗﺼــﺎﻝ ﺑﺴــﺖ ﺳﻮﺳــﻤﺎﺭﯼ‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (3‬ﭼﮕﻮﻧﮕﯽ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺘﺎﮊ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ‬

‫ﺑــﻪ ﺳــﯿﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﺷــﺪﺕ ﺟﺮﯾــﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﮐﻨﯿــﺪ )ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ ‪ .(5‬ﻧﮑﺎﺗﯽ ﮐﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺷﺪﺕ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ‬

‫ﺩﺍﺷــﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺎ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﯽ‬

‫ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﯿﺮﺩ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺗﻨﺪ ﺍﺯ‪:‬‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (4‬ﻭﻟﺘﺎﮊ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺮﺗﯿﺐ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﺩﺍﻣــﻪ ﺩﻫﯿﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺑــﺎ ﺩﻭ ﺑــﺎﺭ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ‬

‫ﺑﺴــﺖ ﺳﻮﺳﻤﺎﺭﯼ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﮔﻮﻧﻪﺍﯼ ﺩﺭ‬

‫‪ -‬ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﯿﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﯿﺐ‪ ،‬ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ ﺳــﻪ ﺣﻠﻘﻪ‬

‫ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻟﯽ ﺑﻪ ﯾﮏ ﻧﺘﯿﺠﻪ ﯾﮑﺴﺎﻥ ﺩﺳﺖ ﭘﯿﺪﺍ‬

‫ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﻫﯿﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺳﯿﻢ ﺭﺳﺎﻧﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺑﺴﺖ ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﺳﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺷﺪﻥ‬

‫ﮐﻨﯿﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺮﮐﺰﯼ ﺑﺴﺖ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﯿﺮﺩ )ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ ‪.(5‬‬

‫ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺷﺪﺕ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿــﺮﯼ ﻭﻟﺘــﺎﮊ‪ ،‬ﻻﺯﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ ﺗﺎ ﺩﻭ ﺳﺮ ﺳــﯿﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺭﺍﺑﻂ ﻭﻟﺖﻣﺘﺮ‬

‫ﺍﻃﻤﯿﻨــﺎﻥ ﺣﺎﺻــﻞ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺳــﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺖﻫﺎﯼ ﺳﻮﺳﻤﺎﺭﯼ ﮐﺎﻣﻼ ﺗﻤﯿﺰ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﺗﺸــﺨﯿﺺ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫــﺎﯼ ﺑــﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻣﯽﺗــﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﺯ ﯾﮏ ﺍﻫﻢﻣﺘﺮ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﮐﺮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺍﯾﻦ ﮐﺎﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﮔﯿﺮﻩﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺑﺴﺖﻫﺎﯼ ﺳﻮﺳﻤﺎﺭﯼ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﮐﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺴﺘﻪ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻣﺖ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ‬

‫ﻗﻔﻞﺷــﻮﻧﺪﻩﺍﯼ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻧﻤﻮﻧــﻪ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﺷﺪﻩﺍﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺭﺍ ﻧﯿــﺰ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﭼﻨﯿــﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻌﯽ ﺑﺎ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (3‬ﻧﺸــﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﺪﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺗﯿﺐ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧﯿﺪ ﯾﮑﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺳﯿﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺭﺍﺑﻂ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﻧﻤﺎﯾﯿﺪ ﻭ ﺳــﯿﻢ ﺭﺍﺑﻂ ﺩﻭﻡ‬

‫ﺗــﺎ ﺟﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﺁﻥ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‬

‫ﺩﺍﺩﻥ ﮐﻠﯿــﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏﮐﻨﻨــﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ‪Ω‬‬

‫ﺳﯿﻢﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﮐﺮﺩﻩﺍﯾﺪ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺎﯾﺮ‬

‫ﻭﺳــﯿﻠﻪ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿــﺮﯼ ﺗﺒﺪﯾﻞ ﺑــﻪ ﺍﻫﻢﻣﺘﺮ‬

‫ﺳﯿﻢﻫﺎ ﺟﺪﺍ ﻧﮕﻪ ﺩﺍﺭﯾﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨــﮕﺎﻡ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿــﺮﯼ ﺷــﺪﺕ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﺳــﻪ ﻓــﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﻫﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺷﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (4‬ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ ﺩﻭ ﺣﻠﻘﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺖ ﺷﺪﺕ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﻧﯿﺰ ﺩﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨــﮕﺎﻡ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿــﺮﯼ ﺷــﺪﺕ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥﻫــﺎﯼ ﭘﺎﯾﯿــﻦ‪ ،‬ﺳــﯿﻢ ﺭﺍﺑــﻂ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺻــﻮﺭﺕ ﺣﻠﻘﻪ ﺑــﻪ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺑﺴــﺖ ﺑﭙﯿﭽﯿﺪ ﺗﺎ‬ ‫ﺷــﺪﺕ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺗﻘﻮﯾﺖ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ ﺑﺎ ﺩﻗﺖ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮﯼ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺳــﺖ‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (5‬ﭼﮕﻮﻧﮕﯽ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺑﺴﺖﻫﺎﯼ ﺳﻮﺳﻤﺎﺭﯼ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺷﺪﺕ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ‬

‫ﺁﯾﺪ )ﺗﺼﻮﯾــﺮ ‪ .(6‬ﺩﺭ ﭼﻨﯿﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻌﯽ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﯿﺪ ﮐﻪ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﯾﺠــﺎﺩ ﺩﻭ ﺣﻠﻘــﻪ ﺑــﻪ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺑﺴــﺖ‬‫ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﺩﻭ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺷﺪﻥ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺷﺪﺕ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (6‬ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺷﺪﺕ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥﻫﺎﯼ ﭘﺎﯾﯿﻦ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺗﻘﻮﯾﺖ‬ ‫ﮐﺮﺩﻥ ﺷﺪﺕ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺳﯿﻢ ﺭﺳﺎﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﭼﻨﺪﯾﻦ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺑﺴﺖ ﺑﭙﯿﭽﯿﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ‪ .‬ﺳﺎﺩﻩﺗﺮﯾﻦ ﺭﻭﺵ‬

‫ﺍﻃﻤﯿﻨــﺎﻥ ﺣﺎﺻــﻞ ﮐﻨﯿــﺪ ﮐــﻪ‬

‫ﺑﺴــﯿﺎﺭﯼ ﺍﺯ ﻭﻟــﺖ ‪ -‬ﺁﻣﭙﺮﻣﺘﺮﻫــﺎ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﯿﺖ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 26‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪34‬‬

‫ﻓﺮﮐﺎﻧﺲ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻣﺖ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺭﺍ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﮐﺮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﻫــﺮ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺗﻮﺻﯿﻪ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﯿﻢ ﭘﯿﺶ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻮﻟﺘﯽﻣﺘﺮ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺳﺎﯾﺮ ﻭﺳﺎﯾﻞ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ‬

‫ﺳــﺎﺯﻧﺪﻩ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻗﺖ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﻪ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ‪ .‬ﺭﻭﺵ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺑﺴﯿﺎﺭﯼ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺖ ‪ -‬ﺁﻣﭙﺮﻣﺘﺮ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻮﻟﺘﯽﻣﺘﺮ ﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﺑﻪ ﮐﻤﯿﺘﯽ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺳــﯿﻠﻪ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ ﺍﺳﺖ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺧﻮﺍﻫﯿــﻢ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿــﺮﯼ ﮐﻨﯿﻢ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ‬

‫ﮐﻪ ﺗﮑﻨﯿﺴﯿﻦﻫﺎﯼ ‪ HVAC‬ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ﺁﻧﺠﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﻣﻮﻟﺘﯽﻣﺘﺮﻫﺎ ﻋﻤﺪﺗﺎ‬

‫ﻣﯽﮐﻨﻨــﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺗﮑﻨﯿﺴــﯿﻦﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻤﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﯼ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫‪ HVAC‬ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺳــﺎﯾﺮ ﻭﺳﺎﯾﻞ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ‬

‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﯽ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﮐﺮﺩ‪،‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ ﮐﻪ ﻣﻤﮑﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺩﺭ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﻫﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺹ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ﻧﯿﺰ ﺁﺷﻨﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﺎﻓﯽ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (7‬ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪﺍﯼ ﺍﺯ ﯾﮏ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻟﺘﯽﻣﺘﺮ‬

‫ﻣﯽﮐﻨﯿﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﮐﻠﯽ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬

‫ﻣﻮﻟﺘﯽﻣﺘــﺮ ﯾﮏ ﻭﺳــﯿﻠﻪ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﻣﻮﻟﺘﯽﻣﺘﺮ ﻧﯿﺰ ﺭﺍﻫﮑﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻧﮑﺎﺕ ﺍﯾﻤﻨﯽ‬

‫ﭼﻨﺪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ‬

‫ﻣﻄﺮﺡ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﻗﺴــﻤﺖﻫﺎﯼ ﻗﺒﻠﯽ ﺍﯾﻦ‬

‫ﺁﺯﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫــﺎﯼ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬

‫ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻗﺖ ﺭﻋﺎﯾﺖ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﮐــﺮﺩ )ﺗﺼﻮﯾــﺮ ‪ .(7‬ﻗﺎﺑﻠﯿﺖﻫﺎﯼ ﻫﺮ ﯾﮏ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﻭﺳﯿﻠﻪ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻣﻮﻟﺘﯽﻣﺘﺮﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺪﻝ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺑﺴﺘﮕﯽ‬

‫ﻭﺍﺕﺳﻨﺞ ﯾﮑﯽ ﺍﺯ ﻭﺳﺎﯾﻞ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺑــﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﮐﻠــﯽ ﻣﻮﻟﺘﯽﻣﺘﺮ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ‬

‫ﺗــﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐــﻪ ﮔﺎﻫــﯽ ﺍﻭﻗــﺎﺕ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥ‬

‫ﺧﺎﺻــﯽ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗــﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﯽﮔﯿﺮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﺠﺰﯾﻪﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﻧﯿﺰ ﮔﻔﺘﻪ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷــﯿﺪ ﮐﻪ ﻣﻮﻟﺘﯽﻣﺘﺮﯼ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﺍﯾﻦ ﻭﺳــﯿﻠﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿــﺮﯼ ﮐﯿﻠﻮﻭﺍﺕ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﯾﺸــﮕﺎﻩ ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻧﯿﮑﯽ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﻫﺎﯼ ‪ HVAC‬ﻣﻨﺎﺳــﺐ ﺍﺳﺖ‬

‫ﺷﺪﻩ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻗﺖ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺍﻃﻤﯿﻨﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺭﺳﺘﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬

‫ﻣﻮﻟﺘﯽﻣﺘﺮ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﯽﮔﯿﺮﺩ ﺑﺎ ﻣﻮﻟﺘﯽﻣﺘﺮﯼ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﭘﯿﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (8‬ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪﺍﯼ ﺍﺯ ﯾﮏ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺕﺳﻨﺞ‬

‫ﻣﺼﺮﻓﯽ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﯽ ﯾﺎ ﺿﺮﯾﺐ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﺕﺳــﻨﺠﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (8‬ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﺑﻠﯿﺖ‬

‫ﺗﻔــﺎﻭﺕ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﻣﻮﻟﺘﯽﻣﺘﺮﻫــﺎﯼ ﺑﺎ ﮐﯿﻔﯿﺖ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﯼ ﻭ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﯽ ﺑﺮ‬

‫ﺑﺎﻻ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﺑﻠﯿﺖ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿــﺮﯼ ﻣﻘﺎﺩﯾﺮ ‪RMS‬‬

‫ﺣﺴــﺐ ﮐﯿﻠﻮ ﻭﻟﺖ ﺁﻣﭙﺮ )‪ (kVA‬ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ‬

‫ﺷﺪﺕ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﻭ ﻭﻟﺘﺎﮊ ﺭﺍ ﻧﯿﺰ ﺩﺍﺭﺍ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑــﻪ ﻃــﻮﺭ ﮐﻠــﯽ ﮐﻤﯿﺖﻫﺎﯾــﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﻫــﺮ ﺩﻭﯼ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫــﺎﯼ ‪ AC‬ﻭ ‪ DC‬ﻗﺎﺑﻞ‬

‫ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎﯼ ‪ AC‬ﻭ ‪ DC‬ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﻭﺍﺕﺳﻨﺠﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﯾﮏ ﻣﻮﻟﺘﯽﻣﺘﺮ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﮐﺮﺩ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺗﻨﺪ‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (9‬ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﯿﺖ‬

‫ﺍﺯ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿــﺮﯼ ﻣﻘﺎﺩﯾــﺮ ‪ RMS‬ﺭﺍ ﻧﯿﺰ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺘﺎﮊ‬

‫ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩﺍﺭ ﺑــﻮﺩﻥ ﺍﺯ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﯿــﺖ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ‬

‫ﺷﺪﺕ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ‬

‫ﻣﻘﺎﺩﯾﺮ ‪ RMS‬ﺗﻀﻤﯿﻦﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻣﺖ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﮐﺘﺎﻧﺲ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﭘﺎﺳﺘﺎﻧﺲ‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (9‬ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪﺍﯼ ﺍﺯ ﯾﮏ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺕﺳﻨﺞ ‪RMS‬‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﺣﺘــﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ ﺷــﻮﮎ ﯾﺎ ﺍﻧﺤﺮﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻣــﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ‪ ،‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﯽ ﮐﻤﯿﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‪.‬‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 27‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪34‬‬

‫ﻓﻦﺁﻭﺭﻯ‬

‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈـﺎﺕ ﺩﺭ ﻓﺮﺁﯾﻨـﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ ﺩﻣﭙﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺯﯾﺮ ﺑﺎﯾــﺪ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﻪ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﮕﯿﺮﻧــﺪ‪ .‬ﻫﺮ ﮐــﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﺯ ﺍﯾــﻦ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ ﺩﻣﭙﺮﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﻯ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﭼــﻪ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﮔﺸــﺘﺎﻭﺭ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧــﺪﺍﺯ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﻭ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ ﺑﻬﺘﺮﯾﻦ ﺷــﯿﻮﻩ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺍﻃﻤﯿﻨﺎﻥ‬

‫ﺩﻣﭙﺮ ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﻭ ﺩﻗﯿﻖ ﺗﺤﻮﯾﻞ‬

‫ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﮐــﺮﺩﻥ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﺻﺤﯿﺢ ﻭ ﻧﺼﺐ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺩﻫﺪ؟‬

‫ﺩﺭﺳﺖ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﺩﯾﮕﺮ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ ﺩﻣﭙﺮ‬

‫ﺩﻣﭙﺮ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ ﺩﻣﭙﺮﻫﺎﯼ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﯼ‬

‫ﺗﺎ ﺍﻭﺍﯾﻞ ﺳﺎﻝ ‪ 1990‬ﻣﯿﻼﺩﯼ ﺑﯿﺸﺘﺮ‬

‫ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺷﺪﻩﺍﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺩﺳــﺘﺮﺱ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺎﻣﯿﻦ ﻭ ﻧﺼﺐ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻫــﺎﯼ ﺩﻣﭙﺮ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﭼﻪ ﺷــﺨﺺ ﯾﺎ ﺷﺮﮐﺘﯽ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ ﺭﺍ‬

‫ﺍﯾﻦ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻫــﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻞ ﮐﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﻧﺼﺐ‬

‫ﺑﺎﺯﻭﯼ ﺍﻫﺮﻣﯽ ﻭ ﻣﯿﻠﻪ ﺭﺍﺑﻂ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺗﺒﺪﯾﻞ‬

‫ﺗﺎﻣﯿﻦ ﻭ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﮐﺮﺩ؟ ﺁﯾﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻞ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﮐﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪ‬

‫ﺣﺮﮐــﺖ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻧﯽ ﯾــﺎ ﺧﻄــﯽ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﯽ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﮐﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧــﻪ ﺭﻭﯼ ﺩﻣﭙﺮ ﻧﺼﺐ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ؟ ﯾﺎ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺻــﻮﺭﺕ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﯽ )ﺩﺭ ﻣﻌﺮﺽ‬

‫ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ ﺭﺍ ﺑــﻪ ﭼﺮﺧﺶ ‪ 90‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﺟﻬﺖ‬

‫ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺳــﺎﺯﻧﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﺩﯾﮕﺮ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﺟﺮﯾــﺎﻥ ﻫﻮﺍ( ﯾﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﯽ ﻧﺼﺐ‬

‫ﺭﺍﻫﺒــﺮﯼ ﺩﻣﭙﺮ ﺩﺍﺷــﺘﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻃﯽ ﺩﻫﻪﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﻣﺤﻞ ﺗﺎﻣﯿﻦ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ؟‬

‫ﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻧﺼﺐ ﺩﺭ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ‪ ،‬ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑﻪ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‬

‫ﮔﺬﺷــﺘﻪ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻫــﺎﯼ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑــﯽ ﺑــﺎ‬

‫ﺁﯾــﺎ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧــﺪﺍﺯ ﺑﻪ ﺻــﻮﺭﺕ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ‬

‫ﮐﻪ ﺩﻣﭙــﺮ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﯼ ﻏﻼﻑ ﯾﺎ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﮐﻨﺎﺭﯼ‬

‫ﭼﺮﺧﺶ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﯽ ‪ 90‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ‬

‫ﻣﺴــﺘﻘﯿﻢ ﺑــﺎ ﺷــﻔﺖ ﺩﻣﭙﺮ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﯾﺎ ﺑﺎ‬

‫ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ ﺗﺎ ﻣﺤــﻞ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺩﺭ ﺧــﺎﺭﺝ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝ‬

‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﯿﻢ ﺑﻪ ﺷﻔﺖ ﺩﻣﭙﺮ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﺷﺪﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻣﯿﻞﻟﻨﮓ ﯾــﺎ ﻣﯿﻠﻪ ﺭﺍﺑﻂ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﻭ ﺑﯿﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺴــﯿﺮ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﻫــﻮﺍ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﯾــﻦ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻫــﺎﯼ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ‬

‫ﺩﻣﭙﺮ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ؟‬

‫ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ ﺗﺎﻣﯿﻦ ﮐﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﯿﻢ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﮔﺴﺘﺮﺩﻩﺍﯼ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺟﺰﯾﯿــﺎﺕ ﺑﯿﺸــﺘﺮﯼ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺑﺮﺭﺳــﯽ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﯽﮔﯿﺮﻧــﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﯾﻦ ﻋﻮﺍﻣــﻞ ﺩﺭ ﺍﯾﻨﺠﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ‬

‫ﻣﺴﻮﻭﻝ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ‬

‫ﭼــﻪ ﻣﻨﺒﻌــﯽ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧــﺪﺍﺯ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻐﺬﯾﻪ‬

‫ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﯽ ﮐﻪ ﯾﮏ ﺗﮑﻨﺴﯿﻦ ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺺ‬

‫ﺭﺍ ﺑــﺎ ﺣﺬﻑ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺍﻫﺮﻡ ﯾﺎ ﻣﯿﻠﻪ ﺭﺍﺑﻂ‬

‫ﻣﯽﮐﻨﺪ؟ ﺁﯾﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺩﺳﺘﯽ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ‬

‫ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﮐــﺮﺩﻥ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ‬

‫ﻭ ﮔﺎﻫﯽ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺩﺷــﻮﺍﺭ ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ ﮐﺮﺩﻥ ﺍﯾﻦ‬

‫ﯾــﺎ ﻧﯿﻮﻣﺎﻧﯿﮑﯽ ﺍﺳــﺖ؟ ﺍﮔﺮ ﺑــﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬

‫‪ HVAC‬ﮐﻞ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﺳــﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬

‫ﻭﺳﺎﯾﻞ‪ ،‬ﺗﺴﻬﯿﻞ ﮐﺮﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ ،‬ﺁﯾــﺎ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻩ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ ﺩﻣﭙﺮ ﺭﺍ ﻧﯿﺰ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﯿﻢ‪ ،‬ﻫﻤﭽﻨﯿﻦ ﺍﯾﻦ‬

‫ﮐﺎﺭ ﺍﺯ ﻃــﺮﻑ ‪ NEMA‬ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﻣﺤﻞ ﻧﺼﺐ ﮐﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﺩﻣﭙﺮﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻃﻤﯿﻨﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﻣﯽﺩﻫﺪ ﮐﻪ ﮔﺸــﺘﺎﻭﺭ ﻣﻌﯿﻦ‬

‫ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﯾﺎ ﻧﻪ؟‬

‫ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﯼ ﺷﻔﺖ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﯽ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺎﺕ ﺩﻣﭙﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﺴــﺘﻘﯿﻢ‬

‫ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﺷــﻔﺖ ﺁﻥ ﺍﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﯾﻦ ﺍﻣﺮ‬

‫ﺩﻣﭙــﺮ ﭼﻪ ﻧﻮﻉ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻟــﯽ ﺭﺍ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﯽﺩﻫﺪ؟ ﺁﯾﺎ ﺩﻣﭙﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺩﻭ ﻭﺿﻌﯿﺘﯽ‬

‫ﺳﻔﺎﺭﺵ ﺩﺍﺩﻥ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬

‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻦ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ ﺑﺎ ﮔﺸــﺘﺎﻭﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﻣﺘﺤﺮﮎ ﯾﺎ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﺁﻣﺎﺩﻩ ﻭ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺷــﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻞ ﮐﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪ‬

‫ﺩﻣﭙﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺑــﺪﻭﻥ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑــﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ‬

‫ﺩﯾﮕﺮ ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺍﺳﺖ؟‬

‫ﺗﻮﺳــﻂ ﺳﺎﺯﻧﺪﻩ ﺩﻣﭙﺮ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﯼ ﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪ ﮐﻤﺘﺮ‬

‫ﺗﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺍﺳــﻄﻪ ﺁﺭﺍﯾﺶ ﻣﯿﻠﻪﺍﯼ‪ ،‬ﺳﺎﺩﻩ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﮐﺮﺩﻥ ﺩﻭﺭﻧﻤﺎﯾﯽ ﺍﺯ ﻓﺮﺁﯾﻨﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻧﻈﺮﯼ‪ ،‬ﺗﻤﺎﻣﯽ ﺳﺎﺯﻧﺪﮔﺎﻥ‬

‫ﻧﺤـﻮﻩ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧـﺪﺍﺯ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻣﭙﺮ‬ ‫)ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﯿﻢ ﺑﻪ ﺷﻔﺖ ﺩﻣﭙﺮ‬ ‫ﯾﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺳﯿﻠﻪ ﻣﯿﻠﻪ ﺭﺍﺑﻂ(‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 28‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪34‬‬

‫ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑﻪ ‪ 20-25psi‬ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﻫــﻮﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﮐﺎﺭ‬

‫ﺫﺍﺗﯽ ﺑــﺪﻭﻥ ﺧﺮﺍﺑﯽ ﻫﺴــﺘﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﺩﻟﯿﻞ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺴﯿﺎﺭﯼ ﺍﺯ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﮐﺮﺩﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﯾﮏ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ﻫﻮﺍﯾﯽ ﻣﻬﯿﺎ‬

‫ﺍﯾﻦﮐــﻪ ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻧﯿــﺮﻭ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﯿﺖ‬

‫ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑــﯽ ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻣﺴــﺘﻘﯿﻢ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺑــﻮﺩﻥ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺗﻤﯿــﺰ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻀﻤﯿﻦ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻭﻟﯿــﻪ ﺧــﻮﺩ ﭘــﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺬﻑ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﻫﻮﺍ‬

‫ﺩﻣﭙﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺱ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺍﮔﺮ ﭼﻨﯿﻦ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻤﯽ ﺍﺯ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‬

‫ﺑﺮﻣﯽﮔﺮﺩﻧــﺪ‪ .‬ﻓﻨﺮﻫﺎﯾــﯽ ﺑــﺎ ﻣﺤــﺪﻭﺩﻩ‬

‫ﭘﻨﯿﻮﻣﺎﺗﯿﮑﯽ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺑﯿﺸــﺘﺮ ﻗﺴــﻤﺖﻫﺎ‪،‬‬

‫ﯾﺎ ﺍﯾﻦﮐﻪ ﺑــﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺟﺰﯾﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ‬

‫‪ 5-10psi‬ﻭ ‪ 8-13psi‬ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﻭﺳﺎﯾﻞ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﯽ ﺑﺎ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﺧﻄﯽ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬

‫‪ HVAC‬ﻧﺼــﺐ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﯾــﻦ‬

‫ﭘﻨﯿﻮﻣﺎﺗﯿﮑــﯽ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﮐــﻪ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﯿﻦ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑﻪ ﺑــﺎﺯﻭﯼ ﺍﻫﺮﻣﯽ ﯾﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨــﺎﺏ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ ﭘﻨﯿﻮﻣﺎﺗﯿﮑﯽ ﯾﮏ ﮔﺰﯾﻨﻪ‬

‫ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻫــﺎﯼ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑــﯽ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻤﺎﻣــﯽ‬

‫ﻣﯿﻠﻪ ﺭﺍﺑﻂ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺩﻣﭙﺮ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳــﺐ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺷــﺘﻦ‬

‫ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﻫــﺎﯼ ﮐﻨﺘــﺮﻝ ﺭﻭﯼ ﺩﻣﭙــﺮ ﻧﺼﺐ‬

‫ﺁﯾـﺎ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧـﺪﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑـﯽ‪،‬‬ ‫ﭘﻨﯿﻮﻣﺎﺗﯿﮑﯽ ﯾﺎ ﺩﺳﺘﯽ ﺍﺳﺖ؟‬

‫ﻫﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻫــﺎﯼ ﭘﻨﯿﻮﻣﺎﺗﯿﮑﯽ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ‬

‫ﻣﯽﮐﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺍﮔــﺮ ﺩﻣﭙﺮ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐــﻪ ﺩﺭ ﯾﮏ‬

‫ﺩﺭﺳﺘﯽ ﻧﯿﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻫــﺎﯼ ﭘﻨﯿﻮﻣﺎﺗﯿﮑﯽ ﺑﻪ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ‬

‫ﻣﻮﻗﻌﯿﺖ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ ﺍﻭﻟﯿﻪ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﺷــﻮﺩ‬

‫ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﮔﺴﺘﺮﺩﻩﺍﯼ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﻣﯽﺩﻫﻨﺪ‬

‫)ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﯾــﮏ ﺩﻣﭙﺮ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﺩﻝﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ( ﯾﺎ ﺍﮔﺮ‬

‫ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻩ ﻧﯿﺮﻭﻫﺎﯼ ﻓﻨﺮﯼ ﻣﻨﺎﺳــﺒﯽ‬

‫ﻣﻮﻗﻌﯿﺖ ﺁﻥ ﯾﮏ ﯾﺎ ﺩﻭ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺳﺎﻝ‬

‫ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺭﺍﻫﺒﺮﯼ ﺩﻣﭙﺮ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﻐﯿﯿــﺮ ﻣﯽﮐﻨــﺪ )ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺗﻐﯿﯿــﺮ ﻭﺿﻌﯿﺖ‬

‫ﺍﯾﻦ ﻓﻨﺮﻫــﺎ ﺑﺎ ﻧﯿﺮﻭﻫﺎﯼ ﺑــﻪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺁﻣﺪﻩ‬

‫ﺗﺎﺑﺴــﺘﺎﻧﯽ ‪ -‬ﺯﻣﺴــﺘﺎﻧﯽ( ﯾﮏ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ ﺑﺎ‬

‫ﺗﻮﺳــﻂ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﺑــﻞ ﺩﯾﺎﻓﺮﺍﮔﻢ‬

‫ﻗﻔﻞ ﺩﺳﺘﯽ ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺭﺍ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧــﺪﺍﺯ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻠﻪ ﻣﯽﮐﻨــﺪ‪ .‬ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﯽ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﺍﮔــﺮ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ ﺑﺎﯾــﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺻــﻮﺭﺕ ﺧﻮﺩﮐﺎﺭ‬

‫ﺍﯾــﻦ ﻧﯿﺮﻭﯼ ﺩﯾﺎﻓﺮﺍﮔﻢ ﺍﺯ ﻧﯿﺮﻭﯼ ﻓﻨﺮ ﻓﺮﺍﺗﺮ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ‪ HVAC‬ﻋﻤــﻞ ﮐﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﯾﮏ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺭﻭﺩ‪ ،‬ﭘﯿﺴﺘﻮﻥ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﮐﺮﺩﻩ‪،‬‬

‫ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ ﯾﺎ ﭘﻨﯿﻮﻣﺎﺗﯿﮑﯽ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺑﺎﺯ ﻭ ﺑﺴــﺘﻪ ﺷــﺪﻥ ﺩﻣﭙﺮ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ‬

‫ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻫــﺎﯼ ﭘﻨﯿﻮﻣﺎﺗﯿﮑــﯽ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﯾﻦ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺷــﮑﺎﻝ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺘﻨﻮﻉ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺱ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﺪﻝﻫﺎﯼ ﺭﺍﯾﺞ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ﺁﻧﺠﺎﯾﯽ ﮐــﻪ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻫﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑــﯽ ﺑﺎ ﻭﻟﺘــﺎﮊ ﺗﻐﺬﯾــﻪ ‪ 24‬ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﯿﻢ ﻭ ‪ 120 ،24‬ﻭ ‪ 240‬ﻭﻟﺖ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻨﺎﻭﺏ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺱ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﻻﺯﻡ ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺘﺎﮊ ﻻﺯﻡ ﻫﻨــﮕﺎﻡ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺗﻌﯿﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺗﺮﺍﻧﺴــﻔﻮﺭﻣﺎﺗﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻥ ﺩﯾﮕــﺮ ﻭﻟﺘﺎﮊﻫﺎ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ‪ 575‬ﻭ ‪440‬‬ ‫ﺟﺮﯾــﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﻭﺏ ﻣــﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﻫﺴــﺘﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻫــﺎﯼ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺫﺍﺗﯽ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺭﯼ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺸﮑﻞ ﻭ ﺧﺮﺍﺑﯽ ﻧﯿﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺍﯼ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺎﺕ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻣﺸﮑﻞ‪ ،‬ﻣﺪﻝﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﺑﺎ ﻓﻨﺮ‬

‫ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻫــﺎﯼ ﭘﻨﯿﻮﻣﺎﺗﯿﮑــﯽ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ‬

‫ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺑﺮﮔﺸــﺖ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧﻨــﺪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﺤﺎﻅ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻋﻤﻠﮑـﺮﺩ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻟـﯽ ﺩﻣﭙـﺮ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ ‪ HVAC‬ﭼﯿﺴﺖ؟‬ ‫ﻗﺒــﻞ ﺍﺯ ﺍﯾﻦﮐــﻪ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ ﻣﻨﺎﺳــﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨــﺎﺏ ﺷــﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻋﻤﻠﮑــﺮﺩ ﺩﻣﭙــﺮ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺁﯾﺎ ﺩﻣﭙﺮ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﻮﺍ ﺩﺭ ﯾﮏ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺩﻟﺨﻮﺍﻩ ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎﺭ ﻣﯽﺭﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺳﭙﺲ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﯿﺖ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﻫﻤﯿﺸﻪ‬ ‫ﻗﻔــﻞ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ؟ ﺍﯾﻦﮔﻮﻧــﻪ ﺩﻣﭙﺮﻫــﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺩﻣﭙﺮﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﺩﻝﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪(1‬‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪(2‬‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑﻪ ﯾﮏ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﯿﺮﻩ ﺩﺳﺘﯽ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺁﯾــﺎ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺩﻣﭙــﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 29‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪34‬‬

‫ﮐﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺎﺯ ﺷــﻮﺩ ﺗﺎ ﺍﺟﺎﺯﻩ ﻭﺭﻭﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ‬

‫ﻭ ﺍﯾﻤﻦ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﮔﺮ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ‬

‫ﻭﺍﮊﻩﻫﺎﯼ ﺑﺴــﺘﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟــﺖ ﺧﺮﺍﺑﯽ )‪fail‬‬

‫ﻫــﻮﺍ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺪﻫﺪ ﻭ ﺁﯾﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﮐﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺴــﺘﻪ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺖ ﺑﻪ ﯾﮏ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ ﺑﺎ ﻓﻨﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ‬

‫‪ (closed‬ﻭ ﺑــﺎﺯ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟــﺖ ﺧﺮﺍﺑﯽ )‪fail‬‬

‫ﺷــﺪﻩ ﻭ ﻣﺴــﯿﺮ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺭﺍ ﻣﺴﺪﻭﺩ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﺪ؟‬

‫ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﻫﻤﺎﻥﻃﻮﺭ ﮐﻪ ﻗﺒﻼ ﺑﯿﺎﻥ ﺷﺪ‪،‬‬

‫‪ (open‬ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﯾــﻦ ﺍﻣــﺮ ﮐﻨﺘــﺮﻝ ﺩﻭ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﯿﺘﯽ ﺍﺳــﺖ‬

‫ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻫﺎﯼ ﭘﻨﯿﻮﻣﺎﺗﯿﮑــﯽ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﺫﺍﺗﯽ‬

‫ﻭ ﺍﮔــﺮ ﺍﯾــﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﮑــﺮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﻃــﻮﻝ ﯾﮏ ﯾﺎ‬

‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺧﻄﺎ ﻭ ﺍﯾﻤﻦ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺩﻣﭙﺮﻫــﺎﯼ ﺩﻭ ﻭﺿﻌﯿﺘــﯽ ﺑــﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻫﺎﯼ ﭘﻨﯿﻮﻣﺎﺗﯿﮑﯽ ﺑﺎ ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﺩﻥ‬

‫ﺩﻭ ﺑــﺎﺭ ﺗﮑــﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ )ﺗﻐﯿﯿــﺮ ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺣﺎﺕ ﻭ ﻭﺍﮊﻩﻫﺎﯼ ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎﺭ ﺭﻓﺘﻪ‬

‫ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ‪ 20-25psi‬ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺑﺎﺯ‬

‫ﺗﺎﺑﺴــﺘﺎﻧﯽ ‪ -‬ﺯﻣﺴــﺘﺎﻧﯽ(‪ ،‬ﯾــﮏ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺻﻨﻌﺖ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﻣﺒﻬﻢ‬

‫ﯾﺎ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺑﺴﺘﻪ‪،‬‬

‫ﺩﺳﺘﯽ ﻣﻨﺎﺳــﺐ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻫﺮ ﺣﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﮔﺮ‬

‫ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪ .‬ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﯽ ﮐﻪ ﯾــﮏ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ ﻧﺼﺐ‬

‫ﮐﺎﺭ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺳﻔﺎﺭﺵ ﺩﺍﺩﻥ ﺍﯾﻦ‬

‫ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺗﮑﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻨﻈﻢ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﯾﺎ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ )ﯾﺎ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ( ﺗﺎ ﺩﻣﭙﺮ‬

‫ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﻣﺸــﺨﺺ ﮐﺮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮﺩ‬

‫ﺗﻐﯿﯿﺮ ﻭﺿﻌﯿﺖ ﺧﻮﺩﮐﺎﺭ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ ،‬ﯾﮏ‬

‫ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﯿﺖ ﺑﺴــﺘﻪ ﺧــﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬

‫ﺁﻥﻫــﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺑﺎﺯ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺧﺮﺍﺑﯽ‪ ،‬ﯾﺎ‬

‫ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ ﺩﻭ ﻭﺿﻌﯿﺘﯽ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﺧﺘــﻼﻝ ﺩﺭ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﺑــﺮﻕ ﺑﺮﮔﺮﺩﺍﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﯾﮏ‬

‫ﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺧﺮﺍﺑﯽ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﺭﺍ ﺑــﺎ ﺣﺮﮐــﺖ ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﯿــﺖ ﺩﻟﺨﻮﺍﻩ‬

‫‪ (mally closed‬ﻧﺎﻣﯿــﺪﻩ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﻭﺿﯿﻌﺘﯽ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻭ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﮔﻮﻧﺎﮔﻮﻥ‬

‫ﺑﯿﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺑﺎﺯ ﻭ ﺑﺴــﺘﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ‪،‬‬

‫ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻋﮑﺲ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻧﺤﻮﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﻋﺎﺩﯼ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺱ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺳــﺎﺩﻩﺗﺮﯾﻦ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ‬

‫ﮐﻨﺘــﺮﻝ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﺪ؟ ﺍﯾــﻦ ﺭﻭﺵ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﺑﺎﺯ )‪ (Normally open‬ﻧﺎﻣﯿﺪﻩ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ ﺑﺎ ﻓﻨﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺑﺮﮔﺸــﺖ ﺩﻭ ﺳــﯿﻢ‬

‫ﻃﺮﯾــﻖ ﺳــﯿﮕﻨﺎﻝ ﺩﺭﯾﺎﻓﺘﯽ ﯾﺎ ﺗﻨﺎﺳــﺒﯽ‬

‫ﺍﯾﻦ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺣــﺎﺕ ﻫﯿﭻ ﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﯾﻦ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ ﺑﺎ ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺵ ﻭ ﺭﻭﺷﻦ‬

‫ﻧﺎﻣﯿﺪﻩ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﯾﮏ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻭﺍﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﻭﻟﯽ‬

‫ﺩﺭﮐــﯽ ﺭﺍ ﺑــﺎ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﯿﺖ ﻋــﺎﺩﯼ ﺩﻣﭙﺮ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﮐــﺮﺩﻥ ﮐﻠﯿــﺪ ﺑــﺮﻕ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﺎ ﺩﻗﺖ ﮐﻤﺘﺮ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﻧﺎﻡ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺷــﻨﺎﻭﺭﯼ‪،‬‬

‫ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﮐﺎﺭﮐﺮﺩ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ‪ HVAC‬ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ‬

‫ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺭﻭﺷﻦ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ‪ ،‬ﺩﻣﭙﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﻧﺪﺭﺕ ﺩﺭ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ‪ HVAC‬ﺗﺠﺎﺭﯼ‬

‫ﻧﻤﯽﮐﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺗﻨﻬــﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺗﯿﻢﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﻣﻮﻗﻌﯿﺖ ﮐﺎﺭ ﻣﯽﺭﺳــﺎﻧﺪ ﻭ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﯽ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﺟﺮﺍﯾــﯽ ﺩﺭﮔﯿــﺮ ﺑــﺎ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ‬

‫ﺑﺮﻕ ﻗﻄﻊ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﺮ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻗﻄﻊ ﺑﺮﻕ ﯾﺎ ﺩﯾﮕﺮ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ‬

‫ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺁﺷﻨﺎ ﺑﺎﺷــﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﭘﯿﺸﻨﻬﺎﺩ‬

‫ﻣﻮﻗﻌﯿﺖ ﻋﺎﺩﯼ ﯾﺎ ﺑﺴــﺘﻪ ﺑﺮ ﻣﯽﮔﺮﺩﺍﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﺿﻄــﺮﺍﺭﯼ‪ ،‬ﺁﯾﺎ ﺩﻣﭙﺮ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺑــﻪ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﯿﺖ‬

‫ﮐﺮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺟﻠﻮﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻬﻢ ﺍﺷﺘﺒﺎﻩ‪،‬‬

‫ﺍﻭﻟﯿﻪ ﺧﻮﺩ )ﺑﺎﺯ ﯾﺎ ﺑﺴــﺘﻪ( ﺑﺎﺯ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ؟ ﺍﮔﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﯾﻦﭼﻨﯿﻦ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﯾﮏ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺧﻄﺎ‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪(3‬‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪(4‬‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪(5‬‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺁﯾﺎ ﺩﻣﭙﺮ ﺩﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﯾﺎ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﻫﻮﺍ‬

‫ﺍﺗﺼــﺎﻝ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﻋﺎﺩﯼ ﺑﺴــﺘﻪ )‪Nor-‬‬

‫ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧــﺪﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑــﯽ ﺩﻣﭙﺮﻫــﺎﯼ ﺩﻭ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 30‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪34‬‬

‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﮔﺸﺘﺎﻭﺭﯼ ﻣﺤﺮﮎ ﺩﻣﭙﺮ‬ ‫ﺩﻣﭙﺮﻫﺎﯼ ﺗﯿﻐﻪ ﻣﺘﻘﺎﺑﻞ‬

‫ﺩﻣﭙﺮﻫﺎﯼ ﺗﯿﻐﻪ ﻣﻮﺍﺯﯼ‬

‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺁﺏﺑﻨﺪ‬

‫ﺑﺎ ﺁﺏﺑﻨﺪ ﻧﺸﺖ ﮐﻢ‬

‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺁﺏﺑﻨﺪ‬

‫ﺑﺎ ﺁﺏﺑﻨﺪ ﻧﺸﺖ ﮐﻢ‬

‫‪3in-lb/ft2‬‬

‫‪5in-lb/ft2‬‬

‫‪4in-lb/ft2‬‬

‫‪7in-lb/ft2‬‬

‫‪4.5in-lb/ft2‬‬

‫‪7.5in-lb/ft2‬‬

‫‪6in-lb/ft2‬‬

‫‪10.5inlb/ft2‬‬

‫‪6in-lb/ft2‬‬

‫‪10in-lb/ft2‬‬

‫‪8in-lb/ft2‬‬

‫‪14in-lb/ft2‬‬

‫ﺣﺪﺍﮐﺜﺮ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ‪ 2in.wg‬ﯾﺎ ﺣﺪﺍﮐﺜﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ‬ ‫‪1500fpm‬‬ ‫ﺣﺪﺍﮐﺜﺮ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ‪ 3in.wg‬ﯾﺎ ﺣﺪﺍﮐﺜﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ‬ ‫‪2500fpm‬‬ ‫ﺣﺪﺍﮐﺜﺮ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ‪ 4in.wg‬ﯾﺎ ﺣﺪﺍﮐﺜﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫‪3000fpm‬‬

‫ﺩﯾﮕﺮ ﺍﺷﮑﺎﻝ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬

‫ﺑﺴــﺘﻪ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻫﺮ ﺣﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺑﯿﺸﺘﺮ‬

‫ﺁﻣﭙــﺮ ﺟﺮﯾــﺎﻥ ﻣﺴــﺘﻘﯿﻢ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺭﻧــﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺳﻪ ﺳﯿﻢ ﯾﺎ ﺑﯿﺸﺘﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﮐﻠﯿﺪ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ‬

‫ﺍﯾﻦ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺻــﻮﺭﺕ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻫﺎﯾﯽ‬

‫ﺩﻟﯿﻞ ﺍﯾــﻦ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﯿــﺖ‪ ،‬ﺑﯿﺸــﺘﺮ ﺍﯾﻦ‬

‫ﺳــﻪ ﺳﯿﻢ ﻫﺴــﺘﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﯾﻦ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ‬

‫ﺗﺒﺪﯾﻞ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎ ﯾﮏ ﮐﻠﯿﺪ ﺩﻣﭙﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎﺯ‬

‫ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩﻫــﺎ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧﻨــﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬

‫ﺩﻭ ﺷــﮑﻞ ﻓﻨﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ ﻭ ﻏﯿﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ‬

‫ﯾﺎ ﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺴــﺘﻘﯿﻢ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻫــﺎﯼ ﺩﻣﭙﺮﻫــﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﯾﮏ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺗﻌﺪﯾﻞﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ‬

‫ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑــﯽ ﺗﻌﺪﯾﻞﮐﻨﻨــﺪﻩ ﺭﺍ ﺭﺍﻫﺒــﺮﯼ‬

‫ﻋﻤﻞ ﺗﻌﺪﯾﻞ ﻭ ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ ﺭﺍ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﯽﺩﻫﻨﺪ‬

‫ﻗﺪﯾﻤﯽ ﮐــﻪ ﻫﻢﭼﻨــﺎﻥ ﮐﺎﺭﺑــﺮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪،‬‬

‫ﮐﻨﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻫﺎﯼ ﺩﻭ ﻭﺿﻌﯿﺘﯽ ﺷــﺎﯾﺪ‬

‫)ﻗــﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺩﻥ ﺩﻣﭙــﺮ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﯿﺖﻫــﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩﻫﺎﯾــﯽ ﻣﺠﻬﺰ ﺑﻪ ﺳــﯿﻢ‬

‫ﺍﺣﺘﯿــﺎﺝ ﺑﻪ ﯾﮏ ﻭﺳــﯿﻠﻪ ﯾﺎ ﺭﻟﻪ ﺩﺍﺷــﺘﻪ‬

‫ﺩﻟﺨﻮﺍﻩ ﺑﯿــﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺑﺎﺯ ﻭ ﺑﺴــﺘﻪ( ﺑﺎﯾﺪ‬

‫ﻟﻐﺰﺍﻥ ﯾﺎ ﺭﺋﻮﺳﺘﺎﯼ ‪ 135‬ﺍﻫﻤﯽ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬

‫ﺑﺎﺷــﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺩﺭ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺑﻪ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﯽ‬

‫ﺟﻬﺖ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺳﯿﮕﻨﺎﻟﯽ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﻭﺳﺎﯾﻞ‬

‫ﻣﯽﮐﻨﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﮔﺮ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﺳﺖ‬

‫ﺩﯾﺠﯿﺘﺎﻟــﯽ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝﮐﻨﻨــﺪﻩ ‪ DDC‬ﻋﻤﻞ‬

‫ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﮐﻪ ﺩﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﯾﺎ ﺩﯾﮕﺮ ﺷﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﮐﻪ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺷــﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺑــﺎ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ ﺩﻣﭙﺮ‬

‫ﮐﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻫﺎﯼ ﭘﻨﯿﻮﻣﺎﺗﯿﮑﯽ ﻫﻤﯿﺸﻪ‬

‫ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ ‪ HVAC‬ﺭﺍ ﺗﺤﺖ ﻧﻈﺎﺭﺕ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‬

‫ﺗﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺩﺍﺷــﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﻣﺘﺎﺳﻔﺎﻧﻪ‪،‬‬

‫ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺪﻝﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺳﯿﮕﻨﺎﻝ‬

‫ﺩﺭﯾﺎﻓــﺖ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧــﺪﺍﺯ ﺩﻣﭙﺮ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ‬

‫ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺳﯿﮕﻨﺎﻝ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻟﯽ ‪210‬‬

‫‪ DDC‬ﺑﻪ ﺗﻐﯿﯿﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﻨﺎﺳــﺐ ﺩﺭ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ‬

‫ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺳﯿﮕﻨﺎﻝ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺗﻮﻟﯿﺪ ﺷﺪﻩ‬

‫ﻭﻟﺖ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﯿﻢ ﮐﺎﺭ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﮔﺮ‬

‫ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﭘﻨﯿﻮﻣﺎﺗﯿﮑﯽ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺳﺎﺯﮔﺎﺯ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﯿﺸﺘﺮ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻣﺖ ‪ 135‬ﺍﻫﻤﯽ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‬

‫ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ‪HVAC‬‬

‫ﻋﻤﻞ ﻧﺨﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﮐﺮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﺠــﺎﺭﯼ ﺑــﻪ ﮐﺎﺭ ﻣﯽﺭﻭﻧــﺪ ‪ 2-10‬ﻭﻟﺖ‬

‫ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺩﯾﺠﯿﺘﺎﻟﯽ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﯿﻢ )‪،(DDC‬‬

‫ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ ﺑـﺮﺍﯼ ﻭﺿﻌﯿﺖ ﺻﺤﯿﺢ‬ ‫ﺩﻣﭙﺮ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﭼﻪ ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ ﮔﺸﺘﺎﻭﺭﯼ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﻣﻨﺘﻘﻞ ﮐﻨﺪ؟‬

‫ﺟﺮﯾــﺎﻥ ﻣﺴــﺘﻘﯿﻢ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻮﻟﯿــﺪ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﻨــﺪ‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﻓــﻦﺁﻭﺭﯼ ﺩﯾﺠﯿﺘﺎﻟــﯽ ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﻧﻈﺎﺭﺕ‬

‫ﮔﺸــﺘﺎﻭﺭ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧــﺪﺍﺯ ﺩﻣﭙــﺮ ﺩﺭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‬

‫)ﮔﺎﻫــﯽ ﺑــﻪ ﻋﻨــﻮﺍﻥ ﺳــﯿﮕﻨﺎﻝ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ‬

‫ﮐﺮﺩﻥ ﺑﺮ ﺷﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﺗﻐﯿﯿﺮﺍﺕ ﺳﯿﮕﻨﺎﻝ ﻻﺯﻡ‬

‫)‪ (in–lb‬ﺍﯾﻨﭻ ‪ -‬ﭘﻮﻧﺪ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫‪ 0-10‬ﻭﻟﺖ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﻣﺴــﺘﻘﯿﻢ ﺷــﻨﺎﺧﺘﻪ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ ‪ HVAC‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﮔﺸﺘﺎﻭﺭ ﺩﻣﭙﺮ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ(‪ .‬ﺩﯾﮕﺮ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝﻫﺎ ﺷﺎﯾﺪ ﺳﯿﮕﻨﺎﻝ‬

‫ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩﻫــﺎﯼ ‪ DDC‬ﻣﻌﻤــﻮﻻ‬

‫ﺍﯾﻨﭻ ‪ -‬ﭘﻮﻧﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺯﺍﯼ ﻓﻮﺕ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ )‪in-lb/‬‬

‫‪ 4-20‬ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﯿﻢ ﺗﻮﻟﯿﺪ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻻﺯﻡ‬

‫ﺗــﺪﺍﺭﮐﺎﺕ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﯾــﮏ ﺧﺮﻭﺟــﯽ‬

‫‪ (ft2‬ﺑﯿﺎﻥ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﮔﺸﺘﺎﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﯽ ﻻﺯﻡ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﺷــﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺣﺪ ﺑﺎﻻ ﯾﺎ‬

‫ﺁﻧﺎﻟــﻮﮒ ﻭ ﻣﻌﻤــﻮﻻ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﯽ ﺑﯿﻦ ‪2-10‬‬

‫ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺩﻣﭙﺮ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﯼ ﺗﺤﺖ‬

‫ﭘﺎﯾﯿﻦ ﺳــﯿﮕﻨﺎﻝ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺩﻣﭙــﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎﺯ ﯾﺎ‬

‫ﻭﻟﺖ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﻣﺴــﺘﻘﯿﻢ ﯾــﺎ ‪ 4-20‬ﻣﯿﻠﯽ‬

‫ﺗﺎﺛﯿــﺮ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﯽﮔﯿﺮﺩ ﮐــﻪ ﺑﻌﻀﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 31‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪34‬‬

‫ﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﺧﺘﯿﺎﺭ ﺳــﺎﺯﻧﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭﻟﯽ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ‬

‫ﺑﺎ ﮔﺸﺘﺎﻭﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﺒﻖ‪ ،‬ﺍﺭﺍﯾﻪ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻧﻔﺠﺎﺭ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﻧــﻮﻉ ﺩﻣﭙــﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻈــﺮ ﺗﯿﻐﻪ‬

‫ﺍﯾﻦ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧــﺪﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ ﺑﺎ ﻭﺳــﺎﯾﻞ‬

‫ﺩﻣﭙﺮﻫــﺎﯼ ﺗﯿﻐــﻪ ﻣﺘﻘﺎﺑــﻞ‬

‫)ﻣﺘﻘﺎﺑــﻞ ﯾــﺎ ﻣــﻮﺍﺯﯼ( ﺑﺎ ﻧﺸــﺖ ﮐﻢ ﯾﺎ‬

‫ﮐﻤﮑــﯽ ﺯﯾــﺎﺩﯼ ﮐــﻪ ﻣﻤﮑﻦ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﺩﺭ‬

‫)‪ (Opposed-blade‬ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ ﺑﻪ ﮔﺸﺘﺎﻭﺭ‬

‫ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻟﯽ ﺗﻌﯿﯿﻦ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ‪ .‬ﺳﭙﺲ ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ‪ HVAC‬ﻣﻮﺛﺮ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ‬

‫ﮐﻤﺘﺮﯼ ﻧﺴــﺒﺖ ﺑــﻪ ﺩﻣﭙﺮﻫــﺎﯼ ﻣﻮﺍﺯﯼ‬

‫ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ ‪ HVAC‬ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻣﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﯾﮑﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻭﺳﺎﯾﻞ‪ ،‬ﮐﻠﯿﺪ ﮐﻤﮑﯽ‬

‫)‪ (Parallel-blade‬ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﮔﺸﺘﺎﻭﺭ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻌﯿﻦ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺵ ﯾﺎ ﺭﻭﺷﻦ ﮐﺮﺩﻥ‬

‫ﺩﻣﭙﺮﻫــﺎﯼ ﺑﺎ ﻧﺸــﺖ ﮐﻢ )‪Low-‬‬

‫ﮐﻨﯿﺪ‪ .‬ﺳــﭙﺲ ﺳــﻄﺢ )‪ (sq.ft‬ﺩﻣﭙﺮ ﺭﺍ‬

‫ﺩﻣﭙﺮ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﯿﺖ ﺩﻟﺨﻮﺍﻩ‬

‫‪ (leakage damper‬ﻧﯿــﺎﺯ ﺑﻪ ﮔﺸــﺘﺎﻭﺭ‬

‫ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﻭ ﮔﺸــﺘﺎﻭﺭ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮﺩ‬

‫ﺭﺳــﯿﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‬

‫ﺑﯿﺸﺘﺮﯼ ﻧﺴــﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ‬

‫ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻌﯿﯿﻦ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻓﻦ ﺩﺳــﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺭﺍ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺯ ﺍﯾﻦﮐﻪ ﻭﺿﻌﯿﺖ‬

‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‬

‫ﺩﻣﭙــﺮ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﻋﺒﻮﺭ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﮐﺎﻓﯽ ﺑﺎﺯ‬

‫ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺍﻧﺪﮎ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﺁﺏﺑﻨﺪﯼ ﮐﻢ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﻭ ﺳــﺮﻋﺖ ﺟﺮﯾــﺎﻥ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ‬ ‫ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ‪ ،‬ﺗﺎﺛﯿﺮ ﻗﺎﺑــﻞ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﻪﺍﯼ ﺭﻭﯼ‬ ‫ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﮔﺸﺘﺎﻭﺭ ﺩﻣﭙﺮ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﯾﺎﺗﺎﻗﺎﻥﻫﺎﯼ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ ﯾﺎﺗﺎﻗﺎﻥﻫﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﭼﮑﺶﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺷﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﮔﺸــﺘﺎﻭﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺩﻣﭙــﺮ ﺭﺍ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﻣﯽﺩﻫﻨــﺪ‪ .‬ﭼﮕﻮﻧﮕﯽ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﺐ ﺩﻣﭙــﺮ ﺩﺭ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝ ﻭ ﭼﮕﻮﻧﮕﯽ ﻧﺼﺐ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ ﺗﺎﺛﯿﺮ ﭼﺸــﻢﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺑــﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﮔﺸــﺘﺎﻭﺭ ﺩﺍﺭﻧــﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﻣﭙﺮﻫﺎﯾــﯽ ﮐــﻪ ﺑــﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﺐ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑﻪ ﮔﺸﺘﺎﻭﺭ ﺧﯿﻠﯽ‬

‫ﺑــﺎ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ﺁﺏﺑﻨــﺪﯼ ﻧﺸــﺖ ﮐﻢ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﺍﻏﻠــﺐ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﻋﻤــﻞ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻧﺘﻬــﺎﯼ ﻓﻨﺮ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ‪ HVAC‬ﺑﺎ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺣﺪﺍﮐﺜﺮ ‪2.5‬‬

‫ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ ﻧﺼﺐ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻫﺎ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ‬

‫ﺍﯾﻨﭻ ﺳــﺘﻮﻥ ﺁﺏ ﻭ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ‬

‫ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻭ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪ ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ‬

‫ﺣﺪﺍﮐﺜﺮ ‪ 2000fpm‬ﺩﺍﺭﯾﻢ‪.‬‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﺴﯿﺮ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ ﻋﻤﻞ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺳﻄﺢ ﺩﻣﭙﺮ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺑﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫‪(36"×20")/144=ft2‬‬ ‫ﺍﯾﻦ ﺩﻣﭙﺮ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑــﻪ ‪ 7.5in-lb/ft2‬ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ‪ HVAC‬ﺑﺎ ﮔﺸــﺘﺎﻭﺭ ﺣﺪﺍﮐﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﻻﺯﻡ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺑﺎ‪ 7.5×5=37.5in-lb :‬ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺧﻼﺻﻪ ﻭ ﻧﺘﯿﺠﻪﮔﯿﺮﯼ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺁﯾﻨﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ ﺍﻣﺮ ﺳﺎﺩﻩﺍﯼ‬ ‫ﻧﯿﺴــﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﻏﻠــﺐ ﺍﻃﻼﻋــﺎﺕ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﻣﻨﺎﺳــﺐ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺳــﺘﺮﺱ‬ ‫ﻧﯿﺴﺖ‪ .‬ﻣﺘﺎﺳــﻔﺎﻧﻪ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺍﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﻧﺼﺐ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ ﻧﺎﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻝ ﺩﺭ ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮﺩ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﺴــﺘﻘﯿﻢ ﻭ ﻋﻤــﻮﺩﯼ ﻧﺼﺐ‬

‫ﻋﻮﺍﻣـﻞ ﻣﻮﺛﺮ ﺩﯾﮕـﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ ﺩﻣﭙﺮ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﻫﻤﯿﺸــﻪ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ ﺩﻣﭙﺮﯼ ﺭﺍ‬

‫ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ ﺩﻣﭙﺮ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻩ‬

‫ﺗﻬﯿــﻪ ﮐــﺮﺩﻥ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧــﺪﺍﺯ ﺩﻣﭙﺮﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﮐﻨﯿــﺪ ﮐﻪ ﻧﺮﺥ ﮔﺸــﺘﺎﻭﺭ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﻣﺘﻨــﻮﻉ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏﻫــﺎ ﮐﻪ ﺷــﺎﯾﺪ ﺟﺰﻭ‬

‫ﺩﻭﻭﺿﻌﯿﺘﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻞ ﮐﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﻧﺼﺐ‬

‫ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ ﻭﺍﻗﻌــﯽ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺩﻣﭙﺮ ﺑﯿﺸــﺘﺮ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﺻﻠــﯽ ﺗﻨﻬــﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺎﯾﯽ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﺭﺍﻫﯽ ﺳــﺎﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺍﺻﻮﻟﯽ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ‬

‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﯼ ﺭﺍ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ‬

‫ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﻋﻤﻠﮑــﺮﺩ ﺻﺤﯿﺢ ﺩﻣﭙﺮ ﻧﺒﺎﺷــﺪ‪،‬‬

‫ﺟﻠﻮﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺍﺯ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﻣﺸــﮑﻼﺕ ﻭ ﻣﻌﺎﯾﺐ‬

‫ﻣﯽﮐﻨﯿﺪ ﮐــﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺎﺯﻭﻫﺎﯼ ﺍﻫﺮﻣﯽ ﻭ ﻣﯿﻠﻪ‬

‫ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﯿﺸــﺘﺮﯼ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻣﭙﺮﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﺩﻣﭙﺮ ﻭ ﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪ ﺍﺿﺎﻓﯽ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺭﺍﺑﻂ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﯾﺴــﻪ ﺑﺎ‬

‫ﺍﯾــﻦ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻫﺎ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﯼ ﻣﺸــﺨﺼﺎﺕ‬

‫ﻫﻤﭽﻨﯿــﻦ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺩﺭ ﺳــﻔﺎﺭﺵ‬

‫ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻣﺴــﺘﻘﯿﻢ‪ ،‬ﯾﮏ ﺿﺮﯾﺐ ﺍﻃﻤﯿﻨﺎﻥ‬

‫ﭘﯿﻮﺳــﺖ ‪ 1‬ﺍﺳــﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ‪NEMA‬‬

‫ﺩﺍﺩﻥ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧــﺪﺍﺯ ﺩﻣﭙﺮﯼ ﺗﻌﺪﯾﻞﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﮐﻪ‬

‫‪ ٪30-50‬ﭘﯿﺸﻨﻬﺎﺩ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﯽ‬

‫)ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﺳــﺎﺯﻧﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﻭﺳﺎﯾﻞ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﯾﮑﯽ(‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﮐﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﻧﺼﺐ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ‬

‫ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺮﺩﯾﺪ ﻫﺴــﺘﯿﺪ‪ ،‬ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ‬

‫ﻫﺴــﺘﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﯾﻦ ﭘﯿﻮﺳــﺖ ﺟﻬﺖ ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮﺩ‬

‫ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺷﺪﻩ‬

‫ﺑﺎﻻﺗــﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺟــﺪﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻫﻤﯿﺸــﻪ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﯿــﻂ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﻭ ﺳﺮﺑﺴــﺘﻪ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﺭﻭﯼ ﺩﻣﭙــﺮ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻞ ﮐﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧــﻪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻏﻠﺐ‬

‫ﻣﻄﻤﺌﻦ ﻭ ﺻﺤﯿﺢ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎﺕ ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮﺩ ﻣﻤﮑﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺗﻬﯿﻪ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺍﯾﻦ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﭘﺎﺭﺍﮔﺮﺍﻑﻫﺎﯼ ﺯﯾﺮ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩﯼ ﺟﻬﺖ‬

‫ﭘﯿﻮﺳﺖﻫﺎﯼ ‪ 7،4‬ﺍﺳــﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ‪NEMA‬‬

‫ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻫــﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻞ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺗﺮﯼ‬

‫ﮐﻤﮏ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ ﺩﻣﭙﺮ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬

‫ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﯿﺖ ﺁﺏ ﻭ ﻫﻮﺍﺑﻨﺪ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﯾﺎ ﺿﺪ‬

‫ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻏﯿﺮﻣﺴــﺘﻘﯿﻢ ﻭ ﭼﺮﺧﺎﻧﺪﻩﺷــﺪﻩ‬

‫ﯾﮏ ﺩﻣﭙــﺮ ﺗﯿﻐﻪ ﻣﺘﻘﺎﺑﻞ "‪36"×20‬‬

‫ﺷﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺭﻭﺷﻦ ﻧﻤﯽﮐﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﮐﻠﯿﺪﻫﺎﯼ ﮐﻤﮑﯽ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 32‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪34‬‬

‫ﻋﻠﻤﻰ‬

‫ﺩﺭﺯﮔﻴﺮﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻋﺎﻳﻖﻫﺎﻯ ﻛﺎﻧﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺳــﺮﻋﺖ ﺧﺎﺻﯿﺖ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺳــﺖ‬

‫ﻋﺎﯾﻖﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝ ﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﯿﺖ‬

‫ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﺁﻥﮐــﻪ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﻧﺸــﻌﺎﺏﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺑﺎﺯ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﯾﻦ‪ ،‬ﯾﮑﯽ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺷــﺒﮑﻪ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻧﻘﺶ ﺑﺴــﯿﺎﺭ‬

‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠــﻒ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝ ﺑــﻪ ﯾﮑﺪﯾﮕــﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺍﻡ ﻭ‬

‫ﻣﻬﻢﺗﺮﯾﻦ ﻣﺸﺨﺼﻪﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ‬

‫ﻣﻬﻤــﯽ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺳــﺖﯾﺎﺑﯽ ﺑــﻪ ﺭﺍﻧﺪﻣﺎﻥ‬

‫ﺩﺭﺯﮔﯿﺮﻫــﺎﯼ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬

‫ﻭ ﻇﺮﻓﯿــﺖ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ﺍﯾﻔــﺎ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﮔﯿــﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﺍﻡ ﻭ ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻣﺖ ﺩﺭﺯﮔﯿﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ‬

‫ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺗﻮﺯﯾﻊ ﻫﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﭘﻠﻨﻮﻡ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ‬

‫ﻧﺸﺘﯽ ﻫﻮﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﺭﻓﺖ ﻭ ﺑﺮﮔﺸــﺖ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻤﻠــﻪ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻘﯽ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﻫﺎﯼ ﺗﻮﺻﯿﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﺤﮑﺎﻡ ﮐﺎﻓﯽ ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩﺍﺭ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﺟﺰﺍﯼ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﮑﺎﻧﯿﮑﯽ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﯾﮑﺪﯾﮕﺮ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺩﺭﺯ ﺑﯿﻦ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﻋﺮﺿــﯽ )ﮐﻪ ﻋﻤﻮﺩ ﺑﺮ ﺟﻬﺖ‬ ‫ﻋﺒــﻮﺭ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﻫﺴــﺘﻨﺪ( ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺳــﺘﯿﮏ ﺑﻪ ﺧﻮﺑﯽ ﭘﻮﺷــﺎﻧﺪﻩ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﻧﺸﻌﺎﺏﻫﺎﯼ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝ ﺑﻪ ﯾﮑﺪﯾﮕﺮ ﻫﻤﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﻣﮑﺎﻧﯿﮑﯽ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺟﺰ ﻣﺎﺳﺘﯿﮏ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﻧﻮﺍﺭ ﭼﺴﺐﻫﺎﯼ ﭘﺎﻧﺰﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﯿﻠﯽﻣﺘــﺮﯼ ﺑﻮﺗﯿــﻞ‪ 1‬ﻧﯿﺰ ﻣﯽﺗــﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺩﺭﺯﮔﯿﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﮐﺮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺷﺮﺡ ﺟﺰﯾﯿﺎﺕ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ‬

‫ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺩﺭﺯﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﺯ ﯾﮑﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭﺵﻫﺎﯼ ﺯﯾﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻧﺸــﺘﯽ ﻫــﻮﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ﮐﺎﻧــﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺛﯿــﺮ ﭼﺸــﻢﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺑــﺮ ﺭﺍﻧﺪﻣــﺎﻥ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻇﺮﻓﯿﺖ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ﺑﺮ ﺟــﺎﯼ ﻣﯽﮔﺬﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻘﯿﻘــﺎﺕ ﺍﻧﺠــﺎﻡ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺗﻮﺳــﻂ‬ ‫ﺁﺯﻣﺎﯾﺸــﮕﺎﻩ ﻣﻠﯽ ‪Lawrence Berkeley‬‬

‫ﺩﺭﺯﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺎﺳﺘﯿﮏ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺍﻟﯿﺎﻑ ﺷﯿﺸﻪ‬

‫ﺩﺭﺯﮔﯿﺮ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻮﺍﺭﭼﺴﺐﻫﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻧﺰﺩﻩ ﻣﯿﻠﯽﻣﺘﺮﯼ ﺑﻮﺗﯿﻞ‬

‫ﺑــﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺗﻬﻮﯾــﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻧﮕﯽ ﺣﺎﮐﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻧﺸﺖ ﻫﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻇﺮﻓﯿﺖ ﻭ ﺭﺍﻧﺪﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻘﺮﯾﺒــﺎ ﺑــﻪ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﺑﯿﺴــﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﻣﯽﺩﻫﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﯼ ﻧﯿﺰ ﻫﻤﯿﻦ ﻣﺸﮑﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺟــﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺁﺯﻣﺎﯾﺶﻫﺎﯼ ﺩﯾﮕﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺍﯾﻦ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﮐﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﯿﺮﺩ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪﺭﯾﺰﯼ‬ ‫ﺁﻣﺎﺩﻩﺳﺎﺯﯼ ﻃﺮﺣﻮﺍﺭﻩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ‬ ‫ﺗﻬﯿﻪ ﺍﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻣﻨﺎﻗﺼﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺖ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﯼ ﺍﻭﻟﯿﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺮﻩﺑﺮﺩﺍﺭﯼ ﻧﻬﺎﯾﯽ‬

‫ﺷﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﺁﺏ ﻭ ﻫﻮﺍﯾﯽ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺣﻠﯽ ﮔﺮﻡ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺣﻠﯽ ﻣﻌﺘﺪﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﮐﺰﯼ‬ ‫ﮐﻮﻫﺴﺘﺎﻧﯽ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻡ ﻭ ﺧﺸﮏ‬

‫ﺯﻣﯿﻨﻪ ﻧﺸــﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮﺧﯽ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻧﻮﺍﺭﭼﺴﺐﻫﺎﯼ ﺩﺭﺯﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺩﺭ ﻋﻤﻞ‬

‫ﻣﮑﺎﻥﻫﺎﯼ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﮐﻼﺱﻫﺎﯼ ﺩﺭﺱ‬ ‫ﮐﺘﺎﺑﺨﺎﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻟﻦﻫﺎﯼ ﭼﻨﺪﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭﻩ ‪ /‬ﺳﺎﻟﻦﻫﺎﯼ ﺳﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻟﻦ ﻭﺭﺯﺵ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﺳﺮﺍﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺶ ﺍﺩﺍﺭﯼ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺍﻟﺖﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﯾﺮ ﺑﺨﺶﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﯾﺮ )‪ (1‬ﺩﺭﺯﮔﯿﺮﻫﺎﯼ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 33‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪34‬‬

‫ﺷــﻤﺎﺭ ﻣﯽﺭﻭﻧﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺑﯿﺸــﺘﺮﯾﻦ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺭﺍ‬

‫ﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪ ﻭ ﺑﻬﺮﻩﻭﺭﯼ‬

‫ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﻣﮑﺎﻧﯿﮑﯽ ﻣﻨﺎﺳــﺐ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬

‫ﺩﺍﺭﻧــﺪ ﻭ ﺣﺘــﺎ ﯾﮏ ﺳــﻮﺭﺍﺥ ﮐﻮﭼﮏ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﻫﺮﭼﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺎﺳــﺘﯿﮏ‬

‫ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺑﺎ ﻧﺸــﺘﯽ ﺯﯾﺎﺩﯼ ﻫﻤــﺮﺍﻩ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬

‫ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺩﺭﺯﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝﻫﺎ ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﺶ‬

‫ﺑــﻪ ﻋﻨــﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻭﻟﯿﻦ ﺍﻧﺘﺨــﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺍﯼ‬

‫ﺑــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﯾــﻦ ﭘﻠﻨــﻮﻡ ﻫــﻮﺍﯼ ﺭﻓﺖ ﻭ‬

‫ﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻭﻟﯿﻪ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﯽ ﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪ‬

‫ﻫﻮﺍﺑﻨــﺪ ﮐــﺮﺩﻥ ﺗﻤﺎﻣﯽ ﺍﻧﺸــﻌﺎﺏﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺧﻮﺑﯽ ﻫﻮﺍﺑﻨﺪ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﮐﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﯾﺴﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺑﺮﭼﺴﺐﻫﺎﯼ ﺩﺭﺯﮔﯿﺮﯼ‬

‫ﮐﺎﻧــﺎﻝ ﻭ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﻋﺮﺿــﯽ ﺁﻥ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻥ‬

‫ﻗﺎﺑﻠﯿﺖ ﺍﺟﺮﺍ‬

‫ﮐﺎﻫــﺶ ﺧﻮﺍﻫــﺪ ﯾﺎﻓــﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﯾــﻦ‪،‬‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﻣﺎﺳﺘﯿﮏ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﮐﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﻣﺎﺳﺘﯿﮏ‪،‬‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺭﺯﮔﯿﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝ‪،‬‬

‫ﻣﺎﯾﻌﯽ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨــﻮﺍﻥ ﺩﺭﺯﮔﯿﺮ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻉ ﻫﺰﯾﻨــﻪ ﭼﻨﺪﺍﻧﯽ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ‬

‫ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﻧﻮﺍﺭﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻨﺲ ﺍﻟﯿﺎﻑ ﺷﯿﺸﻪ‬

‫ﺗﺤﻤﯿﻞ ﻧﻤﯽﮐﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾــﺶ ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻣﺖ ﯾﺎ ﭘﻮﺷــﺎﻧﺪﻥ‬

‫ﻣﺰﺍﯾﺎ‬

‫ﺣﻔﺮﻩﻫﺎﯼ ﺣﺪﺍﮐﺜﺮ ‪ 1/4in‬ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬

‫ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﺗﻤﺎﻣﯽ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﻫﻮﺍﯾﯽ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻟﯽ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﺟﺮﺍ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﮐﺪﻫﺎﯼ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﯾﯽ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺗﺒﺼــﺮﻩ ﺑﯿﺴــﺖ ﻭ ﭼﻬﺎﺭﻡ ﺍﺯ ﮐﺪ‬

‫ﮐﺮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﺼﺮﯾﺢ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺷﺒﮑﻪ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝ ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ ﺗﺎ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬

‫ﭘﺎﯾــﻪ ﺁﺏ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﯾﮏ ﻣــﺎﺩﻩ ﭘﺎﯾﻪ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﯼ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩﯼ ﮐﻪ ﻣﺴﯿﺮ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻀﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﺗﺠﻬﯿــﺰﺍﺕ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﯾﺸــﯽ ﻭ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﺸــﯽ‬

‫ﺟﻨﺲ ﺭﺯﯾﻦﻫﺎﯼ ﺳﻨﺘﺰﯼ ﻓﺎﻗﺪ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺁﻟﯽ‬

‫ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻋﺒﻮﺭ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﺪ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ‬

‫ﮐﻮﭼﮏﺗﺮ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺷــﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﯾﺎ ﺍﯾﻦﮐﻪ‬

‫ﻓﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﭘﻠﯽﺍﺳﺘﺮ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬

‫ﻋﺎﯾﻖﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺮ ﻣﺒﻨﺎﯼ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﯾﻦ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺑﺪﺗﺮﯾــﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ‪ ،‬ﮐﺎﻫــﺶ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻩ‬

‫ﮔﯿﺮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﮐﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺎﺳــﺘﯿﮏ ﯾﺎ ﻧﻮﺍﺭﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺍﯾﻤﻨــﯽ ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﻣﺤﺎﺳــﺒﺎﺕ ﻣﺮﺑــﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺻــﻮﺭﺕ ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎﺭﮔﯿــﺮﯼ ﻧﻮﺍﺭﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﺩﺭﺯﮔﯿــﺮﯼ ﺑــﻪ ﺗﻨﻬﺎﯾﯽ ﻣﺠﺎﺯ ﻧﯿﺴــﺖ ﻭ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥﭘﺬﯾﺮ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬

‫ﺣﺴــﺎﺱ ﺑﻪ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺩﺭﺯﮔﯿﺮﯼ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﮐﻨــﺎﺭ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺣﺘﻤﺎ ﺑﺎﯾــﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ‬

‫ﺑﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻬﺎﯾﺖ ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪ‬

‫ﺑﺎﯾــﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺮﭼﺴــﺐﻫﺎﯼ ﺩﺭﺯﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺑﻮﺗﯿﻞ‬

‫ﻣﮑﺎﻧﯿﮑــﯽ ﻧﯿﺰ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺿﻤﻦ‬

‫ﺗﺠﻬﯿــﺰﺍﺕ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷــﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﭘﺎﻧﺰﺩﻩ ﻣﯿﻠﯽﻣﺘﺮﯼ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﮐﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺗﺠﺮﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺁﻥﮐﻪ ﻫﻮﺍﺑﻨﺪ ﮐﺮﺩﻥ ﺷــﺒﮑﻪ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ‬

‫ﺩﺭﺯﮔﯿﺮ ﻭ ﻋﺎﯾﻖ ﺩﺭ ﺷﺒﮑﻪ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝ ﻣﻮﺟﺐ‬

‫ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮﭼﺴﺐﻫﺎﯼ ﺑﻮﺗﯿﻞ‬

‫ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺎﺳﺘﯿﮏ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﭼﺴﺐﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﮐﺎﻫــﺶ ﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﺗﺎﻣﯿﻦ‬

‫ﺩﻭﺍﻡ ﺑﯿﺸــﺘﺮﯼ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ﺑــﻪ ﮐﺎﺭﮔﯿﺮﯼ‬

‫ﺩﺭﺯﮔﯿــﺮ‪ ،‬ﻻﯾﯽﻫﺎﯼ ﺁﯾﺮﻭﺳــﻞ‪ 2‬ﯾﺎ ﺳــﺎﯾﺮ‬

‫ﺑﺎﺭ ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﯽ ﻭ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾﯽ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷــﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﺑﺮﭼﺴﺐﻫﺎﯼ ﻻﺳــﺘﯿﮑﯽ ﯾﺎ ﺍﮐﺮﯾﻠﯿﮏ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺩﺭﺯﮔﯿﺮﻫــﺎﯼ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺗﺎﯾﯿﺪ ‪ UL 181‬ﻣﺠﺎﺯ‬

‫ﺩﯾﮕﺮ ﻣﺰﺍﯾﺎﯼ ﻋﺎﯾﻖﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺒﺘﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺩﺭﺯﮔﯿﺮ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺗــﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮﺩ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ‪،‬‬

‫ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺩﺭﺯﮔﯿﺮ ﻧﯿﺰ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺍﺟﺘﻨﺎﺏ ﺷــﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻧﺒﺎﯾــﺪ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻣــﺎﺕ ‪ UL 181‬ﺍﮐﺘﻔﺎ‬

‫ﺩﺳــﺖﯾﺎﺑﯽ ﺑﻬﺘﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺷــﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﺁﺳــﺎﯾﺶ‬

‫ﮐﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﭼﺮﺍ ﮐــﻪ ﺑﺮ ﻣﺒﻨﺎﯼ ﺍﯾــﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻣﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﯽ‪ ،‬ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﻧﻔــﻮﺫ ﻫﻮﺍﯼ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩﯼ ﺍﺯ ﻗﺒﯿــﻞ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﯿﺖ ﺩﻭﺍﻡ ﺩﺭﺯﮔﯿﺮ‬

‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻭ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﻣﺸــﮑﻼﺕ‬

‫ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻧﻤﯽﮔﯿﺮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺮﺗﺒــﻂ ﺑﺎ ﺗﺠﻤــﻊ ﺭﻃﻮﺑــﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺟﺰﺍﯼ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﯾﮑﭙﺎﺭﭼﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﮑﻼﺕ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺎ ﻧﺸﺘﯽ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝ ﺭﺍ‬

‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﺷﺎﺭﻩ ﮐﺮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺟﺰﯾﯿﺎﺕ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺎ ﻋﺒﻮﺭ ﺷــﺒﮑﻪ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝ ﺍﺯ ﻣﯿﺎﻥ‬

‫ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﯿﻦ ﺍﻧﺸﻌﺎﺏﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﻓﻀﺎﯼ ﺗﻬﻮﯾﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﯾﺎ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺷﺒﮑﻪ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝ‬

‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠــﻒ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝ ﻧﺒﺎﯾﺪ ﺻﺮﻓــﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻮﺍﺩﯼ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﭘﺎﯾــﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻧﮑﺘﻪ ﺍﺷــﺎﺭﻩ ﮐﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﮐﻪ ﭘﻠﻨﻮﻡ ﻭ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝ ﺭﻓﺖ ﻭ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ ﻫﺮ ﺩﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺧﻮﺑﯽ ﻫﻮﺍﺑﻨﺪ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﯼ ﺍﻭﻟﯿﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺗﺼــﺎﻻﺕ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝ ﺭﺍ ﺑــﻪ ﺩﻗﺖ ﺑﺎﺯﺩﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﮐﻨﯿﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﺭﻭﺵﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺩﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻓﺸــﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﻌﯿﺖ ﻧﺸﺘﯽ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﯽ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﭘﯽﻧﻮﺷﺖ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﻭﺍﺳــﻄﻪ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﻣﺎﺳﺘﯿﮏ ﯾﺎ ﺑﺮﭼﺴﺐﻫﺎﯼ ﺩﺭﺯﮔﯿﺮ‬

‫ﺳــﺮﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻭ ﮔﺮﻣﺎﯾــﺶ ﻫﯿﺪﺭﻭﻧﯿــﮏ‬

‫ﺍﮐﺘﻔﺎ ﮐﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﻠﮑﻪ ﺑــﻪ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺍﺯ‬

‫‪1. Butyl‬‬

‫ﺑﺮﻃﺮﻑ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﻣﮑﺎﻧﯿﮑﯽ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﭘﯿﭻ ﯾﺎ ﺳــﺎﯾﺮ‬

‫‪2. Aerosol sealants‬‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺳــﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻧﯽ ﺍﯾﺎﻟﺖ ﮐﺎﻟﯿﻔﺮﻧﯿــﺎﯼ ﺁﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎ‬

‫ﺩﺭﺯﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﻭ ﻋﺎﯾﻖﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﺩﻗﯿﻖ ﺷﺒﮑﻪ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﻣﺎﺳــﺘﯿﮏ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺩﺭ ﯾﮏ ﺣﻼﻝ ﺑﺎ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 34‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪34‬‬

‫ﻓﻦﺁﻭﺭﻯ‬

‫ﺗﺴﻤﻪﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﭘﻮﻟﻰﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﺣﺎﻛﻢ ﺑﺮ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﮐﻠﯿﻪ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺑﻪ ﮔﺮﺩﺵ‬

‫)‪ (2) ،(1‬ﻭ )‪ (3‬ﻭ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺷــﻤﺎﺭﻩ )‪ (1‬ﺍﺑﻌﺎﺩ‬

‫ﻗﻄﺮ ﻗﺮﻗﺮﻩ ﻣﺘﺤﺮﮎ ﻭ ‪ Pm‬ﻧﺸﺎﻥﺩﻫﻨﺪﻩﯼ ﻗﻄﺮ‬

‫ﺩﺭﺁﻭﺭﺩﻥ ﻓﻦﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺩﻣﻨﺪﻩﻫﺎ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻗﺮﻗﺮﻩﻫﺎ ﺍﺭﺍﯾﻪ‬

‫ﭘﻮﻟﯽ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﯾﺎ ﻗﻄﺮ ﻗﺮﻗﺮﻩ ﻣﺤﺮﮎ ﻣﯽﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﯽﮔﯿﺮﻧﺪ ﻣﺘﺸﮑﻞ ﺍﺯ ﯾﮏ ﭘﻮﻟﯽ ﻣﺤﺮﮎ‬

‫ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﻫﺴــﺘﻨﺪ ﮐــﻪ ﺑــﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ ﻣﺤﻮﺭ ﻣﻮﺗــﻮﺭ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﯽﮔﯿــﺮﺩ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥ ﻗﺮﻗﺮﻩ ﻣﺤﺮﮎ ﻣﯽﮔﻮﯾﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﭘﻮﻟﯽ ﺩﯾﮕــﺮﯼ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ ﻣﺤــﻮﺭ ﻓﻦ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﯽﮔﯿﺮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﻗﺮﻗﺮﻩ ﻣﺘﺤﺮﮎ ﻣﯽﮔﻮﯾﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺍﯼ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻦ ﺍﺯ ﯾﮏ ﺗﺴﻤﻪ ﻭ‬ ‫ﯾﺎ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪﺍﯼ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺴﻤﻪﻫﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‬

‫ﭼﻬﺎﺭ ﻓﺮﻣﻮﻝ ﺍﺻﻠــﯽ ﺣﺎﮐﻢ ﺑﺮ ﭘﻮﻟﯽﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺗﻨﺪ ﺍﺯ‪:‬‬ ‫)‪(1‬‬

‫‪dia. Pm × rpm‬‬ ‫‪dia. Pf‬‬

‫)‪(2‬‬

‫‪dia. Pf × rpm‬‬ ‫‪dia. Pm‬‬

‫= ‪rpm Pm‬‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫)‪(3‬‬

‫ﺑــﺮ ﻣﺒﻨﺎﯼ ﻗﻄــﺮ ﭘﻮﻟــﯽ ﺍﺭﺍﯾﻪ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﯾﻦ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﺭﺳــﺎﻧﺪﻥ ﺧﻄﺎ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺎﺳــﺒﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻓﺮﻣﻮﻝﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺍﺯ ﻗﻄﺮ‬ ‫ﮔﺎﻡ ﭘﻮﻟﯽ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺷﮑﻞﻫﺎﯼ‬

‫)‪(4‬‬

‫ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﭘﻮﻟﯽ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﻗﻄﺮ ﭘﻮﻟﯽ ﻓﻦ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﺍﺭﺍﯾﻪ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ‬

‫= ‪rpm Pf‬‬

‫ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ ﻗﺮﻗﺮﻩ ﻣﺤﺮﮎ ﻭ ﻣﺘﺤﺮﮎ ﺳــﻮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﻓﺮﻣﻮﻝﻫــﺎﯼ ﭘﻮﻟﯽﻫــﺎ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺷﮑﻞ )‪ (4‬ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﭘﻮﻟﯽ ﻓﻦ ﻭ‬

‫ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﺎﺕ ﺳﺮﯾﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﮐﺮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻌﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺳــﻪ ﮐﻤﯿﺖ ﺍﺯ ﭼﻬﺎﺭ ﮐﻤﯿﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﮐﻮﺭ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﯾﺎ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﻫﺮ ﯾﮏ ﺍﺯ ﭘﻮﻟﯽﻫﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﻓــﻦ ﯾﺎ ﻣﻮﺗــﻮﺭ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭﯼ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﺗﻌﯿﯿﻦ ﮐﺮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫‪dia. Pm × rpm‬‬ ‫‪rpm Pf‬‬

‫= ‪dia Pf‬‬

‫‪dia. Pf × rpm‬‬ ‫‪rpm Pm‬‬

‫= ‪dia Pm‬‬

‫‪ .1‬ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﯾﮑﯽ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻘﺎﺩﯾﺮ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺭﺍ‬

‫ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺭﻭﺍﺑﻂ ﻓﻮﻕ‪ ،Pf ،‬ﻗﻄﺮ ﭘﻮﻟﯽ ﻓﻦ ﯾﺎ‬

‫ﭘﯿﺪﺍ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ ﻭ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ ﺧﻂ ﻋﻤﻮﺩ ﺑﺮ ﺁﻥ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ‬

‫ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻧﻤــﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺯﯾﺮ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺩﻧﺒﺎﻝ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ‪:‬‬

‫ﮐﻨﯿــﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺩﻭﻣﯿﻦ ﻣﻘــﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﻌﻠــﻮﻡ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻮﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﻗﻄﺮﯼ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﻗﻄﻊ ﮐﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .2‬ﺧﻂ ﻗﻄﺮﯼ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻘﺎﻃﻊ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺩﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺭﺍ ﺩﻧﺒﺎﻝ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺳﻮﻣﯿﻦ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﻧﯿﺰ ﻗﻄﻊ ﮐﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .3‬ﺍﺯ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻣﺤﻞ ﺗﻼﻗﯽ‬ ‫ﺳــﻪ ﮐﻤﯿﺖ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺑﻪﺷﻤﺎﺭ ﻣﯽﺭﻭﺩ ﺧﻄﯽ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺭﺍﺳﺘﺎﯼ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ﻋﻤﻮﺩﯼ ﯾﺎ ﺍﻓﻘﯽ ﺍﻣﺘﺪﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﻫﯿــﺪ ﺗﺎ ﻣﺤﻮﺭ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻃﻪ ﺭﺍ ﻗﻄﻊ ﮐﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻣﺤﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻼﻗــﯽ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺧﻂ ﺑــﺎ ﻣﺤﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻣﻘــﺪﺍﺭ ﮐﻤﯿﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻬﻮﻝ ﺭﺍ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺩﺍﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻗﺴــﻤﺖ ﭼﻨﺪ ﻣﺜــﺎﻝ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭﺵ‬

‫ﺷﮑﻞ )‪ (2‬ﻗﺮﻗﺮﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﮐﺎﻣﻼ ﺑﺎﺯ‬

‫ﺷﮑﻞ )‪ (1‬ﻗﺮﻗﺮﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﮐﺎﻣﻼ ﺑﺴﺘﻪ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﭘﻮﻟﯽ ﻓﻦ ﻭ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺮﺡ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﯿﻢ‪.‬‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 35‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪34‬‬

‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ‪3‬‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﯾﮏ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﻓﻦ ﻭ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﺑﺎ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ‬

‫ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺷﯿﺎﺭﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﺗﺴﻤﻪﺍﯼ‪ ،‬ﺍﮔﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﭼﺮﺧﺶ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺗــﻮﺭ ‪ ،1000rpm‬ﺳــﺮﻋﺖ ﭼﺮﺧﺶ ﻓﻦ‬ ‫‪ 5000rpm‬ﻭ ﻗﻄﺮ ﭘﻮﻟﯽ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ‪ 10in.‬ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺮ ﭘﻮﻟﯽ ﻣﺘﺤﺮﮎ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻌﯿﯿﻦ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻗﻄﺮ ﭘﻮﻟﯽ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ‬

‫ﺩﻭﺭ ﻓﻦ‬

‫ﺩﻭﺭ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ‬

‫ﺷﮑﻞ )‪ (3‬ﻗﺮﻗﺮﻩﻫﺎﯼ ﭼﻨﺪ ﺷﯿﺎﺭﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﮐﺎﻣﻼ ﺑﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺮ ﭘﻮﻟﯽ ﻓﻦ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﯾﮏ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﻓﻦ ﻭ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﺑﺎ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﺗﺴﻤﻪﺍﯼ ﺍﮔﺮ ﻗﻄﺮ ﭘﻮﻟﯽ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ‬ ‫‪ ،3in.‬ﻗﻄﺮ ﭘﻮﻟﯽ ﻓﻦ ‪ 2in.‬ﻭ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﭼﺮﺧﺶ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ‪ 5000rpm‬ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﭼﺮﺧﺶ ﻓﻦ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﺗﻌﯿﯿﻦ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﯾﮏ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﻓﻦ ﻭ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﺑﺎ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﯾﮏ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﻓﻦ ﻭ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﺑﺎ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﺗﺴﻤﻪﺍﯼ ﺍﮔﺮ ﻗﻄﺮ ﭘﻮﻟﯽ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﺗﺴﻤﻪﺍﯼ‪ ،‬ﺍﮔﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﭼﺮﺧﺶ‬

‫‪ ،30in.‬ﻗﻄــﺮ ﭘﻮﻟــﯽ ﻓــﻦ ‪ 4in.‬ﻭ ﺳــﺮﻋﺖ‬

‫ﻣﻮﺗــﻮﺭ ‪ ،2500rpm‬ﺳــﺮﻋﺖ ﭼﺮﺧﺶ ﻓﻦ‬

‫ﭼﺮﺧــﺶ ﻓﻦ ‪ 3750rpm‬ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ ﺳــﺮﻋﺖ‬

‫‪ 5000rpm‬ﻭ ﻗﻄﺮ ﭘﻮﻟﯽ ﻓﻦ ‪ 10in.‬ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪،‬‬

‫ﭼﺮﺧﺶ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻌﯿﯿﻦ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻗﻄﺮ ﭘﻮﻟﯽ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻌﯿﯿﻦ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻗﻄﺮ ﭘﻮﻟﯽ ﻓﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺮ ﭘﻮﻟﯽ ﻓﻦ‬

‫ﻗﻄﺮ ﭘﻮﻟﯽ ﻓﻦ‬

‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ )‪ (1‬ﺍﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﺷﯿﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﻗﺮﻩﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ‪S‬‬ ‫)‪(inch‬‬

‫ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ‪ Se‬ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺑﺎﺯ )‪(inch‬‬

‫‪2av‬‬

‫‪2a‬‬

‫ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ‬

‫)‪(inch‬‬

‫)‪(inch‬‬

‫ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ )‪hg (inch‬‬

‫)‪bg (inch‬‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺑﺎﺯ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫)‪bg (inch‬‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺑﺴﺘﻪ‬

‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﻄﻊ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺩﻭﺭ ﻓﻦ‬

‫ﺩﻭﺭ ﻓﻦ‬

‫ﻗﻄﺮ ﭘﻮﻟﯽ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ‬

‫ﺩﻭﺭ ﻓﻦ‬

‫ﻗﻄﺮ ﭘﻮﻟﯽ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ‬

‫ﺩﻭﺭ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ‬

‫ﺩﻭﺭ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ‬

‫ﻗﻄﺮ ﭘﻮﻟﯽ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ‬

‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ‪1‬‬

‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ‪2‬‬

‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ‪4‬‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 36‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪34‬‬

‫ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﯾﻦ ﺷﺪﺕ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﻓﻦ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﯽﮐﻪ ﺩﻭﺭ‬

‫ﺩﻭﺭ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ‬

‫ﺁﻥ ‪ 700rpm‬ﺍﺳﺖ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺍﺯ‪:‬‬ ‫‪20 × 1.588 = 31.75amps‬‬

‫ﻓﺮﻣﻮﻝﻫﺎﯼ ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ ﭘﻮﻟﯽﻫﺎ‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﺍﮔــﺮ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻫﻮﺍﺩﻫــﯽ ﻣﻮﺭﺩﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﻓﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﯿﯿــﺮ ﮐﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﻗﻄﺮ ﮔﺎﻡ ﭘﻮﻟــﯽ ﻓﻦ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ‬

‫ﺩﻭﺭ ﻓﻦ‬

‫ﻗﻄﺮ ﭘﻮﻟﯽ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ‬

‫ﺟﺪﯾﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﺯﯾﺮ ﻣﺤﺎﺳــﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ‪ pd‬ﺑﯿﺎﻧﮕﺮ ﻗﻄﺮ ﮔﺎﻡ ﭘﻮﻟﯽ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪:‬‬ ‫‪cfm2‬‬ ‫‪cfm1‬‬

‫‪) × pd‬‬

‫)‪(6‬‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫(‬

‫= ‪pd2‬‬

‫ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﻓﻮﻕ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ = pd‬ﻗﻄﺮ ﮔﺎﻡ ﭘﻮﻟﯽ )‪(in.‬‬ ‫‪ = cfm‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻫﻮﺍﺩﻫﯽ ﻓﻦ )‪(cfm‬‬

‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺮ ﮔﺎﻡ ﯾﮏ ﻓﻦ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﯽﮐﻪ ﻫﻮﺍﺩﻫﯽ‬

‫ﻗﻄﺮ ﭘﻮﻟﯽ ﻓﻦ‬

‫ﺁﻥ ‪ 3500cfm‬ﺍﺳــﺖ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺑﺎ ‪ 10in.‬ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺷﮑﻞ )‪ (4‬ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﭘﻮﻟﯽ ﻓﻦ ﻭ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ‬

‫ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﺶ ﯾﺎ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻓﻦ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻐﯿﯿﺮ ﺷﺪﺕ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﻓــﻦ ﻭ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﺑﺎ ﺳﯿﺴــﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘــﺎﻝ ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﺗﺴــﻤﻪﺍﯼ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﺶ‬ ‫ﯾﺎ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻓﺮﻣﻮﻝ ﺯﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﯾﻖ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺷﺪﺕ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺮﻓﯽ ﺗﻌﯿﯿﻦ ﮐﺮﺩ‪:‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬

‫)‪(5‬‬

‫)‬

‫ﺍﮔﺮ ﻫﻮﺍﺩﻫﯽ ﻓﻦ ﺑﻪ ‪ 4000cfm‬ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﺶ ﯾﺎﺑﺪ‬

‫‪ 700rpm‬ﻣــﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿﺎﺯ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﺭﺍ ﻣﺤﺎﺳــﺒﻪ‬

‫(‬

‫‪cfm ) × 10 = 11.43in‬‬ ‫‪( 4000‬‬ ‫‪3500 cfm‬‬

‫ﮐﻨﯿﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬

‫= ‪) = 20 × 1.588‬‬

‫(‬

‫‪700‬‬ ‫‪600‬‬ ‫‪31.75amps2‬‬ ‫× ‪20‬‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ )‪ (2‬ﻧﺘﺎﯾﺞ ﻣﺤﺎﺳــﺒﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻟــﻪ ﺷــﻤﺎﺭﻩ )‪ (5‬ﺑﺮﺍﺑــﺮ ﺩﺭﺻﺪﻫــﺎﯼ‬

‫‪rpm‬‬ ‫‪amps2 = amps1 rpm2‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬

‫ﻗﻄﺮ ﮔﺎﻡ ﺟﺪﯾﺪ ﭘﻮﻟﯽ ﻓﻦ ﭼﻘﺪﺭ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ؟‬

‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﺶ ﯾﺎ ﮐﺎﻫــﺶ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻓﻦ ﺍﺭﺍﯾﻪ‬

‫‪ .2‬ﺩﺭﺻﻮﺭﺗﯽﮐــﻪ ﻫﻮﺍﺩﻫﯽ ﻓﻦ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﺶ‬ ‫ﯾﺎﺑــﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺗــﻮﺍﻥ ﺗﺮﻣﺰﯼ ﻧﯿــﺰ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﺶ ﻣﯽﯾﺎﺑﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻣــﺰﯼ ﻓﻦ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﺯﯾﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ‪:‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬

‫‪× bhp1‬‬

‫)‪(7‬‬

‫‪( cfm‬‬ ‫)‬ ‫‪cfm‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬

‫= ‪bhp2‬‬

‫ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻓﻦ‬

‫ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﻓﻮﻕ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﺯ ‪ 600rpm‬ﺑﻪ ﺍﻧــﺪﺍﺯﻩ ‪ 100rpm‬ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﺶ‬

‫‪ = bhp‬ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺗﺮﻣﺰﯼ ﻓﻦ )‪(hp‬‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﯾﮏ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﻓﻦ ﻭ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺤﺮﮎ‬

‫ﯾﺎﻓﺘــﻪ ﻭ ﺑــﻪ ‪ 700rpm‬ﺭﺳــﯿﺪﻩ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪،‬‬

‫‪ = cfm‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻫﻮﺍﺩﻫﯽ ﻓﻦ )‪(cfm‬‬

‫ﺗﺴﻤﻪﺍﯼ‪ ،‬ﻓﻦ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ‪ 600rpm‬ﺩﺭﺣﺎﻝ‬

‫ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﯾــﻦ ﺳــﺮﻋﺖ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻓــﻦ =‪100/600‬‬

‫ﭼﺮﺧﺶ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﺷﺪﺕ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﺁﻥ ‪20amps‬‬

‫‪ 16.66%‬ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﺶ ﯾﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬

‫ﺗــﻮﺍﻥ ﺗﺮﻣﺰﯼ ﯾﮏ ﻓﻦ ‪ 0.8hp‬ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻭ‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺩﺳﺖﯾﺎﺑﯽ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻫﻮﺍﺩﻫﯽ‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﺟــﺪﻭﻝ )‪ (2‬ﻭ ﻣﯿﺎﻥﯾﺎﺑﯽ ﺑﯿــﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﺩﯾﺮ‬

‫ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺑﻪ ﮔــﺮﺩﺵ ﺩﺭﺁﻭﺭﺩﻥ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺯ ﯾﮏ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ‬

‫ﻣﻮﺭﺩﻧﯿﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﺳــﺮﻋﺖ ﻓﻦ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺗــﺎ ‪700rpm‬‬

‫ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺁﻥﮐﻪ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻓﻦ‬

‫‪ 1hp‬ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭﺻﻮﺭﺗﯽﮐــﻪ‬

‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾــﺶ ﯾﺎﺑــﺪ‪ .‬ﺷــﺪﺕ ﺟﺮﯾــﺎﻥ ﺟﺪﯾﺪﯼ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ‪ 16.66%‬ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﺶ ﯾﺎﺑﺪ‪ ،‬ﺷــﺪﺕ‬

‫ﻫﻮﺍﺩﻫﯽ ﻓــﻦ ﺍﺯ ‪ 5000cfm‬ﺑﻪ ‪5500cfm‬‬

‫ﮐﻪ ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﺶ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻓــﻦ ﺍﺯ ‪ 600rpm‬ﺗﺎ‬

‫ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﺍﻭﻟﯿﻪ ﻓﻦ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ‪ 1.588‬ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺷــﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾــﺶ ﭘﯿــﺪﺍ ﮐﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺗﺮﻣــﺰﯼ ﺩﺭ ﺍﯾﻦ‬

‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‬


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‫ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﭼﻘــﺪﺭ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﺶ ﺧﻮﺍﻫــﺪ ﯾﺎﻓﺖ؟ ﺁﯾﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ‪ 1hp‬ﭘﺎﺳــﺨﮕﻮﯼ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺗﺮﻣﺰﯼ ﺟﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ؟‬ ‫‪3‬‬

‫‪× 0.8 = 1.06hp‬‬

‫‪cfm‬‬ ‫‪( 5500‬‬ ‫) ‪5000 cfm‬‬

‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ )‪ (2‬ﺗﻐﯿﯿﺮﺍﺕ ﺷﺪﺕ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﻣﺼﺮﻓﯽ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﺶ‬ ‫ﯾﺎ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻓﻦ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﺕ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﻣﺼﺮﻓﯽ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﺭﺍ ﺿﺮﺏ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ ﺩﺭ‪:‬‬

‫ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ ﻓﻦ‬

‫ﺷﺪﺕ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﻣﺼﺮﻓﯽ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﺭﺍ ﺿﺮﺏ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ ﺩﺭ‪:‬‬

‫ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﺶ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ ﻓﻦ‬

‫ﺣﻞ‬ ‫ﺗــﻮﺍﻥ ﺗﺮﻣــﺰﯼ ﻓــﻦ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻮﺍﺩﻫــﯽ‬ ‫‪ ،5500cfm‬ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺑﺎ ‪ 1.06hp‬ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ‪ 1hp‬ﺩﯾﮕﺮ ﻗــﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺎﻣﯿﻦ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻧﯿﺴــﺖ ﻭ ﺑﺎﯾــﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺟــﺎﯼ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺯ ﯾﮏ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ‬ ‫‪ 1½hp‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .3‬ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺣﺪﺍﮐﺜﺮ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺗﺮﻣﺰﯼ‬ ‫ﻓﻦ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﻗﻄﺮ ﮔﺎﻡ ﺟﺪﯾﺪ ﭘﻮﻟﯽ ﻓﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺁﻥﮐﻪ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺗﺮﻣﺰﯼ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺪﺍﮐﺜﺮ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﺶ‬ ‫ﯾﺎﺑﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﺯﯾﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪:‬‬ ‫‪max. bhp2‬‬ ‫‪× pd1‬‬ ‫‪bhp1‬‬

‫)‪(8‬‬

‫= ‪pd2‬‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﻓﻮﻕ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ = pd‬ﻗﻄﺮ ﮔﺎﻡ ﭘﻮﻟﯽ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫‪ = bhp‬ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺗﺮﻣﺰﯼ ﻓﻦ‬

‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺻﻮﺭﺗﯽﮐﻪ ﻗﻄﺮ ﮔﺎﻡ ﭘﻮﻟﯽ ﻓﻦ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻣﺰﯼ ‪ 0.8hp‬ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺑﺎ ‪ 10in.‬ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺍﯼ‬ ‫ﺁﻥﮐــﻪ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺗﺮﻣﺰﯼ ﻓﻦ ﺑــﻪ ﺣﺪﺍﮐﺜﺮ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻤﮑــﻦ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﯾﺶ ﯾﺎﺑﺪ‪ ،‬ﻗﻄــﺮ ﮔﺎﻡ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﯾﺪ ﭼﻘﺪﺭ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ؟‬ ‫= ‪1.25 × 10‬‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫‪1 × 10‬‬ ‫=‬ ‫‪0.8‬‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫= ‪pd‬‬

‫‪1.077 × 10 = 10.77‬‬

‫ﻓﺮﻣﻮﻝﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺗﺮﻣﺰﯼ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺗﺮﻣــﺰﯼ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺨﺸــﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻦ ﺍﻃﻼﻕ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﺑﻪ ﮔﺮﺩﺵ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺁﻭﺭﺩﻥ ﻓــﻦ ﻣــﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﯿــﺎﺯ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺗﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻣﺰﯼ‪ ،‬ﺍﺗﻼﻑ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﻓﻦ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﻧﯿﺰ ﺩﺭﺑﺮ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻭﻟﯽ ﺍﺗﻼﻑ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﯼ ﻧﺎﺷــﯽ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺳﻴﺴــﺘﻢ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻗــﺪﺭﺕ ﮐﻪ ﺑﯿﻦ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ‬

‫ﺷﮑﻞ )‪ (5‬ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﺷﺪﺕ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ )ﺭﻭﺵ ﺗﻌﯿﯿﻦ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺗﺮﻣﺰﯼ(‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬


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‫ﻭ ﻓﻦ ﺍﯾﺠﺎﺩ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻧﻤﯽﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﮐﻨﯿﺪ )ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ‪.(2‬‬

‫ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿــﺮﯼ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺗﺮﻣــﺰﯼ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺎ‬

‫‪ .3‬ﻣﺤﻞ ﺗﻼﻗﯽ ﺷــﺪﺕ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ‬

‫ﺷــﺪﻥ ﺷــﺪﺕ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﯽ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﺗﺤﺖ‬

‫ﺁﺯﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻓﻦ ﺩﺭ ﺷــﺮﺍﯾﻂ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﯽ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥﭘﺬﯾﺮ‬

‫ﻧﺎﻣــﯽ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﻣﺸــﺨﺺ‬

‫ﺑﺎﺭ ﮐﺎﻣﻞ )‪ (FAa‬ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻟﻪ )‪ (9‬ﺑﻪ ﺷــﮑﻞ ﺯﯾﺮ‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﺪﯾﻦﺗﺮﺗﯿﺐ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺷﺪﺕ‬

‫ﮐﻨﯿﺪ )ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ‪.(3‬‬

‫ﺩﺭﻣﯽﺁﯾــﺪ ﮐــﻪ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ‬

‫ﺟﺮﯾــﺎﻥ ﻭ ﻭﻟﺘــﺎﮊ ﻓﻦ ﺩﺭ ﺣﯿــﻦ ﮐﺎﺭ ﻭ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬

‫‪ .4‬ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ‪ 2‬ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ‪ 3‬ﻭﺻﻞ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺗﻘﺮﯾﺒﯽ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺗﺮﻣﺰﯼ ﻓﻦ ﺭﺍ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ‬

‫ﺩﺍﺩﻥ ﻣﻘﺎﺩﯾﺮ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﻓﺮﻣﻮﻝ‬

‫‪ .5‬ﻣﺤــﻞ ﺗﻼﻗﯽ ﺧﻂ ﺭﺍﺑــﻂ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ‪2‬‬

‫ﮐﺮﺩ‪:‬‬

‫ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﯽ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ‬

‫ﺑــﻪ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ‪ 3‬ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﺗــﻮﺍﻥ ‪) ½ hp‬ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﻧﺎﻣﯽ‬

‫)‪(10‬‬

‫ﺗﺮﻣﺰﯼ ﻓﻦ ﺭﺍ ﻣﺤﺎﺳــﺒﻪ ﮐــﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﻪﻃﻮﺭﮐﻠﯽ‬

‫ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ( ﺗﻌﯿﯿﻦ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ )ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ‪.(4‬‬

‫ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺗﺮﻣﺰﯼ ﻓﻦ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﺑﺎ ﺭﯾﺸﻪ ﺩﻭﻡ‬

‫‪ .6‬ﺍﺯ ﺳــﻪ ﻧﻘﻄــﻪ ‪) 1‬ﺷــﺪﺕ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ‬

‫‪ ،3‬ﺿﺮﺏ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﺿﺮﺏ ﻭﻟﺘﺎﮊ‪ ،‬ﺷــﺪﺕ‬

‫‪) 3 ،(1.2amps‬ﺷــﺪﺕ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ‪2.4amps‬‬

‫ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺿﺮﯾﺐ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﻭ ﺑﺎﺯﺩﻩ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﺗﻘﺴﯿﻢ‬

‫ﻭ ﺗــﻮﺍﻥ ‪ (½ hp‬ﻭ ‪) 4‬ﺗــﻮﺍﻥ ‪ (0.75hp‬ﯾﮏ‬

‫ﺑﺮ ‪ .746‬ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺸﮑﻠﯽ ﮐﻪ ﻣﻤﮑﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﻣﻨﺤﻨﯽ ﻋﺒﻮﺭ ﺩﻫﯿﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻓﺮﻣﻮﻝ ﺑﺎ ﺁﻥ ﺭﻭﺑﺮﻭ‬

‫‪ .7‬ﺩﺭ ﭘﺎﯾﺎﻥ ﺷــﺪﺕ ﺟﺮﯾــﺎﻥ ﮐﺎﺭﮐﺮﺩ‬

‫ﺷــﻮﯾﺪ ﭘﯿﺪﺍ ﮐــﺮﺩﻥ ﺿﺮﯾﺐ ﺗــﻮﺍﻥ ﻭ ﺑﺎﺯﺩﻩ‬

‫ﺭﺍ ﺑــﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ ﻣﺤــﻮﺭ ﺍﻓﻘﯽ ﻣﺸــﺨﺺ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ‬

‫ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (1.9amps‬ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺧﻄﯽ ﻋﻤﻮﺩ ﺑﺮ‬

‫ﯾﮏ ﺭﻭﺵ ﻋﻤﻠﯽﺗﺮ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ‬

‫ﻣﺤﻮﺭ ﺍﻓﻘﯽ ﺭﺳــﻢ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺤﻞ ﺗﻼﻗﯽ‬

‫ﺗﺮﻣﺰﯼ ﻓﻦﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺭﺳــﻢ ﯾﮏ ﻣﻨﺤﻨﯽ ﻫﻤﺎﻧﻨﺪ‬

‫ﺁﻥ ﺑﺎ ﻣﻨﺤﻨﯽ ﺭﺳــﻢ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﻣﻘــﺪﺍﺭ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ‬

‫ﻣﻨﺤﻨﯽ ﺷــﮑﻞ )‪ (5‬ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﺷﺪﺕ‬

‫ﺗﺮﻣﺰﯼ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻌﯿﯿﻦ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑــﺎ ﺩﻧﺒﺎﻝ ﮐــﺮﺩﻥ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﻓــﻮﻕ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ‬

‫ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﻣﺼﺮﻓــﯽ ﻓﻦ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﺑــﻞ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺁﻥ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﺩﺳــﺖ ﻣﯽﺁﯾﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺪﯾﻦﺗﺮﺗﯿﺐ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ‬

‫ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺳﯿﻢﮐﺸــﯽ ﻣﻮﺗــﻮﺭ ‪ 1½hp‬ﯾﮏ ﻓﻦ ﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﻨﺎﯼ ﺷــﺪﺕ ﺟﺮﯾــﺎﻥ ‪ 2.4amps‬ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺑــﺎ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻓــﻦ ﺩﺭ ﺣﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺭ ﻣﺸــﺨﺺ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺷﺪﺕ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺮﻓــﯽ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺮﺍﺑــﺮ ﺑﺎ ‪ 1.9amps‬ﺍﺳــﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﭘــﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺟﺪﺍ ﮐﺮﺩﻥ ﻓﻦ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺷــﺪﺕ‬

‫ﺗﺮﻣــﺰﯼ ﻓــﻦ ﺑﺮﺍﺑــﺮ ﺑــﺎ ‪) 1.2hp‬ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ‪(5‬‬

‫ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﻓﻮﻕ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ = Ar‬ﺷــﺪﺕ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﮐﺎﺭ )‪(amp‬‬ ‫‪ = Anl‬ﺷــﺪﺕ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﯽﺑﺎﺭﯼ )‪(amp‬‬ ‫‪ = FAa‬ﺷــﺪﺕ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻗﻌــﯽ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﺤــﺖ ﺑﺎﺭ ﮐﺎﻣﻞ )ﺷــﺪﺕ ﺟﺮﯾــﺎﻥ ﺍﺻﻼﺡ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ( )‪(amp‬‬ ‫‪ = hpn‬ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﻧﺎﻣﯽ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ )‪(hp‬‬ ‫ﺣــﺎﻝ ﺍﮔﺮ ﺁﺧﺮﯾــﻦ ﻣﺜــﺎﻝ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻓﺮﻣﻮﻝﻫﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﻓﻮﻕ ﻣﺠﺪﺩﺍ ﺣﻞ ﮐﻨﯿﻢ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﯿﻢ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ‪:‬‬ ‫‪1.9 - 0.6‬‬ ‫= ‪bhp‬‬ ‫‪× 1.5 = 1.08 hp‬‬ ‫‪2.4 - 0.6‬‬

‫ﺑﺪﺳﺖ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺁﻣﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﯾﻦ ﮐﻪ ﺭﺳﻢ ﭼﻨﯿﻦ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭﯼ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻞ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ﮐﺎﺭ ﭼﻨﺪﺍﻥ ﺳﺎﺩﻩﺍﯼ ﻧﯿﺴﺖ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺩﻩﺗﺮﯾﻦ ﻭ ﺳﺮﯾﻊﺗﺮﯾﻦ ﺭﻭﺵ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺗﺮﻣــﺰﯼ ﻓﻦ ﺑﻪﮐﺎﺭﮔﯿــﺮﯼ ﯾﮑﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻣﻮﻝ ﺯﯾﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ‪:‬‬ ‫‪Vn × FAn‬‬ ‫‪Va‬‬

‫)‪(9‬‬

‫‪A – 0.5nl‬‬ ‫‪bhp = FA r – 0.5A‬‬ ‫‪× hpn‬‬ ‫‪a‬‬ ‫‪nl‬‬

‫ﺗﺴﻤﻪﻫﺎﯼ ‪ V‬ﺷﮑﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺎﻣﯽ ﺗﺴﻤﻪﻫﺎﯼ ‪ V‬ﺷﮑﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺑــﺮ ﻣﺒﻨﺎﯼ ﯾﮏ ﺳــﺮﯼ ﺍﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﺳــﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻡﮔﺬﺍﺭﯼ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﻧﺎﻡﮔﺬﺍﺭﯼ ﺗﺴﻤﻪﻫﺎﯼ‬ ‫‪ V‬ﺷﮑﻞ ﺳﺎﺩﻩ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺗﺮﮐﯿﺒﯽ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ‬

‫= ‪FAa‬‬

‫ﻭ ﺍﻋــﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻧﺠــﺎﻡ ﻣﯽﮔﯿﺮﺩ ﮐــﻪ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ‬

‫ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﻣﺼﺮﻓﯽ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﺑﻪ ‪ 1.2amps‬ﮐﺎﻫﺶ‬

‫ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﻓﻮﻕ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﻫﺮ ﺗﺴــﻤﻪ ﻣﺸﺨﺺﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ‬

‫ﻣﯽﯾﺎﺑﺪ‪ .‬ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺗﺮﻣﺰﯼ ﻓﻦ ﭼﻘﺪﺭ ﺍﺳﺖ؟‬

‫‪ = FAa‬ﺷــﺪﺕ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻗﻌــﯽ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ‬

‫ﻃﻮﻝ ﺗﺴﻤﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﯾﮏ ﺗﺴﻤﻪ‬

‫ﺣﻞ‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﺷــﮑﻞ )‪ (5‬ﺷﺪﺕ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﯾــﺎﻥ ﻣﻮﺗــﻮﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺑﯽﺑــﺎﺭﯼ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮ‬

‫ﺗﺤﺖ ﺑﺎﺭ ﮐﺎﻣﻞ )‪(amp‬‬ ‫‪ = FAn‬ﺷﺪﺕ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﻧﺎﻣﯽ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺭ ﮐﺎﻣﻞ )‪(amp‬‬

‫‪ V‬ﺷﮑﻞ ﺳــﺎﺩﻩ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﻝ ‪ 8.0in.‬ﺑﻪﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬ ‫‪ 2L080‬ﻧﺎﻣﮕــﺬﺍﺭﯼ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺗﯿﺐ ﺗﺴﻤﻪﻫﺎﯼ ‪ V‬ﺷﮑﻞ ﺳﺎﺩﻩ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﻝ‬

‫ﺭﻭﯼ ﻣﺤــﻮﺭ ﺍﻓﻘﯽ ﯾﺎ ﻣﺤﻮﺭ ﺷــﺪﺕ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ‬

‫‪ = Vn‬ﻭﻟﺘﺎﮊ ﻧﺎﻣﯽ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ‬

‫‪ 52.0in.‬ﻭ ‪ 100.0in.‬ﺑــﻪ ﺗﺮﺗﯿﺐ ﺑﻪﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬

‫ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ )ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ‪.(1‬‬

‫‪ = Va‬ﻭﻟﺘﺎﮊ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﯽ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ‬

‫‪ 3L520‬ﻭ ‪ 4L1000‬ﻧﺎﻣﮕﺬﺍﺭﯼ ﻣﯽﺷــﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .2‬ﺑــﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ ﻫﻤﯿﻦ ﻣﺤــﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ½‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻟــﻪ )‪ (9‬ﺷــﺪﺕ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﯽ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺭﻭﺵ ﻧﺎﻣﮕﺬﺍﺭﯼ‪ ،‬ﺍﻭﻟﯿﻦ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺳﻤﺖ‬

‫ﺁﻣﭙﺮ ﮐﻪ ﺷــﺪﺕ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﻣﻮﺗــﻮﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ‬

‫ﯾﺎ ﺷــﺪﺕ ﺟﺮﯾﺎﻥ ﺍﺻﻼﺡ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﺗﺤﺖ‬

‫ﭼــﭗ ﺗﻌــﺪﺍﺩ ﺭﻗﻢﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺗﺴــﻤﻪ‬

‫ﺑﯽﺑــﺎﺭﯼ ﺭﺍ ﻧﺸــﺎﻥ ﻣﯽﺩﻫﺪ ﺭﺍ ﻣﺸــﺨﺺ‬

‫ﺑﺎﺭ ﮐﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﯿﺮﯼ ﻭﻟﺘﺎﮊ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﯽ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ‬

‫ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺁﻥ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 39‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪34‬‬

‫)‪K = 4L – 6.28 (D + d‬‬

‫ﻣﯽﮐﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻣﮕﺬﺍﺭﯼ ﺗﺴــﻤﻪﻫﺎﯼ ‪ V‬ﺷــﮑﻞ ﻧﯿﺰ‬ ‫ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳــﺎﺱ ﯾﮏ ﺭﻭﺵ ﻧﺎﻡﮔﺬﺍﺭﯼ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﺩﻭ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻭﻝ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﻫﻨﺪﻩ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﮐﺴــﺮﯼ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺨﺮﺝ ‪ 16‬ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﮐﻪ ﭘﻬﻨﺎﯼ ﻧﺎﻣﯽ ﺗﺴﻤﻪ ﺭﺍ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪ = L‬ﻃﻮﻝ ﺗﺴﻤﻪ ﺑﺮﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﯾﻨﭻ‬ ‫‪ = D‬ﻗﻄــﺮ ﺧﺎﺭﺟــﯽ ﻗﺮﻗــﺮﻩ ﺑﺰﺭﮒﺗــﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﯾﻨﭻ‬ ‫‪ = d‬ﻗﻄــﺮ ﺧﺎﺭﺟــﯽ ﻗﺮﻗــﺮﻩ ﮐﻮﭼﮏﺗﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﯾﻨﭻ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺟــﺪﻭﻝ )‪ (3‬ﺍﺑﻌــﺎﺩ ﺍﺳــﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﺴــﻤﻪﻫﺎﯼ ‪ V‬ﺷﮑﻞ ﺑﺎ ﻃﻮﻝ ﮔﺎﻡ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺍﯾﻪ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺭﺻﻮﺭﺗﯽﮐﻪ ﻗﻄﺮ ﮔﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻗﺮﻗﺮﻩﺍﯼ ﮐﻪ ﺗﺴــﻤﻪ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ ﺁﻥ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﺳــﺮﻋﺖ ﺗﺴﻤﻪ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎﯼ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺭﺍ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﯾﻦ ﺭﻭﺵ ﻧﺎﻡﮔﺬﺍﺭﯼ‪ ،‬ﺭﻗﻢﻫﺎﯼ ﺳــﻮﻡ ﻭ‬ ‫ﭼﻬﺎﺭﻡ ﻣﺸﺨﺺﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺯﺍﻭﯾﻪ ﺷﯿﺎﺭﯼ ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﮐﻪ ﺗﺴــﻤﻪ ﺑﺮ ﻣﺒﻨﺎﯼ ﺁﻥ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﯽ ﻭ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺭﻗﻢﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺮﻑ ‪V‬‬

‫ﻗــﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﯽﮔﯿﺮﻧﺪ ﺩﻩ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﻃﻮﻝ ﮔﺎﻡ ﺗﺴــﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﯾﻦ ﺗﺴﻤﻪﺍﯼ ﮐﻪ‬

‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ )‪ (3‬ﺍﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﺗﺴﻤﻪﻫﺎﯼ ‪ V‬ﺷﮑﻞ‬ ‫ﻃﻮﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﺗﺴﻤﻪﻫﺎﯼ ‪ V‬ﺷﮑﻞ‬ ‫ﻃﻮﻝ ﻣﻮﺛﺮ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﯽ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ )‪(inch‬‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ ﻣﻘﻄﻊ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﮔﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ‬

‫ﺑﻪﺻﻮﺭﺕ ‪ 1430V450‬ﻧﺎﻣﮕﺬﺍﺭﯼ ﻣﯽﺷﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﺎﻧﮕﺮ ﺗﺴﻤﻪﺍﯼ ‪ V‬ﺷﮑﻞ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﭘﻬﻨﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻣــﯽ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺑﺎ ‪ ،14/16in.‬ﺯﺍﻭﯾﻪ ﺷــﯿﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ )ﺯﺍﻭﯾﻪ ﻗﺮﻗﺮﻩﺍﯼ ﮐﻪ ﺗﺴــﻤﻪ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ ﻗــﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﯿﺮﺩ( ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺑــﺎ ‪ 30‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻭ ﻃﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﮔﺎﻡ ﺁﻥ ‪ 45.0in.‬ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺗﻠﺮﺍﻧــﺲ ﻃــﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺗﺴــﻤﻪﻫﺎﯼ ‪ V‬ﺷــﮑﻞ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺗﺴﻤﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﺑﺎ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫ﻃﻮﻝ ﮐﻤﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ‪ 100in.‬ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺑﺎ ‪ ±0.0025‬ﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺗﺴﻤﻪﻫﺎﯼ ﺑﺎ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺑﯿﺸﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ‪100in.‬‬

‫ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺑﺎ ‪ ±0.0075‬ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻃﻮﻝ ﺗﺴﻤﻪﻫﺎﯼ ‪ V‬ﺷﮑﻞ ﺭﺍ ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻓﺮﻣﻮﻝ ﺯﯾﺮ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﮐﺮﺩ‪:‬‬ ‫‪(D – d)2‬‬ ‫)‪(11‬‬ ‫‪4C‬‬

‫‪L = 2C + 1.57 (D + d) +‬‬

‫ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﻓﻮﻕ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ = C‬ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﻣﺮﺍﮐﺰ ﺩﻭ ﻣﺤﻮﺭ ﺑﺮﺣﺴــﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﯾﻨﭻ‬ ‫‪ = D‬ﻗﻄــﺮ ﺧﺎﺭﺟــﯽ ﻗﺮﻗــﺮﻩ ﺑﺰﺭﮒﺗــﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﯾﻨﭻ‬ ‫‪ = d‬ﻗﻄــﺮ ﺧﺎﺭﺟــﯽ ﻗﺮﻗــﺮﻩ ﮐﻮﭼﮏﺗﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﯾﻨﭻ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﻣﺮﺍﮐﺰ ﺑﯿﻦ ﺩﻭ ﻣﺤﻮﺭ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬

‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﻄﻊ‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﺯﯾﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ‪:‬‬ ‫)‪(12‬‬

‫‪K2 – 32 (D – d)2‬‬

‫ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﻓﻮﻕ‪:‬‬

‫‪16‬‬

‫‪K‬‬

‫=‪C‬‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫ﺳﻄﺢ ﻣﻘﻄﻊ ﻧﺎﻣﯽ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻤﻪﻫﺎﯼ ‪ V‬ﺷﮑﻞ‬


‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ‪ / 40‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪34‬‬

‫ﻓﺮﻣﻮﻝ ﺯﯾﺮ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﮐﺮﺩ‪:‬‬ ‫)‪(13‬‬

‫‪fpm = pd × rpm × 0.262‬‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺷﮑﻞ )‪ (6‬ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﭼﺮﺧﺶ‬ ‫ﻓﻦ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﻗﻄﺮ ﮔﺎﻡ ﭘﻮﻟﯽ ﻓﻦ ﺍﺭﺍﯾﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺳــﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻌﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﭼﺮﺧﺶ‬ ‫ﻓــﻦ ﻭ ﻗﻄــﺮ ﮔﺎﻡ ﭘﻮﻟﯽ ﺁﻥ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪،‬‬

‫ﺩﻭﺭ ﻓﻦ‬

‫ﻣﯽﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﺳﺮﯾﻊ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﺴــﻤﻪ )‪ (fpm‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﮐﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺪﯾﻦﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﯾــﺪ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻗﻄــﺮ ﮔﺎﻡ ﭘﻮﻟﯽ ﻓﻦ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻮﺭ ﺍﻓﻘﯽ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﮐﺮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﺭﺳﻢ ﺧﻄﯽ‬ ‫ﻋﻤــﻮﺩ ﺑﺮ ﻣﺤﻮﺭ ﺍﻓﻘﯽ‪ ،‬ﻣﺤﻠﯽ ﺗﻼﻗﯽ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺳــﺮﻋﺖ ﻓــﻦ )‪ (rpm‬ﭘﯿﺪﺍ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻞ ﺗﻼﻗــﯽ ﺍﯾﻦ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺑــﺎ ﻣﺤﻮﺭ ﻗﻄﺮﯼ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺗﺴــﻤﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺣﺴﺐ ‪ fpm‬ﻣﺸﺨﺺ‬ ‫ﻣﯽﮐﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﭘــﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﮐﻪ ﭘﻮﻟﯽ ﻣﻮﺗــﻮﺭ ﻭ ﻓﻦ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﻗﻄﺮ ﮔﺎﻡ )ﺍﯾﻨﭻ( – ﭘﻮﻟﯽ ﻓﻦ‬

‫ﺩﺭﺳــﺘﯽ ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ ﺷــﺪﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ ﮐﺸــﺶ‬

‫ﺷﮑﻞ )‪ (6‬ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻓﻦ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﻗﻄﺮ ﮔﺎﻡ ﭘﻮﻟﯽ‬

‫ﺗﺴﻤﻪ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻪ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ ﺯﯾﺮ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﭘﺬﯾﺮﺩ‪:‬‬

‫ﭼﻴﻠﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﻰ ﮔﺎﺯﺳﻮﺯ‬

‫‪ .1‬ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺍﻭﻟﯿﻪ ﺗﺴــﻤﻪ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﯼ‬ ‫ﭘﻮﻟﯽﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑــﺮﺍﯼ ﻣﺪﺕ ‪ 5‬ﺩﻗﯿﻘــﻪ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺑﻪﮐﺎﺭ ﺑﯿﻨﺪﺍﺯﯾﺪ ﻭ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺷــﮑﻞ )‪ (7‬ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺷﯿﺎﺭ ‪ V‬ﺷﮑﻞ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺤﺮﺍﻑ ﺗﺴﻤﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺑﯿﻦ ¾ ﺗﺎ ‪ 1‬ﺍﯾﻨﭻ ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ‬

‫ﺷﯿﺎﺭ ‪ V‬ﺷﮑﻞ‬

‫ﻣﺤﻮﺭ ﻓﻦ‬

‫ﺳﻄﺢ ﺗﺮﺍﺯ‬

‫ﻣﺤﻮﺭ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ‬

‫ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﻣﺮﺍﮐﺰ ﭘﻮﻟﯽ ﻓﻦ ﻭ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺍﺯ ﻭ ﺑﺎﻻ ﻭ ﭘﺎﯾﯿﻦ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺑﺎ ﯾﮑﺪﯾﮕﺮ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﮐﻨﯿﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .2‬ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ ﺍﻭﻟﯿﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ‬ ‫ﯾﮏ ﺩﻭﺭﻩ ‪ 12‬ﺳــﺎﻋﺘﻪ ﺑــﻪﮐﺎﺭ ﺑﯿﻨﺪﺍﺯﯾﺪ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺳﭙﺲ ﻣﺠﺪﺩﺍ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .3‬ﺩﺭ ﭘﺎﯾﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﯾﮏ ﺩﻭﺭﻩ ‪ 24‬ﺳﺎﻋﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪﮐﺎﺭ ﺑﯿﻨﺪﺍﺯﯾﺪ ﻭ ﻣﯿﺰﺍﻥ ﮐﺸــﺶ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻤﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﯼ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎﻥﻃﻮﺭ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺷﮑﻞ )‪ (8‬ﻧﯿﺰ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺷﯿﺎﺭ ‪ V‬ﺷﮑﻞ‬

‫ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ ،‬ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﭘﻮﻟﯽ ﻓﻦ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺑﺎ ﯾﮑﺪﯾﮕﺮ ﺟﻔﺖ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻋﻼﻭﻩ‬

‫ﺷﮑﻞ )‪ (7‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﮐﺸﺶ ﻣﺠﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻤﻪ‬

‫ﺷﮑﻞ )‪ (8‬ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ ﭘﻮﻟﯽﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺑﺮ ﺁﻥ ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ ﺩﻗﯿﻖ ﭘﻮﻟﯽ ﻓﻦ ﻭ ﭘﻮﻟﯽ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻧﯿﺰ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻣﺴــﺎﯾﻠﯽ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﯿﺮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‬


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