Page 1

NORTHERN GREEN - TUESDAY-THURSDAY - JAN. 10, 11 & 12

MTGF Clippings OFFICIAL PUBLICATION OF THE MINNESOTA TURF AND GROUNDS FOUNDATION FALL / WINTER 2016 VOL. 24, NO. 2

MTGF/University of Minnesota Turf & Grounds Field Day Was a Great Day to Spend Outside Learning from the U

MTGF

minnesota turf and grounds foundation

The mission of the Minnesota Turf and Grounds Foundation is to promote the green industry in Minnesota through support of research, education and outreach at the University of Minnesota and elsewhere.


PRESIDENT’S REPORT BOARD OF DIRECTORS

The Business of the Minnesota Turf and Grounds Foundation

Executive Committee President Kent Honl Rainbow Treecare, MSA

By KENT HONL President Minnesota Turf and Grounds Foundation

Vice President Manuel Jordan Heritage Shade Tree Consultants, MTA Treasurer Steve Balfany Balfany Farms, MTA Secretary/Treasurer Sam Bauer University of Minnesota Ex-Officio Paul Griffin City of Woodbury, MPSTMA Directors MASMS Tom Redmann Anoka Hennepin ISD #11 MASMS Tracy Closson Northfield Schools ISD #659 MAC Dave Kemp The Catholic Cemeteries MAC Kari Bradshaw Minnesota Association of Cemeteries MPSTMA Jon Almquist The Toro Company MGCSA Jamie Benzanson Oneka Ridge GC MGCSA Jeff Girard StoneRidge CC MTA Bryan Lawrence Rocket Turf & Nursery MTSC Brent Benike Northern Excellence Seed MTSC Richard Magnusson Magnusson Farms Vendor Representative Susie Johnson Gertens Wholesale Vendor Representative Jim O’Neill EcoWorks Golf Supply UM Representative Brian Horgan Ph.D. University of Minnesota UM Representative Dr. Angela Orshinsky University of Minnesota * * * * Executive Director Jeff Turtinen 952-473-3722 jeff.turtinen@mtgf.org P. O. Box 617 Wayzata, MN 55391 www.mpstgma.org

A big part of my job in arboriculture is to track phenology, the seasonal changes that inform us when to treat the pests and diseases we deal with. Each fall brings a chance to reflect on the season that has just passed. Did we predict the right time to treat for apple scab? Did Japanese beetle show up when we expected? Accumulated experience and archived information help make this process a bit easier, and have pointed out some trends that I find very compelling to consider. In the Spring 2012 issue of MTGF Clippings, past President Dave Oberle mentioned strange weather patterns occurring at the time and asked, “What’s normal?” It was a great question, as spring arrived that year about five weeks earlier than we would normally expect. As I review the spread sheet I have used since 2012 to keep track of local growing degree days, I note that four of the last five years show a significant departure from the 30-year average. It appears that a new “normal” is getting established in our region, one that makes the 30-year average column in my spread sheet seem nearly irrelevant. In the midst of this change, I have found it helpful to pay attention to what goes on in other states with climatic conditions similar to what we have been experiencing. Maryland and Ohio for example, have longer growing seasons and higher annual average precipitation than Minnesota. They also have many of the same types of plants, as well as pests and diseases. The Extension services from these states offer weekly IPM reports that provide a preview of what will likely occur in our area a few weeks later. At the time of this writing, we have received 7 inches more precipitation than we get on average by this time of the year. If this is part of a “new normal”, I hope it can come to us in moderated rains, instead of swings between deluge and drought. Time will tell... A Note About Field Day: The University of Minnesota once again partnered with the Minnesota Turf and Grounds Foundation to produce the 2016 Field Day at TROE Center, the UM Trial Gardens and UFore Nursery where 188 people gathered for education, networking and lunch. The Field Day was presented by University of Minnesota faculty and staff working in turfgrass science and horticulture with presentation topics ranging from turfgrass species for natural areas to disease management in turf and trees to state-of-the-art drones. Northern Green: Changes to the Program The MTGF educational classes are now part of Northern Green --the new name for what was formerly called Northern Green Expo. The Northern Green will be held Jan. 10-12, which is Tuesday-Thursday - also new this year. The former MTGF Super Tuesday is now part of the Northern Green and on the registration form. The MTGF classes will focus on issues with Emerald Ash Borer and other invasive tree pests, emphasizing forecasting, treatment, removal considerations, planting recommendations, etc. For more information and to see the complete lineup, go to http://northerngreen.org/. Best regards,

Kent Honl Kent Honl President Minnesota Turf and Grounds Foundation 2 MTGF CLIPPINGS ~ FALL / WINTER 2016

www.MTGF.org


The Minnesota Turf and Grounds Foundation, a non-profit organization, is a partnership of seven turf- and grounds-related associations and the University of Minnesota. Members of the following associations are also considered members of the Minnesota Turf and Grounds Foundation. 4 4 4 4

Minnesota Minnesota Minnesota Minnesota

Society of Arboriculture Association of Cemeteries Park & Sports Turf Managers Association Educational Facilities Management Professionals

4 Minnesota Sod Producers 4 Minnesota Turf Seed Council 4 Minnesota Golf Course Superintendents’ Association

MTGF CLIPPINGS - TABLE OF CONTENTS 2 5 5 6 7 8 9 10 10 10 11 11 13 14 16 16 16 18 18

President’s Report: The Business of the MTGF - Honl Field Day: A Great Day to Spend Outside and Learn from the U Northern Green: MTGF Educational Update for 2017 Soil Wetting Agents for Water Conservation - Bauer Irrigation Systems for Boulevards and Roadsides - Reyes & Shwab 2016 Elm Inoculation Trials - Johnson, Giblin, Murphy, Blanchette, Held & Beier NORTHERN GREEN REGISTRATION PACKAGES - 2017 Managing Plant Disease in the Landscape with IPM - Grabowski Community Gravel Beds - Johnson Fine Fescues - The Hope of Low Input Turfgrass Management - Qiu Science of the Green Initiative - Horgan & Anderson Carbon Sequestration of Turf - Trappe Fine Fescue No-Mow Grasses and Consumer Mixtures - Hollman New Insecticides for White Grubs - Krischik IPM Programs for Insect Management - Hahn The First Year of Tree Maintenance - North Perennial Ryegrass Breeding and Seed Production - Heineck The Potential for Tall Fescue in Minnesota - Watkins Developing Programs to Reduce Environmental Impact Quotient Field Rate

THE MTGF/UM FIELD DAY took place on Aug. 12 at the University of Minnesota St. Paul campus at TROE Center, The UM Trial Gardens and UFORE Nursery on August 12. Attendance was 188. Presenters at Field Day have brief descriptions of their research published in this issue of MTGF CLIPPINGS.

- Orshinsky and vanRyzin COVER: Gary Johnson, Professor/Extension Professor,, Urban and Community Forestry, addresses a Field Day group.

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FALL / WINTER 2016 ~ MTGF CLIPPINGS 3


Athletic Field • Construction • Re-Construction • Maintenance Golf Course • Tee Construction • Re-Construction

Our KORO TOPMAKER removes by stripping the face of the field sod or existing turf. The sod or turf is then loaded into a truck and hauled off-site. This process is better for a field’s future when making corrections versus roto-tilling existing sod or turf back into the ground. • Sodding • Seeding • Over Seeding • Laser Leveling • Grading • Spraying • Aeration • Fertilizing • Detailing • Consulting

MIKE BRUNELLE 612-817-5296 magicturfs@msn.com

www.magicturfs.com

HereToday,LawnTomorrow!

11920 Park Dr., Rogers, MN 55374


MTGF/University of Minnesota Turf & Grounds Field Day Was a Great Day to Spend Outside Learning from the U The 2016 Turf & Grounds Field Day was back on the St. Paul campus this year as the University of Minnesota once again partnered with the Minnesota Turf and Grounds Foundation to produce the event at TROE Center, the UM Trial Gardens and UFore Nursery. Including speakers and presenters, 188 people were registered for Field Day. The weather was looking like it would be an issue less than a few hours before Field Day was set to begin but a major storm blew through just in time for the rain to stop and have the UM show begin! The Field Day was presented by University of Minnesota faculty and staff working in turfgrass science and horticulture and ran from 7 a.m. to 1 p.m. with presentation topics ranging from turfgrass species for natural areas to disease management in turf and trees to state-of-the-art drones (pictured at the right). Thirteen vendors participated with outdoor displays and equipment demonstrations. Descriptions of the Field Day presentations are published in this issue. Some expanded versions of the descriptions are available at www.mtgf.org/fieldday.

MTGF's Super Tuesday Now Part of Northern Green: Still on Tuesday & Full of Education Jan. 10, 2017 The MTGF Super Tuesday is now a part of the Northern Green. People wishing to attend, register for the Tuesday portion of the Northern Green at www.northerngreen.org. The MTGF track for Tues,. Jan. 10, 2017 is as follows: 9:00 a.m.

1:00 a.m. What is the Best Way to Treat Ash Trees? Best Management Practices Rich Hauer, Ph.D. Professor of Urban Forestry, University of Wisconsin / Stevens Point

Emerald Ash Borer Update: Where is it Now? How Bad? What is the Future? Mark Abrahamson, Minnesota Dept. of Agriculture

2:00 p.m. Don’t Hate Me for not Recommending Your Favorite Tree Chad Giblin, University of Minnesota

10:00 a.m. Asian Longhorn Beetle and Other Insects on the Horizon Gretchen Pettis, Bartlett Tree

3:00 p.m. Gravel Beds: Future Production Methods To Maximize Your Dollar and Other Containment Methods

11:00 a.m. Risk Factor: When Ash Trees Die and Fall Apart Mike Dye, S & S Tree Service

Gary Johnson, University of Minnesota

www.MTGF.org

For more information, go to www.northerngreen.org

FALL / WINTER 2016 ~ MTGF CLIPPINGS 5


SOIL WETTING AGENTS FOR WATER CONSERVATION By Sam Bauer, Extension Educator, University of Minnesota Extension Soil wetting agent use in the turfgrass industry has increased dramatically over the last 20 years. Turfgrass managers look to wetting agents for many purposes, such as improving moisture retention in hydrophobic soils and for promoting overall soil moisture uniformity (Zontek and Kostka, 2012). There is a breadth of knowledge and research around soil wetting agent impacts on moisture dymanics in soils and benefits to turfgrass health, although many regional and multi-year trials fail to replicate the same performance of wetting agent chemistries (Karnok, 2013).    Wetting agents are surfactants, or surface-active agents, that work by reducing the surface tension of water and restoring the polar bond between water molecules and soil particles (Karnok et al., 2004). A current classification system by Zontek and Kostka (2012) groups wetting agents into four categories: 1) anionics and blends with anionics, 2) nonionics, 3) cationics, and 4) new chemistries. Nonionic products are by far the most widely used due to relatively low phytotoxicity and persistence in the soil (Carrow, 1989), and they can be further broken down into 6 categories based on specific active ingredients (Zontek and Kostka, 2012). Reported practitioner benefits of wetting agent use include relieving localized dry spot, improving drainage, managing water, improving pesticide movement, decreasing dew formation, removing frost, enhancing seed germination, reducing fairy ring, improving irrigation efficiency, reducing dust and improving bunker firmness (Karnok et al., 2004). More recently, wetting agents are being promoted for their value in creating firmer playing surfaces, although several studies lack evidence for these

Table 1

Do You Use Wetting Agents on Putting Greens? Answer

%

Count

Yes

87.50% 12.50% 100%

56 8 64

No Total

claims (Kaminski and Han, 2010; Moeller et al., 2007; Nangle et al., 2015). In the spring of 2016, a wetting agent survey was emailed to the Minnesota Golf Course Superintendent’s Association and 64 golf course superintendents completed the survey. Almost 90% of the superintendent respondents indicated that they apply wetting agents to putting greens (Table 1) and 55% apply wetting agents to fairways (Table 2).  When asked what characteristics they look for in soil wetting agents, a majority of the respondents indicated that they use wetting agents for preventing localized dry spot, improving moisture infiltration and uniformity, to create firmer surfaces, and to improve stress tolerances. Wetting agents can in fact do all of these things, however results are often difficult to duplicate and can be inconsistent from one property to the next. Turfgrass managers have a multitude of wetting agent offerings. (Continued on Page 7)

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www.MTGF.org


Irrigation Systems for Boulevards and Roadsides By Jonah Reyes and Ryan Schwab, Department of Horticultural Science University of Minnesota

SAM BAUER, left, University of Minnesota Extension, played a big role in organizing a successful MTGF / UM Field Day at TROE Center, The UM Trial Gardens and UFORE Nursery on August 12. Bauer discussed the multitude of wetting agent offerings for turfgrass managers, with a focus on water conservation and also the most recent wetting agent trials being conducted at the Turfgrass Research, Outreach and Education Center. Attendance was 188. Field Day is presented outdoors every other year outdoors. Presenters at Field Day have descriptions of their research published in this issue of MTGF CLIPPINGS.

Soil Wetting Agent for Water Conservation(Continued from Page 6)

Table 2

Do you use wetting agents on fairways? Answer

%

Count

Yes No Total

54.55% 45.45% 100%

30 25 55

Credits: Carrow, R.N. 1989. Understanding wetting agents: A look at how they influence soils can help superintendents better predict the results of treatment. Golf Course Management. June. 57(6):18, 22, 24, 26. Kaminski, J. E. and Han, K. 2010. Influence of various wetting agents on soil moisture, rooting, and drought stress on a research putting green. 2010 Annual Turfgrass Research Report, Penn State. p. 1-12. Karnok, K. 2013. Wetting agent chemistry: Who cares? Golf Course Management. 81(7):70, 72, 74, 76 Karnok, K.J., K. Xia, K.A. Tucker. 2004. Wetting agents: What are they, and how do they work?: A better understanding of how wetting agents work will lead to their more effective use on the golf course. Golf Course Management. June. 72(6):84-86. Moeller, A., C.A. Bigelow., J.R. Nemits, G. Hardebeck. 2007. Putting green surface hardness as affected by wetting agent applications. Abstracts: 2007 International. Annual Meetings ASA/CSSA/SSSA. Nangle, E.J., R. Townsend, B. Thomson, and P. McGroary. 2015. Investigating the impact of wetting agent use on turfgrass surfaces in the Chicago Area. Abstracts: 2015 International. Annual Meetings ASA/CSSA/SSSA. Zontek, S.J., and S.J. Kostka. 2012. Understanding the different wetting agent chemistries: A surfactant is a wetting agent but a wetting agent may not be a surfactant. Surprised? USGA Green Section Record. July. 50(15):1-6.

www.MTGF.org

The use of salt-tolerant sod and seed mixtures on roadsides has been the result of a collaborative effort between the Minnesota Department of Transportation and the University of Minnesota. Through previous research the University has developed MNST-12, a mixture of primarily fine fescue species that have been implemented as sod or seed on roadsides in Minnesota. Through on-site assessments, we have determined that there are a significant number of roadside sod establishment failures, even with the use of the improved mixtures. After evaluation, it has been concluded that these failures are the result of several factors including poor pre- and post-installation watering, poor soil preparation, seasonal weather influence, slow rooting of fine fescue sod and lack of nutrients. The primary factor limiting the success of the salt-tolerant turfgrass has been watering during establishment. It was determined that current watering practices are insufficient and costly, alternative methods for irrigating fine fescue sod/seed need to be investigated. This research involves the implementation and testing of five alternative systems for irrigating seed and sod establishments on roadsides. These systems have currently been installed on two roadsides in 2016 and we will be evaluating two additional sites in 2017, as well as one establishment on a sloped area at the Turfgrass Research Center. Treatments were established for Site 1 on Larpenteur Avenue in mid-May and were in operation for a 60-day watering period. The treatments consisted of both 12 and 18 inch emitter spacing Netafim Streamline 630 Series 8 mil drip line (place above or beneath sod or seed), fixed spray head using 5’x15’ side strip MP Rotator nozzles, and an unirrigated control. The treatments were installed on both seed and sod in 4.5 ft wide by 15 ft long plots on the roadside boulevard. The site was prepped and the irrigation was installed during a two week period prior to seeding and sodding. The water source for the treatments was a water hydrant located in the boulevard with a meter and ¾” connection provided by Saint Paul Regional Water Services. Seed treatments were seeded at a rate of 4 lbs. per 1000 ft2. Seed and sod treatments were fertilized with 14-1414 fertilizer at a rate of 1lb. P2O5 per 1000 ft2. Seed treatments were watered after seeding with an adequate amount of water to moisten the entire area. Sod treatment areas were watered prior to installation and immediately after to achieve 1inch of water applied. For the following ten days after installation all treatments were watered at a rate to keep the area moist. On days 1130 treatments were watered to achieve 1” per week. For the remaining 30 days water was applied at a rate of 0.5” per week.

Table 1

Treament

Row and Emitter Spacing

Gallons Per Hour

Operating Pressure

Above or Below

Netafim streamline

18” X 18”

0.26

15 psi

Above

Netafim streamline

12” X 12”

0.26

15 psi

Above

Netafim streamline

18” X 18”

0.26

15 psi

Below

Netafim streamline

12” X 12”

0.26

15 psi

Below

Overhead

15’ (5’X15’) 26.4

40 psi

NA

Control

NA

NA

NA

NA

FALL / WINTER 2016 ~ MTGF CLIPPINGS 7


2016 ELM INOCULATION TRIALS UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA ELM SELECTION PROGRAM Project Investigators: Gary Johnson, Chad Giblin, Ryan Murphy - Department of Forest Resources Robert Blanchette, Ben Held, Garrett Beier - Department of Plant Pathology The University of Minnesota Elm Selection Program (UMESP) has been working to discover Minnesota survivor elms with putative tolerance to Dutch elm disease (DED) caused by Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. UMESP consistently uses commercially available elm selections during inoculation trials for comparison with newly discovered genotypes. This project continues the screening of potentially resistant Minnesota native elm selections to Dutch elm disease (DED), both in the greenhouse and field and it also supports work to find more rapid methods of propagation and screening. This joint effort between Professors Robert Blanchette and Gary Johnson and staff from Forest Resources, Plant Pathology and Horticulture at the University of Minnesota is showing great promise in obtaining DED resistant elm cultivars that will thrive in Minnesota and across the northern United States. Dutch elm disease has been in Minnesota since 1961, since that time, the losses have been enormous and disease has killed millions of elm trees. The American elm is an excellent tree for urban areas and is also a very important forest species. The elm tolerates salt, pollution and other stresses better than most other tree species. It also is an important component in the ecology of Minnesota’s forests. Continued heavy disease pressure from the aggressive strain of the pathogen, Ophiostoma novo-ulmi is continuing to kill large numbers of elms around the state annually. Of great interest are the few trees that remain alive in areas of heavy disease pressure. With the help of arborists, foresters and the public throughout the state, we have been able to identify surviving elms that appear to have disease resistance. However, to determine if these trees are in fact resistant it is necessary to propagate the trees and rigorously test them by inoculation with the pathogen. Field testing of these trees is also essential and for this long term research to be successful continued support is needed. In an effort to combat DED and keep American elms in our landscapes, disease-resistant elm selections are being used with increasing frequency in urban areas. This has been a positive trend toward the reestablishment of the American elm, however, the DED pathogen has hybridized in the recent past and Ophiostoma ulmi has been displaced by the more virulent strain Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. Because the resistance mechanisms in elm are not currently understood, it is not clear how today’s resistant varieties will tolerate the pathogen if its’ virulence changes in the future. The resistance of particular elms to DED will last only as long as the virulence of the pathogen remains the same or lower. This means it is very important to have a variety of genotypes of resistant elms to protect against losing large populations of trees with similar genetic background. Furthermore, it is exceedingly important that newly-identified trees and putatively-resistant trees are thoroughly tested before they are marketed as “resistant”. Princeton American Elm Inoculation Trials

World War II Memorial, Minnesota State Capitol - Saint Paul Dutch elm disease inoculation trials at the Minnesota State Capitol will examine different inoculation protocols and techniques and their resulting effects on Princeton American elm. This will involve different branch inoculations, which may prove to be a more “real world” test and allow examination of resistance with more precision. There is little consensus on current disease inoculation protocols and additional research is necessary to examine ways to effectively screen survivor elms for disease tolerance. 8 MTGF CLIPPINGS ~ FALL / WINTER 2016

Inoculation Protocol: Trees will be injected with a spore suspension of the DED pathogen (Ophiostoma novo-ulmi) and evaluated for disease progression every two weeks during the remainder of the growing season. A liquid spore suspension of Ophiostoma novo-ulmi will be grown in a shaker for three days and diluted to a concentration of 1.0 x 106. Thirty microliters of the spore suspension will be injected into a small (2.5mm) hole drilled into branches or the main stem. Holes will then be covered with laboratory film to prevent drying. Fungicide Injection: A subsample of the inoculated trees will be selected to test the efficacy of using injectable fungicides to halt disease progression and provide options for those experiencing DED in the disease-resistant elm population. Two trees receiving a main stem injection and two trees receiving a branch inoculation will be treated with a commercially available, injectable fungicide using standard injection protocols. Observation Protocol: Disease progression following inoculation will consist of a rating scale (0-5) based on the percent wilt in the crown of the trees where 0 = not wilt, 1 = 1-24% wilt, 2 = 25-49% wilt, 3 = 50-74% wilt, 4 = 75-99% wilt and 5 = complete wilt. Trees will also be assessed the following growing season to confirm the outcome of disease progression. National Elm Trial - Inoculation Trials Minnesota Landscape Arboretum - Chanhassen

The National Elm Trial, coordinated by Colorado State University, sought to evaluate the growth and performance of commercially available elm varieties in differing climatic zones around the United States. The Minnesota Landscape Arboretum (MLA) was the location for one of the 17 evaluation sites. The trial plot at MLA was established between 2004 and 2007. In total, 16 different commercially available genotypes were planted. All growth and performance data for the National Elm Trial has been collected from this trial plot as of 2015. With the conclusion of the National Elm Trial evaluation period, the trial plot at the MLA presents itself as a good opportunity to test commercially available DED tolerant elm cultivars against a local isolate of O. novo-ulmi which is currently used in UMESP inoculation trials. Inoculation with a current local isolate of the DED causing fungus will complement the ten years of growth and performance data already obtained from the trial plot. Furthermore, this inoculation trial will give up-to-date tolerance data for the commercially available elm cultivars to a potentially more virulent strain of the DED causing fungus. Inoculation Protocol & Observation Protocol Princeton American Elm Inoculation Trials

The American elm is a critical species not only for Minnesota, but nationwide. Continued testing of known resistant cultivars in addition to putative selections in the landscape is key to fighting this exotic disease. The elms in the national elm plot trial provide an excellent opportunity to field test large known and lesser known DED resistant cultivars. This information is valuable to assess the tolerance or lack thereof in cultivars that have been developed in the past and would supplement the large body of growth data that has been compiled over the last decade in these plots. (Editor’s Note: More information about this project is available at www.mtgf.org/fieldday.htm)

www.MTGF.org


www.MTGF.org

FALL / WINTER 2016 ~ MTGF CLIPPINGS 9


Managing Plant Disease In the Landscape with IPM By Michelle Grabowski University of Minnesota Extension Integrated Pest Management is a strategy to minimize damage from plant diseases by learning about the pathogen and its biology in order to choose the most effective management strategy. In IPM, management options include genetic resistance, cultural control practices, biological control, chemical control or a combination of several management practices. By August, many active plant diseases can be found in the landscape including leaf spots and blights, cankers and galls, root rots and wilts. This is a prime time to submit a sample to the UMN Plant Disease Clinic for an accurate diagnosis of the problem. Many plant pathogens are reproducing and actively growing at this time, providing a variety of signs and symptoms to aide in diagnosis. August is not always the optimal time to implement management strategies however. Understanding the biology of the pathogen allows you to decide what management strategies will be effective now, and which are better implemented at different times of the growing season. Canker and gall infections can be flagged this time of year to prune and remove during the dormant season when risk of infection of the pruning cut is low. Removal of leaves infected by fungal and bacterial leaf spot and blight pathogens throughout the growing season and after first frost can reduce pathogen spread and survival from one growing season to the next. Although this is true for many fungal and bacterial foliar pathogens, the fungi that cause rust and powdery mildew may overwinter on an alternate host or in infected buds. In addition,

spores are readily spread on the wind for both rust and powdery mildew fungi, making fall sanitation largely ineffective against these two pathogens. Fungicide and bactericide applications to protect plants from leaf spot and blight disease are most effective when applied before disease occurs or when infection levels are very low. Although clients may call with disease problems at the end of the growing season, it is often too late to effectively use chemical control to manage foliar blights. Learning about diseases in the landscape now can allow you to create a solid management plan for the end of this growing season and all through the next.

Community Gravel Beds: An Option for Developing Better Root Systems and Reforesting Landscapes on a Budget By Gary Johnson, Extension Professor, Department of Forest Resources, Unviversity of Minnesota Invasive pathogens and insect pests, climates that are increasingly more extreme and municipal budgets that are always stretched thin. All of these conditions make planting and maintaining a sustainable urban landscape more challenging than ever. One option for keeping up with tree planting and adding to the urban canopy is planting bare-rooted trees from community gravel beds. The selection is excellent. The price is right. They're easy to handle and they can be planted in late summer and autumn when there are fewer time constraints. Spend some time with us to examine the improved root system development of trees in gravel beds, which species perform best, how to construct and maintain a gravel bed and how to handle the trees when it's time to plant. It'll be worth your time.

FINE FESCUES - THE HOPE OF LOW INPUT TURFGRASS MANAGMENT By Yinjie Qiu, Research Assistant, Plant Breeding and Molecular Genetics University of Minnesota Creeping bentgrass and annual bluegrass are the major turfgrass species on golf courses and Kentucky bluegrass dominates home lawns in Minnesota. These grasses all have desired color, traffic tolerance, and good shoot density, however, they are vulnerable to abiotic stresses like drought and biotic stress like diseases such as dollar spot, rust, and snow mold. Breeding turfgrass species for disease resistance is not easy: most disease resistance mechanisms involve multiple gene interactions and novel gene resources. For this reason, it is hard for current cultivar development when the existing germplasm collection cannot provide sufficient resistance. In addition, different from most major crops, like maize, wheat, and rice, that have whole genomic sequence available, the limitation on the genomic information, further restricts the researcher to apply more modern techniques for the breeding work. Fine fescues show high potential as low input turfgrasses. Fine fescues have five main subspecies within the family that are used for turf: hard fescues, slender creeping red fescue, chewings fescue, sheep fescue and strong creeping red fescue. Each of these five species has its own unique characteristics. For example, strong creeping red fescue can quickly form a dense turf under low to high fertility; chewings fescue has excellent shade tolerance, slender creeping red fescues tolerate lower mowing heights and have good salt tolerance. Many fine fescues have exceptional disease resistance. For example, hard fescue is highly resistance to snow mold, a major 10 MTGF CLIPPINGS ~ FALL / WINTER 2016

winter disease in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the region. Hard fescue also has high resistance to dollar spot and rust. Besides disease resistance, the use of fine fescue can reduce herbicide applications. In field trials, some fine fescues are able to inhibit the development of weeds due to allelopathy, which means that the plants exude chemical compounds that prevent the development of weeds. Fine fescues also have great drought tolerance. The fine fescues planted in Living Laboratory areas at University of Minnesota haven’t been watered in years and they are still doing fine. The main drawbacks of the fine fescues are low heat and traffic tolerance. Research Programs

Our research programs focus on understanding: 1) The genetic bases of the snow mold disease resistance in hard fescue, 2) Trying to understand the mechanism behind the weeds inhibition in fine fescue species. 3) What mixes of fescues can produce an acceptable traffic tolerance on fairways. With our research going on, it is likely we can utilize fine fescues to develop breeding programs to breed fine fescue for better traffic tolerance and heat tolerance. In the meantime, fine fescues could be used as the precious genetic pool to enrich the diversity of our turf community. www.MTGF.org


SCIENCE OF THE GREEN INITIATIVE Dr. Brian Horgan, Ph.D. Professor, University of Minnesota Parker Anderson, Researcher, University of Minnesota Golf courses are currently perceived by the majority of the public as a resource-intensive land use that provides minimal benefit to the surrounding community. Those within the industry know that many of these allegations of waste are not valid. However, some are justified. The golf industry has historically fought regulation and scrutiny, believing that increased regulation on a facility will increase operation costs. In order to shift the perception of the public and halt the downward trajectory on which the golf industry currently finds itself, innovative approaches to golf course management and operation need to be adopted. An industry insider has stated that the “political reality is that for the 90 to 95 percent of the public who are not golfers, the use of pesticides and fertilizers on a golf course carries absolutely no benefit, so why should they be willing to tolerate any risk, actual or perceived?” and “as long as potentially lethal chemicals are used on golf courses, no amount of research will eliminate the potential risk to the satisfaction of the non-golfer.” By highlighting the value added to communities, golf courses can demonstrate to golfers, and more importantly to non-golfers, that their local facility is a benefit to their area and a welcome partner in the betterment of their community. Renowned golf course architect Dr. Alister Mackenzie stated, “The chief object of every golf architect and green-keeper worth

his salt is to imitate the beauties of nature so closely as to make his work indistinguishable from nature itself.” Carefully considering the ecosystems of the facility in developing a management plan for the golf course is critical in demonstrating the value of golf courses to the skeptical non-golfers of the community. The Science of the Green Initiative is developing a partnership with the University of Minnesota Institute on the Environment Natural Capital Project (NatCap). NatCap aims to integrate the values of nature into decisions affecting the environment and human well-being. This partnership focuses attention on the values and services that a golf course provides to the local ecosystem, the local community, as well as a broader scale of stakeholders. For example, in many urban areas undergoing increased development of impermeable surfaces, golf courses are often refuges of green space in these built environments that provide the area with valuable water filtration and stormwater management, habitat for various species, and any other ecological functions for the community. Appraising these values of a golf facility demonstrate the importance of golf in society today. CREDITS: Doak, T. (1992). The Anatomy of a Golf Course (pp 210). Short Hills, NJ: Burford Books. Doak, T. (1992). The Anatomy of a Golf Course (pp 210). Short Hills, NJ: Burford Books. Mackenzie, A. (1997). Golf course architecture. New York: Classics of Golf. University of Minnesota Institute on the Environment. (2016). Natural Capital Project. Retrieved from http://environment.umn.edu/discovery/natcap/

CARBON SEQUESTRATION OF TURF Jon Trappe, Postdoctoral Research Associate, Department of Horticulture Carbon is a fundamental component of all living things and environmental systems. It has risen in the public’s awareness in recent years because of increased concentrations of carbon-based greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. These greenhouse gases have been associated with climate change and play an in important role in the growth and maintenance of turfgrasses in urban environments (lawns, parks, athletic fields, golf courses, roadsides). Carbon sequestration occurs when more carbon is entering a system than leaving. With respect to turfgrass systems, when we are talking about carbon sequestration we are generally talking about the accumulation of organic matter. This is because approximately 50% of organic matter is carbon. In most growing systems, agronomists attempt to increase or prevent the decrease in soil organic matter. Turfgrass systems are particularly efficient at accumulating high amounts of organic matter due to their high maintenance levels and their tendency to produce a thatch-mat layer. Some groups of professionals in the turf industry want to actively maintain their organic matter in thatch produced from many species of turfgrasses. Organic matter refers to a pool of plant matter that is in various states of decay by soil microorganisms. When turf leaves or other plant parts enter the soil, they are almost immediately acted upon by soil microorganisms. Soil microorganisms transform the plant residues into biopolymers, followed by smaller molecules, and eventually to chemical constituents such as sugars, amino acids, proteins, cellulose, hemicellulose, www.MTGF.org

fats, starches and waxes, and lignins and tanins. More complex chemical structures such as cellulose and lignin are more difficult for microorganisms to break down and result in more stable forms of organic matter that contribute to long-term OM accumulation. Many factors contribute to OM accumulation including: plant species, plant growth rate and subsequent decay, biological activity, soil chemical and physical properties, environmental conditions, and cultural practices. In general, most turfgrass systems have a high capacity for storing carbon in the soil. This is because turf systems are typically a perennial stand, are often established on C depleted soils, and are often maintained to produce an ideal growing environment for the plant. Whether or not turfgrass systems are effectively keeping the carbon in the soil long-term is dependent on many things such as soil type or environmental conditions. Other factors such as turf species or cultivar selection, soil cultivation practices, and fertilization, pesticide, and irrigation applications are all decisions made by the turfgrass professional that can affect a turf’s ability to sequester carbon. Research is currently being conducted by turfgrass scientists in conjunction with climate scientists on ways to enhance carbon sequestration potential of turfgrass systems while reducing the emission of greenhouse gases in their maintenance. Ultimately, this research will result in turfgrasses that can be actively growing throughout the year and require minimal inputs (mowing, fertilizer, irrigation, cultivation). FALL / WINTER 2016 ~ MTGF CLIPPINGS 11


ATHLETIC II

athletic grass mixture with RPR

Great in Grass® Athletic II is a high quality mix of Barenbrug’s award winning RPR® (Regenerating Perennial Ryegrass®) and two proven Kentucky bluegrass varieties. Athletic II is ideal for sports fields due to it’s unrivaled traffic tolerance and unique ability of RPR to repair itself. No other perennial ryegrass on the market is as unique as RPR.

Why Athletic II with RPR Self-repairing Excellent green color Fast establishment Dense turf High seed quality The varieties used in ATHLETIC II are:

Athletic II with RPR comes in a yellow Barenbrug bag so you can rest assured you are receiving the highest quality seed available. Don’t take chances with your turf - rely on

50% RPR 25% Barduke 25% Barimpala

Regenerating perennial ryegrass Kentucky bluegrass Kentucky bluegrass

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FINE FESCUE NO-MOW GRASSES AND CONSUMER MIXTURES Andrew Hollman, Senior Scientist - Turfgrass Science, University of Minnesota Consumers of grass seed, whether they are homeowners or professionals, can often be overwhelmed with information when trying to figure out what they should plant. Even if they have an idea on what species or mixture they would like to plant, the correct rate can vary depending on the specific site use. Two demonstration plots were planted at the University of Minnesota Turfgrass Research, Outreach and Education Center. One shows consumers what some of the commercially available mixtures look like when managed at lawn height. The other plot demonstrates seeding rates of 5 fine fescue species along with mixtures

of these species. The consumer mixture study was seeded on June 11, 2014. Twenty mixtures were planted in 5 x 10 foot plots. These mixtures were readily available and purchased from big box stores, garden stores or over the web. Seeding rates for each mixture was based off of what the packaging recommended. All plots received 1 lb. of P2O5 from a starter fertilizer, were covered with a Futerra germination blankets and were irrigated until established. Plots are mowed at 2.5 inches and receive 2 fertilizer applications annually in the spring and fall. lbs./1000ft2

Cost ($)

Plot

Company

Mixture Name

Product

Seed

Lb. of seed

1000 ft2

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Telebrands Performance Seed Pennington Seed The Scotts Company Barenbrug Barenbrug Barenbrug Performance Seed Encap, LLC The Scotts Company Performance Seed Performance Seed Organic Grass Seed & Supply Amturf Twin City Seed Twin City Seed JRK Seed & Turf Supply JRK Seed & Turf Supply JRK Seed & Turf Supply JRK Seed & Turf Supply

Grassology Easy Green Dense Shade Midwest Mix Sun and Shade High Traffic Pebble Beach Fairway Shade Grass Grass Repair Kit Tall Fescue Northern Blend Thick 'N Hardy Cutting Edge Dog Patch Beisswenger's Dense Shade Beisswenger's Low Grow Gerten's Soft Drink Eco Mix JRK Ultra Dense Shade Mix Gerten's Cabin Mix JRK Honey Bee Mix

4.01 5.01 4.01 2.31 3.00 3.00 5.01 4.01 14.64 4.01 5.01 5.01 4.01 34.88 6.68 6.68 4.01 7.61 6.01 5.01

1.92 4.83 3.44 1.11 2.69 2.92 4.17 3.84 2.86 1.96 4.81 4.81 3.85 3.45 6.52 6.68 3.93 7.48 5.91 4.90

13.90 1.45 5.55 10.40 3.72 3.43 2.40 2.43 12.22 5.25 2.39 2.70 8.33 40.39 5.45 6.99 5.59 8.13 5.07 5.61

26.69 6.99 19.13 11.53 9.99 9.99 9.98 9.32 34.97 10.29 11.51 13.01 32.04 139.32 35.54 46.66 21.99 60.81 29.98 27.49

Plot Numbers for Fine Fescue Single Species at Six Seeding Rates Species Chf Hdf Shf Slf stf

Cultivar Compass Beacon Marco Polo Seabreeze GT Navigator II

Seeding Rate (Pure Live Seeds per cm2) 0.125 0.25 0.5 1 2 3 805 801 1005 703 502 80 2 904 505 503 705 1003 10 1004 704 401 905 301 1001 701 302 804 201 104 903 303 202 404 803 601 902

The consumer mixture plots shows that while some of the species in a mixture may germinate quickly, their aesthetic often do not mix well with the other species in the mixture. This demo also shows the variation in price between different products when www.MTGF.org

Plot Numbers for Fine Fescue Mixtures at Two Seeding Rates Mixture 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Seeding Rate Species Components 0.25 CHF HDF SHF 501 CHF HDF SLCRF 1002 CHF HDF STCRF 203 CHF SHF SLCRF 504 CHF SHF STCRF 702 CHF SLCRF STCRF 103 HDF SHF SLCRF 603 HDF SHF STCRF 204 HDF SLCRF STCRF 604 SHF SLCRF STCRF 102

0.5 605 901 402 305 304 403 105 205 602 405

(Pure Live Seeds per cm2)

The fine fescue seeding rate demo was seeded August 12, 2015. For each of the five species of fine fescue a single cultivar was used. The seeding rate was based on pure live seed (PLS) per area to limit the impact variation in seed size might play in density. Six rates (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 & 3.0 PLS/cm2) for a single cultivar of each of the fine fescue species was seeded into 10x12ft plots. Two rates (0.25 & 0.5 PLS/cm2) were used for 10 possible three-way mixtures of the 5 species. Plots were stripped with three different starter fertilizers (Andersons 12-24-8, Anderson 12-24-8 +Tupersan, Scotts Starter w/weed control). Plots were covered with Futerra blankets and irrigated until established. Biomass was removed July 26, 2016 with a John Deere Deck mower with a Goosen vac attachment.

going with the recommended seeding rate. The fine fescue demo had very little weed pressure in the areas that were stripped with Scotts starter fertilizer that contained mesotrione. This product produced a slight thinning of the germinating stand. The highest seeding rates had fewer weeds than the lower rates. This high seeding rate also produced turf stands that had few seedheads. This large amount of seedheads from the low seeding rate led to plots that were completely lodged. The high seeding rates produced the cleanest stands of fine fescue with, limited seedhead production and lodging the following year. This leads to less biomass that needs to be removed in order to maintain an aesthetically pleasing stand, but might still be too dense for an in play area on a golf course. FALL / WINTER 2016 ~ MTGF CLIPPINGS 13


NEW INSECTICIDES FOR WHITE GRUBS By Dr. Vera Krischik, Department of Entomology, University of Minnesota Using Insecticides Preventively in an IPM Program

Neonicotinoids often take several days to start working, but remain active for several weeks or months. Imidacloprid is less water soluble than dinotefuran, thiamethoxam or clothianidin and has less chance of being washed off the grass by irrigation and rain. In my research I find imidacloprid granular formulations (Merit 0.5%) dissolve slowly compared to foliar sprays (Merit 2F) and are much more effective. Imidacloprid can only be used one time in the season at the higher application rate. If you apply imidacloprid in May at the maximum rate of 0.4lb/acre, then your second application in late July can be another neonicotinyl such as thiamethoxam (Meridian 0.33G, 25WG) or clothianidin (Aloft GCG, Arena 0.25G, 50 WDG). Care should be taken when using any neonicotinoid to avoid applications when honeybees are foraging, such as when Clover or Creeping Charlie are in bloom. Environmentally friendly insecticides that do not kill predatory insects or bees are chlorantraniliprole (Acelepryn G) that can be used in May thru July or the bacteria in GrubGone!. Future Research to Control White Grubs in Soil

Research in Michigan and Kansas have centered on the establishment of two soil microsporidian pathogens of Japanese beetle (JB) grubs, Ovavesicula popilliae and Stictospora sp. Stictospora

was found at most locations in Michigan (25/36) where JB infestations have been active for more than 20 yr, but was scarce or absent from areas where JB has become established in the last 10 yr. Stictospora infects both the larvae and adults. Infection initially develops in the malpighian tubules of the larvae, but becomes systemic in infected adults. Ovavesicula popilliae has been used as a biological control agent for the JB and has been shown to be detrimental to both larval and adult beetles through an increase in larval winter mortality. JB become infected with O. popilliae when larvae ingest spores. Infected larvae may survive to adulthood and transfer spores to eggs. Adult beetles are capable of traveling over 8 km in a single flight, and thus represent a highly mobile stage of infected hosts. At Michigan golf courses where Ovavesicula popilliae was released, more than 25% of the JB grubs were found to be infected. Grub winter mortality was twice higher at sites where O. popilliae was found (57.4% compared with 28.2%). At sites where O. popilliae is active, JB populations declined 67% or more per year when compared with sites without O. popilliae. Since the two biological control agents, the fly Istocheta aldrichi and the tiphid wasp, Tiphia vernalis, do not control infestations in Minnesota, we should think about developing some management program with traps baited with pathogens and dissemination of O.popilliae in golf courses.

Table 1. Insecticides Available for Control of White Grubs in Soil * Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (www.irac-online.org) Neonicotinoid Grub Insecticides It may take a few days to be absorbed, but are effective for weeks.  Apply insecticides for grubs from mid-July until early September. Insecticide

Imidacloprid (Bayer, Merit and many generic products) Arena (Valent, 50% chlothianidin) Meridian (Syngenta, 0.33% thiamethoxam) Zylam (PBI-Gordon, 20% dinotefuran)

Chemical Class/IRA Number*

Timing, Benefits

Neonicotinoid (4A) Neonicotinoid (4A) Neonicotinoid (4A) Neonicotinoid (4A) very water soluble

Preventive, low toxicity to mammals, Preventive, low toxicity to mammals, Preventive, low toxicity to mammals, Preventive, low toxicity to mammals,

Neonicotinoid (4A) Pyrethroid (3)

Preventive

Aloft (Valent, 0.25% chlothianidin and 0.125% bifenthrin)

Neonicotinoid (4A) Pyrethroid (3)

Preventive

Less toxic to pollinators and beneficial insects Acelepryn G (Syngenta, 0.2% chlorantraniliprole)

Anthranilic Diamide(28)

Grubgone! Bacillus thuringiensis galleriae 

Preventive, low toxicity to bees and beneficial insects, water before and after

Pathogen

Milky spore disease, Paenibacillus popillia

Preventive, low toxicity to bees and beneficial insects, water before and after

Pathogen

Does not appear to be effective.

Entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema carpocapsae,  S. glaseri, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora

Pathogen

Preventive, low toxicity to bees and beneficial insects, water before and daily after application

Table 2. Spray on Foliage of Ornamentals or Turf For Managing Japanese Beetle Adults Pyganic (Valent,1.4% pyrethris), azadirachtin bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, llambdacyhalothrin carbaryl chlorpyrifos imidacloprid

Pyrethrins (3) unknown Pyrethroids (3) Carbamate (1B) Organophosphate (1A) Neonicotinoid (4A)

High toxicity to bees, birds, fish. Has some repellant properties for JB High toxicity to bees, birds, fish High toxicity to bees, birds, fish High toxicity to bees, birds, fish High toxicity to bees, birds, fish

Pyrethroid (3) Anthranilic Diamide(28) Neonicotinoid (4A) Pyrethroid (3)

Curative Curative Curative, high toxicity to bees Curative

Neonicotinoid (4A) and Pyrethroid (3)

Curative

Pyrethroid (3)

Curative

Combination insecticide for grub and leaf feeders If you have grub problems, use the single neonicotinoid. Allectus (Bayer Environmental Science, 0.020% imidacloprid and 0.16% bifenthrin)

Table 3. Consumer Grub Products Ortho Bug B Gon,0.115% bifenthrin Scotts GrubEx, 0.08% chlorantraniliprole (Acelepryn) Bayer Advanced season-long grub control, 1.47% imidacloprid Bayer Advanced, 24 hr grub killer plus, 9.3% trichlorofon (Dylox) Bayer Advanced, Complete brand insect killer for soil & turf, 0.05% cyfluthrin , and 0.15% imidacloprid Spectrazide triazicide insect killer for lawns, 0.08% gamma-cyhalothrin Spectrazide Triazicide Insect Killer For Lawns Granules, 0.05% gamma-cyhalothrin

14 MTGF CLIPPINGS ~ FALL / WINTER 2016

highly toxic bees highly toxic bees highly toxic bees highly toxic bees

www.MTGF.org


IPM Programs for Insect Management By Jeffrey Hahn, Extension Entomologist University of Minnesota Integrated pest management (IPM) is a philosophy of dealing with pests. One definition is: IPM is a sustainable approach to reduce pests to a tolerable level by using the best balance of cultural, physical, biological, and chemical methods while minimizing economic, environmental, and health risks. Additionally, IPM is a decision making process that uses knowledge of pests and plants to make targeted, site specific management. It is a proactive philosophy that focuses on long-term results. It is a dynamic ongoing process. A wide variety of strategies are used. Pesticides have a role in IPM although if non-chemical methods are effective, then it is not necessary to use them. There are four insects that were seen in 2016 that are worth discussing. Cankerworms and forest tent caterpillars were common this spring. The key to effective management of caterpillars is to treat them when they are less than ½ full grown size. That means that they must be detected soon after they hatch while feeding is still minimal. They are easier to kill then and have inflicted less damage to trees and shrubs. A couple of effective low impact products are Bacillus thurigniensis and insecticidal soap. B. thuringiensis must be consumed to be effective; insecticidal soap has no residual and may need to be repeated. There are residual insecticides that are effective. Scale insects live under waxy coverings. Different species have different biologies, and therefore different management methods. Lecanium scales were particularly common this year. If management is necessary, use contact insecticides when the immature crawlers are active (June and July) as applications directed at the adults are not effective. Horticultural oil can also be sprayed on them during late winter as a dormant application. Systemic insecticides applied in fall or spring can be effective. Japanese beetles have taken a lot of people by surprise by their abundance this summer. They were numerous in the early 2010’s but a series of very dry summers reduced their populations. Japanese beetle eggs and recently hatched grubs do not survive very well in dry soils. However, we have had more normal precipitation the last few years which has allowed Japanese beetle numbers to rebound. When appropriate, physical removal can be effective, especially in areas where pesticides should be kept to a minimum. Low impact products, like pyrethrins and neem oil, are effective but will need to be reapplied. Contact insecticides with longer residuals, such as permethrin and carbaryl, are also a good option (they may still need to be reapplied). Systemic insecticides can also be effective but need to be applied before damage is severe.

Planting, Staking Watering and Pruning: The First Year of Tree Maintenance By Eric North, Department of Forest Resources, University of Minnesota Planting a tree is more than simply digging a hope and dropping in the tree. Research has shown that many of the tree failures seen in Minnesota landscapes are avoidable and easily corrected when a tree is first planted. Root problems are a significant source of tree failure, even 15 to 20 years after planting. Stem encircling and stem girdling roots cause major issues with tree stability resulting in large tree failure during wind and rain storms damaging property. Poorly attached branches can easily tear out or break, recognizing weak branch attachments and how to correct them can save time and money after storms. Proper planting and pruning techniques can help to establish healthy, long lived landscape trees. Learn the essentials to proper planting, staking, watering, and pruning of newly planted landscape trees through the first year of tree maintenance. 16 MTGF CLIPPINGS ~ FALL / WINTER 2016

Perennial Ryegrass Breeding and Seed Production By Garett Heineck, Research Assistant University of Minnesota It is well known that perennial ryegrass is used in maintaining turf on sports fields, overseeding golf courses and is often a significant portion of lawn seed mixes. Less known is that perennial ryegrass turfgrass seed production is a major part of the agricultural economy in northern Minnesota. Acreage encompasses over 40,000 acres in Roseau and Lake of the Woods Counties. Contrary to the name, perennial ryegrass is grown as a winter annual crop in northern Minnesota. Severe winter conditions are typically the antecedent to severe yield reductions going from the first to second year of seed production making multi-year seed production unprofitable. Consequently this system does not achieve the environmental benefits intrinsic to perennial agriculture. Using current winter hardy perennial ryegrass germplasm, several alternative management strategies were tested for prospects of maintaining multi-year seed yield. Research trials spanned three trial years with each year testing treatments at two locations. Locations were never in the same field. Field plots were established on-farm in Roseau County using existing stands of perennial ryegrass that had already underwent one year of seed production. The experimental design was a randomized block design with four reps in a split plot treatment arrangement. Residue management was the whole plot factor and PGR was the split plot factor. The experiment consisted of four replications and two blocks each consisting of two replications. Residue management treatments were applied two weeks post harvesting the first year stand. Three residue management treatments employed were mechanical clip and removal, chemical and physical burn and a control where all residue and plant material was left. PGR treatments were applied 14 days post burning to allow new vegetation to grow. Treatments consisted of ethephon, IBA and Cytokinin, mefluidide, Prohexadione calcium, and a control. Data were collected on seed yield and spring green up. Seed yield was determined by harvesting 1 m by 1 m swath of ryegrass per experiential unit. Spring green up was measured using a FieldScoutÂŽ CM 1000 Chlorophyll Meter, which estimates the quantity of chlorophyll in leaves. Results Thus far, two trial years of data have been collected and analyzed. In both years there was a significant effect of residue management on seed yield and winter survival. There was no effect of PGR on either response variable. Seed Yield: The top yielding treatments in both trial years produced economically viable seed yields (>500 lbs./acre). Both residue management treatments consistently increased seed yield. In trial year one burning and mechanically removing residue achieved statistically similar yields, but both greater than the control. In the second trial year all treatments were significantly different with the top producing treatment being burn and control being the worst. Spring Green-up: In both trial years mechanically removing residue achieved the fastest spring green-up. Burning typically resulted in the slowest spring green-up. There was a significant decrease in spring green-up in trial year two because of harsh winter conditions. Burning residue post first year harvest and using winter hardy germplasm consistently produced economically viable seed yields. Heavy winter damage was observed with this system in trial year two, however yields remained profitable. Volunteer seedling emergence was observed both years. This is a problem for maintaining seed purity and optimal plant density. Future research will include gathering a third year of data and testing methods of controlling volunteer seedlings post harvest. www.MTGF.org


The Potential for Tall Fescue in Minnesota By Eric Watkins Department of Horticultural Science University of Minnesota

PHOTO CREDIT: BOB MUGAAS

When it was first introduced into this country, tall fescue was used as a forage grass for livestock. An early variety used for turf beginning in the 1940s and 1950s, was Kentucky-31, which was quite coarse-textured and light in green in color, so it did not produce an attractive turf. However, this variety did produce roots deep in the soil profile, a characteristic which makes tall fescue very useful as a lower-input turfgrass. The first improved varieties of tall fescue, ‘Falcon’ and ‘Rebel’, were released in the early 1980s and since that time, hundreds of varieties have been developed that have been improvements on the earliest types. Current varieties of the species are used in home lawns, athletic fields, golf courses and parks throughout much of the United States. Tall fescue can perform better than most cool-season species during drought not because it doesn’t need as much water, but because it can reach water deeper in the soil. For this reason, tall fescue lawns can be watered less frequently than lawns that contain other cool-season species. The species is also very tolerant of wear and there are very few diseases that are a major problem in Minnesota. Brown patch disease is a problem on tall fescue during periods of high temperatures and high humidity; in the warm-humid southeast U.S. and the transition zone, brown patch can be devastating to tall fescue. In Minnesota, conditions for brown patch typically only last for a few days before the disease becomes less active and the plants recover. The primary diseases of tall fescue when grown in Minnesota are the snow molds, and most cultivars are affected in

Developing Programs to Reduce The Environmental Impact Quotient Field Use Rate By Dr. Angela Orshinsky and Ben vanRyzin University of Minnesota EIQ ratings were developed by a group of researchers working on fruit (Kovach et al. 1992). The EIQ values incorporate the toxicity data submitted to the EPA as part of the registration process. An equation that incorporates toxicity data was developed to incorporate risks to workers and consumers (dermal toxicity, half-life, reproductive and teratogenic effects to name a few) as well as the environment (leaching potential, aquatic toxicity, persistence, pollinator effects. The resulting equation is: EIQ = [C[(DT × 5)+(DT×P)]+[(C× ((S+P)/2)× SY)+(L)]+ [(F×R)+ (D×((S+P)/2)×3)+ (Z×P×3)+(B×P×5)]]/3 where: DT = dermal toxicity, C = chronic toxicity, SY = systemicity, F = fish toxicity, L = leaching potential, R = surface loss potential, D = bird toxicity, S = soil half-life, Z = bee toxicity, B = beneficial arthropod toxicity, P = plant surface half-life (Kovach et al., 1992). Importantly, the EIQ value is very much meaningless on its own. For example, a chemical with a very high EIQ applied in very small amounts may have less of an impact than a product with a low EIQ value that is applied at higher rates more often. This is why it is important to calculate the EIQ Field Use rate: EIQ Field Use Rating = EIQ x % active ingredient x Rate Last year, our preliminary experiments demonstrated that we were able to create programs with up to a 70% reduction in field use rate EIQ compared to common dollar spot programs by substituting chlorothalonil for fluazinam and by using a 21 day interval instead of a 14 day interval. This year, we have been investigating a variety of programs on golf course fairways and greens at three golf course locations and on greens height grass at the TROE. Each program is being tested at Medina GCC, Craguns’ Legacy Resort, and Rush Creek GC and the UM TROE Center. Dollar Spot

Turf-Type Tall Fescue

Fine Fescue

most years. Fortunately, the tall fescue turf typically recovers fully from this disease. Traditionally, tall fescue has been thought by most Minnesota turfgrass managers to lack sufficient winter hardiness. Research at the University of Minnesota has shown that the likely reason for tall fescue death during harsh winters is prolonged periods of ice cover. In areas that do not experience ice cover (well drained or sloped sites), winter hardiness does not seem to be a problem. Another possible issue with this species is that turf stands can be damaged by extremely low temperatures if they are not well-established prior to the onset of winter. We are currently attempting to more fully understand this situation through research trials in St. Paul and at the Minnesota Landscape Arboretum. Tall fescue has a number of traits that make it useful for use as a turfgrass in Minnesota, and not surprisingly, we have seen an increase in tall fescue use in recent years. The availability of aesthetically-pleasing cultivars, high levels of disease resistance, excellent wear tolerance, and adaptation to low-irrigation environments, make tall fescue an excellent choice for turf areas in Minnesota. 18 MTGF CLIPPINGS ~ FALL / WINTER 2016

Dollar spot outbreaks started in the first week of June, 2016. The results clearly demonstrate that some programs are able to suppress dollar spot on a 28 day interval. Similar results were obtained at other locations on greens and fairways with varying degrees of dollar spot pressure. While programs 2 to 9 were started preventatively as indicated by some fungicide labels (at soil temperatures of 55 F), programs 10-19 were started after dollar spot was detected on plots in early June. The efficacy of early season dollar spot programs relative to programs starting at the first sign of dollar spot disease will become more evident as the July and August results are compiled. Fungicide Programs

Our fungicide programs were designed to include multiple modes of action. In some cases, minimal rotations are made to reduce the cost of dollar spot management for the program. Similar to previous years, we attempted to reduce EIQ field use rate through substitution of Daconil with Secure. Both fungicides provide a multi-site, contact protection from dollar spot. (Editor’s Note: Graphs and more information available at www.mtgf.org/fieldday.htm. Cited: Kovach, J., Petzoldt, C., Degni, J., and Tette, J. 1992. New York’s Food and Life Sciences Bulletin 139:1–8.

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MTGF ALLIED ASSOCIATIONS MTGF CLIPPINGS ADVERTISERS FALL / WINTER 2016 ANCOM ......................................... 20 Covermaster ................................... 6 Gertens JRK Seed .......................... 19 McCarthy Well Company ................ 5 Northern Green .............................. 9 Plaisted Companies Inc. ................. 17 The Tessman Company .................. 12 Town & Country Landscaping ......... 4 Twin City Seed Company ................ 3 Ziegler Rental ................................. 15

MTGF CLIPPINGS Fall 2016  

A magazine from the Minnesota Turf and Grounds Foundation to promote the green industry in Minnesota through support of research, education...

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