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Language Acquisition For Cross-Cultural Effectiveness (LACE)

A Field Manual Compiled, Adapted and Edited by

P. Pikkert


Contents 2. 3. 4. 5. 5. 5. 6. 7. 7. 8. 9. 14. 14. 15. 15. 16. 17. 18. 18. 19. 20. 21. 21. 22. 22. 22. 23. 23. 23. 23. 23. 24. 24. 24. 25. 25. 26. 26. 26. 28. 35. 37. 43. 43. 45. 45. 45. 47. 48. 48. 48. 48. 49. 50. 86. 88.

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Contents What is LACE? Your Language Helper Techniques Using Photographs and/or Objects - The Look and Listen Technique - The Photo Book Technique - The Picture Book plus Recordings Technique Total Physical Response Techniques (TPR) - The Listen and Do Technique - The Following Spoken Directions Technique TPR Activities Ideas The Shared Experiences Techniques - Eating Out - Join in the Work - The Shopping Trip - Telephone Procedures - Telling Jokes Developing Connected Speech - The Series Method - Dialogue Generation - Memorized Monologues - True/False Comprehension - Event Description - Number Dictation - Dumb-Smart Question - Ask-Me-A-Question - Inter-Language Reading - Various Writing Techniques - Record & Compare - Single Sound Drill/Sound Contrast Drill - Single Sentence Pattern Drill - Complex Sentence Pattern Exercise - Sentence Transformation Exercise - The Tone Pattern Drill Technique - Some Reading Techniques - Opposites - Sets - Pattern Sentences - Item Description Language Acquisition Projects (LAPs) Power Tools Basic Texts to Get You Started Conversation Starters - Beginner, Intermediate and Advanced Students - Games. - Conditionals and Subjunctives - The Important Thing is to Start Talking! Correspondence of Proficiency Scales Types of Sentences - The Basics - Multiplying the Basics - Gain flexibility - Non-simple sentences The LACE Integrated Language Learning Program Some More Advanced Stuff Sources


What is LACE? During our High School years most of us were linguistically wounded. Forced to study, say, French, the awful experience had two effects on us: we were so-o-o glad when we completed the course, and we concluded that language learning is probably the most difficult and frustrating of academic exercises However, language wasn’t meant to be learned in an academic setting. After all, children, the world’s best language learners, learn any language easily, fluently and unaccented. The LACE method of language learning seeks, as much as possible, to re-create the way children learn language by exposing you, the learner, to a lot of comprehensible input laced with a few new words or concepts, the meaning of which can be largely deduced from the context. Essentially LACE is nothing more than a combination of activities and techniques which serious language learners, notably Bible translators and missionaries, have used effectively. It integrates giving and receiving commands (Total Physical Response), using a picture book, and doing simple projects, into a single, cohesive program which you carry out with a language helper (LH) in a logical, step-by-step manner at your own speed. Unlike other language programs, in which the teacher does the preparatory work, LACE puts the student in charge. S/he chooses beforehand what s/he wants to learn next and, drawing from the numerous focused activities described in this manual, does the preparatory work for the lesson. LACE works because:      

The method puts you, the learner, in charge. It enables you to “draw the language in”, rather than have someone “cram it down”. Since you are in charge, you, not some teacher, decide when you are ready to move on. Each project or activity focuses on comprehension as the major learning activity. You understand before you attempt to speak. Learning is associative. In other words, you acquire meaning by associating the words you hear with the actions you are doing or the items you are seeing. The Total Physical Response Techniques, in which you physically respond to commands, give you the core meaning of words, as well as a “feel” for the language, without back-translating into English. The Picture Book Techniques, which consists of repeated passes over the same set of, say, 70-100, photographs, builds on previously comprehended input. You are leaning incrementally in an intense, yet non-academic manner. Most of the LAPs (Language Acquisition Projects) start with a comprehensible core and gradually progress, each step giving a slightly different slant or context to the activity. They take place within a fairly tight arena of related activities. Furthermore, the LAPs’ random nature stimulate learning; you cannot predict what is coming—yet you can soon anticipate accurately what you are going to hear!

In general terms, the way this manual hangs together is as follows: for the most part the first 50 pages describe various and language learning techniques. In the last section these various techniques are then integrated into a single curriculum. I trust that that curriculum will, as the linguist Greg Thomson puts it, not merely enable you to learn the language but enable you to “discover a new world as its is known and shared by the people among whom you are living”. Welcome to the linguistically fun and culturally enriching world of LACE language learning!

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Your Language Helper The LACE method of language learning is done with a language helper (LH). This LH is NOT a language teacher! Real teachers can, in fact, be counter-productive, as they tend to take charge, thinking they know what you need to learn. What, then, should you look for in a LH? Your LH must be someone who speaks his/her mother tongue clearly. S/he must not be a member of an ethnic minority. If you are learning Turkish, for instance, don’t learn it from a Turkish-speaking Armenian or Kurd. Also avoid people with a thick country dialect--unless you are planning to spend the rest of your cross-cultural experience among them. Your LH must be someone who will let you take the lead. S/he must limit him/herself to your agenda. Ideally, your LH will know a little bit of English, yet use it only hesitatingly. S/he should be coaxed to consistently--but not obnoxiously--correct you, and be willing to talk even if you don’t understand everything. Many of us have found impoverished university students ideal! In many parts of the world it is not acceptable to do your own recruiting for a LH. Let people (colleagues, nationals, expatriates you might meet at the local international church, etc.) know what you are looking for. Once you think you’ve found someone, arrange a trial period of 1-2 weeks; if the arrangement is less than satisfactory, you will want an easy way out of the relationship. When hiring a LH decide how much time per week you want to work with him/her and how much you are willing to pay per hour or session. Don’t decide on your own how much to pay—both overpaying and underpaying will cause you to lose respect (generally, however, the equivalent of what a local grade-school teacher might earn is a reasonable bench-mark). Remember that your LH is your source of data, not your analyst. Most native speakers have never been asked objective questions about their language, so don’t put him/her on the spot by asking “why?” Ask “what”, “how”, and “when”, but not “why”. Few people can explain “why” their language hangs together the way it does. The question tends to make people feel stupid or angry. Always keep the onus on you. Don’t say, “I don’t think you understand”. Say, “I haven’t made myself clear”. Remember that your LH has more than language on his/her mind when s/he works with you. S/he will be sensitive to the relationship, and will be ‘checking’ to see if your guard is up regarding correction. If your face shows that correction upsets you s/he will back off. Note too that LHs often find it hard to believe the amount of repetition that is needed, so train them! When working on pronunciation, be careful about asking, “Am I saying that right?” That is a very difficult question to answer. What is “right”? That you are speaking like a national? That there is no room for improvement? If s/he answer affirmatively, does that mean that s/he can figure out what you are saying? Assume that you are NOT speaking like a native, but that you are in a process of improvement. Note too that if your LH says “yes”, s/he gets him/herself off the hook; s/he doesn’t have to correct you any more! Lastly, enjoy your times together. Not only is the program fun, many of those who have learned language in this way found that their LH became both a doorway into the national culture as well as one of their closest national friends.

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Techniques using PHOTOGRAPHS AND/OR OBJECTS 1. The Look and Listen Technique The Look and Listen Technique is basic to a number of other techniques. By using collections of objects or photographs you begin to acquire some basic vocabulary and grammatical structures. What to do:  Get a selection of photographs or objects.  Follow the following technique: 1. 2. 3. 4.

You point to the object, your LH says what it is. You listen. Your LH names the objects, you point to the right one. You learn the words for “Yes” and “No”, or “True” and “False” Your LH names one of the objects and points. You say “Yes” or “No”, depending on whether the object s/he pointed to is the right one. 5. You give the name of the object, you LH points to the right one. 6. Your LH points to an object, you give its name. 7. You give the name of the object, your LH points to one of the objects, you respond with “Yes” or “No”, depending of whether it is the right one. Note: You take the initiative/control. You listen and comprehend before you begin to speak.

2. The Photo Book technique With the Photo Book technique, you take photos yourself or collect photos from other sources, in order to acquire vocabulary and grammatical structures. This method enables you:  To learn vocabulary from the first day of language learning  To provide language learning that involves real communication: receiving messages, processing messages, and responding to messages (even if nonverbally)  To provide visual teaching or learning aids to use at various stages of language learning that builds on what has been already learned Guidelines  Take at least 50-100 photos, if it is culturally appropriate to do so  Take photos that contain one or more people as main characters, who are, in most cases, involved with either another person, or with a non-human object (which sets the stage for simple transitive sentences).  Arrange the photos in a book. Collect one type of information about the photos, using the Look and Listen technique, with each pass through the book. First, for instance, identify humans (man, men, woman, women, boy, girl, etc.), then identify objects, then adjectives (big, small, red, green, etc.,) then tense forms (past, present, future) then negation, questions, commands, etc.

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 

Later in your language learning program you can use the photo book as a conversation starter, talking about the people in the photos, facts about the people and the situations involved in taking the photos. Create a photo book for later stages of language learning by illustrating all steps in a procedure, the major events in the daily cycle, yearly cycle, or life cycle, or showing the major differences in each stage. Or photograph major cultural happenings in great detail, and arrange in logical, spatial, or chronological manner.

3. The Picture Book Plus Recordings Technique With the Picture Book Plus Recordings technique, you look at pictures and hear a description of them in the target language. The pictures enable you to understand the gist of what is spoken. This method enables you:    

To learn a large amount of vocabulary To associate the new vocabulary directly with the pictures, instead of with translations from your own language Sharpen your comprehension skills To hear new vocabulary many times before speaking it. That will help your pronunciation when you eventually speak the word

Guidelines  Aim to understand the words. Do not repeat the words out loud, as this will not aid in understanding and may cause mispronunciation. Do not spell the words, or you may tend to hear them as they are spelled rather than the way they are pronounced. Do not be concerned with reading; understanding the language must come first. Do not replay an item that you do not understand, listen to the entire program without rewinding the tape recorder. Some words are understood only after being heard a number of times.  Use the tape as background while doing other activities, such as washing dishes or riding in the car.

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Total Physical Response Techniques Total Physical Response techniques are another excellent way to begin working with your LH, for they reactivate the brain’s language learning capacity. You begin to associate words directly with items and actions, not with English. You also begin to “sense” the language and to “internalize” basic grammar (word order, etc.) Also, anxiety is kept low. With the Total Physical Response techniques you respond to commands spoken in the target language. The Physical Response techniques enable you:      Guidelines      

To make mental associations between forms and meanings To build comprehension vocabulary quickly To build listening comprehension skills without vocal interference To avoid translating from your own language to the target language To begin assimilating basic sentence and sound patterns

Plan your session thoroughly in advance. This method will not be successful if you just make it up as you go along. Demonstrate this technique to the LH so s/he understands what you are trying to listen and respond to. Try to associate each command with the appropriate action without translating into your own language. Have the LH repeat the commands many times in random order so you get lots of practice. It is important to repeat things often enough to learn them well. Respond as quickly as possible, so the response becomes naturally connected to the command. Record your session with the LH so you can listen to the tape later and practice your responses. Keep reviewing previous lessons.

1. The Listen and Do technique The Listen and Do technique is the principal technique in the Total Physical Response group. Before your session  Choose a situation where commands would be given that you are likely to use.  List in your own language five or more different commands that might be useful in the situation.  Gather any props or materials you need for the session. During your session  Communicate to the LH what commands you want to learn. Tip: Demonstrate the technique by giving commands in English or another language to a learning partner, so the LH can see what you mean.  Record the LH giving the commands while you carry out the appropriate action.  Have the LH give the commands repeatedly and randomly until you can respond quickly without thinking in your first language. Encourage the LH to correct any wrong responses.  Write down the commands at the end of the session if you want to.

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After your session  Listen to the recording of the commands.  Perform the actions as you listen, or make simple drawings that illustrate the actions.  Listen to the recording again and focus on the pronunciation.  Practice mimicking the commands on the recording when you feel ready (this may not be for several weeks). Look at the picture or perform the action to associate the meaning with the sound.

2. The Following Spoken Directions technique The Following Spoken Directions technique, is used after you have mastered some basic vocabulary. With this technique you follow a series of spoken (or recorded) directions. Evaluation is based on how closely the directions are followed. The objective is to take advantage of a limited amount of speech to help you improve your listening comprehension ability and to actually perform the task being described. During your session  Complete a set of oral directions given to you by the LH.  Have the LH check to see how well you followed directions.  Have the LH record another set of directions for at-home practice. After your session  Follow the set of recorded directions for at-home practice.  Check the results during your next session. Example: Complete the following set of directions as given to you by the LH:  Take a piece of notebook paper and place it in front of you, with the long side positioned horizontally.  In the middle of the page, draw a circle about one inch in diameter. On top of this circle and touching it, draw another circle, just a little smaller in size. On top of these circles, draw another circle a bit smaller than the second one. This is the beginning of a snowman. Make a face on the top circle by drawing eyes, a nose, and a mouth. Draw a tall hat on the head but do not cover the face. Draw two arms that look as if they were made out of two sticks. Write your name on the back of the paper.  Give your paper to the LH. You have the LH check your work to see how well you followed directions in drawing a snowman.  You have the LH record a set of directions on how to draw and color various shapes (triangle, square, circle, or rectangle). You follow the recorded directions dealing with shapes.  You check your work during the next session to see how closely you followed directions.

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TPR Activity Ideas General body movements 1.go in 2.go out 3.walk 4.run 5.stop 6.crawl 7.raise hand 8.clap (your hand) 9.read 10. write 11. jump 12. eat 13. drink 14. listen 15. read 16. speak 17. stand up 18. sit down 19. look at 20. open 21. close 22. wake up 23. scream 24. laugh 25. tip toe 26. clean 27. hop 28. bend over 29. squat 30. face (me, the wall, etc.) 31. lift/lower (arm (left leg, etc.) 32. shake my hand 33. kiss me (on the cheek) 34. make a fist 35. snap your fingers 36. wave 37. drink 38. iron 39. pay 40. spit 41. look at 42. listen to/hear 43. carry on shoulder/ head/hand 44. hold 45. kick

46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96.

throw pick up set down take give hit pinch feel drop play push pull wind twirl turn stop be quiet tie (up)/untie study think greet play a game play an instrument discipline children watch TV dig feed cover uncover pray ask/request light (match/fire) put on (ring, clothes, etc) wash (self) wash (clothes) swim dive drive sleep wake up shave cut hair cut nails call eat – banana, orange, etc lie down get up go down (staircase, etc.) go up/across come up/down

97. 98. 99. 100. 101. 102. 103. 104. 105. 106. 107.

come across turn left turn right turn around skip walk walk backwards move arm swim wiggle finger tap foot

Facial things 108. smile 109. cough 110. laugh 111. cry 112. yawn 113. blink 114. frown 115. nap 116. sing 117. sniff 118. raise eye brows 119. whisper 120. belch 121. nod head 122. shake heas 123. scratch 124. breath 125. kiss 126. smile 127. open/close eyes 128. sneeze 129. hiccup 130. hum 131. open your mouth 132. close your mouth 133. stick out your tongue 134. put your tongue back in 135. wink 136. blink 137. wiggle your nose General verbs you can use with objects 138. touch 139. show me 140. pick up 141. put down

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142. put it back (return) 143. drop 144. move 145. give me (give him) 146. take it back 147. throw 148. catch 149. turn over (flip) 150. put the _____ on (under etc.) the ______ 151. push 152. pull 153. lift The Kitchen 154. cup 155. plate 156. bowl 157. knife 158. fork 159. spoon 160. napkin / tissue 161. dish 162. big round serving tray 163. tray you'd serve tea or coffee on 164. table 165. chair 166. pan 167. oven 168. stove 169. sink 170. faucet 171. counter 172. cupboard 173. refrigerator 174. peel 175. cut 176. slice 177. chop 178. boil 179. spill (water/milk) 180. pour 181. eat 182. drink 183. flour 184. sugar 185. bread 186. tea leaves 187. coffee grounds

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188. 189. 190. 191. 192. 193. 194. 195. 196. 197. 198. 199. 200. 201. 202. 203. 204. 205. 206. 207. 208. 209. 210. 211. 212. 213. 214. 215. 216. 217. 218. 219. 220. 221. 222. 223. 224. 225. 226.

rice nuts yogurt candy, etc. drinks water milk juice soda yogurt (drinking) coffee tea Fruits/vegies apple banana orange plum grapes fig dates raisons lemon pome-granate watermelon tomato cucumber zucchini onion carrot eggplant small eggplant potato garlic parsley lettuce grape leaves celery mint cabbage, etc.

Numbers (by using pens, for example) 227. one, two, etc. Words having to do with a door 228. door 229. key 230. doorknob 231. hinge 232. peephole 233. doorbell 234. open the door

235. close the door 236. lock the door 237. unlock the door 238. look through the peephole 239. ring the doorbell 240. knock on the door Money 241. coin 242. bill 243. names of the various coins and bills 244. pay me 35 qirsh 245. put 1 dinar in your pocket, etc. 246. give me change for this 1 dinar bill 247. exchange this amount of money into dinars/liras Words having to do with a cassette recorder/radio/etc. 248. cassette recorder 249. button 250. microphone 251. speaker 252. headphones 253. volume control 254. DC adapter jack 255. DC adapter 256. handle 257. front 258. back 259. side 260. battery cover 261. battery 262. play button 263. record button 264. rewind button 265. fast forward 266. pause button 267. cassette 268. put the cassette in 269. take cassette out 270. turn cassette over 271. push play 272. turn up the volume


273. turn down the volume 274. stop the tape 275. push pause button 276. rewind the tape 277. fast forward 278. record ___ 279. turn on the radio 280. turn off the radio 281. change the station 282. find some music 283. find some talking 284. change the band (e.g., from AM to FM) 285. change it back Words that have to do with a book 286. book 287. title 288. author 289. cover 290. table of contents 291. index 292. chapter 293. page 294. page number 295. section 296. paragraph 297. sentence 298. period 299. comma 300. quotation mark 301. open the book 302. close the book 303. turn to page number 304. turn the page 305. turn forward 5 pages 306. turn back a page 307. turn back three pages Things you'll see outside (you and your LH will have to go outside for this 308. car 309. truck

310. motorcycle 311. bicycle 312. bus 313. pedestrian (walker) 314. policeman 315. office building 316. restaurant 317. house 318. apartment building 319. grocery store 320. vegetable/fruit store 321. butcher's shop 322. bakery 323. gas station 324. door 325. front seat 326. back seat 327. driver's seat 328. passenger seat 329. steering wheel 330. seat belt 331. break pedal 332. gas pedal 333. clutch pedal 334. speedo-meter 335. gas gauge 336. gear shift 337. emergency break 338. ignition switch 339. horn 340. hood 341. headlight 342. fender 343. license plate 344. engine 345. trunk 346. tire 347. fender 348. exhaust pipe 349. turn signal switch 350. light switch 351. put on/take off your seatbelt 352. turn on the car 353. turn off the car 354. drive forward 355. go in reverse 356. turn right/left 357. do a U-turn

358. turn on your left turn signal 359. turn on your right turn signal 360. use the horn 361. stop 362. speed up 363. slow down 364. turn on/off the headlights/highbeams 365. turn on/off the inside light 366. wind up/down the window 367. lock the door (from the inside) 368. lock the door (from the outside) 369. driver's license Prepositions 370. on 371. in 372. under 373. above 374. beside/next to 375. in front of 376. behind 377. to the left of 378. to the right of Living room 379. sofa 380. chair 381. pillow 382. coffee table 383. rug 384. carpet 385. cushion 386. window 387. curtain 388. lamp 389. ceiling light 390. light switch 391. electrical plug 392. phone plug 393. telephone 394. telephone cord 395. television 396. bookcase 397. bedroom 398. bed

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399. 400. 401. 402. 403. 404. 405.

sheet pillow blanket dresser closet coat hanger mirror

Bathroom 406. toilet 407. bathtub 408. toilet paper 409. sink 410. towel 411. shower curtain 412. toothbrush 413. toothpaste 414. comb 415. plunger 416. shampoo 417. deodorant 418. dry (hands) 419. wipe off 420. wash 421. bath 422. dry 423. comb (hair) 424. braid (hair) Basic adjectives 425. big 426. small 427. medium (of three, for example) 428. long 429. short 430. new 431. old 432. thick 433. thin Colors 434. color 435. white 436. black 437. red 438. orange 439. yellow 440. green 441. blue 442. purple 443. pink 444. brown

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445. gray Shapes 446. square 447. rectangle 448. triangle 449. circle 450. oval 451. pentagon 452. hexagon 453. cube 454. box (rectangular solid) 455. sphere Things to do with a pen 456. cap 457. take off the cap 458. put the cap back on 459. write 460. sign your name 461. draw a line, circle, square, etc. Basic adverbs 462. quickly 463. slowly 464. carefully Voice things 465. speak 466. sing 467. hum 468. whisper 469. shout/yell 470. stop speaking (singing, humming) Household items 471. light bulb 472. hammer 473. screwdriver 474. screw 475. wrench 476. pliers 477. broom 478. mop 479. dustpan 480. sweep the floor 481. mop the floor 482. trash can

483. 484. 485. 486. 487. 488.

trash bag washing machine dryer iron ironing board clothes pin

Clothing 489. shirt 490. pants 491. shoe/shoes 492. coat 493. underwear 494. sock/socks 495. watch 496. sweater 497. hat 498. belt 499. dress shirt 500. tie 501. dress 502. skirt 503. blouse Parts of the body 504. hair 505. forehead 506. eyebrow 507. eyelash 508. eye 509. ear 510. cheek 511. nose 512. lip/lips 513. mouth 514. moustache 515. beard 516. chin 517. throat 518. tooth/teeth 519. tongue 520. chest 521. back 522. shoulder 523. belly 524. arm 525. leg 526. thigh 527. shin 528. hand 529. finger 530. fingers 531. thumb


532. 533. 534. 535. 536. 537. 538.

knuckle fingernail elbow knee foot ankle toe/toes

550. 551. 552. 553. 554. 555.

Office 539. office 540. desk 541. computer 542. keyboard 543. monitor 544. printer 545. mouse 546. printer cable 547. voltage regular 548. power cord 549. disk drive

floppy disk paper modem fax machine scanner shredder

Words having to do with a wall calendar 556. today 557. yesterday 558. tomorrow 559. the day before yesterday 560. the day after tomorrow 561. week 562. this week 563. last week 564. days of the week

565. next week 566. months of the year 567. month (this month, last month, next month) 568. last Monday 569. a week from Wednesday 570. holiday 571. the statutary holidays Clock 572. clock 573. AM/PM 574. various times (using a clock face)

Here is a list of the basic range of language functions and communication situations you can try to include in your TPR sessions:              

requesting/complying/refusing an object/action/assistance/favour offering/accepting/declining an object/object giving instructions/orders to an employee/child making a promise or commitment to future action making an apology expressing regret/sorrow initiating an encounter/making initial small talk in an encounter terminating an encounter asking for clarification interrupting making a social introduction/introducing oneself asking/granting/refusing permission asking the time indicating a desire to enter a home/bidding someone to enter a home

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The Shared Experiences Techniques Adapted from LinguaLinks 1999 With the Shared Experiences techniques, you listen to the LH recounting something that happened when you were together. This enables you to take advantage of your knowledge of an event to help you:  understand the reporting of an event more easily  acquire new vocabulary  acquire new grammatical structures Note: Pay attention to things happening during the activity to ask the LH about later (possibly take notes). Before your session: Think of an event or activity you can do with the LH. During your session  Go with the LH and do whatever you have decided on.  Take notes to give yourself a script for what happened.  Ask the LH to describe what you did together, as if speaking to a third person. After your session  Listen to the tape and see if you can follow what the LH said.  Make a note of things you do not understand to ask the LH about later. Variation: The Shared Experiences technique can be used to practice your own storytelling. After your shared experience, try telling the story first. Then ask the LH to tell his or her version of it. Listen to both versions and note the differences. 1. Eating Out With the Eating Out activity, you go to a local restaurant with a group and share a meal together. This technique works well for a class and teacher to do together, or for a group of language learners and their LH. It enables you to:   

To learn new vocabulary To learn the appropriate cultural behavior for eating out To have an informal time together with the LH and other students, getting better acquainted on a personal level. These kinds of relationships are often very important to non-westerners.

Guidelines: Take a native speaker with you who is comfortable in the cultural setting. You need someone to learn from by observation and instruction. Before your outing

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Discuss vocabulary and phrases which will likely be used at the restaurant.

Talk about cultural necessities such as tipping, getting the attention of the waitress, and paying.

Set up the time and date of the outing.


During your outing 

Go to the restaurant and enjoy yourself. Use the vocabulary phrases necessary to order your meal.

After your outing 

Discuss any difficulties you had at the restaurant or observations you made about the outing.

Make a do's and don'ts list for eating out in this situation.

2. Join in the Work With the Join in the Work activity, you find out what types of things are going on in the community on a particular day and choose one activity where you can become involved. This shared activity enables you:  To observe work patterns and other cultural information  To get to know individuals better  To learn new vocabulary  To increase your ease of speaking conversationally Guidelines  Use this activity as a learning tool, even in the early stages of language learning (predominately to observe and to be involved with individuals). Use it later to continue improving your speaking abilities in a relaxed setting. 

Choose a variety of activities to join in—particularly ones which allow you to become involved with people in their setting. You may find that the language and culture learning you get during this activity is vastly different from what you get in the formal "language session" time. This may be the time they let you get an insider's view because you are willing to be involved with their daily schedule, rather than just following your own agenda.

Carry a small notebook, if possible, to jot down notes while you attend an activity. Otherwise, do your best to make mental notes and then write them down as soon as possible.

Observe working relationships between participants, including their verbal and nonverbal interaction. You may be able to learn about social hierarchies within these parameters.

Ask questions about what is going on if you do not understand. However, do not turn this into a language session. If the participants seem unwilling to answer your questions, save them for a language session and simply observe during this activity. Do not press them for answers or you may alienate yourself, or at least make yourself less welcome in the future.

3. The Shopping Trip With the Shopping Trip activity, go shopping with your LH for the week's groceries without actually purchasing them, but by listing them in a notebook. This will enable you:  To become familiar with the local supermarket (or open air market)  To learn new vocabulary items of food names  To gain confidence in being able to make a trip to purchase items by yourself Guidelines  Make up a list of the items to be "purchased."  Learn vocabulary items that will be helpful, such as, "a bottle of", "a kilo of", "a can of."

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 

Make it a comparative trip if there are several supermarkets in town. Buy some items, if necessary, on the trip. You may find that you cannot gather (accurate) information without buying something if you go to an open air market. If bargaining is a part of the purchase scenario and you are not actually going to purchase anything, the price you are told initially would not be the actual purchase price.

During your trip  Go to the store and begin walking the aisles, looking for the items you want to "purchase." Notice the overall organization of the store.  As you write down prices, you may want to compare brand names, size versus price amounts (is it more economical to buy the large one or not), and other considerations.  Ask your LH about things you do not understand.  Write down new vocabulary items and other things of interest.  Go to another store (if available) and do more comparison shopping. After your trip  Tally your "purchases" to find your total cost.  Write down your overall impression of each store and decide where you want to shop. 4. Telephone Procedures With the Telephone Procedures activity, you practice using the telephone to learn the appropriate etiquette and skills required for local use in order to:   

learn appropriate vocabulary for using a telephone practice using the phone book, dealing with operators, dialing local and long distance numbers learn how to communicate without using facial expressions and gestures

Before your practice  Make a list of questions you want to ask each of the parties you call.  Use the telephone book to make a list of the businesses and persons you want to call and their phone numbers. During your session    

Call the first number on your list and explain that you are seeking information. Proceed with all your questions, then end the call. Write down the information you received and how you felt about the phone call. Continue making phone calls until you have exhausted your list or until you feel confident in your ability to use the phone. Practice the same task several times with different people to build confidence.

Prerequisites You need to learn vocabulary items associated with the telephone before you actually try to carry on conversations. Some of these vocabulary items are dial, receiver, call, dial tone, busy signal, operator, information, collect, direct dialing, and extension. You also need to learn phone etiquette, such as proper greetings and introductions.

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Variations Call the operator to find out how to make a collect call or how to charge a call to a third party. Practice hearing how people respond when answering a wrong number call. Try calling a business and asking for information they cannot possibly know, or call a private number and ask for a person you know will not be there. Call information hot line type numbers or other information numbers: time and temperature, movie theaters, dial-a-joke, 800 numbers, or want ads. You may also need to learn how to use a radio telephone. You should learn the location of the operation station and how to book a call on the radio telephone.

5. Telling Jokes With the Telling Jokes activity, you practice telling jokes to native speakers after you have practiced them with your LH. This will enable you:  

To learn the proper intonation and stress needed to carry a joke To provide cultural insight into what is considered funny

Guidelines  Listen to jokes told by native speakers and analyze them for  common themes,  frequently used words and phrases  types of jokes: puns, tall tales, or riddles There may even be books of jokes available in the language. These may be helpful, even if you do not actually tell the jokes, because the language may be closer to actual spoken language.  Notice the circles in which jokes are told, also where they are not told, and who tells jokes.  Do not try to translate jokes from your native language as the humor may be completely different. Something that is acceptable joke material in your culture may be taboo in the local culture. Or something hilariously funny in your culture may fall flat locally.  If you find it difficult to tell a joke, you could focus instead on learning how to listen to jokes and how to respond appropriately to jokes. During your session  Tell the LH you want to learn how to successfully tell a joke.  Ask if there are certain guidelines you should know when telling a joke.  Ask the LH to tell you a joke. Notice the verbal and nonverbal cues.  Tell your joke to the LH  Have the LH tell you how to improve your joke telling.  Practice until you are comfortable telling your joke. After your session  Practice telling your joke to several native speakers or groups of native speakers. Keep telling your joke until you get a good laugh. If you bomb, ask the listeners how you can make the joke funnier.

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Developing Connected Speech It’s easy to get plenty of individual words and short expressions through TPR and using objects and picture books. But at some point--say after getting 1,000 words that way—the language learner needs to develop more complicated forms of connected speech while still being exposed to comprehensible input. Here are some ideas which, when used together, are very powerful. 1. The Series Method Get your LH to tell you the steps involved in doing something that you already know how to do. For example, get your tutor to tell you how to make a cup of tea. Ideally you have learned your first 1,000 words and thus already know the words for teapot, teabag, sugar, spoon, water, stove, match, light, etc. Now you ask your tutor to tell you the steps involved in making a cup of tea, while you tape record it. You should be able to follow what your tutor says because you already know the main vocabulary, but most likely there will be some words you won't understand the first time. Aim to be exposed to stuff of which you understand 75-80%. Eventually you'll want to go through the recording with your tutor and make note of every word you don't understand along with its meaning. After that, listen to the recording several times until you understand everything in the text without having to refer to your notes. Once you understand everything, the text is in your comprehensible corpus and you can put it in a "to be reviewed every once in a while" stack. Notice the focus on comprehension. At this point worry about learning to understand the text. Later on you can practice telling your tutor how to make tea, but for now don't spend much time memorizing your new vocabulary or sentence structure. And because you're not taking up a lot of time memorizing, you will instead be able to elicit and learn to understand many different Series Method recordings from your tutor. Here are just a few ideas to get you started.        

How to make a cup of coffee/tea How to dress a baby How to start a car How to lock/unlock a door with a key How to record someone using a tape recorder How to change a diaper How to make fruit salad How to cook mansaf (or any other food)

      

How to make a bed How to brush your teeth How to get from your house to the store (or anywhere else for that matter) How to use a pay phone How to wash a car How to wash the dishes How to find a good TV show to watch

So far I've only listed solo activities; that is, none of the above involve any dialogue or discussion in order to get the task done. Alas, most things we do in life involve interaction. It is easy to develop a list pertaining to those situations as well:      

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How to pay an electric bill How to buy stamps to mail a letter How to take a bus somewhere How to rent a car How to make a phone call How to apply for a residence permit

   

How to apply for a job How to host a guest in your home What you do when you enter a home you are visiting for the first time How to ask for a date


Series aids grammar learning One of the best ways to practice various tenses (e.g., past, present, future) and pronouns (e.g., I, we, he, they) is to put them into a Series. This is a much more productive way to practice verb conjugations. Your mind is much more engaged if you recite a whole Series with one pronoun and one tense and then the same Series with another pronoun and another tense. Example: Starting the Car Command Open the car door. Get in. Close the door. Start the car. Drive away.

He-Past He opened the car door. He got in. He closed the door. He started the car. He drove away.

I-Future I’m gonna open the car door. I’m gonna get in. I’m gonna close the door. I’m gonna start the car. I’m gonna drive away.

Series aids culture learning After using Series to describe things you do, use Series to try to describe the way people there do certain things. This employs the Series technique in learning something about the culture. For example: “Let me see if I can tell you how people here do (a particular activity). Correct me if I’m wrong.” (Or after you’ve tried to say it, say to someone, “Now you say it.”) 2. Dialogue Generation Dialogue Generation builds on the Series Method. With Dialogue Generation you ask your tutor to record typical interactions between two people in different situations, with the difficulty or complexity of the dialogue being aimed at your ability level. For example, suppose I want to learn about the process of riding taxis. You first ask your LH to talk about steps involved in riding a taxi (the Series Method): Your LH says, "How To Ride a Taxi. First, walk to the street. Then look for an empty taxi. When you see an empty taxi, hold out your hand. If the taxi stops, get in it. Get in the front seat if you are a man and in the back seat if you are a woman. Greet the taxi driver and tell him where you want to go. Make sure the taxi driver has reset the meter. When you get to your destination, pay the driver the amount that the meter says and say 'Good-bye.' Get out of the taxi and close the door behind you." Hopefully by the time you ask for this text you can understand 80-90% of it the first time you hear it. Record it and go over it with your tutor, getting the words that you don't know. Once you've done this, ask your tutor to record several simple, typical interactions between a taxi driver and a passenger. The key is to get several such dialogues recorded. If you just get one dialogue per topic, it's likely that the way people respond to you will be different than in your dialogue. However, by getting your tutor to record several different impromptu dialogues on the same topic, you're more likely to be exposed to "real language" like you'll also hear when you are in "real life" situations. Plus, by getting several dialogues you'll be learning to understand and ultimately produce more vocabulary. Note also that these dialogues should be geared toward your ability level, so that more advanced learners can have their tutors create more advanced dialogues. In fact, as a beginning, intermediate, and an advanced learner you can use exactly the same topics to get dialogues with differing levels of complexity.

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For example, with a taxi driver and passenger the easiest dialogues could revolve around basic taxi use: greeting the driver, telling him where to go, paying him, and saying good-bye. The next level of difficulty could include the passenger giving directions to the driver as well as small talk between the driver and the passenger, about the weather or whatever else taxi drivers and passengers chat about wherever you live. An even more advanced level of dialogue could have the driver and passenger arguing about the fare because the driver didn't reset the meter when they began. And so on. (And of course, this is the same development that you'll see in your speaking ability. Simple first, then more complex, step-by-step.) 3. Memorized Monologues (see PILAT #B) At the beginning virtually everything you say will be memorized. You will be “reciting” the questions you ask, the answers you give and the statements you make more than “talking” them. So, memorize texts about yourself, your background, family, work, testimony, etc. Keep a running list of ideas. Memorize these texts to use them, not to store them.What you say may even sound like nonsense, yet people can make sense out of it! Here are some ideas for memorized monologues. Memorize monologues partaining to YOU.  Autobiographical realm: what do you want people to know about you? - Your parent’s family/you nuclear family - Your background and upbringing/education - Past employment you’ve had - Special people in you life. - In other words: Who are you?  Your work: what do you want people to know about what you do? - Who do you work for? Where is its headquarters? - What specific job do you have? What is its specific purpose and what do you hope to accomplish? - In other words: What are you doing/plan to do here?  Personal life experiences: what stories do you want people to know about you? - Childhood experiences, life back home, life in school - Special events: birthdays, vacations, trips. - How you met your spouse - The story behind a physical scar or obvious handicap - In other words: Who are you in a broader way?  Things you like to do: what interestes do you have that you want people to know about? - Hobbies, sports, kids, recreation activities - In other words: More who are you? Memorize monlogues pertaining to current events: what is actually going on now, both in your own life and in the world at large?  Personal experiences: Keep track of what’s going on. Keep a journal and record activities, feelings, impression. Memorize and relate these. - One of the best opening statements is: “Let me tell you what happened yesterday…” To say it like that sparks interest, since it conveys that probably something unplanned or unexpected took place.  World at large: Stay in touch with the news. Learn to express in 2-3 short sentences what is happening in the world and make a comment about it.

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Gleaning monologue material from questions people ask you.  Log the questions people ask you. If you get it asked once, you’ll get asked again. For example here is a question you might be asked but not comprehend: “What do you/Americans think about your President/” If you don’t comprehend the question, ask them to write it down. Or, if they don’t write, have them say it into your handy tape recorder. Afterwards make it a project with you LH to develop adequate answers to such questions 4. True/false Comprehension Have your helper make true or false statements about particular domains, and you respond by saying “true” or “false” Example: The Room and its Contents ‘There are 3 chairs in that corner.’ (true or false) ‘The light is off.’ (true or false) ‘There is nothing on this table.’ (true or false) ‘There are 4 books over there.’ (true or false) ‘Not all the windows are open.’ (true or false) Example: The Weather ‘It is not cloudy today.’ (true or false) ‘The sun is shining.’ (true or false) ‘It didn’t rain yesterday.’ (true or false) ‘It was very cold this morning.’ (true or false)

Example: Your Family and Activities ‘You have 3 children.’ (true or false) ‘All your children are in school.’ (true or false) ‘Your wife went to the market.’ (true or false) ‘Nobody is sick today.’ (true or false) Example: Life in General Days/Dates: ‘Today is Saturday.’ (true or false) Clock time: ‘It’s 3:30 p.m.’ (true or false) ‘Yesterday was a holiday.’ (true or false) ‘You read the paper this morning.’ (true or false) ‘We did not have soup for lunch.’ (true or false)

Variation: Turn the activity around: You make true/false statements. Ask your helper to quickly restate what you said and then say ‘true or false’. Note: Remind your helper that it is not the purpose of this exercise to stump you but to give you listening and learning practice. If you are answering incorrectly more than a quarter of the time, have your helper make the statements easier. On the other hand, if you get them all, ask him to try to stump you. That will really challenge your comprehension ability! 5. Event Description Have your language helper describe something you have been involved in to a third person. This enables you to hear how people tell stories, something they do whenever they get together to relate events which just happened. They use a narrative style when doing this. When the “story” is about something you have experienced, you can follow it much more readily, and may even be able to anticipate what’s coming. Get the story on tape or video and listen to it over and over again. Pay attention to how a native speaker’s story-telling style may be different from the way you tell stories in your language.

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6. Number Dictation Have cards filled with numbers, times, currency, etc.. Get your LH to dictate these to you. This will enable you to gain mastery over the way numbers are used. You can make currency cards ($2.65; $9.05; etc.) and clock time cards (10:45; 4:30, etc.) 7. Dumb-Smart Question Memorize a standard description of directions, holidays, events, food preparation, national heroes, etc.; then go around the community asking people the answers to questions you already know. Ask questions that have a fairly standard answer, so you won’t face a “torrent” of language. For example you can ask: -

How to get to a certain place When a certain store, bank, office, etc. opens/closes How often the bus comes by; what the fare is. Where a certain bus goes or which bus to take to __________. What time it is.

More detailed Dumb-Smart Questions Get your LH to tape-record the answers to various questions and work through the answers with him/her. Learn how to ask the question (this is important!). Then go out and ask people the question. You will be pleasantly surprised at how much you can comprehend! - Find out how the major holidays are celebrated - Learn to fix 4 or 5 national dishes - Ask how people celebrate birthdays, weddings, anniversaries, funerals, etc. - Learn how people observe particular religious events - Find out how a particular sports event is played - Go to a statue or monument and ask people there who the person was and what made him/her famous Other Dumb-Smart Questions -

“What do you people here generally eat for breakfast/lunch/dinner” (Perhaps you should begin by asking “How many meals do you eat in a day? When are they?”) “What is your favorite meal/snack/dessert/drink/junk food?” “What is your favorite Western food?” “What is an ordinary day like from the time you get up to the time you go to bed?” “What kinds of things do people here generally do on the weekend?” “Tell me about each member of your family” “This is a map of (the country you are in). Please tell me where there are some interesting places” (or, “some interesting things to do.”)

8. Ask-Me-A-Question Create a list of, say, 15 specific questions. -

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5 autobiographical questions from your “memorized monologues” 3-4 time of day related questions (“What time is it now?” What time do you go to work?” “What time does the post office open?”, etc.


-

3-4 questions about what’s going on with you. (“What have you been doing lately?” “What did you study today?” “Where did you go yesterday?” etc.) 3-4 location related questions. (“How far is the post office from here?” Where is the best place to buy ______?” etc.

Work with you language helper until you have developed a sufficient answer for each question. Then learn to say, “Ask me any question from this list” and “Ask me another one”. Practice answering the questions with you LH, then go into the community, hand people the sheet and tell them to ask you any 5 questions listed there. This is a good project to use with people in the community who enjoy having a role in your learning. 9. Inter-Language Reading Read and compare back-and-forth things in the target language that you are well-acquainted with in your mother tongue. It will help you sense how they express certain ideas. You could, for instance, buy a translation of a novel and compare the two. 10. Various Writing Techniques There is dictation, composition and translation. Dictation is by far the easiest, since you just write what you hear. Composition expresses thought on paper. Translation transfers thought from one language to another. 11. Record & Compare Record yourself in tandem with your helper; then listen and re-listen many times in order to compare your consonants, vowels, intonation, etc., with those of your helper. Make a commitment to deal particularly with areas that cause mis-communication, humor or ‘hurt-ears’. 12. Single Sound Drill/Sound Contrast Drill As soon as possible, pick out the consonants and vowels that are troublesome for you. Get these in various contexts (word-initial, word-final, after consonant, in contrast to other sounds, etc.). Then systematically drill them per the technique. 13. Single Sentence Pattern Drill Select simple or complex sentences. Then with your helper find other words or phrases that can take the place of those in the model. Drill it (Listen, Mimic, Produce) but realize that the whole purpose of this activity is to gain control of the ‘sentence pattern’ (primarily word order); so try to keep the sentence pattern in mind while doing the drill. (Note: The major learning part of this activity will probably come in the process of setting up the drill more than in actually drilling it.)

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14. Complex Sentence Pattern Exercise Keep a list of complex sentences that intrigue you because of their construction. Generate other sentences that follow that same format; that is, that express ideas using the same grammatical construction. In doing this, you will be practicing complex grammatical patterns in a way that focuses as much on content as it does on form. This becomes a content approach to grammar. 15. Sentence Transformation Exercise Select a simple sentence. Then investigate what happens to the sentence (i.e., how it changes) when it becomes negative, a question, a command, a different person/tense, etc. Helps to internalize basic word order. 16. The Tone Pattern Drill Technique The Tone Pattern Drill Technique is for those learning tonal languages, such as Chinese or Hausa, in which the meaning of a word is determined as much by its tone-pattern as by its phonetic makeup. With the Tone Pattern Drill technique, you compare utterances to decide their pitch by substituting them into a constant environment (a "frame"). By keeping the same frame, you will be better able to tell when the substitutions items change pitch. After the patterns are distinguishable, you produce them. This will enable you:   

To distinguish one tone pattern from another To recognize, initially within a controlled environment, the tone patterns To be able to produce words using the correct tone patterns

Guidelines  Select a frame (i.e., a fixed sentence pattern, see example) which will stay the same as you change the substitution items.  Make sure substitution items are of the same class (all nouns), so they will fit into the same frame. Substitution items can be whole words or unaffixed forms, depending on the language constraints.  Arrange the substitution items into groups with the same number of syllables, and as much as possible with the same syllable pattern. Before your session  Make a list of words you want to practice to determine their tone pattern. Try to come up with a possible frame for the drill. During your session  Explain to the LH what you want to do. Have the LH say each item with the frame two times. Tip: You may have to go through the list several times before you can clearly hear the pitch, and determine its level. You can use other substitution items to compare the pitches (higher, lower, level, or gliding.)  Regroup the substitution items into groups with the same tone patterns and go through each group again in the frame for another check on consistency. Regroup again if necessary.  Check the groups by substituting them into a different frame: one with a different pitch pattern from the first frame.

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Record the LH saying the substitution items and frames, one stress pattern group at a time.

After your session  Use the recording to practice the items until you feel comfortable with them. Example You make a list of words you need to practice to determine their tone pattern: spider, snake, squirrel, buffalo, lion, antelope, crocodile, lizard, and hippopotamus. (This example is given in English, even though it is not a tonal language, for ease of understanding.) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Decide on the frame: "The man killed a ... yesterday." Explain to the LH what you want to do. Have the LH say each item within the frame two times. Have him or her repeat the following another time, since you had a hard time determining their tone the first two times: snake, crocodile, lizard. Regroup the items according to their tone pattern. Group 1 (lower than the frame): buffalo, lion, crocodile, hippopotamus Group 2 (higher than the frame): squirrel, snake, antelope Group 3 (same as the frame): spider, lizard Go through each group again, checking for consistency. You do not need to regroup anything. Recheck the tone groups by substituting them into a different frame: "A ... played on the rocks." Record the LH saying the groups within the frames, one at a time. Use the recording to practice several times until you feel comfortable with the tone patterns.

17. Some Reading Techniques     

Read a recipe and underline the instruction words. Re-order a set of jumbled instructions for a scientific experiment Have you LH cut up a text or jumble a poem and try to put it in the right order. Read the description of a machine. Label the diagram of a machine Read comic books

18. Opposites Step 1: Make a list of common words that have obvious apparent opposites. Example: Big, dark, loud, young, tall, rich, boy, hard, attractive, abstract, logical, win, man, smells nice, stop, fast, front, right, lively, high, sweet. Step 2: Learn how to say, “Say one of these words and I’ll say the opposite.” LH.

Practice with your

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19. Sets Step 1: Make a of 10-15 set words, i.e., words that all belong to the same category and learn at least five words in each set. Example:

Colors: red, yellow, green, blue, pink, brown, black Tastes: sweet, sour, bitter, salty, spicy, flat, Fruits: orange, apples, banana, papaya, mango, kiwi Body parts: Countries: Weather terms: Clothing: Furniture: Days of the week: Months of the year:

Step 2: Learn how to say, “Say one of these and I’ll say like it. Then say another one.” Work with your helper until you reach the point that when s/he says one word in one set you can quickly say 4 or 5 others. Step 3: Take you list into the community and play this game with others. This would be one school-age children would enjoy helping you with. 20. Pattern Sentences A pattern sentence is simply a sentence that when you substitute one or more of its components, it allows you to generate any number of useful sentences. Pattern sentences also serve as models of particular grammar points. Example:

“I am (a) ________” (student, Canadian, hungry, reading, sleeping, walking, etc.)

Step 1: With your LH select a particular pattern sentence. It should be a sentence you can actually use in communication. Step 2: Memorize the sentence as a frozen phrase or as part of a monologue. Step 3: Ask you LH to help you substitute other words that could replace the words in the pattern sentence. 21. Item Description The point and listen technique gives you individual words, the basic building blocks. The Item Description technique allows you to expand immediately on those building blocks. In essence, you get a pre-fab chunk of language with little effort. Instead of just learning the names for individual items add a specific description or activity that naturally goes with it. Example:

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door > Open the door dog > A big dog

light > I turn on the light window > I look out the window


Use phrases that can be easily associated with the word you are trying to learn. They might be descriptions, commands, actions. This technique can be quite revealing. When learning the word “exam”, for instance, you might learn that students in some languages don’t “take” exams, they “give” them. Other possibilities: 1. Body parts Hair > I comb my hair Eyes > I see with my eyes

neck > I scratch my neck arms > I hug with my arms

2. Opposites Door > I open the door I close the door Light > Turn on the light Turn off the light Table > Set the table Clear the table 3. Prepositions (with, at, on, etc.) Stove > I cook on the stove Desk > I work at the dest Spoon > I stir the tea with the spoon 4. Question and Answers What do you do with a fork? What do you do to the table?

I eat with a fork. I set the table

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Language Acquisition Projects (LAPs) Adapted from PLANTS Notebook, Section VIII, Supplemental Materials, p. 205 ff. LAP 1: Places, Transportation, Pronouns, Time    

Divide a sheet of paper into 4-6 spaces and sketch 4-6 of the following: house/home, market, post office, school, church, hospital, bank, airport, etc. On 3-4 separate cards sketch 3-4 of the following: bus, car, walk, truck, taxi, bicycle, train, boat, plane, etc. On 4 small cards sketch the pronouns: I (smiley face), we (3 smiley faces), he (stick figure), they (2 males, 2 females). On 3 small cards sketch last night (moon/stars with arrow pointing left), yesterday (a sun with arrow pointing left), day before yesterday (2 suns with 2 arrows pointing left).

Step. 1: Learn the places and pronouns using the “Look and Listen” Technique. Step 2: Learn the word “went” (past tense) Step 3: Make sentences by giving the places-sheet to your helper. Place a pronoun diagram on a place and ask your helper to make a sentence using “went” and the pronoun as in, “She went to the market.” Learn true/false (yes/no, or right/wrong). Repeat often and randomly. Step 4: Using “Look and Listen” learn the various means of transportation Step 5: Learner puts together a pronoun, a transportation method, and a place. LH, using past tense, says what it is, “We took/rode the bus to the market, etc.” (Note: check which is most natural Verb may change depending on the means of transportation; e.g., take bus, walk, ride bicycle.) Learner says “true/false”. Step 6: LH makes a past-tense statement: “They took the taxi home.” Learner puts the cards together. Step 7: Give props to LH. S/he puts a combination together and makes a true/false, past-tense statement. Learner says “true/false”. Step 8: Add time cards. “Yesterday they took the taxi home” LAP 2: Rooms, Pronouns, Activities, Tenses    

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Divide sheet of paper into 4-6 spaces and sketch 4-6 of the following: kitchen (a pan), bathroom (a faucet), bedroom (a bed), living room (a TV), dining room (a table), entryway (a coat rack), balcony/patio (a chair), apartment stairwell (steps/stairs), elevator (shaft), garage. Get/make pronoun cards (see LAP 1) On 3-4 small cards sketch 3-4 of the following (1 per card): playing (blocks/ball), working (hammer/saw), talking (mouth/consonants), singing (mouth/notes), sleeping (prone/zzz), eating (plate/food), reading (open book), studying (book, pen, pad), cleaning (broom). Tenses: get time cards (see LAP 1)


Step 1: Using “Look and Listen” learn the names of the rooms/pronouns Step 2: Put a pronoun card in a room. LH makes a present tense statement; e.g., “I am in the kitchen.” “We are in the living room.” Use all 4 pronouns and repeat lots. Step 3: LH makes a present tense statement; e.g., “They are in the dining room.” Learners put the correct pronoun in the correct room. Step 4: LH puts a pronoun card in a room and makes a present tense, true or false statement; “He is in the bathroom.” Learner says true/false, then tries to say the sentence. Step 5: LH makes a statement; e.g., “He is in the bedroom.” Learners mimic & put he in bedroom. Helper asks appropriate questions (e.g., “Who is in the bedroom?” “Where is he?” “Is he in the kitchen?”). Learners point to/indicate the answer. LH indicates and states the shortest possible answer. Have your LH ask the questions in a different order each time. Step 6: Put a pronoun in a room, add a verb card, and attempt to make the appropriate present tense statement. “He is singing in the bathroom” or “He sings in the bathroom”. LH restates it correctly. Learner mimics. Step 7: Give props to your LH. Make a statement. LH puts it together and restates it. Learner mimics. Step 8: Get the time cards today, yesterday, tomorrow (see LAP 1), and use them to learn the verb conjugations. LAP 3: Clothing, Put on/Take off, Children On 5 cards sketch pants, shirt, coat, shoes, hat. Fold/divide sheet of paper into 4 sections and sketch ‘persons’: baby, child, boy, girl. Learn concept of “put on/take off” a la LAPs 1 & 2. Note: The language may have several different words for the English put on and take off. Explore these concepts. LAP 4: Here/There/Yonder, Demonstratives, Fruits, Plurals Get 3 sheets of paper. On 1st, draw very large circle (here). On 2nd, draw medium circle (there). On 3rd, draw small circle (over there, yonder). On 3 cards sketch banana, orange, apple (or 3 other common fruits or vegetables). Get 4 cards. On 1st, draw 1 large X in the middle (this). On 2nd, draw 3 large Xs in the middle (these). On 3rd, draw 1 small x in a corner (that). On 4th, draw 3 small xs in a corner (those). Note: It’s best not to write any words on the sheets above. For over there, some languages may use ‘far’ or ‘far-away’. For plural demonstratives (these/those), some languages may use ‘thismany’ (these), ‘that-many’ (those). If this language doesn’t use plural demonstratives, substitute the number 3 for 3 Xs in the middle and 3 for 3 xs in the corner. Thus, “Put ‘this-3 apples’/‘that-3 apples’ over there.” Explore these concepts.

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LAP 5: Tableware, Prepositions, Locations, Descriptions Get tableware: knife, fork, spoon, plate, cup, table. Get the props for locations (here, there, over there) and demonstratives (this, that, these, those) from LAP 4. This activity will use right, left, between; and on, under, beside, in. Note: As this project develops, it will become increasingly complex but should be a very valuable exercise; so don’t go through it too quickly. Also, it will bring out differences in word endings in case languages (e.g., Russian). LAP 6: Preparing Vegetables Fold sheet of paper into 6 spaces. Sketch 6 vegetables: beets, onions, potatoes, carrots, tomatoes, squash, peppers, sweet potatoes, turnips, cucumbers. On 4 cards sketch: wash (water drops), peel (peeler), cut (knife), and chop (big knife). On 3 cards sketch 3: cook (small pot), boil (big pan), fry (frying pan), bake (oven), and steam (pan in pan). Note: Except for squash, these vegetables are generally referred to in the plural in English. Check if that is also true in this language. If so, use the plural. If not, use singular. LAP 7: Foods, Actions, Indirect Object, Tenses On 5 cards sketch bread, milk, soup, meat, and cheese. Get pronoun cards (see LAP 1). On 4 cards sketch give (wrapped present or 2 open hands), buy (arrow showing money leaving), sell (arrow showing money coming in), hand/pass (one hand to another). On 3 cards sketch: (a) pastcompleted (arrow to the left with dot on the left; thus “gave, sold, bought, handed”), (b) simple present (straight line with dot in the middle; thus “give(s), sell(s), buy(s), hand(s)”), (c) simple future (arrow to the right with dot on the right; thus “will give, will sell, will buy, will hand”). LAP 8: Appointments, Arrive/Leave, Early/Late Divide a sheet of paper into 4 spaces. Sketch: office (desk), meeting (conference table), appointment (door with doctor’s name), party (balloons). On 2 cards sketch: come to/arrive (person entering a doorway), leave/go away (person leaving a doorway). On 3 cards sketch: early (arc with dot on left side), on time (circle with dot), late (arc with dot on right side). For extra challenge add 2 more cards: very early (arc with dot plus large exclamation point on left side), very late (the same on the right side). LAP 9: Go/Come, Destinations, Purpose, Pronouns Divide sheet of paper into 4 spaces. Sketch 4 general places: city, village, market, plaza, and downtown/city center, mall. On 4 cards sketch: go (person with arrow toward a location), come (person with arrow at a location), and walk (person walking), run (person running). On 4 cards sketch purposes: buy-rice (money & bag), meet-friend (2 people), see-doctor (person and doctor), and study-language (person and book). Get the pronouns from LAP 1. Note: This language may not have generic/broad words for go/come. Specific verbs may be required for specific contexts and purposes. Work out the correct verbs with your helper.

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LAP 10: People, Buildings, Enter/Exit Divide sheet of paper into 6 spaces and sketch 6: store, bakery, church, pharmacy, hotel, embassy, hospital, school, airport, office, post office, factory, apartment building, etc. On 2 cards sketch: enter (large C with arrow pointing in), exit (large C with arrow pointing out). On 4 cards sketch: man (large male), woman (large female), boy (small male), girl (small female). Note: In some languages (e.g., Mandarin) it is very awkward to say someone merely went into a building. There must be purpose/activity connected with it. If true of this language, you may need to add purpose (e.g., to rest, to work, to study, to visit, to buy something). Example: He went into the library to study. LAP 11: Household Chores, Ordered to do these Divide a sheet of paper into 6 spaces. Sketch 6: cupboard, shelf, window ledge, closet, drawer, cabinet, desk, floor, carpet, steps/stairway wall, door, window. On 3-4 cards sketch 3-4: sweep, wipe, scrub, dust, wash, clean. Get the pronouns cards. On 1 card sketch the concept ‘tell/order/command’ (a mouth showing this--e.g., “I told her to sweep the floor.” LAP 12: Fragile things, Pick up/Put down, Manner (carefully, slowly) Divide sheet of paper into 4-6 spaces. Sketch 4-6 fragile things (e.g.), eggs, cups, glasses, vase, mirror, plates, clock, kitten, puppy, baby, etc. Decide with helper singular or plural. On 2 cards sketch lift/pick up (hands with arrows pointing up) and set/put down (hands with arrows pointing down). On 4 cards sketch ‘manner’: carefully (pillow), carelessly (pillow torn apart), quickly (2 lightning streaks), slowly (diamond traffic sign). Get the pronouns cards. On 2 cards sketch very (large exclamation point), not very (large X plus exclamation point). LAP 13: Meal Preparation, Question words Divide sheet into 6 spaces and sketch these actions: bake-bread, make-soup, fry-fish, fix-salad, roast-chicken, cook-rice. On 4 cards sketch question words: when (clock with ?), where (2 locations with ?), why (large bold ?), how/what step-by-step process (wavy line with ?).

LAP 14: Seasons, Weather, Time-qualifier Divide a sheet into 4 sections and sketch spring (flower), summer (bright sun), fall (leaf), and winter (snowman). On 4 cards sketch: rain (drops), snow (flakes), hot (thermometer high), cold (thermometer low). On 5 cards sketch all the time-qualifiers that the language will allow: usually (square with 6-8 coordinated dots), often/frequently (square with lots of uncoordinated dots), never (blank square), seldom/rarely/scarcely (square with 2-3 dots), always (square full of dots).

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LAP 15: Relatives, Possessive pronouns, Physical Conditions, Tenses Divide a sheet into 6 spaces and sketch 6 of the following physical conditions: headache, stomachache, tired, asleep, fever, cold, cough, awake, alive, dead, sleepy, hungry, thirsty, well, sick, warm, cold, hot, busy. On 4-6 cards sketch 4-6: father (2 parents with male circled), mother (2 parents with female circled), son (small male), daughter (small female), brother (boy/girl with boy circled), sister (boy/girl with girl circled). Select about 3 pronoun cards. Get you time cards. LAP 16: Emotions, Pronouns, Yes/No, Negative Note: An attempt is made here to distinguish emotions or feelings that are primarily within oneself as over against those specifically directed toward others; and then to pay particular attention to how the grammar may be affected by this distinction. If there is no distinction in this language, rejoice! Divide a sheet of paper into 4-6 spaces and sketch 4-6 of the following: happy, sad, afraid, surprised, brave/courageous, discouraged/frustrated, shy, worried, disappointed, unaware. Get the pronoun cards. On 1 card sketch a big ?-mark (for yes/no question). On 1 card sketch a big X (for not). On 1 card sketch a circle with a diagonal slash through it (for the negative command don’t be, used only for you). On 1 card sketch a large exclamation (for very). Note: Some languages make a distinction: (1) You have some emotions (e.g., it is expressed as ‘I have fear’, rather than ‘I am afraid’). (2) You are other emotions (e.g., ‘I am happy’). Check when that might be true in this language and what the concept is underlying the terms. LAP 17: 5 Senses, Fruits, Vehicles, Pronouns, Tenses Divide a sheet of paper into 4 spaces and sketch 4 local fruits (e.g.), orange, apple, banana, pineapple. Divide another sheet of paper into 4 spaces and sketch 4 local vehicles (e.g.), bus, truck, train, boat. On 5 cards sketch the 5 senses: see (eyes), hear (ears), smell (nose), touch (finger), taste (tongue). Get 4 pronoun cards (or as many as you want to work with). On 3 cards sketch 3 tenses: simple present (dot in the middle), completed past (arrow to left with dot on left), future (arrow to right with dot on right). On 3 cards sketch the in-process tenses: past in-process (wavy line with arrow to the left), present in-process (wavy line, no arrows), future in-process (wavy line with arrow to the right). LAP 18: Occupations, Relatives, Countries, Pronouns, Singular/Plural, Tenses Divide a sheet of paper into 4-6 spaces and sketch 4-6 of these (or other) occupations: teacher, student, doctor, nurse, dentist, secretary. Get 2 singular and 2 plural pronoun cards: I, he, we, they. Get the tense cards. From LAP 15 get 4 relatives (father, mother, brother, sister). On 4 cards sketch the maps of 4 countries (e.g., America/U.S., Canada, England, Australia). LAP 19: Children, Ailments, Time, Intensity Divide a sheet of paper into 4 spaces and sketch: coughing, sneezing, crying, choking. On 4 cards sketch: baby, boy, girl, child. Get time cards. On 2 cards sketch: very hard (dense arrow down), very much/a lot (several arrows down).

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LAP 20: Vegetables, Size, Condition, Singular/Plural, Demonstratives Divide a sheet of paper into 6 spaces and sketch 6 local vegetables that (if this language allows it) can be said in both singular and plural (e.g., English allows potato/potatoes, but not corn/corns). On 4 cards sketch: big (big square), small (small square), good (thumb-up), bad (thumb-down). On 2 cards sketch: singular (1 star), plural (3 stars). If this language does not distinguish singular/plural, rejoice! Get the demonstratives (this, that, these, those). LAP 21: City-Places, Country-Places, Pronouns, Before/After/And Then Divide a sheet of paper into 4-6 spaces and sketch 4-6 city-places: bank, post office, hospital, church, library, pharmacy, hardware, bakery, store. Divide another sheet into 4-6 spaces and sketch 4-6 country-places: lake, beach, woods, mountains, river, park, zoo. On 3 cards sketch a way to represent: before, after, and then (possibly with 3 colors, arrows or wavy lines). Get the 4 pronoun cards. LAP 22: Places, Positions: Behind, Next to, Between, Across from Tape 3 sheets of paper together side by side. Draw 3 city streets 2 blocks long that all come up to a T. The middle street is the main street. Sketch 8-10 buildings (hotel, bookstore, music store, police station, fire station, clothing store, furniture store, restaurant, doctor’s office, service station) on the ‘map’ in such a way that you can practice the following positions: behind, next to, between, across from/in front of. Also, make sure you can do these: on the corner, at the end of the street, in the middle of the block. LAP 23: Series of Morning Activities Divide sheet into 10 spaces (or get 10 cards). Sketch this (or similar) series of morning activities: (a) get out of bed, (b) go to the bathroom, (c) shave, (d) brush teeth, (e) take a shower, (f) get dressed, (g) comb hair, (h) make the bed, (i) read the Bible, (j) eat breakfast. Get as many pronouns as you want. On 4 cards sketch: (a) past in-process (wavy line & arrow to left), (b) present in-process (wavy line & dot in the middle), (c) future in-process (wavy line & arrow to right), (d) won’t!/refuse to (stubborn face with exclamation!). On 3 cards sketch: (1) past completed (arrow to left & dot on the left), (2) simple present (line with dot in middle), (3) future (arrow to right with dot on the right). Note: This format could be useful for learning any Series. LAP 24: Actions toward others, Intention/Desire, Time words, Weeks Divide a sheet into 4 sections and sketch these actions: help (hands), call (phone), see/meet (eyes), harm/hurt (fist). Get the personal pronouns cards. The same set will be used as both doers (I, we) and receivers (me, us) of the action (i.e., nominative and accusative). On 4 cards sketch intention/ desire: plan to/intend to (cartoon ‘cloud’ above person’s head with clip board and pen), want to/desire (‘cloud’ from person’s chest with ‘heart’), try to/make an effort (‘cloud’ above person with face showing effort), like to/enjoy (‘cloud’ above person with smiling face). On separate cards, sketch as many time words as possible: morning (divided card with sun on left), afternoon (divided card with sun on right), evening (sun setting at the bottom), night (moon & stars), day (full sun in the middle), noon (full sun above with arrow pointing down). On 1 card sketch every (5-7 lines from top to bottom equally spaced). On 2 cards sketch last week (7 columns with arrow left), next week (7 columns with arrow right).

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LAP 25: Activities, Necessity/Desire/Determination, Time words, Duration Divide a sheet of paper into 4-6 spaces and sketch 4-6 of the following activities: walk/stroll (i.e., for exercise/pleasure), run (i.e., for exercise), work, play, read, rest, sleep, do physical exercise/calisthenics/stretch/workout. Note: Try to get activities that do not need objects (e.g., if read must have an object {read a book}, don’t use it). Get as many pronoun cards as you want to use. These will be used only in the doer/nominative sense. On 4 separate cards sketch from the following: have to/must (person & large exclamation point), like to/enjoy (cartoon ‘cloud’ above a person with smiling face and exclamation), try to/make effort (‘cloud’ above a person with face showing effort), decide/determine to (hands on hips and foot stomping), want to/desire (‘cloud’ from a person’s chest with heart), need to/necessity (‘cloud’ from a person’s chest with empty basket), hate to/detest/dislike (‘cloud’ above a person with face showing anger), plan to/intend to (‘cloud’ above a person with clipboard and pen. Get the time words cards. On 4 separate cards sketch what the language will allow: every, during the (big wavy line from one side to the other), all (scribble the whole card), at/in the (large dot in the middle). LAP 26: Mind words, Commerce words, Furniture Divide a sheet into 4-6 sections and sketch 4-6 furniture items: table, chair, desk, lamp, sofa, coffee table, end table, bed, dresser, cabinet, buffet, shelves. On 4 separate cards sketch ‘commerce’ words: get (2 hands taking item), borrow (an item, with line connecting 2 people), buy (item in hand, money leaving), sell (money in hand, item leaving). Get pronoun cards: I, we, he, they. On 3-4 separate cards sketch ‘mind’ words: think (finger on head), hope (2 hands upraised), wish (fingers crossed), know/am sure (head with exclamation above it), pray (hands folded).

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Power Tools (adapted from PILAT, Section B, Techniques/Ideas for Language Learning) One of your first steps at the beginning of your language learning should be to learn words, phrases and sentences which you find yourself using repeatedly with people who are helping you learn the language. These include: 1) instructions to your language helper, 2) asking language learning related questions, 3) talking about your level of ability, 4) conveying you desire and commitment to learn the language. Experience has shown that if the language helper speaks English, the learner will tend to convey the “language learning messages” in English, not the target language. Don’t you be guilty of this! Learn to give these and other recurring messages in the language itself. Here is a beginning list. Write down others as you find yourself using them. Tools to give specific instructions or requests when working on the language A. Various statements and requests (Keep a running list of what you use repeatedly with your helper) -

“Let’s read this lesson. You read first and I’ll say it after you.” “Please help me with these words.” “Let’s practice these sentences.” “Please speak/talk more slowly.” “Please write it down (for me); I want to learn/study it later.” “Please repeat.” “Please pronounce this word (for me).” “Say it again.” “What does it mean?” “Please translate this word for me.” “Please show it to me.” “Please give me an example.” “Please correct me.” OR “Please correct me when I make a mistake/say something wrong.” “I don’t want to learn/study/do this right now.”

B. Help in taping -

“Let’s record these sentences.” “Try to read it as though you were saying it to someone.” OR “Try to say it as naturally as possible.” “Please say/read each sentences three times.” “ Please pause so I can repeat it each time” (i.e., when I listen to it.) OR “Watch me. I will signal when to read the next one.” OR “Read each one when I point to it.”


Tools to ask specific questions related to language learning -

“Did I say that right?” “How do you say (e.g.), ‘I forgot’, ‘Wait for me’, ‘Wait a minute’, ‘That’s mine’, etc., in your language?” “How do you pronounce this word?” “How do you spell/write this word?” “What does this word mean?” OR “What does that mean?” “What is the name of this?” OR “What is this called?” “What is this used for?” “What is this action called?” (i.e., you first ask this question, then do an action, like bow, stretch, yawn, shake head, sneeze, cross legs, etc.) “May I ask you a question?” “Is it correct to say __________.” OR “Can I say this: ___________?” “What is the correct way to say it?” “Do you understand?” Tools to express you ability and aspirations in the language

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“I don’t know (or can’t speak) very much _______________ yet.” “I’m sorry, I don’t understand (yet).” “I understand what you are saying, but I can’t (yet) answer in ___________.” OR “I don’t know how to answer it yet”. “I need an interpreter.” “I understand most of this, but not all of it.” “I have to go now. Thanks for your help.” “I wish I could speak ____________ better.” “My __________ is very limited, but I’m trying to learn more every day.” “I want to tell you something in ________, but I don’t know the words yet, so I have to tell you in English.” “I’ll try to find out and tell you tomorrow.” “___________ is very difficult for me.” Tools to establish you in the learner role

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“I want to learn ___________ (or your language)” “May I practice speaking ____________ with you?” “Can you help me for a few minutes?” “May I come back and visit tomorrow?” “May I tell you what I learned today/yesterday?” “Please talk to me in _________.”


BASIC TEXTS TO GET YOU STARTED PILAT, Section 3: The Language Learning Kit, C-111 Don’t (repeat, Don’t) just give these to your helper to translate for you. Except for the Basic Q & As, these are ‘basic arenas’ of life to explore. Present the ‘basic arena’ to your helper and first ask, “What kind of talk goes on in this arena?” Don’t program your helper too closely. These are jumping off points. No particular order here; so check the ones you want to work on first. Take particular note of all the different kinds of question words (#42). 1. Basic Greetings Hello. My name is ____________. What is your name? I’m happy to meet you. Where do you live? I live over there. I must be going now. Good-bye. 2. Basic Greetings/Invitation Hi (to someone across the way). I live next door. We just moved in. I came over to meet you. We are new here. Come over sometime. Please come for dinner. What do you like? Do you have any food restrictions? Come about 7:00. 3. Basic Hospitality Greeting (when you open the door). Please come in. Please sit down. Please have some tea. Thank you for coming. Please come back again. 4. Basic Question & Answer (1) What are you doing? I’m studying/working/playing. When will you be done? In about 2 hours. When are you going home? Later today. How long will you be here? Till noon. 5. Basic Question & Answer (2) When did you come here? (I came here) in April. How long will you stay here?

(I’ll stay) about 3 months. Do you like living here? Yes, I like it very much. 6. Basic Question & Answer (3) Where are you going? (I’m going) to the market. How long will you be gone? (I’ll be gone) about 1 hour. Can I go with you? Sure! Come on! Let’s go! 7. Basic Buying/Shopping I want to buy some bread. What kind/type? White/wheat/French. How many do you want? Three loaves. They are really tasty! Anything else? No, that’s all. That’ll be/The cost is_______. Here! (Here’s the money.) 8. Basic Bargaining How much is this/that? Get typical price. Wow! That’s expensive. I can’t pay that much. I’ll give you ____ for it. No, how about _______? Okay, I’ll take/buy it? It’s a very nice one. 9. Basic Cost The oranges are/cost________. The bananas are ________. The pineapple is ________. The notebook is _________. The pen is ___________. The envelopes are _________. The total is __________.

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10. Basic Feelings (Do people express or keep feelings to themselves?) I’m ill/I don’t feel well. I have a cold/fever/the flu. I’m very sad. I’m very tired. I’m very happy. I feel much better. I’m homesick. I feel cold. (or, It’s freezing in here!)

15. Basic Apology Pardon me. Excuse me. Please forgive me. It was an accident. I’m so sorry it happened. How can I repay you? Please don’t hold it against me. Sorry I’m late. I’m sorry to bother/trouble you.

11. Basic Telephone (1) (Get proper telephone etiquette.) Hello. This is (Jim) . Is (John) there? No, he’s not. When will he be back? About 5:00 this afternoon. Okay, I’ll call back later. Good-bye.

16. Basic Comments to a Child Come here. Right now! Stop your crying/whining. Stop that! Don’t do that. Sit still! Drink your milk. Eat your rice. Get ready for bed. What’s the matter? Listen to me. That’s too bad. There, there now. Koochi Coo. You’re a very nice boy. Let me/May I pick you up. Put on your shoes/socks/coat. Be nice to your sister. Say ‘I’m sorry’! Don’t run! Be careful. Wait for me / Let’s go. Don’t make so much noise!

12. Basic Telephone (2) Hello. Yes, what time do you open/close? We open at 9:00 a.m. We close at 6:00 p.m. Do you sell (raisins) ? Yes we do/No we don’t. How much are they? ______ per kilo. Okay, thanks. Bye. 13. Basic Gratitude (How verbose are they in gratitude?) Thank you. Thank you very much. I really appreciate that. You are very generous. Praise the Lord! Thank God for His help. 14. Basic Regrets (How bluntly do people express regret?) I wish I could help you. I’m very sorry, I can’t go (with you). I’m sorry, I can’t do that (for you). I’m sorry, we don’t have room. I’m sorry, I don’t have time. I’m sorry, he’s not here. I’m sorry, I can’t find it. I’m sorry, I don’t know.

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17. Basic Parents Are your parents still living? Are your parents well? Where do your parents live? What does your father/mother do? Who is taking care of your parents? 18. Basic Hotel Do you have vacancies? I would like a single/double room. Do you have a room on the top floor? How much is it per night? Does the room have a bath (or shower)? A telephone? May I look at the room? 19. Basic Weather It’s a nice day today, isn’t it? It’s very cold/hot today. It’s about to rain. It’s raining very hard. It rains every day. I need my umbrella. It’s very windy/dry. I hope it will be a nice day that day. What is the weather supposed to be like tomorrow? It’s supposed to rain.


20. Basic Restaurant (1) Do you want anything to drink? Yes, I’ll have coke/tea/coffee. Can I take your order? Yes, I’ll have fish/pork/soup. What is your specialty? Anything else? No, not right now. Is everything okay? Yes, fine. Could I have some more tea? 21. Basic Restaurant (2) What would you like for dessert? Nothing, thank you. I’ll have ice cream, pastry, fruit. Could I please have the check? Sure, just a minute. Was everything okay? Yes, I like Chinese food. Come back and see us again.

Please speak more slowly. Please repeat/Say it again. Russian is a difficult language, isn’t it? What is this/that? 25. Basic Post Office I want to buy some/10 stamps. I want to send this package. Please send it airmail. How much does it cost? Please show me some stamps. I want to buy some to keep as a souvenir. Do you have any others? 26. Basic Directions Excuse me, where is the Post Office? Go straight-ahead 3 blocks. Then turn right. Go to/through the traffic light. Turn left and go 2 blocks. It’s on the corner, across from the bank.

22. Basic Meal Statements Please pass the bread. Please have some more. Thanks, I’ve had enough. I’m full already. It was so delicious. Could you teach me how to make this? May I have the recipe? You are a great cook.

27. Basic Health I don’t feel very good. I have no appetite. What’s the matter? I have a bad headache. Let’s go to the doctor. No, let’s wait awhile. Here, take this medicine. Thanks, I feel better already.

23. Basic Medical Please take 2 pills 3 times a day. Please turn over. I have to give you a shot. Open your mouth. Wide! Say, ‘Ah.’ Take a deep breath. Again. I have to look in your ear/eye. I have to take your blood pressure, temp. I have to give you an I.V. I have to change your sheets. I will try to do this very carefully. Come with me. Wait here. The doctor will come soon. How are you feeling? Where does it hurt?

28. Basic Taxi Instructions (Discuss taxi service. Do you bargain? Do taxi-drivers have a good reputation?) Take me to the airport. Please hurry. Please slow down. Please stop here. Let me off here. Do you have change?

24. Basic Language for Language Learning May I practice speaking ______with you? I only speak a little Spanish. Please translate this into English. What does this word mean? Do you understand? I don’t understand yet.

29. Basic Bus (Discuss bus etiquette. Do men stand so women can sit? Can I talk to strangers?) How often does the bus come? Every 20 minutes (or so). I hope it comes soon. It shouldn’t/won’t be long. Is it usually crowded? No, not at this time of day. Can I sit with you?/talk to you? Great!/Very well! Thanks!

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30. Basic Bus Driver Do you go to (the airport) ? Yes/No. How long does it take? About half an hour. How much is the fare? (Typical response.) 31. Basic Monologue on Daily Activities (Discuss their daily/weekly routines.) I get up at 6:00 a.m. I leave for work at 7:30. I get to the office at 8:00. I take coffee break at 10:00. I eat lunch at 12:00. I take a siesta until 1:30. I go home at 5:00. I eat supper/dinner at 6:00. I watch TV until 10:00. I go to bed at 10:30. 32. Basic Urgency (Discuss how to best get an urgent request met effectively. Ask calmly? Scream?) Help! This is an emergency. Please keep trying. Please come back right away. I need an interpreter. I need this right away. Can you do it right away? When will it be finished? 33. Basic Autobiographical Where are you from? I’m from_______. What are you doing here? I am studying/learning to speak . Why are you studying _____? Because I want to make friends./Because this is a beautiful place to do it. Are you married? Yes I am/No, not yet. Do you have children/a family? Yes, two boys and one girl. How old are they? (Actual age) Do you have a picture? Yes, these are my children. 34. Basic Days of the Week Today is Wednesday. Tomorrow is Thursday. Day after tomorrow is Friday. Yesterday was Tuesday.

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Day before yesterday was Monday. I don’t to go to work on Saturday. On Sunday I go to church. 35. Basic Community Contacts (1) I have come here to learn/study _______. I am studying at ______or with ________. I would like to talk with many people. I want to make friends. This is important. Can I talk with you? Do you have time? Do you have friends I can talk to? I have to go now. See you tomorrow. 36. Basic Community Contacts (2) You are patient with/help me very much. I enjoy talking with you very much. Thank you for taking time for/with me. I’m glad you are willing to help me. Sometimes I think/I’m afraid I’m taking up too much of your time/bothering you. Because of you, I’m making progress. 37. Basic Request Are you busy? Can I talk with you? I have a problem. I hope you can help me. I need your help. Can you help me? Do you have time to help me? 38. Basic Plans/Anticipation I’m planning to go. I’ve decided to do it. I’m looking forward to it. I hope to see you again. I plan/want to do that some time. 39. Basic Appointment I want to make an appointment. I have an appointment. Please sit down. I’ll go see if he is in/here. I’m sorry. He just left. Please come back tomorrow. 40. Basic Compliment (Discuss how expressive one can be about complimenting another person.) You did a great job. Congratulations on your promotion. I like the way you do that. You look great today. I like your dress/necklace/haircut. Happy birthday/anniversary.


41. Basic Interjections (Try to get profanity to avoid.) Oh, yeah! Ouch! Ugh! Alas! Phooey!/Nuts!/Rats! Wow! Oh, no! Oh, dear! Yippee! Great!/Terrific! Awesome! Nice! Well! Hey! How about that! Heavens! Profanity: Gosh! Darn! Damn it!, etc.! 42. Basic Question Words (Be alert for separate question words for the same question word in English, e.g., where in Russian.) What What is this/that? What time/day is it? What are you doing/going to do? What do you want? What did you say? What will the weather be like tomorrow? What kind of car is that? Where Where is it? Where is the Post Office? Where are you going? Where can I buy rice? Where did you put it? Where are my shoes? Where did you come from? Where have you been? Where do you live? When (past/future) When is your appointment? When does the store open? When are you going/leaving? When do you generally eat? When were you there? When did you see him? Who/Whom Who’s there (at the door)? Who is it!? Who is that over there? Who is (Who all are) going? To whom/Who did you give it (to)? Who took my newspaper? Whose Whose book is this? Whose house is that?

Why/How come How come/Why isn’t the bank open? How come/Why are you here? Why did you do that? Why aren’t you going? Why are they fighting? Why is there so much smoke in the air? Why not go with us (meaning ‘do it’)? How much/How many How much is this? How much time do you have? How much do you make a month? How many children do you have? How many bananas do you want? How (manner, means, process, etc.) How do you do say this word? How are you today (i.e., a sick person)? How did you get here? How old are you? How did it happen? How do you do that? Do you/Did you/Don’t you Do you think it will rain? Do you have relatives in the States? Do you want a ride? Do you have time? Don’t you want to go? Don’t you have any? Did you like it? Did I say it right? Do you know where it is? Are/Is it true Are you going to the market? Is it true that the bank is closed today? Are you married? Is this any good (a fruit)? Is it going to rain today? Is it gone? Is it far? Is English difficult for you? Is this the way to the market? That’s right, isn’t it? Can/May (permission) Can/May I have some more soup? Can/May I help you? Can/May I try it? Can/May I go with you? Can I say this? (i.e., Is it proper?)

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Can (ability) Can you jump that high? Can you help? Can you reach that for me? Can you make pizza? Did/Has/Have Did/Has the mail come (yet)? Did you tell him (yet)? Has it started to rain (yet)? Have you eaten/done it (yet)? Have you read this book? Is there/Are there Are there any oranges left? Is there a Post Office near here? How often How often do you pray? How often does it rain? How often do you come here? How often do you make stew?

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Have you ever Have you ever been to London? Have you ever gone on an airplane? Have you ever lied about it? Have you ever missed the train? How long (length/time) How far How long is that snake? How long will you be here? How long does it take to get there? How long is the meeting? How long ago were you there? How far away is the airport? Which Which one do you want? Which one is better? Which bus should I take to get there?


Conversation Starters 1. Beginning students       

“Please tell me about your family.” “What do you do? (student, worker, etc.) Where?” “Where do you live? Do you like it there? Why or why not?” “What did you do yesterday?” “What do you plan to do tomorrow?” “Please tell me how to get from here to your house (or the university or some store or etc.)” “What do you like to do with your free time?”

2. Intermediate students (can also use the above questions)              

"What did you do yesterday, from the time you got up to when you went to bed?” “Why did you choose to study _______?” “What would you like to be doing five years from now?” “Tell me about a time when you traveled somewhere.” “Please tell me about your favorite restaurant.” ““What kind of books do you like?” “Please tell me about your favorite book.” “Please tell me about your favorite movie.” “Please tell me about your favorite store.” “Please tell me about your best friend.” “Please tell me about an important moment in your life.” “Please tell me about your mom.” “Please tell me about your dad.” “Please tell me about your brother (or sister or cousin or etc.).” What kind of movies do you like?”

3. Advanced students (can also use the above questions) Note: Some of these should only be used with speakers of the same sex.              

“Please use a lot of detail and tell me what you did yesterday between (for example) 2:00 p.m. and 3:00 p.m.” “What qualities (or characteristics or traits) do you like in a friend?” “What was your childhood like?” “What is your first memory?” “Please tell me about the happiest day of your life.” “How important is religion in your life? Why?” “How important is politics in your life? Why?” “What is your opinion about (some major world event going on)?” “In your opinion, what makes life worth living?” “What is the biggest mistake that you have ever made?” “What is your most embarrassing moment?” “Have you ever been in love? Please tell me about the first time you were in love.” “What is something you really want to learn to do before you die?” “What is the worst job you’ve ever done for money?”

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                      

  

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“Where do you think you will be five years from now? Doing what?” “How would your life change is you had to do without TV?” “Tell me about someone special in your life.” “Are you anxious to get married?” Why (not?)” “What kind of social events do you enjoy?” “What kinds of problems do you face?” “Who is someone you’re always glad to see?” “If you found $250 dollars on the street, how would you spend it?” “How would you invest your inheritance?” and/or “Let us decide together how to invest a million dollars we inherited.” “What are you currently saving money for?” “When you are all alone, where do you go?” “What sports do you enjoy playing/watching?” “Tell me about something really scary that has happened to you.” “Would you consider marrying someone of a different cultural background?” “What are your favorite foods?” “If you could ask any one question from any 10 people who ever lived, what particular question would you ask those particular people?” “What is something you would hate to lose?” “Do you believe in life after death?” “What kind of baby would you like?” (physical characteristics, gender, looks, personality) “In what areas would you want your child to excel?” (sports, music, art, dance, science, humanities, business/trade) “What profession would you want your child to have?” “How would you feel if science could prolong life to 175 years?” “Imagine that you could invite any 10 historical people over for dinner. Whom would you invite, and whom would you seat next to who? Why?” (e.g.: Adam, Buddha, Aristotle, Ataturk, Castro, Einstein, Eve, Freud, Hitler, Jesus Christ, Lenin, Mao, Michelangelo, Mohammed, Napoleon, Sadat, Shakespeare, Stalin, etc. “Imagine you were born in 1900 and lived to 2000. You would have seen amazing changed in the course of your life: who could have predicted in 1900 that by 1969 people would be walking on the moon? What do you think will be the biggest changes in the course of the 21st century? What do you think will be the biggest changes in the course of your lifetime? Will the world be a better or worse place for those changes?” “Imagine were sentenced to spend the rest of your life on an uninhabited island in the Pacific, where the weather is mild. You were allowed to take 10 items with you. What would you take? Why?” Go over maps of each other’s countries and discuss the different areas, cities, industries, rivers, peoples. Discuss where the cheap places are to go on vacation. Find out about your LH’ers favorite subjects, hobbies, extended families (sketch family tree), background, jobs, friendship, religion, politics. Find out what his/her least favorite subject is (don’t push that area!)


4. Games     

LH slowly describes something until you guess what it is. Serial sentence: go back and forth adding a sentence turn-about to an imaginative story. Complete the sentence: “A good/bad thing which happened to me today/yesterday/last week/last month/last year was…” Have your LH describe a picture without showing it to you. You try to draw what s/he is describing. Work out a person’s holiday itinerary from authentic materials that include tickets, receipts, brochures, etc.

5. Conditionals and subjunctives Ask your LH how his/her life would change if:  intelligent life is discovered on another planet?  Columbus had been lost at sea and not discovered America?  the wheel had not been invented?  the ocean were filled with fresh water?  the internal combustion engine were not invented?  everyone spoke the same language?  there was no air-travel?  there was no electricity? Have your LH ask you the same questions. 6. The important thing is to start talking! Whenever you cannot say something treat it as a project, not as a problem. In the process of practicing the language, meeting neighbours, building relationships, grabbing a bite to eat, walking/strolling, taking the kids to the part, going to church, enjoying some form of recreation, etc., lots of hings will cross your mind that you wish you could say, or ideas of helpful things to do to learn the language. (By the way, very little will come to your mind if you’re NOT out doing these things). Write these ideas down. Keep a running list of things you can work on later. Here are some examples of spur of the moment things (single statements, questions) you will soon wish you could say 

It may be a comment: “Oh, isn’t she/he cute! (i.e., a baby) “Isn’t that funny/strange!” “That’s interesting!” “How about that!” “That’s nice!” “This is fun!”

It may be a warning: “Look out!” “Watch where you’re going!” “Be careful!” “Take it easy!”

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It may be a question: “How often does the bus come by?” “How come the bank isn’t open?” “What’s he doing that for?” “Is this dangerous?”

It may be information: “You’re wanted on the telephone.” “It’s supposed to rain this afternoon.” “I’m sorry, I can’t go.” “I wish I could go.”

It may be an invitation: “Let’s go for a cup of coffee.” “Are you free tonight?” “Could you come over?”

It may be a command: “Let me off here.” “Don’t do that!” “Look at that ______ over there!”


Correspondence Of Proficiency Scales FSI Scale

ACTFL Scale

Definition

5 4+ 4 3+ 3

Native

2+

Advanced Plus

2

Advanced

1+

Intermediate - High

1

Intermediate – Mid

Able to satisfy some survival needs and some limited social demands

Intermediate - Low

Able to satisfy basic survival needs and minimum courtesy requirements

0+

Novice - High

Able to satisfy immediate needs with learned utterances

0

Novice – Mid

Able to operate in only a very limited capacity Unable to function in the spoken language; No ability whatsoever in the language No ability whatsoever in the language

Distinguished Superior

Novice – Low 0

Able to speak like an educated native speaker Able to speak with a great deal of fluency, grammatical accuracy, precision of vocabulary and idiomaticity Able to speak the language with sufficient structural accuracy and vocabulary to participate effectively in most formal and informal conversations Able to satisfy most work requirements and show some ability to communicate on concrete topics Able to satisfy routine social demands and limited work requirements Able to satisfy most survival needs and limited social demands

Source: Judith E. Lisken-Gasparro. ETS Oral Proficiency Testing Manual. Princeton, New Jersey: Educational Testing Services, 1982.

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Types of Sentences 1. The Basics 1. Someone (or something) does an activity (Intransitive: there is one actor or troup of actors doing one activity): - Sally yawned. The book fell. She is crying. 2. Some (or something) does an activity to another person or object (Transitive) - He saw Maureen. They bought a book. The dog chased the cat. A sub type involves someone or something being acted on, i.e., a passive sentence. - Maureen was seen by him. The cat was chased by the dog. 3. Someone (or something) acts on him/itself (Reflexive) - He shaved himself. He hit himself 4. Someone (or something) is identified (Equative or Classification) - He is the President. That is a tree. Mehmet is a Turk. 5. Someone (or something) is described (Descriptive). - The mountain is huge. Susie is cute. He is old. 6. Someone (or something) is possessed (Possessive) - The book is mine. The baby is Louis’. The apartment is Ron’s 7. The Location of something is stated (Locative) - The park is near the store. She is at the store. The computor is on the table. 2. Multiply the Basics: Vary each of the 7 types above in the following ways: - Make them negative - Turn them into questions, both Yes/no and information questions - Turn them into commands - Turn them into exclamations - Combine the above variations! 3. Gain Flexibility: Modify each of the 7 types using one of 4 operations: Replacement, Expansion, Deletion or Rearrangement. For example, using type #2, “The dog chased the cat”: 1) -

Replacement Plural for singular: Pronoun for noun: A name for a noun: A question work for a noun: A demonstrative or number for an article: Vary the pronouns: An indefinite verb for a definite

-

Expansion: Add modifiers to the 7 basic types To the nouns: “The big dog chased the cat; the dog chased the yellow cat” To the verbs: “The dog quickly chased the cat.” Time words: “The dog chased the cat yesterday for three hours.” Location/direction words: “The dog chased the cat in the park/up the tree.” Accompaniment: “The dog and the hunter chased the cat.” Instrument: “The man cut down the tree with the axe.” Numbers: “The dog chased three cats.” Person Benefited: “The dog chased the cat for me.” Person addressed: “Bill, cut down that tree.”

2)

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“The dogs chased the cats.” “The dog chased her.” “Fido chased the cat.” “Who chased the cat?” “This/one dog chased the cat” “I/you/they chased the cat.” “The dog might chase the cat”


3) -

Deletion: Sometimes there are short forms Where did you go? (I went) To town. What are you making? (I’m making) Brownies. I saw Peter. Who (did you see)? Tracie drove home. What (did she do)?

-

Rearrangement of a sentence to make another of basically the same meaning This book is mine > This is my book That house is blue > That is a blue house

4)

4. Non-Simple Sentences Non-simple sentences are combinations of simple sentences. There are formed in various ways: 1) Simple Linking - With “and”: Maureen prepared the potatoes. Hector prepared the cabbage > Maureen prepared the potatoes and Hector prepared the cabbage - Contrast: The younger son left. The older son stayed > The younger son left but the older son stayed. - With “or”: Dwight will teach or he will travel 2) Dependent combinations - Time: After she came, I left - Time: While she sang, I slept. - Purpose: I told him so that he would be safer. - Cause/effect I did well because I worked hard. - Conditional If…., (then)…. ; If he had ______, I would have ______; etc. 3) By Embedding - relative clauses, either subject or object: The man who is sitting on the bench is reading the book which I had given him. - location: You are going to live in Istanbul. I live in Istanbul > You are going to live in Istanbul where I live. - Modify the subject: You did something. It hurt me > What you did hurt me. - Quotations, direct and indirect: He said, “No good.” > He said that it was no good.

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The LACE Integrated Language Learning Program The LACE integrated program is a step-by-step non-academic approach to language learning which st pulls together the various techniques described in the 1 part of this manual. The learner takes these steps together with a language helper (LH) at a speed s/he is comfortable with. Each step consists of multiple sessions with a LH, the number of which depends on the difficulty of the target language and the learner’s language learning aptitude. One of the beauties of the system is that it puts the learner in charge of his/her own language acquisition. Instead of having a teacher push the learner through a preplanned curriculum, LACE allows the learner to move forward at his/her own speed. It is best go through the first five steps first. They assume little knowledge of the target language and thus lay the basis. They also present the basic ideas (TPRs, LAPS, Picture Book, etc) in more detail, thus enabling both learner and LH to catch on to the system. Once the learner has got his/her mind around the basics principles, the other steps can be taken in whatever order s/he chooses to meet his/her next linguistic needs. While more structured learners may want to follow the steps in order, adventurous types can pick elements from different steps to create their own, personalized LACE approach. Each step includes various techniques dealing with seemingly unrelated subjects. It is unrealistic to do all the techniques suggested for each step in any one session. Each session should, however, include at least a couple of them. Not only will this make each session more interesting, it also models language learning in the “real world”, which naturally involves an element of randomness. Also, if the learner is temporarily stumped by something presented by one technique, s/he is sure to grasp whatever the other technique seeks to communicate—and is thus more likely to stay motivated and engaged for the long haul. When, in the course of several sessions, the material presented by each technique in a particular step has been mastered, it is time to take another step. Each step includes an “Out and About” rubric which assumes that you are living in your target culture. It contains various ideas, some of which are described elsewhere in this manual, which you can do around town. There are a number of general principles that you should incorporate into every language session: - prepare you lessons in advance. Get the props you need, prepare your LAP sketches, figure out how your are going to do your TPR, etc. - record your sessions with your LH so you can review them later. - When “out and about” always carry a notebook with you so you can jot down anything that puzzles you (words, behaviour, etc.) This information becomes the basis for new areas of discovery when working with your LH. Note that the presentation of the LAPS is in the same order in which they are described in detail in the Language Acquisition Projects section (p. 26ff). In other words, LAP 1 is part of Step 1, LAP 2 is part of Step 2, etc.

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Step 1 Goals -

Some nouns Some verb roots Some simple sentences Some place names Some methods of transportation Some time concepts Some greetings and farewells Let LH become familiar with the LACE approach to language learning. The pronouns

Note. One of the earliest things you need to learn are pronouns. These may be attached to the verb. Props -

Set of related objects (like different colored fruits) Picture book (70-100 pictures of people doing things) LAP sketches: 4-6 places (house/home, market, post office, school, church, hospital, bank, airport, etc.), 6-8 methods of transportation (bus, car, walk, truck, taxi, bicycle, train, boat, plane, etc.), 4 pronouns: I (smiley face), we (3 smiley faces), he (stick figure), they (2 males, 2 females). And some time-of-day sketches: last night (moon/stars with arrow pointing left), yesterday (a sun with arrow pointing left), day before yesterday (2 suns with 2 arrows pointing left).

Sessions with LH 1. Greetings and farewells: Learn to greet others when meeting and taking leave of them. Note different phrases pertaining to time of day or status of the person addressed relative to the speaker. Are there different forms between chance encounters and those used upon entering or leaving someone’s home? 2. TPR (see p. 9ff): “stand”, “sit”, “go”, “come”, “go to the door”, “open/close the door”, “pick up the book”, “open the book”, etc. In most languages the “command forms” of verbs are also the verb roots. The more “commands” you understand the easier it will be to conjugate those verbs later. 3. Object manipulation: use Look and Listen (see p. 9) to learn basic objects of a particular semantic realm (e.g., various fruits you might buy on a regular basis: apple, orange, banana, kiwi, etc.) 4. Picture book (see p. 66): use Look and Listen technique go through photographs and learn the names of the people (man, woman, child, boy, girl, baby, etc.) and objects. Don’t forget to practice plurals: “These are some boys.” “This is a pencil. These are pencils.” 5. Power Tools (see p. 35). Start learning some basic phrases you will use with your LH. 6. LAP: Places, Transportation, Pronouns, Time - Learn the places and pronouns using “Look and Listen” and the verb “go” using TPR.

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-

-

Place a pronoun on place-diagram and ask the LH to make a sentence using “go”, e.g., “She goes to the market.” Learn true/false (yes/no, or right/wrong). Repeat often and randomly. Using “Look and Listen” learn the various means of transportation String together a pronoun, a transportation method, and a place. LH says what it is: “We took/rode the bus to the market, etc.” (Note: check which is most natural way of saying it. The verb may change depending on the means of transportation; e.g., take bus, walk, ride bicycle.) Have LH put pictures in the right order, so you can “see” how the sentence hangs together. Say true/false (yes/no, or right/wrong). Repeat often and randomly. Learn time cards using Look and Listen. Add time card. With LH makes a past-tense statement with, for instance, “yesterday” time card. Puts the cards together: “Yesterday they took the taxi home” Give props to LH. S/he puts a combination together and makes a true/false, past-tense statement. Learner says “true/false”.

Out and About Explore your district. Meet and greet some local vendor. Find out where people hang out. Take notebook and note new words and puzzling behavior. Learn alphabet.

-

Step 2 Goals Some descriptions, such as color, size, shape, condition, or quantity (adjectives). Sentences in which combinations of objects are named together: “Take a green apple pencil and a blue pen”. Some rooms Some activities Some basic verbs and verb tenses Thanking, making a request and a simple excuse.

-

Props Set of related objects (say different colored fruits) for TPR Picture book Lap sketches. Some rooms (e.g. kitchen, bathroom, bedroom, living room, balcony/patio, an apartment stairwell, an elevator). Sketch some verbs: playing (blocks/ball), working (hammer/saw), talking (mouth/consonants), singing (mouth/notes), sleeping (prone/zzz), eating (plate/food), studying (book, pen, pad). Get pronoun and time cards (see LAP 1)

-

Sessions with LH 1. TPR. (see p. 9) Get LH to do object manipulation: “Pick up a red apple. Pick up two oranges. Put a long and short banana in the bowl. Take a red and yellow apple and place in bowl” Let LH

52


model it, then follow his/her instructions. Eventually repeat what LH says. Next get LH to tell you to “Point to me. Point to them” etc. You can vary the verb (touch, rub, pat, pinch, look at, etc.) Also include reflexives (“Pinch yourself’) and reciprocals (“Look at each other”). Note that gender is very important in certain languages so be sure to see if “you” is the same for both genders. 2. TPR with picture book. Have LH tell you to, say, “Point to a red ball”; “Point to a blue chair”, “Point to the man wearing the blue shirt”, etc. 3. Review pronouns with some basic verbs: Some languages (like Arabic) have a single, dual and plural forms. Note when pronouns are used and when they can be omitted. When are names or titles used instead of pronouns? Practice the pronouns in the phrase “what is/are ______ doing/carrying/singing/etc.” This will help you learn some basic verbs. 4. Powertools & Basic Texts. (see p. 35 & 37). Learn more phrases used w/ your LH as well as some basic texts. 5. LAP using Look and Listen: - Learn the names of the rooms & pronouns. Put pronoun card beside a room card. LH makes present tense statement; e.g., “I am in the kitchen.” Use all variations and repeat lots. - LH makes a present tense statement; e.g., “They are in the dining room.” Learners puts the correct pronoun beside the correct room. - LH puts a pronoun card beside a room and makes a present tense, true or false statement; “He is in the bathroom.” Learner says true/false, then tries to say the sentence. - LH makes a statement; e.g., “He is in the bedroom.” Learner mimics & and puts the “he” card beside the bedroom card. LH asks appropriate questions (e.g., “Who is in the bedroom?” “Where is he?” “Is he in the kitchen?”). Learners point to/indicate the answer. LH gives correct answer. Have your LH ask the questions in a different order each time. - Put a pronoun card beside a room card, add a verb card, and attempt to make the appropriate present tense statement. “He is singing in the bathroom” or “He sings in the bathroom”. LH restates it correctly. Learner mimics. - Give props to LH. Make statement. LH puts cards together and restates it. Learner mimics. - Get the time cards today, yesterday, tomorrow (see LAP 1). Learn the verb conjugations. 6. Thanking, excusing, and requesting: Learn equivalents for ‘thank you’ and ‘excuse me’. Are there different ways of thanking depending on the type of help given? Learn how to ask for help appropriately. 7. Color and texture; descriptive verbs: Learn the names of some colors using the picture book. Get the names for intermediate shades (dark red, light blue, etc.). Note that different languages divide the color spectrum in different ways. Get the terms for texture, how things feel to the touch using different hard, soft, mushy, etc. objects. Begin to collect verbs describing processes, states, or feelings. Out and About -

Explore your area. Start visiting friendly local vendors on a regular basis, make minor purchases from them and try some simple conversation starters with them. Simple Dumb-Smart Question Technique (see p. 22). Note the circumstances in which people excuse themselves—this can vary from one culture to the next.

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Note gestures or facial expressions that are used when making requests. Can you come straight to the point? Should you wait until just before departure? Does the person asking divert his gaze or look directly at the hearer? Are there gender and status issues?

-

Step 3 Goals Basic instructions and commands Small talk, conversation openers Numbers Pieces of Clothing Put on/Take off Children

-

Note. Giving commands can be tricky as many languages and cultures have a far greater concern for politeness than we have in English. Have your LH use the most polite forms that still sound natural when giving you instructions—what’s the point in mastering the impolite forms first? Props Flash cards with numbers LAP sketches: 5 cards sketch pants, shirt, coat, shoes, hat. On 4 cards sketch ‘persons’: baby, child, boy, girl.

-

Sessions with LH 1. Roleplay using TPR. “Could you please tell me how much these cups cost?” etc. You may find that there is a different command form for two or more people than for a single individual. 2. TPR with picture book. “Please point to the red ball,” etc. 3. Powertools (see p. 35). Learn more phrases and sentences used regularly with your LH. 4. Basic Texts (see p. 37). Continue learning basic texts. 5. Flash cards. Start Learning numbers using flash cards in combination with Look & Listen. 6. Number dictation (see p. 22). 7. Numbers, classifiers, counting: Practice the cardinal (one, two, etc.) and ordinal (first, second, etc.) terms for numbers. Note if different pattern are used for the definite “one X” as opposed to the indefinite “an X”? Try to combine numbers with positive and negative yes/no questions: “He has five pens.” “She doesn’t have two pens.” “Does she have four children?” 8. Record and Compare (see p. 23).

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9. Conversation starters (see p. 43). 10. LAP: Learn concept of “put on/take off” a la LAPs 1 & 2. Note: The language may have several different words for the English put on and take off. Explore these concepts. 11. Commands and imperatives: Learn frequently heard commands: “Move aside!” “Get back!” “Hurry up!” “Go away!” “Come eat!” etc. Note intonation. Is there a command particle? How are feelings communicated (e.g., encouraging a baby to come vs. commanding a naughty child to come? Contrast commands with imperatives (e.g., “Pick it up!” vs. “You must pick it up.”). Combine imperatives with “why” questions: “Why must she go to school?”. 12. Negative commands and prohibitions: Learn to say negative commands (e.g., “Don’t go!” “Don’t sit down yet!” “Don’t give it to her!” “Don’t do it for him!”) and imperatives (“They musn’t go.” “We musn’t look yet.” “You must not give it to her.” etc.). How are prohibitions formed (i.e., “No talking!”). Learn to say “allow/let” with negatives (i.e, “My parents won’t let me.” “The community won’t allow it.” etc.). Out and About -

Dumb-smart Question Technique (see p. 22). Write any terms, comments, observations in your notebook. Learn to recognize local exclamations (words like “Wow” and “Ouch”) Try attending a local religious ceremony. Find out “Who is Who” in politics, religion, sports and the arts (writers, actors, music). Write down anything you find puzzling Explore meaning with LH later Conversation openings; “small talk: How do people start conversations? How do they respond to get talk going? When people meet casually who talks to whom? What social conventions determine conversation. Collect the topics and ritualized phrases which form the basis for “small talk” or chit-chat (e.g., weather, crops, children, prices). Note in which situations different topics are appropriate.

Step 4 Goals -

Some verbs Yes/No questions Here/There/Yonder Demonstratives Some objects Plurals

Note. Once you know the words for the people and the objects they are involved with in your pictures, it is a simple step to understanding statements about what they are doing with those objects. Languages do this differently. They may use word order (English), special markings on the nouns

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(case markings), or the verb itself somehow tells you who is the actor and who/what is being acted upon. In short, you need to learn how to tell who is doing what to whom. In sentences with subjects and no objects (intransitive sentences), there are at least two types of subjects to consider. Some subjects are agents (doers) like “John”, in the sentence “John shouted”. Other subjects have something happen to them as in the sentence “The snow fell”. In some languages words like “sick”, and “angry” are actually verbs with non-agent subjects while sometimes they are considered adjectives. Note too that the verb “to have” is not a verb in every language (i.e, Turkish). Props Picture book LAP Sketches: Draw 3 circles of different sizes on a sheet of paper. The largest circles represents “here”, the medium circle “there” and the smallest circle “over there, yonder. On some other cards sketch some objects you want to learn. Draw a large X in the middle of a card to represent “this”. Draw 3 large Xs in the middle of a card to represent “these”. Draw 1 small x in a corner of a card to represent “that” and 3 small xs in a corner to represent “those”.

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Sessions with LH 1. Picture book: Take several dozen pictures in which someone is holding something or someone else. Have your LH describe a picture. You then point to the picture being described. “A girl is holding a doll”; A woman is holding a baby”; “a boy is holding a bat”; etc. Other verbs which can easily be learned this way are “having”; touching”, “using”, “seeing/looking at”. Get your LH to use only a few verbs at a time so that only the subject and object vary from one picture to the next, thus enabling you to concentrate on recognizing who is doing the action and who it is done to without having to learn large numbers of verbs at the same time. 2. TPR. Do actions which your LH describes (“you are eating”, etc.). Later have LH do the actions and you describe them. 3. Basic Texts & Conversation Starters (see p. 37 & 43). Continue learning basic texts and conversation starters. 4. More Number Dictation (see p. 22). 5. Record and Compare (see p. 23). 6. LAP: Do LAP using props. For “over there”, some languages may use “far” or “far-away”. For plural demonstratives (these/those), some may use ‘”this-many” (these), “that-many” (those). Some don’t use plural demonstratives at all!

7. Demonstratives; names of objects,: Start using words like “this” and “that” (demonstratives).

Note differences in sense of space when these words are used (“that-near you” and “that-away from us.” Note socially appropriate ways of pointing when saying “what’s this?” and “what’s that?”. These are useful phrases for learning the names of common objects and buildings.

8. Yes/No questions: Practice the question patterns which asks for a yes or no answer (e.g., “Will he go?” “Have you eaten yet?”). Note the difference in intonation from content type questions. Transform statements into yes/no questions. Practice various question words for this pattern. Concentrate just on the “yes” answers to questions. Work on different ways to say “no”: “no”

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answers to yes/no questions and “no” answers to content questions (e.g., “What’s he doing?” “Nothing.”). Out and About -

Do some shared experiences techniques with a national friend (visit restaurant, coffee shop, etc) and learn the relevant phrases for that setting.

Step 5 Goals -

Possessive pronouns Tableware Prepositions Locations Directions Descriptions Terms of address

Note: You need to learn sentences in which the possessor is a pronoun, or pronoun-like (my book, your book, his book, etc.). You also need to learn sentences in which the possessor is a regular noun (the man’s book, the child’s book etc.). Practice using three types of possessions: kinship (my father, my wife, etc.), body parts (your hand, her nose, etc.) and typical nouns (our book, your friend’s cat, etc.) to ascertain whether or not there is any difference. Props -

Picture book. Tableware: knife, fork, spoon, plate, cup, table. LAP sketches for locations (here, there, over there) and demonstratives (this, that, these, those) from LAP, Step 4.

Sessions with LH 1. TPR with picture book. “Point to his mother”;[use a family tree]), “Stroke her nose”; “Put your blue pen beside her”; “Where is the boy’s neck?”; “Where is his football?”, etc. 2. Basic Texts (see p. 37). Continue learning some basic texts. 3. True/False Comprehension (see p. 21). 4. LAP in combination with object manipulation. This activity will use right, left, between; and on, under, beside, in. Note: As this project develops, it will become increasingly complex but should

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be a very valuable exercise. Don’t go through it too quickly. Also, it will bring out differences in word endings in case-rich languages (e.g., Russian, Turkish, etc.). 5. Location and directional verbs: Learn how location is communicated: up there, down there, across there. Are there different words depending on whether an object can be seen? Use Dumb-Smart question technique asking, “Where is the ___?” and note the location words. Note usage of directional verbs “come”, “go”, “come up,” “go up,” etc. 6. Terms of address: Learn kinship terms using a family tree and the frame: “That person is my _____.” Learn terms of address using the frame: “I call that person ____.” or “That person calls me ____.” Find out how people refer to each other indirectly (e.g., “How is your son?” “What is his father doing?”). Do they use kinship terms to refer to non-kin? When are proper names used? 7. Descriptive discourse: Ask questions such as: describe the temple/mosque/fair you went to; how can I tell a good quality carpet from an inferior one; describe the game of marbles which the boys play, tell me about the wedding you went to, etc. Note how subjects of major importance are introduced (“...but the most impressive building was...”). Out and About Ask-Me-A-Question Technique (see p. 22). Try to describe as colorfully as you can objects and events to people are getting to know. Get them to evaluate your description and adopt their suggestions for improvement. Get several descriptions of the same thing and compare. Note people’s body language (posture, eye contact, head movement of agreement/disagreement, personal space. How do people care for their bodies? How how/often do they wash/bath/brush teeth/hair care? Which odors are unpleasant/pleasant? How do foreigners smell to them? What types of ornaments/jewelry do people wear and for what occasions? What things are considered beautiful? How does festive attire differ from ordinary clothing?

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Step 6 Goals Indirect objects Possession & Association Movement and goal Verbs pertaining to cooking Ability Benefactors

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Props -

Various related object (from office, kitchen or whatever) for TPR Picture book Get/make LAP sketches of fruits and vegetables: 6 vegetables: beets, onions, potatoes, carrots, tomatoes, squash, peppers, sweet potatoes, turnips, cucumbers. Sketch some cooking-related verbs: wash (water drops), peel (peeler), cut (knife), chop (big knife), cook (small pot), boil (big pan), fry (frying pan), bake (oven), microwave (microwave oven) and steam (pan in pan).

Sessions with LH 1. TPR: indirect objects (e.g. “Give the blue pen to him. Give me the book”); beneficiaries (e.g., “Pour a cup of for me”); location (e.g., “Place the book in front of him. Place the red pen behind yourself”); possessors (e.g., “Get my book and put it beside that girl’s binder”); instruments (e.g., “Dry the plate with the towel”); associates (e.g., “Sing a song with your friend”); movement and its goal (e.g., “Walk from the kitchen to the living room”). 2. Ability; requesting, possession and kinship: Learn the terms indicating ability: “permitted”, “able to”, “know how to.” Practice them with possessives and kinship terms (“My older sister is permitted to marry.” “His father-in-law can play chess.” etc.). Learn how to request services or favors: “I don’t know how to _____. Please help me.” or “I have no ______. Please let me borrow yours.” 3. Object Manipulation with picture book. Have LH make statements involving locations. Many people and objects in pictures are in front of, behind, beside, near, and far from, other objects in the pictures: “This woman is in front of this car”; “This man is working in front of that tree”. 4. Dialogue Generation (see p. 19). 5. LAP. Use LAP pictures to learn different verbs pertaining to cooking. Note: Except for squash, vegetables are generally referred to in the plural in English. Check if that is also true in this language. If so, use the plural. If not, use singular. 6. Benefactives/indirect objects: How do people talk about doing something on someone else's behalf? (i.e., “They spoke to him on her behalf.” “She bought the scarf for her brother” and “he gave the money to his parents.” Create sentences using “why...because” constructions (i.e., “Why did they speak to him on her behalf?”) and requests using indirect objects (i.e., “Please carry the groceries for me”). Out and About -

Ask-Me-A-Question Technique Conversation starters Note what kinds of pets people keep. Do they show them affection? How? Are certain animals status symbols? Who cares for domesticated animals? Are any animals involved in ceremonies? What do people do in their leisure time? Are leisure activities done in a group or individually? When do people have more leisure time? What games do children/adults play? Do certain games have a special significance (e.g., for ritual, courting)? In which recreational activities would it be appropriate for you to participate? What linguistic or physical skills do you need to develop in order to participate acceptably?

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Step 7 Goals Adverbs Order of modifiers Desiring, urging, causing. Foods Actions and tenses Indirect Objects Amounts

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Props Some related objects for TPR LAP sketches: bread, milk, soup, meat, and cheese. Get pronoun cards (see LAP 1). Sketch: give (wrapped present or 2 open hands), buy (wallet with arrow showing money leaving), sell (wallet with arrow showing money coming in), hand/pass (one hand to another). Sketch: (a) past-completed (arrow to the left with dot on the left; thus “gave, sold, bought, handed”), (b) simple present (straight line with dot in the middle; thus “give(s), sell(s), buy(s), hand(s)”), (c) simple future (arrow to the right with dot on the right; thus “will give, will sell, will buy, will hand”).

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Sessions with LH 1. TPR. “Stand up slowly”, “Sit down quickly”; “Turn the page carefully”, etc. Words like sadly, happily, repeatedly, carefully, carelessly, accidentally, purposefully can easily be acted out. 2. Series Method (see p. 18). 3. LAP. Work out the various tenses using the LAP sketches. 4. Amounts: Learn the terms for various amounts: “all,” “many,” “some,” “few,” “none,” “both,” etc. Practice with countable nouns (like spoons, cats), mass nouns (like water, dirt), and time (all day, sometimes, never, etc). 5. Order of modifiers within noun phrases: Start getting a feel for right order in which modifiers and descriptive words occur. For example, in the English phrase “those three sets of wet and muddy, old, black leather boots” the descriptive words occur in a particular order. That order may not be the same in your target language. 6. Desiring, urging, causing: Learn the different expressions of desire (“I want to visit aunt Mary ”), exhortation (“Let’s go visit aunt Mary!”) and causality (“She made me visit aunt Mary”). Where appropriate, practice these expressions as statements/questions/commands. Create questions with “why” to give you practice with reasons (Note: “how” questions provide answers involving techniques and methods).

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Out and About -

Visit acquaintance and try some conversation starters Try joining in on an activity. Is the activity essentially individual or cooperative? Note people’s instructions. What instruments do people use? Who prefers what kind of music? Does music play a role in religious life? Transcribe and translate the lyrics of some song. Who dances (and with whom)? On what occasions? Is it accompanied by singing? What musical instruments are used when dancing takes place? How are business transactions conducted? Are items sold or bought for cash or credit? Who are the moneylenders? What are the terms of such a loan (time, interest rate, guarantee, etc.)? From whom can one borrow what? Is an item returned to the owner or must s/he go for it when they need it? What is the system of etiquette for the giving and receiving of gifts? To whom would one give what and for what occasion? How do you acknowledge a gift? How long can one wait before one must return the favor? If it is wrapped, when is a gift opened? How can you distinguish between a true gift and payment for services rendered? What is said when giving and receiving something?

Step 8 Goals -

More past (tense) Appointments, Arrive/Leave, Early/Late Reasons and explanations Reciprocals and reflexives Exclamations

Props -

Picture book Necessary objects for role play. LAP sketches: office (desk), meeting (conference table), appointment (door with doctor’s name), party (balloons). Sketch: come to/arrive (person entering a doorway), leave/go away (person leaving a doorway). Sketch: early (arc with dot on left side), on time (circle with dot), late (arc with dot on right side). For extra challenge add 2 more cards: very early (arc with dot plus large exclamation point on left side), very late (the same on the right side).

Sessions with LH 1. Sentence pattern with picture book. Get you LH to create a sentence pattern such as, “When this picture was taken—”. Then, using your picture book, your LH can say sentences “When this picture was taken the boy was riding his bicycle.” With 100 pictures you can learn at least that many verbs conjugated in the past tense. Vary the sentence frame (“On the day when this

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picture was taken—” or “During the week when this picture was taken—”) to discover whether the verbs change forms. 2. Tense; aspect: Create frame sentences: she ate (already), she eats, she is eating (right now), she will eat, etc. There may be several ways to indicate the completion of an action, depending on whether the focus is on the completion of the action, the effect of the action, or the transition from action to another. 3. Role play. Another way to study the past is to act something out with a co-learner and then have your LH describe what you just did. With a bit of imagination you will be able to create past descriptions using a variety of pronouns. 4. Memorized Monologue (see p. 20). 5. Series Method (see p. 18). 6. LAP. Practice the various LAP picture combinations using Look and Listen. 7. Reasons and explanations and statements: Learn the question words for “why” or “for what reason.” How do people respond? (“because...,” “that’s why”, etc.). How do they indicate the absence of purpose (i.e., “for no reason”)? What happens when you turn possible reasons into yes/no questions (“Did she get angry because...?”) or add tag questions (“She ran away because..., didn’t she?”). 8. Reciprocals and reflexives: Learn patterns expressing reciprocal and reflexive relationships. Reciprocals use terms like “together,” “each other,” “with”, as in “They are playing together.” “They hate each other.” and “Come have a cup of coffee with us!”. Reflexives are used when subject and object refer to the same thing, as in “She killed herself.” “He gave himself an injection”. Other forms include “his/her own”, as in “She washed her own face.” or “He sat on his own chair.” or “self” as in “he did it him self” and “take care of yourself.” Make up new sentences with your language helper which use reciprocal and reflexive patterns. Make sure your sentences make sense and are appropriate. Out and About Visit acquaintance and try some conversation starters Note hospitality issues: when do people generally visit each other? Who do they tend to visit? Friends? Relatives? Neighbors? How is hospitality shown? What are the subjects of conversation? How does a host indicate that a visitor is not welcome or that it is time to depart? Are there differences in terminology based on gender, age, ethnicity or religion? Be alert for common exclamations such as “Ouch!” “Wow!” etc. Try to develop a feel for them: when to use them and how strong they are. Be careful not to accidently use profanity.

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Step 9 Goals -

The future (tense) Commitments Predictions Go/Come Destinations Purpose Review of Pronouns

Note: You’ll want to learn how people make commitments and predictions. (“We’ll visit you tomorrow” is a commitment; “My uncle is coming tomorrow” is a prediction.). Note that some languages do not have generic/broad words for go/come. Specific verbs may be required for specific contexts and purposes. Work out the correct verbs with your helper. Props -

Picture book Various related objects for object manipulation LAP sketches: Sketch some general places not covered in LAP 1: city, village, market, plaza, and downtown/city center, mall. Sketch: go (person with arrow toward a location), come (person with arrow at a location), walk (person walking), and run (person running). Sketch purposes: buy-rice (money & bag), meet-friend (2 people), see-doctor (person and doctor), and studylanguage (person and book). Get the pronouns from LAP 1.

Sessions with LH 1. Picture book. Have your LH describe your pictures in a present time form (“This man is sitting”), then have him/her say what that person will do after that. Initially concentrate on comprehension, so keep the sentence contents simple, using, say, just the verbs for walking, stopping, sitting and standing. If a person is sitting, the LH can tell you that the person will stand up, etc. Once you have already developed a large recognition vocabulary have your LH make simple predictions about what someone in the pictures will do next (“This man is bicycling. Soon he will eat supper.”) 2. TPR with object manipulation. Using various object have your LH tell you what s/he is going to do with them, then have him/her do it, or have him/her tell you what you are going to do. 3. Memorized Monologue (see p. 20). 4. LAP. “I am going to the market to buy rice”, etc.

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Out and About Visit acquaintances and try some conversation starters Review kinship terminology. How often do which relatives visit each other? What are attitudes to intermarrying, adoption? What are the options for the aged? What social obligations do children have to parents?

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Step 10 Goals General statements Instrumentals Review People Buildings, Enter/Exit

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Note. Some statements deal with what characteristically happens—i.e., they are general statements: (“I shop at Wungles”; “Dogs eat meat”). In the case of “I shop at Wungles” we see the statement of a general fact about a single individual (me). In the case of “Dogs eat meat” we see a general fact about dogs in general. We can also make general statements about things that happened characteristically at some time in the past (“I used to shop at Wungles”). Props Objects bought at different shops Picture book Some ideas for “frame sentences” see (3) LAP sketches. Sketch: store, bakery, church, pharmacy, hotel, embassy, hospital, school, airport, office, post office, factory, apartment building, etc. Sketch: enter (large C with arrow pointing in), exit (large C with arrow pointing out). Sketch: man (large male), woman (large female), boy (small male), girl (small female).

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Sessions with LH 1. TPR with object manipulation. Get a collection of objects each of which is bought at a different type of shop. Then have your LH make statements such as “People buy it at a book shop”; “People sell it at a supermarket”; “People see it at a tool shop”; “people drink from it in a coffee shop”, etc. You respond by picking up the object described. 2. TPR with picture book. Using the picture book have the LH make statements about what s/he typically does with particular objects with some element in a picture. If a woman is cooking, the LH might say “She cooks meals for her family”. You respond by indicating which picture is being referred to.

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3. Sentence frames. Have your LH use sentence frames such as “Every day—” or “From time to time—” to make general statement sentences. You can also use frames which will require a characteristic statement about the past: “When this man was young _________” 4. Event Description (see p. 21). 5. Instrumentals: Look for examples which express how something is done (instrumentality). (“I got money from the ATM with a bank card”, “We use lye to clean the sink”). Sometimes the instrument is the subject (“The baseball broke the window”, “The lye cleaned the sink”). 6. LAP. Learn the concepts of entering and exiting various buildings using the LAP sketches. Note: In some languages (e.g., Mandarin) it is awkward to say someone merely went into a building. There must be purpose/activity connected with it. If true of this language, you may need to add purpose (e.g., to rest, to work, to study, to visit, to buy something). Example: He went into the library to study. Out and About -

Visit acquaintance and try some conversation starters How are children treated? Who all does a child have close relationships with? How are they punished? How are they taught proper behaviour? (By frightening stories? If so, what kind?) Are there initiation ceremonies?

Step 11 Goals -

Telling the time Household Chores Giving orders

Note. Time words are words like today, this morning, tonight, tomorrow, names for days of the week, months, seasons, telling time, etc. Props -

Make paper clock with moveable hands. Calendar LAP sketches. Sketch: cupboard, shelf, window ledge, closet, drawer, cabinet, desk, floor, carpet, steps/stairway wall, door, window. Sketch: sweep, wipe, scrub, dust, wash, clean. Get the pronouns cards. On 1 card sketch the concept ‘tell/order/command’ (a mouth).

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Session(s) with LH 1. TPR commands. The LH then tells you “Go to sleep at 7:00” and then gradually moves the hands on the paper clock to 7:00, at which point you mime going to sleep. S/he then asks, “What did you do at 7:00?” and you respond by going to sleep. S/he can say, “Buy a banana on Tuesday,” and then begin pointing one by one at a sequence of days on the calendar until s/he arrives at Tuesday, and you respond at that point by picking up a banana. If different foods are used at different times of the day, s/he can say something like “We eat it in the morning,” (like cereal, etc.). You respond by pick up the item which is typically eating in the morning. 2. Time/tenses: Learn the various time systems: periods of the day, time by a clock, days of the week, months of the year, seasons of the year, phases of the moon, etc. Learn relative time. Week (e.g., two days before yesterday, tomorrow, a few days ago), day (earlier this morning, later on tonight). Month (last month, next month). Year (last year, in two years). Practice the use of such general terms as “before,” “now,” “after,” etc. 3. Opposites (see p. 25). 4. LAP. “I told her to sweep the floor” etc. Out and About Shared Experience technique (see p. 14ff). Note herbs/medicines people use. What do people do to avoid sickness? What are the common folk remedies for aches, pains, lice, stomach upsets? What is the local attitude to the maimed or mentally ill? What is the perceived relationship between sickness and the spirit world? What about healers? When are boys/girls perceived to be ready for marriage? How does courtship happen? Is polygamy permitted How do weddings take place? Who is invited? Dowry? How are gifts given? What do people look for in spouses? Is divorce permitted? If so, for what reasons? Can a woman divorce a man?

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Step 12 Objectives Passive voice Adverbs: manner (carefully, slowly, etc.) Fragile things Pick up/Put down,

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Note. Sometimes a sentence is understood to have both a subject and an object, but the subject is not important. Only the object is mentioned, as in “When this picture was taken...”. The picture is the object—we don’t know the subject., i.e., who took the picture? These are called passive sentences.

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Props -

Scrap pieces of paper LAP Sketches: Sketch some fragile things (e.g.), eggs, cups, glasses, vase, mirror, plates, clock, kitten, puppy, baby, etc. Decide with LH on singular or plural. Sketch lift/pick up (hands with arrows pointing up) and set/put down (hands with arrows pointing down). Sketch ‘manner’: carefully (pillow), carelessly (pillow torn apart), quickly (2 lightning streaks), slowly (diamond traffic sign). Get the pronouns cards. On 2 cards sketch very (large exclamation point), not very (large X over an exclamation point).

Sessions with LH 1. TPR. Get your LH to tell you to do different things to pieces of scrap paper, then have him/her describe what was done to each: “It was folded,” “It was torn,” “It was wadded,” “It was cut”. Each time you indicate which piece of paper is being described. 2. Some Reading Techniques (see p. 25). 3. Sentence emphasis; passive voice: Learn how passive sentences are constructed. Some languages rarely use passive forms and if they do, then generally for undesirable happenings (He was bitten by a rat. He was taken to jail). Also practice the corresponding active form which is the more common structure. Try rearranging sentences to give them greater emphasis or sharpness (You can’t park here > Cars can’t park here > No parking). In certain languages the more prominent feature is placed at the front of the sentence. It can also be marked with a particular affix. Listen to the way people vary their sentences. 4. LAP. “She lifted up the mirror very carefully”, etc. Out and About -

Find out how you (or other foreigners) unnecessarily and unwittingly offend nationals Are children of one or the other sex treated preferentially? If so, how and at what age does it begin? Are children taught that certain forms of behavior are proper for and expected of either sex? What is considered modest with respect to body parts, bathing, privacy of marital relations, etc.? Is virginity expected before marriage? From both sexes? If not, when do young people begin having sexual relations? With whom? What relationships would be considered incestuous Is premarital/extramarital sex expected, condoned, punished? How? Is pregnancy before marriage shameful, accepted, or welcomed? What is done with the child? What are attitudes towards homosexuality and how is it treated? Prostitution? Venereal diseases? How is it treated? Is there any connection between sex and morality? What acts are considered immoral: profaning sacred places or objects, immodest behavior, violations of kinship relationships, incest, violation of an ethical code of behavior, or something else?

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Step 13 Goals Temporal clauses Giving instructions Various types of questions and question words Meal Preparation

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Note. As noted before, there are two main types of questions: those which can be answered with a simple yes or no answer, and those which require specific information. In English the latter type of questions are those asked with such words as when, where, who, what, why, and how. Props Picture book LAP sketches. Sketch these actions: bake-bread, make-soup, fry-fish, fix-salad, roast-chicken, cook-rice. Sketch question words: when (clock with ?), where (2 locations with ?), why (large bold ?), how/what step-by-step process (wavy line with ?).

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Sessions with LH 1. Picture book. Many simple descriptions of objects and activities in your picture book can be converted into yes/no questions (“Is this a man?” “Is this man bicycling?”). To check your comprehension the LH might ask you “Is this man sewing?” (to which the answer would be “no”). Note that you can ask questions about both the subject and the object of sentences. (“Who is riding the bike?” “What is he riding?”). You can ask questions about indirect objects. (“Who did I give it to?” “Where is the man?” “Where is he working?” “What is she writing with?” “Who is she cooking for?” etc.). You can also ask questions about the manner in which something is done (“How is she cooking?” And the reason: “Why is she cooking?” Questions can be asked about things in the past, present, or future. 2. Question Tags: Frame questions in such a way that you can confirm if the hearer understood: “It’s hot, isn’t it.” or “That’s not your daughter, is she.” Practice these question tags with comparatives and superlatives (i.e., - er and - est, as in “His is the best, isn’t it.” or “Hers isn’t longer than yours, is it?”) 3. Temporal clauses: Learn how events are related to other events. Look for sentences in which one thing occurs before or after another. Such temporal clauses will often contain time words, such as “when..., after..., before..., whenever..., as soon as...,” and the like. Try to switch patterns (e.g., “After she left, I began to clean.” “I began to clean after she left.” “I didn’t begin to clean until after she left”). 4. Sets (see p. 26). 5. LAP. “How do you make bread?”, “Where do you cook rice?” etc..

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6. Giving instructions: Collect some instructions (directions to a place, recipes, how to set up a loom, etc.). Note what pronouns are used, if any: second person, “You take some ripe peppers....”; third person impersonal, “One takes the rope and twists it like this....”; or none, “Follow the stream and then turn uphill by the big rock”. Notice how each point is connected to the others. Must one point be repeated before the next is mentioned: “Take the dry peppers. Having taken them, pound them. Having pounded them, etc.”? Follow such directions and note which steps are not expressed because “everyone knows what you have to do”, but which you as an outsider may not know. Out and About -

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Get children to tell you how to play a game. How are simultaneous actions listed (“While one child shuts his eyes, the others run away to hide.” “While the woman fixes the rice stalk in place, the spirit-doctor chants a spell. At the same time, the husband hands him more paper money to burn.” etc.)? When you give directions, do people misunderstand because you have left out a step which is obvious to you but which would not be assumed by them? Join a community group (sports team, choir, photography club, whatever). What is the average life expectancy? Attitude toward old age? What is considered “old”? Are the elderly honored/considered wise/considered burdensome? What responsibilities do old people have in family life/at festivities/ceremonies? What happens to old people who are childless or who have no relatives in the village or town? How is a corpse prepared for burial? Describe the customs observed at death and for a funeral. How is a corpse disposed of? What about a person’s belongings? How is the gravesite determined? Is a dead person feared? Why? What steps are taken to protect the living? What happens to widows or widowers? Who cares for them? May they remarry? Is there a mourning period? How long is it and what signs of mourning are shown? Are there cases of suicide? For what reasons do people kill themselves? Is suicide treated differently from other types of death? Are there cases of mercy killing of the aged or deformed?

Step 14 Goals -

Subjunctives Seasons, Weather Time-qualifier

Note. You need to learn to express things that are imagined, wished or uncertain (subjunctivity). Things may be possible in the sense that they are not impossible (“It could rain on my birthday”), or they may be possible in the sense that I don’t know whether or not they are true (“It could be raining outside”). The second kind of possibility is very frequently needed in basic communication. Note that there are different degrees of uncertainty (“He might come tonight”; “He’ll probably come tonight”). Some languages may distinguish between information which the speaker got from hearsay and that which was directly observed (e.g., Turkish). Two related concept are ability/inability and desirability (“It would be good if you left”, “he must leave” etc.).

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Props -

Picture Book

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LAP sketches. Sketch spring (flower), summer (bright sun), fall (leaf), and winter (snowman). Sketch: rain (drops), snow (flakes), hot (thermometer high), cold (thermometer low). Sketch all the time-qualifiers that the language will allow: usually (square with 6-8 coordinated dots), often/frequently (square with lots of uncoordinated dots), never (blank square), seldom/rarely/scarcely (square with 2-3 dots), always (square full of dots).

Sessions with LH 1. Picture book. If you have a picture of a restaurant, your LH might say, “Someone is probably eating in here.” If a man is walking by the restaurant, you could say, “This man might go into the restaurant”. Some examples will naturally involve a higher degree of likelihood than others. You respond by pointing to the picture or situation she is referring to. 2. TPR. Your LH can use forms which carry the meaning of ability by looking around and asking you about things you are and are not able to do. Are you able to lift the fridge? Are you able to open the fridge? You can combine the concept “should” and “must” in a single activity. If the LH says, “You should do (something)”, you start to do it, hesitate, and then either do it or not do it. If she says you must do it, you do it quickly. 3. Item Description (see p. 26). 4. LAP. “It usually snows in winter”, “It never rains in summer”, etc. Out and About What constitutes grounds for bringing a case to the headman/police/judicial system? Explore the legal system to find out what offenses are punishable and what their punishment normally is. If you can, observe how a case is handled. Do bribes matter? What role do parables, legends, past traditions play in the arguing or deciding of a case? Do people argue their case directly or through a spokesman? How is justice today different from that administered in former times?

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Step 15 Goals Negation Relatives Possessive pronouns Physical Conditions Tenses Narrative discourse: focus on an event.

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Props -

Floor plan of house LAP Sketches. Sketch the following physical conditions: headache, stomachache, tired, asleep, fever, cold, cough, awake, alive, dead, sleepy, hungry, thirsty, well, sick, warm, cold, hot, busy. Sketch father (2 parents with male circled), mother (2 parents with female circled), son (small male), daughter (small female), brother (boy/girl with boy circled), sister (boy/girl with girl circled). Get pronoun and time cards.

Session(s) with LH 1. Picture. Take the floor plan of a house. The LH says “Where is the bathroom?” You point to the kitchen. The LH corrects by saying “No. That is not the bathroom. That is the kitchen”. 2. TPR. The LH says “Turn to the right” and you turn to the left, s/he corrects you saying, “No. Don’t turn to the right. Turn to the left.” 3. Dialogue Generation (see p. 19). 4. LAP. “Yesterday my mother had a stomach ache”, etc. 5. Narrative discourse: local history & events: Record some people telling you the story of their life. Try to get a well-developed account, not a simple listing of events (“Then I came back home, then, then I got married, then I had a son, then we moved...”). With your LH note how events relate to each other. Number them and plot them on a time line. How are simultaneous events handled? Is flash-back or flash-forward used; if so, how? How is the completion of an event signaled? What transitions are used to move from one event to another? Out and About -

Tell people/your LH your life story, that of a famous person in your culture or in Scripture, or that of your home town. Where do people lose track of events in your stories and why? Listen to taped stories you have collected and pay close attention to how events relate to each other. What is the attitude toward barrenness/abortion? What taboos must a pregnant woman observe? What must a mother do after child birth? What is done physically and ritually to the baby? What are the beliefs and practices associated with death in childbirth/death of a baby?

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Step 16 Goals Starting, stopping, becoming, continuing and remaining Emotions Yes/No, Negative Intonation, rhythm, stress patterns

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Note: An attempt is made here to distinguish emotions or feelings that are primarily within oneself as over against those specifically directed toward others, paying particular attention to how grammar may be affected by this distinction. If there is no distinction in your language, rejoice! Some languages make the following distinctions: (1) You have some emotions (e.g., it is expressed as ‘I have fear’, rather than ‘I am afraid’). (2) You are other emotions (e.g., ‘I am happy’). Check when that might be true in your language. Props Some props for TPR LAP Sketches. Sketch happy, sad, afraid, surprised, brave/courageous, discouraged/frustrated, shy, worried, disappointed, unaware. Get the pronoun cards. On 1 card sketch a big ?-mark (for yes/no question). On 1 card sketch a big X (for not). On 1 card sketch a circle with a diagonal slash through it (for the negative command don’t be, used only for you). On 1 card sketch a large exclamation (for very).

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Session(s) with LH 1. TPR. Have the LH tell you to start or stop various actions (“Start running”, “Keep running”, “Stop running”, “Start writing your name”, “Stop writing”, “Finish writing your name”). S/he can tell you to enter various states (“Become happy”). 2. Dialogue Generation (see p. 19). 3. LAP. “Where you very surprised yesterday?”, “Where you not afraid this morning?”, etc. 4. Intonation, rhythm, stress (linguistic), vowel quality: All syllables in a phrase or clause are not equally prominent and are not given equal duration. Note the distinction between long and short vowels (if such exist in your language). Tones (if yours is a tonal language) are not always pronounced with their basic pitches (those given to words in isolation) when they occur in longer narratives. There are probably several levels of stress (prominence, intensity) as well as contrastive stress (i.e., “Not that one, this one!”). Note intonation patterns for statements, questions, commands, etc.

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Out and About -

Pay attention to the “flow”, i.e., the stress and rhythm of speech in natural conversation. How are different emotions expressed? (excitement, fear, anger, boredom, etc.). Try creating differences in meaning or implication by varying the stress, rhythm, or intonation in a particular sentences. What are the main divisions in society? What is the basis for such divisions? Are there large kin divisions commonly called clans? What are their names and what stories or anecdotes are told about them? Who are the people who have prestige? What is the basis for prestige (political power, wealth, ritual expertise, knowledge of a craft, ability to sing, tell stories, recount legends, lay leadership in the temple or center of worship, ability to counsel, attainments in formal education, etc., or some combination of these and other reasons)? What items were status symbols for the older generation before modernization or westernization had such impact (ritual books, livestock, silver jewelry, etc.)? What are the current status symbols among young married adults or teenagers?

Step 17 Goals -

Conjunctions Narrative discourse 5 Senses Animals Tenses

Note. A language may have more than one way of stringing instruction and statements together. in English, for instance, it would be natural to say “This man left his house, hopped into his car, drove to the office and began working.” But we can also say “Leaving his house, hopping into his car and going to the office, the man began working.” Initially concentrate on comprehension of the most common forms. Props -

Picture Book Props for TPR LAP Sketches. Sketch some animals. Sketch the 5 senses: see (eyes), hear (ears), smell (nose), touch (finger), taste (tongue). Get pronoun cards. Get or sketch tense cards: simple present (dot in the middle), completed past (arrow to left with dot on left), future (arrow to right with dot on right). Sketch the in-process tenses: past in-process (wavy line with arrow to the left), present in-process (wavy line, no arrows), future in-process (wavy line with arrow to the right).

Session(s) with LH 1. Picture book. Your LH strings sentences together when describing pictures which you try to identify.

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2. TPR. Have your LH give you a string of commands (“Go into the yard, get the rake, bring it back and put it in the corner”). 3. Reading Techniques (see p. 25). 4. LAP. “She was touching the horses”, “You will smell the goats”, etc. 5. Relations between clauses and sentences; conjunctions: People do not talk by using disconnected words or individual sentences. They put it all together in a text, or discourse. Collect a few narratives about a trip someone took or about something that happened in town. Note the main groupings in the text. There may be an introductory sentence or two (“Now I’ll tell you the story of my trip to...”) followed by “chunks” of information: the reason for the trip, things that were seen along the way, what happened upon arrival, the return journey, etc. These chunks are similar to paragraphs. How are the parts of the discourse are related to each other. Practice telling some travel accounts or happenings, being careful to follow the general structure of the texts you have been studying. Learn to narrate events that occur one after the other (sequentially) and at the same time (simultaneously). Learn the equivalent and proper use of “and”, “but”, “or, either/or, neither/nor”, and “as, than, like”. Out and About How is your village/town/city administered? What are the qualifications and how is a political leader selected? How much authority do they have in what areas? Are there people who are more powerful or influential than politicians? What is the source of their power? Does the headman/mayor have assistants or a council of elders/representatives to help him govern? How are they chosen? How much influence can they exert? How are major decisions arrived at? Is there a scope for debate or disagreement? How is compromise handled? Who articulates the final decision? How? Do women or younger adults have any voice in the decisionmaking process? Where do people go and what is a major trip to them. What local happenings are significant enough to relate to others?

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Step 18 Goals Relative clauses Occupations Relatives Countries Pronouns Singular/Plural Tenses

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Note: Clauses that modify nouns are called relative clauses, as in “The man who I told you about is at the door” (“who I told you about”, the relative clause, describes the subject “man” in the sentence (“The man... is at the door”). Every language has ways which express that which is expressed by relative clauses in English. Mastering that aspect of language will greatly increase you speaking flexibility because it enables you to focus on specific people or objects. If relative clauses are simple and straightforward in your language, they will be a snap to learn. Even if they are somewhat complicated, it shouldn’t be too hard to learn to understand them when you hear them. Props -

Picture book LAP Sketches. Sketch some occupations: teacher, student, doctor, nurse, dentist, secretary. Get 2 singular and 2 plural pronoun cards: I, he, we, they. Get the tense cards. From Step 15 get 4 relatives (father, mother, brother, sister). Sketch the maps of some countries (e.g., U.S., Canada, England, Australia, your host country…).

Sessions with LH 1. TPR with picture book. “Give two pencils to the girl who is standing” (you put two pencils on the picture of a standing girl). Have your LH make statements or ask questions about various pictures to which you respond appropriately: “Here is a man who is bicycling” or “Where is the man who is bicycling?” “Where is the ball which the child is kicking?” “Where is the tree which the boy is standing under?” 2. Telling Jokes (see p. 17). 3. LAP. “She is/was a nurse from Canada”, etc. Out and About -

What do people believe about the supernatural? How is the cosmos structured? How did it come into being? What types of spirits are there? Get as many names as you can and classify them in terms of importance, character, function and other pertinent categories. How do spirits help people? How are they offended? How do they punish people for offenses? What determines where souls go after death? What magic or sorcery is believed in? What forms do these take? How effective are they? Can spirits be manipulated or tricked, discarded or changed?

Step 19 Goals -

Conditionals Purpose, reasons Children

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Ailments Intensifiers and modifiers

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Props Objects for TPR Picture book LAP Sketches. Sketch: coughing, sneezing, crying, choking. Sketch: baby, boy, girl, child. Get time cards. On 2 cards sketch: very hard (dense arrow down), very much/a lot (several arrows down).

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Sessions with LH 1. TPR. To learn if-clauses which pertain to the present state of affairs, combine them with commands and use TPR: “If I am holding something which we eat, take it from me and put it into your mouth.” Future oriented if-then sentences can also be combined with commands. The LH first says, “If I reach into my pocket, pick up the pencil.” S/he then performs various actions, but at some point s/he reaches into his/her pocket, at which point you pick up the pencil. 2. Picture book. Use pictures to cover the contrary-to-fact variety of if-then sentence. The LH looks at each picture and imagines what the results would be if the person in the picture had not done whatever s/he is doing: “If this man had not bicycled to work, he would have been in the train accident” “If this man were sick, he would not be able to bicycle to work”, “If this man had not bicycled to work I would not have seen him.” 3. Event Description (see p. 21). 4. LAP. “Yesterday the baby was sneezing a lot”, etc. 5. Intensifiers & modifiers: Learn opposites (male/female), gradations of intensity (good/so-so/bad, hot/warm/cool/cold, slightly/fairly/very/really/extremely”, etc.), relationals (parent/child, husband/wife). Try to distinguish related terms more clearly. For instance, “to cut” may have a very specific meanings which differs from “hack,” “slice”, and “chop”). 6. Purpose, condition, reason: How do people express purpose (“...so that...”), condition (“if...then...”), and reason (“...and so...”)? Out and About Do people talk about their dreams openly? What value do they place on them? Are there special times when people are more likely to dream? Do they fear dreams? Are dreams the sign that a person has special spiritual capacities? Collect accounts of dreams. What themes are there? Who can interpret them? How is the interpretation arrived at? What do people do when the interpretation is unfavorable (ask someone else for an interpretation, resign themselves to fate, have a ceremony performed to alter its effects, etc.)? How often do dreams signal a communication from the spirit world? Be on the lookout for ways in which people increase the expressiveness of what they are trying to communicate. Sometimes they use reduplication, i.e., they double a word, vowel or syllable. As you learn to use these descriptive expressions your speech will become much more colorful.

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Step 20 Goals -

Temporal clauses Vegetables Size Condition Singular/Plural Demonstratives Probability and obligation

Note: Temporal clauses provide the time frame in which events occur. They can be past oriented (“When I was eating my breakfast—”) or future oriented (“When I eat supper—”). Related notions include “Before I ate supper—”, “Until I ate supper—”, and “After I ate supper—.” Props -

Picture book LAP Sketches. Sketch various local vegetables that (if this language allows it) can be said in both singular and plural (e.g., English allows potato/potatoes, but not corn/corns). Sketch: big (big square), small (small square), good (thumb-up), bad (thumb-down). On 2 cards sketch: singular (1 star), plural (3 stars). If this language does not distinguish singular/plural, rejoice! Get the demonstratives (this, that, these, those).

Sessions with LH 1. Picture book. Get you LH to think of a reasonable sentence to say in connection with each picture, using a past oriented temporal clause: “When this man was bicycling, he crossed a bridge”. Future oriented temporal clauses are similar to if-clauses discussed above, and similar techniques can be used. “When I fold pick up the pen, fold the paper“ “Keep singing until I smile.” 2. Event Descripton (see p. 21). 3. LAP. “These large potatoes are bad”, “That small kiwi is good”, etc. 4. Probability: Learn the degrees of probability (i.e., absolutely, surely, definitely, probably, possibly, perhaps, unlikely, definitely not, etc.) Practice probability terms with different tenses. Where do these terms occur in relation to sequences of verbs? 5. Obligation: Learn to express obligation (‘should, must, need to, ought to, etc.’). Out and About -

Try to set up situations in which people can express their attitudes towards things in their culture. Some leading questions might be the following:

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(1) If you had to quickly leave and could only take 4-5 things with you, what would they be? Why? (2) If you had to send your children away and wanted them to remember the most important things about being a [use the name of the clan or ethnic group], what would you tell them? Why? (3) What are the most important differences between being a [name of your group] and being a [name of a nearby group]? (4) What are the biggest personal worries to a [name of your group]? What can people do about them?

Step 21 Goals Purpose City-Places, Country-Places Pronouns Before/After/And Then

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Note: Often one clause gives the reason for the other: “I spoke to her because she smiled at me.” We could have said, “She smiled at me and so I spoke to her”. Closely related to reason clauses, are purpose clauses which in English are those that begin with “in order to—” or “so that—”: “I bought some eggs in order to make pancakes”. Sometimes there are reasons not to do things, but we do them anyway. In English we often express this meaning by clauses beginning with “Even though—”, as in “Even though I was angry, I didn’t say anything.” Props Picture book LAP Sketches. Sketch some city-places: bank, post office, hospital, church, library, pharmacy, hardware, bakery, store. Sketch some country-places: lake, beach, woods, mountains, river, park, zoo. Sketch a way to represent: before, after, and then (possibly with 3 colors, arrows or wavy lines). Get the 4 pronoun cards.

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Sessions with LH 1. Picture book. Get your LH to think a reason or purpose for which the actor is performing the action. Give several examples in English to get things rolling. You can do the same thing with sentences which express the idea of “even though X, nevertheless Y.” “Even though this man is tired, nevertheless, he is still working.” 2. Event Description (see p. 21). 3. Inter-Language Reading (see p. 23). 4. LAP. “After going to the bank we will go to the beach”, etc.

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Out and About -

Try to set up situations which would elicit information the following topics: (1) What things are different now than they were when you were a child? Which changes have been good/bad? Why? If you could, would you return to the old ways or not? Why? (2) What are the main problems in this area? What should be done about them? What could the government help with, and what should villagers themselves do? (3) If an outsider came to the village and said s/he could help you to have better (farming methods, cash crops, health services, living conditions, education, etc.), what would s/he have to demonstrate or guarantee before others would change to his/her way? If you thought his/her suggestions were good, would you change even though most others decided not to? Why?

Step 22 Goals -

Causative (i.e., sentences with primary and secondary agents) Places Positions: Behind, Next to, Between, Across from Figures of speech

Note: Some sentences have a primary agent and a secondary agent (“Fred made/told/forced John do the work”), in which Fred is the one who made Bill carry out the activity. Bill is the secondary agent. Props -

Objects for TPR LAP Sketch. Tape 3 sheets of paper together side by side. Draw 3 city streets 2 blocks long that all come up to a T. The middle street is the main street. Sketch some buildings (hotel, bookstore, music store, police station, fire station, clothing store, furniture store, restaurant, doctor’s office, service station) on the ‘map’ in such a way that you can practice the following positions: behind, next to, between, across from/in front of. Also, make sure you can do these: on the corner, at the end of the street, in the middle of the block.

Sessions with LH 1.

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TPR. With a co-learner or volunteer, have your LH make that person do things (“I made John pick up the pen”). Distinguish intensity (making/telling/ forcing, etc) by asking your friend to do the action and forcing him or her to do it. LAP. “The bookstore is across the road from the furniture store”, etc.

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3. Figures of speech; concealed speech, metaphors, similes: Collect figures of speech, notably metaphors and similes (the comparison of one object to another in a non-literal sense) and learn their nuance with your LH. The words “as” or “like” signal a simile. Start using figures of speech, but make sure they are appropriate to the situation. 4. Idioms and euphemisms: Idioms are fixed figurative expressions (cf. English “to get burned” = bad deal or "in the doghouse” = to be in trouble). Euphemisms are words or expressions which refer to disagreeable subjects in more acceptable ways (i.e., things like bodily functions, sex, pregnancy, and death). Start collecting idioms and euphemisms and learn their meanings and their appropriate contexts with your LH. Learn which ones are considered rude! Out and About What are the local taboos? Are there names of people or things which one must not say? Are there animals which must not be eaten, at least on certain days? Are there people one may not speak to or touch? Are there places one may not go, or where certain things may not be done? Collect taboos, noting when, where, and by whom the object or activity is taboo. What penalties are there for violation of the taboos? Who punishes people (if spirits or gods, specify; natural calamities)? How can the effects of a violated taboo be averted? What taboos are associated with charms and amulets so that they will remain magically effective? Who are the ritual experts? Are they independent of each other, or do they form a special group or class of people? Are they full- or part-time practitioners? If the latter, what else do they do? How did they get to be a ritual expert? Why did they become one (to make merit, were forced to, community chose them, etc.)? Is this a lifetime position? What kinds of services do they render? How are they compensated? What positive things must they do to maintain their effectiveness? What is the relationship between the ritual expert and the headman/mayor or other political officeholders? If a ritual expert can leave his position, what marks of respect for his former position are accorded?

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Step 23 Goals Comparatives Series of Morning Activities Intensifiers Modifiers

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Note: Languages have different ways of indicating that one person/object is stronger, weaker, bigger, faster, smarter, shorter, longer, nicer, etc. than another person/object. This is called “comparativeness”. Props Similar objects for TPR

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LAP Sketches. Sketch this (or similar) series of morning activities: (a) get out of bed, (b) go to the bathroom, (c) shave, (d) brush teeth, (e) take a shower, (f) get dressed, (g) comb hair, (h) make the bed, (i) read the Bible, (j) eat breakfast. Get pronouns cards. Sketch: (a) past in-process (wavy line & arrow to left), (b) present in-process (wavy line & dot in the middle), (c) future in-process (wavy line & arrow to right), (d) won’t!/refuse to (stubborn face with exclamation!). Get: (1) past completed (arrow to left & dot on the left), (2) simple present (line with dot in middle), (3) future (arrow to right with dot on the right).

Sessions with LH 1.

TPR. Take, for instance, two ropes of different length. Get your LH to tell you “This rope is longer than this one.” Slowly move to more complicated comparative instructions, such as “Give John the pot which is heavier/heaviest”; “Put on the sweater which is warmer than the one I am wearing”.

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LAP. “He refused to get out of bed, go to the bathroom and brush his teeth”, etc. Note: This format could be useful for learning any Series.

3. Comparatives: Learn the comparatives (i.e., ways to express “-er” and “-est”, such as “bigger/biggest,” “more beautiful/ most beautiful,” etc.). Practice them in several frames (e.g., “That one is longer.” “My _____ is shorter than yours.”). Also practice comparatives with the content question words “who” and “which”: “Whose is nicer, yours or mine?” “Which one is heavier, that one or this one?” Out and About -

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Collect myths, legends, and folktales, proverbs, sayings, riddles and jokes, trickster stories, ghost stories, reason stories. Pay attention to the way characters are introduced, the plot develops and the moral of the story. Practice storytelling with your LH, then revise them and tell them to other people. Listen to recorded stories Note if some of the above tales are all in the ordinary language, or do some employ a different type of language? How are these things taught to the next generation? Note carefully their implications, connotations, and the situations under which a particular speaker could effectively use them. Listen to jokes or other humorous passages in recorded texts. If you can’t catch on to what is funny, ask someone to explain it to you. It may be that you lack the necessary cultural background to appreciate the humor, or that a pun slipped by you. Are there jokes you could tell which the people would be able to appreciate? Try some out. If people don’t laugh at the punch line, find out why. Practice using some proverbs you have learned in appropriate places.

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Step 24 Goals Indirect discourse, paraphrasing Actions toward others Intention/Desire Time words Weeks Poetry

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Note. Before you can lay claim to being a basic speaker you need to master indirect discourse. These are sentences with verbs such as “say”, “ think”, “believe”, “desire”, “want”, “wish”, “know”, etc. Note the following examples: • This man said, “Go to the store.” • This man says, “I am going to the store.” • This man says that he is going to the store. • This man is thinking, “I am going to the store.” • This man thinks that his store is large. • This man wishes he could leave his store. • This man knows how to run a store. The sections in italics are mini-sentences within larger sentences, some of which are in quotation marks (direct discourse), the other sentences are examples of indirect discourse. Props Picture book LAP Sketches. Sketch these actions: help (hands), call (phone), see/meet (eyes), harm/hurt (fist). Get the personal pronouns cards. The same set will be used as both doers (I, we) and receivers (me, us) of the action (i.e., nominative and accusative). Sketch intention/desire: plan to/intend to (cartoon ‘cloud’ above person’s head with clip board and pen), want to/desire (‘cloud’ from person’s chest with ‘heart’), try to/make an effort (‘cloud’ above person with face showing effort), like to/enjoy (‘cloud’ above person with smiling face). On separate cards, sketch as many time words as possible: morning (divided card with sun on left), afternoon (divided card with sun on right), evening (sun setting at the bottom), night (moon & stars), day (full sun in the middle), noon (full sun above with arrow pointing down). On 1 card sketch every (5-7 lines from top to bottom equally spaced). On 2 cards sketch last week (7 columns with arrow left), next week (7 columns with arrow right).

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Sessions with LH 1. Picture book. Have your LH choose a person in a picture then have him/her tell you what that individual is thinking or saying. You LH might, for instance choose a picture without telling you which one s/he is looking at and say, “Before this picture was taken, this man said, ‘I have a busy day at the story today’” or, “This man is thinking that he is going to have a busy day at the store today”. Your job is to point at the picture with the man who could have made such a statement or thought such a thought. 2.

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LAP. “Last week I intend to phone him”, etc.


3. Reporting information; indirect discourse: Learn how direct and indirectly quoted information handled. How can you tell if the information is second-hand? How can you judge the truth value of statements? Practice third person sentences using such verbs as “know, say, tell, think, understand” in both positive and negative forms. 4. Narrative discourse, paraphrase: Take a story you have worked on and practice telling it in different ways: in the first person from the perspective of different characters and in the third person (i.e., “once upon at time there was a…”). Out and About -

One of the most powerful and aesthetically satisfying forms of literature, oral or written, is poetry. To learn to appreciate it you should consider its formal structure, its content, and its uses. Learn the names of the various categories of poetry. Study the different genres. Note symbolisms, figures of speech used (i.e., metaphors, similes, hyperboles, personifications, etc.) and patterns of repetition or expansion. Who are the recognized poets? Who uses poetry and on what occasions? How is poetry used in song?

Step 25 Goals -

Activities Necessity/Desire/Determination Time words, Duration Discourse genre

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LAP Sketches. Sketch the following activities: walk/stroll (i.e., for exercise/pleasure), run (i.e., for exercise), work, play, read, rest, sleep, do physical exercise/calisthenics/stretch/workout. Note: Try to get activities that do not need objects (e.g., if read must have an object {read a book}, don’t use it). Get as many pronoun cards as you want to use. These will be used only in the doer/nominative sense. Sketch following (or get from Step 24): have to/must (person & large exclamation point), like to/enjoy (cartoon ‘cloud’ above a person with smiling face and exclamation), try to/make effort (‘cloud’ above a person with face showing effort), decide/determine to (hands on hips and foot stomping), want to/desire (‘cloud’ from a person’s chest with heart), need to/necessity (‘cloud’ from a person’s chest with empty basket), hate to/detest/dislike (‘cloud’ above a person with face showing anger), plan to/intend to (‘cloud’ above a person with clipboard and pen. Get the time words cards. Sketch: every, during the (big wavy line from one side to the other), all (scribble the whole card), at/in the (large dot in the middle).

Sessions with LH 1. LAP. “I am determined to work out every day”, etc.

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2. Various Writing Techniques (see p. 23). 3. Some Reading Techniques (see p. 25). 4. Sentence Transformation Exercise (see p. 24). 5. Discourse genre: There are different ways in which speech is modified. For instance, it can be formal or informal. People also change their voice (e.g., sing-song, “pulpit tones,” choppiness) depending on the social context. There are also unwritten, cultures rules of interaction (who has the right to speak relative to others, and in what way). Learn how people evaluate speech performances. What makes some people better singers, poets, or joke/storytellers than others? Out and About If there are Christians in your ethnic group, what evidence of syncretism is there? What functional substitutes for old customs have been adopted? How have non-Christians reacted to these substitutes? Have they been offended by any Christian practices? What parts of the culture has Christianity modified/replaced with new practices? How and why? What parts do you feel should be modified by Christians but which have not yet been? What might the reasons for this be? Among non-Christians, what are the areas of resistance? What are the cultural reasons for this resistance and how may it be overcome? In what ways is the culture changing, and what new opportunities or challenges does this present for witness or for introducing new functional substitutes? As Christians grow in awareness, they may decide to readopt some of the old ways which could have been used by the church but which had been replaced by westernisms. How can they be helped?

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Step 26 Goals Mind words Commerce words Furniture

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Props LAP Sketches. Sketch 4-6 furniture items: table, chair, desk, lamp, sofa, coffee table, end table, bed, dresser, cabinet, buffet, shelves. Sketch ‘commerce’ words: get (2 hands taking item), borrow (an item, with line connecting 2 people), buy (item in hand, money leaving), sell (money in hand, item leaving). Get pronoun cards. Sketch ‘mind’ words: think (finger on head), hope (2 hands up-raised), wish (fingers crossed), know/am sure (head with exclamation above it), pray (hands folded).

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Sessions with LH 1. Various Writing Techniques (see p. 23). 2. Some Reading Techniques (see p. 25). 3. Sentence Transformation Exercise (see p. 24). 4. LAP. “I think I will buy a lamp”, etc. 5. Learn hortatory discourse. Hortatory discourse attempts to influence conduct. It tends to be heavy in its use of terms expressing or implying obligation: “must,” “ought,” “should,” “need to,” etc. Out and About -

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Stimulate people to give hortatory texts by suggesting situations such as: what would you say to soldiers if you were exhorting them before a battle, what would you say to advise children going away to boarding school, how would you exhort a new bride and groom, how would you warn young people not to get into trouble with bad companions, how would you urge reluctant villagers to cooperate on building a new road to market, etc. How do speakers cushion the force of their exhortations when speaking to peers, older people, youths or women? Does they use the second person pronouns or include him/herself by using the first person plural inclusive pronoun? Do they make the whole thing impersonal to avoid offending his hearers (“People should....” “One ought to....” etc.)? How many points does the speaker try to make in a single exhortation? On what do they base their arguments for the type of response advocated? How do people react to exhortations?

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SOME MORE ADVANCED STUFF Relating verbally (i.e., how should you say what and when can you say it?) Can you “tell things like they are” or should you be more diplomatic so people don’t lose face? When and how do people get to the point? Do people use a mediator to express displeasure? How does this person handle matters? How do people express sympathy to someone who is sick/lost a family member? How do people comfort someone who is upset/afraid/crying they are hurtf? How do people express happiness for a couple at a wedding/at the birth of a child/upon getting a scholarship? How do people indicate they want to pray for you? How do people go about borrowing a money from friends? How do people express displeasure when someone who creates a disturbance/when they receive a fine/when they are disappointed in their spouse? Get a range of possible remarks.

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Variations of speech People use different varieties of speech for different situations. Are there variations between men’s and women’s speech? How do they talk to children? Do they use diminutives (like “dy”to daddy or “ie” to auntie)? How might neighbors talk about a subject casually, how they would talk about these same subjects using more polite/formal language and how would they would express the same thing in rudely and sarcastically. Even if you don’t want to be rude or sarcastic, you should know how these attitudes are expressed so you can ‘read’ people’s signals properly.

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Related meanings Determine how words are related to similar words. Nail down the precise meaning; knowing the right word at the right time is important! Distinguish the meanings between synonyms (i.e., words that have partially over-lapping meanings (e.g., answer/reply, give/bestow/grant). Do they have somewhat different connotations or are they used in different situations? Learn antonyms (words with opposite meanings): male/female; tie/untie; buy/sell, lend/borrow. Learn sets of gradients: hot/luke-warm/cold, walk/run/skip/hop/crawl, charm/amulet/talisman/ image, and the words denoting probability, intensity, etc.

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Narrative discourse (i.e., telling stories) Get people to tell myths and legends using ordinary speech (i.e., don’t have them read it). How do they describe the creation story, the first people, and the events which sets their tribe/people apart from others? Note how they emphasize certain things by using such phrases as “This is what I’m talking about…” (theme), “Now this is important, listen carefully…” (highlighting), “You didn’t expect that, did you?” (prominence), and “I feel very strongly about this.” (emotional involvement).

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Highlighting, giving prominence and emotional involvement may be indicated by the introduction of certain particles, rearranging parts of a sentence, or by utilizing special intonation patterns. Once you get a feel for these things try practicing them using various Bible stories (Creation, the Fall into sin, Abraham call, the Exodus, the Crucifixion and Resurrection, Pentecost etc.) Some languages have forms to indicate that the story told is not necessarily factual; don’t use those forms when telling your Biblical narratives! After you complete your story ask people to tell you what they thought most important parts were to gauge whether they understood you correctly.

Explanatory discourse (i.e., explaining things) -

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Have people explain different topics or situations to you (i.e., sports leagues, the political system, religious beliefs, the spirit world, the interpretation of dreams, various social attitudes, ancestor cults, taboos, rituals, etc.). Sometimes things of a spiritual nature are expressed using concrete examples and stories from which the listener is expected to draw the necessary principles (a bit like New Testament parables). Note people’s presuppositions when they explain things. To be able to communicate effectively you will need to understand their frames of reference to appreciate the meaning and significance of the concepts discussed. Note the use of repetition: is it sentence-by-sentence or are the main points summarized periodically? Create your own religious explanatory texts use their forms of explanation and repetition. Beware of your personal presuppositions so as to anticipate where your audience may not fully understand you.

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Proverbs, saying, riddles, and humor are all part of people’s oral heritage. Start collecting examples of each as soon as possible. Do people employ some kind of “special language” or do they just use ordinary language? How/when are this things used and how do they teach them to the next generation? Humor is one of the most difficult things to master in a foreign language/culture. Learn when/with whom is it improper to joke. Get people to tell you jokes they know and watch/record comedy shows on TV. If you miss the funny bit get someone to explain it to you—you may have missed a pun, or you may lack the cultural background to appreciate the humor. Try telling some jokes of your own. If people don’t laugh find out why.

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Sources The techniques, projects, and ideas which, together, comprise the PLANTS method of language learning are drawn from extensive personal experience both as a language learner and as a teacher of language learning techniques, as well as from a variety of other sources. I was first exposed to the Total Physical Response Techniques by some SIL linguists when learning an obscure Middle Eastern language back in 1980s. The list of TPR Activities ideas in this manual is an expanded version of a list published by Reid Wilson on the internet. The conversation starters were also drawn from that same helpful website (Nov. 9, 2002, http://www.languageimpact.com/ articles/articles.htm). The LAPs are hugely simplified versions of the LAPs from Section C, PILAT (Program In Language Acquisition Techniques), a text used by the language courses taught at The Inter-Cultural Ministries Center, Tyndale Theological Seminary, by, among others, myself. The “Basic Texts to Get You Started” are also from PILAT, while the 16 ideas under the “Developing Connected Speech” section are greatly modified versions of some of the techniques that appear in section B of PILAT. The five “Shared Experiences Techniques” are adapted from SIL’s CD LinguaLinks (1999 version). I started using the Conversation Starters when I taught ESL in Istanbul, Turkey, back in the 1980s, and cannot remember their origins. Michael Lewis and Jimmie Hill’s Source Book for Teaching English as a Foreign Language (Macmillan Heinemann. Oxford, 1993) is an excellent source of many more such ideas. “LACE: the Integrated Language Program” is mine, though I was inspired by Greg Thompson. I am also indebted to Herbert C. Purnell’s “A Language and Culture Learning Program for Independent Learners” (1993) for many of the ideas in the “Out and About” section of the integrated program. That manuscript is also available from SIL’s LinguaLinks CD (1999 version). The LinguaLinks CD is, by the way, probably the best investment the language learner can make. It, along with this manual, will give you more than enough ideas and resources with which to learn any language in the world.

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LACE FIELD MANUAL