Page 1


目錄

飛安季刊第63期

目錄

01 編者的話

基金會

P3

02 全球安全監理稽核計畫(USOAP)之演進

黃德春

P5

03 冷卻中的期待(全球節能減碳)

羅國棟

P10

04 來自西方的接觸

孟 磊

P16

05 航空貨運大執法

劉天健

P23

06 直昇機確實可以救命

曾興華

P27

07 太空梭重型發射器的研發現況

邁 德

P36

08 人力飛行

林孝鏗

P42

09 新世代噴射引擎面面觀

陳道千

P46

童茂祥/徐光前

P52

航空資訊

氣象安全 10 各民航機場氣候統計特徵圖型化及線上 查詢系統之建立

11 台北航空氣象中心颱風簡報網頁介紹

1

2010年「飛行安全冬季刊」

官岱煒 P59


Content

N O. 63

C onte nt

01 Editor's Notes

FSF-T

P4

Aviation Information 02 The USOAP Evolved

ICAO Journal Issue 5, 2010

P7

03 Cooling Expectations

Flight Int’l Nov 23-29, 2010

P13

04 Western Approaches

Flight Int’l Nov 9-15, 2010

P19

05 Cargo Clampdown

AW & ST Nov 15, 2010

P25

06 Helicopters Do Save Lives

Rotor Fall 2010

P31

07 Heavy Development

AW & ST Oct 11, 2010

P39

08 When Muscle Matters

Flight Int’l Oct 5-11, 2010

P44

09 Power Up

Overhaul & Maintenance Nov 2010

P49

Aviation Weather Safety 10 The Diagramming of Climatic Statistics Characteristics for Each Aviation Aerodrome and Implement of Online Query System

M. S. Tung / K. C. Hsu

11 Introduction of the TAMC Typhoon Briefing Website

David Kuan

P55

P61

Flight Safety Quarterly, Winter 2010

2


編者的話

者的話 飛安基金會

本期季刊的創作3篇,包括本會顧問劉天健先生

節能減碳會議的精華,用簡單的六個字說明了這次會

「航空貨運大執法」、中華航空氣象協會「各民航機

議的精隨。孟磊先生「來自西方的接觸」,分析西方

場氣候統計特徵圖型化及線上查詢系統之建立」和「

國家對中國大陸維修市場的投資機會與挑戰,分享讀

台北航空氣象中心颱風簡報網頁介紹」,劉顧問針對

者。民航局曾興華先生和林孝鏗先生分別翻譯「直昇

航空貨運案例,在主管機關、業界及旅客方面都有深

機確實可以救命」和「人力飛行」,都與輕型航空相

入的分析,並提出因應之道,值得吾人參考借鏡。協

關,值得注意的是民航局的長官英文翻譯能力水準很

會針對航空氣象安全,提出兩篇專業且技術性論文,

高,而且非常認真,每一個專有名詞都查得一清二楚

同時也是報導性文章,可讓讀者更進一步了解運用最

,實在是翻譯者的表率。邁德先生「重型舉升器」,

新航空氣象資訊,增加對我國航空氣象服務的認識與

是一篇太空載具的介紹,在太空載具中將扮演非常重

信心。

要角色,可以讓讀者與太空接軌,不再限於大氣層飛

翻譯文章方面,民航局黃德春先生翻譯ICAO期刊

航的領域,是一篇很有趣的文章。最後一篇是本會陳

「全球安全監理稽核計畫USOAP」,這是國際民航組

執行秘書屆齡退休前的一篇譯稿「新世代噴射引擎面

織對簽約國民航主管機關的飛航安全監理能力之查核

面觀」,說明全球最新渦扇引擎的發展,業界在購買

計劃,190個簽約國都已查核完畢,目前賡續進

新機引擎時,是一項非常有用的參考資料。敬請各位

行SOA(Safety Oversight Audit)複查計畫,我國雖非簽

並提供寶貴意見,讓飛安季刊有機會為大家提供更多

約國,但各項準備工作已臻完備,非常值得借鏡。中

更好的服務,並祝大家 新年快樂,萬事如意。

華科技大學羅國棟老師「冷卻中的期待」將上次全球

飛安基金會網址:www.flightsafety.org.tw

3

2010年「飛行安全冬季刊」


Editor's Notes

E

es

o r's N ot t i d FSF-T

In this publication, there are three original articles

environmental protection conference with simple

— “Cargo clampdown” rendered by Mr. Laurence Liu,

wording. “Heavy Development” interpreted by Mr. L.

advisor of FSF-T, “The Diagramming of Climatic

Mon, to share how the western countries to analyze and

Statistics Characteristics for Each Aviation Aerodrome

face the huge MRO opportunity and challenge in the

and Implement of Online Query System” and

Mainland China market. Two articles translated by CAA

“Introduction of the TAMC Typhoon Briefing Website”

officials, both related to general and sport aviation,

provided by Chinese Aeronautical Meteorological

“Helicopter Do Save Life” and “When Muscle Matters”,

Association (CAMA). Namely, Advisor Liu has deeply

which had respectively rendered by Mr. H.H Tseng and

analyzed the case and provides his proposals for the

Mr. S. K. Lin, as you can see their translations would be

authority, industry and passengers. You would take a

high above standards, they had check all the proper

close look at it. CAMA provided two professional and

nouns seriously, there are good model of translation if

technical articles which is a conductive one as well, you

any. “Western Approaches” translated by Mr Mider, it

would not only understand the update aviation

introduced the new space vehicle lifter which is playing

meteorological safety information but you might apply

very important role in the space vehicle, you might go

these information and website to promote your

from here to keep on track with space technology, and

acknowledge and confidence on aviation meteorological

your knowledge would not be limited in the aerospace,

safety also.

it’s a interesting article as well. Lastly, “Power Up”

In the translated articles, firstly you would see “The

rendered by Mr. Harry T.C. Chen, who’s going to retire

USOAP Evolved” rendered by Mr. David Huang, PMI of

early 2011. This article describes development of global

CAA. Although ICAO had accomplished the USOAP for

new turbofan engines which is valuable for the aviation

its 190 contracting states, they have continuously their

industry while you intend to by a new aircraft or new

SOA (Safety Oversight Audit) based on CMA

engine.

(Continuous Management Approach) . However, we are

Finally, please provide your comments and

not contracting state but we are well prepared for

suggestions which would encourage FSF-T to serve you

USOAP. In addition, “Cooling Expectations” translated by

more and better. Happy New Year and Good luck in

Capt. G. D. Lo, it highlights the finest of last international

everything.

FSF-T websit:www.flightsafety.org.tw Flight Safety Quarterly, Winter 2010

4


全球安全監理稽核計畫(USOAP)之演進–實現所承諾之持續監控做法

全球安全監理稽核計畫 (USOAP)之演進 實現所承諾之持續監控做法 黃德春 譯

圖1:典型的持續監控做法(CMA)循環

國際民航組織(ICAO)在全球安全監理稽核計畫 (USOAP)之架構下,已執行全球安全監理稽核長達十年 以上。這些稽核使國際民航組織能夠評估其會員國的安全

蒐集 及 驗

的安 全

於2007年召開第36屆國際民航組織大會時,在

空運輸的持續成長與發展極為重要。

分析 監理 及評 能 估 力

監理能力,並對此項能力有更廣泛的了解–此項能力對航

料 全資 安 證

CMA 略 策 行

制定 及 執

大會對全球安全監理稽核計畫的成功極為滿意,但體 認到六年稽核週期太長;與會代表強調國際民航組織需對

向大會簡報稽核結果。

所有會員國當中幾乎有一半已經接受過稽核,並由秘書長

識別 缺 優先 失 順 序

(USOAP)已進入六年稽核週期的第三年。國際民航組織

廣泛系統做法(CSA)之下的全球安全監理稽核計畫

各國實施更頻繁的監控。 全球安全監理稽核計畫(USOAP)演進到持續監控做

由會員國所提供的大量安全資訊;安全資訊的蒐集亦來自

法(CMA)對於蒐集國際民航組織會員國所提供的安全監

相關的外部單位,以及經由稽核及其他全球安全監理稽核

理水準之更為定期的資訊,提供一種理想的解決方案。在

計畫而獲得。利用持續監控做法,ICAO將能藉由如下項目

此一新做法之下,週期性的稽核將由持續蒐集安全資訊的

而增進國家的安全監理級安全管理能力:

流程所取代。這將使民航界的業者能依據最新的資料作成

★ 識別安全缺失

決策。

★ 評估相關的安全風險

引進持續監控做法將需對國際民航組織幕僚、會 員國、及其他航空業者實施訓練並使他們熟悉新的報告

★ 訂定協助之優先順序

工具。這些工具,包括稽核協議書與國家航空業務問卷

由於持續監控做法仰賴多重輸入,其中有多項可以同

(SAAQ),將能使持續監控做法在各階層逐步實施。 逐步實施將在仔細計畫的一段過渡期間內完成–暫定 為一年。

持續監控做法(CMA)之方法

5

★ 發展策略供持續監控做法之用及提供協助

時獲得。因此,重要的是當檢視此一新做法時,首先應觀 察全面情況,再將其分成小步驟。 圖1的循環列出在持續監控做法下蒐集與分析資料 的流程,並顯示如何使用這項資料來訂出策略的優先順 序。

在持續監控做法(CMA)之下,全球安全監理稽核計

雖然排定的持續監控做法活動可提供許多重要的資料

畫的目標係透過持續監控會員國的安全監理能力而提升全

與資訊,但將在持續監控做法之下,藉由三種利害關係人

球的航空安全。持續監控做法使國際民航組織能蒐集主要

蒐集大量的額外資料,並提供給全球安全監理稽核計畫。

2010年「飛行安全冬季刊」


全球安全監理稽核計畫(USOAP)之演進–實現所承諾之持續監控做法

益處及用來發展和有效執行 持續監控做法的策略

圖2:持續監控做法(CMA)的執行/過渡時程 ICAO:程序與指引資料

視各國所提供的資訊層級而定,

ICAO訓練:電腦化(CBT)之稽核員訓練 ICAO DOC 9735 ICVM 任務

ICAO ICVM任務 安全稽核

ICAO ICVM任務、安全稽核、 CSA稽核及聯合稽核

國家應執行之工作 更新CAP與SAAQ

國家應執行之工作 更新CAP、SAAQ 與稽核協議

國家應執行之工作 更新CAP與SAAQ 與稽核協議

2012年

2013年

持續監控做法(CMA)納入各種活 動,包括完整及有限的廣泛系統做法 (CSA)稽核。 總之,持續監控做法(CMA) 代表安全監理監控方面之長期、符合 成本效益、資源有效利用、以及永續 的最佳做法。它使各會員國與區域組

2011年1月

織,以及國際民航組織的各項資源能 有效利用,並提供一種更主動的做法

國家

以供管理空運安全–依據安全管理系統(SMS)觀念之定 義,它和組織的目標一致。

國家係安全資訊的主要來源,當各國完成並遞交國家 航空業務問卷(SAAQ)時、差異之電子檔(EFODs)、 全球安全監理稽核計畫協議、以及更新的改善措施計畫 (CAP)時,就能蒐集到此類資訊。此外,國家安全計畫 (SSP)支持提供安全資訊來源的主動式活動,這些資訊 可能用於持續監控做法。當國家安全計畫隨著時間而演進 時,它們將能提供安全資訊增加的流量;此項資料將用來 提升持續監控做法的整體價值與效益。

內部的利害關係人

全球安全監理稽核計畫(USOAP)與持續監控做法 (CMA)有各種益處,包括: 從一次性的“急速”流程轉換到具備定期報告而能

●

更有效即時分析的特性。 藉由提供及鼓勵區域與國際組織對安全資訊的分析

●

而提供安全資訊的集體分享。 能夠持續監控各會員國的安全監理能力與績效。

●

能夠主動而非被動識別安全風險。

●

透過一個即時與互動式的網路系統提供各國與相關

●

單位取得資訊。 國際民航組織的技術合作局、區域辦事處及其他國際

上面所述之發展與外部利害關係人之協議,以及持續

民航組織之局處乃是安全相關資訊的重要來源,提供資料

監控做法(CMA)活動之實施,將在計畫之持續監控做法

給持續監控做法(CMA)並儲存在國際民航組織的資料

(CMA)過渡期間內逐漸發生。此一過程將提供足夠的時

庫。一旦已蒐集到此項資料,就能用來產生整合的安全分

間給各國及國際民航組織去習慣新的作法,以及使用持續

析。

監控做法(CMA)程序與工具去執行相關的測試。

外部的利害關係人

圖2(上方)所反映之圖表列舉此一過渡期間之執行 時程,以及將由國際民航組織和其會員國所從事的活動。

外部的利害關係人包括,但不限於,諸如歐

持續監控做法(CMA)的成功與有效實施有賴所有航

洲航空安全局(EASA)、歐洲空中導航安全組織

空運輸安全利害關係人之間的夥伴關係,以及溝通與資訊

(EUROCONTROL)、歐盟、以及國際民航組織(ICAO)

分享。

等國際組織。這些組織目前運用它們自己的稽核計畫、檢

為了確保全球安全監理稽核計畫(USOAP)與持續監

查及/或標準化訪視而能提供有用的額外資訊給國際民航

控做法(CMA)的成功與效益,國際民航組織總部與各區

組織。透過和這些組織的擴大協議,即可使用共享資訊來

域辦事處的幕僚,以及各會員國和參與之國際組織,必須

協助驗證國際民航組織目前持有的資料,因而降低監控業

都能了解他們所扮演的重要角色與所負的責任,並準備通

務的重複性。其他外部利害關係人包括區域安全監督組織

力合作以達成他們對國際民航安全所負的共同責任。

(RSOOs)。

譯自ICAO Journal Issue 05, 2010

2010年「飛行安全冬季刊」

6


The USOAP Evolved

The USOAP Evolved Realizing the Promise of the Continuous Monitoring Approach

Safety Oversight Audit Programme (USOAP). These audits have enabled ICAO to evaluate the safety oversight capabilities of its Member States and achieve a more comprehensive understanding of this crucial

As of the 36th ICAO Assembly in 2007, the USOAP

ATE LID A V A & DAT

and the audit results were presented by the ICAO Secretariat to the Assembly. The Assembly was extremely pleased with the success of the USOAP but recognized that a six year audit cycle was too long. Delegates stressed that there was a need for ICAO to monitor States on a more frequent basis.

CMA Methodology Under CMA, the objective of the USOAP is to

The evolution of the USOAP to a continuous

promote global aviation safety through continuous

monitoring approach (CMA) provides an ideal solution to

monitoring of the Member States’ safety oversight

collecting more regular information regarding the level of

capabilities. The CMA enables ICAO to collect vast

safety oversight provided by ICAO Member States.

amounts of safety information, which is provided

Under this new approach, cyclical audits will be replaced

primarily by States. Safety information is also gathered

by an ongoing process of gathering safety information.

from relevant external stakeholders, as well as through

This will allow stakeholders in international civil aviation

audits and other USOAP-CMA activities. Using the

to base their decisions on the latest information

CMA, ICAO will be able to enhance States’ safety

available.

oversight and safety management capabilities by:

The introduction of the CMA will require ICAO staff,

★ Identifying safety deficiencies.

Member States, and other stakeholders to be trained and

★ Assessing associated safety risks.

familiarized with new reporting tools. These tools, which

★ D eveloping strategies for CMA activities and

include the Audit Protocols together with the State

assistance.

Aviation Activity Questionnaire (SAAQ), will enable CMA

★ Prioritizing assistance.

activities to be gradually implemented across all levels.

Since CMA relies on multiple inputs, many of which

This gradual implementation will take place over the

7

CMA

DEVEL OP STR AN AT

Almost half of all ICAO Member States had been audited

T

IDENT IFY DE AN FI

under the comprehensive systems approach (CSA).

NT EME PL M I S D GIE E

was already in the third year of a six-year cycle of audits

ANAL S YZ OVERTATE E A SIG S’ N H C

development.

Figure 1: A typical CMA data-cycle

RE ASU ME TY D AFEABILITY S AP

component to air transport’s continued growth and

been tentatively set to last two years.

COL L SAF ECT ET Y

oversight audits within the framework of the Universal

course of a carefully planned transition period which has

ITIZE IOR PR IES D ENC CI

For well over a decade, ICAO has performed safety

Flight Safety Quarterly, Winter 2010

may be received simultaneously, it is important when


The USOAP Evolved

Figure 2: CMA Implementation/Transition Schedule

been collected it can also be used to generate integrated safety analyses.

ICAO: Tools, Procedures and Guidances Materials ICAO Training: CBT Auditor Training ICAO DOC 9735. ICVM Mission

ICAO ICVM Mission, Safety Audits

ICAO ICVM Missions, Safety Audits, CSA Audits and Limited Audits

State Deliverables Update CAP and SAAQ

State Deliverables Update CAP, SAAQ, Audits Protocols

State Deliverables Update CAP, SAAQ, Audits Protocols

January 2011

2012

2013

examining this new approach to look first at the big picture before breaking it down into component steps. The cycle chart seen in Figure 1 outlines the process of collecting and analyzing data under the CMA and displays how this information is then used to prioritize strategies. While scheduled CMA activities will provide much important data and information, a vast amount of additional safety data will be collected and provided to the USOAP under the CMA by three types of stakeholders.

States States are the principal source of safety information, which is collected when they complete and submit their State Aviation Activity Questionnaire (SAAQ), Electronic Filing of Differences (EFODs), USOAP protocols, and updated Corrective Action Plans (CAPs). In addition, State Safety Programmes (SSPs) support the development of proactive activities that provide sources of safety information that may be used within the CMA. As SSPs evolve over time, they will be capable of providing an increasing flow of safety data. This data will be used to enhance the CMA’s overall value and effectiveness.

Internal Stakeholders ICAO’s Technical Co-operation Bureau, Regional Offices and other ICAO Bureaux are significant sources of safety-related information, providing data to the CMA that is stored in the ICAO database. Once this data has

External Stakeholders External stakeholders include, but are not limited to, international organizations such as EASA, EUROCONTROL, the European C o m m i s s i o n , a n d I ATA .

These

organizations currently operate their own audit programmes, inspections and/or standardization visits that can provide

ICAO with useful additional information. Through expanded agreements with such organizations, shared information can be used to help validate data currently held by ICAO, potentially reducing the duplication of monitoring activities. Other external stakeholders include Regional Safety Oversight Organizations (RSOOs), where available.

Benefits and Strategies Employed to Develop & Effectively Implement CMA The CMA incorporates various activities, including both full and limited CSA audits, depending on the level of information provided by States. Overall, the CMA represents the best long-term, cost-effective, resource—efficient, and sustainable approach to safety oversight monitoring. It allows for more efficient use of the resources of ICAO, its Member States and Regional organizations, as well as providing for a far more proactive approach to the management of air transport safety-one consistent with the policies of the Organization as defined under the Safety Management System (SMS) concept. There are numerous benefits of the USOAP-CMA, including: ●Transitioning from a one-time assessment ‘snapshot’ process to one which features regular reports allowing for more effective real-time analysis. ●Providing for the collective sharing of safety data by promoting and encouraging the analysis of safety information by Regional and international

Flight Safety Quarterly, Winter 2010

8


The USOAP Evolved

organizations.

The chart reflected in Figure 2 outlines the

●Allowing for the continuous monitoring of Member

implementation schedule during this transition period,

States’ safety oversight capabilities and

together with the activities that will be undertaken by both

performance.

ICAO and by its Member States.

●E n a b l i n g a p r o a c t i v e r a t h e r t h a n r e a c t i v e identification of safety risks. ●Providing States and stakeholders with access to safety information via a real-time and interactive online system.

The successful and efficient implementation of the CMA depends on continuing partnerships among, as well as on communication and information sharing between, all air transport safety stakeholders. In order to ensure the success and effectiveness of

The development of agreements with external

the USOAP-CMA, staff at ICAO Headquarters and

stakeholders, described above, as well as the

Regional Offices, as well as Member States and

implementation of CMA activities, will take place

participating international organizations, must all

gradually during the planned CMA transition period. This

understand their essential roles and responsibilities and

process will provide both States and ICAO with sufficient

be prepared to work together to fulfill their joint

time to become accustomed to working with the new

responsibility to the safety of international civil aviation. 

approach and to conduct appropriate tests with CMA procedures and tools.

9

Flight Safety Quarterly, Winter 2010

From ICAO Journal Issue 05, 2010


冷卻中的期待

冷卻中的期待 在聯合國嘗試以新的氣候變化決議替代京都議定書時, ICAO所提出的排污框架會有幫助嗎? 羅國棟 譯

也許美國航空航太工業協會(Aerospace Industries

但是在建立全球排放權交易計劃時,ICAO選擇先做

Association)執行長Marion Blakey 最能精準抓住ICAO對

一個可行性的研究,來決定如何制定框架及實施的15項原

航空業要減少溫室氣體排放所提出的框架及意見。她引用

則,以期讓各會員國日後以市場為基礎,對減碳排放的各

了滾石合唱團(Rolling Stones)的歌詞:“你不能經常得

項措施,能有配合發展及執行的意願,有關框架制定將在

到你想要的,但如果你時常去試,到頭來你至少會得到你

2013年ICAO第38屆會議中通盤檢討。

所需要的”。 ICAO 190個會員國對國際航班減碳排放的各種不同

激烈的談判折衝

看法取得協議,沒人會認為是件容易的事。ICAO秘書長

美國FAA前署長Blakey表示“今年十月份ICAO經過兩

Raymond Benjamin 在十月第37屆大會的結論中提到:“我

週各種激烈折衝,已獲致不具約束力的解決方案,但前景

必須承認,而且大多數與會的各位也看到,會議討論想

並不符合美國及歐洲談判者那麼積極的預期,因為像中國

趨於一致有多麼困難,與會各位對解決方案有太多分歧的

及巴西等開發中國家,覺得該項解決方案應該有”更多讓

看法,但經過十一個小時討論後,我們終於有了決議方

他們兼顧到本國經濟成長的空間"。

案”。 大會上的決議方案是到2050年前,各會員國對燃油 節能效率每年必須要改善2%,各會員國同意從2020年起

ICAO在創立全球排放減碳架構中,面臨最大的挑戰 之一就是如何在已開發及開發中國家間的需求上,取得折 衝及平衡。

對碳的“中和成長”要竭盡努力。易言之,即使市場需求

在抑制溫室氣體排放解決方案中,ICAO鼓勵各國

提高,航班增加,也必須要努力不得使二氧化碳排放量增

的國際航班業務若能達到1%總收入噸公里,就不需要向

加,且由2013年起就應發展並建立排放二氧化碳的標準。

ICAO提出在國際、地區、或國內以市場做基礎的環境改進

2010年「飛行安全冬季刊」

10


冷卻中的期待

2009年 ICAO會員國在國際飛航排名序列

1974-79年ICAO會員國在國際飛航排名序列

名次

國 家

所佔比例

名次

國 家

所佔比例

1

美 國

15.1

1

美 國

17.04

2

中 國

8.02

2

英 國

8.29

3

德 國

7.31

3

德 國

6.72

4

英 國

6.34

4

日 本

5.67

5

阿拉伯聯合大公國

6.08

5

法 國

5.04

6

法 國

4.78

6

中 國

4.40

7

南 韓

4.34

7

星加坡

4.23

8

荷 蘭

3.65

8

荷 蘭

4.07

9

星加坡

3.61

9

南 韓

4.05

10

日 本

3.53

10

澳 洲

2.55

11

愛爾蘭

2.23

11

加拿大

2.24

12

加拿大

1.93

12

阿拉伯聯合大公國

1.92

13

澳 洲

1.93

13

泰 國

1.85

14

泰 國

1.87

14

義大利

1.81

15

西班牙

1.77

15

瑞 士

1.64

16

吉 達

1.55

16

西班牙

1.61

17

馬來西亞

1.46

17

馬來西亞

1.45

18

蘇 俄

1.44

18

蘇 俄

1.23

19

印 度

1.42

19

巴 西

1.19

20

土耳其

1.35

20

北 歐

1.09

21

盧森堡

1.31

21

紐西蘭

1.00

22

瑞 士

1.12

22

印 度

0.97

資料來源:航空經濟體

資料來源:航空經濟體

行動報告。

納入其原有計畫,如此在ICAO計劃降低排放的框架中,原

但難題是:全體會員國中,有約168個國家的國際航 班業務是遠低於該門檻要求,而且有些國家所屬的航空公 司是美國航空公司勁敵。美洲區運輸協會環境事務部副總 裁Nancy Young 就說:中國、阿拉伯聯合大公國、卡搭爾 及新加坡是高於1%的門檻,但巴西、埃及和義大利卻遠低 於該項數據。 航空運輸經濟體(Air Transport Economics)顧問主管

想勸歐洲各國放棄納入該項頗具爭議的排放交易計劃的希 望將徹底落空!

排放交易 歐盟所屬排放氣候行動委員會的Connie Hedegeard相 信ICAO的解決方案對航空的排污交易提供了良好的基礎, 而歐盟所提出的計劃與ICAO指示的15項原則是一致的。

Chris Lyle,描述這種最低門檻計劃就像一個不定的靶標,

當ICAO呼籲所有會員國應相互間進行雙邊或多邊討

一直在改變。舉瑞士為例,她的載運量雖然是略高於1%的

論,以尋求市場為基礎的各項措施能有一致的看法,但在

要求,但仍會很容易下滑到低於1%的門檻;巴西的載運

2007年ICAO第36屆理事會中,就曾因會員國相互爭議未

量在不久將來可望高於1%的要求標準,但仍不能夠完全穩

能達成協議。

定維持這項標準。在本年十月的會議解決方案中,ICAO的

歐盟特別強調ICAO的解決方案“根本不可能如自身的

評議會就被要求,應該要在2011年底前對所謂的“門檻標

演繹就能成功,以市場做基礎的措施只有在國與國之間相

準”做好妥善檢討。

互同意後才能真正落實”。

歐盟已經正式對這項“最低門檻”的字句做了“保 留”,意味其對ICAO所提出的指導沒有意願附議。 事實上,歐盟仍然會在2012年把航空業排放交易計劃

11

2010年「飛行安全冬季刊」

當歐盟依然堅決認定自己的看法,認為有權推行他 們的信念,(包括把航空業務放進排放交易計劃中)同 時,美國卻堅持歐盟所採取的行動不合法的,美國運輸協


冷卻中的期待

會(ATA)及所屬的三個會員航空公司--美國,大陸及聯 航,主動以他們合法的立場向歐盟排放交易計劃挑戰。

Johnson指出,當ICAO試著克服發展以全球市場做基 礎措施所面臨的政治挑戰中,稅收應該是一項較為容易推

目前IATA已經加入美國共同反對歐洲計劃,他們反對

動的措施。他指出,開發中國家對ICAO要求其簽署對航

歐洲把航空業擴大包含在排放交易計劃範疇之內,他們也

空運輸課稅的方式有所警覺及疑慮。他們認為必須要看聯

宣稱歐洲這種單邊的做法是“錯誤的指導”。IATA強調,

合國氣候變化會議達成一致的決議之後,各會員國才能決

在其所屬的會員中已有120多國在ICAO會議中發聲,反對

定簽署的意向。因此Johnson認為這項看法還有待日後突

歐盟所倡議的排放交易計劃。IATA聲明“我們參加美國的

破。

協會是認為歐盟所倡議的排放交貿易計劃有違芝加哥公約

由於ICAO主要的都是政治在運作,因此Johnson認為

精神,而且我們會繼續與美國運輸協會協同合作在法院上

聯合國氣候變化會議首先需要在2012年之後,對氣候變化

請法庭仲裁”。IATA預測他們發聲反對歐盟的計畫在未來

因應的各項規則變數的定義有所界定,如此ICAO原所制

幾個月將會更加壯大。

定的溫室排污的框架在氣候變化時,才能更有決定性的作

歐洲法院應該會在2012年之前對是否要把航空業放進 歐盟所倡議的排防交易計劃做出仲裁。Young相信這項決 定甚至可能在2011年末之前就能揭曉。 Young認為美國運輸協會的訴訟是一項戰術上的運 用,主要是試著要說服歐盟回到談判桌上,以對ICAO做出

為。 Johnson指出聯合國氣候變化會議在坎昆舉行將會是 一項"抱有高度希望,但卻不可能有實質指望"的局面。他 最後指出:"實際上任何對氣候變化所做出的改變計劃目前 還不具成熟,恐怕還會有待時日才能成形"。

的全球貿易計劃重開談判,但是主管航空運輸經濟事務的 Lyle卻指出這種想法很可笑,因為歐洲的法院將會傾向支

譯自Flight International 23-29 Nov, 2010

持歐洲人的想法。 ICAO在其190國家中是否會得到廣泛的共識,將在本 年12月看出端倪,因為會議主題是聯合國對氣候變化架構 討論。當所有會員國在墨西哥坎昆(Cancun)與會時,將 嘗試對即將於2012年失效的京都協議抑止溫室排污方式做 出決議。但一般咸認聯合國氣候變化會議在京都協議失效 之後能夠做出有效掌握溫室排污的共識卻是相當的低。 展望ICAO這項會議,Benjamin總結地說:“要想指望 坎昆會議能夠產生實質做法的可能性相當有限"。航空環保 聯盟主管Tim Johnson不預期在本次坎昆會議中就能產生 2012年後的架構,因為2009年12月於哥本哈根所舉行的 聯合國氣候變化會議中,各會員國的看法曾分歧到實在無 法獲得一致結論的地步,因此今年12月的聯合國氣候變化 會議也不被看好。 Young指出航空排放交易計劃不應該在談判時列為決 定性的議題,但是在本年度稍早時,聯合國一些高層財務 顧問曾建議徵收航空稅來支應未來改善氣候變化的花費。 Johnson說據他了解的目標將會是一年一千億美元, Young還指出這高層次的顧問群自去年12月哥本哈根會議 之後,就已展開秘密運作。據她了解,太多工作是“在真 空中進行”的,但是她也強調目前這群高層顧問所作的建 議只是勸告階段,還未達到執行層面。

稅務問題

2010年「飛行安全冬季刊」

12


COOLING EXPECTATIONS

COOLING EXPECTATIONS Can ICAO’s emissions framework help when the United Nations attempts to form a new climate change resolution to replace the Kyoto protocol? LORI RANSON

Perhaps Aerospace Industries Association chief executive Marion Blakey most accurately captured the sentiment generated by the International Civil Aviation Organisation’s framework to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from aviation. Quoting a Rolling Stones lyric, she said: “You can’t always get what you want, but if you try sometime, you get what you need.” No one pretended that getting ICAO’s 190 member states with varying agendas to agree on a path to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from international aviation would be easy. “I must admit, and a number of you have witnessed it, that the assembly discussions were difficult,” said ICAO secretary general Raymond

ICAO Faced a challenge in getting consensus among its 190 memder states on reducing emissios from inter national aviation

Benjamin at the conclusion of the organisation’s 37th assembly in October. “There were a number of divergent views on many aspects of the proposed resolution, but at the eleventh hour, we had a resolution.” What emerged was commitment for a 2% annual fuel efficiency improvement to 2050, states agreeing to strive for carbon neutral growth from 2020 and developing a CO2 standard for aircraft with a target date of 2013. But instead of creating a global scheme for emissions trading, ICAO opted to conduct a feasibility study to determine how to create the framework, and created 15 principles that member states should adhere to when developing and carrying out marketbased measures to reduce emissions from aviation. The resulting framework is scheduled for review at ICAO’s 38th assembly in 2013.

13

Flight Safety Quarterly, Winter 2010

INTENSE NEGOTIATIONS “The non-binding resolution adopted by ICAO last month after two weeks of very intense negotiations was not as aggressive as the US and European negotiators had hoped,” said Blakey. “Developing countries such as China and Brazil, on the othe other hand, felt the agreement should have given them more latitude to allow for their economic growth.” One of ICAO’s greatest challenges in creating its global emissions reduction framework is balancing the needs of developing and developed countries. In its resolution on curbing greenhouse gases, ICAO said countries whose international aviation operations were 1% of total revenue tonne kilometers would be exempt form reporting environmental action


COOLING EXPECTATIONS

ICAO STATES RANKING OF INTERNATIONAL AVIATION TRAFFIC (RTK) IN 2009 Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

Stat USA China Gemany UK UAE France South Korea Netherlands Singapore Japan Ireland Canada Australia Thailand Spain Qatar Malaysia Russia India Turkey Luxembourg Switzerland

%share 15.1 8.02 7.31 6.34 6.08 4.78 4.34 3.65 3.65 3.53 2.23 1.93 1.93 1.82 1.77 1.56 1.46 1.44 1.42 1.35 1.31 1.12

ICAO STATES RANKING OF INTERNATIONAL AVIATION TRAFFIC (RTK) 1974-79 Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

Stat USA UK Gemany Japan France China Singapore

%share 7.04 8.29 6.72 5.67 5.04 4.40 4.23

Netherlands South Korea Australia Canada UAE Thailand Italy Switzerland Spain Malaysia Russia Brazil Scandinavia New Zealand India

4.07 4.05 2.55 2.24 1.92 1.85 1.81 1.64 1.61 1.45 1.23 1.19 1.09 1.00 0.97

SOURCE: Air Transport Economics

SOURCE: Air Transport Economics

plans to ICAO, and from market-based measures set at

de minimis clause, which essentially means it has no

national, regional or local levels.

intention of adhering to that portion of ICAO’s guidelines.

The problem is, about 168 ICAO member states fall

In fact, it is business as usual for the EU to continue

below that threshold, and airlines in some of those

with its plans to fold aviation into its emissions trading

countries are significant competitors to US carriers, says

scheme from 2012, eroding any hope that ICAO’s

Nancy Young, vice-president of environmental affairs at

development of an emissions reduction framework would

the Air Transport Association (ATA) of America.

persuade Europe to pull back on its plans to introduce

China, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar and Singapore are above the 1% delineation, while Brazil, Egypt and Italy fall below it.

the controversial trading programme.

EMISSIONS TRANING

The head of consultancy Air Transport Economics,

EU commissioner for climate action Connie

Chris Lyle, describes the de minimis scheme as a

Hedegaard believes the ICAO resolution provides a good

moving target. Switzerland, which has traffic above the

basis to proceed swiftly with the inclusion of aviation in

1% target, could easily fall below the established

emissions trading, and says the EU’s plans are

threshold, while Brazil’s traffic in the near future could

consistent with the 15 principles agreed in the resolution.

rise above that level. In the resolution introduced in

While ICAO urges states to engage in bilateral or

October, ICAO’s council is required to review the

multilateral consultations with other states to reach

thresholds by the end of 2011.

agreement on market-based measures, there is no call

The European Union has formally “reserved” on the

for mutual agreement, a concept that generated

Flight Safety Quarterly, Winter 2010

14


COOLING EXPECTATIONS

controversy at ICAO’s 36th assembly in 2007.

substantial is quite limited”. Director of the Aviation

The EU says emphatically that the ICAO resolution

Environment Federation Tim Johnson does not predict

“can in no way be construed as requiring that market-

that a post-2012 framework will appear during the

based measures may be implemented only on the basis

meeting in Cancun when the parties were “so far away”

of mutual agreement between states”.

from reaching an agreement during the last UN climate

As the EU remains firm in its belief that it has the

change meeting in December 2009 in Copenhagen.

authority to push forward with including aviation in its

Aviation is unlikely to be a dominant topic in the

ETS, the USA is equally adamant that the EU’s actions

n e g o t i a t i o n s , s a y s Yo u n g . H o w e v e r, t h e r e a r e

are illegal. The ATA and three of its members –

expectations that a high-level advisory group on climate

American, Continental and United – are moving ahead

change financing created by the UN earlier this year will

with their legal challenge of the EU ETS.

recommend an aviation tax to fund initiatives for climate

The International Air Transport Association has

change adaptation.

joined the US association in opposing Europe’s plans to

Johnson says he understands the target is $100

expand ETS to include aviation, calling the unilateral

billion a year. Young says the high-level group has

move “misguided”. IATA says more than 120 states at

operated in almost total secrecy since its creation after

the ICAO assembly voiced objections to the EU ETS.

the Copenhagen meeting. Her understanding is that a

“We join them in believing that it is illegal under the

lot of its work was “largely done in a vacuum”, but she

Chicago convention and continue to work with the ATA

stresses that the group’s recommendations are clearly

on a court challenge,” says IATA, which predicts that

just advice, and not actionable.

vocal opposition to the EU’s plans will become stronger in the coming months.

TAX

Young believes the European Court of Justice

As ICAO attempts to overcome political challenges

should hand down its decision before the 2012 deadline

to develop global market-based measures, a tax would

of folding aviation into the EU ETS, and says a ruling is

be an easier measure to implement, says Johnson.

likely in late 2011.

He points to a cycle that needs to be broken of

The ATA’s litigation, says Young, is another tactic to

developing countries being wary of signing on to a global

try to convince the EU to return to the negotiating table

sectoral approach for aviation through ICAO until the

for the development of a global trading scheme

UNFCCC develops its own climate agreement.

developed by ICAO. table for the derelopment of aglobal

Highlighting the politics that dominated the ICAO

trading But Lyle of Air Transport Economics points to a

assembly, Johnson believes that the UNFCCC needs to

“lot of cynics” who say the EU Court of Justice tends to

define the rules and parameters for climate change

rule in favour of Europeans.

beyond 2012. Once that happens, ICAO can develop its

ICAO’s challenge in getting consensus among its 190 states will be mirrored on a larger scale in December

framework for greenhouse gas emissions in a more definitive manner.

when the United Nations Framework Convention on

But noting the “high hopes and low expectations” for

Climate Change (UNFCCC) conference of parties meets

the UNFCCC meeting in Cancun, Johnson says that,

in Cancun, Mexico to try to reach an agreement for

realistically, any real movement on climate change “will

curbing greenhouse emissions when the Kyoto protocol

be limbo for a couple of years to come”.

expires in 2012. Expectations that the UNFCCC will achieve consensus on the post-Kyoto framework for managing greenhouse gases are low. Ahead of the ICAO assembly, Benjamin concluded that the “likelihood that Cancun will produce something

15

Flight Safety Quarterly, Winter 2010

From Flight International 23-29 Nov, 2010


來自西方的接觸

來自西方的接觸 中國的優質勞動力正吸引許多海外航太業者 投入蓬勃發展中的民用航空工業 孟磊 譯

中國將不只建造固定翼航機:歐洲直升機將與AVIC合作生產EC175/Z15

Rockwell Collins公司九月搬進位於上海市區更新更

與發展中的波音787的需求也正不斷成長中。

大的辦公室,也宣告它過去十三年來在中國營運的行銷辦

在過去十年中,外國飛機製造商在中國設立工廠以更

事處之法定地位正式升級成為分公司;這次搬遷也使得該

接近成長中的顧客基地,同時也享受較低廉的人力成本,

公司在尋求擴張團隊與提昇在中國的地位時,得以擁有實

2008年九月空中巴士在天津啟用了它第一條在歐洲以外的

質房產來支援客戶與執行帳目盈虧的會計業務,Rockwell

最終裝配線,生產專屬中國市場的A320,這家機體製造

Collins副總暨亞太營運長T.C.陳說:「我們今後在中國的

商也入股了一家將為發展中的A350 XWB生產零件,位於

營運將會更接近一家子公司」。在中國快速成長的民用航

哈爾濱的零組件製造中心,空中巴士提供5%的A350製造

空工業持續挺進時,Rockwell Collins並非唯一試圖擴張與

工作給中國的廠商。

更進一步在此投資的外籍航太業者。

波音也正準備擴張1999年成立於天津,將為787夢幻

在此之前波音已經預告中國在2010年至2029年間將

航機生產零件的零組件合資工廠,波音中國銷售副總Jim

需求4,330架客機,並進一步成為新客機需求量僅次於美

Simon說這項耗資2,100萬元的擴廠計畫將使廠中的員工從

國的國家。波音表示中國從2009到2029年客運量將以每

600人雙倍成長到1,100人。

年7.9%的速度成長,依據Flightglobal的ACAS數據資料,

較小型航機製造商如Bombardier與Embraer也已進軍中

目前兩家主要的飛機製造廠有超過1,400架商用飛機在中

國,Embraer在2003年與中國航空工業公司(AVIC)合資

國服勤。諸如空中巴士A320與波音737的窄體客機在中國

於哈爾濱設廠組裝ERJ-145區間客機,據這家巴西藉飛機

將持續普及,但機體製造商們表示較大型的客機如A330

製造商表示,它迄今已交付了37架客機。

2010年「飛行安全冬季刊」

16


來自西方的接觸

支援、訓練、工程設施。

Embraer ■在哈爾濱有一間ERJ-145組裝工廠,預計2011上半年 交付最後一架,且隨著小型區間機需求停滯,其後打 算於此間組裝E-190S,但尚待中國政府核准。

Bombardier 中國製造-西斯納空中捕手輕型運動飛機

■與 中國航空工業公司的瀋陽飛機策略聯盟,為所屬 Q400渦輪螺旋槳機與C系列飛機製造機身。

西方飛機製造廠在中國

 已在瀋陽開始建造為C系列飛機製造機身的設施,由 SAC負責營運,該設施預計年底前竣工,明年開始生 產。

波音 Cessna ■已成立波音天津分廠,生產飛機零組件,正進行一項 2100萬擴廠計畫促使明年初員工倍增至1100人。 ■投資太古(廈門)飛機工程公司從事747貨機改裝服 務。 ■投資波音上海航空服務,從事合資維護、修復、翻修 (MRO)。

空中巴士 ■在 天 津 開 設 了 歐 洲 以 外 第 一 條 最 終 裝 配 線 以 生 產 A320,該生產線目標2011年底前每月交機4架。 ■也有其他合資計畫,例如哈爾濱的零組件製造中心與

■與瀋陽飛機合作生產整機中國製造的「Cessna 162空 中捕手」輕型運動飛機,迄今已交機30架,西斯納 預期瀋陽飛機明年生產150架,瀋陽飛機製造此型機 的新設施已開始建造。

歐洲直升機 ■在哈爾濱與中國國家航空科技進出口公司、合肥航空 工業合資設立組裝EC120生產線。  與中國航升機合作開發EC175/Z15計畫,該機首航於 去年末期,首架交機則預定在2012年。

由於較小型區間客機需求下滑,Embraer計畫在最後

直升機製造廠歐洲直升機也與AVIC發展了一項EC175/

一架ERJ-145交機後開始組裝190人座的客機,但是還在等

Z15的合作生產計畫,它的首次飛航已於2009年12月完

待中國政府批准。

成,第一架交機則訂於2012年,這架最多可坐16人的航

在瀋陽,Bombardier已著手籌建將為發展中的C系列

機,適用於多種民航用途的雙引擎直升機,歐洲直升機中

生產機身,由它的合作夥伴瀋陽飛機(SAC)負責運作的

國區總裁Bruno Boulnois說:「中國在民用與半國營市場上

設施,Bombardier中國區總裁張建偉表示此建設預計今年

有著極大的發展潛力,我們將會盡全力在這片廣大的區域

底前完成,明年可開始生產作業。

加強駐點」。

商用客機製造商並非唯一在此間令人注意的設點者,

至於其他已進駐中國但表示尚無立即增加產能計畫的

Cessna的輕型運動航機 ”Cessna 162 空中捕手”早已透

飛機製造商,也已透過諸如雇用更多人手與加強顧客服務

過與瀋陽飛機的合作,整機在中國製造,且自2009年11

等方式來擴張營運。

月出廠第一架以來,至今已交付了30架。據Cessna中國區 主任Mike Shih表示,明年產量將增至150架,他進一步透 露,一座專為生產空中捕手的工廠已在瀋陽一處小型機場 開始興建,而工事已從跑道的建造開始。

17

2010年「飛行安全冬季刊」

銷售與行銷推廣 Simon表示,波音除了現有的三席執行長職位外,將 會加強它在該國的銷售與行銷推廣設點。


來自西方的接觸

瀋陽飛機預計明年為西斯納生產150架飛機

Embraer也說將致力於加強銷售與行銷推廣力道,並

建設仍未到位,空中巴士正嘗試說服中國主管當局研究使

且已於七月設立了稱為「Embraer飛機技術服務公司」的完

用類似歐洲的SESAR單一天空系統的通用空中交通管理系

全持股子公司,以對其中國客戶提供物流支援與零組件供

統來協調空中交通並減少延誤。但是對於智慧財產權的關

應服務。

注已經證實是多慮了,中國空中巴士客戶服務暨內部業務

飛機組件供應商也強化他們在中國的資源來支應客戶

資深副總Pierre Steffen說此間的問題並不比其他地方更棘

的需求,以Rockwell Collins的例子而言,這包含了年底前

手,他進一步說:「我們並非小心翼翼地保護我們的位

在上海設立顧客支援中心,陳營運長說該中心將所有支援

址,但也不致於門戶洞開,我們知道如何自我保護,所以

技師整合於一處。

不會過度憂慮」。

奇異航空一方面確認飛機數量的成長代表更多的引擎

製造商說廣大的技術人才庫與相對具有競爭力的成本

生意,同時也說它看到在中國擴展航空電子業務的潛力,

有助於平衡中國的某些負面挑戰,就如奇異的席格所說,

奇異目前透過與AVIC系統合資方式供應Comac C919客機

相對於如印度的其他國家,中國並非「絕對低價」的製造

的部份航電系統,而且計畫在該領域中持續前進。奇異副

基地,但是很多公司表示工作的品質卻可以補足甚至有

總兼商用飛機計畫總經理Roger Seager說:「航電業務有

餘,Steffen說:「此間的工作品質良好,而且你知道你可

著極大的成長潛力,而我們將之視為驅動我們成長的天然

以用之於全球的規模」。

平台。」為某些中籍航空公司提供飛行控制與起落架系統

而中國的優質工程勞動力使得雇用好人才顯得輕而易

的德國雷博航太(Liebherr-Aerospace)則說它正計畫在其

舉,空中巴士的Steffen說他們在找到並保有好人才方面從

上海服務中心增設飛機零件維修站。

未遭遇困難,中國空中巴士的人才流失率低到只有3%。

然而中國也充滿挑戰,Bombardier的張總裁說:「不

中國的工程師比起西方者較缺乏經驗,但卻可從其

同的文化、語言與商業慣例可能導致溝通不良與誤解,但

他方面補足,Seager說:「他們非常熱情、高智慧而且優

關鍵是擁有傾聽、學習、了解與彼此信任的良好態度」。

質,他們可能欠缺經驗,但卻帶來不同的觀點」。

公共建設 這些業者也發現支應航空工業發展所需的重要公共

2010年「飛行安全冬季刊」

18


Western Approaches

Western Approaches The quality of China’s workforce is attracting a host of overseas aerospace players to the country’s surging civil aviation industry GHIM-LAY YEO

China is about more than airliners: Eurocopter is developing the EC175/Z15 with AVIC

In September, Rockwell Collins moved into a new

to surge ahead.

and bigger office in downtown Shanghai, marking its

Boeing has forecast that China will require 4,330

official change in legal status in China to a branch office

passenger aircraft from 2010 to 2029, placing it second

from the sales of fice it was running for the past 13 years.

to the USA in the list of countries with the greatest

The move will allow the company to house assets to

demand for new aircraft.

support its customers in the country and perform profit

The annual passenger traffic within China is

and loss transactions as it seeks to expand its team and

expected to grow at about 7.9% annually from 2009 to

presence in China. “We are going to operate more like a

2029, Boeing has said. Currently, the two major

subsidiary in China from now,” says Rockwell Collins’

airframers have more than 1,400 in-service commercial

vice-president and managing director for Asia Pacific TC

aircraft in China, as listed by Flightglobal’s ACAS

Chan.

database.

It is not the only foreign aerospace company with

Narrowbodies such as the Airbus A320 and Boeing

intentions to expand and invest further in the nation as

737 will continue to be popular in China, but airframers

China’s rapidly growing civil aviation industry continues

say there is a growing demand for larger aircraft such as

19

Flight Safety Quarterly, Winter 2010


Western Approaches

the Airbus A330 and Boeing’s in-development 787.

Cessna’s director for China operations Mike Shih. A new

Over the past decade, foreign aircraft

f a c i l i t y, w h i c h w i l l m a n u f a c t u r e t h e S k y C a t c h e r

manufacturers have set up shop in China to be closer to

exclusively, is being constructed at a general aviation

the growing customer base in the country and to take

airport in Shenyany. Construction has started on the

advantage of lower labour costs.

runway, says Shih.

Airbus opened its first final assembly line outside

Helicopter manufacturer Eurocopter has also

Europe in Tianjin in September 2008, producing A320s

developed a helicopter programme, the EC175/Z15, with

solely for the Chinese market. The airframer also has a

AVIC. Its first flight took place in December 2009, and

stake in a composites manufacturing centre in Harbin,

first delivery is scheduled for 2012. The aircraft, which

which will make parts for the in-development A350 XWB.

can seat up to 16 people, is a twin-engined helicopter

Airbus has handed 5% of the A350 workload to Chinese

suited for various civil missions.

companies.

“China has a great growth potential in the civil and

Boeing is in the midst of expanding its composites

parapublic market. At Eurocopter, we are doing our best

joint venture at Tianjin, which was established in 1999

to reinforce our presence in this vast territory,”

and produces parts for Boeing aircraft such as the 787

Eurocopter China’s chief executive Bruno Boulnois has

Dreamliner.

said.

The $21 million expansion will double the number of

While airframers with presence in China say they do

workers at the factory to more than 1,100 early next year

not have any immediate plans to roll out additional

from 600, says Jim Simon, Boeing’s vice-president of

manufacturing capabilities in the country, they plan to

sales for China.

expand in other ways, such as hiring more staff and

Manufacturers of smaller aircraft, Bombardier and Embraer, have also established a presence in China. In 2003, Embraer launched a Joint venture with the Aviation

focusing on areas such as customer services.

SALES AND MARKETING

Industry Corporation of China (AVIC) in Harbin to

At Boeing, there are plans for a greater sales and

assemble ERJ-145 regional jets. It has delivered 37

marketing presence in the country, besides the current

aircraft so far, says the Brazilian airframer.

three executive leadership positions in China, says

Due to falling demand for smaller regional jets, Embraer is looking at assembling the larger 190 at the plant after the last ERJ-145 delivery, and is waiting for approval from the Chinese government to do so. In Shenyang, Bombardier has started work on a facility that will manufacture the fuselage for its in-development CSeries, to be opened by partner Shenyang Aircraft (SAC). Construction is expected to be

Simon. Embraer also says it will focus on improving its sales and marketing effort and, in July, set up a wholly owned subsidiary to drive this. Called the Embraer China Aircraft Technical Services Company, the subsidiary will offer logistics support and spare parts for Embraer customers in China.

completed by the end of this year, with production

Aircraft component suppliers are also strengthening

beginning next year, says Bombardier China’s president

their resources in China to support their clients. In

Jianwei Zhang.

Rockwell Collins’ case, this involves setting up a

Commercial aircraft manufacturers are not the only

Shanghai-based customer support centre by the end of

airframers making their presence felt. Cessna’s new

the year. The centre will consolidate the company’s

Cessna 162 SKyCatcher light sport aircraft is being

support engineers in one place, says Chan.

entirely manufactured in China, through a partnership

GE Aviation, while acknowledging that a growing

with SAC. Thirty aircraft have been delivered so far, with

aircraft fleet will mean more business for its engine

first delivery taking place in November 2009. Production will increase to 150 next year, says

offerings, says it sees potential in expanding its avionics business in China. It is supplying part of the avionics on

Flight Safety Quarterly, Winter 2010

20


Western Approaches

which will deliver the last aircraft in the first half of 2011 as demand for small-sized regional jets has flagged. Embraer is looking at assembling E-190s at the facility, but is awaiting approval from the Chinese govemment for it to do so. Bombardier ■H as partnership with AVIC’s Shenyang Aircraft (SAC), which produces the fuselage for its Q400 Made in China: Cessna’s SkyCatcher light sport aircraft WESTERN MANUFACTURERS IN CHINA Boeing ■Has established Boeing Tianijin Composites, which

turboprop and CSeries aircraft ■Has started construction of a facility in Shenyang, which will build the fuselage for the CSeries. To be operated by SAC, the facility will be completed by the end of the year and will start production next year.

produces aircraft parts. It is undergoing a $21 million

Cessna

expansion, which will double the number of staff at

■Has partnership with SAC to produce the Cessna

the factory to more than 1,100 early next year. ■Has a stake in Taikoo (Xiamen) Aircraft Engineering, which offers 747 freighter conversion services. ■Has a stake in MRO joint venture, Boeing Shanghai Aviation Services.

162 SkyCatcher light sport aircraft, which is entirely manufactured in China. Thirty aircraft have been delivered so far. Cessna expects SAC to produce 150 aircraft next year. Construction of a new SAC facility to manufacture the SkyCatcher has started.

Airbus

Eurocopter

■S et up first final assembly line outside Europe in

■Has set up an assembly line in Harbin for the EC120

Tianjin to produce A320s. Airbus aims for the line to

through a joint venture with China National Aero-

deliver four aircraft a month by the end of 2011.

Technology Import and Export Corporation and Hafei

■A lso has various other joint ventures, such as a Harbin composites manufacturing centre, and support, training and engineering facilities. Embraer

Aviation Industry. ■Has jointly developed the EC175/Z15 programme with China’s Avicopter. First flight of the aircraft took place late last year, with first delivery set for 2012

■Has a plant in Harbin that assembles the ERJ-145,

the Comac C919 airliner through a joint venture with

Germany’s Liebherr-Aerospace, which has flight

AVIC Systems and plans to make further inroads in that

control and landing gear systems on aircraft operated by

area.

Chinese airlines, says it is looking at setting up a repair

“There’s a big growth potential in the avionics business and we see that as a natural platform to drive

station for aircraft parts on top of its service support from Shanghai.

our growth,” says GE’s vice-president and general

But China offers challenges too. Bombardier China’s

manager for commercial aircraft programmes Roger

Zhang says miscommunication and misunderstandings

Seager.

can result from a difference in culture, language and

21

Flight Safety Quarterly, Winter 2010


Western Approaches

Shenyang Aircraft is expected to produce 150 aircraft for Cessna next year

business practices. “The key is to have a good attitude

the “absolute lowest cost” manufacturing base, as GE’s

to listen, to learn, to understand, and to trust each other,”

Seager puts it. But companies say the quality of the

he says.

work more than makes up for this. “The quality here is

INFRASTRUCTURE

good, and you know you can use it on a global scale,” says Steffen.

Players note that crucial infrastructure required to

And China’s capable engineering workforce makes

support a growing aviation industry is still lagging. Airbus

it easy to hire good talent. Airbus’s Steffen says the

is in talks with Chinese authorities to study the use of a

airframer has had no difficulty in finding the right people

common air traffic management system, like the SESAR

and keeping them. The attrition rate at Airbus China is

single sky system in Europe, to co-ordinate air traffic and

low, at 3%.

cut flight delays.

Chinese engineers have less experience than some

But concerns over intellectual property rights have

of their Western counterparts, but make up for it in other

proved to be unfounded. Airbus China’s senior vice-

ways, says GE’s Seager. “They are enthusiastic and

president for customer services and internal operations

highly intelligent and have great credentials. They might

Pierre Steffen says such anxieties have not proven to be

lack experience, but they bring a different insight.”

more problematic in the country than elsewhere. “We don’t jealously sit on our IP, but we don’t hand it

From 9-15 Nov. 2010 Flight International

over either. We are not paranoid, we know how to protect ourselves,” he adds. Helping to offset some of the challenges encountered in China is a ready pool of skilled talent, as well as costs that have remained relatively competitive, say manufacturers. Compared with countries such as India, China is not

Flight Safety Quarterly, Winter 2010

22


航空貨運大執法

航空貨運大執法 當航空業者正試圖降低營運衝擊之際, 歐美政府卻對航空貨運加緊安檢 劉天健 譯

由於印表機碳粉匣暗藏炸彈案發生可能危及現行航空

十三個爆裂裝置給包含德國大使Angela Merkel,義大利總

貨運營運,航空業者面臨大幅提昇航空貨運保安標準與營

理Silvio Berlusconi及法國總統Nicolas Sarkozy在內及其他

運成本。

在雅典之外國使館與政府單位而遭到嚴重譴責。有關單位

美國官方已開始抓緊貨運安全管制,嚴禁從葉門與索

相信這些炸彈包裹都是由空運郵包寄送,其中乙件在德國

馬利亞兩國輸入貨物,提高運輸印表機碳粉匣(Cartridge)

大使館查獲。幸好這些郵包炸彈並沒有造成任何傷亡或災

與感光鼓(toner)之運送限制。同時,歐盟相關部會首長也

害。

開始研訂更嚴峻的新規定預計在2010年十二月實施。

在專注於葉門與索馬利亞兩國郵包炸彈恐怖攻擊事件

執行上述這些措施都是為因應2010年十月二十九

之際,在幾個月內,美國也要求航空業者開始實施乙項以

日在杜拜FedEx空運公司貨倉及英國東密德蘭機場(East

危機管理為導向之保安管理系統。總部設於華盛頓的航空

Midlands Airport) UPS貨運中心查獲之土製郵包炸彈

貨運承攬業協會(Air-forwarders Association)執行董事

(Improvised Explosive Device,簡稱IED)兩案而訂定。根據

Mr. Brandon Fried說道:「他們針對現行危機所在,對特

政府情報部門消息,查獲這些裝運炸彈的郵包都是由葉門

定之貨物,國家與特定之產品訂定保安工作目標」。Fried

首府沙那市(Sanaa)經由上述兩家空運公司之定期貨機準備

先生希望政府與航空業者能針對恐怖活動之“新技倆”作

運送入境美國。

出更強而有力之因應措施。他說美國現正實施乙種包括使

國際刑警組織 (Interpol) 乙位專家對這些炸彈包裹有 如下詳細說明:這些土製炸彈藏在上述兩空運公司承攬運

用偵檢儀、炸彈偵測犬、炸藥追縱偵測儀以及多項配套之 相關法令與最新之情報資訊在內之多層次保安系統。

送之電腦印表機空運箱中,箱中除電腦印表機外還有衣

美國運輸安全部(TSA)目前正與政府相關部門與航空

服、服飾與成捆之電腦磁碟片等。所有貨物都準備送交芝

業者協商如何在航機離境前儘快取得貨物託運清單,確認

加哥一個虛構的收件人。根據英國蘇格蘭警場調查,UPS

貨物內容,然後根據現有情資與危機情勢進行安檢。印表

貨機上查獲之炸彈引爆裝置最後雖在英國東密德蘭機場被

機感光鼓與印表機碳粉匣重量如超過16英兩者,所有國內

發現,但也可能在美國東岸任何口岸或機場發現該裝置。

線與國際線入境美國航機不得以客機運送,也就是說都不

葉門案發生後數天,另有一些希臘極端份子也因郵寄

能以行李託運或手提上機。入境郵包也應個別施以安檢, 且須提出文件証明郵包是由註冊立案之單位(Established Postal Shipper) 投郵遞寄。 歐盟內政部長於2010年十一月八日聚會研商訂定更 嚴峻之安全措施。德國內政部長Thomas de Maiziere曾提 出乙份空運貨物“不安全”機場黑名單,敦促各國對這些 機場貨物應加強安檢。此提議雖遭歐盟其他會員國否決, 唯大家決定所有安檢措施與標準除必須一致外,更應較前 更為嚴峻。似乎貨運安檢將不再由航空公司負責而改由聯

杜拜的FedEx中心在一件貨物中發現白色結晶狀的PETN炸藥塞在 印表機碳粉匣內。

23

2010年「飛行安全冬季刊」

邦警察單位負責。部長們也一致同意貨物全面安檢不但成 本高昂而且不實際。德國內政部長說:「為安全利益著


航空貨運大執法

想,高成本是無可避免的了」。 歐盟部長們遂任命成立乙個工作小組負責在2010年 十二月二日前提出乙項新安檢措施以便稍後實施。 美國TSA部長John Pistole於2010年十一月二日在德國 法蘭克福乙個會議中演講時說道:「我們面臨的是乙個詭 譎多變又意志堅決的敵人,只有全球通力合作方能贏得勝 利」。他的看法就是「應以情報為工作導向作好危機與風 險管理,我們的工作應求更好,更加細緻」。 航空業處於高度警戒備戰狀態。在歐洲某大型航空業

Richard Reid鞋內炸藥查出有PETN、電池、電線迴路,未引爆的 原因是一條保險絲弄濕了。

者集會時乙位官員說道:「我們對此事非常慎重」,示意 將以政治方式主動積極處理。航空業者與機場特別擔心對

未備妥,我們將要求生產安檢儀之廠商加緊腳步提供合適

過境貨物有無可能全面實施安檢,若果真如此,勢必造成

之安檢儀」。航空業者最不願的就是貨物於轉機時被要求

整個貨運系統失控。航空公司所爭的是「貨運安全應抓緊

拆盤或打散成小包裝以便安檢。其過程即耗時又耗工,且

在貨物離境前,甚或在更早階段,而不是在過境或轉機時

高成本將難以算計。IATA的主管與TSA部長Pistole都極力

施以安檢」。

主張對航空貨運安全應以情資與風險管理為導向。

IATA祕書長Giovanni Bisignani針對歐盟對熟知貨主

警方稱這種處理方式也正如同國際刑警組織之說法,

(Known Shipper)與保安控管代理人(Regulated Agents)間之

即這種在杜拜與東密德蘭機場發現的炸彈「通常無法以現

轉機貨物免除繁苛之安檢規定有相關談話,他說:「我們

有之標準型爆裂物偵測儀檢查」。唯警方稱這種PETN炸

應從貨物供應鏈(Supply Chain)方向思考,Bisignani先生相

彈使用吹氣檢查儀 (Puffer Machines)以推斷評估之擦拭法

信貨物安檢應從包裝與運抵機場前就應開始著手」。

(Swabbing Tests),及炸彈偵測犬(K9)等檢查方式也都能有

小型貨物如全面安檢無技術上問題時,唯一困擾的就

效偵測該類炸彈。

是現行以貨機運送之貨物包裝都嫌太大,無法以現有安檢 儀檢查。Bisignani先生說道:「檢查貨物之安檢儀目前尚

譯自Aviation Week & Space Technology Nov 15, 2010

2010年「飛行安全冬季刊」

24


Cargo Clampdown

Cargo Clampdown U.S. and Europe tighten checks for airfreight as airlines try to minimize cost impact JENS FLOTTAU and JAMES OTT

Airlines are facing much tougher security standards

also contained clothing, ornaments and compact discs.

for airfreight in the wake of the printer-bomb scare that

The boxes were intended to be shipped to fictitious

may threaten current operational practices and raise

recipients in Chicago. According to Scotland Yard,

costs considerably.

activation of the bomb onboard the UPS aircraft that was

Authorities in the U.S. have tamped down on security, banning shipments from Yemen and Somalia

eventually found at East Midlands Airport “could have occurred over the Eastern Seaboard of the U.S.”

and adding restrictions on transporting printer cartridges

Separately and within days of the Yemen scare,

and toners. Meanwhile, European interior ministers are

Greek extremists were blamed for dispatching 13

pushing for new and stricter regulations to be adopted in

explosive devices to various state institutions including

December.

foreign embassies in Athens and the offices of German

These moves are in response to the discovery of

Chancellor Angela Merkel, Italian Prime Minister Silvio

improvised explosive devices (IED) seized Oct. 29 at the

Berlusconi and French President Nicolas Sarkozy.

FedEx facility in Dubai and the UPS cargo center at East

Authorities believe the bomb packages were sent by

Midlands Airport in the U.K. According to government

airfreight. One of them arrived at the mail reception area

intelligence sources, the packages were shipped from

of the German chancellor’s office, where it was detected.

Sana’a, Yemen, on commercial airlines and scheduled

None of the devices caused any injury or damage.

for carriage on inbound U.S. flights of the two express carriers.

By focusing attention on Yemen and Somalia, the U.S. is implementing a risk-based security system that

An Interpol security alert details the content of the

industry has called for in recent months. “They are

packages: the IEDs were hidden inside computer printers

targeting security where the risk lies, specific cargo,

and in both cases were packed inside freight boxes that

specific countries and specific commodities,” says Brandon Fried, executive director of the Wa s h i n g t o n - b a s e d A i r f o r w a r d e r s Association.

Fried is hoping that

governments and industry respond to the “new reality” that more is needed to defend against terrorism. He says the U.S. is taking the right approach by using a many-layered security system that includes technology, canines, tracedetectors, a host of protocols and the The PETN explosive in white crystalline form is packed inside an ink cartridge in a shipment found at the FedEx center in Dubai.

25

Flight Safety Quarterly, Winter 2010

latest intelligence. The U.S. Transportation Security


Cargo Clampdown

Administration (TSA) is working with industry and governments to expedite the receipt of cargo manifests for international flights prior to departure and to identify and screen items based on risk and current intelligence. Toner and ink cartridges weighing more than 16 oz. will be prohibited on passenger aircraft in both carry-on and checked bags on domestic flights and international flights coming to the U.S. Inbound mail packages also are required to be screened individually

The interior of Richard Reid’s shoe bomb contained PETN, batteries, circuitry and wiring, but a damp fuse caused it to malfunction.

and certified as coming from an established postal

security instead should be ensured at the initial departure

shipper.

airport or even earlier.

European interior ministers met on Nov. 8 to discuss

“We have to take a supply chain approach,” says

additional measures. Germany’s Thomas de Maiziere

Giovanni Bisignani, secretary general of the International

pushed for a blacklist of unsafe airports that would

Air Transport Association (IATA), referring to a European

require more cargo checks, but that approach was not

Union regulation that exempts from stringent checks

approved by many other European Union member

cargo transported by known shippers and regulated

states. The ministers did agree that security measures

agents. Bisignani believes that inspections should start

should be harmonized and made tougher. That could

before packages and cargo reach airports.

mean that responsibility for security checks could be

One major concern is that while it is technically

taken away from the airlines and moved over to federal

possible to screen small shipments, entire pallets

police forces. The ministers agree that requiring

commonly used on all-cargo aircraft are too large for

inspection of all cargo shipments would be too expensive

screening. “The technology for cargo screening is not

and impracticable. Nevertheless de Maiziere says that

there yet,” says Bisignani. “We have to push the

higher costs might be unavoidable in the interest of

technology providers to speed up.” And airlines do not

security.

want to dismantle the pallets during transfer, as that

The ministers charged a working group to develop

would be hugely time-consuming and costly. The head

detailed proposals on new security measures by Dec. 2

of IATA, like TSA’s Pistole, argues in favor of an

and called for implementation shortly thereafter.

“intelligent, risk-based solution.”

Addressing an aviation security conference in

That strategy may also be appropriate given that the

Frankfurt Nov. 2, TSA Administrator John Pistole said

explosive found at Dubai and East Midlands “was

that “we face a determined, creative enemy” and the

generally not detectable using standard X-ray

problem can only be solved if cooperation is global. In

equipment,” as Interpol notes.

his view, risk has to be managed and intelligence-driven.

pentaerythritol tetra-nitrate (PETAN), can be found using

“We have to do our job better and smarter,” he stated.

puffer machines, presumptive swabbing tests and bomb-

Industry is also on high alert. “We take this very

sniffing dogs, the police agency says.

The explosive,

seriously,” says an official at a major European airline, hinting at the various political initiatives. Carriers as well

From Aviation Week & Space Technology Nov 15, 2010

as airports are particularly afraid of potential across-theboard transit cargo checks that they believe would make the system unmanageable. Airlines argue that cargo

Flight Safety Quarterly, Winter 2010

26


直昇機確實可以救命!

直昇機確實可以救命! 曾興華 譯

消防人員將車禍傷患裝載至CALSTAR BO-105救護直昇機上

2005年秋天,國際直昇機協

上述都是電子報的重要特色,

會(HAI)宣布繼先前成功推出

以直昇機拯救生命為例,直昇機在

的RotorGram電子報後,再推出

人們生命受到威脅時扮演重要角

RotorNews電子報取而代之。兩者

色,諸如:在攸關生死的關鍵時

都是以電子郵件方式傳遞新聞,

段,以直昇機飛抵地面人車無法到

不同於RotorGram每週發行一次,

達之地點找出受難者,並在『黃金

RotorNews每日發行給11,000個以上

小時』內以即時醫療照護及重要設

的會員、業者與媒體。

備,將傷患運送至醫療機構等,可

此外,RotorGram置重點於產 業新聞,例如:致力遊說、修改法

RotorNews刊載有關直昇機擔當

規、直昇機博覽會資訊及安全新聞

重任的神奇救援與救命故事,這些

等。

事蹟對直昇機救難的傳奇故事有額 RotorNews則包括:HAI新聞、

外加乘效果,也協助產業扭轉了媒

首次公布於HAI網站www.rotor.com

體誤導直昇機為『航空異類、噪音

的產業新聞、產業發展里程碑、適

製造者』等一般負面印象。

航指令、就業機會、政府與立法新 聞、飛航公告、安全與保安資訊及 直昇機救難新聞等。

27

使人命在生死之間產生明顯差異。

2010年「飛行安全冬季刊」

海岸防衛隊HH-65C直昇機上之吊掛操作員正在 使吊籃升起

電影業經常在許多動作片與 冒險片凸顯直昇機墜毀與爆炸的場 景,這種被電影業不斷重複運用的


直昇機確實可以救命!

情形,使一般大眾對直昇機產生負面印象,進而使地方政

的公司沒有宣傳能力,這就是HAI通信部門的切入點,直

府以環境影響評估、社區對噪音關注等限制,造成民營直

昇機救援的故事能擔當重任。

昇機場與直昇機臨時起降點在申請階段即遭拒絕。

HAI將直昇機救援故事同時刊載於www.rotor.com網站

為達教育一般民眾之目的,我們需要在地方或社區層

與RotorNews電子報中,收件人包括HAI會員、產業專業人

級將直昇機的功能以更好的方式呈現。我們需要凸顯直昇

士與媒體機構等,會員散佈在國內與國際間;定期發布一

機能以許多方式服務社區之特點,提高市民對直昇機的好

些這樣的故事,使這些故事能再生並廣泛地散播。直昇機

感;我們必須抓住每一個機會,教育一般民眾並制衡負面

在世界各地均有參與救援的故事,最近刊載於RotorNews

印象。這對包括HAI會員在內的大多數直昇機業者而言,

電子報的直昇機救援故事,即反映出這些故事的規模與分

是一個很難突破的關鍵點;因為大多數直昇機業者均為小

佈,以下列事件為例:

型企業,缺乏溝通、市場行銷或公關部門,並無指定發言 人或特定人員向媒體機構或社區進行宣傳。

兩架美國海軍陸戰隊直昇機抵達巴基斯坦,參加遭 受大洪水地區的救援與搜救行動;這兩架直昇機是美國國

大部分的媒體同業是公正的,在報導直昇機新聞時能

防部長緊急下令十九架額外直昇機到巴基斯坦救援的第一

善盡應有的責任;但媒體也往往把重點放在包括衝突、震

批。此外,在洪水重創的Khyber Pakhtunkhwa省,巴基斯

驚及負面角度的故事蒐集,以便製造更高的收視率或出售

坦陸軍直昇機在Swat縣北面持續以23架直昇機進行災民救

更多的刊物。您是否注意到許多直昇機正向的故事未被報

援行動。

導或刊登在報紙的某個不顯眼版面位置,而負面報導卻放 在頭條新聞的顯眼位置,且往往會延續幾天? 逆轉或中和任何直昇機負面觀感最好的辦法就是以正

在加拿大B.C.省溫哥華市,北岸救難隊在最繁忙的 夏季中,慶祝直昇機圓滿達成救援第100個受難者的里程 碑。

向事蹟應對之;身為產業的一份子,我們需要以直昇機的

救援的故事似乎已習以為常,諸如有關於英國皇家空

正向新聞報導扳回形象;但由於這種負面觀感已經成型多

軍直昇機在Wales郡Snowdonia國家公園內的Snowdon山,

年,無法立即撥亂反正。因此,需要以按部就班方式正向

協助一名疑似患有心臟病的70歲婦人;完成任務後再飛往

報導許多直昇機新聞,藉以消彌使多年的負面報導情形。

Y Garn山頂,救援一名摔斷手臂的登山客。

因此,該誰負責教育一般大眾呢?簡言之,改變外界

在美國的阿拉斯加州亦有類似的救援故事刊載,在

對直昇機的負面觀感是產業界每一個人的責任;而您和您

Sitka航空基地起飛的美國海岸防衛隊MH - 60直昇機組

洛杉磯郡消防部門特別改裝之S-70火鷹直昇機 救難人員正在離機

海岸防衛隊Jayhawk直昇機組員正在訓練任務海上搜救

2010年「飛行安全冬季刊」

28


直昇機確實可以救命!

這位組員正在協助駕駛員自空中以水袋投水 對抗野火

救生吊掛是在險惡環境中用來撤離人員的重要工具

員,自外海漁船上安全後送一名疑似飽受中風之苦的83歲

須以長索吊掛方式將他們逐一吊起。

老婦。不久之後,該基地的機組員又在Juneau西南方的遊 輪上,後送一名同樣疑似飽受中風之苦的90歲老翁。

像這樣的故事在世界各地重複了無數遍,這些故事往 往也不會成為頭版新聞,且大多數甚至未曾提及。或許這

近期刊載一件發生在只能用直昇機到達的成功救援案

些直昇機救援的故事已經變得非常普遍,或者身為一個產

例,述及一個來自威斯康辛州Oconomowoc市的男子與他

業對社會的努力程度,就像我們未能充分讓社會知道這些

女兒駕駛一架小飛機,墜毀在科羅拉多州落磯山國家公園

直昇機救援事蹟一樣不足。

Forest峽谷中,一個森林茂密且無路徑的偏遠地區。幾位

如果您參與或知道某些救援故事,切勿不讓大家知

護林員帶領這對父女走到一英哩外開設的直昇機著陸區,

道。您的故事可以協助直昇機產業發光發亮,並提醒一般

搭乘Grand Teton國家公園派出執行公園東北角母牛溪滅火

民眾直昇機的重要性。您應該為您個人、為公司、為直昇

的國家公園服務隊直昇機。

機產業,甚至最重要的,協助我們告訴全世界這個好消

滅火,不僅拯救生命,也防止財產遭受破壞。在亞利

息。

桑那州,一位屋主因為森林火災而被強制撤離;一家擁有

雖然有些人將經常在極挑戰的環境中執行戲劇性救援

重型直昇機的私人公司,承包Flagstaff市(又名旗桿市)

任務的先生或女士們稱為英雄,而那些終生致力於航空事

打擊野火任務,協助保全消防隊員及其他數百人的住家免

業以及直昇機產業的人員,將是第一個以最簡單、最謙卑

於遭受祝融之災。

的方式告訴您,他們把它視為自己的本分,僅此而已!

某些救援任務富有戲劇性而且發生在某些世界上最

雖然謙虛是一種值得欽佩的美德,卻無助於將直昇機

荒涼的地形上,這些救援任務極具挑戰性。例如近期刊登

與其業者每日上演的救援故事傳播出去。如果您看到或聽

有關直昇機在尼泊爾Annapurna山北坡創造長索吊掛作業

到直昇機救援故事,請不吝告訴我們,以便我們將故事刊

最高海拔高度紀錄;這三位飽受高山症之苦的西班牙籍登

登讓別人知道;我們可以藉由HAI網站與RotorNews電子報

山客,在海拔22,900英呎的Annapurna山北坡受困達36小

的完美載台,將故事登載並讓全世界知曉!

時,由於直昇機受雪地及地形限制不可能在該處落地,必

29

2010年「飛行安全冬季刊」

如果您知道任何人在過去一年中完成一件或多件救援


直昇機確實可以救命!

哥倫比亞Chinook直昇機能以水袋一次投水超過兩萬磅

民眾協助卸載CH-47直昇機上之救災補給物 資。

阿拉斯加州Kodiak市消防人員將傷患自 Jayhawk直昇機卸載

任務,請不要讓救援故事隱沒。50年來,HAI持續藉由一

協助災民脫困的機組員。請花一點時間來提名值得獎勵的

年一度的『向卓越致敬』獎勵方案,在直昇機博覽會的頒

機組員,不要讓他們的事蹟被埋沒。

獎晚宴中表揚直昇機救援傑出成就與特殊優點的個人與機

下次當您聽到直昇機救援故事,一定要將故事傳送到

構。HAI將於2011年3月7日在佛羅里達州奧蘭多市,慶祝

HAI與RotorNews。您將會盡一己之力來顯示直昇機與產業

『向卓越致敬』成立五十週年。將表彰一群積極提升直昇

對社會的積極貢獻。

機與產業的代表,那些以直昇機拯救生命、保護財產以及

 譯自Rotor Fall 2010

2010年「飛行安全冬季刊」

30


Helicopters Do Save Lives!

Helicopters Do Save Lives! MARTIN J. POCIASK

Fire and rescue personnel load a patient involved in a traffic collision onto a CALSTAR BO-105 rescue helicopter.

regulations, HELI-EXPO®

In the fall of 2005, Helicopter Association International (HAI)

information, and safety news.

RotorNews® on the other

announced the launch of HAI’s electronic newsletter, RotorNews ®,

hand includes; which are first

a successor to an earlier successful

posted to HAI’s Web site, www.

newsletter RotorGram .

Both

rotor.com; Affiliate New; Industry

delivered news by email, however,

Milestones; Airworthiness

unlike RotorGram , which was

Directives; Employment

delivered on a weekly basis,

Opportunities; Government and

RotorNews® is much improved and

Legislative News; NOTAMs; safety

is delivered daily to more than

and Security Intormation; and

11 , 0 0 0 m e m b e r s , i n d u s t r y

Helicopters Saving Lives.

recipients, and the media.

All are important features.

There are some other

Take Helicopters Saving Lives for

differences too. For instance,

instance: this feature highlights the

RotorGram focused on industry

important role that helicopters play

news produced by HAI staff, such as lobbying efforts, changes in

31

Flight Safety Quarterly, Winter 2010

A coast Guard hoist operator lifts the rescue basket on a HH-65C.

when people find themselves in lifethreatening circumstances: where


Helicopters Do Save Lives!

the helicopter is needed to locate victims, reach

community level. We need to raise public awareness on

otherwise inaccessible locations, and transport injured

the many ways the helicopter serves the community, and

patients to medical care facilities during the “Golden

we need to take every opportunity to increase our

Hour” – that critical time period where lives hang in the

outreach to educate the public and counter the negative

balance and immediate medical care and vital equipment

exposure. This is a difficult nut to crack, as most

can make the difference between life and death. RotorNews® carries stories about amazing rescues

helicopter operators, HAI members included, are small

and lifesaving events, where the helicopter played a

relations departments, and do not have a spokesperson

major role. These stories have added benefit in their

or someone designated to perform outreach to the media

telling. They help our industry to overcome the negative

or their community.

businesses lacking communications, marketing, or public

public perception that seems to be fueled by the media

Do not get me wrong, most members of the media

who characterize the helicopter as being outside of the

are fair, and do act responsibly when it comes to

community, and as a noisy crashing thing.

helicopter news coverage. But let’s face it; the media

This is an undeserved perception that is constantly

does tend to focus on collecting stories that contain

being re-enforced time-and-time again by the film

conflict, shock, and some negative angle in order to

industry. The film industry routinely depicts scenes of

generate higher ratings or to sell more papers. Have you

crashing and exploding helicopters in many action and

ever noticed how many positive stories go unreported, or

adventure films. This depiction creates a negative

are buried somewhere in the back of a newspaper, while

perception resulting in the passage of local restrictions

negative stories receive banner headlines, prominent

and the creation of environmental studies limiting

positioning, and tend to be given extra air and ink time?

operations and raising community concerns about noise,

The best way to reverse or neutralize any negative

all factors in the denial of applications for locating

is by countering with a positive. As an industry, we need

heliports and helipads.

to put some balance back into helicopter reporting.

In order to educate the public, we need to do a

Make no mistake, there are no quick fixes. This negative

better job of getting the word out at the local or

perception has been formed over many years. So the

The LA County Fire Department lowers help from their specially modifies S-70 Fire Hawk.

A Coast Guard Jayhawk crew practices maritime search and rescue during a training mission.

Flight Safety Quarterly, Winter 2010

32


Helicopters Do Save Lives!

solution calls for a step-by-step process, promoting the

floods. The two aircraft are the first of 19 extra

many positive uses of the helicopter, to undo years of

helicopters that the U.S. Defense Secretary urgently

negative reporting.

ordered to Pakistan. Also, in flood-battered Khyber

So whose job is it to educate the public? The short

Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan’s army helicopters continued

answer is it is everybody’s job. Changing perceptions is

relief operations with 23 helicopters rescuing flood

everybody’s responsibility. Okay, so you and your

victims in Upper Swat.

company do not have the means to spread the word.

In Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, during one

That is where HAI’s Communications Department comes

of the busiest summers on record, members of North

in. And helicopter rescue stories play a big part.

Shore Rescue (NSR) celebrated a milestone

HAI posts helicopter rescue stories on HAI’s Web site, www.rotor.com and publishes them in RotorNews® .

accomplishment — the team’s 100th successful helicopter rescue.

Recipients include membership and industry

Some rescue stories seem routine, such as the one

professionals, and news media organizations. Many are

about an RAF helicopter operator that assisted a

national and worldwide, and routinely republish some of

70-year-old woman on Mt. Snowdon, in Snowdonia,

these stories, giving them a second life and wider

Wales, after she fell ill with a suspected heart problem.

distribution. Helicopters are involved in rescues around the world. Recent rescue postings in RotorNews® reflect

After that mission, the helicopter then flew to the peak of

the range and scope of some of those rescues. Take for

arm.

instance the following events:

Y Garn to assist a man who had fallen and broken his A similar posted rescue story took place in Alaska. A

Two U.S. Marine helicopters arrive in Pakistan to

U.S. Coast Guard MH-60 Jayhawk rescue helicopter

join relief and rescue operations in areas hit by massive

aircrew from Air Station Sitka safely medevaced an

The rescue hoist is one of the primary tools for extracting persons in distress from an unforgiving environment.

33

Flight Safety Quarterly, Winter 2010

This crew fights wildland fire from the air with the help of a water bucket.


Helicopters Do Save Lives!

Columbia Helicopters’ Chinook helicopter can drop over 20,000 1bs. of water from its bucket at one time.

Civilians help to unload disaster relief supplies from a CH-47 helicopter.

83-year old woman suffering from stroke-like symptoms

Some rescues are dramatic and take place in some

off a fishing vessel. Later the Sitka aircrew also

of the world’s most inhospitable terrain. These rescues

medevaced a 90-year-old man who also was suffering

can be extremely challenging. Such as the recent

from stroke-like symptoms from a cruise ship, located

posting about the highest-altitude long line rescue in

southwest of Juneau.

history, recently performed on the north face of Mount

An example of a successful rescue that took place

Annapurna in Nepal. Landing on the mountain was not

in an inaccessible location that could only have been

possible, so the three stranded climbers had to be

possible by helicopter, is the recent posting about a man

hoisted one-by-one at an elevation of 22,900 feet after

and his daughter from Oconomowoc, Wisconsin, who

enduring 36 hours on the mountain.

had crashed their small plane in Forest Canyon in Rocky

Stories like these are repeated countless times

Mountain National Park, Colorado, a remote and densely

around the world, day-in and day-out. Regrettably, these

forested wilderness area without trails. A helicopter

stories do not often make front page news — most go

landing zone was staged about a mile away, rangers

unmentioned. Perhaps they have become all too

walked the two to a National Park Service helicopter,

common, or maybe as an industry we have not done as

which had been dispatched to the park from Grand Teton

well as we could to make the public aware of these

National Park to help fight the Cow Creek Fire, which

rescues.

was burning on the northeast side of the park.

You can help. If you are involved in or know of a

Fighting fires not only saves lives, but also prevents

rescue, do not keep it to yourself. Your story can help

the destruction of property. In Arizona, a home owner

shine a positive light on our industry and remind the

was evacuated from his home due to the Hardy fire. A

public of the importance of helicopters. You owe it to

private company operating heavy helicopters contracted

yourself, your company, your industry, and most

to help fight wildfires in Flagstaff, helped firefighters save

importantly, you can help us tell the world the good news.

his home and that of hundreds of others from destruction.

While some might call the men and women who routinely perform dramatic life-saving rescues under

Flight Safety Quarterly, Winter 2010

34


Helicopters Do Save Lives!

extremely demanding conditions heroes, those who

through its annual “Salute to Excellence” Awards

spend their careers in aviation and in the helicopter industry in particular will be the first to tell you simply,

program. The “Salute to Excellence” Awards Dinner is the premier event of HAI’s HELI-EXPO®. This year, on

and with all humility, that they see it as their job and

March 7, 2011 in Orlando, Florida, “Salute to Excellence”

nothing more!

will be celebrating its Golden Anniversary. Some of the

Though modesty is a virtue to be admired, it does

awards recognize individuals who have saved lives,

not help to spread the word about the critical role that

protected property, and aided people in distress –

helicopters and helicopter operators play every day. If

positive promoting the helicopter and our industry. Take

you see or hear of a helicopter rescue, let us know and

a few moments to nominate someone deserving of an

we will let others know. We can do that by posting the event on HAI’s Web site and running it in RotorNews® ,

award.

the perfect vehicle for getting the word out! There is something else you can do. If you know of

And the next time you hear of a helicopter rescue, be sure to pass it along to HAI and RotorNews® . You

anyone who has performed a rescue or rescues, this

will be doing your part to show the positive contributions

past year, do not let them go unrecognized. For 50

of the helicopter and our industry. 

Do not let their accomplishments go

unrecognized.

years, HAI has recognized the outstanding achievements and exceptional merits of individuals and organizations

From Rotor Fall 2010

Fire/rescue personnel unload a patient from a Jayhawk helicopter in Kodiak, Alaska.

35

Flight Safety Quarterly, Winter 2010


太空梭重型發射器的研發現況

太空梭重型發射器的研發現況 美國航太總署的研發進度, 遠超過太空梭重型發射器的最終選項研究案 邁德 譯

美國國家航空暨太空總署(NASA)的Marshall「太空飛

(Orion)」組員探勘載具而完成。

行中心」(Space Flight Center)工程師,正在比較國會的指

Cooke進一步描述,人類探勘架構工作小組的報告及

示與工程選項案,俾能在2011年開始研發新款發射載具的

其後續工作將利用2009年9月於Marshall展開的重型發射

重型發射器。

器的選項研究案;當時顯示若依據歐巴馬政府可能不會繼

資深管理者預計在本週開會,以規劃完成國會的指

續星座計畫及其二具「戰神(Ares)」發射載具,一具係用

示-儘可能利用太空梭以及「星座計畫」(Constellation

來搭載組員,另一具則用來載運重型貨物。10月1日在捷

programs)原有的人力與硬體,儘早開始發展一款重型發射

克首都布拉格舉行「國際太空大會」時,Marshall中心戰

器。

神專案計畫辦公室的先進計畫經理Phil Sumrall曾簡報某些 美國太空部門已經進行一年多時間研發新款重型發射

結果,並向美國航太界尋求替代方案的構想。

器,並已確認將對數種選項做進一步研究;而且發現美國

「我們相信,我們擁有既有的科技來進行重型發射載

白宮所推動用來替代太空部門「返回月球計畫」(Back-to-

具的研發,此構想乃是當科技形成時,得以運用其提升性

the-Moon plan) 的抵達小遊星 (asteroid)或其他靠近地球的

能,」Sumrall表示:「那似乎是我們正在走的道路。」

物體 (NEO, Near-Earth Object)的任務將比其他考慮中的目 標更加困難。 上週迫在眉睫的工作為釋出一個或更多的研究案,

航太總署把重型發射器選項案精減成四種, 並用其匹配任務及國會的要求

以便敲定各項細節俾擬定新款發射器計畫;工作範疇超出

經過考量及否決一些構型之後,包括取代一具側邊

「人類探勘架構小組(HEFT, Human Exploration Framework

加掛外貨艙的太空梭人造衛星。Marshall之重型推進與計

Team)」在夏季所發展的重型發射器概念。當NASA在二月

畫辦公室提出四種不同的最佳選項以供進一步研究;其中

提出2011年預算需求時,該小組的設置係為了使現有的基

有三種選項係使用液態氧(LOX, Liquid Oxygen)與液態氫

本任務架構能具體實現。

(Liquid Hydrogen)做為燃料,另一種選項係使用碳化氫的

負責NASA探勘系統組的副署長Doug Cooke說:「我 們沒有直接聽從那個忠告」。人類探勘架構工作組的建議

火箭推進燃料(RP, Rocket Propellant),諸如使用煤油作為 第一級的燃料(詳如後圖)。

是,從現有太空梭衍生的發射載具將是獲致重型發射器能

除了使用碳化氫火箭推進燃料的選項外,其他三項

量的最快速途徑。「他們所考慮的項目還更多,但我們尚

都採用現有或提升性能的超冷(cryogenic)火箭引擎,包括

未對某一型載具作出決定…我們將重新審視並確認已將他

目前正由普惠(Pratt & Whitney)公司Rocketdyne研發中的

們的考慮列入我們的考量之中,包括已決定的選項。」

RS-25E可拋棄式太空梭主引擎。雖然一組六具碳化氫火

預期歐巴馬總統會簽署NASA的三年再授權法案,該

箭推進燃料之引擎可提供它們本身足夠的推力,但其他

法案已在上個月獲得參議院同意。該法案要求NASA在90

三個選項將使用已提升性能的第四節固態燃料推進器──

天之內提出計畫,俾於國內發展一型具備130公噸酬載能

這是用來將太空梭推離發射台的推進器。最初,它們與

力的重型發射載具,並同時具備載運人類的「多用途組員

太空梭都需要燃燒相同的「聚丁二烯壓克力硝酸(PBAN,

載具」以便在軌道運行;該型載具可藉修改「獵戶星座

PolyButadiene AcryloNitrile)」推進燃料;提升性能之後,

2010年「飛行安全冬季刊」

36


太空梭重型發射器的研發現況

研究中的重型發射器選項 2.5級 2級

主項目

直線27.5英呎 太空梭外儲箱直徑

幾何外形

增加之載具

增加之載具

直線27.5英呎 太空梭外儲箱直徑

直線33英呎

33英呎RP

土星五號傳承之33英

土星五號傳承之

呎直徑

33英呎直徑

無資料

5節太空梭PBAN推進 推進器

器/液態火箭推進器,

5節PBAN推進器,

5節PBAN推進器,可

可發展成HTPB(2具

可發展成HTPB

發展成HTPB

RS-68B) 3具 RS-68B可發展成 核心級引擎

RS-68B E/O(可再生散

5具 RS-25E

熱,較大膨脹比)選項

RS-68B可發展成RS-

6具170萬磅推力等級

68B E/O(可再生散

LOX/RP-1引擎,可發展

熱,較大膨脹比)選項

成200萬磅推力 2具J-2X-285或1具RS-

上級引擎

1具J-2X

4具RL10A-4-3

J-2X

68B E/O(可再生散熱, 較大膨脹比)

資料來源:NASA/MSFC

改用「氫氧根結合聚丁二烯(HTPB, Hydroxyl-Terminated

載具將是最快且最便宜的選項;但對組員而言,這卻是最

PolyButadiene)」推進燃料。目前亦正在研究由RS-68B超

危險而且性能最差的選項。就四種不同選項的評估而言,

冷引擎所推動的二具液態燃料推進器。

「﹝首次載人飛行﹞採用大型的碳化氫火箭推進燃料載

在9月份,這四種不同選項都已執行任務評估,

具,以及採用液態氧/液態氫燃料載具,其總價格幾乎相

包括:單獨發射飛越月球、單獨發射至地球-月球

等」。這是研究的發現。「然而,如果一年的飛行頻率假

L1(Lagrangian)點、單獨發射至月球軌道;雙發射至月球表

設為四次,則碳化氫火箭推進燃料載具的重複費用將會節

面、地球-太陽L2點、靠近地球物體及高火星軌道等;以

省一些;但每年的使用率如超過四次,則液態氧/液態氫燃

及乙次NASA的火星設計參考任務。

料載具加上固態燃料,反而會比多數碳化氫火箭推進燃料

「所有載具的選項均能滿足多數任務的性能需求」, 根據Sumrall在布拉格所發表的文件,這是Marshall的研究 結論。「它們的性能邊際任務係靠近地球物體的任務」。 Marshall報告的初步評估雖然只列出價格比較而非絕 對的數字,但其指出由側邊加掛貨艙的太空梭所衍生之

37

2010年「飛行安全冬季刊」

載具的構型更為有利」。 在各選項中,使用RS-65E及5節固態燃料推進器的衍 生型載具之研發費用最低;而使用碳化氫火箭推進燃料的 衍生型載具之地面作業費用最低。 就時程而言,研究發現首飛日期可能是在2017-18年


太空梭重型發射器的研發現況

之間。如果重型發射器也能運用在科學研究,以及國家安

Cooke接著說:這項測試,可能導致重型發射器的最

全方面的任務上,則載人飛行任務的頻率將會增加,並因

終構型決定,如果J-2X被選為上級引擎,則在新的重型發

此而降低成本。

射器計畫之下,將會進行更多後續測試。

根據截至目前的工作進度,並無任何選項特別突出而

明顯成為所有任務的最佳解決方案。Marshall計畫辦公室 必須比較各選項,以迎合授權法案的指示。由於撥款額度

譯自Aviation Week & Space Technology Oct 11, 2010

上限必須維持在190億美元以內,負責撥款的國會委員會 做法尚待觀察。 國會這些委員會的一般說法是,他們會遵守授權法案 的條文,這表示與白宮的妥協──即維持NASA的原始預 算需求,也就是在2015年之前不會開始發展重型發射器; 未來的確實走向尚不清楚,因為目前正值國會議員的休會 期。 在NASA尚未獲得2011會計年度的撥款之前,NASA 仍然受到2010會計年度撥款條文的約束,要求其繼續進 行「星座計畫」。Cooke說:頗有機會在明年初首度測試 「土星號」傳承的J-2X 上級引擎──因為該型引擎係為 「戰神一號」載人火箭及「戰神五號」載貨火箭的上級引 擎所發展的,而且也是正在進行中的重型發射器選項。

2010年「飛行安全冬季刊」

38


Heavy Development

Heavy Development NASA moving beyond shuttle-derived heavy lifters in final option study FRANK MORRING

Engineers here and at NASA’s Marshall Space

considerations on this, including acquisition options.”

Flight Center are balancing engineering options and

President Barack Obama was expected to sign the

congressional directives to begin developing a new

three-year NASA reauthorization bill accepted from the

heavy-lift launch vehicle in 2011.

Senate last month by the House. The bill directs NASA

Senior manages are expected to meet this week to

to come up with a plan within 90 days to develop a

map out how they will carry out Congress’s order that

heavy-lift launch vehicle in-house with as much as 130

development of a new heavy lifter be started as soon as

metric tons of payload capability that also is human-rated

possible, using heritage workforce and hardware from

to orbit a “multipurpose crew vehicle” that will be a

the space shuttle and Constellation programs “to the

modification of the Orion crew exploration vehicle.

extent practicable.”

The HEFT report and the subsequent work Cooke

The U.S. space agency has been working on a new

describes draw on heavy-lift option studies started at

heavy-lift approach for more than a year and has

Marshall in September 2009, when it began to appear

identified a handful of options for further study. It also

that the Obama administration might not continue the

has found that reaching an asteroid or other near-Earth

Constellation program and its two Ares launch vehicles,

object (NEO), a mission pushed by the White House as

one for crew and one for heavy cargo loads. The agency

an alternative to the agency’s back-to-the-Moon plan, will

solicited alternative concepts from across the U.S.

be much more difficult than other targets considered.

aerospace industry, according to Phil Sumrall, advanced

Release of one or more study contracts to begin

planning manager for the Ares Project Office at Marshall,

nailing down details that will shape a new launcher

who presented some of the results Oct. 1 at the

program was imminent last week. The work goes well

International Astronautical Congress in Prague.

beyond the heavy-lift concepts generated over the

“We believe we have the technology in place today

summer by the agency’s Human Exploration Framework

to commence heavy launch vehicle development, with

Team (HEFT), which was set up to flesh out the bare-

the idea being that as technology comes onboard, you

bones mission architectures in place when NASA

can use that technology to increase the performance,”

released its Fiscal 2011 budget request in February.

Sumrall says. “That seems to be the track that we’re on.”

“We are not taking that advice directly,” says Doug Cooke, NASA associate administrator for exploration systems, of HEFT’s suggestion that an in-line shuttlederived launch vehicle would be the fastest route to heavy-lift capability (AW&ST Sept. 13, p.26). “There’s more to all this than what they considered. We haven’t made the decision yet on a vehicle…We’re backing off of that and making sure we take into account all

39

Flight Safety Quarterly, Winter 2010

NASA has narrowed the heavylift options to these four and is matching them against mission and congressional requirements. After considering and rejecting a number of configurations, including one that replaces the space


Heavy Development

Heavy Lift Options Under Study 2.5stages

Added Vehicle

Added Vehicle

2 stage

Key Trade

27.5 ft. Inline

27.5 ft. Inline

33 ft. Inline

33 ft. RP

Geometry

Shuttle ET diameter

Shuttle ET diameter

Saturn V heritage 33 ft. diameter

Saturn V heritage 33 ft. diameter

Booster

5-segment shuttle PBAN booster/liquid rocket booster, evolvable to HTPB (2 RS68B)

5-segment P B A N b o o s t e r, evolvable to HTPB

5-segment P B A N b o o s t e r, evolvable to HTPB

N/A

RS-68B evolvable to RS-68B E/O (regeneratlvely cooled, larger expansion ratio) option

6 1.7-mlllion-1b.thrust class LOX/RP-1 engines evolvable to 2-mlllion-1b thrust

Core-Stage Engine

Upper-Stage Engine

3 RS-68B evolvable to RS-68B E/O (regeneratively cooled, larger expansion ratio) option 1 j-2x

5 RS-25E

j-2x

4 RL10A4-3

2 j-2x-285 or 1 RS-68B E/O (regeneratively cooled,larger expansion ratio)

Source: NASA/MSFC

shuttle orbiter with a side-mounted cargo carrier, the

propellant as the shuttle, with upgrades later to hydroxyl-

Heavy Lift Propulsion and Planning Office at Marshall

terminated polybutadiene (HTPB). Twin liquid-fueled

came up with four “best” variants for further study, three

boosters powered by RS-68B cryogenic engines are also

of them using liquid oxygen (LOX) with liquid hydrogen

being studied.

as fuel and one using a hydrocarbon rocket propellant (RP) such as kerosene to fuel the first stage (see chart).

As of September, the variants had been assessed for missions including a single-launch lunar flyby; single-

With the exception of the RP-fueled variant, all were

launch mission to the Earth-Moon L1 Lagrangian point;

based on existing or upgraded U.S. cryogenic rocket

single launch to lunar orbit; dual launches to the lunar

engines, including the RS-25E expendable space shuttle

surface, the Earth-Sun L2 point, a NEO and a high Mars

main engine under development by Pratt & Whitney

orbit; and a version of NASA’s Mars Design Reference

Rocketdyne. While a cluster of six RP engines could

Mission.

provide adequate thrust on their own, the other three

“All in-line vehicles options were capable of evolving

options would use upgrades of the four-segment solid-

to satisfy the performance required for most missions

fuel boosters that lift the shuttle off the pad. At first those

assessed,” the Marshall study concluded, according to

would burn the same polybutadiene acrylonitrile (PBAN)

the paper Sumrall presented in Prague. “They had

Flight Safety Quarterly, Winter 2010

40


Heavy Development

marginal mission capture for NEO missions.”

also is playing in the ongoing heavy-lift options studies.

Although it listed only cost-comparisons rather than

That test, in turn, could inform a final configuration

absolute figures, preliminary estimates in the Marshall

decision and, if the J-2X is selected for the upper stage,

report identify a side-mounted shuttle-derived carrier as

could be followed with more tests under the new heavy-

the fastest and cheapest option, but also the most

lifter program, Cooke says. 

dangerous for a crew and the least capable. Of the four options selected for additional study, “the total cost for the [initial human flight] for the large RP vehicles and the LOX/[liquid hydrogen] vehicles are approximately equivalent,” the study found. “However, if a flight rate of four per year is assumed, there is a small recurring costsavings for the RP vehicles. Above four flights per year, LOX/[liquid hydrogen] plus solids compare more favorably than most RP configurations.” Development costs were lowest for the variant using the RS-65E and five-segment solid-fuel boosters, while the RP-fueled variant had the lowest ground operations costs. For schedule, the study found initial flights possible in the 2017-18 time frame. Flight rates for human missions could be increased and costs lowered if the heavy-lifter were used for science and national security missions, as well. Based on the work so far, no variant stands out as a clear best solution for all missions. The Marshall planning office must work through how the options stack up against the directions included in the authorization bill. And it remains to be seen what the congressional committees that appropriate the necessary funds within the $19-billion topline will do. While those committees in general have said they will follow the authorization language, which represents a compromise with represents a compromise with the White House on the original NASA budget request that would not have started heavy-lift development until 2015, the exact way forward in unclear, with lawmakers in recess. Until there is a Fiscal 2011 appropriations bill for NASA, the agency is bound by Fiscal 2010 appropriations language requiring it to continue to work on the Constellation program. Cooke says there is a good chance that will enable a first test early next year of the Saturn-heritage J-2X upper-stage engine being developed for the Ares I and Ares V upper stages, which

41

Flight Safety Quarterly, Winter 2010

Feom Aviation Week & Space Technology Oct 11, 2010


人力飛行

人力飛行 如果英國皇家航空協會(Royal Aeronautical Society)能自行舉辦 2012年奧林匹克運動會,自行車選手就不會 被局限於室內的賽車場上。 林孝鏗 譯

Daedalus 88 在1988年創下人力飛機持續力紀錄

人力飛機(HPAS, Human Powered Aircraft for Sport)

製造,於1977年完成最久的人力飛行為他贏得第一

引起我們任何許多事與物的回憶,從伊卡魯斯 (Icarus) 衝

次Kremer獎。他第二次得到Kremer獎是在1979年,由

向海洋與那十分的脆弱纖細人力飛機Gossamer Albatross

Gossamer Albatross所完成,這是Paul MacCready建造的第

掠過英吉利海峽 - 或像Icarus一樣盛裝打扮的特種服裝

二架人力飛機,橫越了英吉利海峽,也揭開人力飛機競

“birdmen”(鳥人) 把自己拋離Worthing Pier (沃辛碼頭)。

賽的序幕。人力飛行於1988年達到最高峰,由美國麻省

在9月21日的會議上,皇家航空協會透露出對現今最

理工學院創下最遠距離和持續力,紀錄是115公里(72英

新尖端的航空科技,不應只對工程師表達象徵性的敬意, 因為工程師協助我們實現了低能源的動力飛行夢想。縱使 人力飛行是難解的追求夢想,但目前有最新材料和控制技 術的我們,正準備迎接一個新時代的飛行運動。 Gossamer Condor是一架人力飛機,由Paul MacCready

里),從Iraklion空軍基地到Santorini島飛了3小時54分。

氣動彈性行為(Aero-Elastic Behavior) Daedalus研發團隊在美國NASA'S Dryden 研究中心, 做了許多在推力、阻力和低速航空器應用的相關研究與探

2010年「飛行安全冬季刊」

42


人力飛行

Pathfinder 太陽能飛機

Helios 原型機

索輕量級航空器在“氣動彈性的行為”,正如美國NASA

國家,能到英國倫敦參加2012年場外奧運會活動。

所言:“從這項計劃中獲得的資訊已應用在最新設計的長 程航空器上”。

為此,該小組希望喚起這個活動而另外設置了Kremer 獎金,宣稱第一名團隊有£100,000。飛機適合在天氣良

MacCready在杜邦公司的支持下,確實有助於開創新

好的條件下競技,地點將在英國舉行。飛行器將進行低中

時代的先進材料。其飛行員兼自行車手Bryan Allen回憶

高空的安全飛行,該活動競賽的飛行器應屬於超輕型航空

說:“碳纖維 (Carbon fibre)在當時是新奇材料,而且很少

器,可快速拆卸與組裝並可裝載於旅行車內,長度不可超

有精巧地製作出零件相關方面的應用知識”。

過8公尺(26英尺),令人注目的是飛行器的控制器(如自動

確實,再怎麼也無法識別出Condor(禿鷹人力飛機),

穩定與螺旋槳)可以電力控制。

Albatross(信天翁力飛機)之間或Daedalus 和由太陽能供電

到目前為止,人力飛行器還有漫長的道路要走,它呈

的Pathfinder與最近由MacCready公司和 AeroVironment公司

現出的纖細與嬌貴軀體,幾乎靜止於低海拔空氣中飛行。

所完成的Heliosru計畫的相似性,或者更確切地說:如波

組裝、儲存和運輸要求更不應該省略。充氣計劃項目帶來

音目前正在執行的計劃Phantom Works(幽靈)和美國國防部

很大部份與程度上的挑戰,現代的質材帶來許多有趣的可

正在研究的計劃-Solar Eagle或Andr'e Borschberg's所測試成

能性,以改善他的早期作品。

功可載人的太陽能飛機。

人力飛行器競技運動又稱為肌力運動,要完成一次流

航空科技發展的突飛猛進,除了使用在人力飛機上,

程涉及反復轉動,航空器在地面效應 (ground-effect)下巧

也影響到無人駕駛載具等其它飛行器具上的應用。Fred與

妙地操縱與強有力實施操作,到目前為止達成飛行的高度

設計師和工程師在總部位於英國的Southampton工作,人力

約翼展的一半。Allen是一位訓練有素的長途自行車者,也

動力飛行先驅David Williams在1978年建造Solar One太陽

是希臘奧林匹克自行車耐力記錄保持者。

能動力飛機,隨後他又於1982年發展出別具特色的充氣式

在短期內,高飛人力飛機(Soaring Human Powered

機翼人力飛行器。後來,他告訴Flight International雜誌,

Aircraft,簡稱SHPA)是較有希望向前推動的方式,這是

往後的工作包括為Qinetiq公司發展充氣式UAV(unmanned

藉由人力腳踏動力輔助的滑翔機概念,由P&M超輕型機

Aerial vehicle)無人載具飛行監視機,而且是可由砲管發

建造公司航空技術總監Bill Brooks在向大會介紹。在Brook

射,這個概念並沒有進展到生產商品,但這巧妙的解決方

計算下,飛行員在俯臥位置下飛行必須產生2ph匹(1,500W

案可提供軍人,在複雜地形的戰爭場上使用。

瓦)以維持水平飛行。那是不可能的 - 奧運級的自行車選

英國皇家航空學會人力飛機小組成員John Edgley 在

手在短時間內只能產生約四分之一的動力,但一個典型的

Daedalus人力飛機計畫結束後,承認如果無法或證明其可

飛行員可能大概保持在上升暖流之間的高度。Brooks自己

能性,將會慢慢減少人力飛機的興趣,工程師會轉移進行

也以此方式在”沃辛碼頭鳥人”歡慶節日上嘗試延長滑

其他挑戰。但是Edgley和其他英國皇家航空學會同事樂觀

行。

的表式,航空將帶動人力飛行走向新的時代尖頂。該小組 希望像是日本(有個特別活躍的人力飛行社團)這種遙遠

43

2010年「飛行安全冬季刊」

譯自Flight International 5-11 Oct, 2010


When muscle matters

When muscle matters Furious pedaling won’t be restricted to the velodrome if the Royal Aeronautical Society pulls off its own 2012 Olympics DAN THISDELL

Daedalus 88 set the human-powered aircraft endurance record in 1988

Human-powered aircraft bring to mind anything from

Gossamer Albatross’s English channel crossing kicked

Icarus crashing into the sea to the gloriously flimsy

off a flurry of activity in the field, culminating in 1988

Gossamer Albatross skimming the waves of the English

when the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s

Channel – or Icarus-like costumed “birdmen” flinging

Daedalus 88 project set the human-powered aircraft

themselves off Worthing Pier.

distance and endurance record with a 115km (72 mile),

But as a 21 September conference at the Royal Aeronautical Society revealed, progress at the cutting edge of aviation today owes more than a token gesture to the engineers who realised the dream of very low-

3h 54min flight from Iraklion air force base on Crete to the island of Santorini.

AERO-ELASTIC BEHAVIOUR

powered flight. And, while human-powered flight is

The Daedalus team did much work at NASA’s

arguably an esoteric pursuit, modern materials and

Dryden research centre , exploring lift and drag in low-

control technologies are poised to usher in a new era of

speed aircraft and investigating the aero-elastic

sport aviation.

behaviour of light-weight aircraft. As NASA puts it: “The

Paul MacCready winning the first RAeS Kremer

information obtained from this programme had direct

prize for sustained human-powered flight with Gossamer

applications to the later design of many high-altitude,

Condor in 1977 and a second Kremer prize in 1979 with

long endurance aircraft.”

Flight Safety Quarterly, Winter 2010

44


When muscle matters

MacCready’s work, with support from DuPont,

also have to operate safely at low to moderated altitudes,

certainly helped open the era of advanced materials. As

be suitable for small batch production or for assembly

his pilot, cyclist Bryan Allen, recalls: “Carbon fibre was at

from a kit, quickly dismantled or assembled, and

that time a somewhat exotic material and there was very

stowable “into a roadworthy vehicle…not longer than 8m

little practical knowledge of how to craft parts out of it.”

(26ft) internally”. Intriguingly, “an onboard source of

Indeed, it is no stretch to recognise the similarity

electric power is permitted for the sole purpose of

between Condor, Albatross or Daedalus and the solar-

control, including auto-stabilisation and propeller

powered Pathfinder and Helios projects later carried out

governing”.

by MacCready’s company, AeroVironment – or, indeed,

All of that is a long way from human-powered

current programmes like the Boeing Phantom Works/

aircraft to date, which have been delicate, very low-

Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency Solar

altitude machines flyable only in virtually still air. The

Eagle or Andr'e Borschberg’s solar-powered, manned

assembly, storage and transport requirements, in

Solar Impulse.

particular, should not be dismissed. To’s inflatable

Technology developed for human-powered flight

project was driven in large part to get around these

may also prove influential in smaller unmanned aircraft.

challenges, and he says modern fabrics open many

Fred To, an architect and engineer who worked with

interesting possibilities to improve on his earlier work.

Southampton, UK-based human-powered flight pioneer

This Human Powered Aircraft for Sport (HPAS)

David Williams to build the Solar One solar-powered

challenge also calls for lots of muscle power, to complete

aircraft in 1978, told the RAeS conference about his

a course involving repeated turns, a high-power

subsequent development of a successful human-

manoeuvre for an aircraft operating in ground-effect at

powered aircraft featuring an inflatable wing in 1982.

the so-far achieved altitudes of about half a wingspan.

Afterwards, he told Flight International that later work in

Allen was a trained long-distance cyclist and Daedalus

cluded the development, with Qinetiq, of an inflatable

set its endurance record under the power of Greek

UAV for surveillance, that could be fired from a mortar

Olympic cy-clist Kanellos Kanellopoulos.

tube. The concept did not progress to a fieldable product,

In the short term, a more promising way forward

but is an ingenious solution to the challenge of providing

may be the Soaring Human Powered Aircraft (SHPA), a

infantry soldiers with an aircraft that can be easily carried

pedal-assisted hang glider concept outlined to the

and survive a hard landing.

conference by Bill Brooks, technical director at microlight

RAeS Human Power Group member John Edgley

builder P&M Aviation. Brooks calculated that a pilot in

readily concedes that after Daedalus, interest in human-

prone position would have to generate about 2hp

powered aircraft waned, if for no other reason than it had

(1,500W) to sustain level flight, That is impossible –

been proved possible and the engineers moved on to

Olympic-class cyclists can generate about a quarter of

other challenges. But Edgley and his RAeS colleagues

that in short bursts-but a typical pilot could probably

are optimistic aviation is on the cusp of a new era of

sustain altitude between thermals. Brooks himself has

human power. The group is hoping to encourage teams

managed to extend his glide this way in the Worthing

from as far afield as Japan, which has a particularly

Pier Birdman gala.

active human-powered flight community, to come to London in 2012 for a fringe activity to the Olympic Games. To that end, the group is keen to flag up the fact that there is another Kremer prize yet to be claimed £100,000 ($158,000) – for the first aircraft suitable for athletic competition in “normal reasonable weather conditions, as encountered in the UK”. The aircraft will

45

Flight Safety Quarterly, Winter 2010

 Flight International 5-11 Oct, 2010


新世代噴射引擎面面觀

新世代噴射引擎面面觀 新時代需要新一代的區域噴射引擎 陳道千 譯

今年底四種新的區域噴射飛機將首度亮相,為超高效

引擎,不但燃油消耗率低,而且維修成本也低。為達成此

率飛機揭開序幕,這種飛機與目前使用的機種比較,不但

一目的,該引擎基本建構係源自最新的CFM引擎,然後研

省油而且維修成本也降低很多。

發而成更省油的引擎,此外在零件方面,也比一般引擎少

若蘇聯的蘇愷公司推出之SSJ100超級噴射引擎飛機 最近獲得蘇聯和歐盟認證,則Aeroflot和Armavia兩家航空 公司將於年底前接收第一批新機。目前該機型生產18架, 其中6架已在最後裝配階段。

20%。 Ebanga表示,零件少的意思是指維修期間零件更換 少,庫存量少,以及持有成本(Holding Cost)降低。 這些成就都是由於合成科技(BLisk)之賜,Ebanga表

蘇愷SSJ100超級噴射飛機的動力係使用蘇聯的

示合成科技不但精進了可靠度,而且減少了維修需求。此

Snecma與法國NPO Saturn公司合資的一家Powerjet公司生

外,引擎的FADEC監視系統可以藉較佳的維修與故障排除

產的SaM146渦扇引擎,這種引擎於今年六月和八月分別

新功能予以強化。

已獲歐盟EASA和蘇聯民航當局的認證,這種引擎分為推

維修也可以在數位式模型機(Mock up)上模擬機上複

力15,400磅的SSJ100-75和推力17,500磅的SSJ100-95兩

雜的工作,例如Sam146引擎罩,可以打開並更換特定的

種等級。

組件。

比較之下,中國的Comac飛機製造公司,加拿大的

Ebanga表示,SaM146引擎係為了航空公司所要的線

龐巴迪(Bombardier),以及日本的三菱飛機製造株式會

上監控維修(On-Condition)而設計的,我們曾嚐試狀況維修

社(Mitsubishi)都採用美製引擎,例如美國奇異公司(GE,

的邊界予以擴展,除了更換LRU ( Line Replacement Unit )

General Electronic)的CF34-10A為中國Comac開發的ARJ21

外,引擎翻修期是沒有限制的,進而言之,維修要求必須

系列引擎,包括推力17,000磅的ARJ21-700,以及推力

從設計開始,整合所有的過程,使維修更容易,並縮短地

18,500磅的ARJ21-900引擎。日本三菱飛機製造株式會

面作業時間(Turnaround Time)。

社選用美國普惠公司(PW, Pratt & Whitney)全新的齒輪渦

三菱MRJ和龐巴迪C 系列引擎製造商普惠公司強烈表

扇PW1200G引擎,有兩種款式分別為15,600磅的MRJ-70

示,他們齒輪渦扇引擎的新潁設計,可使其維修成本比現

和17,600磅的MRJ-90引擎。加拿大的龐巴飛機製造公司

有引擎降低20%。目前三菱100人座MRJ改良型飛機的動

則選用普惠的PW15000G,該型引擎分為推力21,000磅的

力引擎性能標準尚未予以規範,但是普惠公司副總裁Bob

CS100和推力23,300磅的CS300兩種款式。

Saia對PW1200G有足夠的推力成長以符合額外需求,非常

普惠公司認為日本三菱要求燃油消耗率必須比龐巴迪

有信心。

CRJ系列和Embraer的E-jet家族飛機使用的CF34s引擎降低

Saia表示,為增加裝機引擎壽命,排氣溫度(EGT,

15%,至於,如何與SaM146和CF34-10A系列引擎比較,

Exhaust Gas Temperature)設定在飛行20,000-25,000小

則仍有待觀察。然而,Powerjet執行長Jean-Paul Ebanga認

時的最大翻修時間限制之內。質言之,先進的診斷軟體

為SSJ100的燃油消耗率非常接近MRJ系列飛機。

將可確保精確地記錄排氣溫度上限,非屆期之拆檢(Un-

設計效率 根據Ebanga的說法,SaM146從一開始設計就是省油

schedule Removal)只會是其他原因造成,例如性能衰退 (Performance Degradation)或是定期更換零件。即時引擎狀 況監視和診斷能力,可以對引擎健診提供進一步協助。

2010年「飛行安全冬季刊」

46


新世代噴射引擎面面觀

在進入市場提供服務前,Powerjet經過兩年的SaM146引擎可靠度和成熟度測試,計劃期間沒有用到 備份引擎,該公司感到非常有信心與滿意。

Saia表示,齒輪箱內沒有定期更換件,因此只須線上

壓渦輪扇葉的重新鍍膜,僅能在一個地點完成。

監控(On Condition Maintenance),齒輪箱的維修只佔總維

廠房容量和能力方面,將由Snecma公司在加拿大蒙特

修成本的2%,此外對MRJ而言,引擎定期更換件特別按短

婁訓練中心和NPO Saturn在Rybinsk的技術學校予以提振,

飛行週期而設計,這樣至少可以使80%使用人(依其營運和

此外引擎零件將由巴黎的Snecma配送中心及莫斯科近郊的

操作環境而定)能夠掌握定期更換件的完全壽命。

其他中心進行配送。

服務支援

設計這種基礎建設可以從各服務據點分兩個層面的 支援,來強化Powerjet的整體支援組合。客戶支援協議

內裝軟體(Built-in Software)可以使SaM146引擎的操

(CSA, Customer Support Agreement)可予以客製化,這種綜

作參數下載至Snecma的地面站供其分析,有利於提供客

合性組合(Comprehensive Package)包括人事訓練,零件和

戶航空公司個別引擎監視,趨勢監視,以及同型引擎機

工程支援,以及技術文件等支援。這些服務與支援主要對

隊監視。因此,Powerjet公司將可透過Snecma系統提供機

象是沒有MRO設施或MRO必須由遠處提供支援的小航空

隊監視和數據分析。Ebanga表示,Powerjet公司可省下重

公司,這種綜合性組合可提供一份機隊支援服務選單,包

複投資前揭系統的成本。換言之,Powerjet公司將受惠於

括(Power-by-the-hour)選項,備用引擎管理,引擎群管理

Snecma公司的專業。

(Engine Fleet Management),以及AOG團隊。

其他技術支援包括全年無休的故障診斷和故障排 除,這項支援可透過Powerjet公司的客戶支援中心,連接

最近Powerjet與Armavia簽訂CSA合同,並與印尼區域 航空Kartika簽了一個較小的合同。

Snecma和NPO Saturn的全球80個地區代表網路,提供駐點

Ebanga表示,在服務據點都有引擎維修支援團隊提供

服務(On-Site Service),此外機動技術支援小組還可以處理

Aeroflot和Armavia客戶公司初始階段的重點支援,這個支

更複雜的緊急狀況。

援團隊的重要成員都已派駐兩家客戶公司,隨時可以提供

Ebanga表示,初期Powerjet公司將於Snecma公司的

服務。

Saint Quentin場區設一個引擎修理和翻修中心,同時在

無論如何,在提供服務之前,Powerjet還有很多事情

Rybinsk設一個NPO Saturn的修理中心,兩處中心都會有拆

要做,例如完成航空公司機務人員訓練,確保每一家航空

裝及翻修SaM146引擎的能力,但是特殊處理工作例如高

公司都有所需之文件,獲得初始零件承諾,並保證服務可

47

2010年「飛行安全冬季刊」


新世代噴射引擎面面觀

以符合協議中的要求。 Superjet國際公司負責行銷SSJ100,今年九月美國第 一個客戶Willis租賃金融集團簽下6台SSJ100及4台選購的 備忘錄,換言之,Powerjet將會有美國和亞洲這些沒有基 礎建設地區須要維修支援的客戶。Ebanga指出Snecma公司 在墨西哥和亞洲有引擎支援設施,他意指需求在那裡,支 援都可以到位。 GE公司表示,該公司支援網路的全貌,以及裝配 CF34-10A引擎的Comac ARJ21飛機將很快推出新的改良 型,以實現該公司隊客戶的承諾。 同時,普惠公司Saia表示,她體會到三菱MRJ和龐巴 迪C系列飛機將以低燃油負載用於短程飛行。很少全馬力

圖示龐巴迪 C系列動力引擎:普惠公司的PW15000G引擎中機匣 之核心中置渦輪架構。

起飛,(Rare Full-Power Takeoffs)可能有多層意義,相較於 服務熱點位置的使用人,使用前揭方式的使用人其引擎翻

洲的MTU,以及SIAEC(普惠公司與新加坡合資引擎翻修公

修期程會比較長一些。經過折衝之後,引擎製造商會提供

司)。這些伙伴以及其他潛在的合作夥伴,不僅涵蓋修護和

每一個引擎購買者許多所要的支援組合,這些組合可以從

支援,也包括使用每一個合作夥伴的翻修設施在內。

補充材料至每小時維修成本計價選項,或者是採取統包組 合(Cradle-to-Grave Package),購料和維修由供應商全包。 Saia表示,我們將完全改革過去的作法,此後將可對

最終目標是不僅提供全球涵蓋,同時也創造許多特種 維修能力中心,普惠公司預期MRJ的營運主體將集中於美 國和歐洲。

引擎所有人提供更完善的支援與服務,達到進一步節省成 本之目標。這些作法將包括增加現有的支援夥伴,例如歐

譯自Aviation Week November 2010

2010年「飛行安全冬季刊」

48


Power Up

Power Up New-gen support for next-gen regional jet engines. Bill Burchell

The first of four new-generation regional jets should make its airline debut by the end of the year, heralding a new era of super-efficient aircraft that promise to cut fuel consumption and maintenance costs significantly compared to current types.

seen, but PowerJet CEO Jean-Paul Ebanga believes the SSJ100’s fuel burn will be close to the MRJ’s.

EFFICIENCY BY DESIGN According to Ebanga, the SaM146 was designed

Assuming Sukhoi receives type certification for its

from the outset to be a lean engine, delivering low fuel

SSJ100 superjet from Russian aviation authorities this

burn and low maintenance costs. To that end, its basic

month, the first of these should be delivered to Aeroflot

architecture was taken from the latest CFM designs at

and Armavia before the end of the year. Eighteen aircraft

that time and then further developed to make it even

are now in production, with six in final assembly.

leaner. This has resulted in a simpler architecture than

Sukhoi’s SSJ100 is powered by the SaM146 turbofan produced by Powerjet, a Franco-Russian joint

the original reference engine, with 20% fewer parts than current engines.

venture set up by NPO Saturn and Snecma. This

“Fewer parts mean fewer part replacements during

engine, which received EASA certification in early June

MRO activities, smaller inventory holdings and reduced

and Russian certification in August, will be produced in

ownership costs,” Eabanga reasons.

two thrust ratings: delivering 15,400 1b. thrust for the SSJ100-75 and 17,500 1b. thrust for the SSJ100-95.

This has been achieved by employing advanced blisk technology, which Ebanga claims not only improves

By contrast, China’s Comac, Bombardier and

reliability but also reduces maintenance needs. In

Mitsubishi have chosen U.S.-made engines. GE’s CF34-

addition, the engine’s FADEC monitoring system is

10A has been developed for Comac’s ARJ21 to produce

enhanced with new functionality for better prognostic

17,000 1b. thrust for the ARJ21-700 and 18,500 1b.

maintenance and troubleshooting.

thrust for the larger ARJ21-900. Mitsubishi has opted for

Maintenance tasks also were simulated on a digital

Pratt & Whitney’s all-new PW1200G geared turbofan

mockup to enable some complex tasks to be carried out

engine rated at 15,600 1b. thrust and 17,600 1b. thrust

on wing. For example, the SaM146 engine casing can

for the MRJ-70 and -90, respectively, while the

be opened on-wing to replace specific components.

Bombardier will use the PW15000G rated at 21,000 1b.

“The SaM146 is designed for on-condition

thrust for its CS100 and at 23,300 1b. thrust for the

maintenance, which is what airlines want,” says Ebanga.

CS300.

“As a result, we have tried to push these boundaries

Pratt & Whitney believes this engine will deliver

further. Aside from LRU replacements, there’s no limit on

Mitsubishi’s mandated 15% fuel burn reduction

engine overhaul intervals. Moreover, maintenance

compared to the CF34s that power Bombardier’s CRJ

requirements were integrated into the design to facilitate

series and Embraer’s E-Jet family. How it compares to

access, make maintenance tasks easier and thereby

the SaM146s and CF34-10As in service remains to be

shorten turnaround times.”

49

Flight Safety Quarterly, Winter 2010


Power Up

Mitsubishi MRJ and Bombardier CSeries engine maker Pratt & Whitney claims its geared turbofan engine’s novel design will cut engine maintenance costs by 20% compared to current engines. To date, no performance criteria have been specified for the engine to power Mitsubishi’s newly announced 100-seat MRJ variant, but Pratt & Whitney’s Bob Saia, VP next generation product family, is confident the PW1200G has sufficient thrust-growth to meet additional needs. To boost engine time on-wing, Saia says exhaust gas temperature (EGT) margins were designed to remain within set limits for the 20,000-25,000 flight hr. between overhauls. Moreover, advanced diagnostic software will ensure the engine is not removed because of

PowerJet feels confident about the SaM146’s reliability and maturity prior to entry into service based on a twoyear test program during which the spare engine has not been required.

inaccurately recorded EGT margins. Unscheduled removals only would be prompted by other reasons, he

customer service. Mobile technical support teams also

sys, such as performance degradation or for replacement

will be available for more complex emergencies.

of life limited parts (LLP). Further assistance will be

Initially, PowerJet will have engine repair and

provided by real-time engine health monitoring and

overhaul centers at Snecma’s Saint-Quentin facility and

prognostic capability.

at NPO Saturn’s engine repair center at Rybinsk. Both

“There are no LLPs in the gearbox,” says Saia, “So

shops will be able to disassemble and overhaul the

maintenance is expected to be on-condition only. The

SaM146 engine, explains Ebanga, but specialized

gearbox will only contribute about 2% to the engine’s

processes-such as re-coating high pressure turbine

overall maintenance costs. Additionally, for the MRJ,

blades, for example only will be done at one location.

engine LLPs have been specifically designed for short

Shop capacity and capabilities will be

flight cycles to enable at least 80% of operators

complemented by dedicated training centers in Snecma’s

(depending on their operation and operational

facility in Montreau, and at NPO Saturn’s new technical

environment) to capture the full life of the LLPs.

school in Rybinsk. Additionally, engine spares will be

SUPPORT IN SERVICE

distributed from the Snecma distribution center near Paris and another center in a Moscow suburb.

Built-in software allows the operating parameters of

This infrastructure is designed to underpin

SaM 146 engines to be downloaded to Snecma ground

PowerJet’s support packages from service entry, which

stations for analysis, thereby facilitating individual engine

provide support at two different levels. The Customer

monitoring, trend monitoring and engine fleet monitoring

Support Agreement (CSA), which can be customized, is

for customer airlines. Fleet monitoring and data analysis

a comprehensive package that covers personnel training,

will be offered by PowerJet through Snecma’s systems,

spares and engineering support, and technical

which, Ebanga explains, saves PowerJet the cost of

documentation, etc. Its Service Offer is aimed at small

replicating the system. That said, he believes PowerJet

airlines with no MRO facilities operating from remote

customers will benefit from snecma’s expertise.

places; this package provides a menu of fleet support

All other technical support, including 24/7

services, including power-by-the –hour options, spare

assistance with fault diagnosis and troubleshooting, will

engine management, engine fleet management and AOG

be conducted through PowerJet’s customer support

teams.

center in conjunction with a global network of 80 field

To date, PowerJet has a CSA with Armavia and a

reps (from Snecma and NPO Saturn) providing onsite

similar agreement with Indonesian regional Kartika

Flight Safety Quarterly, Winter 2010

50


Power Up

Airlines. “At service entry, there will be an initial phase of focused support where dedicated engine support teams will be assigned to launch customers Aeroflot and Armavia,” says Ebanga. “Key people in these teams have been appointed and are already in place working with both airlines to prepare them for service entry.” However, prior to service entry, PowerJet still has much to do, such as completing training for airline mechanics, ensuring each airline has the appropriate technical documentation, making the initial spares provisioning and guaranteeing that service agreement requirements can be met. SuperJet International, which markets and sells the

The Bombardier CSeries powerplant: Pratt & Whitney’s PW15000G engine core midturbine frame, intermediate case.

SSJ100, secured its first U.S. customer in September, when willis Lease Finance Corp. signed a memorandum

cover repair and support, but also include the use of

of understanding for six SSJ100s and four options. This

each partner’s overhaul facilities. The aim is not only to

means PowerJet will have customers in the U.S. and

provide global coverage, but also to create centers of

Asia that require support for which it currently has no

excellence for certain capabilities.” Pratt & Whitney

infrastructure. But Ebanga points out that Snecma has

expects the bulk of MRJ operations to be concentrated in

engine support facilities in Mexico as well as Asia, which

the U.S. and Europe. 

implies support could be made available wherever demand requires it. GE says details of the support network and MRO provision for its CF34-10A engines powering Comac’s ARJ21 will take clearer shape soon. Meanwhile, Pratt & Whitney’s Saia says he recognized that some Mitsubishi MRJ and Bombardier CSeries operators will be flying a lot of short sectors with low fuel loads. Rare full-power takeoffs mean many are likely to be de-rated for longer intervals between overhauls compared to operators serving hot and high locations. To accommodate them, the engine maker aims to offer a number of support packages with each engine purchase, from a materials-only provision to a cost-per-hour option or a customized cradle-to-grave package. “We’re completely revamping how we will support and service this engine to further reduce costs,” says Saia. “This will include adding current support partners, such as MTU in Europe and SIAEC [with whom Pratt & Whitney has an engine overhaul joint venture in Singapore] on to the MRJ engine support program. These partnerships – and potentially others-will not only

51

Flight Safety Quarterly, Winter 2010

From Aviation Week November 2010


各民航機場氣候統計特徵圖形化及線上查詢系統之建立

各民航機場氣候統計特徵圖形化及 線上查詢系統之建立 童茂祥 徐光前

由於近幾年來,受到全球氣候變遷的影響,台灣地

助。

區的氣候統計特徵變化頗巨,若臺北航空氣象中心(以下

圖1是本計劃完成之氣候統計特徵程式的操作初始

簡稱氣象中心)同仁再延用10幾、20幾年前的氣候統計資

版面,版面分成上下兩區:第一區是查詢條件的設定,

料,恐不合時宜;再者,過往的各機場氣統計資料均以紙

包括機場的選擇、查詢的起始時間與結束時間,及所要

本為主,不易各氣象中心同仁閱讀與理解,而後期因電腦

查詢的天氣因子,而天氣因子的選擇項目包括:能見度

產業發展迅速,雖部份統計作業改以電腦程式取代,但仍

(Visibility ,VIS)、雲冪(Ceiling)、風場(Wind)、天氣現象

為氣象中心資料席位的例行工作,對其它同仁並不普及。

(Weather)、氣壓(Pressure)、氣溫(Temperature)等六項。

而後因航空氣象現代化進展,同仁有機會至美國航空氣象

第二區有四種圖形類型選項,主要歸因於規劃針對

中心(Aviation Weather Center, AWC)與美國國家大氣研究

不同的天氣現象,使用不同的版面與圖形來詮釋,目的能

中心(National Center for Atmospheric Research, NCAR)交

讓使用者更清楚明瞭所查詢機場的氣候統計特徵。因此,

流,因而促使氣象中心研究小組思考若能夠建置出一套讓

將類似圖形顯示的天氣因子整合後分成1.能見度與雲冪。

同仁便於設定且即時查詢各機場氣候統計特徵的系統,相

2.風場。3.天氣現象與視障。4.氣壓與氣溫等四類型。

信對提高氣象中心同仁對各民航機場天氣的掌握很有幫

圖1:氣候統計特徵程式操作初始版面。

利用這套軟體,預報員就可以查詢自1995年1月至

(5000公尺以下)所佔的比例為11%,2000公尺以下比例

2004年12月共10年期間,桃園機場能見度7月份的氣候

僅佔2%,表示7月份桃園機場能見度很少出現非常糟的情

統計特徵。圖2是桃園機場7月能見度分布圖,目視以下

況。若將發生能見度1000至2000公尺的時間,畫成24小

2010年「飛行安全冬季刊」

52


各民航機場氣候統計特徵圖形化及線上查詢系統之建立

時序列圖的話(如圖3),發生能見度較低的時間點約介於

日當中,下午15L至18L亦是一個高峰時段(圖5),顯示7月

13時至19時,而造成桃園機場7月較低能見度的天氣現象

的桃園機場,大多數的時間都天氣良好,但在每一日的下

中,陣雨(SHRA)與雷雨(TSRA)佔了95%以上,而其它天氣

午約15時至18時,是機場最容易發生雷陣雨的時間,常造

現象如輕霧(BR)、雨(RA)才占約5%左右(圖4);若再檢視桃

成機場夏季低雲冪與低能見度的主因。

園國際機場低雲冪1000至2000呎發生的時間,發現7月1

RCTR 7月 能見度 1995/01----2004/12 50%

45

40% 30% 20%

21

10%

1

1

2

2

1000

2000

3000

4000

4

6

7

7

6000

7000

8000

9000

5 5000

10000

M

圖2:桃園機場1995年1月至2004年12月共10年間,7月能見度各級距比例分布圖。

RCTR 7月 能見度為 1000-2000公尺時 24小時序列圖 1995/01----2004/12 20% 18% 16% 14%

13

12%

10

10% 8%

7

6% 4% 2%

1 1

3

4

5

5 3

2

1 2

5

4

3

6

7

2

2

8

9

7

7

8

5

4

3

2

1

2

1

1

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Time

圖3:桃園機場於1995年1月至2004年12月共10年期間,7月份能見度級距1000至2000公尺之間於24小時內所發生的時間。

RCTR 7月 能見度為 1000-2000公尺時 天氣類型分布圖 1995/01----2004/12 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0

67

29 2 BR

3 TSRA

SHRA

RA

0 FG

0 Other 天氣現象

圖4:桃園機場於1995年1月至2004年12月共10年期間,7月份能見度級距1000-2000公尺間所發生的天氣現象。

53

2010年「飛行安全冬季刊」


各民航機場氣候統計特徵圖形化及線上查詢系統之建立

RCTR 7月 雲幕為 1000-2000呎時 24小時序列圖 1995/01----2004/12 20% 18% 16% 14% 12% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% 0%

7

6 3

3

1 1

3

10

9

8

9 7

6

4

4

3

3

4

1 2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

2

3

3

2

1

0

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Time

圖5:桃園機場1995年1月至2004年12月共10年間,7月份1000至2000呎雲冪24小時分布圖

由上述的例子可知,氣象中心同仁可以利用此套軟

著重於航空氣象上所關心的天氣因素如能見度、雲冪、風

體,自行地調整時間,並選擇自己所要查詢的機場與天氣

場、天氣現象、氣壓與氣溫等,而資料庫可以隨年擴充,

項目,大大地增加使用者的查詢彈性,並且以簡單的圖

逐漸累積,使得查詢系統更有彈性。

形,表達出各民航機場的氣候統計特徵,讓使用者更易理

各民航機場的氣候特性並非一成不變,除了大環境

解。除此之外,可攜性與容易操作是此軟體最大的優點,

氣候因素改變之外,都市開發與人為建設,亦是使各民航

使用者只要身邊有電腦,便可以安裝此軟體,簡單且直覺

機場的氣候統計特徵變化的主因。近年來全球暖化議題發

的選項,讓使用者容易上手,因此氣象中心希望藉由此軟

燒、聖嬰與反聖嬰交替、劇烈天氣強度增強、都市熱島

體,讓各同仁更了解局屬10個民航機場的氣候統計特徵。

效應明顯、工業化溫室氣體的排放、發開中國家工業規模

氣象中心所轄10個民航機場,因其地理環境、地形與

成長迅速等等,都在慢慢地改變地球大氣的特性與區域地

季節性的不同,而有各自獨特的區域性地理氣候特徵,若

區的天氣條件,因此各民航機場的氣候統計特徵隨時會變

各機場氣候統計特徵系統能夠建立,不但能縮短同仁輪值

動,適用的週期亦不斷地縮短。氣象中心必須跟得上外在

外島的適應期,更能夠當作預報員編報終端機場天氣預報

環境改變的速度,提供給氣象中心同仁正確的各民航機場

(Terminal Aerodrome Forecast, TAF)時的參考依據。因此本

氣候統計資訊;而同仁亦要改變觀念,氣候改變的週期已

套查詢系統是以氣象中心所熟悉的程式語言(Visual Basic)

悄然的縮短,必須要隨時地更新各民航機場的氣候統計特

撰寫,以利中心同仁日後修改與維護,主要的查詢內容是

徵,才能提供外界所需與正確的氣象知識。

2010年「飛行安全冬季刊」

54


The diagramming of climatic statistics characteristics for each aviation aerodrome and implement of online query system

The diagramming of climatic statistics characteristics for each aviation aerodrome and implement of online query system M.S. Tung and K.C. Hsu

Because of the global climate change in recent years, the climatic statistics characteristics in Taiwan

clearly the climatic statistics characteristics of airports which they look up.

region change greatly. It is not proper that Taipei

The forecasters can use this software to search the

Aeronautical Meteorological Center (TAMC) still uses the

climatic statistics characteristics of Taoyuan airport from

climatic statistics 10 or 20 years ago. Moreover, it is not

1955 to 2004. Figure 2 is the visibility distribution in July

convenient for the forecasters in TAMC to read and to

in Taoyuan airport. The percentage of the visibility below

understand the data because the past climatic statistics

visual flight rule (below 5000 meters) is 11%, and that of

is recorded on paper documents. The computer industry

the visibility below 2000 meters is 2%. This phenomenon

develops rapidly in recent years, so some parts of

means that the weather in Taoyuan airport in July is very

climatic statistics operation are replaced by computer

good, and only very rare fierce weather affects Taoyuan

program. It is not popular for our forecasters to execute

airport to cause its low visibility. If the forecasters

the climatic statistics programs because the

examine the time when the bad weather causes the

meteorological information administration is still charge

visibility of the Taoyuan airport between 1000 to 2000

of it. With the development of advanced operational

meters (figure 3), they can discover local time from 13 to

aviation weather system program (AOAWS), our

19 is the most possible time when the bad weather

forecasters have opportunity to interact with Aviation

happens. What kind of the weather does cause this

Weather Center (AWC) and National Center for

situation? According to figure 4, the weather which

Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and some ideas are

causes lower visibility is shower (SHRA) and

aroused during the interaction. The research team in

thunderstorm (TSRA). The percentage of them is over

TAMC believes that it is helpful for forecasters to

95% and the percentage of other weather including mist

understand the climatic characteristics in each airports if

(BR) and rain (RA) is around 5%. If the forecasters look

we can establish a online query system of climatic

into the 24-hours ceiling distribution between 1000 to

statistics for TAMC’s members.

2000 feet (figure 5), there is still a peak between local

Figure 1 is the initial layout of this program for

time from 15 to 18. To sum up, the weather is often very

climatic statistics characteristics and it divides into two

good in Taoyuan airport in July, but sometimes the

regions. One is search conditions including airports, start

shower and thunderstorm may happen during the

time, end time and weather factors. In this program, six

afternoon from local time 13 to 19. The lower visibility

weather factors need to be decided, including visibility,

(below 2000 meters) and ceiling (below 2000 feet) which

ceiling, wind, weather phenomenon, pressure, and

the fierce weather causes may have some influences on

temperature. The other is the options for displays. This is

aviation operation. All aviation employees including air

because the different weather factors need the different

traffic controllers, ground crew, and pilots need to pay

layouts and pictures to explain. The purpose of this

more attention at this moment.

design can let forecasters understand more easily and

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Flight Safety Quarterly, Winter 2010


The diagramming of climatic statistics characteristics for each aviation aerodrome and implement of online query system

Figure1:The initial layout of the program for climatic statistics characteristics

RCTR 7月 能見度 1995/01----2004/12 50%

45

40% 30% 20%

21

10%

1

1

2

2

1000

2000

3000

4000

4

6

7

7

6000

7000

8000

9000

5 5000

10000

M

Figure 2:T he visibility distribution in every July in Taoyuan airport from 1995 to 2004 (X-axis is meter, Y-axis is percentage).

RCTR 7月 能見度為 1000-2000公尺時 24小時序列圖 1995/01----2004/12 20% 18% 16% 14%

13

12%

10

10% 8%

7

6% 4% 2%

1 1

3

4

5

5 3

2

1 2

5

4

3

6

7

2

2

8

9

3 1

5

7

7

8 4 2

1

2

1

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Time

Figure3:The 24-hour distribution of the visibility between 1000 and 2000 meters in every July in Taoyuan airport from 1995 to 2004 (X-axis is hour, Y-axis is percentage).

Flight Safety Quarterly, Winter 2010

56


The diagramming of climatic statistics characteristics for each aviation aerodrome and implement of online query system

RCTR 7月 能見度為 1000-2000公尺時 天氣類型分布圖 1995/01----2004/12 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0

67

29 2

3

BR

TSRA

SHRA

RA

0

0

FG

Other

天氣現象

Figure4:The weather conditions in every July cause the visibility level between 1000 and 2000 meters in Taoyuan airport from 1995 to 2004 (X-axis is weather , Y-axis is percentage).

RCTR 7月 雲幕為 1000-2000呎時 24小時序列圖 1995/01----2004/12 20% 18% 16% 14% 12% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% 0%

7

6 3

3

1 1

3

10

9

8

7

6

4

4

1 2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

9

3

3

4 2

3

3

2

1

0

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Time

Figure5:The 24-hour distribution of the ceiling between 1000 to 2000 feet in Taoyuan airport in every July from 1995 to 2004 (X-axis is hour, Y-axis is percentage).

Taking the analysis mentioned in the previous

Owing to the difference of the geography and

paragraph for example, the forecasters in TAMC can use

season, the 10 aeronautical airports authorized by TAMC

this software, adjust the search time they want and

have their unique regional climatic characteristics. If the

choose the airports and weather item they want to look

online query system of climatic statistics could be

up. It is more flexible than looking the climatic statistics

established, it not only shortens the colleagues’

characteristics up on paper documents. The simple

adaptation period when they work on duty but also could

diagrams to describe the climatic statistics characteristics

be a guidance when forecasters make the terminal

of each airport make user understand easily. Besides,

aerodrome forecast (TAF). After considering how to

the most advantages of this software are portable and

maintain the online query system, the research team

operating easily. The users can install this software in

decides to use visual basic to program it. The main

any computer. Simple and instinctive operating items

querying items focus on the important aeronautical

reduce user’s adaptation period. Therefore, TAMC hopes

meteorological factors such as visibility, ceiling, wind

our colleagues can understand the climatic statistics

field, weather phenomenon, pressure and temperature

characteristics of 10 aeronautical airports more by using

and the database of the online query system can be

this software.

expanded year by year. Then the larger the database is,

57

Flight Safety Quarterly, Winter 2010


The diagramming of climatic statistics characteristics for each aviation aerodrome and implement of online query system

the more flexible we can use.

the climatic statistics characteristics are variable with

The climatic statistics characteristics of 10

time, and the climate period shortens gradually. TAMC

aeronautical airports are not immutable. In addition to the

has to keep pace with the speed of change in external

changes in climate factors, urban development and man-

environment and provides the forecasters with the

made construction are also the main reasons to cause

correct information of the climatic statistics

climatic changes of 10 civil airports. In recent years the

characteristics. At the same time, the forecasters have to

issue of global warming fevers, El Nino and La Nino turn,

change their concepts: The climate changes quietly and

fierce weather strengthens more, urban heat island effect

the they have to update the new climatic statistics

is significant, industrial greenhouse gas emits, the

characteristics of each civil airport to provide aviation

industrialization in developing countries grows fast, etc.

employees the most correct meteorological information

are slowly changing the atmospheric characteristics and

which they need.

ď Ş

the weather conditions in the regional area. Therefore,

Flight Safety Quarterly, Winter 2010

58


臺北航空氣象中心颱風簡報網頁介紹

臺北航空氣象中心颱風簡報網頁介紹 官岱煒

民用航空局飛航服務總臺臺北航空氣象中心(簡稱氣

三、模式預報

象中心)已於2010年7月,從臺北松山機場搬遷至位於桃 園縣大園鄉之北部飛航服務園區,為能夠持續提供民航相 關業者、民用航空局、臺北航空站及飛航服務總臺所屬等 單位颱風簡報服務,於颱風期間作業時參考,因此在颱風 警報期間於松山機場實施颱風簡報服務,並且氣象中心整 合颱風簡報所需之相關資訊製作一颱風簡報頁面,讓預報 員提供簡報服務時,可以方便且即時的呈現颱風最新動態 及相關資訊,颱風簡報網頁架構由五個主要的頁籤,以下

※中心預報(員工專用) ※日本預報(員工專用) 「模式預報」頁籤內為模式預報產品,主要分為兩種 模式預報產品,其一為臺北航空氣象中心與中央氣象局共 同研發之天氣研究預報模式(WRF),以及日本數值天氣預 報圖產品(CDF),提供預報員作模式分析講解之用。

四、颱風預報

將逐一介紹此颱風簡報網頁各頁籤之內容與功能: ※路徑預報(臺灣、日本、美國、香港、各國)

一、颱風警報 ※民航局警報單 ※氣象局颱風警報單 ※已發布颱風警報單 「颱風警報」頁籤內包含民航局所發布最新的颱風警 報單,內容包含各民航機場及軍民合用機場之警報階段、

※最大風力預報 「颱風預報」頁籤內有臺灣及世界各主要預報中心對 於颱風未來移動之路徑預報,以及臺北航空氣象中心對於 臺北飛航情報區各民航機場之最大風力預測,提供航空公 司班機調度參考之用。

五、輔助資料

臺北飛航情報區內之警戒區域、目前颱風位置及未來颱風 動態;此外也有氣象局所發布之最新颱風警報單及過去之

※颱風預報輔助系統

民航局已發布的警報單可供查詢參考。

※劇烈天氣監測系統(QPESUMS) ※氣象局資料庫

二、現在天氣 ※機場天氣(最新天氣報告、機場天氣預報 ※天氣分析圖(衛星圖、雷達圖、顯著天氣圖、地面 高空圖、JMDS) 「現在天氣」頁籤內則包含兩個區塊,一為「機場天 氣」包含最新之各民航機場及軍民合用機場定時/特別天 氣報告(METAR/SPECI)及終端機場天氣預報(TAF);另一為 「天氣分析圖」包含最新的衛星雲圖、雷達回波圖、顯著 天氣圖、地面圖、高空圖以及新一代航空氣象多元顯示系 統(JMDS)之連結,以呈現目前之天氣大勢與現況,並且可 以了解在航路上的顯著危害天氣。

※日本資料庫 「輔助資料」頁籤內有各種颱風預報相關之參考資 料,颱風預報輔助系統內有歷史颱風之統計資訊及預報經 驗之綜整;QPESUMS(Quantitative Precipitation Estimation and Segregation Using Multiple Sensor)為整合多重觀測資 料並結合地理資訊發展劇烈天氣監測系統;還有氣象局與 日本資料庫可供預報參考之用。 有了這個整合各項颱風及相關天氣資訊的簡報網頁, 預報員可以快速的切換各種不同的天氣資訊,並且即時的 更新最新的颱風動態資料,呈現給聽取颱風天氣簡報的人 員能夠清楚的知道颱風未來的趨勢,以利後續之作業與調 度決策之參考。

59

2010年「飛行安全冬季刊」


臺北航空氣象中心颱風簡報網頁介紹

2010年「飛行安全冬季刊」

60


Intoduction of the TAMC Typhoon Briefing Website

Intoduction of the TAMC Typhoon Briefing Website David Kuan Taipei Aeronautical Meteorological Center (TAMC) has migrated from Taipei Songshan International Airport to North Air Traffic Service Park located in Taoyuan County in July 2010. To be able to give typhoon briefing to aviation-related industry, Civil Aviation Authority (CAA), the Taipei Songshan International Airport and Air Navigation and Weather Services (ANWS) and other units during typhoon warrning period. TAMC has implemented a website, TAMC Typhoon Briefing Website, aoaws. caa.gov. tw to apply an account for typhoon briefing services. Typhoon briefing website architecture consists of five main tabs, the following will introduce the content and features of the pages in this website:

1. Typhoon Warning ※CAA Typhoon Warning Sheet ※CWB Typhoon Warning Sheet ※History of Typhoon Warnings "Typhoon Warning" tab contains the latest typhoon warning sheet released by TAMC, the content includes a combination of civil airports and military/civil joint airport typhoon warning stage, the warning area of Taipei FIR, the current and future typhoon position; There are also latest typhoon warning sheet issued by Center Weather Bureau (CWB). You can also find the history CAA Typhoon Warnings in this tab.

2. Current Conditions ※METAR/SPECI and TAFs ※S atellite images, radar images, SigWx chart, surface to height level weather chart, JMDS "Current Conditions" tab is included METAR/ SPECI and TAFs of civil and civil/military airport, and links of Satellite images, radar images, SigWx chart, surface to height level weather chart and JMDS. This tab shows the current condition of weather and the significant hazards weather in the en-route.

61

Flight Safety Quarterly, Winter 2010

3. Model forecast products ※Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model ※Coded Digital Facsimile (CDF) "Model forecast products" tab is for forecasters only. It is included within Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model products and Coded Digital Facsimile (CDF) forecast products.

4. Typhoon forecast products ※Typhoon track forecasts (Taiwan, Hong Kong, American and others) ※Maximum wind forecast for civil aviation airport " Typhoon forecast products " tab is within the typhoon track farecast products of Taiwan and several major typhoon forecast centers of world. There is also the maximum wind forecast products of civil airport in Taipei FIR for users to make decision during typhoon warning period.

5. Other Links ※Typhoon Forecasting Support System ※Q uantitative Precipitation Estimation and Segregation Using Multiple Sensor (QPESUMS) ※CWB database ※Japan Database " Other Links " tab contains a variety of typhoon references. It contains Typhoon Forecasting Support System, QPESUMS (Quantitative Precipitation Estimation and Segregation Using Multiple Sensor), CWB database and Japan database. With this Typhoon briefing Website, forecasters can quickly switch a variety of weather information, and realtime dynamic data updated with the latest typhoon and weather information. We will be able to clearly know future trends of typhoon, and it will be helpful in decision making during typhoon warning period.


飛行安全季刊 63 中華民國八十三年十一月十六日創刊 中華民國一○○年一月三十一日出刊 發行人:李萬里 總編輯:蔡德龍 執行編輯:馬以茜 發行所:財團法人中華民國台灣飛行安全基金會 地址:台北郵政45-116號信箱 電話:(02)2545-5801 電郵:fsft@flightsafety.org.tw 網址:www.flightsafety.org.tw 印刷:友欣彩色印刷有限公司 電話:(02)2562-8281 出版登記:局版臺誌字第11528號

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