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myco FARMX


mycoFARMX PROTO-DESIGN V.2 AADRL Editing Team Jack Zeng, Sukhumarn Bo Thamwiset, Walee Phiriyaphongsak, Xin Guo Special Thanks to Boontida Songvisava Justin Kelly Printed in London, United Kingdom Š 2011 mycoFARMX. No part of this book may be reproduced in any manner whatsoever without written permission from the publisher, except in the context of reviews. For more information of mycoFARMX publication email mycoFARMX@gmail.com AADRL 36 Bedford Square London WC1B 3ES T+ 44(0)20 7887 4021 F+ 44(0)20 74140783


mycoFARMX PROTO-DESIGN V.2 AADRL 2009-11

TEAM M.O.F. STUDENTS JACK ZENG_CHINA SUKHUMARN THAMWISET_THAILAND WALEE PHIRIYAPHONGSAK_THAILAND XIN GUO_CHINA MYCOLOGY SPECIALIST WILLIAM & MATTHEW ROONEY GOURMET MUSHROOM (UK) LTD

mycoFARMX

AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2

TUTOR YUSUKE OBUCHI ROBERT STUART-SMITH

ARCHITECTURAL ASSOCIATION LONDON


CONTENTS

I INTRODUCTION 8-9 1.1 PROTO-DESIGN V.2 10 1.2 PROTO-TECTONICS: ARCHITECTURAL MATTER 2.0 1.3 MYCOFARMX PROPOSAL 12-13

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II MATERIAL RESEARCH 14-15 2.1 PRODUCTION | COMSUMPTION | WASTE 16-21 2.2 MATERIAL BRIEF - MYCELIUM 22-31 2.3 MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF MYCELIUM 32-51 NETWORK |GROWING PROCESS |ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS|LIFE CYCLE|PHASE CHANGE 2.4 SAMPLES AND SPECIFICATIONS 52-53

III MATERIAL DISTRIBUTION TECTONIC 54-57 3.1 SPORE | SPAWN | PLUG 58-61 3.2 FORMWORK CASTING 62-67 3.3 UNIT DISTRIBUTION 68-73 SOFT UNIT | HARD UNIT | SURFACE DEFORMATION 3.4 CONTINUOUS TUBE DISTRIBUTION 74-93

IV TUBE PRODUCTION 94-97 4.1 MANUAL PROCESS 98-99 4.2 MECHANICAL PROCESS 100-103 4.3 ONSITE PRODUCTION LINE 104-105 4.4 FABRICATION SEQUENCES 106-107

V CATENARY LOGIC 108-109 5.1 NATURE VS NURTURE 110-111 5.2 SETTING & CONTROL PARAMETERS 112-113 5.3 FORMATION MORPHOLOGY 114-141 5.4 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT 142-145


VI PROTOTYPE 146-149 6.1 MATERIAL GROWTH STAGE 150-151 6.2 PROTOTYPE LIFE CYCLE 152-153 6.3 COMPONENTS AND SELF-BINDING ANALYSIS 154-159

VII - SITE ANALYSIS 160-161 7.1 SITE DESCRIPTION 162-169 7.2 WASTE AND MATERIAL PRODUCTION 170-171 7.3 CASE STUDY ANALYSIS 172-177

VIII- MYCOFARMX 178-179 8.1 STRUCTURE & ORGANIZATION 180-185 8.2 SPATIAL ELEMENTS 186-189 8.3 CONSTRUCTION PROCESS 190-193 8.4 BUILDING ACTIVATION SEQUENCES 194-201 8.5 INTERIOR EXPRESSION 202-211 8.6 EXTERIOR EXPRESSION 212-223

IX APPENDIX 224-225

mycoFARMX

AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2

9.1 COMPUTATIONAL SCRIPTS 226-232 GRAVITY SCRIPT | SCAFFOLD DEFORMATION SCRIPT 9.2 BIBLIOGRAPHY 233 9.3 FINAL REVIEW & STUDIO 2009-11 234-235


by Amazing Fungi

AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2

mycoFARMX

Mycelium imaged using 3D confocal microscopy


CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

mycoFARMX

AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2

_PROTO-DESIGN V.2 _PROTO-TECTONIC: ARCHITECTURAL MATTER 2.0 _mycoFARMX PROPOSAL

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DESIGN RESEARCH LABORATORY. ARCHITECTURE & URBANISM

PROTO-DESIGN V.2

DIRECTOR THEODORE SPYROPOULOS FOUNDER PATRIK SCHUMACHER COURSE MASTER ALISA ANDRASEK MARTA MALE-ALEMANY YUSUKE OBUCHI ROBERT STUART-SMITH

I

CHAPTER 1_INTRODUCTION

THE THREE-YEAR DESIGN RESEARCH AGENDA PROTO-DESIGN INVESTIGATES DIGITAL AND MATERIAL FORMS OF COMPUTATIONAL PROTOTYPING IN THE PURSUIT OF SYSTEMIC DESIGN APPLICATIONS THAT ARE SCENARIO- AND TIME-BASED. PARAMETRIC AND GENERATIVE MODELING TECHNIQUES ARE COUPLED WITH PHYSICAL COMPUTING AND ANALOGUE EXPERIMENTS IN AN ATTEMPT TO CREATE DYNAMIC PROCESSES OF FEEDBACK. NEW FORMS OF SPATIAL ORGANIZATION ARE EXPLORED THAT ARE NOTE TYPE- OR CONTEXT- DEPENDENT. THE AIM IS TO IDENTIFY SCENARIOS THAT CHALLENGE THE IDENTIFICATION OF PARAMETERS THAT ALLOW SYSTEMS TO EVOLVE AS ECOLOGIES OF MACHINES, AS MATERIAL AND COMPUTATIONAL REGULATING SYSTEMS, WORKING TOWARDS AN ARCHITECTURE THAT IS ADAPTIVE AND HYPER-SPECIFIC. THIS PERFORMANCEDRIVEN APPROACH SEEKS TO DEVELOP NOVEL DESIGN PROPOSALS THAT RESPOND TO THE EVERYDAY. THE ITERATIVE METHODOLOGIES OF THE DESIGN STUDIO ARE FOCUSED ON THE INVESTIGATION OF SPATIAL, STRUCTURAL AND MATERIAL ORGANIZATION, ENGAGING IN CONTEMPORARY DISCOURSES ON COMPUTATION AND MATERIALIZATION IN THE DISCIPLINES OF ARCHITECTURE AND URBANISM.

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FIVE PARALLEL RESEARCH STUDIOS EXPLORE THE POSSIBILITIES OF PROTO-DESIGN. PROTO TECTONICS, LED BY YUSUKE OBUCHI AND ROBERT STUART-SMITH, EXPLORES HOW NON-LINEAR DESIGN PROCESSES MAY BE INSTRUMENTALIZED TO GENERATE A TEMPORAL ARCHITECTURE WITH A DESIGNED LIFE-CYCLE. THEODORE SPYLOPOULOS’ STUDIO, DIGITAL MATERIALISM, BEHAVIORAL COMPLEXITY, INVESTIGATES THE GENERATIVE POTENTIAL OF SELF-REGULATING PHENOMENA THROUGH THE DEVELOPMENT OF PROTO-ARCHITECTURAL SYSTEMS. PROTO-TOWER, LED BY PATRIK SCHUMACHER, MIRCO BECKER, CHRISTOS PASSAS, FOCUSES ON THE DESIGN OF INHERENTLY ADAPTIVE, PARAMETRIC PROTOTYPES THAT INTELLIGENTLY VARY GENERAL TOPOLOGICAL SCHEMATA ACROSS A WIDE RANGE OF PARAMETRICALLY SPECIFIABLE SITE-CONDITIONS AND BRIEFS. ALISA ANDRASEK’S STUDIO, PROTOCOLS, LOOKS AT INFRASTRUCTURE IMPLANTS WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF HETEROGENEOUS NETWORKS AND NONLINEAR TIME. THE MARTA MALE-ALEMANY, DANIEL PIKER AND JEROEN VAN AMEIJDE STUDIO, MACHINIC CONTROL, EXAMINES ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN PROCESSES INCORPORATING NOVEL DIGITAL FABRICATION METHODS THAT CHALLENGE CURRENT, INDUSTRIAL, REPETITIVE MODES OF PRODUCTION.


YUSUKE OBUCHI & ROBERT STUART-SMITH

PROTO-TECTONICS: ARCHITECTURAL MATTER 2.0

PROGRAMME/ CONTEXT THE PHASE 2 STUDIO HAS FOCUSED ON THE DESIGN OF ARCHITECTURAL INTERVENTIONS THAT CAN NEGOTIATE AND INTEGRATE WITH SOCIOCULTURAL AND GEO-POLITICAL FORCES THROUGH THEIR TECTONIC AND SPATIAL STRATEGIES. WE HAVE ATTEMPTED TO TAKE ON VERY SPECIFIC GOALS IN EACH PROJECT. EACH TEAM PROPOSED THEIR OWN SPECIFIC SITE AND PROGRAMME, WHILE THE STUDIO PROJECTS ARE BASED ON A SMALL BUILDING (APPROXIMATELY 1000-5000 SQUARE METRES) THAT OPERATES AS A PRODUCTION FACILITY WHILST CONTAINING ADDITIONAL PRIVATE OR PUBLIC PROGRAMMES. (PRODUCTION HERE MAY RELATE TO INDUSTRIAL, SOCIO-CULTURAL OR INFORMATION PRODUCTION, OR TO A BUILDING SYSTEM THAT INVOLVES ITS OWN PRODUCTION, ETC.)

THE PROJECTS EMBRACE A MULTI-SYSTEMIC LOGIC TO DESIGN AND MATERIALITY THAT SEEKS TO SYNTHESIZE ARCHITECTURE AS AN ECOSYSTEM INVOLVING MANY DIFFERENT SPECIES OPERATING IN A COMPLEX AND INTERDEPENDENT WAY. THEY DRAW ON A NUMBER OF DIFFERENT DESIGN SYSTEMS, COOPERATING AS A COHERENT ARCHITECTURAL OUTCOME, BOTH WITHIN THEIR INTERNAL RELATIONS AND THEIR RELATIONS TO THE OUTSIDE WORLD. DESIGN PROPOSALS UNDERSTAND MATTER AS A SELF-ORGANIZING FORCE CAPABLE OF GRADIENT TRANSFORMATION AND SINGULARITY, NOT ONLY FORMALLY BUT ALSO TOPOLOGICALLY. SPATIAL ORGANIZATIONS ARE EXPLORED THROUGH TOPOLOGY AND MATERIAL PROCESSES THAT ARE HARNESSED TO COLLECTIVELY ORGANIZE A POLYVALENT ARCHITECTURE. EACH TEAM’S ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN PROPOSALS ARE DEVELOPED IN A MANNER THAT ARTICULATES BUILDING STRUCTURAL AND MATERIAL SYSTEMS, DETAILS THE ENVELOPE, AND DESIGNS THE INTERIOR CONDITIONS. THESE ARE INVESTIGATED AS SPATIAL AND MATERIAL PROTOTYPES IN ANALOGUE MODELS IN ADDITION TO BEING EXPLORED BY DIGITAL MEANS WITH THE AIM OF DEVELOPING RESPONSES TO A NUMBER OF DIFFERENT CHANGES IN SCENARIO.

AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2

POLYVALENCE AND DESIGNED SYSTEMS

mycoFARMX

PROTO-TECTONICS INVESTIGATES HOW NON-LINEAR DESIGN PROCESSES MAY BE INSTRUMENTALIZED TO GENERATE A TEMPORAL ARCHITECTURE WITH A DESIGNED LIFE-CYCLE. WHILST CONSIDERING ENVIRONMENTAL PRINCIPLES SUCH AS DFD (DESIGN FOR DISASSEMBLY) OR ‘CRADLE TO CRADLE’ PRINCIPLES, WE EXPLORE THE DESIGN OF MORE QUALITATIVE ASPECTS OF A BUILDING’S LIFE-CYCLE THAT MAY PRODUCE ARCHITECTONIC AFFECTS, WE ARE AIMING AT AN ARCHITECTURE THAT IS CAPABLE OF ORGANIZING AND RECONSTITUTING MATERIAL FLOWS – QUALITATIVELY.

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“I believe that mycelium is the neurological network of nature. Interlacing mosaics of mycelium infuse habitats with information-sharing membranes. These membranes are aware, react to change, and collectively have the long-term health of the host environment in mind. The mycelium stays in constant molecular communication with its environment, devising diverse enzymatic and chemical responses to complex challenges.� Paul Stamets

I

CHAPTER 1_INTRODUCTION

Mycelium Running: How Mushrooms Can Help Save the World

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M.O.F.

mycoFARMX PROPOSAL

mycoFARMX IS A PROPOSAL FOR A PROTOTYPE OF A SEASONAL RECREATION AND MYCOPARK IN KUNMING, THE CAPITAL OF YUNNAN IN SOUTHERN CHINA. PRESENTLY, THE RICE FIELD SITE IS AT RISK FOR BEING EXTINCT FROM A RAPID URBAN SPRAWL DEVELOPMENT, WHICH THE ECOLOGICAL RETROFITTING BY THE SYMBIOSIS PROCESS BETWEEN MYCELIA AND RICE IS NECESSARILY REQUIRED TO INCREASE NATURAL AND SOCIAL CAPITAL OF THIS FORMER AGRICULTRAL CITY.

WE GROW ARCHITECTURE THE YOUNG MATERIAL WHICH HAS WETNESS OR SOFT BODIES ARE SOLIDIFIED TO HARD AND DRY AS IT IS CURED BY HEAT. AND WITHIN THE PROXIMITY OF BRANCHES WHEN IT IS WET, EMERGING THE SELFBINDING PROPERTY, AS IT APPEARS IN MYCELIA FORAGING PATTERN, THAT ENABLES THE RIGIDITY OF THE WHOLE GEOMETRY MORE STRONGER. ISOLATED TUBES ARE BIOLOGICALLY FUSED INTO A SURFACE. HENCE, AN EVOLUTIONARY DESIGN STRATEGY HAS BEEN UTILIZED TO INCORPORATE MATERIAL CYCLES WITH ARCHITECTURAL PROGRAM CYCLES THROUGH TIME BASED ADAPT-ABILITY, GROW-ABILITY, AND DECOMPOSE-

mycoFARMX

FORM-FOLLOW-GRAVITY AND ZERO-FORMWORK THE CATENARY DRAPING AND GRAFTING OF BANYAN TREE IS AN INSPIRATIONAL CONCEPT OF THE GEOMETRICAL CONSTRUCTION. THE MYCELIA TUBE OR “mycoTUBE” ARE PRODUCED WITH DIFFERENT LENGHT ON GROUND AND LIFTED UP IN ACCORDANCE WITH FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS.

AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2

MATERIAL ARE ORIGINATED FROM THE SITE AND NEVER LEAVE THE SITE “RICE STRAW”, THE ABUNDANT BY-PRODUCT FROM THE RICE FIELD AFTER HARVEST PERIOD, IS RE-CYCLED AND RE-INVENTED INTO IN-SITU BIOMATERIAL WHICH HAS A TUBE-LIKE SHAPE. IT WILL BE SOLIDIFIED BY MICROBIAL AGENT CALLED “MYCELIA” OR ROOTS OF A MUSHROOM, THEN GROWS ITSELF AS A LIVING MATERIAL AND EVOLVES INTO A LIVING ARCHITECTURE FOR FOOD (MUSHROOM) PRODUCTION, PUBLIC RECREATION, AND RICE SEEDLING, RESPECTIVELY. FINALLY THE ARCHITECTURE WILL BE BIODEGRADABLE INTO A FERTILIZER (MYCORESTORATION) AS A CLOSE-LOOP DESIGN BACK TO THE RICE FIELD AGAIN.

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REQUIREMENTS|LIFE CYCLE|PHASE CHANGE

_SAMPLES AND SPECIFICATIONS

mycoFARMX

_PRODUCTION|CONSUMPTION|WASTE _MATERIAL BRIEF - MYCELIUM _MATERIAL PROPERTIES NETWORK |GROWING PROCESS |ENVIRONMENTAL

AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2

CHAPTER 2 MATERIAL RESEARCH

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Most of the product nowadays travels so far from different parts of the world related with the speciality of production. Life is much easier, we can eat fresh fresh mangos from Thailand, high-quaity beef from Netherland, etc. But these afar production costs not only the ship ment fee but also the car bonemission which affects significantly the problem of the Global Warming

Nature vs. Nurture - The magnitude on growth can be changed by external forces either obstructing or stimulating. The shaping process generates the final output to suit human need in various condition. In production for example

II

CHAPTER 2_MATERIAL RESEARCH

Some fresh products like a mushroom need a different environment to grow before being sold. Instead of finish the fruiting process at a farm, they deliver the package with the mushroom at the pinning stage, then let the fruiting process happen inside the truck while delivery to the supermarket

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1 . 1 PRODUCTION CONSUMPTION WASTE

In accordance with such changes, you can downsize the towel with “further options” from a bath towel to a bath mat, and then to a floor cloth and dust cloth. The lines act as a marker for cutting and form square modules that let you imagine other uses, encouraging you to re-use it.

mycoFARMX

AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2

With the hammer provided and your own resources you shape the metal box into whatever you choose it to be. After a few minutes or hours of hard work you become the co-designer of Do hit.

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18

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CHAPTER 2_MATERIAL RESEARCH


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mycoFARMX

AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2


what if...Architecture is able to grow, decay, and then grow again� THE SEPERATION OF PRODUCTION, CONSUMPTION AND WASTE MAKE US RETHINK WHAT WE ARE DOING. COULD WE DO SOMETHING LIKE THIS BENCH WHICH COME FROM WASTE HAY AND FINALLY DECOMPOSE BACK TO THE FIELD AS FERTILIZER. THE WHOLE LIFE CYCLE OF THIS CHAIR IS WHITHIN THE LIFE CYCLE OF THE FIELD. THERE IS NO WASTE BUT ONLY THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE MATERIAL.

Decompose

BENCH

HAY

Aggregate

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CHAPTER 2_MATERIAL RESEARCH

PRODUCT FROM BY-PRODUCT

20

The process of recycling the hay is a proces of constructing the temporal condition of bench in loose-fit condition which allow the aggregation of material go back to the hay again. Some agricultural waste: hay, rice hull could be dried up and formed in any shape and form by vegetable wax. Mostly this idea is applied to create a container or seed pot which has a temporary use lasting from 55 days to 5 years depending on the solidification technology.


GARDEN BENCH

mycoFARMX

AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2

Jergen Bey. Droog Design 1999. Materials: hay, raysin, MDF.

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22

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CHAPTER 2_MATERIAL RESEARCH


2 . 1 MATERIAL BRIEF FUNGAL MYCELIA, A ROOT OF THE MUSHROOM IS OUR DAILY LIFE PRODUCTS: FOOD, MEDICINE, NATURAL DECOMPOSITION , AND ALSO CAN BE USED AS CONTAINER OR EVEN ARCHITECTURAL MATERIAL LIKE INSULATION WHICH HAS ALREADY BEEN DEVELOPED BY MANY COMPANIES AROUND THE WORLD.

M Y C E L I U M is the vegetative part of a fungus, consisting of a mass of branching, thread-like hyphae. Fungal colonies composed of mycelia are found in soil and on or in many other substrates.

MYCELIUM ON GROUND

mycoFARMX

AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2

Typically a single spore germinates into a monokaryotic mycelium which cannot reproduce sexually; when two compatible monokaryotic mycelia join and form a dikaryotic mycelium, that mycelium may form fruiting bodies such as mushrooms. A mycelium may be minute, forming a colony that is too small to see, or it may be extensive:

Left.

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FOOD

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CHAPTER 2_MATERIAL RESEARCH

FOR

Edible mushrooms are the fleshy and edible fruiting bodies of several species of fungi. They belong to the macrofungi, because their fruiting structures are large enough to be seen with the naked eye. They can appear either above ground (epigous) or below ground (hypogeous) where they may be picked by hand.

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Enokitake, Japan

Portobello, Italy

Truffle, France


MEDICINE

Razor Strop

The ability of some mushrooms to inhibit tumor growth and enhance aspects of the immune system has been a subject of research for approximately 50 years. Preclinical studies suggest that compounds from up to 200 species of mushrooms may inhibit tumor growth,but required dosage and effects on humans is mostly unknown.

AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2

FOR

Dry Hericium

mycoFARMX

Dried Riechi

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COMPOSE / DETOXIFICATION FOR

Woodchips broken down by growing oyster mushrooms . Paul Stemets, a longtime mushroom researcher, discovered that mushroom mycelium also has the unique ability to break down hydrocarbons - and hydrocarbons are at the base of many industrial pollutants. Everything from pesticides to dioxins have a hydrocarbon base, including pesticides, chlorine, dioxin, and PCBs.

PAUL STAMETS ON 6 WAYS MUSHROOMS CAN SAVE THE WORLD

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CHAPTER 2_MATERIAL RESEARCH

TED 2008. http://www.ted.com

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ECOVATIVE

INSULATION Greensulate™ is literally grown, not manufactured. We use a growing organism to transform agricultural byproducts, like cotton seed hulls and buck wheat hulls, into energy-efficient insulation. Our patent pending process is inspired by the efficiency of nature, and uses a filamentous fungi (mushroom roots) to bond seed husks into a strong rigid board

AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2

FOR

mycoFARMX

Eben Bayer and Gavin McIntyre are an inventor of MycoBond, an organic (really -- it’s based on mycelium, a living, growing organism) adhesive that turns agriwaste into a foam-like material for packaging and insulation.

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FOR

ARCHITECTURE

WITHIN THE PROPERTIES OF MYCELIA ITSELF. IT IS NOT ABLE TO BE ANYTHING ELSE EXCEPT SPREADABLE FUNGUS. BUT WITH HOSTING MATERIALS: HAY, RICE HULLS, ETC, MYCELIA MUTATES THE HOST TO BECOME A PART OF ITSELF WHERE THE QUALITY OF REINFORCEMENT EMERGES. LIKE A CLAY, THE HEAT TREATMENT PLYS AN IMPORTANT ROLES ON THE PHASE OF THE MATERIAL: SOFT HARD, CRYSTAL. FOR MYCELIA IT WILL GROW, SOLIDATE, DECAY OR GROW AGAIN.

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CHAPTER 2_MATERIAL RESEARCH

WE BELIEVE THAT THE EXPERIMENTATION ON THIS SMALL LIVING ORGANISM COULD LEAD US THE WAY WE THINK ABOUT NEW MATERIAL AND NEW TECTONIC IN ARCHITECTURE.

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MYCELIUM SOLIDIFICATION PROCESS - Stop the growth of Mycelium. - Stop the process of photosystesis when it contacts with light. - Decrease the water and humidity.


AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2

mycoFARMX Proto-Packaging by Ecovative Design

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CHAPTER 2_MATERIAL RESEARCH

PINNING

30

INCUBATION

FRUITING

DEHYDRATION

DRY FRUIT BODY


MYCELIUM CASE SECTION STUDY

MATERIAL SAMPLE IN EACH STAGE OF GROWTH Above. By M.O.F. team

mycoFARMX

AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2

SELF-BINDING BLOCK

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2 . 2 MATERIAL PROPERTY _NETWORK WE STUDIED THE PROPERTY OF MATERIAL FROM MICRO TO MACRO. THE FIRST STUDY IS ABOUT THE MICRO BEHAVIOR OF MYCELIAN NETWORK. EMERGENCE BEHAVIOR OF MYCELIUM NETWORK In conclusion the emergence behavior of fungal mycelia has main characteristics, which are 1) a complex interconnected hyphal network which are decentralized 2) self-organized functional domain behavior or physiological oscillations 3) the system of foraging is network function, rather than just network topology

II

CHAPTER 2_MATERIAL RESEARCH

4) the chemical signal in each hyphae tip allow the adaptivity of surviving towards source of nutrients.

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1 2 3

1 Neighbourhood Interaction. Rayner 1991 2 Pattern Recognition.Tlaka 2007 3 Feedback. Bebber 2007


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mycoFARMX

AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2


SCRIPTING MYCELIA We studied the growth of mycelia as single colony and multiple colonies. We use the knowledge to create a script to simulate the behavior of mycelia. As agent, mycelia evaluates the distance between itself and nearby branches before expanding and make a decision whether to join with other branch or not. We can also control the overall shape of the colony by controlling the input such as length and angles in the script.

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CHAPTER 2_MATERIAL RESEARCH

Root Growing Network

34

Typically a single spore germinates into a monokaryotic mycelium which cannot reproduce sexually; when two compatible monokaryotic mycelia join and form a dikaryotic mycelium, that mycelium may form fruiting bodies such as mushrooms. A mycelium may be minute, forming a colony that is too small to see, or it may be extensive


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mycoFARMX

AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2


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mycoFARMX

AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2


WORK WITH FARMERS We went to the farm in Essex, and work with them to understand how does mycelia grow ,espcially an oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus), and what requirement it has through its whole life cycle . Farm information: The Mushroom Table, which was founded as a partership between brothers William and Matthew Rooney in 1995.

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CHAPTER 2_MATERIAL RESEARCH

Morants Farm, Colchester Road, Great Bromley, Essex C07 7TN

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MUSHROOM GROWING EXPERIMENT Right. Injection Process inside the studio Bottom. Varieties of materials and tools that we used for growing mushroom

GROW OUR OWN MUSHROOM

mycoFARMX

AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2

We tried to grow our own mushroom block using many methods from DIY kit to professional injection. In order to understand the property of the material, which will be explain from micro scale to the whole life cycle of the material in the following pages

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_GROWING PROCESS

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CHAPTER 2_MATERIAL RESEARCH

EDIBLE MUSHROOMS ARE THE FRESHY AND EDIBLE FRUITING BODIES OF SEVERAL SPECIES OF FUNGI. THEY BELONG TO THE MACROFUNGI, BECAUSE THEIR FRUITING STRUCTURES ARE LARGE ENOUGH TO BE SEEN WITH THE NAKED EYE. THEY CAN APPEAR EITHER ABOVE GROUND OR BELOW GROUND WHERE THEY MAY BE PICKED BY HAND.

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MUSHROOM PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION

MYCELIUM LIFE CYCLE

TOP. Data year 2007

Right.


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mycoFARMX

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mycoFARMX

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_ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS ENVIRONMENT PLAY A VERY IMPORTANT ROLE IN THE PROCESS OF MYCELIA GROW.HUMIDITY, LIGHT, TEMPERATURE ARE THE KEY PARAMETERS IN THE SYSTEM.

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CHAPTER 2_MATERIAL RESEARCH

The structural property of material from soft to hard, or from active to in-active, occurs by the solidification process of fungal mycelium colonizing over its host which is an agro-waste substrate. The speed of solidification process is programmable due to 4 environmental factors: temperature, heat, light, and humidity.

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EXPERIMENT DATA Referenced from Mushroom Growers’ Handbook 1. Oyster Mushroom Cultivation

Spawn/ Spore

Spore

5 Pounds/ Syringe

Spawn

10 Pounds/KG

Plug

15 Pounds/100Plugs


Substrates

Environment Control

sugar Cellulose Digestion

C+N

Mycelium Incubation 14 days

Pin Production 14 days

35c

95%

Temperature

65%

mycoFARMX

shocking!!

AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2

25c

Humidity

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HEAT TREATMENT

CHAPTER 2_MATERIAL RESEARCH

DIFFERENT STAGES OF MYCELIA HAVE DIFFERENT HEAT REQUIREMENT. AS YOU CAN SEE FROM THE DIAGRAM , WHEN MYCELIA IS IN THE STAGE OF INCUBATION, IT NORMALLY REQUIRE AROUND 25 CELSIUS DEGREE. AFTER THE MATERIAL HAS BEEN FULLY PACKED, IF WE WANT IT TO GROW MUSHROOM, IT NEED THE HEAT AROUND 20 CELSIUS DEGREE WHILE IT REQUIRE A HIGHER TEMPERATURE AS AROUND 30 CELSIUS TO BE DRIED AND SOLIDIFIED.

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GROWING 46


Ceramic

HARD

Porcelian

1400

is a ceramic material made by heating raw materials, generally including clay in the form

of kaolin. The toughness, strength, and translucence of porcelain arise mainly from the formation of glass and the mineral mullite In essence, it is man-made stone is also fired to a vitreous state, transforming the constituent silica into glass. Some porcelain bodies are translucent after firing.

1150 Earthenware may sometimes be as thin as bone china and other porcelains, though it is not translucent and is more easily chipped. Due to its higher porosity, earthenware

1000 100 80 60

Terra Cotta is a clay-based unglazed ceramic.[2] Its uses include vessels, water and waste water pipes and surface embellishment in building construction, along with sculpture such as the Terracotta Army and Greek terracotta figurines.

SOFT

Sun dry

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GROWING [2]

20 0

DECAYING

AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2

Terra Cotta

Earthenware

Stoneware

1300

mycoFARMX

G [1]

A ceramic material is often understood as restricted to inorganic crystalline oxide material. It is solid and inert. They withstand chemical erosion that occurs in other mate-

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_LIFE CYCLE THE LIFE CYCLE OF MYCELIA CAN BE TREATED IN 4 STAGE. USE AGRICULTURAL WASTE AS SUBSTRATE AND GROW INSIDE IT UNTIL FULLY PACKED, FOLLOWING WITH THE HARVAST AND POST-PRODUCTION.

ARGRICUTURAL WASTE

The substrate of mycelia can come from many kinds of agricultural waste like rice husk, straw, etc

GAOLING COUNTY, CHINA - JUNE 13: A farmer rests after baled straw on a field on June 13, 2008 in Gaoling County of Shaanxi Province, China. Every year, China produces about 700 million tons of agricultural straw. China issued a no-burn edict for farmers from May to September and urged local farmers and companies to recycle the agricultural waste and develop businesses in the fields of power generation, biomass production and construction material production.

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CHAPTER 2_MATERIAL RESEARCH

COLONIZATION - 1 months

48

Then substrate need to be mixed with mycelial spore and water in a warm and humid environment for around 1month until the substrate has been fully packed with mycelia. This stage is called as incubation. The humidity of incubation stage should be around 70%, and the temperature should be around 25 celsius degree. The quantity of mycelia is depend on both environment condition and the amont of nutrition inside substrate.

We are in William’s mushroom.


CYCLE OF MYCELIA

ARGRICUTURAL WASTE

PINNING PRODUCTION

COLONIZATION

PINNING PRODUCTION

- 1 months

- 1st crop 2 months, - 2nd crop 10 days, - 3rd crop 10 days

POST-PRODUCTION

---- 1st crop 2 months, 2nd crop 10 days, 3rd crop 10 days

After incubation, the colonized package is able to produce mushroom if the environment condition fit for the growing. Normally it can produce three crops of mushroom in around every 10 days. Because of the limit of nutrition inside the substrate, first crops normally will produce the majority (around 70%) of the whole amount of production, the quantity of the following two crops will decrease correspondingly.

PROJECT LISTS Left top: Insulate Right top: Proto-Packaging Right bottom: Proto-Packaging by Ecovative Design Left bottom: Mycotecture by Philips Ross

mycoFARMX

Ater mushroom has been harvested, the package will dehydrate and solidify. farmers normally use it as fertilizer. But recently, some company start to use it as a environmental-friendly material for container, styrofoam or even architectural material like insulation.

AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2

POST-PRODUCTION

49


_SURFACE FUSING DUE TO DIFFERENT HEAT TREATMENT, MYCELIA COULD CHANGE INTO DIFFERENT PHASES OF MATERIAL PROPERTIES. AN INCRESE OF HEAT TENDS TO DRY MYCELIA OUT THEN EMERGES AS A STYROFOAM WHICH IS STRONG AND LIGHTWEIGHT. ON THE CONTRARY A DECREASE TENDS TO HIBERNATE THE GROWTH UNDER DARK ENVIRONMENT BUT WILL ALLOW THE FRUITING STAGE STAGE IF THERE IS A LIGHT

SELF-BINDING BLOCK

(1)

(2)

(3)

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CHAPTER 2_MATERIAL RESEARCH

_PHASE CHANGE

50

Due to different heat treatment, mycelia could change into different phases of material properties. An increase of heat tends to dry mycelia out then emerges as a styrofoam which is strong and lightweigt. On the contrary a decrease tends to hibernate the growth under dark environment but will allow the fruiting stage if there is a light.


_PHASE CHANGE IN PRODUCTION PROCESS There are 3 parts of mycelium life cycle: 1) Colonization - 2 months 2) Pinning Production - 1st crop 2 months, 2nd crop 10 days, 3rd crop 10 days 3) Post-production.

Optimal environment control: heat, light, humidity, is necessary for each mushroom growing stage.

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_MUSHROOM PRODUCTION PROCESS

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2 . 4 SAMP L E S A N D SPECIFICATIONS THOSE ARE THE SAMPLES WHICH EITHER GROW BY OURSELVES OR FROM ECOVATIVE DESIGN. THE DRY STAGE AND WET STAGE IS VERY DIFFERENT FROM EVERY ASPECTS WHICH CAN BE SEEN FROM ITS SPECIFICATIONS.

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CHAPTER 2_MATERIAL RESEARCH

Our mushroom blocks dry samples

52

Proto-Packaging by Ecovative Design


This chart shows the position of mycelian block in comparision to normally building materials from the aspects of Strength-Density, Density and cost. Strength measures the resistance of a material to failure, given by the applied stress (or load per unit area) Young’s modulus measures stiffness and is a material constant, i.e. it is the same whatever the size of the test-piece.

Density Material Selection Chart Above. These charts are modified from Cambridge Material Selection Charts.

Wet Stage

: 250 kg/m3

Dry Stage

100 kg/m3

Compressive Strength : 0.3 MPa

1.5MPa

Flexural Strength

: 0.076 MPa

0.05MPa

Young Modulus

: 0.01 GPa

0.7 GPa

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Material Property

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Density of a material is defined as its mass per unit volume.

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_SPORE/SPAWN/PLUG _FORMWORK CASTING _UNIT DISTRIBUTION SOFT UNIT | HARD UNIT | SURFACE DEFORMATION _CONTINUOUS TUBE DISTRIBUTION

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CHAPTER 3 MATERIAL DISTRIBUTION TECTONIC

55


EXPERIMENT PATH VARIETIES OF EXPERIMENTS FROM THE MOST CONVENTIONAL WAY OF GROWING MUSHROOM (NO. 1) TO THE VERY RADICAL WAY AS A CONTINUOUS TUBE (NO.4) ARE TESTED IN ORDER TO FIND THE MOST FITNESS CRITERIA BETWEEN GEOMETRICAL CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIAL DEPOSITION.

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CHAPTER 3_MATERIAL DISTRIBUTION TECTONIC

1_ SPORE | SPAWN | PLUG

56

2_FORMWORK CASTING

SPORE

2-SIDE FORMWORK

SPAWN

1-SIDE FORMWORK

PLUG


3_UNIT DISTRIBUTION

4_CONTINUOUS TUBE DISTRIBUTION

HARD UNIT

BUNDLING

SOFT UNIT

TWISTING

horizontal suppo rt

PINCHING

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SURFACE DEFORMATION

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twisti ng suppo rt

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3 . 1 SPORE/SPAWN/PLUG

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CHAPTER 3_MATERIAL DISTRIBUTION TECTONIC

TESING THE GROWTH OF MYCELIUM BY USING 2 COMMON GROWTH METHODS; GROWING FROM SYRINGE INJECTION SPORE, GROWING FROM PAWN AND FROM PLUGS. THE AIM IS TO UNDERSTAND THE GROWTH PATTERNS OF MYCELIUM OCCURRED FROM DIFFERENT SUBSTRATE. WE ALSO DESIGN TESTS THAT ATTEMPT TO CONTROL OR MANIPULATE THE GROWTH OF MYCELIUM.

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59

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INJECTION KIT ON THE STRAW PILE Our preliminary concept of growing architecture.

SUMMARY AND EVALUATION of liquid injection method

This is our first test, we tried to direct the growth by the method of spore- injection and the distribution of different substrate. And evaluate the result in the following:

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(2). Through the whole process of testing, we did many research about growing mycelia from Petri-dish to normally farmer’s way. These experiments lead us a clearer view of how mycelia works. Because when mycelia grow, it will grow radially and try to cover the whole substrate within a certain threshold, we comes to our second serier of tests to give substrate a certain constrain, like formwork, and by the same time try to fully use material property to work for the system.

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(1). Althought we varied the position of injection points and also embeded different material and nuitrition-attractor(honey) in the substrate, mycelia still grow radially. The growing direction might have little change but in a very micro scale which can hardly be used in normal big scale.

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3 . 2 FORMWORK CASTING

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BASED ON PREVIOUS TEST WE START TO TEST DIFFERENT WAYS OF CASTING WHICH FROM HARD TO SOFT TO SIDE.

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64

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SUMMARY AND EVALUATION for formwork casting method

Based on previous injection experiment, in these tests we use forwork to cast material. We tried many ways from hard cast to soft cast and found out that this method can have better control than the previous one, but the scale is still too big to have enough variation for space and function. So we move on to the next series of test which use similar method of this one to have a formwork at the beginning but in a smaller scale. So that we could have many variation through different way of aggregation.

INNOCULATEภMYCELIUM BLOCK Right. The material we use for experiment which has started incubating.

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1. COMPRESSION

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2.TENSION


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4. WIND BLOWING

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3. MINIMIZE FORMWORK

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3.3 U N I T DISTRIBUTION _SOFT UNIT EXPERIMENT BASED ON HARD UNIT, WE TRY TO USE THE PROPERTY OF MATERIAL WHICH IS DIFFERENT WHEN IT IS WET OR DRY.

In this test we used soft units to contain mycelia. Before the mycelia solidify, the units are malleable. They can adapt to different angles of connection.

Combining two or more units can achieve various geometry behaviors. When these units aggregate, they could form a kind of porous structure. It can distribute materials in an efficient way.

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CHAPTER 3_MATERIAL DISTRIBUTION TECTONIC

Because it can pack a volume by using minimum materials and at the same time achieve maximum surface area which can help to enhance the production of mushroom

68


In the test of aggregation, we used rubber bands to simulate the on-site fabrication of soft units. When the soft units are connected, they form a network. The balloons work as formwork which is used to distort the flexible network, forcing the soft units to touch and bind to each other, creating interaction between formwork and structure.

SOFT UNIT NETWORK FORMATION

Left.

Right.

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SOFT UNIT SYSTEM

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When the mycelia fully colonized, the soft units will solidify and be able to support the whole structure. Then the formwork can be removed eventually.

69


_HARD UNIT

EXPERIMENT

THE STUDY OF HARD UNIT AGGREGATION COMES FROM EXAMPLE IN NATURE SUCH AS BIRD NEST. HARD UNIT AGGREGATION EXPLOIT MYCELIUM’S SELF-BINDING CAPABILITY AND USING LOSE FITTING CONNECTION. AFTER BEING FORMED BY PRESSURE, THE MYCELIUM WILL GROW AND BIND THEMSELVES AS THEY SOLIDIFY. THERE’S ALSO A SPECULATION THAT UNITS THAT ARE WITHIN RANGE, MYCELIUM WILL REACH TOWARDS AND CREATE SURFACE.

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CHAPTER 3_MATERIAL DISTRIBUTION TECTONIC

The hard unit can be assembled by pressure of balloons and pushed together without any tight fitting and joint connections. The size of the hard unit can varies in order for the units to get together and create different porosity. The scale of the unit can start from the brick size to larger scale.

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WET WOOL THREAD. FREI OTTO

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CHAPTER 3_MATERIAL DISTRIBUTION TECTONIC

Top left. Water is an external parameter which control the spaital pattern.

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_SURFACE DEFORMATION ALLOWING THE INTERACTION BETWEEN THE INFLATABLE AND THE COMPONENT NETWORK BY ADDING CONTROLING POINTS IN ORDER TO DEFORM THE SHAPE AND BY THE INTERACTION BETWEEN THE AGGREGATION OF MYCELIA UNIT NETWORK RESULTS IN THE EMERGENT OF NETWORK PATTERN OF MYCELIA UNIT. THE SURFACE THEN BEING FUSED ACCORDING TO THE THRESHOLD.

BALLOON THREAD Bottom. Learning from Frei Otto’s experiment, we apply air inside the balloon to trigger the thread self-organizing behavior

SURFACE GRID DISTORTION STUDIES

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The studies of the growth of the balloon expansion and its interaction to an elastic gridded surface. The distortion being controlled by adding non elastic thread on the surface and adding control points where we can observe the 2 dimentional movement of the points on grid. The control points help us speculate possible emergent movement pattern that might occur by the interaction

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3 . 4 CONTINUOUS T UBE DIS TR I B U TION

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SINCE TUBE IS AN IDEAL FORMATION IN TERMS OF MUSHROOM PRODUCTION. WE TEST DIFFERENT BUNDLING TECHNIQUES IN ORDER TO MAKE TUBES PERFORM STRUCTURALLY AND SPACIALLY.

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Bundling technique can make soft and weak material become strong. If we have enough critical mass, we can make tubes perform structurally.

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BUNDLING TECHNIQUE

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WRAPPING BUNDLING

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A linear infinite tube moves around columns. Geometry can be design by arranging the amount and position of columns.

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HANGING BUNDLING

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At the beginning, tubes are hanging on a scaffolding, then they are organized as bunches and tie togather. Eventually, it can be put on ground and form a kind of arches.

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BUNDLING TECHNIQUE--TWISTING The advantage of twisting is, by controlling the twisting gears at two sides we can change the porosity between tubes, in order to facilitate the growth of mushroom. The growth of mushroom requires different temperature and humidity setting. In the incubation stage, mycelium needs more heat and high humidity, tubes tend to be twist tightly. Tubes fall down due to the gravity. In the pinning and fruiting stage, mycelium needs to contact sunlight but less humidity and lower temperature, so by rotating gears we can change the porosity to have more opening. After fruiting, mycelium starts to dry out and solidify, structural performance sppears, then we can rotating gears to flip tubes up, to create space.

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CHAPTER 3_MATERIAL DISTRIBUTION TECTONIC

This technique fits the requirement of production however not flexible and programable in terms of space.

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Setting

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Twisting bundle can be set up either horizontally or vertically. The only difference is they have different space performance. Vertical twisting resembles arches, it does not need to flip up before mycelium solidify. The rotation angle of gears is the factor how we control porosity and formation. when two gears rotate inversely, we can control the opening between tubes, when they rotate to the same direction, we can flip up or down tubes, to control the space formation.

79


STRATEGY 3 : PINCHING

Pinching gives us ability to control and create form by using soft socks containing mycelium. The studies was done the controlling points and how differentiates those points can have effects on the overall form of the socks and the formation of space. POINT CONTROL By controlling the point within the lenght of the tube, we’ll be able to create form.

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CHAPTER 3_MATERIAL DISTRIBUTION TECTONIC

The variations of pinching points between different lines can create curviture which bends and unfold to envelope space.

80

LINEAR PINCHING SEQUENCES By controlling the points, we can variate the crop sequences and relate the formation changes to the crop cycles. The form will constantly change and the new crop will be pushed up to provide shading to the inner space.


MULTIPLE PINCHING POINTS

The sequence came from pinching within one line to deform the line into two dimensional frames. Pinching between one line can create loop. Then pinching between two separate lines can form three dimensional frames by the connection of two loops. These loops can provide the formation of further connections of other lines

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CONNECTION BETWEEN LINES

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EXPONENTIAL GROWTH

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CHAPTER 3_MATERIAL DISTRIBUTION TECTONIC

An increase in very rows grows proportionally to its size which is called exponential growth or geometric growth. This patterns could create the hyperbolic plane. The higher ratio the faster the next line can grow and lift up itself - in the other hand the smaller ratios, it takes longer time for a surface to lift up and remain rather a flat surface.

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83

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CHAPTER 3_MATERIAL DISTRIBUTION TECTONIC

PINCHING FORMATION

84


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Connecting each loop between line can generate self-supporting properties which is stronger than a single loop

85


CLUSTER PINCHING POINTS

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CHAPTER 3_MATERIAL DISTRIBUTION TECTONIC

Study of cluster of pinching using the technique learnt from previous tests. By creating loops, each line will start to falls. Connecting loop from different lines will create self-supported structure. Although the pattern is predictable because the connecting points are all controlled but the overall shapes are self-organized by the way the weight is being distributed to the lower layers.

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87

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CLUSTER PINCHING POINTS

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CHAPTER 3_MATERIAL DISTRIBUTION TECTONIC

MYCELIUM ACKAGING

88

In a farm scenario, the idea is to have each line representing different crops. Each crop will get pushed up as the mycelium growing and new crops will be added underneath the previous layers and the pinching points will be


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predesigned in order to achieve the shape or space necessary to accommodate the activities underneath. After the crop is finished, the layer will be solidify on the most outer skin which will provide protection for the lower productions lines from the elements.

89


The section of 6 lines and transforming process.

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CHAPTER 3_MATERIAL DISTRIBUTION TECTONIC

LAYERING SEQUENCING

90


ONE LAYER

TWO LAYERS

LAYERING SEQUENCE

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When adding a new layer, the formation will be deformed and strongly related with the way of connection. Here shows the deformation process of separated lines before connecting them together.

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FORMATION

91


CLUSTER PINICHING POINT MODEL Top left and right. Interior space.

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CHAPTER 3_MATERIAL DISTRIBUTION TECTONIC

Bottom : Overall building.

92

SUMMARY AND EVALUATION for continuous tube distribution

After many tests and reserches, we reached a consensus that mycelium tube is the ideal way to distribute our material. However we were still struggling on finding a way to organize these basic units. We looked back and forth to find a way that can fit perfectly to both production and architectural peocess. But there were always a gap between. It was so difficult because we tried so hard to fight with gravity. Then we started to think that there must be some kind of tube organization tectonics that can take advantage of gravity.


93

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_MANUAL PROCESS _MACHANICAL PROCESS _ON SITE PRODUCTION LINE _FABRICATION SEQUENCES

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CHAPTER 4 TUBE PRODUCTION

95


96

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CHAPTER 4_TUBE PRODUCTION


SMALL SCALE PRODUCTION Photo took in William mushroom farm fruiting room.

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IN A SMALL FARM, DUE TO THE LIMMITATION OF SPACE, MUSHROOM IS PRODUCED IN BLOCK. IT REQUIRES LESS ROOM HOWEVER LIMMITS THE PRODUCTION OF MUSHROOM. IN AN INDUSTRIAL WAY THEY PRODUCE MUSHROOM IN TUBE. BUT MANUAL WAYS OF PRODUCTION ARE NOT EFFICIENT WHEN WE USE MYCELIUM AS BUILDING MATERIAL. IN THIS CHAPTER, WE WILL INTRODUCE A MACHANICAL WAY TO PRODUCE

97


200 cm

Production Scale

4.1 M A N U A L P R O C E S S MYCELIUM TUBE IS AN IDEAL FORMATION FOR LARGE SCALE PRODUCTION. IT MINIMISES THE USE OF SPORE FACILITATES THE GROWTH AND HARVESTING OF MUSHROOM. 150 cm Compared to mycelium block, mycelium tube contains more nutrient and water. The foodbody of oyster mushroom appears in clusters which require a big mass of substrate. The size of mycelium block is around 15*15*30 cm, which is easily to dry out. Therefore, in a small farm, they need to be kept indoor and require extra equitment to preserve humidity.

100 cm

Typically, mycelium tube is 2 meter high. The radius can be varied from 10 cm to 30 cm. Mycelium has meagre fruiting and easily dry out if the diameter is less then 10 cm and it will be overheated and lack of oxygen when it exceed 30 cm.

IV

CHAPTER 4_TUBE PRODUCTION

50 cm

98

0 cm 10*10 cm DIsh Culture

15*15*30 cm Block Culture

Diameter: 10 cm- 30 cm Column Culture


1

2

SEQUENCE OF TUBE FILLING PROCESS 1. Fix a micro perforated bag to a stainless steel tunnel, Filled with substrate( straw, spawn and water). 2. Two people take it out from the scaffolding and move it to the growing room. 3. Before pinning, use some stainless steel arrowheads to puncture 200 to 400 holes. 4. Harvesting.

3

4

SCALES OF MUSHROOM PRODUCTION

PAUL, STAMETS. GROWING GOUR-

Left.

Up.

MET AND MEDICINAL MUSHROOMS

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Tube Filling Process: Large Scale Production

99


+ STRAW 100kg

+ WATER 65kg

MYCELIA SPAWN 5kg

FEEDSTOCK The substrate of myCABLE is straw mixed with water and mycelium spawn. The substrate is done before going into strawjet.

INPUT: STRAW + WATER + MYCELIA SPAWN

MYCELIUM TUBE

IV

CHAPTER 4_TUBE PRODUCTION

Feedstock is under compression and twisting when they go through strawjet. The tubes are produced without using glues, resins or any other kinds of chemical substances. After the tube has been made, it can be infinite long or cut to any length as required.

100

OUTPUT: MYCELIUM TUBE


4 . 2 MACHANICAL P R O C E S S THE EXISTING WAYS OF MUSHROOM PRODUCTION ARE MANUAL OR SEMI-MANUAL. IN ORDER TO ENHANCE THE EFFICIENCY, THE PROCESS NEEDS TO BE AUTOMATED.

FEEDING SUBSTRATE INTO STRAWJET MACHINE Middle Left.

STRAWJET MACHINE PRODUCING MYCELIUM TUBE

STRAWJET MACHINE.

Bottom Left.

Up.

STRAWJET, INC

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WE INTRODUCE STRAWJET MACHINE, WHICH IS INVENTED BY DAVID WARD IN 2004, INTO OUR SYSTEM, TO PRODUCE CONTINUOUS MYCELIUM TUBE.

101


TYPES OF FEEDSTOCK A great variety of materials can be used as feedstock, such as palm fronds, wheat and rice and any other types of cereal grain stalks.

Palm Fronds

Wheats

Jelusalem Artichoke

Rice

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CHAPTER 4_TUBE PRODUCTION

PROCESS

102

In order to hold the formation, before the mycelium tubes come out of the machine, They are bound by polyester strings and wraped by micro perforated films.

STRAWJET MACHINE WRAPPING MYCELIUM TUBE Bottom Left.


Bobbin

2000 Denier Polyester String

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STRETCH FILM STRING OR BAND The polyester string helps to bind rice straws togather to make them stable meanwhile the micro perforated films keep the moisture within the tube which allow mycelia to grow.

OXOBIODEGRADABLE STRETCH FILM. THE PORES ALLOW MUSHROOM PINNING AND SELFBIND. THE THICKNESS CAN BE DESIGNS TO PROGRAM THE TIME OF BIODEGRADATION

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( Micro Perforated 4 inch Width Young’s Modulus 2 Gpa)

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OxoBiodegradable Stretch Film

Bottom Right.

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4 .3

ON SITE PRODUCTION LINE

MATERIALS ARE DREW AND PRODUCED ON SITE. IT IS A LOW-TECH WAY OF PRODUCING MATERIALS AND DOES NOT REQUIRE ENGERGY INTENSIVE MANUFACTURING.

The sequence of on site production are shown as follows: 1. Harvesting rice and leaving rice straws on ground. 2. Mixing straw with water and mushroom spawn, preparing substrate for strawjet. 3. Strawjet machine moves across the rice field, collecting substrate. 4. Substrate is fed into the machine via a conveyer, then it is tightly bound into tubes using compression technology.

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CHAPTER 4_TUBE PRODUCTION

5. After wraped by perforated films, mycelium tubes come out. Tubes are ready for on site fabrication.

104

STRAWJET MOVES ACROSS RICE FIELD AND PRODUCING MYCELIUM TUBES. Bottom

RICE FIELD BEFORE HARVESTING. Top


STRAWJET AND WRAPED TUBES Top

STRAWJETS WITH MULTIPLE HEADS Bottom. Adapted an idea from STRAWJET. inc

MACHINE SPECIFICATION

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Strawjet machine is 5 meter long. Several machines with multiple heads can produce series of tubes. Each machine can produce 40 meter long tubes in one minute. With multiple head machines we can vary the speed and change each tube segment length which will eventually affect the formation of architecture

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4 . 4 FABRICATION S E Q U E N C E S WHEN MATERIAL HAS BEEN PRODUCED, MYCEILUM TUBES ARE WET AND SOFT. THEY NEEDS TO BE HANGED ON SCAFFOLD UNTIL THEY SOLIDIFY. HERE WE USE A 5*5 METER BLOCK TO SIMULATE THE ON SITE FABRICATION.

Scaffolding

Mycelium Tube

Plastic Strap Connection

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CHAPTER 4_TUBE PRODUCTION

Strawjet Machine

106

SETTING As shown below, the green and blue curves are mycelium tubes, the cubes resemble strawjet machines, the white curves are plastic straps which are used to connect tubes.


2. Mycelium tubes are connected by plastic straps every minute.

3. Strawjet machines starts from one row of scaffold and moves towards another row.

4. When strawjets reach the scaffold, mycelium tubes are fixed on scaffold.

5. Tubes are lifting up.

6. Then mycelium tubes are hanged by scaffolds until they solidify.

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1. Strawjet machines(cubes) produce mycelium tubes(green curves) while they are moving. By controlling the production speed we can vary the tubes’ length.

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CHAPTER 5 CATERNARY LOGIC

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_NATURE VS NATURE _SETTING & CONTROL PARAMETERS _FORMATION MORPHOLOGY _DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

109


5 . 1 NATURE VS NATURE AFTER STUDYING MANY POSSIBLE WAYS OF DISTRIBUTING THE MATERIAL AND USING IT FOR SPATIAL ORGANIZATION WITH THE IDEA TO MAXIMIZE THE FULL CAPABILITY AND SPECIAL QUALITY OF A GROWING MATERIAL, THE IDEA OF LOOKING BACK AT NATURE AS AN EXAMPLE OF COMPLEX SELF-ORGANIZE SYSTEM HELPS THE DECISION OF WHAT IS THE MOST SUIATBLE WAY OF USING MYCELIUM.

In nature, strangler fig trees adjust as they wrapped their roots around the objects they passing by. As they grow, the root falls by gravity from top to bottom to hit the ground. The root bind with nearby ones and gotten larger and they starting to have variations of circumferences where the big ones are the stronger ones supporting the whole system and the smaller one seeking new location of food sources.

CHAPTER 5_CATENARY LOGIC

This complex system inspired an idea of how to apply large amount of strands using gravity to create a self-organized distribution system. By creating a pre-designed set up for the system, we can program the behavior of the material and how they might fall into place. Using that gravity pulled positioning, we can predict where the system will bind and have variations of thickness.

As the material being produced as series of tubes, we need an effective way to distribute them and create space. This example of the fig tree become an interesting and manageable one as they require minimum presets and is programmable. The generative model can have the accuracy in terms of spatial formation as the physical model which allows the computational parts to become the quick way to learn about the system. Making the studies of a more complex caternary models possible and allows the design to be more specific to what may be required at a different area.

V

BRANCHES OF STRANGLER FIG TREE

110

Right.


111

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5.2 S E T T I N G & CONTROL PARAMETERS THE PRESET OF THE SYSTEM USING GRAVITY TO SELF ORGANIZE THE TUBES TO FIND A NEW STABLIE POSITION.

DISPLACEMENT

The presets are essentially simple. Objects hung at a certain height will fall by gravity according to their weight and length to find a new stable position. the scaffoldings are necessary at the early stages as the system is not able to structurally support itself. After a certain period of time after the material is grown and self-bind, the scaffold can be removed and the system becomes more similar to a shell structure rather than caternary ones.

M = 5 WL3 384 EI

By specify the length between scaffoldings; we decided to have 20 segments within one line. By having differences in each length of the segments, we can create a complex roofing surfaces and transforming flat planes into 3 dimensional surfaces.

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CHAPTER 5_CATENARY LOGIC

HANGING POINT

112

TUBES


The initial test was done with the goal to try to simulate the behavior and interaction between weight of the material and gravity. All the tubes have fixed length and the weight is even along the lines. They are also comes with lateral connections between each other. After the tubes are being released, the fall naturally with gravity and the weight renegotiates with its new position to find a new stable position. The tube swings and settled once it is stable. This starting point allows us to use computational method to simulate the system before trying to add more complexity. The first factor considered was length. As the first model shown, even length means even new centroid. By shifting the centroid, we can have asymmetry formation.

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The next consideration was the disconnection of the lateral connection. By disconnecting some control points, the new centroid of the surface will no longer be at the central but will have to be recalculated which means the formation will be more complex. By designing the connection straps, it is possible to have more touching surfaces between tubes for more self-binding.

113


5.3 F O R M A T I O N MORPHOLOGY WHAT CAN BE CREATE USING THIS METHODOLOGY OF FORMATION AND HOW WE CAN USE THEM FOR SPATIAL ORGANIZATION.

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CHAPTER 5_CATENARY LOGIC

The basic set up of the system is consisting of scaffolding and series of tubes. The tubes are being divided to have 20 segments of control points. The first factor of the variations is the speed of tube production that comes out from each machine which basically means differentiation of length of each tubes. The other factor is the connection or, in some case, disconnection of control points between tubes. This can help create a more complex formation.

114

Normal caternay models acts more on tension. The biodegradable plastic tube used to contain the material at the starting point helps with the tension in early stage of the growth as the nature of this material cannot perform well in tension. By making the planar tubes becomes more stacked or more draped-like, the weight being transfer will becomes more in compression rather than tension as in most caternary models. Combinding with the fact that this particular material can fuse between themselves, it allows the structure to become self support after its fully grown.


cateloging the possibility of this formation strategy to see how it might be used as spatial components.

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designed straps

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116

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CHAPTER 5_CATENARY LOGIC


AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2 Top. Basic parameters of Geometry via processing.

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INITIAL PARTICLE MAP

117


TYPE A : LOOSE A1 ROOF

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CHAPTER 5_CATENARY LOGIC

The first formation was a simple wall which derived from differentiating the length of tubes. When length exceed the distance between scaffoldings, the tubes will start to sagging and drape down to touch the ground. The possible spatial use of this formation is similar to a wall which can divide space.

118

this formation can act as wall to saperate spaces. the slope can varies by rates of tube length differentiation.


A1.2 LENGTH CHANGES

A1.2 MACHINE SPEED CHANGING RATES

A1.3 LENGTH CHANGES

A1.3 MACHINE SPEED CHANGING RATES

A1.4 LENGTH CHANGES

A1.4 MACHINE SPEED CHANGING RATES

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A1.1 MACHINE SPEED CHANGING RATES

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A1.1. LENGTH CHANGES

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A2.1 LENGTH CHANGES

A2.1 MACHINE SPEED CHANGING RATES

A2.2 LENGTH CHANGES

A2.2 MACHINE SPEED CHANGING RATES

A2.3 LENGTH CHANGES

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A2.4 LENGTH CHANGES

120

A2.3 MACHINE SPEED CHANGING RATES

A2.4 MACHINE SPEED CHANGING RATES


TYPE A : LOOSE A2 WALL

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When the length changes and the tubes starting to sat on top of each other before touching the ground, they are starting to act more on compression than tension which is more suitable with this material performance. Therefore, if the design allows enough tubes to stack as they touches the ground, in another word, each tubes are long enough, the wall types can be self-support when the material is fully grown.

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TYPE A : LOOSE A3 END WALL

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By starting to have different length at both ends, we can create a wall which contains spaces. This component also have more support for the overhead parts which means they will be more stable when the scaffoldings are being removed.

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A3.1.2 END WALL

A3.1 END WALL

A3.1 END WALL

mycoFARMX

AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2

A3.1.1 END WALL

End wall can clearly define space and provide structural support for itself.

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TYPE B : DISCONNECTED POINT B1 OPENNING

disconnecting points can immediately create various sizes and shapes of opennings.

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B1.1.1 OPENNING FORMATION

124


After looking at changing the length, the next step is to start looking at the lateral connection between each tube. By simply disconnecting the points, the opening is created. The spatial effect from the opening is allowing more lights into the area. This can be specifically designed so the lighting condition can be controlled.

mycoFARMX

B1.1.2 OPENNING FORMATION

AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2

Bigger openning with areas touching the ground, working on the compression aspect of the material while still allow the flexibility of the formation to be used to create specific spatial quality.

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TYPE B : DISCONNECTED POINT B2 COLUMN-LIKE

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When using disconnection and variation of length together, we can slowly see another possible formation of the system where a particular part can be significantly draped down to touch the ground in a form similar to a column. Even though they are not performing as post and beam’s column as the material is weaker than concrete

126

or traditional materials, with enough amounts of column underneath a certain area, it is possible to carry the weight of itself and its connected roof.

B2.1.1 COLUMN-LIKE FORMATION

B2.1.1 COLUMN-LIKE FORMATION

B2.1.1 COLUMN-LIKE FORMATION

B2.1.1 COLUMN-LIKE FORMATION


B2.1.2 COLUMN-LIKE FORMATION

mycoFARMX

AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2

B2.1.2 COLUMN-LIKE FORMATION

This formation allows the possibility of having as many column-like as possible because it is simple to create.

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TYPE B : DISCONNECTED POINT B2 COLUMN-LIKE

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After realizing the methods of creating a column-like component, the variation of shapes and numbers of column arrangement allows the system to be viewed from more of the spatial application side. Another factor that starting to appear is the agricultural side of things; how do we use these

128

components to grow mushrooms. More columns might be more structurally stable for the system but the distance between each column needs to be considered to allow enough wind circulation and moisture control in order to allow the mushroom to grown.

B2.1.3 COLUMN-LIKE ARRANGEMENT

B2.1.4 COLUMN-LIKE ARRANGEMENT

B2.1.5 COLUMN-LIKE ARRANGEMENT

B2.1.6 COLUMN-LIKE ARRANGEMENT


B2.1.8 COLUMN-LIKE ARRANGEMENT

B2.1.9 COLUMN-LIKE ARRANGEMENT

B2.1.10 COLUMN-LIKE COMBINATION WITH WALL

mycoFARMX

AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2

B2.1.7 COLUMN-LIKE ARRANGEMENT

Column-like is structurally stable and have a clear spatial application.

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TYPE B : DISCONNECTED POINT B3 POD

Another possible formation which comes from disconnecting the control points and variation of length is to create a contained space; a pod. This can act the same as a column-like component as majority parts of the tubes will touch the ground to support the overhead roof. They can also act as a special component within the space; subdividing smaller space with walls to create more contained and intimate space.

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B3.1.1 POD FORMATION

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B3.1.2 POD FORMATION


AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2

mycoFARMX Pod is the smallest space division application we can create from this tectonic.

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TYPE C : DIFFERENTIATE STRAPS B4/C1 RIBS

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Similar to the structure on leaves, thicker part of the surface becomes structural support for the system, the formation of ribs comes from the idea of designing straps that maximizing the chance of self-binding between each tubes which, eventually means they can become more structural.

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B4/C1.1.1 RIBS FORMATION

B4/C1.1.2 RIBS FORMATION

B4/C1.1.3 RIBS FORMATION

B4/C1.1.4 RIBS FORMATION


B4/C1.1.6 RIBS FORMATION

B4/C1.1.7 RIBS FORMATION

B4/C1.1.8 RIBS FORMATION

mycoFARMX

AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2

B4/C1.1.5 RIBS FORMATION

Ribs using designed straps to create different thickness along the tubes and maximizing self-binding areas.

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STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS STRAPS DESIGN

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Using GSA to analyze the ribs, we found that the system is not stable with simple fold but the ability to self bind of the material allows more compression support. Therefore, we starting to analyze the model and design the straps to help reduce displacement of material and make the system more structurally stable.

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AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2

mycoFARMX

After designing the lateral connection straps and considering the self binding capability, the result from the structural analysis shown that the displacement of material is significantly dropped and the system is more structurally stable.

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STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS STRAPS DESIGN

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Another structural analysis study is considering the material transformation as they are going through growing stages from wet and heavy with no self binding to dry and light weight with self binding. The study shown that the design of straps can help the system at the critical time, at the wet and heavy stage, and make the system stable enough until its fully grown and bined.

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TYPE C : DIFFERENTIATE STRAPS B4/C1 RIBS

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Combination of complex design of ribs with parts touching the ground acting as structural sup divide the space an

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mycoFARMX

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pport silimiar to column-like components. They are also functions spatially both as walls to nd roofing parts.

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F O R M A T I O N MORPHOLOGY: S U M M A R Y

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WHAT CAN BE CREATE USING THIS METHODOLOGY OF FORMATION AND HOW WE CAN USE THEM FOR SPATIAL ORGANIZATION.

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The summary of the overall possible formation that was initially tested as units shows a broad results. This is in no way limited as the system is highly flexible. The actual application of all components can be rearranged and programmed as the program and the use of space required. With this knowledge, the next step is the test of the application on site. With other factors such as program requirement, site conditions, mushroom production requirement, the system is enriched as the complexity grows.


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mycoFARMX

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LEFT AND BOTTOM Schemetic design I . Element aseembling shows a problem with bold edge scaffold and too rigid grid setting.

PRODUCTION : CIRCULATION PROPORTION Below.

5.4 D E S I G N DEVELOPMENT THE EFFECTIVE AREA FOR MUSHROOM PRODUCTION IS A RATIO BETWEEN PRODUCTION AND CIRCULATION (ON PLAN) . SIMPLY, THE MORE PRODUCTION, THE LESS CIRCULATION.

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Diagram below indicates that column-like type tends to occupy the space more but also give much higher area surface of the tubes which is more suitable for growing mushroom both low lighting condition and maximum area by draping an extra length. On the other hand, the roof type has almost 70 - 100 percent of circulation and their elements seldom touch the ground which is suitable for an enclosure of public circulation.

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_SCHEMETIC DESIGN 1

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_SCHEMETIC DESIGN 2

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PERSPECTIVES

mycoFARMX

AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2

Below. Schemetic design II. There are several issues needed to be redesigned. 1. Though the scaffolds are deformed organically but the space seems seperate from each other. 2. There is no integration and continuity between draping roof and concrete floor. This urged us to redesign the floor with the same material as the roof.

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CHAPTER 6 PROTOTYPE

mycoFARMX

AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2

_MATERIAL GROWTH STAGES _PROTOTYPE LIFE CYCLE _COMPONENTS & SELF-BINDING ANALYSIS

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THE AGRO-WASTE, RICE STRAW, FROM THE SITE IS RECYCLED TO BE THE MATERIAL FOR CONTRUCTION CALLED “MYCOTUBE”. IT IS A LIVING MATERIAL.

148


THE LAST PERIOD OF DECAYING. ARCHITECTURE SERVES AS A SHELTER FOR A RICE SEEDLING. AND AFTER THAT IT CRUMBLS TO THE GROUND AND HAVE A PROPERTIES OF FERTILIZER.

mycoFARMX

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mycoFertilizer

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6.1 M A T E R I A L G R O W T H S T A G E S mycoTUBE HAS 4 STAGES OF GROWTH: INCUBATION | PINNING | FRUITING | AND DEHYDRATION.

1. Incubation - The straw condition inside mycoTUBE is still wet but there are some signs of growth ( white dots) surrounded the column 2. Pinning - The mycelia reach its maximum growth stage which material turns all white and some small mushroom fruitings emerging. It is a stage that the self-binding behavior happened. 3. Fruiting - The mycoTUBE loses internal moisture for its fruiting to grow and bloom. the tube is getting dry and shrink a little.

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CHAPTER 6_PROTPTYPE

4. Dehydration - all the material has no active energy. It becomes white and solid wihtout any moisture content. It has a property alike styrofoam. Strong and lightweight.

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AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2 From left to right: Incubation, Pinning, Fruiting, and Dehydration.

mycoFARMX

4-STAGE RENDERING OF mycoTUBE

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6.2 P R O T O T Y P E LIFE CYCLE

Self-binding Stage

[+]

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9

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SEP_Mushroom Incubation

4 APR- Decaying & Preparing Rice Seedling

Dehydration Column

Pinning Column

Incubation Column

The prototype in relation to the site shows the life-cycle of the project. Between May and July with the highest rainfall period, the site is suitable for the rice production only. But after the harvest period in August which the weather is more dry and lesser rainfall, the space is vacant without any use for rice farming. So we are able to recycle an agro-waste to create the in-situ biomaterial for construction.

Fruiting Column

THE CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL COMES FROM ITS SITE AND GOES BACK TO ITS SITE. THE PROCESS OF MUSHROOM PRODUCTION IS ACTUALLY A PROCESS OF GROWING ARCHITECTURE.

[+]

10 OCT_Mushroom Pinning

5 MAY-Prepare for a rice growing


The transformation of material in different stages is from September to November (mushroom harvest period) which the wet straw is growing then drying to a styrofoam. Whilst the building starts to decay in December, it can be used as a shelter for the seedling of rice or mix in ground as a fertilizer for the new rice plantation in May.

TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION GRAPH A graph on the right shows the significant level of rainfall and temperature which suitable for two different activities: rice farming and mushroom farming.

7

8

JUL_Rice Growing III

AUG_Rice Harvesting [+]

[+]

11

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NOV_Mushroom Fruiting / Harvest Period

DEC to FEB_Mushroom Dehydration

5 MAY-Rice seedling I

6

1

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Left and below. The continuous process of site and architecture transformation throughout a year

mycoFARMX

12-MONTH CYCLE

JUN_Rice Growing II

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4 . 3 COMPONENTS & SELF - BINDING ANALY S I S

THE EMERGENCE BEHAVIOR OF SELF-BINDING OCCUR DURING THE BEGINNING OF PINNING PROCESS WHICH MYCELIUM GROW RADIALLY TO SEEK FOR MORE NUTRIENTS IN A FURTHER REGION, IN THIS CASE IS THE TUBE NEXT TO IT. AS A RESULT, AN INCREASE NUMBER OF ROOTS CREATE THE DENSE PACK OF FIBERS WHICH TIGHTEN THE ELEMENS MORE STRONGER.

01_MYCELIA TUBES

+

02_RUBBER STRAP

=

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01 + 02

154


In order to allow the binding process, the insertion of rubber strap between each tubes has been created since the tube production from the machine. At the first month each tubes stay together because the connection of rubber strap but after that it causes by the natural fusing behavior. The different numbers of of bunch creates the varieties thickness. A single tube can fuse with the tube aside and transform into a continuous surface. Consequently, the strength is a direct proportion to a number of bundling.

COMPONENT LAYERS On the left shows 2 compoents of the structure: 1) mycelia tube 2) rubber strap.

mycoFARMX

on the right shows the cut section of prototype which composed of varieties thickness of binded tubes.

AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2

TIME-LAPSE DIAGRAM OF BRANCHING BEHAVIOR OF 2 MYCELIAL COLONIES

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THE PROTOTYPE MODEL

mycoFARMX

AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2

is maded by nylon robes in order to test the connection and pinching pattern between computational and real physical model which is affected by 3 key parameters : gravity, length of tube, and pinching / connecting points.

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mycoFARMX

COMPARISON BETWEEN AN ANALOGUE AND A DIGITAL MODEL.

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CHAPTER 7 SITE ANALYSIS

mycoFARMX

AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2

_SITE DESCRIPTION _WASTE & MATERIAL PRODUCTION _CASE STUDIES

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VII 162

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

THE DISAPPEARANCE OF URBAN RICE FARMS FROM 2005-2010 Below. The yellow zone shows the location of a farm land which is decreased dramatically since 2005.

KUNMING CITY Right. The new development of dense high-rise concrete box is surrounded by an amazing scenery of natural setting.


7.1

SITE

DESCRIPTION

KUNMING IS A CAPITAL OF YUNNAN, A PROVINCE IN SOUTHWESTERN CHINA. POPULATION IN AN URBAN AREA EXCEEDS OVER 3 MILLION. THIS METROPOLIS HAS A VERY FAST GROWTH DUE TO THE ECONOMICS BASED ON ITS DOMINANT GEOGRAPHICAL LOCAITON AS A TRADE CENTRE AND RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF SOUTHEAST ASIA REGION.

KUNMING CLIMATE MAP Up. It’s located in the southwest of China where is warm through out the year.

Urban Zonning Map, Kunming Urban Planning Authority, KUPA Right. The urban settlement Area in red is dispersed to the yellow area of prime agricultural zone.

But the rapid urban transformation since 2005 (diagram of the left) shows the distinction of the farm land which is only 7km far from the city center. Many new high-rise development are induced to the site, while the urban food farming is disappear, and the rising of the food import. Due to these problems, the government has a policy to preserve these small pieces of land to be the main food production zone or the city.

AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2

Located in the flat land surrounded by mountains and lank, it has the mildest climates in china with an average of 25c or spring-like weather along the year as the people called “the city of eternal spring”. This climate makes

Kunming a center of horticulture in China.

mycoFARMX

The rapid development of the city centre especially the urban settlement area in red zone spraws significantly towards the south , a lakefront area in yellow, which used to be a prime agricultural zone for rice farming feeding the city for many hundreds year ago.

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URBAN ANALYSIS

THE CITYSCAPE OF THE SITE

Below, the rice field is surrounded by new dense residential area.

Right. Contradiction between the newness and the oldness which architecture must be a tool for blending this urban fabric in order to let the ricefarm servive.

VII

CHAPTER 7_SITE ANALYSIS

- CAN IT BE A NEW WAY OF THINKING ABOUT A GREEN RECREATIONAL SPACE TO COPPERATE WITH NEW MODERN LIFESTYLE? - NOT ONLY FOR FOOD PRODUCTION CAN A RICE FIELD BE A PLACE WHERE PEOPLE GATHER AND RELAX? - HOW CAN WE RETROFIT THE RICEFIELD?

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AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2


CONCEPTUAL PERSPECTIVES

VII

CHAPTER 7_SITE ANALYSIS

New functions will add to the site and mycoFARMX is a main catalyzer which links all the system together. Rice-Waste-MushroomPeople-City.

166


The site is a very big rice field around 2 hectares amongh the newly built residential area. The farming activity happens only once per year from May to August, due to a highest rainfall period. Not only it is not functional to the new modern city as a single-use site, it is also produce a lot of waste after the rice harvesting which is needed to transport out from the city. Consequently, we aims to turn the problems into opportunities for design . mycoFARMX is a retrofitting architectural tool for: 1. To recreate a multi-use function for a city both food production and recreation in order to fill the vacant period of the site. 2. By using waste, we create our own material on site, it’s able to grow and also giving the food which is a mushroom 3. After the mushroom harvesting, the architecture will open and serve for the public use. Functions: Market, Restaurant, And Intenstive mushroom production zone.

6.To conserve the culture of rice farming and extend the urban foodproduction chain.

SITE PERSPECTIVE Rice farm is in danger. Urban food production is forced to mirgrate due to the rising of new development and urban sprawl.

mycoFARMX

5. The architecture will tear down and fertilize the ground.

AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2

4. Before the building arrives at the final decay period, it will use for the rice seedling preparation only.

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N

0

1

5

10

20


Below. The process of growing architecture starts from September to April.

AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2

PERSPECTIVES

Left. Prime agriculture zone of Kunming. It’s 7 km from the city center. The architecture emerges from the rice field as a part of agro-waste recycling process.

mycoFARMX

SITE LOCATION

169


7.2 W A S T E & M A T E R I A L PRODUCTION NOT SURPRISINGLY AT ALL, CHINA IS A WORLD RICE PRODUCTION SOURCE AND ALSO THE HIGHEST CONSUMPTION AMOUNT. ON THE OTHER HAND THEY ARE NUMBER ONE OF THE WORLD MUSHROOM EXPORTER EITHER. ACCORDING TO THESE 2 SIGIFICANT DATA PLUS THE POLICY WHICH PROHIBIT FARMER TO BURN AGRO-WASTE , THEY SHOWS A RELEVANT ASPECT BETWEEN AN AMOUT OF STRAW WASTE FROM THE RICE FIELD, AND A NUMBER OF MUSHROOM PRODUCTION

VII

CHAPTER 7_SITE ANALYSIS

1 Hectare of rice field can produce 5 tons of dry straw that is able to make the material for our building about 1250 columns (diameter 15 cm, height 1 m). These allow us to produce mushroom maximum 1,000 kilograms. Comparing to our rice field, this number of agrowaste on-site is enough for making mycotubes in one season without any transportation of other places.

170

WASTE AND PRODUCTION CHART Below.

AFTER RICE HARVEST. GOULING COUNTY, Left and bottom right. The hugh pile of rice straw after the harvest period which farmer needs to transport to other place and they cannot eliminate because of no-burning policy.


171

mycoFARMX

AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2


7 . 3 CASE STUDIES WE ARE INTERESTED IN 2 TOPICS OF STUDY. ONE, THE BUILDING WHICH IS A PART OF IN-SITU MATERIAL MAKING AND CONSTRUCTING AS IT IS SHOWN IN THING WHICH NECROSE BY R&SIE. TWO, A NEW MODERN RICE FARM FUNCTION FOR URBAN USE: SHENYANG ARCHITECTURAL UNIVERSITY CAMPUS BY TURENSCAPE.

“THING WHICH NECROSE” Limited time span & biodegradable pavilion The main aspect of the exhibition is coming from the shrinking pavilion itself, from 500 m² useful at the opening to 150 m² after 6 months. By this way, the elements of the exhibition has to be compressed progressively to follow the ‘’disappearing’’ of the pavilion, or to berealized in the same Bio-plastic to go away simultaneously. A field of Corn (or Sugar Canes) will be planted around the installation. This agriculture production is the core of the polymer used to produce the biodegradable material. These plants, sugar canes if the climate allows this type of culture, or corn, are directly coming from the situation of the pavilion / as agriculture suburbs of Stockholm.

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CHAPTER 7_SITE ANALYSIS

by R&Sie(n)

172

PERSPECTIVE Top. The pavilion which is made/ extracted the material from the site

MATERIAL EXPERIMENT AND THICKNESS DESIGN Bottom. The mixture and corn and bioplastic which is able to degradable due to its thickness and external humidity.


173

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AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2


174

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CHAPTER 7_SITE ANALYSIS


PERSPECTIVES In this design, landscape was positioned as both a key producer and as an instrument of education. The design had to contend with a number of existing site conditions and budgetary limitations.

“SHENYANG ARCHITECTURAL UNIVERSITY CAMPUS� BY TURENSCAPE

landscape productive while also fulfilling its new role as an environment for learning.

The new site for the proposed campus was originally a rice field. The soil quality was good and a viable agricultural irrigation system was still in place.

The design seeks to raise awareness of the land and farming among college students who are largely leaving the land to become city dwellers. The design further seeks to demonstrate how productive agricultural landscaping can be, through careful design, management, and attention to usable space.

Owner/Client: Shenyang Architectural University Award/Prize: 2005 ASLA Honor Award of Design (The American Society of Landscape Architecture)

AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2

The final design seeks to use rice, native plants and crops to keep the

PROJECT INFORMATION

mycoFARMX

Yet overall, the project faced the challenges of a small budget, and a demanding timeline, whereby the university required the design to be developed and implemented within one year.

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176

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AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2

mycoFARMX

mycoFARMX IS A PROPOSAL FOR A PROTOTYPE OF A SEASONAL RECREATION AND MYCOPARK IN KUNMING, THE CAPITAL OF YUNNAN IN SOUTHERN CHINA. PRESENTLY, THE RICE FIELD SITE IS AT RISK FOR BEING EXTINCT FROM A RAPID URBAN SPRAWL DEVELOPMENT, WHICH THE ECOLOGICAL RETROFITTING BY THE SYMBIOSIS PROCESS BETWEEN MYCELIA AND RICE IS NECESSARILY REQUIRED TO INCREASE NATURAL AND SOCIAL CAPITAL OF THIS FORMER AGRICULTRAL CITY.

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CHAPTER 8 mycoFARMX

mycoFARMX

AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2

_STRUCTURE & ORGANIZATION _SPATIAL ELEMENTS _CONSTRUCTION PROCESS _BUILDING ACTIVATION SEQUENCES _INTERIOR EXPRESSION _EXTERIOR EXPRESSION

179


8 . 1 STRUCTURE & ORGANIZATION THE SIZE OF THE BUILDING IS DERIVED FROM THE AMONT OF WASTE PRODUCTION. FOUR ZONES OF FUNCTION : MUSHROOM MARKET, RESTAURANT, SERVICE, AND MUSHROOM PRODUCTION ARE RELATED TIGHTLY WITH THE MUSHROOM FARMING

mycoFARMx structure is divided into 3 parts (diagram 4) : draped roofs, scaffolds, and draped floors, top to bottom respectively. And scaffolds are the preset of the draping geometry which the deformation in height and width is folling the funtional requirements. Public and private zone of the program is gradiented from left to right (diagram 1 ). Public in this case means “easy for public to use and access” and private means “conserve for mushroom production function” only. As we can see dense columns in the back (diagram 2) ,meanwhile less in the front.

2

VIII

CHAPTER 8_MYCOFARMX

Furthermore, mushroom fruiting tends to grow in the shade on every tubes’ surfaces. Consequently, the intensive production is planned to operate at the back of the site where we design the dense rows of column, low celing, with less openings for the optimal growth. (diagram 3)

1

180

3


DIAGRAM 1. FUNCTION DIAGRAM 2. CIRCULATION DIGRAM 3. PRODUCTION DIAGRAM 4. BUILDING STRUCTURE

DRAPED ROOF

COURTYARD

4

mycoFARMX

DRAPED FLOOR

AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2

SCAFFOLDING

181


The dispresed internal courtyards are directed by the pinching geometry of the roof top. The opening size of roof top and pattern differentiation (diagram below) is an inverse proportion to the mushroom produnction. Simply, the more opening (public) can produce the less mushroom production because the envionment condition is not suitable.

OPENINGS OF DRAPED ROOF

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CHAPTER 8_MYCOFARMX

Top to bottom. Market area, restaurant, and intensive production zone, respectively.

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183

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AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2 PLAN AND ELEVATION

Left.

Above.

mycoFARMX

SECTION

185


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8.2 S P A T I A L E L E M E N T S

186

IN FACT, EACH ELEMENT HAS IDENTICAL FEATURES OF MYCOTUBE BUT LENGTH AND POSITION OF CONNECTION & DISCONNECTION, BETWEEN TUBES AND THE MOST IMPORTANT THING - THE GRAVITY - COLLECTIVELY CREATE HUNDRED POPULATION OF FORM AND SPACE .


Key Plan

mycoFARMX

Above.

AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2

SPATIAL ELEMENTS ROW 1 - 8

187


iNT

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CHAPTER 8_MYCOFARMX

ENS

188

IVE

MU

SHR

OO

MP

RO

DU

CTI

ON

ZON

E


Key Plan

INTENSIVE MUSHROOM PRODUCTION ZONE In this zone, the number of column-like space has a major role in mushroom production. More surface area = more production. Also a low celing of roof space would allow lesser light and heat while it keeps the moisture which is suitable for a mushroom growing.

mycoFARMX

Above.

AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2

SPATIAL ELEMENTS ROW 9-14

189


8 . 3 CONSTRUCTION PROCESS DUE TO THE CAPABILITY OF STRAWJET WHICH CAN PRODUCE THE MYCOTUBE 20-40 M PER SECOND, THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE WHOLE BUILDING CAN BE FINISHED AT ONCE. A FLOOR AND A ROOF ARE PRODUCED AT THE SAME TIME FOLLOWING THE GRID LINE OF THE ROW. FINALLY THE ROOF WILL BE LIFTED UP BY A HYDROLIC COLUMN.

A

B

1

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CHAPTER 8_MYCOFARMX

C

190

D

2

A - Hydrolic Column on site before the strawjet drives pass. B - 2 layers of tube: Roof and Floor is produced in one go. C - After finishing the required lenght, the scaffold underneath lifts the roof up to the top D - Row no. 1 has finished, ready to start no. 2.

3


5.00m

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

start AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2

5

end

Construction Plan

mycoFARMX

4

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1 2

6 7 8

12 13 14


4

5

9

10

11

THE CONSTRUCTION PROCESS OF ROW 1 - 14 Above.

mycoFARMX

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3

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VIII 194

1

2

3

6

5

4

7

8

9

Life cycle of the building starts from the waste and change its condition through a lifetime. Incubation. Before it reaches its life span, the building is no longer serving the people, but the rice instead. Finally the building decay and fertilize the ground for the new rice which will be the important materials after the rainy period passes, and mycoFarmx will come back again.


8.4 B U I L D I N G ACTIVATION S E Q U E N C E S

Phase Chage of mycoFARMX Moisture sparying is a key to activate the system from incubation to pinning, fruiting, dehydration, and rice seedling which is a phase that building starts crumbling and decaying.

mycoFARMX

AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2

SECURING THE MUSHROOM PRODUCTION THROGH ITS MATERIAL LIFE CYCLE BY MOISTURE SPRAYING.

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We can see the color shifting from the front to the back. After mushroom harvest period, the material in brown color dehydrate 100 % into styrofoam in white which allows for the public to access

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In order to sucure the continuous mushroom proudction for 4 months out of 8 months, the moisture sprinkle is used for an activation at the public area firstly,

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Market Zone

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< Main Entrance Zone

Rice Seedling Zone

Service Zone

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Rice seedling needs a semi-opened space to allow the growth. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a phase that the farmer prepare the rice before plunging down to the soil.

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PERSPECTIVES OF RICE SEEDLING PERIOD

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RICE SEEDLING PERIOD IN A RESTAURANT ZONE. Left.


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1. Incubation 2. Pinning 3. Fruiting 4. Dehydration ( Styrofoam)

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MUSHROOM MARKET PERSPECTIVES FROM OUTSIDE TO INSIDE

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Mushroom Market from inside

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IN FRONT OF INTENSIVE PRODUCTION ZONE 1. Incubation 2. Pinning 3. Fruiting 4. Dehydration ( Styrofoam)


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Intensive mushroom production zone.

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RESTAURANT

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Left. View from inside to outside

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VIEW FROM MAIN ENTRANCE Top. After rice harvest period Left. The moment of rice seedling period.

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8.6 E X T E R I O R EXPRESSION

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EXTERIOR PERSPECTIVE

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Architecture as a process of growing material to be a living architecture from agro-waste.

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VIEW FROM EXTERIOR TOWARD ENTRANCE OF THE BUILDING

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RAPID PROTOTYPE MODEL

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Scale 1:200

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CHAPTER 9 APPENDIX

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_COMPUTATIONAL SCRIPTS _BIBLIOGRAPHY _FINAL REVIEW & STUDIO 2009-11

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9.1 COMPUTATIONAL SCRIPTS

GRAVITY SCRIPT /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// import peasy.*; import processing.opengl.*; import toxi.physics.*; import toxi.geom.*; import toxi.physics.constraints.*; PeasyCam cam; VerletPhysics physics; Str strspr; PrintWriter output; VerletParticle p1,p2; ArrayList lockpt=new ArrayList(); ArrayList originalPts=new ArrayList(); ArrayList endPts=new ArrayList(); ArrayList allStr=new ArrayList(); //ArrayList connectionPts=new ArrayList();r ArrayList allCon=new ArrayList(); ArrayList allCon2=new ArrayList(); StrFromPts connectionSpr;

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float restLength=5.5; int stepNum=20; float stepDist=5; float strength=1; int lineNum=67; Integer lockptNum; int ConNum=10; int edgeNum=10; float rlSpeed=0.0;

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//tempt setting/////// VerletParticle selectPt1; VerletParticle selectPt2;

//****************************************************************** void setup() { fixedSetting(); output=createWriter(“sdl_front_05.txt”); //longitude line------------------------------------//original two end points p1 = new VerletParticle(0,0,50); p2 = new VerletParticle(0,100,50); //constructor original points arraylist for(int i=0;i<lineNum;i++) { VerletParticle tp1=new VerletParticle(p1. x+1.5*i,p1.y,p1.z); VerletParticle tp2=new VerletParticle(p2. x+1.5*i,p2.y,p2.z); originalPts.add(tp1); endPts.add(tp2);

} // Str(VerletParticle _OriPts,float _restLength,float _ stepNum,float _stepDist,float _strength,ArrayList _lockNum) //the point sequence which need to be locked for(int i=0;i<stepNum;i+=stepNum) { lockptNum=i; lockpt.add(lockptNum); } for(int i=0;i<lineNum;i++) { VerletParticle op=(VerletParticle)originalPts.get(i); VerletParticle ep=(VerletParticle)endPts.get(i);

strspr=new Str(op,ep,restLength+i*rlSpeed,stepNum,step Dist,strength,lockpt);

}

strspr.addpt(); strspr.lockpt(); strspr.lockept(); strspr.addspr(); allStr.add(strspr);


void keyPressed() { //TOP CAMERA if(key == ‘1’) { cam = new PeasyCam(this, 100,100,0,270); cam.pan(-50, -40); cam.setDistance(200); //save(“sdl_top_00_0.tif”); }

for(int j=0;j<lineNum;j++) { Str selectStr1=(Str)allStr.get(j); VerletParticle selectPt1; selectPt1=(VerletParticle)selectStr1.stpt.get(i);

//FRONT CAMERA if (key == ‘2’) {

connectionPts.add(selectPt1); } connectionSpr=new StrFromPts(connectionPts);

}

cam = new PeasyCam(this, 100,50,25,270); cam.rotateX(-PI/2); cam.pan(-50, 0); cam.setDistance(150); //save(“sdl_front_00_0.tif”);

allCon.add(connectionSpr); connectionSpr=null;

} //SIDE CAMERA if (key == ‘3’) { cam = new PeasyCam(this,50,70,0,300); cam.rotateX(-PI/3); cam.rotateY(PI/2); cam.rotateZ(-PI/6); cam.setDistance(140); cam.pan(20, -30); //save(“sdl_side_00_0.tif”); } //PERSPECTIVE CAMERA if (key == ‘4’) { cam = new PeasyCam(this, 100,70,50,370); cam.rotateZ(-PI/3.5); cam.rotateX(-20); cam.pan(-30, 30); cam.setDistance(110); //save(“sdl_per_00_0.tif”); }

for(int i=0;i<allCon.size();i++) { StrFromPts tconnectionSpr=(StrFromPts)allCon.get(i); tconnectionSpr.addStrFromPts(); }

}

for(int i=0;i<allCon.size();i++) { StrFromPts tconnectionSpr=(StrFromPts)allCon.get(i); tconnectionSpr.addStrFromPts(); }

void draw() {

//write to txt

background(0);

if(key==’s’) { for(int i=0;i<allStr.size();i++) { Str temStrspr=(Str)allStr.get(i); for(int j=0;j<temStrspr.stpt.size();j++) { VerletParticle a=(VerletParticle)temStrspr.stpt.get(j); output.println(a.x+”\t”+a.y+”\t”+a.z); } }

showAxis(); //showText(); // Update the physics world physics.update(); //display for(int i=0;i<allStr.size();i++) { Str temStrspr=(Str)allStr.get(i); temStrspr.display(); } for(int i=0;i<allCon.size();i++) { StrFromPts connectionSpr=(StrFromPts)allCon.get(i); connectionSpr.StrFromPtsdisplay(); } }

saveFrame(“line-####.tif”);

}

}

output.flush(); output.close();

AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2

for(int i=1;i<stepNum;i++) { ArrayList connectionPts=new ArrayList(); StrFromPts connectionSpr=null;

float [] cameraPosA;

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//latitude--------//add spring between lines

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void lockpt() { int loCount=0; for(int i=0;i<lockNum.size();i++) { Integer j=(Integer)lockNum.get(i); VerletParticle tpt=(VerletParticle)stpt.get(j); tpt.x=tpt.x-0*loCount; tpt.y=tpt.y-30*loCount; tpt.z=tpt.z; tpt.lock(); loCount++; } }

class StrFromPts { ArrayList Conpts=new ArrayList(); VerletSpring spring; StrFromPts(ArrayList conArrpts) { Conpts=conArrpts; } void addStrFromPts() { for(int i=1;i< Conpts.size();i++) { VerletParticle p1=(VerletParticle)Conpts.get(i-1); VerletParticle p2=(VerletParticle)Conpts.get(i);

}

}

}

spring=new VerletSpring(p1,p2,1.5,1); physics.addSpring(spring);

void StrFromPtsdisplay() { for(int i=1;i< Conpts.size();i++) { VerletParticle p1=(VerletParticle)Conpts.get(i-1); VerletParticle p2=(VerletParticle)Conpts.get(i); stroke(155,155,155); strokeWeight(1); line(p1.x,p1.y,p1.z,p2.x,p2.y,p2.z); } }

class Str { VerletParticle OriPt,endPt; ArrayList stpt=new ArrayList(); ArrayList stspr=new ArrayList(); ArrayList lockNum=new ArrayList(); float restLength; int stepNum; float stepDist; float strength;

//lock the last point void lockept() { VerletParticle ept=(VerletParticle)stpt.get(stpt.size()-1); ept.x=endPt.x; ept.y=endPt.y; ept.z=endPt.z; ept.lock(); } void addspr() { for(int i=1;i<stpt.size();i++) { VerletParticle tspt1=(VerletParticle)stpt.get(i-1); VerletParticle tspt2=(VerletParticle)stpt.get(i); VerletSpring spring=new VerletSpring(tspt1,tspt2,restLe ngth,strength); physics.addSpring(spring); stspr.add(spring); } } void display() { float colorStep=255/stepNum; stroke(255); strokeWeight(1); fill(255); beginShape(); noFill(); curveVertex(OriPt.x,OriPt.y,OriPt.z); for(int i=0;i<stpt.size();i++) { VerletParticle ctpt=(VerletParticle)stpt.get(i); colorMode(HSB,255,255,255); stroke(200-colorStep*i*0.5,255,255); curveVertex(ctpt.x,ctpt.y,ctpt.z); } int n=stpt.size(); stroke(200-0.5*colorStep*(stpt.size()),255,255); VerletParticle ept=(VerletParticle)stpt.get(n-1); curveVertex(ept.x,ept.y,ept.z); endShape(); // Display the particles for(int i=0;i<stpt.size();i++) { pushMatrix(); VerletParticle dpt=(VerletParticle)stpt.get(i); translate(dpt.x,dpt.y,dpt.z); strokeWeight(2);

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Str(VerletParticle _OriPt,VerletParticle _endPt, float _restLength,int _stepNum,float _stepDist, float _strength, ArrayList _lockNum) { OriPt=_OriPt; endPt=_endPt; restLength=_restLength; stepNum=_stepNum; stepDist=_stepDist; strength=_strength; lockNum=_lockNum; }

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void addpt() { for(int i=0;i<stepNum;i++) { float tx=OriPt.x; float ty=OriPt.y+stepDist*i; float tz=OriPt.z; VerletParticle tpt; tpt=new VerletParticle(tx,ty,tz); physics.addParticle(tpt); stpt.add(tpt); } }

}

}

}

point(0,0,0); popMatrix();


void fixedSetting(){ //setup camera size(800, 600, OPENGL); this.frame.setTitle(“mushroom”); // TOP VIEW //cam = new PeasyCam(this, 100,100,0,400); // OLD Camera Setup // cam = new PeasyCam(this, 100,70,50,370); cam.rotateZ(-PI/3.5); cam.rotateX(-20); cam.pan(-10, 60); cam.setDistance(230); //translate(0,0,-300);

void showText() { int posText = 30; int stepText = 15; textMode(SCREEN); text(“Number of Line =” + lineNum ,20, posText,0); text(“Segment =” + stepNum ,20, posText+(1*stepText),0); text(“Initial Segment Length =” + restLength, 20, posText+(2*stepText),0); text(“LengthAcc =” + rlSpeed ,20, posText+(3*stepText),0); text(“Equation = restLength+(i*LengthAcc)” ,20, posText+(5*stepText),0);

// Initialize the physics physics=new VerletPhysics(); physics.setGravity(new Vec3D(0,0,-0.1)); // This is the center of the world Vec3D center = new Vec3D(0,0,1000); // These are the worlds dimensions (a vector pointing out from the center); Vec3D extent = new Vec3D(10000,10000,1000); // Set the world’s bounding box physics.setWorldBounds(new AABB(center,extent)); }

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}

//show box colorMode(RGB,255); strokeWeight(0.1); stroke(102,102,102); int wDim = 100; //equal 10m int lDim = 100; // equal 10m int hDim = 50; // equal 5 m pushMatrix(); translate(wDim/2, lDim/2,hDim/2); box(wDim,lDim,hDim); popMatrix();

AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2

void showAxis(){ //show axis colorMode(RGB,255); strokeWeight(0.1); stroke(255,0,0);//z-red line(0,0,0,0,0,1000); stroke(0,255,0);//y-green line(0,0,0,0,1000,0); stroke(0,0,255);//x-blue line(0,0,0,1000,0,0);

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SCAFFOLD DEFORMATION SCRIPT ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

import toxi.processing.*; import peasy.*; import processing.opengl.*; import toxi.physics.*; import toxi.geom.*; import toxi.physics.constraints.*; PeasyCam cam; ArrayList allScaf=new ArrayList(); ArrayList att=new ArrayList(); ArrayList oddatt=new ArrayList(); float ranNum=150; float ranY=9; float ranZ=7; int lineNum=0; String allSca[]; int scount=0; String allatt[]; String odd[];

void calculate() { float r,R,D; float incY,allIncY; float incZ,allIncZ; float k=0.43;//the float which will keep the coherence //calculate for(int i=0;i<allScaf.size();i+=2) { ArrayList xlinepts=(ArrayList)allScaf.get(i); for(int n=0;n<xlinepts.size();n++) { VerletParticle me=(VerletParticle)xlinepts.get(n); float alldis=0; allIncY=0; allIncZ=30; R=0; D=0; for(int j=0;j<att.size();j++) { VerletParticle attPt=(VerletParticle)att.get(j); float d=me.distanceTo(attPt); if(d<ranNum) { incY=ranY*(cos(PI*d/ranNum)+1)/2; if(attPt.y>me.y) { incY=-incY; } allIncY+=incY;

PrintWriter output; void setup() { fixedSetting(); importScaf(); importAtt(); calculate(); output=createWriter(“scaffold.txt”); }

//z incZ=ranZ*(cos(PI*d/ranNum)+1)/2; allIncZ+=incZ;

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void draw() { background(0); showAxis(); display(); }

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} } for(int j=0;j<oddatt.size();j++) { VerletParticle attPt=(VerletParticle)oddatt.get(j); float d=me.distanceTo(attPt); if(d<ranNum) { incY=k*ranY*(cos(PI*d/ranNum)+1)/2; if(attPt.y>me.y) { incY=-incY; } allIncY+=incY;

void keyPressed() { if(key==’s’) { for(int i=0;i<allScaf.size();i++) { ArrayList temStrspr=(ArrayList)allScaf.get(i); for(int j=0;j<temStrspr.size();j++) { VerletParticle a=(VerletParticle)temStrspr.get(j); output.println(100*a.x+”,”+(-100)*a.y+”,”+100*a.z); } output.println(“end”); } output.flush(); output.close(); } }

//z incZ=k*ranZ*(cos(PI*d/ranNum)+1)/2; allIncZ+=incZ;

}

}

} } me.y=me.y+(allIncY); me.z=(allIncZ);


//odd for(int i=1;i<allScaf.size();i+=2) { ArrayList xlinepts=(ArrayList)allScaf.get(i); for(int n=0;n<xlinepts.size();n++) { VerletParticle me=(VerletParticle)xlinepts.get(n); float alldis=0; allIncY=0; allIncZ=30; R=0; D=0; for(int j=0;j<oddatt.size();j++) { VerletParticle attPt=(VerletParticle)oddatt.get(j); float d=me.distanceTo(attPt); if(d<ranNum) { incY=ranY*(cos(PI*d/ranNum)+1)/2; if(attPt.y>me.y) { incY=-incY; } allIncY+=incY;

void fixedSetting(){ //setup camera size(800, 600, OPENGL); this.frame.setTitle(“mushroom”); cam = new PeasyCam(this, 100,50,0,2200); Setup translate(0,0,-500); } void showAxis(){ //show axis colorMode(RGB,255); strokeWeight(0.1); stroke(255,0,0);//z-red line(0,0,0,0,0,1000); stroke(0,255,0);//y-green line(0,0,0,0,1000,0); stroke(0,0,255);//x-blue line(0,0,0,1000,0,0); //show box colorMode(RGB,255); strokeWeight(0.1); stroke(102,102,102); int wDim = 1000; //equal 10m int lDim = 2000; // equal 10m int hDim = 50; // equal 5 m pushMatrix(); translate(wDim/2, lDim/2,hDim/2); box(wDim,lDim,hDim); popMatrix();

//z incZ=ranZ*(cos(PI*d/ranNum)+1)/2; allIncZ+=incZ;

} } for(int j=0;j<att.size();j++) { VerletParticle attPt=(VerletParticle)att.get(j); float d=me.distanceTo(attPt); if(d<ranNum) { incY=k*ranY*(cos(PI*d/ranNum)+1)/2; if(attPt.y>me.y) { incY=-incY; } allIncY+=incY;

}

//z incZ=k*ranZ*(cos(PI*d/ranNum)+1)/2; allIncZ+=incZ;

me.y=me.y+(allIncY); me.z=(allIncZ);

AADRL PROTODESIGN V.2

}

}

}

}

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}

// Camera

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void display() { colorMode(RGB,255); // color(0,0,255); stroke(0,0,255);//x-blue //curve for(int i=0;i<allScaf.size();i++) { ArrayList xpts=(ArrayList)allScaf.get(i); strokeWeight(1); noFill(); beginShape(); VerletParticle op=(VerletParticle)xpts.get(0); curveVertex(op.x,op.y,op.z); for(int j=0;j<xpts.size();j++) { VerletParticle tpt=(VerletParticle)xpts.get(j); curveVertex(tpt.x,tpt.y,tpt.z); }

}

VerletParticle ep=(VerletParticle)xpts.get(xpts.size()-1); curveVertex(ep.x,ep.y,ep.z); endShape();

//point for(int i=0;i<allScaf.size();i++) { ArrayList xpts=(ArrayList)allScaf.get(i); for(int j=0;j<xpts.size();j++) { VerletParticle p=(VerletParticle)xpts.get(j); strokeWeight(3); point(p.x,p.y,p.z); } } //att for(int i=0;i<att.size();i++) { VerletParticle a=(VerletParticle)att.get(i); stroke(255); }

point(a.x,a.y,a.z);

for(int i=0;i<oddatt.size();i++) { VerletParticle a=(VerletParticle)oddatt.get(i); stroke(155,0,0);

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}

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}

point(a.x,a.y,a.z);

void importAtt() { //import att // allatt=loadStrings(“a5.txt”); allatt=loadStrings(“aw.txt”); for(int i=0;i<allatt.length;i++) { String[] temAtt=splitTokens(allatt[i]); VerletParticle attpt=new VerletParticle(float(temAtt[0])/100,1*float(temAtt[1])/100,float(temAtt[2])/100); att.add(attpt); } odd=loadStrings(“ab.txt”); for(int i=0;i<odd.length;i++) { String[] temAtt=splitTokens(odd[i]); VerletParticle attpt=new VerletParticle(float(temAtt[0])/100,1*float(temAtt[1])/100,float(temAtt[2])/100); oddatt.add(attpt); } println(oddatt.size()); }

void importScaf() { //import scaffold pts----------------------------allSca=loadStrings(“s.txt”); //calculate how many lines by “a” for(int i=0;i<allSca.length;i++) { String[] temAtt=splitTokens(allSca[i]); if(temAtt.length==1) { lineNum++; } } for(int i=0;i<lineNum;i++) { ArrayList a=new ArrayList(); allScaf.add(a); } for(int i=0;i<allSca.length;i++) { String[]temAtt=splitTokens(allSca[i],”,”); if(temAtt.length==1) { scount++; } else if(temAtt.length>1) { VerletParticle tst=new VerletParticle(float(temAtt[0])/100,1*float(temAtt[1])/100,0+float(temAtt[2])/100); ArrayList myline=(ArrayList)allScaf.get(scount); myline.add(tst); } } }


9.2 BIBLIOGRAPHY AUCC(Architecture & Unconventional Computing Conference) 2010. Protocells and architecture. London, United Kingdom pp35-38 February 2010. Bonabeau Eric, Marco Dorigo, Guy Theraulaz. Swarm Intelligence: From Natural to Artificial System. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. Bebber Daniel P, Haynes Juliet, Darrah Peter R., BoddyLynne, and Fricker Mark D. Biological solutions to transport network design. Oxford: Proceeding a Royal B Society, 2007. Casey Reas, Ben Fry(Foreword by John Maeda).Processing: A Programming Handbook for Visual Designers and Artists. Cambridge: MIT Press,2007. Daniel Shiffman. Learning Processing: A Beginner’s Guide to Programming Images, Animation, and Interaction. Burlington:Morgan Karfmann,2008. Frazer John. An Evolutionary Architecture. London: Architectural Association,1995.

“Science Illustrated; They Look Alike, but There’s a Little Matter of Size” New York, New York Times <http://www. nytimes.com/imagepages/2006/08/14/science/20060815_ SCILL_ GRAPHIC.html> “Vegetative Hyphal Fusion in Filamentous Fungi by Nick D Read and Gabriela M. Roca” Madame Curie Bioscience Database. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bookshelf/br.fcgi?book =eurekah&part=A68330> “Visualization of the various routes through a portion of the Internet 2006” Matt Britt, Wikipedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Image:Internet_map_1024.jpg> McDonough, William, and Michael Braungart. Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things. London: Vintage, 2009 Weinstock, Michael.The architecture of emergence. Spain: WILEY, 2010.

Hanczyc M and Ikegami T. Protocells as smart agents for architectural design. Technoetic Arts Journal, Vol. 7.2,2009. Johnson, Steven. Emergence: the connected lives of ants, brains, cities, and software. London: Scribner, 2001. Otto, Frei, B. Rasch, and S. Schanz. Finding Form: Towards an Architecture of the Minimal. Berlin: Edition Axel Menges, 1995. Rayner, Alan D.M. The challenge of the individualistic mycelium. New York: The New York Botanical Garden, 1991.

Tlalka M., Bebber D.P., Darrah P.R., Watkinson S.C., Fricker M.D. Emergence of selforganised oscillatory domains in fungal mycelia. ScienceDirect, 2007. Tlalka M., Bebber D.P., Darrah P.R., Watkinson S.C., Fricker M.D. Emergence of selforganised oscillatory domains in fungal mycelia. ScienceDirect, 2007. Thompson, D’Arcy Wentworth. Prologue to On Growth And Form, Cambridge University Press (Cambridge), 1961, p 19. “Mycelium” Australian National Botanic Garden, Australia <http://www.anbg.gov.au/fungi/mycelium.html>

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Stamets, Paul. Mycelium Running: How Mushrooms Can Help Save the World. Berkeley, :Ten Speed Press, 2005.

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Spuybroek, Lars. Nox: Machining Architecture. London: Thames & Hudson, 2004.

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9.3 FINAL REVIEW & STUDIO 2009-11

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JACK ZENG

WALEE PHIRIYAPHONGSAK

SUKHUMARN THAMWISET

XIN GUO


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ARCHITECTURAL ASSOCIATION LONDON

mycoFARMX_Living Architecture  

mycoFARMX IS A PROPOSAL FOR A PROTOTYPE OF A SEASONAL RECREATION AND MYCOPARK IN KUNMING, THE CAPITAL OF YUNNAN IN SOUTHERN CHINA. PRESENTLY...

mycoFARMX_Living Architecture  

mycoFARMX IS A PROPOSAL FOR A PROTOTYPE OF A SEASONAL RECREATION AND MYCOPARK IN KUNMING, THE CAPITAL OF YUNNAN IN SOUTHERN CHINA. PRESENTLY...

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