Page 1

LEIDEN

G E N E R I C FRONTIERS ATLAS

BY

NATALIE

CHOW

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF URBAN FORM MSc1 Urbanism TUTOR: Dr. L.M. Calabrese


Natalie Chow B.Arch, Monash University, Australia. Ma.Urban Design, Melbourne University, Australia. CONTACT: necwsr we@gmail.com


G E N E R I C FRONTIERS An Evidence-Based & Experience-Driven Analysis of (Sub)Urban Form in Leiden

A

DEFINITION

OF

TERMS

GENERIC

F RO N T I E R

Non-specific, hence not particular to one urban space, hence potentially global and universal.

A physical or mental edge that divides territories. These edges can be borders, with diminishing intensity of urban activity; or boundaries, that inhibit urban activity.

THEORETICAL

FRAMEWORKS

H.LEFEBVRE

R.SENNETT

A philosopher & sociologist who critiques the production of segregation and marginalisation in cities.

A sociologist concerned with the reconciliation of social groups in cities.

F. PA L M B O O M

R.

A practitioner with a clarity of drawings and grounded methodology, that captures the history and physicality of a place.

An expert in the Dutch method of reduction and abstraction for dramatic effect. He sensationalises the generic and banal, to bring attention to the pervasive power of the everyday and commonplace.

KOOLHAAS


CONTENTS

PRETEXT

TYPOMORPHOLOGY

THE EDGES

URBAN LANDSCAPE

THE VISTAS

OPEN CITY

THE BORDER

COMPLEX CITY

THE LIVED SPACE


THE SUBURBAN METROPOLIS

THE FRONTIERS IN SUBURBIA

THE PROGRAM OF VISUAL EXPERIENCE

THE RAILWAY AS A PARADOXICAL SITE

THE CONCIOUSNESS OF A CITY


A Metropolit an Center Leiden in the Randst ad

Randstand Context

Regional Context

Leiden is part of the Randstad, forming the physical metropolitan agglomeration and functioning as a part of it’s metropolitan System.

Leiden is an attractive place to live, with a well-preserved historic center and surrounded by natural environments of the Sea, Lake and Green Heart.

The city intersects the national logistics and production network, and is an transnational node for education, reasearch and innovation industries.

The urban agglomeration of Leiden was eager to stretch out towards and along the two branches of national highway that connect to both Amsterdam, Schipol Airport and the Hague. Leiden Urban Agglomeration

th

Se

Se

a

a

Location of Leiden in the Randstad

rth No

N or

AMSTERDAM

LEIDEN

THE HAGUE

ROTTERDAM

UTRECHT

50km

10km

Randstad Highway Network

Aggomeration Intersects Highway Network

LEIDEN URBAN AGGLOMERATION

LEIDEN URBAN AGGLOMERATION

50km

10km

4


A Metropolit an Function Leiden in the Economy

Economic Context

Economic Cataysts Stimulating Leiden’s Urban Growth

The location of Leiden has created an array of opportunities for businesses from knowledge-based, to agricultural to set up. Agriculture activity profits from The Bollenstreek and Green Heart. Industrial and logistics activities gather along the transportation networks and on route to Schiphol. However, Leiden’s economic leverage as a city is it’s knowledge-based economy that is an international center for bioscience research and innovation. The conditions for a metropolis have concentrated in Leiden - a cosmopolitan population, history of culture, world-class infrastructure, transnational economy ... Yet why does the City feel Suburban?

Map of the Economic Functions in Leiden Urban Aggolmeration

Greenhouse Area

Sassenheim-Zuid Industrial Area

Katwijk Industrial Area Royal FloraHolland Rijnsburg

Leiden Bioscience Park Leiden University Medical Center

Greenhouse Area Leiden University

LEGEND INDUSTRY

BUSINESS/COMMERCIAL PARK

BIG BOX RETAIL

AGRICULTURAL FACILITY

NATIONAL HIGHWAY NETWORK

REGIONAL HIGHWAY NETWORK

Heineken Brewery Grote Polder Industrial Area

N

5km

5


A Part of the Suburban Metropolis Leiden’s Suburban Environment

Suburban Quality with Metropolitan Function

Leiden Urban Agglomeration

Leiden has a different metropolitan form and experience to other cities in the Netherlands and overseas I have experienced. Leiden retains an idyllic, suburban quality. The city center may not be as shiny, busy and tall as other cities, but performs the economic function effectively. The city is an assemblage of districts with a suburban character, i.e. Low density, planned, small scale, generic typologies, local neighbourhood centers, local open spaces, few commercial strips.

‘Leiden is a densely populated city with a relatively highly educated population. Beginning in 2016 the city had 122,600 inhabitants. There are many students / many young adults in Leiden: 24, 000 Leideners are 18 - 26 years. This is about 20% of all Leiden citizens, while this rate nationwide is 11%. In the city are 56, 600 homes and employs over 60,000 people in 4200 companies and institutions.’ - Introduction by Gemeente Leiden (https://gemeente.leiden. nl/over-de-stad/leiden-in-cijfers/)

Statistical Urban Comparisons

Leiden

Amsterdam

Hague

Rotterdam

Population=123,000

Population=779,000

Population=495,000

Population=610,000

Population Density=5,524/km2

Population Density=2,969/km2

Population Density=6,240/km2

Population Density=2,969/km2

Road Density=16,000m /km2

Road Density = no data

Road Density = 13,000m /km2

Road Density = 10,000m /km2

Main Urban Activity=Education, Research, Bioscience, Medical

Main Urban Activity=Business, Finance, Port, Logistics, Trade

Main Urban Activity=Service, Government

Main Urban Activity=Port, Logistics, Trade

Source: CBS, https://www.cbs.nl/en-gb/news/2010/47/total-length-dutch-roads-stretches-halfway-to-the-moon https://www.cbs.nl/en-gb/society/population

6


A Metropolit an Park Leiden Bioscience Park

Leiden’s Urban/Suburban Functions and Network

Leiden Bioscience Park This experience of Leiden is dominated by the ideal urbanity of the historic center, or by the suburban environment of majority of the rest of the city. The irony of the major economic activities are concealed in ‘Parks’, bioscience park, business park, logistic park, industry parks. The purpose of which seems to assure the suburban qualities of the rest of the city will not be threatened by urban activity. Although these Parks of Leiden may not appear ‘city-like‘, other than the humming of traffic, it is these programs that allow Leiden to function as a metropolis and attract a cosmopolitan population. LEGEND

SUBURBAN FUNCTION

URBAN FUNCTION

NATIONAL HIGHWAY NETWORK

MAIN LOCAL ROAD NETWORK

SUBURBAN ROAD NETWORK

N

5km

Employment Centers in Leiden

Leiden Bioscience Park Statistics

Bollenstreek Logistics Park

33% Employment in Leiden is generated by the Bioscience Park and Leiden University. Leiden Total Employment = Approx. 60,000 Leiden Univeristy + Medical Center = €1 billion Yearly Revenue = 9000 Employmees = 20,000 Students

Leiden Bioscience Park

Commercial Retail & Service Center

Leiden University

Leiden Bioscience Park = € 456 million GVA = 6, 500 Employees

Industrial Park

N

Source: Biggar Economics, http://media.leidenuniv.nl/legacy/lu-umc-economic-impact-report-31-aug-12.pdf

5km

Suburban Qualities of Leiden Bioscience Park

Low Density, Introverted Buildings

Pedantic Gardening 7

Non-urban Open Spaces


The Spread of Suburbia Histor y of Urban Development

Era of Development

Area Developed

Area Developed for Economic Activity

Contained Growth 10th Cent

N

19th Cent

1km

Southern Expansion 19th Cent

Northern Expansion 19th Cent

Satellite Estates 20th Cent

LUMC LBSP

After World War II, the unity of the city is broken, multiple island neighbourhoods surface and some even reproduce their own town centers outside of the historical city. LUMC - Leiden University Medical Center LBSP - Leiden BioScience Park

Dispersed Infill Growth 21st Cent

The 21st Century is a new era for Leiden, having built up most of the available land for development within the municipal boundaries. Development is now sporadic, filling in spaces between and on the edge, or reconstructing parts of the city.

LUMC LBSP

N 10km

8


9th

10th

860

Settlement village on the left of the Rhine

1100

Location of Court of Residence for the Counts of Holland

11th

12th

13th

Contained

14th

Town has quadrupled in size

Fortifications constructed

1573-74

Spanish Seige / Dutch Revolt Population declines from 15,000 to 12,000

1575

15th Leiden is the largest city after Amsterdam in the country Population of 70,000

16th

1637

Universiteit Leiden Established Galileo Galilei publishes ‘The Discoursi’ in Leiden

Era of culture and painting City requires expansion as population grows due to immigration for labour Dutch Golden Age

17th 1650s

18th 1842

1807

Ship carrying gunpoweder explodes destroying several houses (now ‘Van der Werf’) Pesthuis, hospitals & almshouses are built

Plague Population declines from 70,000 to 34,000 Leiden Centraal Train Station Opens Industrial Revolution gains traction in the Netherlands

Expansion

19th

Fortifications demolished Leiden established metal & printing industry to recover

Satellite

20th

Industrial base declined 1984

WWII

Leiden Bioscience Park Established 1998

21st

Leiden received major funding to restore historic city center

Infill

Characteristic Typology of the Era

9

Leiden Centraal Train Station Reconstructed with Two Accesses


TYPOMORP THE EDGES: THE FRONTIERS OF SUBURBIA The boundary is an edge where things end; the border is an edge where different groups interact.

Leiden is an assemblage of neighbourhoods that have been extended, annexed and infilled around the historic city. Discrete units of development reflect the disengagement of neighbourhoods from the larger community of the city. These boundaries are physically and socially divisive, decreasing accessibility to parts of the city and limiting the citizens’ apprehension and participation in collective life respectively.

No transgression at the boundary: Keep Out! Which means the edge itself is dead. - Richard Sennett, The Open City (2006)

There has been paradigm shift caused by the new generation of city dwellers who want to live in more dynamic and integrated urban environments that is pushing the cities and new developments to embrace a more ‘open’ and urban lifestyle, and remedy existing boundaries.

10


PHOLOGY Type of Edge Conditions in Leiden

Zweiland

Leiden Centraal Station

NS

A4

4

Leiden Bioscience Park

1km

A4

N

LEGEND RAILWAY

HIGHWAY/ MAJOR ROAD

GREEN BUFFER/PARK

RIVER/CANAL

UNDERUTILISED SPACE/PARKING

11


The Edge Conditions

How are Neighbourhoods Separated? Types of Edges in Leiden

N

1km

LEGEND

This typomorphological analysis investigates the issue of relationship between residential developments as the city expands. Hence, highlighting the continual production of the edges between developments in urban planning and design. These separation of space into units is a method of design used to contain residential neighbourhoods in a ‘closed system’. They keep out external factors that make the city unpredictable, to more effectively engineer predetermined outcomes. These boundaries materialise as green buffers, canals, roads, lack of physical connectivity or unorganised space.

12

STREET STITCH

NATURAL NATURE

SUBURBAN OPEN SPACE

CANAL CUT

INFRASTRUCTURAL WALL


The Urban Fabr ic

How are Neighbourhoods Brought Together? Connection of Neighbourhood Nodes to Edge Connections

N

1km

Streets stitch Edges together, and Highways, Parking, Water bodies, Rail, Green Barriers divide. Streets are able to stitch because they create physical connectivity between areas. A ‘stitching street‘ should give inhabitants of each area access to more/more choice of facilities, destinations, services, etc after they are connected. i.e. The areas can only be ‘stitched’ if they have destinations of nodes of urban activity.

13


THE HISTORIC CENTER (13t h Centur y) The T ypology Of The Center

1. Shadow of a Fortification Demolition of the fortification walls leaves behind a green and sloped embankment on both sides of the River, that is now planned to be Leiden’s urban ‘Singel Park‘.

SOFT/SOFT Sloped Grass

HARD/HARD River Canal Commercial St

HARD/HARD Canal Parking

SOFT/SOFT Planted Park

2. Network Public Realms The historic center has few open spaces and plazas, hence streets become important public realms, that are active throughout the city and connect the center to the surrounding districts.

3. Continuous Urban Fabric Numerous streets and bridges connect the historic center to the surrounding district by extending existing street grid.

LEGEND

SOFT EMBANKMENT EDGE

HARD CANAL EDGE

ACTIVATED PUBLIC SPACE

STREET CONNECTIVITY

N

1km

14


LEYHOF (1998)

How T ypologies Separate From Their Context To Maint ain Illusions 1. A Separating Landscape Located on the periphery of Leiden’s urban agglomeration, it is in denial about the beautiful polderscape that stretches around it. Instead, Leyhof creates a highly constructed illusion of a post-modern suburb, straddling the ‘balance‘ of urbanness and suburban-ness. This illusion of is fragile and Leyhof protects itself by surrounding itself in a moat and expanses of manicured lawns, where other urbanity and nature cannot encroach upon.

2. Isolated Public Realms Playgrounds and unprogrammed postmodern plazas make up the few dispersed public spaces in Leyhof. These spaces are small and localised, hence these public spaces do little to become spaces of social urban activity within the community and much less for people outside the area.

3. Discontinuous Urban Fabric Leyhof minimises it’s contact and connection with the neighbouring residential district and the polderscapes. The order of the roads attempts to focus the community towards Leyhof center which has an oval plaza in a square square.

LEGEND

MOAT AND LAWN

PUBLIC OPEN SPACE

COMMERCIAL CENTER

STREET CONNECTIVITY

N

1km

15


NIEUW LEIDEN (2014)

How typologies strengthen relationships within the urban block and to their context 1. A Stitching Landscape The green landscape of the modernist estate to the north and the fortification embankments are connected through Nieuw Leiden, with a landscaped bridge and opening of a green park and canal in the middle of the development, connecting several parts of the city together.

2. Pedestrianised Public Realms The urban blocks in Nieuw Leiden are kept free from cars, allowing residents to appropriate the streets between their houses more often, more freely and more intimately. These public realms bring the community closer together but are not of a scale or program to become destinations for the rest of the city.

3. Continuous Urban Fabric Nieuw Leiden continues and connects to most of the existing streets, embracing the urban phenomenon of transiting visitors who may travel from other areas to the historic city, train station, university and bioscience park.

LEGEND

LANDSCAPE STITCH

PEDESTRIANISED PUBLIC SPACE

COMMERCIAL CENTER

STREET CONNECTIVITY

N

1km

16


One Man’s Seam is Anot her Man’s Stitch Suburbs Stitching to the City at Different Scales

N4

45

C LE E I ST NT DE AT R A N IO A N L

NIEUW LEIDEN (2014)

LEYHOF (1998)

A

THE HISTORIC CENTER (13th Century)

4

N

1km

What was a dividing edge at the smaller scale of the neighbourhood is an important connection for another neighbourhood. A ‘stitching street‘ should give inhabitants of each area access to more/more choice of facilities, destinations, services, etc after they are connected. Suburbs on the edge of suburban sprawl, like, Leyhof, choose to ‘stitch‘ to the city instead of the neighbourhood around it. While Nieuw Leiden ‘stitches‘ into the modernist estate to the north and historic center to the south. Depending on the location and intention of the suburb, each of them ‘stitches‘ into the city at a different scale to be able to give it’s inhabitants access to the the urban quality of diversity of choice.

17


CONCLUSION: TYPOMORPHOLOGY

NO FRONTIERS LEFT TO CONQUER Leiden Municipal Limits

1km

Leiden has built up to and exceeded it’s municipal limits. There are no more new ‘frontiers‘ for Leiden to expand and suburbanise. New development can only occur as in fill or renewal. In these cases how the edge is treated becomes an important factor for the nature of the city.

Richard Sennett’s theory of the Open City proposes that embedding edges with shared programs and facilities can approximate a more border-like condition between neighbourhoods, and ‘stitch‘ the city socially. The treatment of these edges can become sites of separation and connection in the future, encouraging urban life or perpetuate suburbanism. 18


Map of Undeveloped Edges in Leiden Urban Agglomeration

N

1km

However, Leiden is able to fulfil its contradicting functions and desires to be a functioning city and suburban havens precisely because of these prominent boundaries.

Or Leiden could gradually urbanise it’s existing suburban landscape, starting by generating more urban conditions by diminishing edges between neighbourhoods to create urban communities.

If the future of Leiden insists on continuing to suburbanise, it must do so very creatively - bigger moats, tree houses, de-industrialising areas, repoldering estates that are not a nice kind of urban. 19


URBAN LAND THE VISTAS: THE PROGRAM OF VISUAL EXPERIENCE

Everything great and splendid is founded on power and wealth. They are the basis of beauty. - Henri Lefebvre, Critique of Everyday Life (1981)

The programme is its temporary legitimacy, the alibi for building. At the same time the programme is the motor that sets everything in motion. -Frits Palmboom, Drawing The Ground (2010)

The churches and state buildings were the tallest buildings in the city and defined the the skyline of Leiden with their height and ornamental spires. An early voyager would have approached Leiden meandering through the River Rijn. The presence of Leiden in the horizon must have been poetic, with fortified in heavy stone and crowned with multiple gilded spires, all kept afloat by slowly rotating windmills - oh, the wonders of a well-governed city with faith in God. This awe-inspiring effect of the original urban landscape can no longer be experienced from afar, but these vistas can still be admired from the streets and with new perspectives a moving train, speeding car or from tall buildings. The program of today that is shaping out visual experience of the city now has a capitalist nature. Advertising, signs, marketing, branding are producing the vistas of the city.

20


DSCAPE

21


Per iods of Prog ram Formation of Landmarks

Location of Landmarks in Leiden

N

1km

Periods of Production of Landmarks

LEGEND

LANDMARK

UNDERLYING POLDERSCAPE

RETAINED CANALS

1. UNMARKED LAND Natural landscape defines settlement patterns of the urban landscape.

2. RELIGIOUS LANDMARKS Built landscape defined by medieval guild of craftsmen and trades people within the constraints of polder and natural landscape patterns. RELIGIOUS LANDMARK URBAN LANDSCAPE

3. INFRASTRUCTURAL LANDMARKS Historical landscape creates a strong physical and symbolic context that is preserved as the City grows with regional transport infrastructure and residential expansions. INRFASTRUCTURE LANDMARK (Leiden Station)

RELIGIOUS LANDMARK & HISTORIC URBAN LANDSCAPE

MODERNIST LANDMARK (Residential Slab Block)

4. ECONOMIC LANDMARKS New landmarks in the urban landscape are capitalist in nature, featuring headquarters and logos of large corporations. CAPITALIST LANDMARK (Company Buildings)

INRFASTRUCTURE LANDMARK (Leiden Station)

22

RELIGIOUS LANDMARK & HISTORIC URBAN LANDSCAPE

MODERNIST LANDMARK (Residential Slab Block)


The Religious Prog ram

Skyline & Vist as Created by Religious Monuments Religious Buildings Exempted from the Street Grid Molen de Valk (1900s)

1

At the beginning, the natural landscape had an impact on the form of the historical city center.

20m Marekerk (1649)

4

25m Hartebrugkerk (1836)

20m Waalsekerk (1275) (Now Stadsgehoorzaal)

The River Rijn meanders east-west through the landscape, numerous canals are then dug perpendicular to the river to drain the land for the building of the city. This formed the basis of the street grid with evenly spaced and straight north-south streets and a few long curving east-west boulevards.

35m approx. De Burcht (1100)

3

The Churches were allowed to disrupt this grid, as they were religious monuments that held the faith of majority of the citizens.

5

70m Pieterskerk (1100)

2 25m Stadhuis (1597)

N

70m Hooglandekerk (1300)

200m

LEGEND LANDMARK

Churches pre-1600 oriented East-West, going against the underlying landscape and grid of the city. While churches post-15th Century responded more to the constraints of the existing landscape and orientation of the local precinct. In both cases these churches defined the surrounding urban fabric with plazas and vistas to emphasise their urban presence.

LANDMARK HEIGHT LANDMARK NAME (YEAR CONSTRUCTED)

VISTA

Static, Sculptural Vistas formed by Monuments

1

2

3

4

23

5


The Infrastr ucture Prog ram

Vist as created by Transport Infrastr ucture

Communication dominates space as an ele­ment in the architecture and in the landscape. But it is for a new scale of landscape. The commercial persuasion of road­side eclecticism provokes bold impact in the vast and complex setting of a new landscape of big spaces, high speeds, and complex programs. -Robert Venturi, Denise Scott Brown, Steven lzenour, Learning From Las Vegas 5

4 3

6

2

N

200m

1

Dynamic, Panorama & Textural Vistas formed by Movement 1

2

3

4

24

5

6


The Economic Prog ram

Landmarks created by Cor porations

2

7

3

8

10

9

6

4

5 LEGEND

1

LANDMARK BUILDING

FACADE

N

SIGN LINES OF SIGHT

Landmark Building

1

200m

Facade

Sign

8

4

5

2

9

6

3

10 7

25


Change in Infrastr ucture Prog ram

Change in Vist as created by Transport Infrastr ucture 1960s - Celebration of the Car

Buildings That Define the View from the Road in 1960s

In the 1960s, modern planning placed belief in car travel as the future of the city. There were also plans to destroy part of the historical city to construct a highway that were not implemented eventually. However major traffic was still channeled through the city center.

N

1km

2000s - Marginalisation of the Car

Buildings That Define the View from the Road in 2000s

Contemporary planning is now concious of the negative effects of prioritising cars on the urban environment and presevation of the historic center. Major traffic now bypasses the historic city center, as well as serve the expanded ring of residential developments around the city. LEGEND

VISTA BUILDINGS

URBAN AREA 1960s

URBAN AREA 2000s

NATIONAL HIGHWAY

N

1km

NATIONAL RAILWAY

26


Increasingly Suburban Vistas of Movement Historic Center ‘cut‘ by major roads

Cars drive through commercial streets and the historic center to access the suburbs

Cars drive through suburban sprawl to access the city center

Transformation of Urban Landscape due to shift in belief in the car

Urban Expansion

Historic Center ‘healed‘ from cuts

Major Roads designated to an outer ring through the suburbs

27

Urban Expansion


CONCLUSION: URBAN LANDSCAPE

URBAN EXPANSION OF VISUAL EXPERIENCE Timeline of Programs of Leiden

Historic Vista 10th Cent

19th Cent

Today

RELIGION

Trainline Vista 10th Cent

19-20th Cent Today

INFRASTRUCTURE

Highway Vista 10th Cent

19-20th Cent

Today

INFRASTRUCTURE

‘Park‘ Vista 10th Cent

19-20th Cent

Today

ECONOMIC

28


Visual Experiences overlaid on the Form of the City

N

1km

A number of qualities of the concept of Landscape are relevant for understanding the contemporary city.

It is revealing that more of our visual experience of the City occurs on the edges.

The first quality is its amplitude. The extensiveness of the geographic landscape surpasses the limited and balanced scene within the frame of a painting.

Dynamic Vistas from trains, cars and roads, make the vast urban landscape of the city is how we grasp the ever expanding city.

One must be In motion, or travel. The challenge is to direct the eye to the large scale (the whole film) and and not just the composition of the individual scene

The extents of what we see of the city and the speed at which we view the city has increased, this is an opportunity for greater awareness of the city, yet all we can see are advertising, signs and corporate landmarks.

-Frits Palmboom, Drawing The Ground 29


OPEN CITY

THE BORDER: THE RAILWAY AS A PARADOXICAL SITE

This prevalence of the boundaries and borders between neighbourhoods may be the cracks of a brittle city, or an important element to enable the heterotopias of economic centers and all the variations of suburban dreams.

a e e

This investigation into the openness of the city focuses on the most experienced boundary in Leiden - the railway tracks.

a

This boundary created by railway is a paradoxical site that is both entry and exit, dead ends and crossings, pollution and desertion. The few tunnels that allow inhabitants to cross under the tracks are areas of intense, highspeed, high-volume traffic. A few meters away there can be a pocket of children’s playspace, a parking lot or dense lush shrubbery and trees, private gardens or a pragmatic warehouse.

a

e

d a x b

a

a

The boundary establishes closure through inactivity, by things petering out, not happening; to say that the edge-as-border is a more open condition means it is more full of events in time.

c

- Richard Sennett, The Public Realm

30


THE BACKSTROKE An ancient swimming style where the swimmer can breathe easily but cannot see where he is going.

31


T rang ressing The Border Multiple Crossing Conditions

Connectivity of Public Open Spaces and Commercial Areas across the Railway Border

5 4 3 2

1 N

1km LEGEND

PUBLIC OPEN SPACES

ROAD CONNECTION BETWEEN PUBLIC SPACES & STREET

PUBLIC COMMERCIAL STREET

Comparison of Crossing Conditions 1

2

3

4

5

N

100m Lage Morsweg Underpass Minor Road / Bicycle / Pedestrian

Plesmanlaan Underpass Major Road / Bicycle / Pedestrian

Leiden CS Ticketed Gantry

32

Joop Walenkamptunnel Pedestrian / Bicycle / Bus

Rijnsburgerweg Underpass Major Road / Bicycle / Car


Inhabiting t he Border Multiple Spatial Conditions

Variation Of Public Open Spaces Along The Railway Border

N

1km

Variation Of Building Typology And Scale Along The Railway Border

N

1km

33


Living on t he Edge

Spatial Conditions created by Residential Land Use Residential Urban Block The Edge enables a heightened sense of privacy, safety and shelter that encourages inhabitation. Location of Residential Block

Open Space of Residential Block

Built Form of Residential Block

N

250m

DIRECTION OF SUN

Angled Blocks create triangular pockets of space.

Low Building Height allows sun to hit the corners up against the edge of the railway.

Residential Block orients away from railway. N

100m

Road Road

Concrete Wall Parking

Planter

Concrete Wall Pavement

Playground

Nature

34

Metal Sheet Road

Nature

Canal

Nature


Working on t he Edge

Spatial Conditions created by Commercial Land Use Commercial Urban Block The Edge lacks visibility, footfall and presence and is not commercially valuable to occupy.

Location of Office Block

Open Space of Office Block

Built Form of Office Block

(None)

N

250m

DIRECTION OF SUN

Tall Buildings cast shadows along the edge of the railway

Buildings orient parallel to the railway and maximise the space between for parking, logistics and storage.

Landscape ‘lifts‘ to join pedestrians to a crossing bridge

N

100m

Wireframe Fence Offices

Road Nature

35

Landscaping

Pedestrian Bridge Railway Crossing


CONCLUSION: OPEN CITY

EVERY BOUNDARY CAN BE A BORDER The Multipliciy of the Railway Border

1. Sloped Embankment Canal

2. Hard Pavement and Wall

1

3. Overgrown Nature

4. Picnic Benches and Attempted Garden

2

4 3

LEGEND

HARD PUBLIC OPEN SPACE

NATURAL NATURE OPEN SPACE

GRASS OPEN SPACE

SEMI-PUBLIC SPACE

N

250m

36


The Network of Public Spaces Connected by along by the heterogenous space of the Railway Border

N

1km

The wall is not a stable, single entity. It is more a situation, a permanent, slow-motion evolution, some of it abrupt and clearly planned, some of it improvised. The same phenomenon offered, over a length of 165 kilometers, radically different meanings, spectacles, interpretations, realities. In spite of its apparent absence of program, the wall had provoked and sustained an incredible number of events, behaviours and effects. - Rem Koolhaas, SMLXL on the Berlin Wall 37

The railway border is the most heterogenous edge in Leiden, where many typologies abutt, where streets move parallel or perpendicular to the rail. The railway border is a central experience to the inhabitants of Leiden as major cultural, employment and education centers are on the two sides of the railway tracks, and could play a more urban role in the city.


COMPLEX CITY THE LIVED SPACE: THE CONCIOUSNESS OF THE CITY Collection of Impressions from Leiden’s Youth

This section of analysis attempts to map the more amorphourous form of Leiden, as experienced and used by the inhabitants. Although the Atlas attempts to capture the essence of the city as a whole, the lived experience of a city’s inhabitants can never encompass the entire city. The complex nature of the city enables the diversity of individual experience. People of different ages, jobs, schools, diets, race, religions, neighbourhoods, hobby groups, etc, will use different parts of the city, take different paths and modes of transport. Each experience is authentic, no matter how little of the city they actually experience or whether the experience is negative. Mapping the city into fragments of individual experience can reveal a more revealing shape of Leiden, that is influenced by typomorphology, public spaces, urban landscapes and infrastructure but from how it travelled, lived, and remembered.

38


Observational Sketches inside Leiden University Medeical Center Foyer

Being satisfied: this is the general model of being and living whose promoters and supporters do not appreciate the fact that it generates discontent. For the quest for satisfaction and the fact of being satisfied presuppose the fragmentation of 'being' into activities, intentions, needs, all of them well-defined, isolated, separable and separated from the Whole. Is this an art of living? A style? No. It is merely the result and the application to daily life of a management technique and a positive knowledge directed by market research. The economic prevails even in a domain that seemed to elude it: it governs lived experience. - Henri Lefebvre, Critique of Everyday Life

39


Lived Space System

Dat a Analysis of population and transport ation

Destination Nodes Statistics taken from the Gemeente Leiden (https://gemeente.leiden.nl/over-de-stad/ leiden-in-cijfers/) are used to approximate the elements in a ‘Lived Space System‘. These statistics are however limited to within the municipal boundaries of Leiden are not able to include the inhabitants of the urban agglomeration and floating population that lives in other regional areas. The relationship between where demographic locate and urban form, has yet to be explored because of the host of social, financial, historical factors that also influence where people choose to live in cities.

Demographic Locations Families with Children

Non-European Migrants

Cosmopolitan

Student

Socially Disadvantaged

Elderly (>75)

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Movement System Total Network

Bus Network

Pedestrian Network

Cycle Network

Pedestrian Crossings

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Lived Space System

Dat a Analysis of Destination Nodes their Temporal Patterns LEGEND 6am 6pm

6pm 6am

M T W T F

S S

Higher Education

Employment

Churches & Mosques

Commercial Shops & Restaurants

Libraries

Kiosk

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Lower Education

Parks & Gardens

Grocery Stores

Fitness

Museums & Theatres

Doctors & Apotheek

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Lived Space System

Reconstr ucting Inhabit ant’s Living in Leiden Scenar ios

Retiree who walks his Dog in the local park in the evenings

Student of Leiden University who visits Amsterdam and Utrect regularly for social events

Care & Medical Services in the Center

University Campus in the Center

Central Walking-Bike Based Transport Compact/Dense Urban Lifestyle

Outer City Suburbs Public Transport Based Low Density Small Community Lifesyle

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Satellite Town Isolated Low Density Village Lifestyle


Young Working Professional meets friends for Friday night movies and drinks after work

Parent sends child to school before going to work and picks up groceries after work

Bioscience Park & Medical Center & University in the Center

Bioscience Park & Medical Center in the Center

Central Walking-Bike Transport Urban Work-Live Lifestyle Dispersed in ‘Garden Suburbs‘ Car-Based Transport Local & Regional Commuter

Suburban Car/Bike Based Transport Local Commuters

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CONCLUSION: COMPLEX CITY

THE LIMITS OF CONCIOUSNESS OF THE CITY The demands of putting together livelihoods, managiing domestic space, and demonstrating accountability to key institutions and personal networks all limit the ways in which we engage cities. Yet these questions point to what is a simultaneous promise, threat, and resource of cityness i.e. the city’s capacity to provoke relations of all a kinds. -Abdoumaliq Simone, On Cityness Different social groups have distinct relationships to this anyway differentiated mobility (in the city): some people are more in charge of it than others; some initiate flows and movement, others don’t; some are more on the receiving end of it than others; some are effectively imprisoned by it. - Doreen Massey, A Global Sense of Place

The cosmopolitanisation of Leiden’s center threatens to leave behind the drab suburburban neighbourhoods and far-flung ‘garden‘ estates. However the historical city remains a unifying representation of the ideal city for the rest of Leiden, holding together the identiy and the concept of a center. While the central train station becomes the physical intersection of the inhabitant’s of Leiden’s lived spaces. The future of Leiden needs to consider the city in it’s entirety. The valourisation of the Bioscience Park and the historic center may be good for economic numbers and marketing material, but the heart of the city is where the people live. The new frontiers for Leiden are in the heart of the city, where everyday life leads to.

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Student City

Yuppie City

Elderly City

Family City

LEIDEN CITY

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TO BE CONTINUED THE NEXT FRONTIER

Profile for Mo Nata

Generic Frontiers  

Exploratory mapping of the city of Leiden. Done while on exchange.

Generic Frontiers  

Exploratory mapping of the city of Leiden. Done while on exchange.

Profile for moterisma
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