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RAWSCAPE A Landscape Architecture Manifesto by Jessica Li


CONTENT Introduction

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Understanding Social Issues in London

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Understanding Tension within City

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Ingredients for Rawscape

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Preparation before Creating Rawscape

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Conclusion

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Precedent

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Annotated Bibliography

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Reference

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INTRODUCTION Landscape is possible to cultivate and record the critical moment of conflict. No infrastructure can solve the complex social issues in London. If we wish to convert London into a new 24 hour city, we should use landscape as a medium for the raw opinions to be exploded instead, which is defined as Rawscape in this manifesto. It is not limited to spatial landscape, but also other potential landscapes, such as social and culinary landscape. Landscape has potential to add freedom to city and eliminate anxiety from city, where people are free from judgement and socioeconomic status to express ideas. It is capable of recording how the conflicts may be converted into opportunities for a change without compromising deep values of all. There are four essential steps required before we start ‘cooking’ Rawscape in order to make the best out of it. Firstly, we need to understand the current social issues of London. Secondly, potential to turn the tension with the city into opportunity can be examined through conceptual theories. Thirdly, inspirations for the ingredients to enhance Rawscape can be drawn from various urban design and landscape architecture master minds. Fourthly, a preparation framework should be set up before the ‘cooking’ can start. Finally, Rawscape cooked by different techniques will cultivate and record the conflict at different level, which will make 24 hour city scheme possible in London. The aim of this manifesto is to explore ideas about how to create such landscape to cultivate and record conflicts with the use of various elements for public space. The elements are the ingredients for Rawscape, which can be cooked in multiple ways to create custom Rawscapes in different scales. Therefore, they perform different levels of effect.


Understanding social issues in London • ‘Let’s get our gentrification story straight’ by Hill, D. (2016) • ‘Night Tube to Start on Piccadilly line’ by Boyle, D. (2016) • ‘Social Engineering, Public Policy, and Design’ by Craft, J. (2015) • ‘Countdown to a non-stop capital: London goes 24-hour’ by Bromwich, K. (2016) • ‘London’, Metropolis Documentary Series by Travel Channel (2015)

Cultivate and Record Conflict

Cooking Rawscape

Geof frey (2003)

Ingredients for Rawscape • ‘The Social Life of Small Urban Life’ by Whyte, H. (1998) • ‘Life between Buildings’ by Ghel, Jan (2011) • ‘Urban Realities’ by Broadbent,

readings/articles

Preparation before Cooking Rawscape • ‘Re-placing Processes’ by Berrizbeitia, Anita (2007) • ‘Learning from Bogota: how municipal experts transformed public space’ by Berber, Rachel (2010) • ‘Dealing with Deep Value Differences in Participatory Processes’ by Forester, J. (2009) • ‘Chapter 2: Conflict, Culture and Images of Change’ by LeBaron, M &Pillay, V (2006)

Elimination ‘Eliminate’ anxiety from city

precedents: Designer Nights Out by Designer Out Crime Superkilen, Copenhagen by Topotek1

Understanding tension within city • ‘From Object to Field’ by Allen, Stan (1997) • ‘System City: Infrastructure and the Space of Flows’ by Weinstock, Micheal (2013)

Addition ‘Add’ freedom to city

Ingredients for Landscape as Medium

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Understanding social Issues in London Conflict between New and Old The first image of a 24 hour city is the vibrant night life with potential local economic input. It is easy for us to be blinded by the glamour of becoming another city which never sleeps. Before the establishment of a new 24 hour city, gentrification has already consumed London with the change of property value and land use (Engel, M. 2016). Local homes, shops and pubs have been shaped into brand new housing development because of the increasing property value. The loss of local pubs and music venues has brought London concerns regarding to the feasibility of a 24 hour city and conservation of local cultures. There is no more Sloane Rangers found near Sloane Square. There are no more kids playing ball games on the streets. There are no more local pubs for the pensioners to have lunch or the bridge club to meet. It is impossible for people to afford a home close to where they work. Vacant sold properties became hiding places for the homeless and drug addicts while they are pending for investment or construction. There is no doubt that the change has influenced every aspect of London. However, we should not forget gentrification also represents revitalisation. Since 1960s, the old dirty post-war city began to be rebuilt to thrive by adventurous young architects (Hill, D. 2016). Change was not considered as ruining London back then, so why now? The city was bombed out and declined in smog for four decades. The change after the war is already the heritage of the present. Today’s change can be the heritage of tomorrow. Edward Clarke (2016), the analyst for Centre for Cities, stated in his article that the issues of gentrification are ‘more complicated than a simple battle between


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Understanding Social Issues in London

plucky communities and greedy gentrifiers’. Gentrification is just half of the story. People should understand the core cause of the conflict between existing residents and gentrifiers is the poor management, instead of blaming the change itself. Although the change may make existing residents’ lives difficult with shift in neighbourhood dynamic, especially lower class, there is no doubt that change can also bring benefits to the community, such as creating more jobs and better amenities.

Closure of former Crown pub in Holland Park (Engel, M. 2016)


Understanding Social Issues in London

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Art complex in former industrial building in Peckham (Engel, M. 2016)


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Understanding Social Issues in London

Uncertain Availability of Resources Moreover, the availability of ingredients for a 24 hour city also raised the conflicts between different groups of community, such as transportation and security. By the end of 2016, there were five underground lines running throughout the night on Fridays and Saturdays in London (Boyle, D. 2016). The 24 hour underground service aims to diverse the crowds from popular night entertainment strips by increasing connectivity, which further eases the problems of street drinking and anti-social behaviours. Despite transportation, diversity of uses is also essential to provide people of different age groups destinations to travel at night, as well as to maintain the existing quality of life for local residents. A balance between revellers and residents is not easily to be found since their needs are often conflicting (Bromwich, K. 2016). Kings Cross in Sydney is a popular night-time entertainment precinct for locals and tourists. It is also where lots of violence happened. Designers at the Designing Out Crime research centre and the City of Sydney took up the challenge to seek solutions for reducing violence in the area (Dorst, Kees 2016). Pubs and clubs at Kings Cross tend to close at the same time and push intoxicated customers out of a fun indoor environment to a relatively boring outdoor space. There are no alternative activities and seats for people to sober up, which direct them to carry out anti-social behaviours. Therefore, they need distraction to ease their discomfort, such as food stalls along the streets, sitting amenities and outdoor entertainment. Extracting the high number of people at peak closing times of pubs and clubs is also another solution to dilute the violence. Transportation takes a crucial role to remove people from congesting on the streets. With the improvement of night public transport and amenities, the frustration and impatience by extensive long queues for expensive taxi rides can be calmed. The streets are also equipped with volunteer guides, first aids service, charged phones and a comfortable place for people to feel safe while waiting to go home or friends. In London, there are only few out of 800 restaurants open after midnight (Travel Channel 2015). Famously known Duck and Waffle is one of the examples to show how Londoners love to explore their city at night. The head chef, Daniel Doherty, stated in the documentary series Metropolis, that customers who showed up at the restaurant at 3 o’clock in the morning were not drinkers but actually liked to eat there. Unlike other cities that never sleep like New York, London is behind the others in terms of opening hours and


Understanding Social Issues in London

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diversity of night-time activities. There is a lot of potential for entrepreneurs to cooperate with local governments to come up with new regulation and policy for more variety of night-time activities. If London will be a new 24 hour city, it is essential for it to be prepared for the complex social issues brought by such ambition. It is compulsory to spend time to understand the problems from various perspectives before establishing any solutions.

Incident in Kings Cross, Sydney (The Daily Telegraph 2017)


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Understanding Social Issues in London

Record to Cultivate Conflicts No matter before or after the implementation of a 24 hour city, certain level of conflicts is inevitable. There is no absolute solution for these issues through building infrastructure or manipulating design. However, landscape can be used as a blank canvas to record this crucial moment of change just like books, music, movies and arts in order to cultivate conflict into opportunities. Mass housing experiments across Britain broke traditional village culture and brought unemployment, which resulted in “a culture of crime, depression, drug addiction and alcoholism”, but also created the rebellious arts, such as movie: Trainspotting and Punk Rock (Craft, J. 2015). Along with time, there will always be social change and conflicts caused by new policy of governance, architecture, planning and design. In order to overcome the anxiety of change, people need a platform to express them, and see what the others express. From West to East, it is basic human right for people to express themselves. The medium should not be limited to certain art form but landscape architecture as well. During post-war period, young adventurous architects used London as a test ground and created mass housing architecture, which is Brutalist architecture. “Brutalist” originates from the French word “raw”, however it means brutal to a lot of people. Even though there is criticism against the harsh concrete exterior of such architecture, it is considered as a supreme castle for the current residents (Gander, K. 2016). UK Prime Minister, David Cameron, decided to demolish Britain’s “brutal high-rise towers” and “bleak” estates. The public accused him of social cleansing. Despite the plain concrete facades, brutal architecture has recorded how post-war Europe thrived again from the destruction and depression, as well as indicated a significant part of architecture history. If we allow new intervention after the war, shouldn’t we be more positive and open for change today? The new intervention in the past became history today, today’s change will also become history tomorrow. As if London is a piece of meat, everyone should have a chance to express how they want it to be cut, marinate or cook, just like those adventurous architects before us.


Understanding Social Issues in London

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New Brutalism Building, ‘Banana Flats’ in Trainspotting (O’Neil, K. 2017)


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Understanding Social Issues in London

Be adventurous for new intervention (Li, J. 2017)

Superkilen in Copenhagen by Topotek 1 (2012) demonstrated how we, landscape architects, may use limited power to turn conflict from negative to positive. The designers allowed the residents to select the objects within the urban park to represent their culture and race. There is no guarantee for resolving the conflict between different cultures but symbolised the diversity of this particular multicultural neighbourhood. This implementation aimed to celebrate its hybridised identity instead of claiming this urban park was the solution for the conflict. Since conflict cannot be resolved by infrastructure, we should make alternative use of conflict by recording as many expressions as possible in Rawscape for this critical moment of history.


Understanding Social Issues in London

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Superkilen in Copenhagen (Topotek 2012)


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Understanding Tension within City By understanding social issues in London, we gathered more insights about the possibility to convert conflict into opportunities. It is crucial for us to examine how such tension within city will influence its performance in order to create Rawscape without compromising the well-being of the city. Convert Conflict into Opportunity Famously-known theory by Stan Allen (1997), Field Conditions, depicts the beauty of tension within space. The often invisible tensions are perceived by the audience through a system of physical programs within an area. Allen argued that space can be perceived as a fluid body of events rather than fixed patterns or geometry at modern days due to advanced technology and culture. This gives designers the courage to accept the messiness in reality and understand that design is not static. “All grids are field, but not all fields are grids.� All fields are different, grids are figures to compose a field but not all fields are definitely composed of grids. Therefore, the traditional way to perceive space as composition of elements is not applicable anymore in a complex urban setting. Landscape is a field where physical programs, people, societal issues and tensions entangled within. All the social issues underlying the 24 hour city makeover of London build tensions between different classes. The conflict between new and old in London leads to the interconnected relationships between people, architecture and social dynamic, which are the figures for Rawscape as a field to thrive. Rawscape will act as the medium for the experience between the audience and figures to occur.


Understanding Tension within City

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If we consider a city as a system, it is a dynamic system of multiple levels, including climate, ecology, culture, and infrastructure and so on. This system is constructed with series of network, which is considered growing with the addition of nodes (Weinstock, M. 2013). New nodes are more likely to grow at the existing well-connected nodes. If one local node fails, the entire system will still be able to function without only a small local node. However, the entire system will be affected if one major well-connected node collapses. It is essential for us to create decentralised network in order to maintain the well being of the system. In modern times of advanced technology and mobility, network is not limited to proximity anymore. We can perceive network in multiple layers, such as social and digital networks. Therefore, Rawscape should not be perceived as singular. It must be in multiple scales and various forms, both spatial and nonspatial, in order to maintain the system of London and create contact with as many figures as possible (Fig. 1). The tension within London as Field Conditions and system can be utilised as the structure of the city, not just physical but also social structure. Rawscape will hold the tension in order to cultivate and record the conflicts with or without being seen. Figure/Node

Network Field

Fig. 1: Rawscapes within City (Li, J. 2017)


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Ingredients for Rawscape In order to create a platform for people to express their ideas freely, an inviting public space must be provided if Rawscape is spatial. William Whyte (1998) carried out his famous project at New York City and identified numerous elements that create successful public space. He published his findings as Street Life Project in the Social Life of Small Urban Spaces, along with the same named short film. People tend to linger in a place where seats, interaction with the street, sunlight, food, water, vegetation and triangulation are provided (Fig.2). All sorts of seats should be provided to suit different needs, including benches, movable chairs or even ledges and steps. Places on the ground are more likely to have contact with pedestrians. Sunlight provides people visibility and warmth, which makes the place safe and comfortable to stay. Food draws people together, especially informal street stalls in outdoor space. Water brings a place natural impressions and peaceful atmosphere. Vegetation provides shades and fresh air to the environment. The presence of triangulation in public space attracts more people to encounter one another in that particular place, just like a wellconnected node in the system of city. If a place grows more popularity, then more expressions can be recorded by Rawscape.

Fig. 2: William Whyte’s Elements (graphic credit: Flaticon 2017)


Ingredients for Rawscape

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Despite the triangulation by Whyte (1998), Jan Ghel (2011) also listed three types of activities occurred at public space, which are necessary, optional and social activities (Fig.3). Necessary activities are those which are more or less compulsory, such as school, work and errands. Optional activities are those which an individual participate voluntarily at the suitable time and place. Social activities are those which an individual needs to carry out with the presence of another individual, such as conversations or children playing at the park. The better the quality of the physical environment, the more activities appeared, even though the dependence on the space quality varies among the three kinds of activities. In addition, people have the need for stimulation and activities are a kind of stimulation. Regardless an individual involves in the activity or not, people like to be stimulated in an active space, although they may just watch the others. Rawscape aims to initiate people to carry out activities. The quality of it will vary depending on how we cook it.

Quality of the physical environment Poor

Good

Necessary Activities

Optional Activities

Social Activities Fig. 3: Three Types of Activities (Ghel, J. 2011)


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Ingredients for Rawscape

Furthermore, Broadbent (2003) has compared different urban design theories in his book, Emerging Concepts in Urban Space Design, Jane Jacobs’s ideas for street safety presents urban design in a personal scale. Firstly, there must be clear definition between public and private space if the street is safe. Secondly, constant watch on the street must be kept. The streets should be visible through neighbour’s windows, balconies or steps. Thirdly, the street itself must be in constant use. These three principles define how Rawscape should be managed in order to create a safe medium for people to express themselves without worries, especially when Rawscape is physical. It has to be separated from private space to ensure the place is at a fair ground without subjective judgement. High visibility and constant use must be maintained in order to secure the safety of space and avoid violence happened between people with opposite opinions. After we gather the ingredients for Rawscape, it is time to think about how it can possibly be cooked. There are three ways to treat Rawscape to cultivate and record conflict at three different levels (Fig.4).

Cheap

Fast

Great

Impossible Fast Food Rawscape Fine Dining Rawscape Healthy Rawscape

Fig. 4: Venn Diagram for Cooking Rawscape (Li, J. 2017)


Ingredients for Rawscape

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Firstly, it can be cooked as Fast Food Rawscape, which is cheap and fast to satisfy the need but the satisfaction will not last for a long period of time and ultimately damage the health of it. For example, if we place movable chairs in a public space as Whyte (1988) suggested, it is true that they provide flexibility in terms of furniture arrangement and how people want to sit. It takes low cost and little time to place the chairs as well. However, other problems may be derived from such implementation, such as the loss of chairs and obstruction to other spaces. It is more likely to be suitable for necessary activities, which required to be done efficiently rather than in high quality. If we need to ensure a certain amount of opinions collected, this activity will be necessary.

Fast food satisfies hunger quickly with potential damages 24hours (Li, J. 2017)


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Ingredients for Rawscape

Secondly, it can be cooked as Fine Dining Rawscape, which is expensive but in high quality. This method will require high cost, especially if we would like to complete it quickly. Nonetheless, it will create a place in high quality for people to enjoy and express their ideas peacefully. For example, implementing water features in a space brings the space a sense of nature and a pleasant focal point to look at, but it requires regular maintenance and careful planning in order to ensure the feature will work as expected. It is suitable for optional activities, which a high quality space favours people to participate in activities that are not essential. If we like expressive behaviour to happen in Rawscape, an environment for optional activity must be provided.

Late night expensive fine dining restaurants gives impressive experience (Li, J. 2017)


Ingredients for Rawscape

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Thirdly, cooking it into Healthy Rawscape is the most sustainable in comparison with the other two. It may not be extremely cheap but it will be self-sustaining in high quality in the future. For example, triangulation will occur in space where is popular. Once you introduce activities and people in the space, triangulation will take place naturally. This method leads to people to interact with one another, which is a social activity that Rawscape aims to develop the most. However, the condition is often as ideal in reality, thus Fast Food Rawscape will also be useful. Fine Dining Rawscape will be applicable when there are abundant resources.

Healthy food gives the best prospect (Li, J. 2017)


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Preparation before creating rawscape Before creatingRawscape, it is important to have a clear and adaptive framework. Berrizbeitia (2007) suggested that a flexible design framework is preferable since landscape architects should challenge themselves to design beyond the notion of time, not just for aesthetic value. It is essential for us not to design for a static stage, either the location or time. There are four steps of preparation required in order to cook Rawscape effectively. Firstly, we should work with the existing evolving nature of Rawscape instead of converting it into desired form. Secondly, research about a particular Rawscape is needed to trigger the process rather than a design-driven approach. Thirdly, non-physical elements such as history and cultures should be considered, not only the physical qualities of the surrounding. Finally, change must be anticipated and the designers should understand their intervention is part of the evolutionary process, which is the record by Rawscape. Besides, Rawscape is preferred to be managed by local authority or community group since this is a highly participatory process. As the example in Bogota (2010), the true understanding of what the community needs will sustain the process beyond aesthetic values. It also educates people to appreciate the opportunity for change. The local knowledge helps participants to understand what ingredients are required in order to drive the understanding from material to symbolic, then to relational level. LeBaron and Pillay (2006) explored the three dimensions of conflict, which are material, symbolic and relational levels.


Preparation before Cooking Rawscape

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Japanese Tatami Mat (Japan-guide.com 2007)

In a Hollywood movie production, a movie was set in Japan. therefore tatami mat is used, which is a Japanese woven flooring material. The Japanese crew members requested the Americans to take off their shoes before walking on the tatami. The Americans lost the idea very soon, which resulted in conflict at the set. One of the Japanese members compared tatami to the U.S. national flag at the next morning meeting. The two groups met on common ground through the understanding of each other’s cultures. This example was used to depict how relational level can be achieved through the progression from material level. Symbolic dimension catalyses people in conflict to come to common ground by communication. Time is one of the key elements to cultivate conflict in Rawscape, which is required to treat Rawscape in a sustainable way. Participants also need to invest time in order to understand each other’s deep values since values cannot be replaced as interests. Forester (2009) suggested that our wants are incidental and the others’ values must be deeply cherished, otherwise we would fail to respect the others and work with them together. At Rawscape, there will be no values jeopardised by the assumption of ‘everyone has a price’. Everyone’s values and expressions will be welcome and appreciated, no one will presume the opposite party not working or listening to another.


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Preparation before Cooking Rawscape

Structures, Systems, Laws, Rules, Policies

ial Level Mater Symbolic Level

ional Leve Relat l Communication Interaction Interdependence “Relational Glue�

ips nsh atio l e gR ldin Bui

Tim e In ves tme nt

Identities, Worldviews, Meaning-systems, Values, Perceptions

Fig. 5: Culture and Conflict Resolution Diagram (LeBaron, M &Pillay, V 2006)


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Conclusion Rawscape will act as a medium to cultivate and record conflict effectively if freedom is added to and anxiety is eliminated from London. The social issues related to 24 hour city will be reflected through an expressive landscape created by every Londoner. The tensions within the city will be turned into opportunities. Rawscape will be part of the nodes to maintain the well-being of London. Regardless Rawscape will be cooked as Fast Food, Fine Dining or Healthy Rawscape, it will encourage people to cherish the others’ values at different levels, just like the community expressed themselves freely with their selection of object at Superkilen in Copenhagen (2012). Respect is a timeless practice, which is compulsory to be maintained within Rawscape by an evolutionary process. It is not about infrastructure or aesthetic quality of space but the real needs in London. Rawscape provides an opportunity for us as landscape architects to give hopes when the society is intertwined with negative emotions from the conflicts. Once we build respect within such landscape, the diverse expressions will be appreciated instead of disparaged. It is possible for London to be a 24 hour city through the freedom of speech and celebration of diversity in Rawscape.


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Precedent Superkilen, Copenhagen by Topotek1 Topotek1 (2012), Superkilen, Square, Projects, < http://www.topotek1.de/#/en/ projects/typological/110> viewed on 17 April 2017 Superkilen is an urban park located in and ethically and socially mixed neighbourhood in Copenhagen. The dynamic and multicultural area in the Danish capital, where several riots and street violence were shown, required a park to address social issues of the neighbourhood. Topotek1 used a variety of colours, textures and programs to depict the diverse community. The final design has demonstrated how conflicts among numerous ethic and social groups can be cultivated through contextualising the differences and creating a new public space with its own identity to celebrate the diversity. A range of foreign objects selected by residents represent the identities of the people, integrating their foreign characters into Danish public space. A sense of humour is injected in some of the programmes, such as Thai Boxing Ring to demonstrate how conflict can be possibly turned into opportunities. A fight outside of the ring is considered as crime but once the fighters are in the ring, the fight is a sport. Superkilen is divided into three parts by colour: the Red Square, the Black Market and the Green Park. The three colours form an unifying base for the foreign objects and trees. The integration between objects, trees and colours â&#x20AC;&#x153;unifies the mixed neighbourhood by giving it a public space that celebrates its hybridised identityâ&#x20AC;?.


Precedent

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Designer nights out: good urban planning can reduce drunken violence Dorst, Kees (2016) ‘Designer nights out: good urban planning can reduce drunken violence’, The Conversation, Arts + Culture, University of Technology Sydney, Australia http://theconversation.com/designer-nights-out-goodurban-planning-can-reduce-drunken-violence-52768, viewed on 4th April, 2017 It is ultimate goal for a lot of cities over the world to be converted into 24-hour city. The night time entertainment and business contribute the city’s economy, but also bring numerous social problems which require deep research and study for solutions. Sydney, one of the significant cities in Australia which has experienced alcohol related crime and violence for years. King Cross in Sydney is a famous destination for party goers. In 2012, 18-year-old Thomas Kelly was killed by an intoxicated stranger in a one-punch assault. This incident is a wake-up call for governments to seek solutions for social issues brought by the vivid nightlife. The design team at the Designing Out Crime research centre partner with the City of Sydney to take up the challenge in order to minimise violence in the area. The design team explored their design on two themes: distraction and extraction, which is similarly adapted in this manifesto. ‘Distraction’ needs to be infused into the streets in order to cease the tension among people by the neon stimuli, the noise and congested streets. The streets should not be empty when people escaped from the highly stimulated fun indoor environment. It is important to provide people activities in order to distract them from the intensity. ‘Extraction’ of violence is essential to create a safe and friendly streetscape for people to linger. Groups of exhausting party goers are fuelled with frustration and impatience by congested traffic and unpleasant transport condition. Amenities are needed on the streets to provide people comfort and alternatives to ease their negative emotions.


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Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography Understanding social issues in London Boyle, D. (2016), ‘Night Tube to Start on Piccadilly line on December 16 as final 24 hour underground service announced’, The Telegraph, 1 November 2016, <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/11/01/piccadilly-line-nighttube-services-to-start-on-december-16-sadi/>, viewed on 16 April 2017 “All-night services have already begun on the Victoria, Central and Jubilee lines, with the Northern line to begin on November 18.” Boyle discussed how the services of night tube will change the night life in London. It will reduce journeys by an average of 20 minutes and boost London’s night-time economy by 360 million pounds. It will provide Londoners and tourists more flexibility to travel at night in London. Clarke, E. (2016), ‘In defence of gentrification’, Centre for Cities, 13 October 2016, http://www.centreforcities.org/blog/in-defence-of-gentrification/, viewed on 28 April 2017 Edward Clarke, the analyst of Centre for Cities, wrote this article to define gentrification and identify the core problem of it. The term ‘gentrification’ is generally used to describe how wealthy newcomers in town displacing existing residents with increasing house prices and expensive shops. However,


Annotated Bibliography

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gentrification is a complicated issue than ‘a simple battle between plucky communities and greedy gentifiers’. People should understand that the cause of unaffordable rent and price of homes and shops is not the increase of newcomers but poor city management. The free market and investors should not be the ones to be blamed. There is nothing wrong for people to seize their chance to benefit themselves in a capital world. Instead of worrying about the change and preserving the places, education and training must be provided for people to adapt the change. Existing residents, gentrifiers and local governments should be coordinated in order to create mutual benefits from the change. Craft, J. (2015), ‘Social Engineering, Public Policy, and Design’, ideaswa, SWA Group, 6 November, 2015, < http://www.ideas.swagroup.com/socialengineering-public-policy-and-design/>, viewed on 16 April 2017 “Architecture born from mass housing experiments that broke the village culture and added a bleakness to the national psyche, compounded by high unemployment and the grey skies of the north Atlantic resulted in a culture of crime, depression, drug addiction, and alcoholism, but also gave birth to rebellious art, music, and film: think Trainspotting and Punk Rock.” Craft showed the different perspective of how the change in social structure and public policy shapes design today. He depicted his childhood in London briefly with the boom of brutalist social housing. The mass social housing experiments across Britain, along with the economic depression, unemployment and grey skies of North Atlantic, have influenced broader culture of Britain, such as rebellious arts. After he started to work at SWA Group Shanghai office, he realised this phenomenon does not only exist in Western culture but also in Asia. One Child Policy in China influenced generations of Chinese regarding to the way they grow up without siblings, then the next generation without relatives. The gentrification of China has changed the social norms and traditions of closely bonded communities by housing millions of people in residential towers in mega cities. The controversial policy raised expressive artists and humanists, such as Ai Wei Wei. Most of the policies originated from good intentions with ambition of economic productivity. It is a challenge for new generation of designers to explore further about their roles in public experiments.


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Annotated Bibliography

Engel, M. (2016), ‘The bubble that turned into a tide: how London got hooked on gentrification’, The Guardian, 24 September 2016, https://www. theguardian.com/cities/2016/sep/24/the-bubble-that-turned-into-a-tidehow-london-got-hooked-on-gentrification, viewed on 28 April 2017 This article aims to examine the rapidly increasing property price in London and how the bubble affects local cultures and affordability. The spiralling property price in London has become a bubble that potentially burst into another Great Depression, where ordinary people would finally have opportunity to get into the market. Nowadays, people tend to rent rather than buy due to the unpredictable market or they simply cannot afford to buy a home. Is there any policy or management to protect tenants? Michael Goldfarb, London-based American journalist, claimed that it has been shocking that there is no such discussion existed yet. Supply and demand for homes is out of balance due to over-centralisation of London. The government has no coherent policy on housing, regional policy or immigration. Under such poorly managed housing environment, along with significant financial focus in London, there is no action taken place yet to stop the housing issues from snowballing. Despite the unaffordable housing problems, this also leads to the loss of local cultures. There is no more Sloane Rangers. There are no more kids playing on the streets. There are no more local pubs for the pensioners to have their lunch or the bridge club to meet. Vacant sold properties became hide-outs for homeless and drug addicts while pending for investments or construction. Social housing is inadequate to support lower-class, even though its quality will improve. If there is no change in city management, every aspect of British life will be shifted. London will eventually turned into a city without Londoners. Gander, K. (2016), ‘Concrete trends: How Brutalism came back into architectural fashion’, INDEPENDENT, 20 June 2016, < http://www. independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/architecture/brutalism-howbrutalist-came-back-into-architectural-fashion-this-brutal-world-lecorbusier-chadwick-a7072931.html>, viewed on 28 April 2017 Kashmira Gander discussed the social issues underlying Brutalism. He started his article with the brief history of Brutalism and stated that this became a new


Annotated Bibliography

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trend. This style was introduced in post-war Europe, where the Swiss architect Le Corbusier completed the utopian social housing complex in Marseille. Architects during the depressed post-war period had the moral goal to make the society thrived again instead of designing signature aesthetics. The new welfare housing development removed people out of slums by providing them new equipped homes. The word “Brustalist” originated from the French word for “raw”, but people tend to interpret it into brutal cold architecture due to its concrete façade. Even though the concrete facades of brutal architecture do not last well in damp, cloudy maritime climates, the mass structure with multiple levels serves many homes effectively. Outsiders may see a harsh brutal concrete exterior but it is solid fortress for occupants. They feel like they live in a castle, a piece of history. This kind of architecture can be timeless and misunderstood as plain cold architecture. He suggested that this architecture should be appreciated as well as other kinds of architecture, which may even be a new trend at modern days. Hill, D. (2016), ‘Let’s get our gentrification story straight’, The Guardian, 24 October 2016, < https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/davehillblog/2016/ oct/24/lets-get-our-gentrification-story-straight>, viewed on 16 April 2017 “There are good arguments that gentrified areas meet poor people’s needs less well, as shops become posher and more niche. But there are also good ones for saying that they benefit from middle-class pressure for better schools and public spaces.” This news article aims to demonstrate the flip side of gentrification. In recent years, a lot of Londoners have raised concerns regarding to increasing property values and loss of local cultures. Hill stated that gentrification is not new in London. Since the post-war period, young architects and planners revitalised the city from bombed ruins. The overwhelming demand for space by the growing population is the seed of gentrification. It is true that most of the gentrified areas do not satisfy the needs of lower class as well as the middle class since the shops are turning less affordable. However, gentrification also brings the areas better schools and public space. In order to gentrify an area without compromising the needs of some groups of residents, it requires a “constructive, practical,


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flexible political response”. Travel Channel (2015), ‘London’, Metropolis, Documentary Series, U.S.A. In this particular episode of documentary series, Metropolis, it depicted the history and cultures of London. During World War II, London has been bombed by Germany multiple times and the city has turned into smouldering ruins. The king assigned Britain’s greatest architect during the war period, Christopher Wren, to rebuild the city. Wren saw the opportunities to tear the closely packed wooden settlements down and start over from the ground. He proposed a grid system of boulevards and plazas like those planned in Paris. However, the wealthy landowners refused to redraw their property lines. Therefore, he rebuilt on the city’s original medieval street plan with proposed grid system on ruined areas, which resulted in the special spaghetti-like city form nowadays. Its post-war background has brought London iconic food cultures, such as ‘fish and chips’ and ‘gin and tonic’. British Empire has colonised places over the world, a significant one is India, which further influences the demographics and Indian food culture in London. This documentary showed London’s potential to provide locals and tourists vibrant night life experience. Pubs in London act as community centres, where anyone can go have a drink and meet the others. However, only few of 800 restaurants in London open after midnight. Famously known Duck and Waffle is one of the examples to show how Londoners love to explore their city at night. The head chef, Daniel Doherty, stated in the episode that customers who showed up at the restaurant at 3 o’clock in the morning were not drinkers but actually liked to eat there. Unlike other cities that never sleep like New York, London is behind the others in terms of opening hours and diversity of night-time activities. London grew from small Roman outpost to powerful international financial hub, it is just one step further for it to be a true global city by moving forward to a new 24 hour city.


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Understanding tension within city Allen, Stan (1997), From Object to Field, AD, Architecture After Geometry, May-June, p. 24-31 Field Conditions describe the perceptual state but often invisible tensions created by a system of physical programs within an area. Allen argued that space can be perceived as a fluid body of events rather than fixed patterns or geometry at modern days due to advanced technology and culture. This article aims to introduce the idea of accepting the messiness in actual practice and encourage designers to engage with the unpredictable sites and events, without prompting any stance between analysis of fluid fields and the design of fluid lines in urban or architectural scale. Since architects work not in the office, but also on site. There is always unpredictability or uncertainty on site. The idea of Field Conditions takes constraints as opportunities and avoids a Modernist ethic and aesthetics. “Alberti’s well-known axiom that ‘Beauty is the consonance of the parts such that nothing can be added or taken away’ expresses an ideal of organic geometric unity.” Classical architecture is consisted of not only the proportion of individual elements, but as well as their relationships. The precious unity as a whole is driven by maintenance in hierarchy with the use of extensive geometric relationships. It can be argued that some Western classical buildings are not necessarily composed of fixed replication rules, but are possibly transformed over times. St Peter’s in Rome and Mosque in Cordoba both have long history in construction time. However, St Peter’s has been built with the addition of morphological transformation (change over time) while the Mosque has been built with the addition replicating the previous stage of construction. Minimalist work emphasises on architectural conditions as the foreground with less concentration on its figurative or decorative character. It focuses more on the spatial field between the audience and the object than the object itself. It moves towards the unity of forms, direct use of industrial materials and simple combinations. This thinking shifts the practice to activate the viewing space


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and considered the art’s condition as the specific object. How to construct a Field? There are two examples: one from within the architectural culture and one from the outside of the culture. It is a change in emphasis from abstract formal description to a close attention to making it happened. ‘Field Conditions’ opposes the classical assumption of composition is about the arrangement of, and connections among separate elements. On the other hand, “Field Conditions’ proposes new definitions for those elements and alternative ways of perceiving relationships among them. This is not a new innovation, but more likely to be a recovery of an existing argument. “All grids are field, but not all fields are grids.” One of the useful potential of the field is to redefine the relation between figure and field. We may think of figures as an effect emerging from the field instead of an object, rather qualitative moments than quantitative programs. Moire patterns are unexpected results generated by the superposition of two regular fields, however not random. In conclusion, Allen advised designers to work throughout the dilemma from traditional orders to chaos, such as planning versus uncontrolled growth. It is essential to understand the limitation of architecture to control the order of the city, and meanwhile, to learn from the existing complex self-regulating orders in the city. Weinstock, Micheal (2013), System City: Infrastructure and the Space of Flows, Architectural Design 04, no. 224, p. 14-23 This article aims to explore the evolution of correlation between infrastructure and the flow of space. If we consider a city as a system, it is a dynamic system of multiple levels, including climate, ecology, culture, infrastructure and so on. Weinstock first introduced how climate can influence the thermal and morphological properties of a city in an interconnected manner, which is that regional climate can influence urban area and vice versa. Then he elaborated how humans are also a system of a city, which mainly contributes by their migration and culture. People can affect how a city works by their way of information exchange. “’Infrastructure’ is the collective term for the systems and spaces of flows


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that provide the ‘services’ of the city”. The study on infrastructure is mainly concentrated on its physical form of networks. However, it can also be renewal of architectural spaces and the interaction with local fabric. Network by infrastructure is considered growing with the addition of nodes and new nodes are more likely to be grown at the existing well-connected nodes. If one local node fails, the entire system will still be able to function without only a small local node. On the other hand, the entire system may be affected if one major well-connected node collapses. This is one of the major issues of such system. Nowadays, such issue may not influence people’s life as much as the past since we are more mobile. The way we transit is not limited to physical methods but as well as digital ones. Our social network is not limited to the proximity anymore; it is driven by our ability to move between places.


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Ingredients for Rawscape Broadbent, Geoffrey (2003), Urban realities, Emerging Concepts in Urban Space Design, Taylor & Francis, London, New York, p. 138-153 This chapter of Professor Broadbent’s book discussed numerous urban design pioneers’ thinking, from Jane Jacobs to Christopher Alexander. Particularly in the discussion of Jacobs, the safety of street is highlighted to present urban design in a personal scale. There are three main conditions suggested to create a safe street environment. Firstly, there must be clear definition between public and private space if the street is safe. Secondly, a constant watch on the street must be kept. The streets should be visible through neighbour’s windows, balconies or steps. Thirdly, the street itself must be in constant use. The street should not be empty. Various activities must be flowed along the streets, which provide people reasons to visit or linger the streets. Jacobs then further elaborated the 4 basic rules to design a street with activities. Firstly, the area should serve at least two or more primary activities, such as living, working, shopping, eating and so on. The interconnected streets with variety of activities can provide people to experience the area in different ways at different times. Secondly, a block along the street with the length exceeding 900 feet or so is too long for people to access. Short streets are more connected from all directions and easier for people to go to. Thirdly, architecture at different ages must be remained along the street, especially the old buildings due to their importance to the economy of the street. Fourthly, high concentration of people in the street must be maintained in order to attract more people to visit and sustain the local economy. Her claim for mixed uses and connectivity of streets is well elaborated in this chapter. These principles will potentially drive the essence of the manifesto. Ghel, Jan (2011), Life Between Buildings, Life Between Buildings Using Public Space, Island Press, USA, p. 9-49 Jan Ghel, the famously known Danish urban design mastermind, published


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this book to show his findings from observation on people behaviour in urban environment over the world. In this particular chapter, outdoor activities are categorised and the relationship between outdoor activities and outdoor space is demonstrated. There are three types of outdoor activities: necessary activities, optional activities and social activities. Necessary activities are those which are more or less compulsory, such as school, work and running errands. Optional activities are those which an individual wish to participate, as well as time and place make it possible. The exterior conditions have to be favourable to encourage the optional activities to take place, such as sunbathing or taking an enjoyable walk. Social activities are those which an individual cannot carry out without the presence of the others, such as conversations or children playing on the streets. There is a positive correlation between outdoor activities and the quality of outdoor space. The dependence on the outdoor space quality varies among the three different kinds of activities. However, they are all more likely to happen if the quality of outdoor space is good. In poor street environment, barely any activities would take place and people are unlikely to stay. Moreover, people have the need for stimulation, and activities are a kind of stimulation. There is no matter if an individual is involved in the activity; people like to be in the space where activities take place. Different activities and sitting arrangements influence how people behave in the space as well. Expanding the restricted possibilities is also essential for increasing the number of quality public space and encouraging people to encounter one another socially. Whyte, William H. (1988) â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;The Social Life of Small Urban Spacesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, Project for Public Spaces, New York Whyte published his findings from his remarkable Street Life Project in The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces. Along with the same named short film, Whyte analysed and identified the elements for a successful public space. By simply observing and recording a time-lapse video about how people behave at a public space in New York City and the interaction among them. He suggested that people are more likely to linger in a place which provides seats, interaction


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with the street, sunlight, food, water, vegetation and triangulation. First, a public space should provide people places to sit. All sorts of seats are provided to suit different needs, including bench, movable chairs or even ledges and steps. Places on the street-level are easier to get touch with people and trigger interaction. Sunlight provides people visibility and warmth, which makes the place comfortable to stay. Food draws people to gather, especially informal dining on the street or in outdoor space which can make public space appealing. Water brings a place the sense of nature and peaceful atmosphere to the space. Vegetation can provide shades and fresh air to the environment. The existence of triangulation in public space is also essential to encourage social encounter, which further attracts more people into the space.


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Preparation before Cooking Berrizbeitia, Anita (2007), Re-placing Process, in Julia Czerniak and George Hargreaves [eds] Large Parks, New York, Princeton Architectural Press, p. 174-197 Berrizbeitia suggested that a flexible design framework is preferred over a composition of forms to create aesthetic creation as whole. Landscape architects should challenge themselves to design not just for the present aesthetic value but beyond the notion of time. A site should not be a location only, but also a fruitful model reflecting the issues of the site and its surrounding in an innovative ways. Moreover, it is a concept that is open enough for expanding its application. Process can be interpreted into its own evolution and broad scope of meanings. It also engages the dynamic condition of landscape. Moreover, it is engaged for aesthetic and phenomenological effects, which stimulates a subjective engagement with landscape. There are 4 shifts in thinking when people are working with process-based approach. First, working with the existing evolving forms within the landscape rather than adding external form to convert the landscape into desired final form. Second, more research will be required to initiate the process rather than a design-driven approach. Third, the site’s history has to be taken counter as part of the process itself, not just the physical qualities of the site. Fourth, it is essential to understand the designers’ intervention is part of the evolutionary process of the landscape, change must be anticipated. Programs must be defines as something that can be forgotten or transformed in the future in order to adapt to different purposes over times. They can be placed in two strategies: by “layering diverse forms of organisation and introducing a range of dynamic systems”. The material condition of the landscape reflects the unique events to the site, which results in place. Scale is another thing to be considered during the process. Due to introduction of new space or modification to the existing ones, there are influences to


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different scales. To human scale, if one experience needs to be remained the vivid nature, the scale of a large park may be altered from vast to intimate. â&#x20AC;&#x153;We do not discuss visual, spatial, or phenomenological qualities; we discuss frameworks, emergence, the performative, the adaptive.â&#x20AC;? Berrizbeitia argued that the shift from composition to process facilitates the incorporation of complexity of design without compromising to express the quality and cultural meaning of space. Berney, Rachel (2010), Learning from Bogota: How Municipal Experts Transformed Public Space, Journal of Urban Design, vol. 15, no. 4, p. 539558 This article discusses how the state power is decentralised into a municipal government through mayoral elections in Bogota, Columbia. With the help from planners and designers, city has been transformed socially and physically by reinventing civil society and public space. Parks have been the instruments to provide equitable access to recreational amenities and freedom for communication between people from different socioeconomic classes. 8 out of 10 people in Bogota are classified by the national government as extremely poor to lower-middle class. The majority of residents do not have sufficient funds for recreational or leisure opportunities for basic human development and enjoyment. In Latin American cities, it was common to see unplanned automobile explosion, which took up sidewalks for parking and reduced significant amount of recreational space. Braun also argued that the country lacks of leadership in urban planning practices. A city with parks and recreational spaces can strengthen the bond between people, optimise the use of citizenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s free time and enhance the possibilities for people from different background to share the same opportunity to enjoy the city. Public space in Bogota was considered underused, dangerous and neglected. After playful educational campaigns, citizens became more open to learn how to appreciate public space with reduction in homicides and traffic fatalities. Transforming the public space is considered as a gesture of generosity


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and focus on quality for the city but making a beautiful city. Forester, J. (2009), “Dealing with Deep Value Differences in Participatory Processes”, Chapter 4 in Dealing with Differences: Dramas of Mediating Public Disputes, Oxford University Press, 77-94. This chapter of Forester’s book indicated how values mean more to use than interests. He gave various examples to help us understand what deep value is. For example, getting grocery done is an interest to us but it may be lost at some circumstance. Then we will need to gain another interest to make up for it, such as getting our purchases on discount. Values represent who we are, where we are from and what our cultures are. Values are something that we cannot use other things to replace it. It is challenging to reconciling value differences. There is a way to face these challenges. Firstly, we need to assess several popular misunderstandings of value conflict. Secondly, we should learn from practitioners who have handles deep value conflicts successfully. Forester suggested that it is essential for us to understand the value differences clearly. Since when the value of an individual is compromised, he/she will feel betrayed, damaged or sold out. We have to understand that our wants are incidental and some of our values will be deeply cherished. If we fail to show our care for other people’s values, or even offend others, it will weaken our abilities to work together. It is essential for us to respect others’ values as well as their interests. Moreover, we are easy to get into the trap of presumptions. When we disagree with the others’ values, we presume the other party will not work or listen to us. We also tend to think everything has its price. We should not simply measure the others’ values by money and assume that can simply replace or transform whatever the other cares about. LeBaron, M &Pillay, V (2006). “Chapter 2: Conflict, Culture and Images of Change”, in Conflict Across Cultures: Unique Experience of Bridging Differences (Intercultural Press), 11-23. In this chapter of LeBaron and Pillay’s book, they explored how conflicts developed and how we can possibly initiate change and respect. ”Conflicts are always cultural, since we are all cultural beings.” Culture is the norm we


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share and understand in a group without the need of communication. It is embedded in human relationships and influences how we name, frame, blame and attempt to tame conflicts. They explored the connections between culture and conflict through the three dimensions of conflict. The three dimensions are (1) the material level, (2) the symbolic level and (3) the relational level. The material level is the outermost layer of conflict which is basically just what the conflict is. The symbolic level explores the conflict in a deeper sense regarding to what the conflict mean to the people involved in terms of their identities and values. The relational level is the core of conflict about how it develops. The more time we invest into understanding the conflict, the level of understanding will increase by building relationships with the people involved. Therefore, communication on material level is bounded by law, which is compulsory. Once we explore the conflict to symbolic level, then we understand how the people involved or the outsiders see the conflict. When it gets to relational level, we will achieve personal communication with the people involved and further develop negotiation together. A very effective example is demonstrated in this chapter to demonstrate how the three dimensions alter the way we perceive and treat conflict. In a Hollywood movie production, a movie was set in Japan so the set is decorated with tatami mats, a Japanese woven grass flooring material. The Japanese crew had requested their American co-workers to remove their shoes before walking on the tatami. The Americans intended to do so but they increasingly lost the idea when the production was taking place. The depiction of the event is at the material level. Symbolically, the Americans disrespect the Japanese values by failing to remove their shoes before walking on the tatami, which they already requested at the beginning. This leaded to the conflict between the two groups and triggered negative emotions at the set. Not long after, one of the Japanese members realised that the Americans did not understand the value of tatami meant to them. Therefore, he compared tatami to the U.S. flag in the next morning meeting to help the Americans to understand the value of tatami in Japanese culture. The Americans shifted their perception of tatami and respected the Japanese culture by removing their shoes before venturing onto the tatami. Relational change results in the progression from material to symbolic level. Symbolic dimension can catalyse the communication among the people involved and move the people forward to common ground.


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Reference Allen, Stan (1997), From Object to Field, AD, Architecture After Geometry, MayJune, p. 24-31 Berrizbeitia, Anita (2007), Re-placing Process, in Julia Czerniak and George Hargreaves [eds] Large Parks, New York, Princeton Architectural Press, p. 174197 Berney, Rachel (2010), Learning from Bogota: How Municipal Experts Transformed Public Space, Journal of Urban Design, vol. 15, no. 4, p. 539-558 Boyle, D. (2016), ‘Night Tube to Start on Piccadilly line on December 16 as final 24 hour underground service announced’, The Telegraph, 1 November 2016, <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/11/01/piccadilly-line-night-tubeservices-to-start-on-december-16-sadi/>, viewed on 16 April 2017 Broadbent, Geoffrey (2003), Urban realities, Emerging Concepts in Urban Space Design, Taylor & Francis, London, New York, p. 138-153 Clarke, E. (2016), ‘In defence of gentrification’, Centre for Cities, 13 October 2016, http://www.centreforcities.org/blog/in-defence-of-gentrification/, viewed on 28 April 2017 Craft, J. (2015), ‘Social Engineering, Public Policy, and Design’, ideaswa, SWA Group, 6 November, 2015, < http://www.ideas.swagroup.com/social-


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engineering-public-policy-and-design/>, viewed on 16 April 2017 Dorst, Kees (2016) ‘Designer nights out: good urban planning can reduce drunken violence’, The Conversation, Arts + Culture, University of Technology Sydney, Australia http:// theconversation.com/designer-nights-out-good-urban-planning-can-reducedrunken-violence-52768, viewed on 4th April, 2017 Engel, M. (2016), ‘The bubble that turned into a tide: how London got hooked on gentrification’, The Guardian, 24 September 2016, https://www.theguardian. com/cities/2016/sep/24/the-bubble-that-turned-into-a-tide-how-london-gothooked-on-gentrification, viewed on 28 April 2017 Forester, J. (2009), “Dealing with Deep Value Differences in Participatory Processes”, Chapter 4 in Dealing with Differences: Dramas of Mediating Public Disputes, Oxford University Press, 77-94. Gander, K. (2016), ‘Concrete trends: How Brutalism came back into architectural fashion’, INDEPENDENT, 20 June 2016, < http://www.independent.co.uk/ arts-entertainment/architecture/brutalism-how-brutalist-came-back-intoarchitectural-fashion-this-brutal-world-le-corbusier-chadwick-a7072931. html>, viewed on 28 April 2017 Ghel, Jan (2011), Life Between Buildings, Life Between Buildings Using Public Space, Island Press, USA, p. 9-49 Hill, D. (2016), ‘Let’s get our gentrification story straight’, The Guardian, 24 October 2016, < https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/davehillblog/2016/ oct/24/lets-get-our-gentrification-story-straight>, viewed on 16 April 2017 Japan-guide.com (2007), Japanese style rooms, Traditional Arts and Crafts, Japan-guide.com, viewed on 18 May 2017, < http://www.japan-guide.com/e/ e2007.html> LeBaron, M &Pillay, V (2006). “Chapter 2: Conflict, Culture and Images of Change”, in Conflict Across Cultures: Unique Experience of Bridging Differences


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(Intercultural Press), 11-23. The Daily Telegraph (2017), Lockout laws: Crime down in Kings Cross and CBD but rises in Newtown, Bondi and Double Bay, The Daily Telegraph, March 6 2017, viewed on 18 May 2017, < http://www.dailytelegraph.com.au/news/nsw/ lockout-laws-crime-down-in-kings-cross-but-rises-in-newtown-bondi-anddouble-bay/news-story/97f58d0cfaa7dbaab6f8d1572f3ebbae> O’Neil, K. (2017), Trainspotting ‘drug estate’ given listed status because ‘banana flats’ building has special architectural importance, 1 Feburary 2017, News, Mirror, viewed on 18 May 2017, < http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/uk-news/ trainspotting-drug-estate-given-listed-9736668> Travel Channel (2015), ‘London’, Metropolis, Documentary Series, U.S.A. Topotek1 (2012), Superkilen, Square, Projects, < http://www.topotek1.de/#/en/ projects/typological/110> viewed on 17 April 2017 Weinstock, Micheal (2013), System City: Infrastructure and the Space of Flows, Architectural Design 04, no. 224, p. 14-23 Whyte, William H. (1988) ‘The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces’, Project for Public Spaces, New York


Co n t e mpo ra ry Lan d s c a pe T h eory S eme st e r 1 , 2 017

Profile for Jessica Li

Rawscape  

a landscape architecture manifesto

Rawscape  

a landscape architecture manifesto

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