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MTGF Donates $120,000 for 2016 Research Plant Health Care Workshop Set July 7 MTGF / UM Field Day Set for Aug. 11


minnesota turf and grounds foundation

The mission of the Minnesota Turf and Grounds Foundation is to promote the green industry in Minnesota through support of research, education and outreach at the University of Minnesota and elsewhere.


The Business of the Minnesota Turf and Grounds Foundation

Executive Committee President Kent Honl Rainbow Treecare, MSA

By KENT HONL President Minnesota Turf and Grounds Foundation

Vice President Manuel Jordan Heritage Shade Tree Consultants, MTA Treasurer Steve Balfany Balfany Farms, MTA Secretary/Treasurer Sam Bauer University of Minnesota Ex-Officio Paul Griffin City of Woodbury, MPSTMA Directors MASMS Tom Redmann Anoka Hennepin ISD #11 MASMS Tracy Closson Northfield Schools ISD #659 MAC Dave Kemp The Catholic Cemeteries MAC Kari Bradshaw Minnesota Association of Cemeteries MPSTMA Jon Almquist The Toro Company MGCSA Jamie Benzanson Oneka Ridge GC MGCSA Jeff Girard StoneRidge CC MTA Bryan Lawrence Rocket Turf & Nursery MTSC Brent Benike Northern Excellence Seed MTSC Richard Magnusson Magnusson Farms Vendor Representative Susie Johnson Gertens Wholesale Vendor Representative Jim O’Neill EcoWorks Golf Supply UM Representative Brian Horgan Ph.D. University of Minnesota

As a “tree person” involved with the Minnesota Turf and Grounds Foundation, I may have originally felt mismatched or out of place. But in my role as President of MTGF, I have found a genuine chance to learn from the experience, and make a contribution from my own experience. With this in mind, I would like to highlight some of the ways nature might guide us in our work. The natural world is our stock in trade as professionals in the green industry. Nature knows no distinction between arborists, landscapers, or turf managers. Regardless of our professional specialization, we all manage the flow of energy and water through plants. This all adds up to the benefits we gain from everything known as “ecosystem services”: improved quality of life in beautiful surroundings, with cleaner air and water resources. We can expect the best outcomes if we look past the boundaries of our specialized disciplines and look for opportunities for turf managers, arborists, growers, and landscapers to work together. Nature evolves through change. The green industry and the MTGF have also seen change and evolution. In the 22 years in my career, I have seen great advances in the practice of Integrated Pest Management. The science of IPM has led us to greatly reduce off-target damage in use of pesticides while maintaining or even increasing the effectiveness of our treatments. The arrival of new pests and diseases will continue to present new challenges, but we are more prepared to respond to them than we have been before. One way in which the MTGF fosters change and evolution in the green industry is through support provided by research grants. (See research proposals on Pages 11-18) Nature knows no politics but is subject to political influences and decisions. Looking back to the Fall/Winter 2009 edition of MTGF CLIPPINGS, the ideas expressed by former president Jack MacKenzie still hold true: “Our country is a republic… to be effective those with power to make policy must hear from those they represent… large or small, a voice can make a difference.” Be sure to stay involved in the decisions that affect your profession, your community, state, country, and world. **** Our 2016 MTGF Super Tuesday was a big success. More than 100 people attended the Jan. 12 seminar entitled: “Trees: Understanding Needs and Problems to Maximize Value. Sincerely,

Kent Honl Kent Honl President Minnesota Turf and Grounds Foundation

UM Representative Dr. Angela Orshinsky University of Minnesota * * * * Executive Director Jeff Turtinen 952-473-3722 jeff.turtinen@mtgf.org P. O. Box 617 Wayzata, MN 55391




The Minnesota Turf and Grounds Foundation, a non-profit organization, is a partnership of seven turf- and grounds-related associations and the University of Minnesota. Members of the following associations are also considered members of the Minnesota Turf and Grounds Foundation. 4 4 4 4

Minnesota Minnesota Minnesota Minnesota

Society of Arboriculture Association of Cemeteries Park & Sports Turf Managers Association Educational Facilities Management Professionals

ABOUT THE COVER: Fraise Mowing Mantra: “Holy crap! What have I done? Welcome to the world of fraise mowing! A process pioneered in Holland back in the early 1990s, this innovative maintenance practice is beginning to take hold in the United States, especially during ball field renovation. Not until 2013 did fraise mowing make its way to the U.S. Since then more and more turf managers have tried it and have been amazed by its results. A Koro Topmaker can be outfitted with a spiral “milling head” that rotates along a horizontal axis, aggressively scarifying the turf surface. Setting the depth of the milling head will result in a varying degree of aggressiveness. Fraise mowing will remove thatch, organic matter, weeds and Poa annua plants from the turf surface, yet will not uproot well-anchored turf, like Kentucky bluegrass with its network of aggressive rhizomes and deeply set crowns. This allows existing desirable turf to regenerate quickly. Combined with overseeding using improved genetics, a newly “conditioned” and ready-to-play surface can be achieved in 4-6 weeks. Fraise mowing offers a much less invasive process compared to stripping sod the old-fashioned way and re-seeding. It can save weeks of precious grow-in time. Time you typically don’t have between the spring and fall sports seasons. This revolutionary cultural practice will also remove bunch-type grasses in worn areas where perennial ryegrass has been overused. Finally, fraise mowing will mill down high spots on ball fields creating a move uniform playing surface. What’s the downside? Compared to other conventional renovation methods, we’re not sure there is one. Photo and “About the Cover” by Joe Churchill, Reinders, Inc.

4 Minnesota Sod Producers 4 Minnesota Turf Seed Council 4 Minnesota Golf Course Superintendents’ Association



President’s Report:

The Business of the MTGF - Kent Honl, MTGF President


Plant Health Care Workshop Set July 7 - Gary Johnson, University of Minnesota

6 7

MTGF / UM Field Day Set for Aug. 11 Pruning Workshops Attract Arborists - Chad P. Giblin, University of Minnesota


MTGF Donates $120,000 for 2016 Research - Jeff Turtinen, MTGF Executive Director

11 13 14 16 18

MTGF Funding: Turfgrass Program Support MTGF Funding: Dutch Elm Disease MTGF Funding: Gravel Bed Nursery Project MTGF Funding: Greenhouse Gas Emissions MTGF Funding: Oak Wilt Detection Tool

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A PLANT HEALTH CARE WORKSHOP Treating the Problems, Not the Symptoms Make plans to attend a Plant Health Care Workshop focusing on tree and shrub health care. The workshop will take place at the UM St. Paul campus’ Plant Growth Facilities on July 7 from 8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m. Registration fee is $145. The Minnesota Shade Tree Short Course (STSC) and Minnesota Turf and Grounds Foundation (MTGF) are partnering to help produce with this workshop. The workshop will have light refreshments in the morning and and a box lunch from Nelson’s in the early afternoon. There will be an end of day “Happy Hour and Review” at the Urban Forestry Outreach, Research and Extension nursery.

around four treatment and management stations: 1) Developing an IPM and scouting plan to control invasive pests and pathogens 2) Coring trees for a deeper understanding of health and performance 3) Conducting root collar exams and treating SGRs and/or SERs, soil replacement treatments, vertical mulching, trenching for root expansion and determining strength loss due to decay, and 4) Best Injection Practices for DED, EAB, BOB and oak wilt.


Registration materials are available through your association’s administrator, the MTGF office at 952-473-3722 and at www.mtgf.org. Registration deadline is June 29. To register, submit a registration form (available at www.mtgf.org) with checks or purchase orders (no credit cards) payable to MTGF and mail to:

This workshop is designed for the experienced arborist, urban forester, property manager, tree health care consultants. Both tree and shrub health will be the focus. CURRICULUM The curriculum is 50:50. Half of the course will be held in the classroom with discussions on an IPM approach to managing urban landscapes by establishing and recognizing threshholds, key plant/key problem analysis, pest and pathogen management tactics including non-chemical options, and developing a scouting plan. Dynamic and static demonstrations of using dendrochronology to detect tree health patterns will be available. The afternoon outdoor demonstrations will revolve



MTGF Plant Health Care Workshop P. O. Box 617, Wayzata, MN 55391 CEUs This workshop is worth 7.0 Certified Certified Arborist CEUs and Minnesota Tree Inspector Recertification. INSTRUCTORS Michelle Grabowski, Extension Plant Pathologist, UM Jeff Hahn, Extension Entomologist, UM Ben Johnson, Consulting Arborist and BCMA Gary Johnson, Extension Professor, Forest Resources, UMN; Certified TI and ISA/CA Eric North, Research Fellow, Forest Resources, UM;


MTGF/UM Turf & Grounds Field Day Set Aug. 11 At TROE Center and UFORE Nursery in St. Paul The Turf & Grounds Field Day is back on the St. Paul campus this year as the Minnesota Turf and Grounds Foundation once again partners with the University of Minnesota to produce this event popular event at TROE Center and UFore Nursery. Make plans to join us on Thurs., Aug. 11, 2016 for outdoor education presented by University of Minnesota faculty and staff working in turfgrass science and horticulture. The Field Day will run from 8:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m., with presentation topics ranging from turfgrass species for natural areas to disease management in turf and trees. Our research and extension programs at the University of Minnesota are constantly evolving. This spring we had several graduate students defend their thesis projects and new students have entered the program. We have also had several new staff hires, and we are looking forward to showcasing their work. (Editor’s Note: For questions regarding what will take place at Field Day, please contact Sam Bauer at 904-271-0250 or sjbauer@umn.edu. For registration and vendor display information, contact the MTGF office at 952-473-3722 or jeff.turtinen@mtgf.org)

TROE Center on the University of Minnesota St. Paul campus.


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Pruning Workshops Reach Dozens of Arborists and Landscape Managers in 2016 By CHAD P. GIBLIN University of Minnesota Department of Forest Resources

In February and March of 2016 I had a great opportunity to work with an outstanding group of arborists to host two almost back-to-back pruning workshops. Both were a team effort by the Minnesota Turf & Grounds Foundation, Minnesota Society of Arboriculture and the University of Minnesota, Department of Forest Resources. The first was the Northeast MN Young Tree Pruning Workshop held at the University of Minnesota Duluth campus. This workshop was really the brainchild of Duluth arborist Louise Levy of Levy Tree Care. Louise has been a great promoter of continuing education in northeast Minnesota and through her network of contacts, dedication, and hard work we brought together five arborist instructors to work with tree care practitioners from throughout the region. Our group was hosted at UMD by Campus Operations Manager Shane Peterson. Shane generously provided a great workshop space at the Bagley Nature Center Classroom and literally opened up the campus grounds for a full day of hands-on teaching. We hosted attendees from municipal arboriculture

and public works departments as well as those from the private sector. Our arborist instructors provided the expertise necessary to make decisions on trees ranging from just planted to those needing significant structural pruning work. In addition to myself and Louise, I was honored to teach alongside Manuel Jordán of Heritage Shade Tree Consultants, Hannibal Hayes from the City of Minnetonka, and Nick Nicklaus from the Minneapolis Park & Recreation Board. I am particularly grateful for Manuel’s assistance teaching the classroom portion and everyone’s outstanding show of support for arboricultural education in the Northeast. Less than one month after the workshop in Duluth we hosted the 2nd Annual Midland Hills Pruning Workshop at Midland Hills Country Club in Roseville, MN. This event comes on the heels of a very successful workshop hosted the previous year at Midland Hills. I was excited to return to the course and continue work with Superintendent, Mike Manthey. I was particularly excited this year because I was joined by co-host Liam McClannahan

Karl Mueller teaches a group about pruning young Freeman maples

from Branch and Bough Tree Service and Landscape Care of Saint Paul, MN. Based on conversations with instructors and attendees, Liam and I decided to up the ante this year and provide a much broader base of training including demonstrations and training for pruning much larger, mature trees. Liam was joined by Rod Rodman and Charlie Perrington of Four Seasons Tree Care, and Austin Ramm of Tim’s Tree Service, to provide a great day of instruction at-height in several large trees on the course. In addition to the instruction provided for large tree care, we had five additional stations where attendees where taught the basics of developmental or structural pruning. Our subjects included recently Instructors and staff at the Northeast MN Pruning Workshop (left to right: Chad Giblin, Nick Nicklaus, Louise Levy, Hannibal Hayes, Manuel Jordan and Shane Peterson. 8 MTGF CLIPPINGS ~ SPRING / SUMMER 2016

(Continued on Page 8) www.MTGF.org

Pruning Workshops (Continued from Page 7)

planted trees that required just a few cuts to get them started right up to established Freeman maples and disease-resistant elms that required significant work to remove defects and establish functional crown structures. Attendees rotated between three different stations throughout the day to experience different instructors’ perspective and approach to each pruning situation. GREAT INSTRUCTORS We had a great roster of instructors at Midland Hills this year, collectively bringing decades of experience to the table and keeping student-teacher ratios very low to allow time for discussion and brainstorming at each station. My thanks goes out to them all: Aaron Crye, Karl Mueller, and Lauren Stufft (City of Saint Paul), Austin Ramm (Tim’s Tree Serivice), Rod Rodman and Charlie Perrington (Four Seasons Tree Care), Craig Pinkalla and Pierce Wasmund (Minneapolis Park & Recreation Board), Matt Berg (University of Minnesota – Landcare), Hannibal Hayes (City of Minnetonka), Kent Honl (Rainbow Treecare), Liam McClannahan (Branch and Bough Tree Care and

Rod Rodman shares his wealth of knowledge at ground level.

Liam McClannahan and Charlie Perrington demonstrate maintenance of aged silver maples.

Landscape Services), and Manuel Jordán (Heritage Shade Tree Consultants). I would also like to acknowledge the registration and administrative support provided by Heidi Van Schooten at the Minnesota Society of Arboriculture and Jeff and Scott Turtinen at the Minnesota Turf & Grounds Foundation as well as our hosts at Midland Hills Country Club, Mike Manthey, Caitlin Arnold, and all the support staff who helped make the event successful in so many ways. Raffle prizes were provided through a partial sponsorship from Jeff Englar, owner of Minneapolis Saw, Inc. Thanks to everyone who attended our workshops this spring! If you have any questions or would like to share your thoughts or experiences please don’t hesitate to send me an email at giblin@umn.edu. - Chad Giblin

Craig Pinkalla sets a few honeylocust up for long-term success (right).


* * * * (Editor’s Note: The next MTGF-sponsored workshop will be a Plant Health Care Workshop focusing on tree and shrub health care on July 7 at the University of Minnesota St. Paul Campus’ Plant Growth Facilities. See article on Page 5.)

Pierce Wasmund (left) and Manuel Jordán (right) share their extensive knowledge of pruning young Freeman maples with attendees just outside the Midland Hills Clubhouse. SPRING / SUMMER 2016 ~ MTGF CLIPPINGS 9


MTGF Donates $120,000 Towards Turf & Grounds Research for 2016 By JEFF TURTINEN Executive Director Minnesota Turf and Grounds Foundation The Minnesota Turf and Grounds Foundation, a non-profit organization, is a partnership of seven turf and grounds related associations representing nearly 2,300 employees in the turf and grounds industry along with the University of Minnesota. MTGF’s mission is to promote the green industries in Minnesota through support of research, education and outreach at the University of Minnesota and elsewhere. The MTGF pursues its mission in various ways. One of these is an annual "Call for Proposals," titled the "MTGF Research Gift Program," whereby researchers, instructors and outreach faculty and staff involved in turf and grounds work may submit requests for unrestricted gifts to support their activities. In 2016, the MTGF has already donated $120,000 to five projects. The researchers are: Dr. Brian Horgan,Eric Watkins, Sam Bauer, Dr. Angela Orshinsky, Robert Blanchette, Benjamin Held, Gary Johnson and Chad Giblin, Kristina Smith Walker, Ph.D., Katy R. Nannenga, Ph.D., Dr. Jennifer Juzwik and a Tree Trust group. Research at the TROE Center is vital for the future development of our industry and the Research being done at the TROE Center is of great benefit to our members. The MTGF supports

the daily operation at TROE Center and provided an unrestrictive gift of $60,000. The MTGF continues its strong support of the research on selecting Minnesota elms for resistance to Dutch Elm Disease. The goal of this research is to increase the availability and diversity of disease-tolerant elm cultivars available to the public. The MTGF has provided an unrestrictive gift of $30,000. The MTGF also continues its support of research on irrigation conservation practices on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions on golf course turf and has provided agift of $10,000. An Ultra-sensitive Tool for Detection of the Oak Wilt Pathogen in Red and White Oaks has been developed and will be tested this summer. Tree care professionals and plant diagnostic clinics will have a rapid, ultra-sensitive diagnostic tool available for oak wilt detection, particularly for white oak species and poorer quality red or white oak samples. Tree Trust anticipates planting 350 trees matured in our gravel bed in the fall of 2017. We believe the cost savings of using trees from our own gravel bed will be $15,000 on tree stock in just a single year. The MTGF has provided a gift of $10,000. (Editor’s Note: Funding info on Pages 11-18 of this issue.)


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2016 MTGF FUNDING - $60,000 Turfgrass Program Support

Principle Investigators: Dr. Brian Horgan, Dr. Eric Watkins, Dr. Angela Orshinsky and Sam Bauer University of Minnesota - Twin Cities Background: Our turfgrass science program continues to evolve and grow with new projects, research and outreach. Moving into 2016, we are fortunate to say that our program is as strong as ever. This summary document outlines our key achievements in 2015, as well as new employees and graduate students, grants, extension programs, and articles published. We are very proud of our relationship with the Minnesota Turf and Grounds Foundation, and we appreciate your continued support of our program. You will see in this Program Support document that your dollars go a long way in advancing the turf and grounds industry. On November 1st, 2015, Dr. Brian Horgan announced the creation of a unique new partnership between the University of Minnesota and the United States Golf Association (USGA). The USGA committed 2.5 million dollars to the University over a 5year period to study some of golf’s greatest challenges. This partnership, spearheaded by Dr. Horgan, will enable these two great leaders the opportunity to advance our knowledge around three sustainability challenges of the golf industry: 1) economic, 2) agronomic, and 3) environmental. Part of this initiative involves the creation of a living laboratory for studying golf related issues at the University’s Les Bolstad Golf Course. This initiative is referred to as The Science of (the) Green™ (www.scienceofthegreen.org). This initiative builds scholarship into all aspects of the preand post-renovated golf course. To learn more about this exciting partnership, visit these webpages: - http://www.usga.org/articles/2015/10/research-partnership-to-launch-with-universityofminnesota.html and http://discover.umn.edu/news/environment/usga-partnership. Angela Orshinsky has continued to conduct research both in the field and in the laboratory to improve the sustainability of turfgrass management on golf courses and landscapes. Projects that are continuing this year include an assessment of plant defense activators for turfgrass disease, development of disease management programs with reducedenvironmental impacts, targeted management of snow mold fungi through assessment of fungicide sensitivity to individual active ingredients, and diagnosis of turfgrass pathogens. Angela traveled to over 20 golf courses last spring for building a collection of snow moldfungi affecting MN golf courses, made numerous site visits to diagnose turfgrass disease, and is now contributing to turf pathology outreach through a regular column in Hole Notes magazine. She has also given seminars at several outreach events including the Green Expo, March Mini, various turfgrass pesticide recertification seminars, and the assistant superintendents forum. Angela is also continuing to serve the ornamentals industry through research on the identity and host range of bacterial spot on Hydrangea spp. in collaboration with Kathy Zuzek. In addition to her own projects, the Orshinsky lab has provided material resources and access to equipment for microbiological and molecular biological research projects conducted by students in collaborating turfgrass science programs. Support from the MTGF helps to ensure research and outreach support to the turf pathology program (Benjamin van Ryzin). Sam Bauer had a good year in 2015, receiving grants with the Minnesota Department of Transportation (Roadside www.MTGF.org

Turfgrass) and the Metropolitan Council (Residential Irrigation). Both of these grants are answering important questions for the turfgrass industry in Minnesota and the nationwide. Sam coordinated field days at the Turfgrass Research, Outreach and Education Center (TROE) on the St. Paul campus: 1) the MNLA Lawn Care Forum was held on June 18th and attracted over 100 attendees for a 3 hour educational event, 2) the Capital Region Watershed District and St. Paul Parks Dept. training was held for 40 staff at the TROE on June 23rd and 25th, and included six presenters on topics including weed management, calibration, mowing, fertility, turf species and bee lawns. Sam also led the 2015 Hennepin County Sentenced to Serve Horticulture Training Program, teaching the 6-hour turfgrass management section and coordinating sessions on Landscape Management and Pesticide Safety. The Great Lakes School of Turfgrass Science was in its second year in 2015; in total, 77 participants engaged in this 12week live online program taught by 12 instructors from collaborating institutions across the Great Lakes Region. Sam’s 2015 extension activities totaled over 60 presentations across the state, nationally and internationally. Audiences reached by this program include master gardeners, homeowners, sports turf managers, grounds managers, golf course superintendents, facility management professionals, lawn care operators, pesticide applicators, sod growers, students, institutions, corporations, manufacturers and distributors, and the scientific community. Finally, Sam conducts research, writes publications, and provides consultation for the audiences previously mentioned. For more information on Extension Turfgrass Science activities, visit: www.turf.umn.edu, www.extension.umn.edu/turfgrass or on Twitter @urbanturfmn Eric Watkins leads the turfgrass breeding program. He currently advises or co-advises five graduate students. His breeding program has been able to obtain significant external funding from both state and federal agencies. Publications and new funding for his program are listed in the appendix. We currently have three students who are planning on finishing up their M.Sc. degrees in the spring of 2016. Ian Lane is conducting research on bee lawns and is funded by the Minnesota Environment and Natural Resources Trust Fund. Maggie Reiter is completing her USGA-funded project on fine fescue mixtures for use on golf course fairways. Clemon Dabney is completing his project on the use of metagenomics to better understand how turfgrass species affects the makeup of soil microbial communities. Continuing students include Garett Heineck and Yinjie Qiu. Garett is continuing experiments on second year perennial ryegrass seed production and on how endophytes affect winter hardiness in perennial ryegrass. Yinjie Qui recently joined our program and is beginning to work on increasing our understanding of allelopathy in the fine fescues. In 2015, our research was presented at 6 international conferences, 7 national and 27 Minnesota turf conferences reaching over 8,000 people. As you can see, the $70,000 MTGF gift for 2015 to support the TROE Center and purchase capital equipment (truck, trailer, spray equipment) provided a large return on investment. (Editor’s Note: More info available at www.mtgf.org.) SPRING / SUMMER 2016 ~ MTGF CLIPPINGS 11


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2016 MTGF FUNDING - $30,000

Research: Selecting Minnesota Elms for Resistance to Dutch Elm Disease Principal Investigators: Robert A. Blanchette, Benjamin Held, Gary Johnson and Chad Giblin Department of Plant Pathology / University of Minnesota - Twin Cities Dutch elm disease (DED) continues to be a very serious disease of American elm (Ulmus americana) that has greatly impacted cities and the natural forests around the country and the State of Minnesota. The catastrophic losses of Amercian elm has prompted investigations to find alternative methods of control. Chemical treatment is possible but its high cost does not make it feasible for many situations and for municipalities to use. The development of elm selections which are resistant (tolerant) to the disease has shown great promise and this proposal continues the screening of potentially resistant Minnesota native elm selections to Dutch elm disease, both in the greenhouse and field and it also supports work to find more rapid methods of propagation and screening. This joint effort between Professors Robert Blanchette and Gary Johnson and staff from Forest Resources, Plant Pathology and Horticulture at the University of Minnesota is showing great promise in obtaining DED resistant elm cultivars that will grow well in Minnesota and across the northern United States. American elm is an excellent tree for urban areas and is also a very important forest species; it tolerates salt, pollution and other stresses better than most other tree species. And often overlooked, it also is an important component in the ecology of Minnesota’s forests. Continued heavy disease pressure from the aggressive strain of the fungus, Ophiostoma novo-ulmi is still occurring and trees continue to die. Of great interest are the few trees that remain alive in areas of heavy disease pressure. With the help of arborists, foresters and the public throughout the state, we have been able to identify surviving elms that appear to have disease resistance. However, to determine if these trees are in fact resistant it is necessary to propagate the trees and rigorously test them by inoculation with the pathogen. Field testing of these trees is also essential and for this long term research to be successful continued support is needed. DED resistant elm selections are being used with increasing frequency in urban areas as an effort to combat the disease and utilize the well suited urban tolerant characteristics of the American elm. This has been a positive trend toward the reestablishment of the American elm. However, the DED pathogen has changed in the recent past and Ophiostoma ulmi has been displaced by the more virulent strain Ophiostoma novoulmi (Brasier 2001). Because the resistance mechanisms in elm are not currently understood, it is not clear how today’s resistant varieties will tolerate the pathogen if its’ virulence changes in the future. The resistance of particular elms to DED will last only as long as the virulence of the pathogen remains the same or lower. This means it is very important to have a variety of genotypes of resistant elms to protect against losing large populations of trees with similar genetic background. Furthermore, it is exceedingly important that newly-identified trees and putatively-resistant trees are thoroughly tested before they are marketed as “resistant”. The goal of this work is to increase the availability and diversity of disease-tolerant elm cultivars available to the public and the Minnesota landscape. The ability to generate more clones in a shorter time period will also lead to quicker identification of new disease-tolerant cultivars. This project will help to preserve disease-tolerant trees and strive to distribute them back into the regions they came from. Using cutwww.MTGF.org

tings as a method for propagation is sporadic in its success. Micropropagation offers the potential to produce a larger number of clones in a smaller unit area with less parent plant tissue compared to traditional propagation techniques. There is also a narrow window during the year in which cuttings can be made successfully. Tissue culture also offers the ability to propagate almost continuously throughout the year using growth chambers and greenhouses. We currently have more than 100 elm selections of interest, collected from various locations throughout Minnesota. These trees have been identified by interactions with individuals, landowners, city officials, arborists and foresters throughout Minnesota to identify candidate elms for our program. An interactive map has been developed and is on-line to show the locations for the various elms that have been identified around the state of Minnesota. The map can be found at http://elms.umn.edu/elm-map. Many of these elms are currently being propagated and will be ready for screening this summer and over the next few years. American elm (Ulmus americana), rock elm (U. thomasii), and red elm (U. rubra) are all well-represented in our collections. Detailed information about these trees has been obtained and examples of a few of these trees are listed below along with photographs of the trees. The overall objective of our research is to identify and test putative resistance of selected elms in an effort to bring disease resistant, cold hardy, aesthetically pleasing Minnesota elms that grounds managers can utilize back into our landscape. 1) Continue surveys statewide to identify survivor native elms in the Minnesota landscape. 2) Increase propagation success and efficiency using grafting, budding and micropropagation techniques 3) Establishment and maintain the elm seedling nursery 4). Greenhouse screening trials using putatively resistant selections from the Minnesota landscape and grafted material. 5) Inoculate trees in the field. 6) Determine ploidy of selected MN elms that have resistance 7) Study the mechanisms of resistance in elms to DED. With the help of landowners, park, city and state personnel, arborists and our surveys of the Minnesota landscape we have identified and collected from a large number of survivor American, rock and red elms during 2015 and early 2016. Many of these collections have already been described in last year’s research summary and grant proposal; others have just been added to the collection in the last two months. On February 16-17, 2016, University staff spent two days collecting elm samples from survivor trees throughout Duluth, MN. The team checked on trees from a list of previously known survivor trees included in areas of east Duluth, west Duluth, and Morgan Park and visited an estimated 30 sites. Of these sites, 10 trees were deemed healthy enough to provide scion material used for clonal propagation. Of the sites visited, there were some trees that had been removed or marked for removal likely due to DED. In trees marked for removal, signs of advanced DED were obvious including all or mostly dead branches, severely flaking bark, thin canopy, and little or no tree growth. (Editor’s Note: More info available at www.mtgf.org.) SPRING / SUMMER 2016 ~ MTGF CLIPPINGS 13

2016 MTGF FUNDING - $10,000 Gravel Bed Nursery Project Project Coordinator: TREE TRUST St. Louis Park, Minnesota The Minnesota Turf and Grounds Foundation is supporting a Gravel Bed Nursery (GBN) to be operated by Tree Trust. Trees matured in the GBN will primarily be planted in public parks through the Tree Trust Green Futures Program by our staff and volunteers. Tree Trust’s Green Futures Program began in 2008 and through it, Tree Trust has planted 1,060 trees at 16 community sites. This program is increasing in popularity as cities become more aware of the losses they will suffer to their tree canopy as Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) becomes more prevalent across the state. Ash trees are a significant component of the tree population in Minnesota communities and it is anticipated that EAB will destroy nearly two million ash trees in the Twin Cities metro, and over 200 million ash trees statewide in the next decade. As Tree Trust receives more requests to assist cities with planting trees to compensate for those that will be lost, we are seeking a more cost-efficient means of planting trees. One method is to use trees matured in gravel beds. Benefits of these trees include increased plant health and survival of transplanted trees, significant cost savings, broader species availability, and ease of planting with volunteers. There is some research documenting the benefits of using gravel bed trees in Minnesota, but due to the volume of trees that Tree Trust plants annually in various communities, and our vested interest in enhancing tree canopy throughout Minnesota, we believe any additional findings we gather will be beneficial to turf and grounds professionals statewide. Tree Trust has first-hand knowledge of how to build, maintain, and harvest trees from a gravel bed and identified the cost-efficiencies to be gained from such a venture. We are now prepared to install a gravel bed for our own use so as to realize the benefits of planting bare root trees which have been matured in gravel beds. These benefits include: 1) Maturing (or “heeling in”) bare root trees for 3-6 months in a gravel bed allows the root system to become extremely fibrous which translates to a healthier tree as it reduces the epidemic of stem-girdling roots and is better able to establish itself for transplanting to its final community planting destination. 2) Bare root trees can be purchased for about ¼ the cost of a balled and burlapped tree or ½ the cost of a containerized tree. This cost savings of 50-75% per tree will allow us to plant at least 20% more trees annually than we could with containerized trees. This will translate to an exponentially greater impact in helping communities prepare for tree loss due to EAB on an annual basis for years to come. 3) Bare root trees are far easier to transport and plant, which results in less strain on volunteers and staff, since moving and planting bare root trees is less likely to cause injuries to those moving them. Tree Trust expects to confirm these and identify other benefits of using gravel bed trees for community tree plantings. The concept of gravel beds is still new enough to Minnesota that the idea of using gravel bed trees for mass plantings in communities or with a volunteer planting force is still a rather unfamiliar idea to many, but as we start to lose hundreds of thousands of ash trees in the next few years, municipalities are going to be looking for 14 MTGF CLIPPINGS ~ SPRING / SUMMER 2016

the most economical method to plant more trees in their communities. It is Tree Trust’s theory that a popular practice will become community tree plantings with volunteers using stock from gravel beds as a more cost-efficient reforesting opportunity. Through our own implementation and learnings, Tree Trust will be able to respond more readily and effectively, and can share best practices with other organizations that want to implement a similar practice of planting trees from gravel beds with volunteers in their own community. Information and findings collected by Tree Trust will be made available through written and presented materials to turf and grounds managers, other natural resources professionals, and municipal officials. We believe this information will help all of those who oversee the care of natural spaces to make better decisions about how to enhance tree canopy by obtaining a less expensive nursery tree coupled with decreased handling, transportation and installation cost, while yielding a more viable and vigorous healthy plant. Objectives & Timeline: + Fall 2016 – Design and build the containment structure for a minimum 350 tree Gravel Bed Nursery. + Spring 2017 – Stock the gravel bed with a variety of appropriate species. + Fall 2017 – Harvest and plant the first full season of gravel bed trees. + Winter 2017 – Possibly overwinter some trees to explore the feasibility of various species to be overwintered in the gravel bed. + Spring 2018 – Plant trees that were overwintered. Restock gravel bed with next crop of trees. + Fall 2018 – Harvest and plant the second full season of gravel bed trees. + Repeat process annually. Increase size of gravel bed as funding permits to keep up with growing demand. The gravel bed will initially be built to hold 350 trees, but will be scalable so future expansion can be done easily. It will require installation of an irrigation system using sprayer heads, as well as a barrier on at least one side. The base will consist of a geotextile fabric covered by at least 15” of 3/8” washed peastone which will ensure sufficient drainage throughout. We will install the trees into the growing medium an adequate distance from one another based on the caliper of trees we obtain. We anticipate trees to be at least a 1” caliper (8’-10’h) based on species. Tree guards will be placed on each tree to prevent damage from wildlife. Tree Trust anticipates planting 350 trees matured in our gravel bed in the fall of 2017. We believe the cost savings of using trees from our own gravel bed will be $15,000 on tree stock in just a single year. Given this type of savings, we expect to be able to increase by at least 20% annually the number of trees we plant in local communities that will be in dire need of reforestation due to the effects of EAB. As additional savings are realized and demand for trees increases, Tree Trust foresees the ability to expand the size of our gravel bed so we can respond to an increasing number of requests annually for tree plantings. (Editor’s Note: More information available at www.mtgf.org.) www.MTGF.org

2016 MTGF FUNDING - $10,000

Research: Irrigation Conservation Practices on the Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions on Golf Course Turf Principle Investigators: Kristina Smith Walker, Ph.D., and Katy R. Nannenga, Ph.D. University of Minnesota - Crookston During the 2014 U.S. Open at the Pinehurst No. 2 course, water usage and water conservation took center stage in the media. In our recently funded MTGF project (2013-2014), soil moisture was the most significant predictor of greenhouse gas losses from fertilized and non-fertilized turf. These results indicate more control over greenhouse gas emissions can be achieved with moisture management on the golf courses. The objective of the proposed project is to evaluate golf course irrigation practices in order to identify practices that promote overall plant health and turfgrass quality while reducing greenhouse gas emissions and conserving water. The irrigation practices that will be evaluated in this project are no irrigation (i.e. natural rainfall), supplement natural rainfall to provide 1.5 inches of rainfall per week, syringing during the hottest part of the day to wet the turf, and deep and infrequent irrigation scheduling set by the superintendent. This will allow quantification of turfgrass quality and greenhouse gas emissions associated with lower water use in the northern plains. With the current climate change models predicting the northern plains will be entering into a drought and much of the western United States currently experiencing drought conditions; strategies to reduce water usage and flux of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere are critical at all societal levels including turfgrass management. Current greenhouse gas emission research focuses primarily on golf course fertilization practices. Ours in particular, focused on the use of different fertilizer sources (fast versus slow release). While we have found significant differences in fertilizer sources, we have also found that soil moisture and soil temperature are highly significant predictors of greenhouse gas losses from managed turf. Therefore, we are proposing to identify irrigation regimes that will reduce greenhouse gas losses while conserving water resources on golf courses. Evaluation of greenhouse gas emissions is proposed on Creeping Bentgrass greens and Kentucky Bluegrass fairways managed under the previously mentioned irrigation regimes. It is apparent that traditional golf course management strategies need to become more sustainable and environmentally friendly. Golf course management strategies to achieve lush and green turf from over watering and fertilizing are the way of the past. Water is a limited resource that will only become more limited as the population continues to grow and regions begin to experience drought. It is crucial for the golf course industry to identify irrigation practices that conserve water usage and protect our environment through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions which accelerate the global climate change patterns facing the world today. The concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere is increasing at an unprecedented rate, due primarily to fossil fuel burning and land use change. The increased awareness of this global problem has led to increased pressure by society to minimize the impacts of elevated atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG). Nutrient cycling on golf courses has the capacity to sequester GHG through the accumulation of soil organic carbon. However, cultural management practices can offset sequestration by mitigating GHG emissions directly (irrigation) or indirectly (maintenance equipment). Turfgrass management practices including 16 MTGF CLIPPINGS ~ SPRING / SUMMER 2016

irrigation have the potential to contribute to emissions and mitigation of greenhouse gases, leading to uncertainties in the net contribution of turfgrass ecosystems to climate change. The purpose of our past MTGF funded research project (20132014) was to determine the impact of fertilizer source (Urea, Encapsulated Polyon, and Milorganite), turfgrass species (Agrostis stolonifera L. and Poa pratensis L.), and site location (soil moisture regime) on GHG (carbon dioxide [CO2], methane [CH4], and nitrous oxide [N2O]) emissions and overall turfgrass quality. Our preliminary results have shown that soil moisture and soil temperature are significant predictors of GHG flux. Soil moisture has the potential to be managed on golf courses with the monitoring of soil moisture and the implementation of waterreduction irrigation practices. Therefore, the purpose of the proposed study is to identify irrigation and/or water conservation practices that will decrease GHG losses while maintaining adequate soil moisture needed for overall plant health and turfgrass quality. The objective of this research is to: 1) Identify golf course irrigation and/or water conservation practices that will decrease greenhouse gas fluxes. 2) Identify the level of soil moisture needed for overall plant health and turfgrass quality while decreasing greenhouse gas emissions. This project will be conducted at a local golf course near the University of Minnesota Crookston. The research plots (0.61 m x 0.61 m) will be located on creeping bentgrass greens, Kentucky bluegrass fairways, and potentially Kentucky bluegrass and perennial ryegrass tees. Research plots will be irrigated under four irrigation regimes: no irrigation (i.e. natural rainfall), supplement natural rainfall to provide 1.5 inches of rainfall per week, syringing during the hottest part of the day to wet the turf, and deep, infrequent irrigation scheduling set by the superintendent. GHG samples will be taken each week using a vented closed gas chamber that will be placed over the plots for 40 minutes following the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service Greenhouse gas Reduction through Agricultural Carbon Enhancement network (USDA-ARS GRACEnet) methods. Samples will be taken from the same location as the anchors for the gas chambers will be tamped into the ground flush with the soil surface at the beginning of the growing season. To ensure a good seal, the tops of the gas chambers will also be tapped in after they are placed over the anchors. Gas samples will be taken at 0, 20, and 40 minutes post closure of the chamber. This method will allow gas concentrations to build up inside of the chamber, and a flux rate of the gases from the surface to be calculated based on the change in concentration over time. In addition at each sampling date air temperature, soil temperature, soil moisture, turfgrass quality and canopy greenness data will be collected. Turfgrass quality is on a visual rating of 1 to 9 where 1=bare soil, 6=minimally acceptable, 9=optimum uniformity, density, and greenness. Canopy greenness will be assessed using a CM 1000 (NDVI Meter; Spectrum Technologies) chlorophyll meter. Weather data will be collected daily using a weather station located on site. (Editor’s Note: More info available at www.mtgf.org) www.MTGF.org

2016 MTGF FUNDING - $10,000

Research: Rapid and Ultra-sensitive Tool for Detection of the Oak Wilt Pathogen in Red and White Oaks by Tree Care Professionals Principal Investigator: Dr. Jennifer Juzwik Research Plant Pathologist Northern Research Station, USDA Forest Service and Adjunct Associate Professor, Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN Early and accurate diagnosis of oak wilt is important when control or eradication actions are available and justifiable. Current laboratory diagnostic protocols involve isolation of the pathogen from host tissues. However, a recently developed molecular protocol (nested PCR) provides more sensitive and accurate detection than isolation. This protocol has been adopted for use on problematic samples or those collected outside the growing season. The assay must be conducted by trained laboratory diagnosticians and costs twice as much as isolation (Plant Disease Clinic, University of Minnesota). A rapid, ultra-sensitive, and low-cost detection tool that could be used by tree care professionals would be extremely valuable in the effective management of oak wilt. The first step in developing a novel technology based on DNA aptamers (receptors) specific to the oak wilt fungus and then integrating it with a recently developed, ultra-sensitive assay technology is underway. We propose to evaluate accuracy and sensitivity of this technology in oak wilt symptomatic trees. A positive detection would be indicated by a color change detector system. If successful, a second year of assessing practicality and ease of use in operational settings would be conducted through cooperative beta testing with selected arborists. The goal is to develop a tool that does not require submission to a diagnostic laboratory, yields results in less than two hours, is low cost (< $10/sample), and able to be used with minimal training. The benefit to the green industry is almost immediate diagnosis that should reduce turnaround time for appropriate treatment. Oak wilt, caused by the fungus Ceratocystis fagacearum, is currently considered to be present in 829 counties of 24 states of the eastern and midwestern states and Texas. The disease has been particularly destructive in the North Central States and in Texas. Early diagnosis of oak wilt is particularly important when control or eradication treatments are available and justifiable (Juzwik, et al. 2011). However, other disease organisms and insect pests may mimic the symptoms of oak wilt and confound early and/or accurate diagnosis. The traditional method of laboratory diagnosis depends on isolation of the pathogen from sapwood of symptomatic trees by plating wood chips on agar medium (Pokorny, 1999). However, this method has significant limitations (e.g. minimum of 14 days incubation, success related to sample condition, less successful with white oak species). In a comparative evaluation of nested PCR, real-time PCR, and lab isolation, Yang (2015) reported that nested PCR yielded the highest estimated probability of the oak wilt fungus detection in branches sampled from actively wilting oaks. The pathogen was detected by all three methods from vascular-streaked sapwood of red oaks that wilted the previous year. However, detection of the fungus in sapwood of oak wilt mat “scars” was only possible with the two molecular assays. Detection of food-borne pathogenic micro-organisms has recently been achieved using an enzyme and antibody-free colormetric assay that achieves a picomolar limit of pathogen detection with the naked eye to the attomolar level (10-18 M) with instantaneous signal generationand amplification (Ngoc Bui, et 18 MTGF CLIPPINGS ~ SPRING / SUMMER 2016

al. 2015). In work currently underway in the Abbas laboratory (Dept. of Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering, University of Minnesota), extension and adaptation of this same technology is being developed for detection of the oak wilt fungus. New DNA aptamers (or receptors) for spore and hyphal surface elements of C. fagacearum are being identified and selected (Sefah et al. 2010). Amplification of the novel molecular signal will be combined with plasmonic colorimetery leading to a Liposome Amplified Plasmonic Immunoassay (Ngoc Bui, et al. 2015) followed by development of a lateral flow paper strip test (Abbas et al. 2013). At this stage the novel integrated technology will be ready for field evaluation with actively wilting branches. The high value of shade trees managed by turf and grounds professionals often justifies treatment of disease problems such as oak wilt. Accurate and relatively rapid diagnosis of oak wilt is needed by such professionals when deciding whether or not to treat the affected tree(s) as well as when selecting the most appropriate tool(s) and applying it (them) in a timely and efficacious manner. Plant diagnostic clinics routinely process disease samples submitted by these professionals. The intended outcome of this project is that tree care professionals as well as plant diagnostic clinics will have a very rapid, ultra-sensitive tool available for detecting the oak wilt pathogen, particularly in white oak species and poorer quality red or white oak samples. The specific objectives of this proposal are to: 1) (Year 1) Test the DNA receptor-based tool with color change detector system for presence of C. fagacearum in drill shavings taken from actively wilting branches of red, bur and white oak. 2) Test the same technology on samples taken from cambium with vascular streaking on the lower main stem (in spring) and from mat scars (in fall) on main stems of red oaks that wilted the previous year. 3) Compare findings of new detection tool to results of: a) laboratory isolation for the fungus, and b) nested-PCR assay of drill shaving shavings, both collected from the same trees as used for 1) and 2) above. 4) (Year 2) Develop brochure or u-tube video with photos, instructions, and flow diagrams for training tree care professionals how to use the new diagnostic tool. 5) Select and train several tree care professionals interested in beta testing the new tool. 6) Beta testers and university researchers independently sample and test tool on the same actively wilting red, bur and white oaks, and compare results from each tester as well as those obtained in the PDC using isolation and nested PCR. 7) Document benefits, limitations and needed improvements based on feedback from beta testers. The anticipated result will be that tree care professionals and plant diagnostic clinics will have a rapid, ultra-sensitive diagnostic tool available for oak wilt detection, particularly for white oak species and poorer quality red or white oak samples. The increased accuracy will reduce the number of “false negatives” that result from traditional isolation methodology. (Editor’s Note: More info at www.mtgf.org) www.MTGF.org

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2016 MTGF ALLIED ASSOCIATION CALENDAR DATE June 7 June 15 June 15-16 June 17 June 21 June 23 June 28 July 11 July 15-16 July 18 August 11 August 31 September 19 September 21-23 September21 September 28 September 29-30 October 10 October October / November November 16 November 29

EVENT MPSTMA Network Picnic MSA Aerial Rescue Training MASMS Metro Custodial Days MSA: ISA Exam MASMS Northern / Northwest Custodial Days MASMS Southern Custodial Days MPSTMA Tour-on-Wheels MGCSA Northern Exposure MPSTMA / IOWA Chapter Clash MGCSA Golf Championship MTGF / UM Turf & Grounds Field Day MGCSA Lakes Exposure MGCSA Scramble MAC Annual Conference MGCSA Badgerland Exposure MASMS Golf Event MASMS Conference MGCSA Wee One Fundraiser MPSTMA Community Service Project MPSTMA Fall Workshop MGCSA Assistant’s Professional Forum MGCSA Northern Outreach

VENUE Town & Country Fence, Brooklyn Center Duluth Cottage Grove Arrowwood Lodge, Brainerd Lakes Area Mankato Toro Mfg. Plant in Tomah (WI) Silver Bay Golf Course, Silver Bay UM Les Bolstad Golf Course and University of St. Thomas Wild Marsh GC, Buffalo TROE Center / UFORE Nursery / UM St. Paul Campus Oxbow Country Club, Fargo (ND) Town & Country Club, St. Paul Grand Casino Hotel, Hinckley Kilkarney Hills, WI St. Cloud Brackett's Crossing GC, Lakeville To be determined To be determined Pinz Northland Country Club, Duluth

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