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Issue 10 March 2019


What makes a truly

The changing face








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Issue 10 March 2019






What makes a truly

MARCH 2019

The changing face




8,313 This publication has been independently audited under the AMAA’s CAB Total Distribution Audit. Audit Period: 1 October 2017 – 31 March 2018

Published by

Monkey Media Enterprises ABN: 36 426 734 954 PO Box 1763 Preston South VIC 3072 P: (03) 9988 4950 F: (03) 8456 6720 Editor Jessica Dickers Assistant Editor Kim Ho Business Development Manager Alastair Bryers Senior Designer Alejandro Molano Designers Jacqueline Buckmaster Danielle Harris Publisher Chris Bland Managing Editor Laura Harvey Operations Manager Kirsty Hutton Digital Marketing Manager Sam Penny ISSN: 2206-7906


elcome to the first issue of Infrastructure for 2019, a year that is no doubt going to be a big one for the sector, especially with the upcoming federal election. While the lead up to the polls may bring the possibility of new project and policy announcements, regardless of what happens along the campaign trail, there are a lot of opportunities and innovations currently being implemented across the different assets. I’ve seen a lot of these new technologies and heard about some of the challenges each sector is facing over the last few months at various trade shows including AusRail, the Australian Airports Association National Conference, as well as recently at the Australian Logistics Council (ALC) Forum 2019. It’s been great to get more of an insight into what’s happening in road, rail, ports and airports, but the thing I’ve found most interesting is not only the similarities between each sector but the roles they all play in how our cities run. You might have noticed that one of the headlines on the cover of this issue is ‘What makes a truly smart city?’. This is a conversation we really wanted to start in this edition and one that will continue at the Smart Cities 2019 Conference and Exhibition, running from May 30–31 2019 at the Pullman Hotel, Albert Park, Melbourne. Looking at all aspects of Australian cities, it’s clear that the way people live and move around the cities is changing, and new technologies are helping to make this more efficient and more connected. The Internet of Things (IoT) will continue to connect devices and technology to ‘talk’ to each other and streamline processes while our transport infrastructure still has real potential to be even more connected to each other to help solve current problems across freight and logistics, as well as passenger transport.

It’s these ideas that we’re going to explore at the Smart Cities event which has been created by the publishers of Infrastructure magazine and will take an in-depth look into what Australia’s roads, railways, utility and urban infrastructure are doing to make cities ‘smarter’. Things like ITS, driverless vehicles, multi-modal transport, MaaS, cyber security, urban mobility, smart buildings and machine learning will be discussed at the event, plus the winners of the Smart Cities Awards will be announced. You can find out more at We’ve delved deeper into some of these topics in this edition with software, communications and connectivity and Mobility as a Service playing a huge part in the creation of a smart city. While new infrastructure and new technology is always exciting, we all know that maintaining our current assets is also just as important so we’ve taken a closer look at the best ways to do this through articles on condition monitoring and maintenance, as well as road surfacing and design. Looking ahead for this year, it’s hard not to be optimistic with so many exciting innovations currently being implemented and the team here at Infrastructure is excited to be able to share these with you all. This issue in particular will be distributed at several industry events, including the Rail Track Association Australia Field Day, Locate 19, Mobility as a Service 2019 Melbourne, Smart Cities and the Victorian Transport Infrastructure Conference. I’m keen to know your predictions for the industry in 2019 and what technologies are having the biggest impact in your day-to-day operations. Jessica Dickers Editor

Drop me a line at or feel free to call me on 03 9988 4950 to let me know what you think.


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Infrastructure Australia’s 2019 Infrastructure Priority List presents a record 121 nationally significant proposals, and a $58 billion project pipeline designed to guide the next 15 years of Australian infrastructure investment. With 25 new infrastructure proposals included in this year’s publication, Infrastructure Australia’s Acting Chief Executive, Anna Chau, outlines the key investments needed to address today’s infrastructure gaps and meet the challenges of the future.














Stakeholder management is widely considered to be integral to the successful delivery of infrastructure projects, but it is not without its challenges. Miscommunications, conflicting stakeholder interests and misaligned engagement strategies can seriously disrupt project outcomes and timelines. Infrastructure spoke to industry leaders across each transport sector to discuss these challenges and their strategies to overcome them.









Hobart Airport experienced its busiest year ever in 2018, with more than 2.6 million people passing through the terminal gates. Driven by an unprecedented tourism boom in Tasmania, which recorded a 15 per cent increase in international visitors last year, this figure represents a six per cent year-over-year increase in growth since 2014 and positions Hobart Airport as one of the fastest growing airports in the country.



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Anna Chau


Acting Chief Executive, Infrastructure Australia Anna Chau is the Acting Chief Executive of Infrastructure Australia and the Executive Director of Project Advisory. Anna leads the ongoing development of the national Infrastructure Priority List and the assessment of project business case submissions which are considered by the Infrastructure Australia Board for the Priority List. She is a leading applied economist in infrastructure with 27 years’ professional experience, specialising in transport economics. Anna was previously Chief Economist at AECOM Australia and led AECOM’s national Economics team. Her previous positions include Principal at Booz & Company, Executive Director of EY’s Economics team in Sydney, and Senior Manager in the business development group at a major train operator company in the UK.

Stephen Yarwood Urban Futurist, city2050 and Former Lord Mayor of Adelaide Passionate about cities and innovation, Stephen is one of Australia’s best-known and respected contemporary Urban Planners who consults internationally on future city trends, urban innovation, leadership and creating positive change. He is considered an international specialist on the future citizen and the relationships between people, technology, infrastructure, society, cities and quality urbanism. During his time as Lord Mayor (2010–2104), his emphasis on collaboration with the private sector and State Government delivered many outcomes and saw Adelaide recognised internationally as an innovative destination. Prior to being Lord Mayor, Stephen worked in the South Australian Government and Parliament, in Local Government and internationally as a planner, researcher, educator and speaker.

Susan Harris CEO, ITS Australia

With an extensive career in transport strategy and as Chief Executive of ITS Australia, Susan is ideally placed at the nexus of technology and transport to translate the benefits to business and the Australian community, supported by strong linkages with the international ITS community and the global network of ITS Association. Susan is highly regarded for her roles supporting the growth and innovation of the industry including: convener of Austroads CAV Industry Reference Group; National Transport Commission Industry Advisory Group; 2026 Spatial Agenda Leadership Group.

Dr Allison Stewart Project Director, Automated and Zero Emissions Vehicles Infrastructure Advice, Infrastructure Victoria Allison is an experienced capital projects leader, strategist and academic, with experience working in the infrastructure, energy, defence and mega-events industries. She is a recognised expert in the theory of mega-events, and her work has been cited by the Economist, the BBC, the Financial Times and the Wall Street Journal, among others. Allison led Infrastructure Victoria’s advice on the state’s infrastructure needs for introducing automated and zero emissions vehicles. The breadth of this work is unprecedented in Australia, covering topics including transport modelling and planning, energy, health and ICT infrastructure up to 30 years into the future for Victoria.


butors Sarah Renner CEO, Hobart Airport

Sarah commenced her career as a commercial pilot after completing a Bachelor of Aviation degree. Following this, Sarah joined Melbourne Airport building her career in increasingly senior roles over 17 years, including Airfield Manager, Aviation Planning Manager and Head of Operations, culminating in the Executive Planning and Development role. Before joining Hobart Airport as CEO, Sarah was the Executive General Manager for ISS Facility Services accountable for the Aviation and Transport business portfolio for Australia. Sarah is passionate about Tasmania’s future growth and currently sits on the Board of Tourism Industry Council Tasmania (TICT), and is a Committee Member of the Tasmanian Antarctic Group.

Thomas Kerr

President of the Rail Track Association Australia (RTAA) Thomas is President of the RTAA and Engineering Manager of Infrastructure Maintenance at Alstom on the Sydney Light Rail. He is a Chartered Professional Project Manager through AIPM and a Civil Engineer from The University of Sydney. With 10 years’ experience working on the client and contractor side, Thomas has a broad understanding of heavy rail, metro and light rail systems, as well as expertise in the construction and maintenance of railways in Australia. He has achieved a number of accolades through his career including Sydney Trains Gold Award, RTAA Young Rail Specialist Award and Transport for NSW’s Employee Excellence Award. Thomas also has a Certificate IV in Training and Assessment and has been a casual facilitator and tutor with Engineering Education Australia supporting the Rail Track Engineering Course.

Deanna Hutchinson

CEO of the Spatial Industries Business Association Deanna has a passion for simulation and virtual reality. She has experience within the mining, healthcare, defence, transport and manufacturing sectors in designing and implementing complex simulation projects. She was elected Chair of Australia’s international simulation conference, SimTecT, from 2008 to 2013 where she joined the international simulation community, forging strong relationships with organisations and thought leaders in Europe and the Americas. As CEO of SIBA|GITA, Deanna is focused on developing sector-wide governance infrastructure (such as professional accreditation and standards) and knowledge about emerging applications such as virtual reality, simulation and BIM. She contributes as either a committee member or speaker at several emerging technology events and has an influential voice in the spatial business industry.

Stephen Lemon

Program Director Digital Systems, Transport for NSW Stephen Lemon is the Program Director of Digital Systems, a major Transport for NSW program that will transform Sydney’s existing rail network to help meet the city’s future transport needs. Digital Systems will replace legacy signalling and train control technologies with modern, internationally proven, intelligent systems based around European Train Control System (ETCS) Level 2 technology. Stephen has more than 30 years’ experience in the Australian and UK rail industries and previously held roles in Transport for NSW as the Director of Rail Systems Development and as Sydney Trains’ Professional Head of Signalling and Control Systems. Stephen’s experience spans project management, engineering and consultancy in both the public and private sector across a variety of infrastructure environments, including freight, heavy rail, metro and light rail. Stephen is a Chartered Professional Engineer (CPEng) and Fellow of the Institution of Railway Signal Engineers (FIRSE).





ransport for NSW has selected a consortium of contractors to design, build, finance and maintain its $1.26 billion new regional rail fleet project. The Momentum Trains consortium was chosen as the successful contractors. The consortium includes CIMIC Group companies Pacific Partnerships, UGL and CPB Contractors. Momentum Trains will deliver a new regional rail fleet and a new maintenance facility in Dubbo, New South Wales. The project includes capital costs of $1.26 billion for the new fleet, the new maintenance facility in Dubbo, network enabling works and other project delivery costs. The contract also includes maintenance services for the first 15 years.


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CIMIC Group has led the consortium’s development of the project, with Pacific Partnerships providing leadership and equity financing for the contract term. CPB Contractors will design, construct and commission the maintenance facility at Dubbo, whilst UGL will maintain both the fleet of 117 rail cars and the maintenance facility. The consortium also includes Construcciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles (CAF), who will manufacture the rail cars, as well as CAF Investment Projects and independent fund manager DIF, both of whom are also providing equity financing alongside Pacific Partnerships. CIMIC Group estimates the project will generate revenue of up to $725 million over the construction and initial 15-year maintenance term.

The project is expected to commence in early 2019, with the first trains to enter service progressively from 2023. Momentum Trains will replace the existing XPT, XPLORER and Endeavour trains, some of which are close to 36 years old and nearing the end of their lifespan. NSW Minister for Transport and Infrastructure, Andrew Constance, said the new regional fleet will comprise 117 new carriages to form ten regional intercity trains, nine short regional trains and ten long regional trains. “The trains will be powered by engines which produce fewer emissions than the current fleet, reducing the impacts on air quality,” he said. The Dubbo maintenance facility will be where the final fit out and commissioning of the trains will take place.

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old Coast Airport has awarded the contract for its southern terminal expansion which involves a three-level terminal, including aerobridges, built to the south of the current facility. Lendlease will deliver the next phase of the airport’s $370 million redevelopment, Project LIFT. The agreement will see the development move forward in mid-2019. The new terminal will double the floor area of the existing terminal and offer more flexibility to service domestic and international services, depending on demand. The project will also generate up to 1500 jobs during construction. Queensland Airports Limited CEO, Chris Mills, said Lendlease’s appointment represented a significant step forward for the Gold Coast Airport project, which would address capacity issues and pave


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the way for future passenger growth. “Gold Coast Airport looks after 6.6 million passengers a year, and this will more than double by 2037,” Mr Mills said. “The existing terminal is currently operating beyond capacity. This expansion will not only help us meet demand, it will create an entry point to the city, befitting the nation’s leading tourism region.” In 2018 the airport completed the first phase of Project LIFT, the 20,000 square metre expansion of its apron to create more aircraft parking space leading into the Commonwealth Games. It also completed a $16 million apron reconfiguration project which created up to four additional aircraft parking spaces. Federal Minister for Infrastructure, Transport and Regional Development, Michael McCormack, welcomed news of the major airport project proceeding.

“This is good news for the Gold Coast and Northern NSW, where the population is forecast to grow significantly in the next 20 years,” Mr McCormack said. “This will continue to open the region to connections for tourists and locals, with a modern and efficient airport to keep pace with the increase in demand over time.” The announcement comes after ground was broken on the Gold Coast Airport hotel site in early February. A 192-room Rydges-branded hotel is being built adjacent to the southern terminal footprint. By 2037 Gold Coast Airport is expected to contribute $818 million annually to the region and support an estimated 20,000 full time jobs.





nfrastructure Australia has announced the successor to its previous Chief Executive Officer, Philip Davies, who departed the organisation in 2018. The Infrastructure Australia Board has appointed Romilly Madew as its new CEO. Ms Madew will begin her new role in April 2019. Ms Madew has led the Green Building Council of Australia since 2006, driving Australia’s sustainable building movement. Infrastructure Australia Chair, Julieanne Alroe, welcomed the appointment and said Ms Madew is recognised around the world as a leader in the property and construction industry. “Romilly is an experienced CEO with expertise in strategy, governance and policy development,” Ms Alroe said. “She has forged strong working relationships with industry, government

and community stakeholders through her current role and previous executive positions, including as Executive Director ACT and Sustainability at the Property Council of Australia and the National Client Relationship Manager for law firm King & Wood Mallesons. “Romilly joins Infrastructure Australia at an incredibly important time for our organisation, and we are delighted to have her on board as we prepare to release the Australian Infrastructure Audit in mid-2019 and begin work on the next Australian Infrastructure Plan.” As Chief Executive of the Green Building Council of Australia, Ms Madew represented over 650 companies with a collective annual turnover of $40 billion and presided over the Green Star rating system, which has seen more than 2,250 projects certified across the country. She has also held board positions

with the Australian Sustainable Built Environment Council, Sydney Olympic Park Authority and Chief Executive Women, and sat on numerous ministerial panels including the Cities Reference Group, National Urban Policy Forum and the China/Australia Services Sector Forum. Ms Madew said she was honoured to begin a new chapter as Chief Executive of Infrastructure Australia, as the organisation prepares to release two landmark documents. “Infrastructure Australia has a critical role to play in helping governments prioritise projects and reforms that best serve our communities. I look forward to growing the organisation’s focus on delivering better outcomes for individual users across transport, energy, telecommunications, water and social infrastructure,” Ms Madew said.


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March 2019 // Issue 10




Overseas models depicted. Australian models will feature a Volvo truck and enclosed power deck.


March 2019 // Issue 10


Overseas models depicted. Australian models will feature a Volvo truck and enclosed power deck.

Vermeer Equipment Holdings has been appointed sole Australian distributor of Hi-Vac Corporation’s range of high-capacity hydro excavation and wastewater infrastructure management solutions as of May 2019.


or over 40 years, Ohio US-based Hi-Vac Corporation has provided products and systems that tackle some of the toughest infrastructure, maintenance and clean-up challenges in the world. Hi-Vac products are at work behind the scenes around the world, maintaining infrastructure, improving air quality, non-destructively excavating, recycling, cleaning and maintaining the environment. Anthony O’Grady, Vermeer’s National Sales Manager for Hi-Vac products, is excited to bring the support of a comprehensive and well-established local dealer network to this segment of the market. “The addition of Hi-Vac’s products to our existing solutions for infrastructure development and renewal means Vermeer can now serve all segments of the market with the highest quality, best supported products available. I really believe that this will ultimately provide a tangible benefit to the infrastructure industry in the region.”

Mr O’Grady said that interest in these products is already strong amongst customers seeking a higher capacity hydro excavation solution that can expand their business’ capabilities. “The combination of Hi-Vac’s capabilities with our Australian dealer network support has already resulted in significant interest from customers looking to offer sewer and culvert cleaning applications.” After-sales support of the Hi-Vac product range, including comprehensive parts and consumables inventory, as well as on-premises and in-field service coverage, will be covered by Vermeer Equipment Holdings’ eastern-Australian dealership network that is strategically located to support key areas of infrastructure development and renewal.

Information on Hi-Vac Corporation’s range of hydro excavation and wastewater infrastructure management solutions can be found at, or contact for any enquiries.

March 2019 // Issue 10





he NSW Government has announced its Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Plan, which aims to facilitate the ongoing transition towards cleaner transport options. Under this plan, the government will invest millions in fast charging points for electric vehicles, trial electric bus services and commit to more electric and hybrid government vehicles. The plan was announced by NSW Minister for Transport and Infrastructure, Andrew Constance, and Minister for Roads, Maritime and Freight, Melinda Pavey. It includes a $3 million co-investment in fast charging points for electric and hybrid vehicles on major regional corridors, and $2 million for new charging points in commuter car parks. “More people are embracing electric and hybrid vehicles, and we need to do our part to ensure we have the infrastructure in place so that people are confident to use these vehicles right across the state,” Mr Constance said. “That’s why we’re planning fast charging points for major regional corridors including the Newell, Great Western, New England, Pacific and Princes Highways, and the Hume Motorway. “In the coming weeks, we will commence market soundings for charging points to ensure we get the best value for money


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and identify the right locations by co-investing with industry.” The NSW Government has committed to a minimum ten per cent of new government fleet vehicles being electric or hybrid from 2020. “This means NSW will have one of the largest fleets of electric and hybrid vehicles in Australia,” Ms Pavey said. “This initiative will give confidence and certainty to electric vehicle manufacturers as well as provide greater access to a wider choice of affordable electric vehicles in the future for motorists.” A significant part of the plan is the development of electric bus services, with a number of trials to begin shortly, led by the private bus industry and government, including a new market sounding. “Electric vehicles are here, they are cheaper to fuel and maintain, but we need to keep developing the network and charging infrastructure to further drive their uptake,” Mr Constance said. “We will also launch a new platform mid-year, which will provide customer information to help buyers of electric vehicles choose wisely and locate charging points across NSW.”

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he WA Government has announced the successful tenderer for a $33.5 million replacement of the Berth 3 deck and fender at the Port of Port Hedland. Successful tenderer, Total AMS, has already begun work on the project. Originally constructed in the late 1960s, Berth 3 is a multi-user berth that is primarily used for the export of salt and the import of fuels. The deck was replaced in 1988 due to deterioration. The project’s initial design and construction contract was terminated with York Civil, following the company entering voluntary administration and ceasing trading in August 2018. Pilbara Ports Authority engaged key subcontractors to complete preparatory


March 2019 // Issue 10

demolition work and the design and material supply, before inviting tenders for the construction of the project. Total AMS will now commence construction works, including the demolition of the existing deck, construction of a new reinforced concrete deck, installation of new wharf fenders and other ancillary works. WA Ports Minister, Alannah MacTiernan, said, “Berth 3 has deteriorated as a result of the harsh and salty environment. This project will use technology advances and a better understanding of the working environment to provide a deck that is expected to last for 50 years. “The project will require periodic closure of the berth. However, Pilbara Ports Authority has worked closely

with port users, including Dampier Salt Ltd, to put in place an agreed access arrangement and to minimise disruption to their important trade activities.” The replacement works form part of a pilot project under the WA Government’s WA Industry Participation Strategy (WAIPS), designed to maximise opportunities for WA businesses to secure work on government contracts. Total AMS’s WAIPS Participation Plan estimates the project will directly deliver almost 50 local jobs, as well as more than 20 subcontractor positions. About 75 per cent of the workforce will be Pilbara based. The project is expected to be completed by late October 2019.





ou’ll now be able to find news stories from Infrastructure magazine more easily after the Infrastructure website was officially accepted onto Google News. Google News is Google’s specific news content platform and is one of the main categories on the Google homepage. Google News shows news from reputable media outlets and it can be challenging for publications to be indexed as a news publisher. Infrastructure Editor, Jessica Dickers, said Google makes its decision based on factors such as the quality and originality of the content, so this development highlights the standard of industry news that is published on the Infrastructure website. “Our editorial team works hard to deliver the biggest news in road, rail, airports, ports, utility and urban infrastructure, so it’s great to see that these stories are resonating with our readers.” This announcement follows another milestone for Monkey Media, the publisher behind Infrastructure, after it was featured in 2018’s Australian Financial Review's Fast 100 list — a list of the fastest growing companies in Australia. Stay up to date on the latest infrastructure industry news and sign up to the weekly enewsletter at

March 2019 // Issue 10




PRIORITY PROJECTS AROUND THE COUNTRY by Anna Chau, Acting Chief Executive, Infrastructure Australia

Infrastructure Australia’s 2019 Infrastructure Priority List presents a record 121 nationally significant proposals, and a $58 billion project pipeline designed to guide the next 15 years of Australian infrastructure investment. With 25 new infrastructure proposals included in this year’s publication, Infrastructure Australia’s Acting Chief Executive, Anna Chau, outlines the key investments needed to address today’s infrastructure gaps and meet the challenges of the future. 18

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nfrastructure Australia maintains the Infrastructure Priority List to guide investment towards projects that will deliver the best outcomes for Australia’s growing communities. Developed using data from the Australian Infrastructure Audit, and submissions from state and territory governments, industry and the community — including more than 100 submissions over the past 12 months — it provides all levels of government with a list of infrastructure investment opportunities for the near, medium and longer term. The 2019 Priority List is a consensus list of opportunities to improve both Australian living standards and productivity, and reflects the diversity of Australia’s infrastructure needs over the next 15 years across transport, energy, water, communications, housing and education. Since it was first published in this format in 2016, the Priority List has matured and grown. This new edition is the largest and most comprehensive list of investments ever put forward by Infrastructure Australia, and includes forward-thinking proposals that speak to the need for strategic planning and infrastructure investment to enhance our quality of life. Addressing population growth in our cities and regions The importance of delivering world-class public transport services in our largest cities remains a key focus of the 2019 Priority List, reflecting the challenges of a growing population. Many of the projects and potential infrastructure solutions identified in the 2019 Priority List address the need for frequent and accessible public transport to reduce congestion and maintain Australia’s world-renowned liveability. This year’s Priority List highlights public transport solutions to congestion, such as the Priority Initiative to improve public transport capacity between Broadbeach and Burleigh Heads in Queensland (where the Gold Coast population is expected to increase by 61 per cent by 2041) or the High Priority Project for METRONET: Yanchep Rail Extension in Perth (where daily boardings on the suburban rail network are expected to double over the next 15 years).


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Forward-thinking proposals Many of this year’s new additions to the Priority List reflect the need for forward-thinking, ambitious solutions to support Australia’s future prosperity — such as the delivery of a national fast-charging network for electric vehicles, identified as a High Priority Initiative. By 2040, electric vehicles are projected to account for 70 per cent of new vehicle sales and 30 per cent of the vehicle fleet in Australia. However, lack of access to charging stations has been identified by around two-thirds of motorists as a key barrier to the adoption of electric vehicles. Infrastructure Australia has identified, as a High Priority opportunity, national policies and regulation to complement the roll-out of a network of fast-charging stations, ensuring we are prepared for our future infrastructure needs. This year’s Priority List also recognises the transformative links being forged between the energy and transport network, and the additional demands this is likely to place on the electricity grid and pressure on consumer costs. For this reason, we also want to see investment in network infrastructure to ensure that the electricity generation and distribution network can provide reliable electricity supply for additional electric vehicle chargers. Responding to this and the broader challenges of energy security, we have also highlighted the need for investment in the connectivity and reliability of our National Electricity Market in the medium to long term, and optimisation in the near term. National coordination of infrastructure solutions Many of the infrastructure challenges facing Australia require national coordination, across major networks, to achieve the best outcomes for all Australians. Addressing overcrowding in remote housing is one such example of this. The 2019 Priority List includes a new proposal to address overcrowding and poor quality housing in remote areas. Goodquality housing underpins all targets in health, education and employment, as well as community safety. It is estimated


that, in 2018, there was overcrowding in more than one-third of remote housing in Australia. Potential investments include addressing maintenance and utility deficiencies for existing housing stock, renewing life-expired housing stock and developing new housing stock. Another is the need for a national program of works to address road safety. Joining the Infrastructure Priority List this year as a High Priority is a national initiative of regional road network safety improvements. Between 2008 and 2016, 55 per cent of road fatalities in Australia occurred in regional areas. Relative to population size, the number of fatalities in regional areas was over four times greater than for major cities over the same period. A national program to address regional road safety recognises the need to continue identifying, assessing and prioritising high-risk sections of regional roads right across Australia. The benefits of national coordination is also highlighted by two initiatives to optimise the National Electricity Market and improve future connectivity and reliability, preparing the network for increasing demand on the grid and the shift towards renewables. Potential investments include increasing transfer capacity between the New South Wales, Queensland and Victoria NEM regions, new and increased transfer capacity between regions, such as between Queensland and New South Wales, New South Wales and South Australia, and Tasmania and Victoria, and network access to energy storage locations and renewable energy sources. These infrastructure challenges call for nationally coordinated action, to make the best of our networks and plan strategically for Australia’s future prosperity.

Addressing aging infrastructure As well as identifying new and innovative ways to address emerging challenges, or support productivity growth, the 2019 Infrastructure Priority List prioritises action on aging

infrastructure where it restricts national productivity or has negative impacts on community safety. One example is the restraint on freight movement across the Shoalhaven River caused by aging bridge infrastructure. The southbound bridge, constructed in 1881, requires significant spending to remain operational. The bridge also cannot carry over-height or higher mass limit freight vehicles, which reduces freight productivity. Over 50,000 vehicles cross the river each day, and worsening travel times has a growing impact on freight productivity and road safety. Increasing crossing capacity has been identified as a Priority Initiative. In Tasmania, aging sewerage infrastructure is contributing to public health and environmental outcomes that do not meet contemporary standards. Infrastructure Australia has highlighted the Tasmanian Government's proposal to rationalise existing sewage treatment plants, and upgrade and operate a reduced number of sewage treatment plants in Hobart, Launceston and Devonport as a Priority Initiative to address this issue in the near term.

A living document The Infrastructure Priority List is a living document, with new projects added as the Infrastructure Australia Board receives and assesses project business cases. The 2019 Infrastructure Priority List, complete with summaries for each project and initiative included in the current edition, is available now on the Infrastructure Australia website. The 2019 Priority List is also available as an interactive map on the Infrastructure Australia website, which sets out a detailed view of infrastructure issues and opportunities identified around the country. The map provides an up-todate view of the nationally significant investments Australia needs to meet its infrastructure challenges, and is continually updated alongside the Priority List.

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n paper, the principles of stakeholder management seem straightforward. Once potential stakeholders are identified, project managers must determine their interests in the project and their degree of influence over it, establish an engagement plan, and maintain consistent and transparent communication. In reality, however, engaging and satisfying stakeholders is a complex process that demands considerable time and effort throughout all stages of a project’s planning and delivery cycle. There are lots of factors at play and any one could cause issues. PLANNING MUST START EARLY Stakeholder management is an enormous, time-consuming operation. One of the biggest challenges is allowing enough time to establish effective ongoing communication. Brenton Cox, Executive General Manager – Finance and Corporate at Adelaide Airport, said the Airport aims to start stakeholder management during the early planning and design stages of a project, rather than waiting until work has commenced. “It is easy to underestimate the scale of the consultation task and the resources and time required,” Mr Cox said. Krishan Tangri, General Manager, Assets Group at Brisbane Airport Corporation, shared this view, saying the time constraints make it crucial that companies get it right at the start. “It is essential to work closely with project managers from inception to establish the rules of engagement around


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communications, and to take the time to ask and agree what success looks like,” he said. Mr Tangri stressed that the groundwork done on each project or asset — identifying key stakeholders; mapping them according to their role on the project; stating their impact, interests and levels of influence; shaping engagement activities accordingly — is only part of the process. For successful stakeholder management, project managers also need to allocate time for continuous evaluation of both stakeholders and their own process. “During and at completion of our projects, we assess the level of satisfaction of each key stakeholder and develop strategies to continuously improve,” Mr Tangri said.

A PROJECT’S SCALE AND GEOGRAPHIC SPREAD NEED TO BE CONSIDERED The time commitment of stakeholder management is proportional to a project’s scale. The bigger the project, the more stakeholders will be involved and the greater the likelihood of divergent and even conflicting interests. Rebecca Pickering, Director – Engagement, Environment and Property for Inland Rail, said the Inland Rail program covers a distance longer than the whole of New Zealand and involves a vast number of stakeholders. The project itself is the largest freight rail infrastructure project in Australia, with the construction connecting Melbourne and Brisbane via regional Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland.


Stakeholder management is widely considered to be integral to the successful delivery of infrastructure projects, but it is not without its challenges. Miscommunications, conflicting stakeholder interests and misaligned engagement strategies can seriously disrupt project outcomes and timelines. Infrastructure spoke to industry leaders across each transport sector to discuss these challenges and their strategies to overcome them.

Rebecca Pickering, Director — Engagement, Environment and Property for Inland Rail.

Krishan Tangri, General Manager, Assets Group at Brisbane Airport Corporation.

Steve Doran, Director, Infrastream

Brenton Cox, Executive General Manager – Finance and Corporate at Adelaide Airport.

THE RISKS AND REWARDS OF STAKEHOLDER MANAGEMENT by Kim Ho, Journalist, Infrastructure Magazine

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INDUSTRY INSIGHT “Delivering a major infrastructure program along 1700km and three states touches thousands of stakeholders with different needs, different impacts, different interests and different questions to be addressed,” Ms Pickering said. Ms Pickering said that over 8000 people have participated in Inland Rail’s engagement activities so far. “We have facilitated more than 3000 stakeholder meetings in the past two years, we’ve held more than 400 community sessions, we have around 1800 land access agreements in place, and we’re liaising with about 36 councils and 26 traditional owner groups.” As the alignment is a mix of brownfield and greenfield sites, it means there are varying environments, topography and engineering solutions at play, as well as different state planning and approval processes required. “With so many, and such a diverse range of stakeholders across a broad geographic spread, we are applying a range of traditional and digital means to bring the community to the centre of Inland Rail,” Ms Pickering said. These strategies include one-on-one engagement; neighbourhood and small group consultation and conversations; Community Consultative Committees; participation in local community events such as regional agricultural shows; community information sessions; and digital engagement platforms.

AVOIDING MISALIGNED STAKEHOLDERS While seeking input from a great number of stakeholders may complicate a project’s objectives, Mr Tangri maintained that attempts to cater to diverse interests can yield benefits down the track. “I believe Brisbane Airport will be developing its thinking into a ‘servicing all’ concept — i.e. serving all categories of stakeholders — which will bring longer term efficiencies over time,” he said. However, he agreed that misaligned


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stakeholders can be the biggest contributor to a project’s failure to meet key milestones. “It is important that the engagement is targeted to specific information needs and concerns without spamming our stakeholders,” Mr Tangri said.

IT’S ALL ABOUT TRANSPARENT COMMUNICATION Once stakeholder engagement has begun, the challenge is then to maintain consistent, transparent communication with all involved. A spokesperson for the Queensland Department of Transport and Main Roads (TMR) said that the organisation’s typical stakeholders include the local community, Indigenous groups, individuals, special interest groups, telecommunications providers, political representatives, media and, at times, other projects. “The nature of our business brings us into contact daily with all tiers of government, as well as broader industry and business groups and single issues groups with specific local community issues at heart,” the spokesperson said. To ensure full disclosure and transparency across these groups, TMR has put established systems, policies and protocols in place for engaging with stakeholders. This includes representation on committees and working groups, on-site visits, a presence at community expos and events, official parliamentary correspondence, community mailouts, responding to media enquiries and issuing department media statements and online project updates. Crucially, TMR developed these protocols based on feedback from its stakeholders. “We engaged our customers to research, design, develop and publish a whole-of-TMR Customer Charter that clearly outlines what our customers can expect from us, as well as what we will deliver,” TMR’s spokesperson said.

“This Customer Charter underpins our philosophy and approach to stakeholder engagement within a corporate project management framework.” Queensland Department of Transport and Main Roads’ Integrated Project Management Framework, which aims to provide an overarching view for project managers who plan and deliver infrastructure projects, also evolved from consultation sessions across Queensland.

DETERMINING PROJECT VALUE Part of the challenge of effective communication is to articulate a project’s value to stakeholders. Ms Pickering described Inland Rail’s approach as bringing its stakeholders along on the journey of the project’s construction. “We want to make sure stakeholders understand the true economic benefits of how this program is going to make a difference to them and to the country,” she said. Steve Doran, Director and Founder of asset management consultancy Infrastream, regularly helps clients to navigate complex stakeholder management scenarios. He said the challenge of determining true project value is made more difficult by value often being intangible to community stakeholders. Mr Doran said that communicating project value with a focus on how their own quality of life will be improved

INDUSTRY INSIGHT can be the pivotal difference in gaining stakeholder acceptance. For him, it is essential to plan and budget for the engagement activity as if it is the most significant investment in terms of true value return — because it is. This can be seen on the Inland Rail Project as ARTC has allocated more than 40 people to carry out stakeholder engagement, communication and media roles across Queensland, NSW and Victoria, aligning with the 13 projects along the route from Melbourne to Brisbane. “Leveraging the opportunities this nation-building program brings on a local level is paramount, and that is where the two-way communication is critical,” Ms Pickering said.

CONVEYING INCALCULABLE VALUE Perhaps the most significant challenge of stakeholder management is enabling this reciprocal communication, to make a real attempt to actively listen and incorporate feedback where possible. This includes genuine communication, having empathy, active listening and not just performative responses that are simply going through the motions. Mr Cox said for Adelaide Airport it is important to be available for briefings or information requests. “Some simple empathy helps; by identifying key stakeholders and putting yourself in their shoes and trying to pre-empt some of the issues they are likely to have,” Mr Cox said. Mr Doran echoed this sentiment and said it is essential to take the time to understand the stakeholders’ position and circumstances in detail, even if strong opposition is expected. “Consultation that is simply carried out to tick this off as completed, with conclusions already decided, is fraught with danger for the project,” he said. Ms Pickering also said it was important to acknowledge the perspectives of the various local communities impacted by a

project like Inland Rail with patience and humility. “No one knows the local area like the people that live there,” she said. “Local knowledge is absolutely essential to the design and ultimate success of this project.”

HIGH STAKES = HUGE CONSEQUENCES Just as there are myriad challenges to stakeholder management, so too are there many ways an insufficient approach could negatively impact a project’s progress and outcome. Delays, missed milestones and adjusted project outcomes are all feasible consequences, but they are not the only concerns. Poor stakeholder management can also impact public perception. However, these risks illuminate just how integral stakeholder management is to safeguarding a project’s success. Effective communication and engagement can keep projects to schedule and provide a sense of accomplishment at project completion which can be shared, boosting reputations and alliances. “Stakeholder management is a lot more than just ensuring that the project receives a positive reception,” Mr Cox said. “It can also draw out issues that are minor when addressed early on, but which could derail the project if they emerge later in the process.” In this way, stakeholder management dovetails into project risk avoidance. Mr Tangri put it simply; “Without our

stakeholders there will be no project.”

IS FACE-TO-FACE CONSULTATION BECOMING OBSOLETE? Despite a diverse range of strategies to achieve meaningful engagement and open communication, all of these industry leaders were unanimous in their prediction of the future of stakeholder management. “Demand for stakeholder engagement is only going to increase,” Mr Cox said; and with it, a demand for “real-time information leveraging technology, not just social media”. The consensus held is that in the future stakeholder management will be increasingly carried out using online, digitised application-based methods. Brisbane Airport is currently working on a pilot online stakeholder engagement portal, which aims to provide an engaging single source of real-time information for its internal and external stakeholders. “Not only are these methods making communication more efficient, they will also facilitate greater interactivity with stakeholders,” Mr Tangri said. Similarly, Inland Rail is using visualisations that show how solutions will sit with the local environment, as well as interactive maps and online panels to enable locals to input feedback directly at their convenience. Yet despite these burgeoning technological paths, stakeholder management is not set to go completely digital any time soon. Common to all sectors’ approaches was a continuing commitment to in-person communication. “Nothing replaces face-to-face conversation,” Ms Pickering said. Ultimately, the imperatives of empathy, transparency and active listening will always be essential to successful stakeholder management on Australia’s infrastructure projects.



Hobart Airport experienced its busiest year ever in 2018, with more than 2.6 million people passing through the terminal gates. Driven by an unprecedented tourism boom in Tasmania, which recorded a 15 per cent increase in international visitors last year, this figure represents a six per cent year-over-year increase in growth since 2014 and positions Hobart Airport as one of the fastest growing airports in the country.


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ourism has firmly cemented itself as one of Tasmania’s key economic drivers, with more than $2.4 billion spent by visitors in the state last year. As the state’s primary port of entry, continuing to facilitate this growth is a key priority for the airport and a vital part of ensuring the state realises its full economic potential. In addition to tourism, Tasmania’s clean and green reputation has seen it become a world-renowned location for

top-quality produce, with our soughtafter fresh seafood, fruit and vegetable industries also contributing greatly to the local economy. Taking these factors into account, it could be argued that Hobart Airport is Tasmania’s most significant piece of infrastructure and single most important economic asset. In coming years, it is expected to continue generating employment and tourism revenue within the state by welcoming the increasing number of national and

international visitors, and creating opportunities for Tasmanian producers to export to international markets.

THE ROAD SO FAR: $100 MILLION AIRPORT REDEVELOPMENT As the primary gateway to the city of Hobart and southern Tasmania, the airport recognises the important role it plays in ensuring airport infrastructure is able to grow with the community and develop Hobart’s attractiveness as a place to live, work and create business.

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Between 2012 and 2018, Hobart Airport has seen more than $100 million worth of upgrades to meet the growing needs of the state. One of the most significant enhancements was a 500m runway extension. Completed in late 2017, this extension provides the opportunity to introduce wide body aircraft operations, unlocking Hobart’s potential for international trade and further positioning Hobart as a gateway to the Antarctic. A specialist parking bay to accommodate large aircraft was also constructed to meet these aims.


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The $100 million redevelopment also saw a new arrivals hall and administration wing built along with improved parking options on site. In December last year, Hobart Airport spent $4.5 million in refurbishing the existing departures lounge. This investment in passenger experience delivered approximately 250m2 of additional space, over 170 additional seats, a refurbished bar and cafĂŠ, new food and beverage options, and renovated amenities. With direct flights now linking the state to every mainland state capital city in Australia, the airport is now focusing

on increased airside facilities to manage this demand. By June 2019, the airport will increase its apron parking bays from five to seven bays. In late February, the airport anticipated the opening of the new $15 million freight handling facility, which, subject to necessary approvals, will likely provide direct freight routes to Asia. As part of the freight facility, the airport is developing a commercial precinct which will allow Tasmanian exporters to package and process produce on-site at the airport, greatly reducing the time from harvest to plate for international deliveries.


Previously, Tasmanian producers of goods for export have been required to have their freight delivered to the north-west coast of the state by truck, from there it is loaded onto a ship and taken to Melbourne or Sydney, before being transferred onto an aircraft and delivered to the country of destination by air. These initiatives have ensured Hobart Airport plays its part in supporting the burgeoning tourism industry, ensuring the state’s high value exports reach international markets in a timely manner and that the state continues to be seen as a major gateway to the Antarctic continent.

INVESTING IN THE FUTURE While these upgrades have seen Hobart Airport cater for immediate demands, Tasmania is showing no signs of slowing down. In order to continue providing an avenue for Tasmania to grow in both tourism and trade, Hobart Airport is currently developing a new Master Plan. The Master Plan provides a framework for development over the next 20 years. The plan will lay out future infrastructure development the airport will focus on to meet the demand of increased passenger numbers, freight opportunities, Antarctic support and other support services. This will outline

the part the airport will continue to play in ensuring the state capitalises on future economic opportunities. Developing and implementing the new Master Plan will require extensive negotiations with airlines and the Federal Government along with extensive public consultation, but will result in an airport that is ready to continue to serve Tasmania’s economy into the future.

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by Dr Allison Stewart, Project Director, Automated and Zero Emissions Vehicles Infrastructure Advice, Infrastructure Victoria

Infrastructure Victoria has completed world-leading research examining what infrastructure might be required to enable automated and zero emissions vehicles. Included in our 17 recommendations are a number of actions that government can take right now to best prepare for the vehicles of the future to enjoy long-term benefits.


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Monash Freeway reimagined under the 'Fleet Street' scenario, with 100 per cent automated, shared, zero emissions vehicles, highlighting some potential future infrastructure changes.

WHAT GOVERNMENT CAN DO TODAY TO BETTER PREPARE VICTORIA FOR TOMORROW While a lot of uncertainty surrounds the roll-out of automated and zero emissions vehicles, and their benefits and risks, we recommended that the Victorian Government take some concrete actions now to prepare for new vehicles and business models. These actions are characterised by being low-cost, no-regrets actions that are likely to deliver benefits regardless of how the technologies evolve. Some of the key actions that can be taken immediately or within the next couple of years include:


n Infrastructure Magazine’s September 2018 issue, we highlighted some of our research findings, which spanned areas including transport and roads, energy and the environment, ICT and socioeconomic impacts. Following on from these findings, we developed comprehensive advice to the Victorian Government on what actions should be taken, and when, to support the roll-out of driverless and zero emissions vehicles. Our advice had a strong focus on maximising the benefits of these new vehicle types to the Victorian community while minimising risks. We also identified pathways and triggers for action to ensure government knows what to look for in order to take action at the best time. While these recommendations focused on the Victorian context, they could just as easily relate to many other jurisdictions.


Survey and prepare to update road infrastructure, in particular road quality, lines and signage.

Road infrastructure, in particular lines, signs, road quality and maintenance, is likely to be one of the major barriers to fully automated vehicles being able to operate effectively on our roads in the short term. Governments and road operators can take action now to prepare our roads for driverless cars, and the improvements could have benefits for all road users. It will be important to evaluate priority roads to ensure they are well maintained (free of potholes, with clear line markings etc.), and have clear and safe access for cyclists, pedestrians and all road users. Funding arrangements may need to be reviewed, especially in regional and rural areas where local governments have vast road networks to maintain. Things like the consistency, machine readability and placement of signs, as well as the quality, consistency and reflectivity of line markings should also be reviewed in line with the work going on at a national level led by Austroads.

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Incorporate new services like mobility as a service into the public transport mix, in preparation for automated vehicles.

Mobility as a service, or ‘MaaS’, could be a potential game changer for how we access transport. MaaS allows users to plan, book and pay for different modes of transport, like buses, trains and on-demand vehicles, within a single platform, like a smartphone app. If fully driverless vehicles were available tomorrow and everyone went out and bought their own, congestion in our cities may actually get worse in some areas, as driverless vehicles could take empty trips to return home, find parking or conduct other tasks. This is where MaaS models could provide a solution to congestion across our transport network by optimising the best mode of travel for each component of a trip. We modelled the impacts of driverless vehicles on network efficiency and, while we expected to find that they make our road networks more efficient, one surprising result was that driverless vehicles increase network efficiency by 70 to 75 per cent even when mixed with regular cars. Further, we found that if all vehicles in Melbourne were shared, as with a MaaStype model, the fleet size could be as low as 260,000 shared cars instead of 3.5 million privately owned cars in 2046 — a 93 per cent decrease. While that’s an extreme scenario, if even half of the fleet was shared, 43 per cent fewer vehicles could be needed, significantly reducing waste and congestion. On the flipside, we also modelled what would happen if all vehicles in Victoria were automated and privately owned, that is, if MaaS and sharing fail to roll out. While the increased operational efficiency of automated vehicles means the network sees an overall improvement on average (despite an increase in the number of trips taken), that isn’t the story in inner Melbourne. We found that the phenomenon known as ‘empty running’ — where driverless cars take empty trips to either get home, access free parking or to conduct other tasks — could contribute to a drop in traffic speeds of 29 per cent in inner Melbourne areas. If government acts now to enable MaaS within our transport mix, we could see the benefits through reduced congestion and greater ease with planning trips and getting around — even without driverless cars.


Expand the availability of open, real-time data and ensure cellular data networks can support the data needs of driverless vehicles.

If we are aiming for an interconnected fleet of driverless and shared vehicles seamlessly meeting our travel needs, one obvious question that springs to mind is: How will our ICT networks handle all that extra data? In particular, it will be important to ensure operators have access to accurate, real-time data to provide quality services to customers, and our ICT networks will need to be able to handle the volumes of data being sent and received by vehicles and infrastructure. In terms of the network, our ICT modelling found that cellular data networks should cope with the transmission of data without too many issues. The scale of data transmitted by automated vehicles is forecast to be a small fraction of overall network traffic, so data volumes shouldn’t be a problem.


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Ringwood Station reimagined under the 'Slow Lane' scenario with a mix of automated cars and human drivers, and zero emissions and non-zero emissions vehicles, highlighting some potential future infrastructure changes.

On the other hand, while it’s a longer-term issue, the safety and performance of driverless vehicles could be improved through upgrades to cellular data coverage, particularly throughout regional and rural Victoria. We estimated that to provide cellular data coverage to all sealed roads in Victoria would cost between $1.1 billion and $1.7 billion, which would also bring significant benefits to regional and rural communities. The major ICT barriers we identified to rolling out new vehicle technologies were data sharing and back end systems, with the evidence suggesting open data and application programming interfaces (APIs) were critical to enable MaaS and other types of services. Mobile-based payments, timetables and services, ticketing and validation, mobile device integration with fare gates, and allowing third parties to execute transactions on behalf of the end user could all be enabled by greater data sharing. This is an area where government could act now to put appropriate rules and standards in place.



Undertake a range of actions to underpin the roll-out of electric vehicle charging infrastructure, including: developing design standards for the design and placement of public charging infrastructure; establishing principles for smart charging and integrated payment systems; reviewing state-based rules for electricity providers to allow them to offer deals for charging electric vehicles; and creating flexibility for property owners and local authorities to adapt to future changes due to automated and zero emissions vehicles.

Where and when people charge their electric vehicles could present a range of challenges for governments, including managing the strain on our energy networks and the placement of public and private chargers. Our research found that if privately owned electric vehicles become the norm, most people will charge their vehicles at home. This could present significant issues for the energy grid if everyone were to plug their car in to charge in the evening when they return home from work, particularly during the afternoon peak in summer when air conditioners are already straining the network. Allowing the market to introduce electric vehicle charging plans with cheaper prices in off-peak times could help with some of these issues.

Another challenge for state and local governments is how to manage households who don’t have a garage or off-street parking. Will apartment buildings have enough chargers for every resident to charge their vehicle, and how will people pay? What if you park your car on the street — can you install a charger on the nature strip? And how will public charging stations be rolled out — is there a role for government, or will existing petrol stations simply convert to electric? Creating design standards and building flexibility into the planning rules will help promote positive outcomes.

WHERE TO FROM HERE? Driverless and zero emissions vehicles are coming, whether we’re ready or not. We already have vehicles on our roads with autonomous features, such as cruise control, lane keeping assist systems and automatic emergency braking. And while electric vehicles might be expensive today, prices are coming down quickly as more models hit the market and manufacturers invest in new technologies. The key for governments — in Victoria, Australia and around the world — is to be prepared and do everything they can to ensure these vehicles are rolled out in a way that provides widespread benefits to the community, especially when it comes to safety, efficiency and the environment.

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IMAGINING THE CITIES OF THE FUTURE With rapid technological development impacting the way we work, move and connect, it is more important than ever to assess our priorities and approaches to planning for the cities of tomorrow. Infrastructure spoke to Stephen Yarwood, urban futurist and former Lord Mayor of Adelaide, about some of the biggest issues that come with planning our future cities — particularly when we’re planning for a future we cannot fully predict.

Smart cities need a bottom-up approach While many conversations around smart cities focus on advancements in information, communications and Internet of Things (IoT) technology, Mr Yarwood argues the most critical thing is to adopt a ‘bottom-up’ approach that puts citizens first. Just like any urban development project, smart cities need to be strategically planned, with local, state and federal governments providing leadership. However, Mr Yarwood stressed that cities are all about people, so any approach to designing a smart city must prioritise their needs. “Rather than designing cities and expecting people to live in them, we need to make sure that we understand what people want, and enable the citizens of the future to achieve what they want to, and what they need to, to be good citizens for today and tomorrow,” he said. “Understanding the role of citizens, the needs of citizens, and behaviours of citizens are really fundamental to how cities are actually built.” Mr Yarwood said this type of citizenled approach is particularly important for


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one simple reason; although smart cities are still on the horizon, the smart citizen is already here. By utilising the new technology already available to us, in the form or smartphones, home assistants and the like, the smart citizen is already driving change in our cities today. “Most people may well have used their phone apps to jump on a plane, check in at the airport, get an Uber, find a hotel, book a hotel and check-in online,” Mr Yarwood said. “Citizens are also wearing smart devices, and they’ve got smart technology in their homes.” Mr Yarwood emphasised the importance of working with existing infrastructure that citizens are already used to. “We need to understand the opportunities that infrastructure provides within cities for us, rather than re-engineering them and then telling people that they need to use our technology, our rules and our apps to run cities. “We can’t expect people to do what we want them to do. We have to understand how people want to do things, and then enable them to do them.”

Stephen Yarwood.

The role of AI in the city of the future Mr Yarwood also believes artificial intelligence will play a crucial role in the cities of the future. “It’s the next climate change,” Mr Yarwood said. “AI will bring a tsunami of change to our cities.” And yet for him, it is essential not to get bogged down by the intimidating unpredictability of new technology. Instead, the key to planning for an AI-integrated future is to admit we do not know everything, and be flexible to change. Whatever form AI eventually takes, Mr Yarwood believes it will mark a global tipping point, a fundamental change to the way humanity operates. “AI will reconnect people in different ways, it’s going to reorganise our day, our week, our lives. It will affect what resources we use, where we go, how we get there, what we do, what jobs are going to be involved and how that’s going to influence land uses.” There is even potential for AI to change us on the level of relationships and lifestyle, rearranging our priorities about children and even our health profiles. “I think it might be the end of obesity,” he said. “We might be able to finally tackle diabetes.”


Mr Yarwood even anticipates the level of human intelligence will change dramatically over the next 20 or 30 years, as the connection between mind and machine — or as Mr Yarwood describes it, “between a person and their own AI minder” — becomes more intricate. “It will quite literally mean that humans will have, via an implanted headphone in their ear, a voice that will tell them what to do, when to do it and how to do it, which is connected to a Bluetooth so that when your phone rings you can directly connect, or have Google or Siri talk to you.” This might sound intimidating, but realistically, an unknown future is no scarier than contemporary realities. “Right now, polar ice caps are melting. Most of our clothes are made by people in Bangladesh earning less than $2 a day,” he noted. “Change is inevitable.” But when there’s so much change coming, and it is really hard to even visualise what it will look like, how do our planners actually plan for this future? “I think the key to understanding the future of our technology is to not pretend to understand it. I think the biggest mistake that we make in planning the future is that we set today’s rules for tomorrow’s future.” For Mr Yarwood, the answer is adaptability — being open and willing to change, and having flexibility to incorporate change into the planning process so that it does not become static. “It’s a continually evolving, flexible experience that is a constant iteration of plan, review, revise,” he said.

How will the share economy shape our future cities? Another emerging aspect of our future cities is the idea of the share economy, typified by apps such as Uber and Airbnb. These apps are changing the way people — particularly city-dwellers — use resources. So emphatic is Mr Yarwood about the importance of the share economy, he believes it will prove to be a thorn in Mark Zuckerberg’s side. “One of the biggest mistakes Facebook has made is to miss the share economy opportunity,” he said. For him, the thing that makes this model so significant is the sheer number and range of opportunities it poses for the cities of the future. While at first the concept of resource-sharing might seem foreign or intimidating, with some assurance of trustworthiness, people become more willing to share. In this way, Mr Yarwood believes the share economy and social media will be increasingly aligned to systems by which people are scored for their behaviour and connections, just as customers in Uber and Airbnb are scored. It is not a stretch, then, for people to be scored on social interactions; for example, how they conduct themselves in meetings. “We’re all going to be rated on an algorithm that actually assesses whether we’re a trustworthy person, and this will rely somewhat on how well connected we are,” said Mr Yarwood. And the reality is, the share economy has endless applications. It’s about maximising our resources and

connectivity to ensure that cars are always full of people heading in the same direction, rather than having individuals travelling in separate cars. To ensure that spare rooms in homes are used as accommodation, as office space, for storage, as an artist’s studio or any other possibility.

What is the self-organising future? To Mr Yarwood, the ultimate culmination of all things smart cities will be represented in what he describes as the self-organising future, where the tools and technologies we have at our disposal are able to organise an increasing amount of our everyday lives. Mr Yarwood even anticipates a possible move away from the current structure of local, state and federal government, with a focus instead on self-organising communities. “We are going to be using complex mathematical algorithms to selforganise our futures in a way that means that we won’t actually have to necessarily deal with governments,” he said. Just as transactions need not continue on a national scale, neither will they be tethered to geography. “You will be able to buy and sell in resources either to your next door neighbour, your family, your friends, or people across the other side of the planet.” Ultimately, Mr Yarwood believes the self-organising future promises a positive vision of the tomorrow. “Cities will become microorganisms of self-organising cells that will be much more resilient than ever before,” he said.

Stephen Yarwood is an international expert on the future citizen and the relationships between people, technology, infrastructure, society, cities and quality urbanism. Our keynote speaker at Smart Cities 2019, his presentation 'Smart cities need smart citizens: a bottom-up approach to the cities of the future' will provide the ideal launching pad for the event. Smart Cities 2019 will run from May 30–31 2019 at Pullman Hotel, Albert Park, Melbourne. Tickets available now at

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SMART CITY? Smart cities need smart people, and they really need smart planners. The best technology in the world is meaningless if it doesn’t have the right people integrating it into our infrastructure and helping citizens learn how to make the most of it. At Smart Cities 2019, taking place in Melbourne from May 30–31, some of the best and brightest minds the smart cities sector has to offer will be closely analysing this prospect over two days of presentations, panel sessions and networking opportunities you won’t want to miss.


rought to you by Infrastructure magazine, Smart Cities 2019 is the premier event for anyone working in the infrastructure sector looking to gain an understanding of how smart technology will impact and benefit their business in the near future. The two-day event will bring together the pillars of our cities — representatives from the buildings, roads, transport and utilities industries — to educate you on the latest developments that are making our cities smarter, and provide opportunity for collaboration to maximise the interoperability of new technologies across different industries. OUR CITIES ARE CHANGING The march of technology, and the interconnection of all aspects of our lives, continues at a relentless pace. As people become more acclimatised to technology improving all aspects of their lives, those of us involved with the provision of essential services within our cities need to move forward with this trend too. The smart development and interconnection of our cities is an area of great excitement; and it provides us with the opportunity to envision what a utopian future for our cities might look like, and to step boldly into this new paradigm. Smart Cities 2019 is the event where you will learn about the latest technologies being deployed across all aspects of a city — but more importantly, it will teach you how to implement

these technologies in a meaningful way, to get the most out of their capability and provide your residents with the tools they need to make their lives simpler, easier and better.

OUR EVENT PHILOSOPHY More than just a magazine, Infrastructure brings the whole industry together through its integrated print, digital and event channels, inspiring infrastructure professionals to learn and grow better together. Smart Cities 2019 is just another element of this philosophy. Unlike a typical event company, we focus only on the areas where we already have a deep knowledge and connection. Our conference programs are put together by our knowledgeable editors with a strong emphasis on providing useful information and creating genuine discussion around topical issues. Our events regularly attract some of the most senior executives in our target industries and are recognised by attendees as being among the very best conference and event experiences they have had.

♦♦ 96% of delegates that have attended our events said they were satisfied/extremely satisfied ♦♦ 91% of delegates that have attended our events said they were likely/extremely likely to recommend our events to a friend or colleague

Why should I attend Smart Cities 2019? »» Hear the latest thinking from internationally-renowned experts from the fields of urban planning, technology, etc »» Enjoy multiple speed networking sessions, where delegates are guaranteed introductions to colleagues within the industry »» Meet exhibitors from digital and technology related companies showcasing the latest ICT/IIoT, machine learning and interoperability innovations in the sector »» Attend the 2019 Smart Cities Awards ceremony, which will be presented at a gala dinner as part of the conference


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Pre-sale tickets now available! We’ve just opened the pre-sale tickets for Smart Cities 2019, which can save you up to $1000 off the regular ticket price. These tickets are only available for a limited amount of time, so to secure your ticket today, head to

30–31 May 2019 | Melbourne

We also understand that for an organisation to get the most out of an event like this, you’ll want to send multiple employees. That’s why for every two tickets you purchase, you’ll receive a third ticket for free, allowing you to learn and share ideas with your colleagues while you’re at the event.

An unparalleled speaker program The speakers lined up for Smart Cities 2019 are quite simply the best the local and international market has to offer when it comes to urban futures expertise. Here’s a small sample of some of the speakers who will be presenting at the conference: International keynote speaker — Mark Dowd Executive Director, Smart Cities Lab, Washington DC Mark drove smart cities policy across the US when he worked as a Senior Advisor to Barack Obama on the rapid evolution of our cities. In this role, he focused on the development and implementation of policy in the White House, and was responsible for creating and executing the ground-breaking Smart City Challenge, which fundamentally changed the way cities and communities approach transportation, innovation and technology. Mark currently runs the city-facing non-profit Smart Cities Lab, focusing on the collaborative development of policies and solutions to address our most stubborn urban challenges. As our international keynote speaker, Mark will bring his extensive experience in policy development and implementation to help our delegates understand how to best tackle the challenges they are currently facing when it comes to designing and building the cities our future needs. Keynote speaker — Stephen Yarwood Urban Futurist, city2050 and Former Lord Mayor of Adelaide Passionate about cities, innovation and technology, Stephen has dedicated his life to the planning and management of cities. Stephen is considered an international specialist on the future citizen and the relationships between people, technology, infrastructure, society, cities and quality urbanism, and his presentation 'Smart cities need smart citizens: a bottom-up approach to the cities of the future' will provide the ideal launching pad for conversations at Smart Cities 2019.

Craig Lawton IoT & Smart Cities Specialist, Amazon Web Services As a Solutions Architect specialising in public-sector IoT and Smart Cities initiatives across Australia and New Zealand, Craig Lawton is sought after by governments at all levels to provide insights into the future of cities and how technology can improve the quality of life for citizens. At Smart Cities, he’ll be sharing some of the latest thinking and insights he’s gathered through working in the cutting-edge environment at Amazon, a place where technology and consumers meet. Lucinda Hartley Co-Founder and Chief Innovation Officer, Neighbourlytics Lucinda is a serial entrepreneur with a passion for communities, urban design and social action. Lucinda has spent the past decade pioneering innovative methods to improve the social sustainability of cities, now being implemented around the world. Her presentation will focus on answering a critical question: can smart cities actually help make us happier? Michelle Price CEO, Australian Cyber Security Growth Centre Michelle Price is the cyber security guru our cities need as we move towards a more connected, data-filled future. She has worked in senior roles in academia and at the highest levels of government, developing the Australian Government’s Cyber Security Strategy and National Security Strategic Risk Framework. At Smart Cities, she’ll highlight what our city makers need to do to keep infrastructure safe and secure, as well as smart.

March 2019 // Issue 10



IS AUSTRALIA READY FOR MaaS? by Susan Harris, CEO, ITS Australia

ITS Australia has investigated the willingness of Australians to pay for Mobility as a Service products and their preferences for these types of services, and used the key findings to create a vision statement that helps map out the path forward for MaaS.


ver the next 30 years, the size of the Australian population will increase substantially, so much so that between 2017 and 2046, Australia’s population is projected to increase by 11.8 million people. This scale of population growth, focused mostly in our major cities, offers an exciting opportunity to reconsider how we plan, develop and interact with the built environment, and work to ensure improved national efficiency, sustainability, and importantly, liveability.


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“Population growth will transform our cities. Our four largest cities are set to undergo a higher density urban transformation. Our aim for these cities should be to deliver highquality, higher density living, connected by world-class infrastructure services.” Infrastructure Australia, Australian Infrastructure Plan: Priorities and reforms for our nation's future (2016)

MOBILITY AS A SERVICE (MAAS) Transport is a key component of successful cities and communities, and while there is already major public transport infrastructure projects underway in key centres across Australia, the advent of innovative transport technologies and mobility disruptors offers opportunities to drastically change the way we consider transport, as individuals, operators and governments. In mid-2018, ITS Australia published a report titled Mobility as a Service in Australia: Customer Insights and Opportunities investigating Australians willingness to pay for and preferences of types of services included in a MaaS product. This survey of 4000 demographically representative Australians also addressed the types of governance models customers would prefer MaaS to be developed under. The key findings resulted in high-level vision statement for MaaS in Australia determined by the project partners and other key stakeholders in the transport and technology sectors across government, industry and academia.

The international experience, particularly in Europe, has seen the rise of collaborative consumption and the growth in business and customer interest in shared mobility services, reflecting a broader transition from an ownership-based economy to an access-based economy. This has resulted in the emergence of new forms of shared mobility services, including short-term car-share, rideshare, public bike sharing services, and other on-demand transport services, that are changing how customers use the transportation system. The turn of the twenty-first century has also seen impacts in private car ownership, with changing and even declining levels of private car ownership across much of the developed world, including Australia.

A move to share vehicles, rather than have them parked unused most of the day, will help mitigate the impacts of parking and reduce the need for car-park spaces. Parking is a complex challenge in most jurisdictions and working to improve the current parking arrangements will be tackling a range of high-priority issues for local and state governments, business and our growing urban centres. To that end, ITS Australia is working with key stakeholders in government and industry on a new project to better understand the current parking challenges, and work towards a solution that enables the wider availability and usability of car-share services. A short and medium-term benefit of this proposal is making car-share programs more attractive to customers and enabling local governments to better manage their parking challenges and enabling effective MaaS products, a probable longer-term benefit will be preparing for the advent of connected and automated vehicles in our cities and communities.

OUTCOMES RATHER THAN OUTPUTS Infrastructure Australia Future Cities Report 2018 recommends Australian governments should focus on outcomes rather than outputs when developing the policy and regulatory frameworks that respond to changing technologies and services. This project proposes to do exactly that and works to improve outcomes for local governments and their communities by enabling car-share programs that are both more effective and attractive to customers, and work to reduce reliance on individual use of private vehicles. Currently in Australia, car-share programs are allocated designated parking spaces for their vehicles, which members collect from and return to that carspace. Free-flow car parking for car-share (being able to detect via GPS a nearby vehicle, and collect and drop off a car in most available carspaces also detected by GPS). While a seemingly simple proposal, offering free-flow parking for car-share, whereby a customer can collect a vehicle through their member app and pay-per-km to a destination of their choice, and park it where another member of the car-share program can share it. Our project group will undertake research on the cost benefits and social impacts of these opportunities will lead to the development of a series of use-cases that we will test in real-world environments across diverse locations across the east coast of Australia. The project will mix technology, policy guidelines, and effective stakeholder engagement to offer best practice solutions for adoption and application.

DECOUPLING AUSTRALIANS FROM THEIR CARS — WHY AND HOW? We consider point seven of the MaaS Vision Statement for Australia to be a significant opportunity going forward; reduced reliance on individual use of private vehicles. With so many more people projected in our cities, there is a pressing need to reduce reliance on individual use of private vehicles to ensure our cities remain liveable. One of the most visible but less considered impacts of the more than 19.2 million registered motor vehicles in Australia is parking, with increased density and urbanisation, parking is only going to become more of a problem in our suburbs, towns and cities.

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VICTORIA’S N ASSET STRATEGY With Victoria set to break ground on some of the biggest infrastructure projects in the state’s history, a new digital asset strategy seeks to improve the delivery and whole-of-life management of Victoria’s projects and assets.


s building, construction and project management technologies evolve, every new infrastructure project carries with it extremely valuable data and resources that, if accessible, would be of enormous benefit to a range of stakeholders in the future.

Now, more than ever, it is imperative to harness data and resources through a digital asset strategy. Victoria, as the fastest growing state in Australia, recognises the important role of data and information in effectively delivering world-class infrastructure and services to meet the demands of its population. That is where the Victorian Digital Asset Strategy (VDAS) comes into play.

The VDAS is led by Victorian Chief Engineer, Dr Collette Burke, and the Office of Projects Victoria, whose role is to inform and advise on the successful delivery of major infrastructure projects in Victoria. The development of VDAS is the result of a large collaborative process involving a wide range of experts and practitioners, including government, industry and educators. The VDAS is designed to support the effective and consistent coordination of digital information across a physical asset’s lifecycle for a range of stakeholders.

At the heart of the VDAS is the recognition that asset data and information is valuable and that remaking, and recapturing data and/or information is inefficient. The VDAS aims to streamline the many sources and types of information and data used in delivery and whole-of-life management of Victoria’s complex infrastructure assets. This information ranges from engineering drawings, computeraided designs, 3D models, project schedules and cost estimates, all the way through to asset registers. Dr Burke said that digital engineering (DE) is at the core of the VDAS approach. She suggests DE is a convergence of data-driven processes, such as building information modelling (BIM), geographic information systems (GIS) and other related systems for deriving better business, project and asset management outcomes.

While Victoria is growing rapidly, VDAS builds greater confidence that the infrastructure services are made and managed more efficiently.


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NEW DIGITAL The most important tenet of digital engineering is providing a collaborative ‘way of working’, using more efficient digital information management processes. These digital information management processes enhance integration and coordination, while driving more productive methods of planning, designing, constructing, operating and maintaining assets throughout their lifecycle. The digital information management processes are fully enhanced when asset stakeholders recognise the value of information and data. A prime example of ‘valuable information and data’ may be the quantities and components as part of a building’s structure. This information is needed early in the project’s life for cost estimates, scheduling, materials availability, options analysis and sustainability assessments. That same information, albeit in greater detail, is also needed during detailed engineering and construction for lifting studies, casting and logistics. The end of the project wouldn’t be the end of use for that same information. That same information can also be utilised during the building’s operation for asset performance, inspection, condition and fatigue analysis, and compliance assessments.

TOWARDS FUTURE SMART CITIES The above example is limited to one bit of information on one asset. Expanding and fast-forwarding this example to assets across Victoria, the VDAS quickly becomes the launchpad for Victoria as the home for ‘future cities’. Future cities utilise digital city and regional planning with truly integrated services, enhances transparency to the circular economy, improves accessibility and connectivity, and ensures resources utilisation is more efficient. Indeed, all of this will not eventuate overnight. The VDAS leverages supporting process-enablers, such as technical tools, specifications, practice and procedures. Technical tools and specifications include standardised asset classification systems, open data formats, object-based models, spatially located data and common data environments. The VDASenabling practices and procedures include procurement, governance, validation, people upskilling, change management and collaboration. All of these things will take time to align, but Dr Burke believes we need to start right now.

The VDAS enhances collaboration and coordination throughout the assets’ life via digital information management processes.

Dr Burke is a strong advocate of not creating bespoke processes. “It is for this reason the VDAS has been developed in collaboration with existing local and international policies, procedures, lessons learned and best practices,” she said. “These include, but are not limited to, procedures such as the Commonwealth Government’s national digital engineering policy principles, international best practices, internationallyrecognised asset classifications, and Victorian Governmentspecific policies, such as the Victorian Government’s Asset Management Accountability Framework, and Value Creation and Capture frameworks, and front-end engineering and design (FEED). “The goal of the VDAS is to enhance public confidence, achieve greater value-for-money outcomes, and facilitate more effective and efficient decision-making.”

Combined, this yields a better and more efficient asset for all Victorians. This is what an engineer should be striving toward. Informed and consulted stakeholders Anyone who has led a major change management exercise will know stakeholder engagement and management is a key objective. As a result, the VDAS stakeholder philosophy is to go far, go wide and go deep into detail — listening to as many stakeholders as possible. This philosophy has paid off. The VDAS Strategic Framework has reached hundreds of organisations and stakeholders locally, nationally and globally. There was resounding common feedback: get on with it!

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Apart from the wide consultation and stakeholder engagement piece, Dr Burke highlights that buy-in to the VDAS Strategic Framework was very positive as people are beginning to understand the benefits that DE and BIM can provide. “A whole range of stakeholders are likely to reap benefits including cost estimators, facilities managers, schedulers, project managers, senior governmental decision-makers, environmental leads through to safety managers,” Dr Burke said.

A prime example of where benefits through digital engineering are already being realised is in the mechanical service industry. Industry bodies, such as the Air Conditioning and Mechanical Contractors’ Association of Australia through efforts such as ‘BIMMEPAUS’, have been instrumental in gearing toward a digital future. Over half a decade, BIM-MEPBIMMEPAUS have steered the majority of the mechanical service industry – made up of pumps, ducts, chillers, air conditioning units, etc. toward a common digital framework and representation of the entire industry. Although the VDAS benefits many stakeholders, the fundamental goal of the VDAS is to ensure the Victorian public benefits via enhanced delivery of public assets, improved value for money, and more engaging community consultation. Finally, the public will also benefit from assets created to meet their needs, while addressing community and environmental concerns with a focus on sustainability. At the crux of these benefits to the public is the improved clarity and consistency on ‘what’, ‘who’, ‘when’ and ‘how’ Victorian assets are planned, designed, engineered, constructed, operated and maintained. The VDAS enables stakeholders to gain deeper insights and arrive at wellinformed decisions through visualisation, real-time integration with other data sources (such as costs and schedules), and better utilisation of innovative technologies. A prime example of this may be for a project decision maker to, in real time, assess the trade-offs between capital cost, operating cost, schedule, deliverability, constructability, comfort, and energysaving aspects of various insulation materials on a building.


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Visualisation and real-time integration of data and assets helps asset stakeholders to make informed decisions in different stages of the asset’s life cycle.

DE benefits everyone The other major benefit is a consistency to design and construct through vertical supply-chain integration, clash avoidance, seamless handover of information at each phase, and design rationalisation and reuse. Design rationalisation and reuse does not mean every hospital and train station will look the same. Instead, will mean designers and engineers will start the project design with greater maturity, and will spend less time on planning and drafting from scratch, and will have a greater amount of time to focus the design on how it meets user's needs. A good way to think about DE, and what VDAS is driving toward, is the concept of a ‘digital twin’.

With the introduction of ‘digital twins’ each one of Victoria’s physical assets can be mirrored by an identical digital representation of the assets. Through the use of digital twins, engineers and senior decision makers can construct, model, analyse, review and test all parts of the asset or project prior to investment. This has tremendous upside as it aligns the concept, engineering, function, and deliverables of the asset or projects amongst all stakeholders prior to contractual commitment. Victorians stand to benefit the most from this alignment through enhanced assets that are fit-for-purpose, as well as reduced capital costs due to lower uncertainty.


A digital twin could also have a profound influence on the way we engage with our assets. With the use of a digital twin, buildings and sites could even be ‘visited’ without leaving the office through innovative technologies, such as virtual reality.

DE is currently being used on major Victorian infrastructure investments.

In a more remote scenario, a digital twin could also be used to restore and preserve one of Victoria’s many historical buildings and sites of significance in the event of a destructive fire.

What’s next? Dr Burke is excited about what the VDAS will drive toward; however, she recognises implementation of the VDAS, like any innovative transformation improvement process, will require a commitment to improve.

“This entails an uplift in skills and competency, new ‘ways of working’, changes to the way we perceive data and information, and a dedication to best practice.” Notwithstanding, Dr Burke is confident this change will swiftly become the norm. “In the past, we had terms like ‘smart TV’, and it was considered a big deal. Now, we just call them TVs. I believe in a short period of time, terms such as BIM and DE, will soon just become part and parcel of ‘doing a project’, or ‘debottlenecking our asset’.” Within that period of time, there is a need to upskill Victorians for a digital asset future. “I am impressed by the Victorian Government’s commitment to adopt digital asset best practices and their dedication to uplifting digital skills,” Dr Burke said. A prime example of this is the government’s commitment to free BIM TAFE courses, which develop the skilled personnel required to implement the VDAS. “This is only the beginning. Looking to the future, we are enthusiastic about developing more detailed guidance for a range of stakeholders, developing competency frameworks, and mapping where Victorians enhance and access DE and BIM education,” Dr Burke said. With the introduction of the VDAS Strategic Framework, Victoria opens the door for possibilities and innovation for its assets. With new and rapid advances in technology and information sciences happening every day, moving towards a digital Victoria is essential. The VDAS is the catalyst to achieve this important transformation for the benefit of current and future Victorians.

The Victorian Digital Asset Strategy – Strategic Framework is available for anyone to download and use. Find it at

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DEVELOPING A NATIONAL TRADE COMMUNITY SYSTEM by Luke Branson, Director, PwC Australia and Ben Lannan, Partner, PwC

There is currently over $1 billion of unnecessary costs embedded in Australia’s containerised sea cargo supply chains. This story is repeated across other modes of transport and cargo types. A new platform from The Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Port of Brisbane and PwC Australia aims to streamline this process.


hese costs are closely attributed to the information asymmetry that exists within Australia’s international trade environment. This in turn is reducing the visibility and velocity of trade and diminishing business interoperability within the supply chain. Compounded by the increasing volume and variability of trade data in an already saturated market of service providers, there is a greater need for digitisation of existing processes. The Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Port of Brisbane and PwC Australia are seeking to remove the complexities and inefficiencies that exist in the international supply chain through the development of a new ‘Trade Community System’ (TCS) platform.


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THE CHALLENGING STATE OF TRADE IN AUSTRALIA The inability for businesses to easily share information creates significant inefficiencies and adds unnecessary costs to international trade. Businesses within the same supply chain are often either unwilling or unable to share or access information in a timely manner, frequently leading to a lack of trust in supply chain data. Australia’s economic dependence on efficient international supply chains will increase with the growth forecasts of the National Transport Commission indicating domestic freight growth of 26 per cent by 2026. This is amplified further when considering that international freight, both sea and air, is expected to expand over the coming decade. Australia’s sea freight is forecast to double over the next two decades, with containerised trade numbers to rise up to 19.4 million by 2032–33. Based on annual growth trajectories for air freight, similar growth is forecast over the next 10–20 years. Where improvement to Australia’s trade infrastructure is not addressed, it will continue to hinder collaboration, communication and value generation across the supply chain. To counter this risk, a solution is needed that enables easy use and adoption, trusted and secure sharing of data, and sufficient technological agility to meet the changing needs of supply chain participants. Where there is a failure to address this, freight infrastructure may in turn become a barrier to productivity growth in Australia.


INQUIRY INTO NATIONAL FREIGHT AND SUPPLY CHAIN STRATEGY The National Freight and Supply Chain Strategy inquiry was conducted by the Department of Regional Development and Cities (DIRDC). The motivation behind the inquiry was to identify the areas where funding could be allocated to improve Australia’s physical and digital freight network to better meet the needs of Australia’s burgeoning supply chains. Of note, the inquiry identified that a key challenge for supply chain participants is a lack of visibility within the supply chain and difficulty in locating where goods are at any point in time. Diminished visibility was most often attributed to Australia’s lack of digital infrastructure (i.e. the continued use of paperbased records and poor technological integration). The inquiry highlighted the need for a national freight supply chain strategy that both addresses our expectations of economic prosperity and meets community requirements for safety, security and sound infrastructure for the future. The Trade Community System (TCS) aims to address the critical action areas identified in the inquiry that are required to lift freight productivity and efficiency in Australia. In particular, TCS presents a solution to three of the critical action areas encompassing: an integrated approach, communicating the importance of freight and measuring freight performance. With TCS providing a digital and transparent framework, this illustrates a system that strives to provide an integrated approach whereby government and industry can work collectively to promote the importance of freight. Moreover, TCS establishes a consistent solution to freight and supply chain issues, through providing a mechanism focused on enhancing the reliability of freight travel times, when impaired by disruptions. In contrast to existing traditional Port Community Systems, the TCS drives interconnectivity and operability within and beyond the physical port setting. Systems like these allows

for public and private stakeholders encompassing customs, stevedores, freight and companies to optimise, manage and automate port and logistics processes. The TCS aims to create efficiency gains through increased visibility and interoperability across the entire domestic landside supply chain as well.

A TRADE COMMUNITY SYSTEM We believe TCS addresses Australia’s need for a digital solution to our shared problem. The TCS is underpinned by four key principles: 1. An open, secure and trusted data sharing platform ♦♦ The data is owned and governed by its creator ♦♦ The platform is operated independently of established supply chain interests 2. Easy to integrate and start using ♦♦ It augments (not replaces) the systems that are already part of Australia’s supply chains ♦♦ Users access directly through a web portal or indirectly through their existing systems 3. Visibility that delivers velocity and efficiency ♦♦ The platform will enable goods to flow through the supply chain more quickly and manage avoidable costs and fees 4. Low to no cost to participate for fair use ♦♦ The platform does not make money from charging users to access data about the goods they are managing ♦♦ The platform’s revenue comes from the productivity and service innovations that the data provides The TCS is a platform whereby participants in the supply chain can share information securely and quickly, driving both increased collaboration and productivity. The system enables all stakeholders within a supply chain to securely share their information thereby generating end-to-end visibility.

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PwC and its collaboration partners developed a Proof of Concept (PoC) system using real data from one supply chain to first test that the technological concept could be developed. The PoC was developed from January to June 2018 and was suitable for demonstration purposes. Using the TCS PoC, we have already started to identify significant benefits which would be unlocked through the implementation of a national TCS, and which flow to all actors in the supply chain. These include: ♦♦ Reduced costs for supply chain activities — Companies with highly digitised supply chains and operations can expect efficiency gains of 4.1 per cent annually, while boosting revenue by 2.9 per cent a year.1 For example, we have identified savings of half a million dollars per annum for one supply chain of one significant Australian business. This story has been repeated for a number of other businesses we have interviewed through the Proof of Concept project phase ♦♦ Increased visibility and transparency across the supply chain — This will help reduce black spots in the supply chain related to container location and the status of goods ♦♦ Reduced errors from significantly less manual transactions and rekeying of data ♦♦ Improved efficiency in the exchange of information between key stakeholders ♦♦ Competitive advantage, and better risk management associated with supply chain activities ♦♦ Ability to realise savings estimated in excess of $1 billion by resolving unnecessary costs currently found in Australian supply chains Pilot planning is underway targeting commencement later this year with the purpose of validating the commercial proposition. It seeks to build and integrate the TCS into participants’ supply chains. Participant’s involvement in the

pilot will be for a duration of nine months, with the most active involvement requiring the last six months. The benefits derived from participating in the Pilot Phase encompass, shaping further development of the features of the TCS platform. Moreover, participation will provide fresh insight and perspective from industry experts, allowing for wider business improvement agenda.

SO HOW DOES IT WORK? The TCS is comprised of three core technological components: 1. The experience layer — containing the technology that governs how users interact 2. The data layer — containing the technology that underpins how data relating to supply chain assets and events is interpreted 3. The integration layer — containing the technology that manages electronic communications and data exchange with external parties Testing and proving the technical concept of the TCS focused predominantly on the ‘data layer’ which included the following technologies: ♦♦ Asset tagging and nesting ♦♦ Chain of custody protocol ♦♦ Distributed ledger The distributed ledger technology (‘Blockchain’) used formed an integral part of the TCS, providing the ‘trust requirement’ necessary for the PoC — the assurance that an immutable, secure and digital receipt of data is recorded as each new supply chain event occurs. Specifically, the Blockchain application was used to place a digital signature of each new supply chain event onto a private distributed ledger. The PoC demonstrated that Blockchain can provide an assurance function and can operate independently of other TCS functions.

The e-Invoicing Business Case’, AusDigital, <> para.2, accessed 16 April 2018. TCS Pilot Proposal, page 6

1,3 2


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WHAT SUCCESS LOOKS LIKE The benefits derived from the TCS have the potential to transform every aspect of moving freight through a supply chain. In particular, companies with highly digitised supply chains and operations can expect a boost in revenue by 2.9 per cent and efficiency by 4.1 per cent annually.2 This illustrates the potential benefits that can be accessed through the implementation of a TCS, which will ultimately allow for Australia to have a greater competitive advantage and better risk management throughout the supply chain. The TCS has the ability to realise savings estimated in excess of $1 billion by resolving unnecessary costs identified in Australian supply chains. The $1 billion worth of savings opportunities recognised includes a reduction in the cost of doing business, the creation of new revenue streams and better risk management. Whilst 70 per cent of time is spent processing freight invoices manually by way of document handling, data rekeying and checking/auditing procedures, research has revealed that 30 per cent of freight invoices are incorrect. The introduction of the TCS will minimise manual data errors through greater simplification of communication and the digital transfer of information between stakeholders in the supply chain. Where reduced manual data entries occur, this could provide the Australian economy with enhanced national productivity amounting to $20 billion per annum.3

Australia’s trade infrastructure is in urgent need of modernisation to bring us into the 21st century. A truly digital, transparent solution such as the TCS will provide unparalleled visibility across the supply chain for all participants, and help to bridge the evident inefficiencies that have hampered Australia’s international trade and supply chains. The TCS will help to foster greater cohesion across the supply chain and will change the way trade is conducted in this country. That can only be a good thing. The presence and success of similar platforms, such as Port Community Systems around the world, illustrates the benefits that can be achieved from increased transparency across the supply chain. The TCS thus seeks to incorporate and build upon the lessons derived and effectiveness of other systems around the world, and bring this to the Australian supply chain. The future of Australian trade is the TCS and we would invite you to join us in making it a reality.

Luke Branson, PwC Australia

Ben Lannan, PwC Australia

If you are interested in participating in the TCS, or would like further information, please contact Ben Lannan, PwC Partner – International Trade & Excise at

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REDUCING COST AND INCREASING SAFETY Electrical failures — short-circuit and wire-disconnection — are mostly caused by defective wire terminations because of operator skills.


ush-in CAGE CLAMP® is the universal connection technology for all conductor types that provides the simplicity of push-in terminations, ensuring longterm contact quality, independent of operator skills and designed for harshest environments — steady vibrations and high temperature variations. VIBRATION AND SHOCKPROOF AND MAINTENANCE-FREE The vibration-proof properties of Push-in CAGE CLAMP connections have been tested and successfully validated in a vibration test to IEC/EN 600682-6. In this test, a frequency band up to 2000 Hz, at different accelerations up to 20g and different amplitudes up to 20mm, is passed continuously in three axes. Additionally, international authorities have placed extremely demanding requirements on electrical installations in rolling stock (IEC/EN 61373); multiple marine agencies (e.g. GL, LR and DNV) have declared that Push-in CAGE CLAMP meets their lofty approval standards. Maintenance-free operation results from excellent long-term consistency of the electrical and mechanical properties of the clamping connection — or more precisely, the clamping unit. Push-in CAGE CLAMP spring pressure terminals are suitable for all conductor types: solid, stranded and fine-stranded conductors, as well as fine-stranded conductors with ferrules or pin terminals, and tip-bonded conductors. Moreover, all conductors can be connected without any preparation and ferrules and pin terminals can be used, but are not mandatory. HIGH CONTACT QUALITY In addition to correctly selecting the materials and surface coating, the contact pressure determines the quality of the clamping connection. The conductor is pressed against the


March 2019 // Issue 10

current bar in a predefined contact area without damage. The contact zone is deliberately designed to be small and curved, not flat, in order to exert high contact pressure. The clamping force adjusts automatically to the conductor size. The clamp dynamically compensates for conductor deformation due to flow effects. A superior design eliminates the risk of a loose connection; contact breaks are excluded. The conductor is embedded in a soft tin layer. The transition point is resistant to corrosive infiltration. The long-term consistency of the contact resistance is ensured — even in aggressive atmospheres.

CONNECTION TECHNOLOGY MADE SIMPLE Pull the lever up, insert a conductor and push the lever back down. The ingeniously simple connection technology that has made WAGO's 221 Series Junction Box Connector a popular all-purpose solution is now DINrail ready as the newest variant to WAGO’s trusted TOPJOB®S Rail-Mount Terminal Block family. This means that even in the control cabinet, conductors can now be easily connected by hand and removed without tools. The user benefits from simple and intuitive use, especially for in-the-field wiring. The terminal point is clearly marked by the open lever, which reduces the risk of forgetting terminal points when wiring or connecting conductors incorrectly. In addition, both hands remain free for wiring because the clamping unit does not need to be kept open with an operating tool. This convenience facilitates connecting difficult-to-bend conductors with large cross sections.

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SPATIAL TECH IN 2019 The surge in infrastructure projects embracing datadriven design and construction is delivering huge benefits to governments, asset owners, contractors and the general public. Deanna Hutchinson, CEO of the Spatial Industries Business Association, discusses the trends from 2018 and projections for the year ahead.


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SPATIAL & GIS HOW IS DATA CHANGING THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF INFRASTRUCTURE, AND WHY IS SPATIAL INFORMATION A CENTRAL THEME? I really feel like we’re on the cusp of sweeping changes to how the public engages with infrastructure development, and this is positive. Spatial information deals with the location of things, relative to each other, size and space. Typically we talk about spatial in terms like surveying, GIS, and more recently BIM. After all, infrastructure stakeholders have a responsibility to manage legal responsibilities to landowners, the public and government — who owns what? They also need to manage assets — where are my assets and what condition are they in? And to validate planning — what are the travel patterns of commuters? How does the proposed train station impact property values in an area? This has been going on for decades with digital data and processes playing an increasingly more prominent role. The change I am sensing is more a move toward layered, variable data in decision making that simultaneously considers social and environmental impact, demand, land information, finance and regulation, in context and in ways that have not traditionally been dynamically connected. Who needs the infrastructure most? Where are they? Where and when do they most need it? How will they use it? What impact will it have on the environment and liveability? What will it cost and who will pay? What policy frameworks are relevant? What will make it as efficient as possible? Where can savings be made? What are the alternatives? What other infrastructure is nearby? How might construction be best managed? Community Insight Australia and Auckland University have been working at the front of this movement, combining multiple datasets to improve planning and ultimately, infrastructure development. Community Insight Australia provides software that converts Australian Bureau of Statistics data into maps. It gives more people without quantitative backgrounds an ability to quickly and easily access more information for their work. This means more quantitative information in asset allocation decisions and program design. New services are being designed for key locations with the knowledge of how many children in the user-defined area, how many families don’t speak English at home and how many households don’t own a car. Similarly the New Zealand Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) (Auckland University) was developed to better utilise existing data to empower communities, especially those with socioeconomic disadvantages. The IMD is designed to reduce inequities in society, or simply to better understand the neighbourhoods we live in, through informed research, policies and practices. In Victoria, GHD has delivered an interactive story map for the North East Link Authority. Project maps are usually static rather than dynamic and interactive, and are often designed from an engineering perspective rather than the perspective of the most important project stakeholders — the local community. Through the Explore North East Link story map, GHD and the North East Link Authority have put people at the centre of the infrastructure design and engagement process, delivering an interactive, engaging experience for interested parties to explore the key details of the project and understand key project decisions in more detail.

WHAT ARE SOME EXAMPLES OF SPATIAL TECHNOLOGIES THAT ARE BEING IMPLEMENTED IN THE INFRASTRUCTURE INDUSTRY? Laser scanning is the big thing in data capture for infrastructure right now. It’s being applied to maintenance programs, like the work being done by Jacobs, and Roads and Maritime Services on the Sydney Harbour Bridge. The project hopes to allow comprehensive analysis of a wide range of structurally important features of the bridge, and to protect it from future issues, especially environmental factors such as corrosion. Considering the bridge is consistently moving due to loads and changes in temperature, this is a complex task to undertake with high accuracy. A well-designed survey control

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Tonkin SA irrigation project

network was done in tandem with laser scanning being used to identify bridge contraction and expansion, and extensive CADD modelling; a difficult task to undertake on a structure as old as the Harbour Bridge. Survey results greatly assisted with understanding the actual movement patterns and magnitude of the bridge structure, and customised modelling procedures were developed to identify an inordinate amount of rivets, hatches, brackets and other structural bodies. Whilst generally encompassing, the survey highlighted specific areas for technological advancement, and a large amount of new observations about the behaviour of the bridge were able to be made. It’s really setting a new standard for surveying that sits at the heart of digital engineering and BIM implementation, and is offering asset owners a pathway toward virtual twins. A digital model of the Gold Coast’s Sundale Bridge, which was created from laser scans and photogrammetry, was used to inform designs for an additional lane and inadvertently moved the needle on digital. Liam Thierens from Bennett + Bennett, who built the model for Gold Coast City Council, said this project ultimately became a pilot for digital transformation within Council. “It sparked a strategic discussion about how to transition from analogue to digital engineering,” he said. Drones are the other emerging darling of digital engineering. They have provided access to a sweet spot for airborne scanning over small-scale areas where traditional aircraft are cost prohibitive and satellites can’t provide the required resolution or frequency of capture. I am thinking of projects like Taylors’ Grand Prix track design and construction project. The goal was to construct an innovative and customised solution to incorporate geospatial information into the practical application of construction of all track and event facilities at the Australian Grand Prix Corporation. Every piece of infrastructure placed, when turning parkland into a grand prix circuit, has its exact positioning provided by Taylors. A detailed and extremely accurate 3D Reality Model of the Australian Formula 1 Grand Prix site was created via drone photogrammetry, laser scans, survey data and GPS information. Using the Reality Model, the AGPC was able to reduce on-site planning, identify possible safety issues and perform pre-event troubleshooting. Given the Grand Prix is a temporary overlay with very limited time for event setup and dismantling, this has been extremely beneficial.


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WHAT ARE THE MAIN BENEFITS OF SPATIAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR AUSTRALIA’S INFRASTRUCTURE? In 2018, I wrote about a single point of truth being a current “holy grail” in infrastructure. This remains the case. We are seeing a lot more projects focused on collaboration between asset owners right across the infrastructure supply chain, with the impacts ranging from cost savings to improved risk management. Ultimately this is translating into new initiatives or scope expansion on current projects. The Spatial Services team of the NSW Department of Financial Services and Innovation won the NSW Award for People and Community for the 3D Theatre of Operations for Splendour in the Grass. The 3D “theatre” comprised 3D imagery, live feeds of video, asset and personnel tracking, fusing 3D imagery and GIS information, as well as artificial intelligence (AI) tools such as crowd counting and dynamic feature extraction from video streaming. Although created at short notice, the system was successful in allowing dynamic management of any incidents, with overall imagery available live at any given moment. This resulted in a higher level of safety throughout the event for both staff and the attendees. WHAT ARE THE MAIN CHALLENGES AUSTRALIA’S INFRASTRUCTURE INDUSTRY IS FACING THAT SPATIAL INFORMATION IS HELPING TO OVERCOME? Continuity of service, disaster resilience and operating costs seem to be thematically common to the projects being recognised in the Asia Pacific Spatial Excellence Awards.

WHAT ARE SOME OF THE KEY TRENDS FOR 2019? Progression of the digital built environment/3D/digital twins agenda is a topic on everybody’s lips. There are several initiatives around Oceania focusing on answering the question “How do I get all my contributors, contractors and consultants to get their information together?” One of my favourites is the previously mentioned NSW Spatial Services Reality Model for Splendour in the Grass. HOW IS OPEN DATA IMPACTING SPATIAL INFORMATION IN INFRASTRUCTURE? Ah, open data. Many of the projects I’ve mentioned leverage one form or another of open data to deliver novel capabilities in infrastructure management. This is very important for Australia’s infrastructure, so much so, it’s a kind of infrastructure in its own right. Two main themes come to mind:

SPATIAL & GIS 1. How is Australia developing a national critical spatial data infrastructure (including foundation spatial datasets) to support the rest of our economy? 2. The ongoing debate about whether open = free, and vice versa Much of the information needed to make better decisions about infrastructure (which are by and large public assets) is paid for and held by the government, and for many years was invisible to mostly everyone except the discrete department responsible for its collection and storage. The open data movement is a recognition that a lot of data has utility beyond its original purpose and everyone benefits from this information being made appropriately available for public benefit. The challenge indicated by my second point is that some of this information was acquired under licence, and therefore its reuse or distribution is restricted. Commercialisation of government services is also introducing some curve balls in relation to open data management. The discussion about foundation spatial datasets has traditionally sought to provide certainty around the use and availability (including price) of datasets that are considered fundamental to growing Australiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s spatial information consumption and related benefits. It is ongoing. The good news is that all levels of government in all jurisdictions are engaging in improving the quality and quantity of data that is being made open. This is increasing the urgency for standards to guide appropriate use, especially with increased use by users without formal spatial training. For example taking 1mm measurements from a 10m resolution dataset is probably going to yield an unhappy outcome sooner


or later. There is much work to be done here and both owners and users of the data are involved in shaping the standards. Many of the challenges involve inadequate metadata or obscure field naming conventions that in some cases render the data unusable for anything but the original intent. The spatial industry advocates for open data in machine readable formats. Open really means accessible, usable. Cloud computing, AI and space infrastructure are both demanding and providing solutions for modern approaches to capture, store, manage, access and distribute spatial data. This is new infrastructure for Australia, and governments are currently defining our requirements for sovereign information infrastructure. Resolving all of this is the real challenge underpinning our adoption of a true digital built environment. Progress is encouraging; further disruption is required to reach utopia though!

ARE THERE ANY RECENT PROJECTS OR RESEARCH THAT STAND OUT TO YOU AS INNOVATIVE OR CUTTING EDGE IN REGARDS TO SPATIAL TECHNOLOGIES? Our annual spatial excellence awards give us an insight into some of the leading projects in our region â&#x20AC;&#x201D; we received over 150 entries in our APSEA awards across Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific Islands this year, and all of the projects mentioned in this article are winners in their region. These projects are currently being judged in the national finals and winners will be announced at the Locate Conference in April. The developments in sensor technologies are spawning a lot of really interesting activity. I am thinking of Monitum and Land Solution Australia in Brisbane. Monitum is a new technology



As early adopters of technology Taylors have garnered experience and expertise across many projects to date. Our projects span a range of services including: Video flyovers

Reality capture

Panoramic photography

Orthographic photography.

Specialising in high accuracy data capture using drones as well as our traditional survey techniques allows Taylors to provide some innovative 3D Modelling & BIM solutions: Drone, TLS and TIMMS captured datasets Reality Models of existing conditions

Scan to BIM Integration of Reality models and Design Models

Contact us today:

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SPATIAL & GIS business that is owned and operated by consulting surveyors and technology specialists. Their traditional consulting surveying business Land Solution Australia has a reputation as a trusted advisor to many large infrastructure and construction companies. Over the past five years, they have evolved their business to working with a range of remote monitoring devices for construction applications. In 2018, Land Solution picked up the award for Spatial Enablement for the Herston Quarter project which is contributing to the preservation of heritage buildings during the redevelopment of the Royal Brisbane and Women’s Hospital. What’s unique about this work is the way they have integrated traditional measurement techniques to deliver trust in emerging technology. They are an example of how to successfully leverage traditional professional surveying skills to successfully deliver outcomes into the new economy, allowing the proliferation of trusted decision making for the construction industry. Monitum is reporting real-time structural changes in land and built environment with millimetre accuracy, enabling builders and asset owners to respond in near real time to precise changes in the working environment. This is the dream the spatial industry sells, and Monitum one business that’s certainly making it a reality.

WHAT NEEDS TO HAPPEN TO CONTINUE TO INCREASE THE GROWTH OF THE SPATIAL INDUSTRY? I think we need to focus more on creating new spaces for collaborative problem solving. I see many activities that are trying to force innovative thinking onto legacy systems, and as a result, many people with flat spots on their foreheads from banging their heads against brick walls. Recently I’ve attended a number of meetings with “unusual” suspects in the room. As a result of the people having previously had little interaction, the conversation has naturally evolved to something novel and new, rather than a new flavour of an old thing. The result is an opportunity to develop something completely innovative, and in so doing, build new skills and relationships that somehow automatically help find a way through the previously stuck legacy issues. I think this will be really obvious as new business models emerge for commercialising spatial information. An example is the $155.6 million Northern Adelaide Irrigation Scheme (NAIS) which will see new water treatment facilities built within the Bolivar precinct of Adelaide to increase its production of recycled irrigation water by 60 per cent. The Northern Adelaide Irrigation Scheme (NAIS) is an initiative developed under the Primary Industries and Regions SA (PIRSA) led Northern Adelaide Plains Agribusiness Initiative.

The purpose is to expand the beneficial use of recycled water through the augmentation of the Bolivar Wastewater Treatment Plant. This project will deliver up to 12GL (Stage 1) of reclaimed water suitable for commercial food production. Spatial technology was employed in a range of ways, including Location Feasibility Assessment, Concept Design, Integration of Services and DB4YD data, development of field workflow for geotechnical data capture, linking of geotechnical and groundwater reporting, integration of Issued for Construction (IFC) design data, detailed engineering survey, continued progression of geotechnical field testing, drone footage over site. I also think the way we work with dynamic datasets will be critical to our ability to keep up with developments linked to the Internet of Things (IoT). When this area explodes, we will likely feel it most via competition for talent. Australia has been aware of the need for a STEM-skilled workforce for many years. Being able to develop real-world solutions leveraging IoT capability (which the public already expects) requires the combined STEM skill set. Autonomous vehicles are a classic example. I fear we are nowhere near ready for the demand that will arise when multiple industries simultaneously compete for that skills set. It’s not far away, and the lead time to develop a pipeline of skilled people is still too long. We also have the challenge of developing technicians and technical professionals with strong commercial acumen. Startup incubators are filling an important niche here. Businesses need to see them as part of developing their existing workforce, beyond stimulating new market sectors. I find it interesting that governments are engaging closely with this part of the innovation ecosystem in part to improve their own innovation appetite. This has positive and negative consequences for incumbents who need to be alert to resultant changing requirements of their government customers. This is a space to watch; I do believe it will set the scene for our economy over the coming years.

WHAT DO YOU SEE AS THE FUTURE OF SPATIAL TECHNOLOGIES IN INFRASTRUCTURE? Developments in Australia’s space capability will most certainly have an impact in the short-medium term. By the time this article is printed, I imagine we’ll know the outcome of the SmartSAT CRC bid. Indeed, during 2018, more than 80 space startups were active in the market in Australia, 5G became a political issue, and the Federal Government invested $330 million in spatial infrastructure — the Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS), and Digital Earth Australia, which is supercharging access to satellite imagery for a range of applications. SBAS in particular provides improvements in positioning and, in combination with growth in nano satellites for IoT sensing devices, will exponentially increase the amount of data available for lots of economic activity, including infrastructure. Drone use will benefit from improvements to spatial analytics tools and platforms, which form part of the space infrastructure. 5G will give us improved data mobility. So, we’ll have more data and more tools to derive valuable insights from the data from wherever we are. I don’t yet foresee the Jetsons experience that entrepreneur Steve Baxter is hoping for, but with hyperloops and Uber-ised rockets close to launch, who knows what’s around the corner?

3D Theatre of Operations for Splendour in the Grass.


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Locate 2019 | 8 – 10 April 2019 Melbourne Convention & Exhibition Centre

‘Where to next? Location, how we drive our digital future’ The Locate Conference is the authoritative, innovative, respected, admired and even envied ‘destination of choice’ in the region for spatial and surveying professionals and their customers. Media Partners:


ADVANCED CONCRETE APPLICATION WORKFLOWS Topcon Positioning Group has announced a new workflow bundle designed to modernise concrete Floor Flatness and Levelness (FFL) applications.


new ClearEdge3D development and sales partnership with a leader and pioneer in 3D laser scanning software for construction QA/QC, Rithm, is prominently advancing the Topcon concrete application offering with a new hardware and software bundle option. It is part of the Topcon comprehensive approach to modernising core concrete applications such as layout, quality control, and concrete screed with the latest capabilities in precise positioning technology. Implementing Rithm on projects for wet, or dry concrete scanning is designed to allow the opportunity to perform FFL analysis directly from scan data loaded into the Autodesk Navisworks software. Operators can find floor flatness and levelness mistakes in near real time from scan-to-finish. The data Rithm provides allows project teams to easily visualise high and low areas with elevation and deviation heat-maps and contour maps. “By bundling this software with Topcon’s GLS-2000 scanner, contractors can improve their QA workflows to reduce floor profiling costs by performing FFL analysis in-house in near real time,” Topcon Director of Product Management, Alok Srivastava, said. “Through the integration with Navisworks, Rithm provides contractors fast, and detailed ASTM E1155 compliant FFL


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reports with streamlined floor flatness and levelness analysis, thereby cutting down time on waiting for scanning analysis, increasing productivity. “The integrated workflow including the GLS-2000, postprocessing with MAGNET Collage and QA analysis with Rithm software achieves an optimised end-to-end workflow — from the hardware to software end deliverables.” Topcon GT series robotic total stations combined with integrated MAGNET software incorporate a BIM-integrated workflow to layout and verify construction quality in the field. Additionally, Topcon offers machine control systems for robotic concrete screed applications. After importing an easily created 3D model, concrete can be poured and placed more efficiently with advanced screed technology designed to dramatically speed up the screed process and increase quality with precision-guided machine control. “With our real-time position information constantly updating, you efficiently manage material as it’s placed — delivering the highest quality in a fraction of the time,” Mr Srivastava said.

For more information contact Position Partners on 1300 867 266 or visit

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DEMONSTRATING THE BENEFITS OF MAINTAINING OUR ROAD NETWORK by Martin Chow, Senior Economist, HoustonKemp Economists and author of Measuring and Reporting the Value of Road Maintenance and Renewal Works

Governments are under increasing pressure to reduce spending where possible. Road maintenance expenditure is no exception. Without the ability to demonstrate the inherent value of road maintenance, there is a risk that it would become more vulnerable to budget cuts as governments look for ways to fund other services, such as health and aged care.


lthough the road network is one of Australia’s most important infrastructure assets, there is general agreement amongst road asset managers that it is not maintained to the required standard. For example, in 2017, the NRMA estimated that the backlog in maintenance expenditure was close to $2 billion on local roads in New South Wales alone. One of the reasons behind the backlog is that funding requests have not resonated with funding decision-makers. Historically, the case for maintenance funding has been made based on technical or engineering standards. For instance, the road is in poor condition and requires fixing because the level of cracking has exceeded a certain threshold. However, funding decision-makers have budget constraints and multiple expenditure priorities, and are often focused on the return that can be expected from a certain investment. In other words, does the benefit of an activity outweigh the cost and, if so, by how much? Funding requests based on technical or engineering standards alone makes it difficult for


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decision-makers to assess whether spending more money on road maintenance is justified or money well spent. To enable better communication with decision-makers, Austroads has recently published a research report that explores how the benefits of road maintenance expenditure can be quantified. The purpose of the research report is to demonstrate that maintaining the condition of road network can deliver outcomes comparable to investing in capital projects, such as improved safety or travel times, and can offer better ‘bang for buck’. The research report sets out a cost benefit analysis framework for three common asset functional groups: ♦♦ Road surface and related assets ♦♦ Bridges and other structures ♦♦ Navigation and guidance assets

UNDERSTANDING THE TRADE-OFFS OF MAINTENANCE The funding decision for road maintenance is not whether there should be such expenditure, but how much investment


is appropriate. Too little maintenance expenditure will inevitably lead to poor road user outcomes and risk the asset deteriorating prematurely. On the other hand, too much maintenance leads to concerns about ‘gold plating’ and a perception that the money would have been better spent elsewhere. The research report helps answer the above question using a cost benefit analysis framework. The framework seeks to create a nexus between maintenance activities and asset condition, and then between asset condition and road user

Figure 4.5: National average IRI v speed by for 80km/hr urban roads in peak and off-peak times

outcomes, such as safety and travel time. In doing so, the connection between maintenance activities and the benefits to road users becomes transparent and quantifiable. One road condition measure examined in the research paper is the relationship between resurfacing and skid resistance. Resurfacing improves the skid resistance of a road, which improves a driver’s ability to brake, thereby reducing the chance of an accident occurring. A US study suggests that there is a strong, non-linear relationship between skid resistance and the accident rate. In other words, the chance of an accident increases exponentially as skid resistance deteriorates over time. It follows that the decision to resurface can be viewed as the cost of resurfacing weighed against the benefits of reduced road accidents. Another measure explored in the research paper is the relationship between speed and roughness. Existing literature suggest that road roughness only affects travel speeds in relatively uncongested conditions. The Austroads’ research paper re-examines this relationship using GPS data. The results suggest that road roughness has a stronger effect on speed than previously cited, and that this relationship continues to exist even in peak hours. The framework is designed to provide a whole-of-life view of road network performance. It focuses on how road user outcomes deteriorate over time when compared to an ‘as new’ asset. The comparison with an ‘as new’ asset allows road managers and funding decision-makers to understand the potential savings from improved conditions in the network, and provides insight into the ‘size of the problem’ over the life of the asset. It can also be used to determine the timing of maintenance activities. When the road network is in poor condition, then maintenance activities that improve the condition can lead to significant benefits to road users. Similarly, if the road network is in a relatively good condition, then maintenance activities will likely result only in a marginal improvement for road users. This suggests that there will likely be an ‘optimal’ timing to undertake maintenance activities (or that there is a ‘right’ service level) from a cost benefit analysis perspective.

CHANGING THE NARRATIVE: SHIFTING FROM A BACKLOG TO AN INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITY While the conventional narrative of a maintenance backlog is useful, it often results in a funding request that is higher than what funding decision-makers can afford. It also does not highlight the economic cost associated with not addressing the backlog — what is the economic cost if the maintenance backlog increases from $2 billion to $2.1 billion? Or even $2.5 billion? The cost benefit analysis framework helps quantify the cost of the maintenance backlog and shows that even incremental increases in maintenance funding can lead to significant economic benefits. The use of cost benefit analysis means that maintenance expenditure can be directly compared with capital expenditure, demonstrating maintenance expenditure is capable of delivering better value for money than previously understood. Put simply, maintenance expenditure can be a great investment. March 2019 // Issue 10



DESIGNING WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS FOR EFFECTIVE ASSET MANAGEMENT With Australia’s infrastructure boom in full swing, it is now more important than ever to look beyond project completion and focus on how to manage key assets long term.


here seems to be competition between states as to who can build the longest tunnel, use the most local content, minimise energy usage, and complete projects early and under budget. Spare a thought for those who must manage these assets when the dust settles and the backslapping stops. The Hydroflux Group comprises several companies providing design and build projects, equipment, processes and operational services to a variety of infrastructure projects requiring water and wastewater treatment. Its engineers and operators have been exposed to different types of wastewater treatment assets, both private industrial and municipal, and all with differing complexities of operation and equipment condition monitoring systems. One of the great challenges when offering advanced equipment and processes for any project, whether for major infrastructure or small private industrial clients, is the balance between the capital cost of the new project and the future cost to operate the plant. Most people acknowledge that spending more now will save costs in the long run, but when faced with a budget they must choose where to spend. Equipment and processes that provide savings on power, save water, allow water reuse or use less consumables, all add value that can be quantified in some way to justify spending a little more. It is much harder to show a return on investment for a design that caters for the needs of operators in effective asset management. In preparation for its regular presentation at the Wastewater Systems Design and Management Workshop, hosted by the Australian Sustainable Business Group, Hydroflux has canvassed engineering and operational staff and clients for the greatest challenges in the operation and maintenance of treatment plants.


Two surprising aspects of the design came up as critical: 1. Keep it simple 2. Make it intuitive This is not necessarily what you think, and it does not mean that the plant should not be complex. The design should simply hide these complexities for day-to-day operation so that an operator can see what they need to quickly and make fast and effective decisions. Imagine getting into the cockpit of a plane and having all those instruments, switches and dials at your fingertips, but only really needing the throttle and stick when you are in the air. Some wastewater treatment assets are like this, and the intention is to allow a variety of conditions to be monitored and recorded, and to provide a full range of adjustable settings. But most treatment plants, once they have been optimised, will only have one or two settings that need to be tweaked on a regular basis — if any. The RoadTrain® is a pre-fabricated on-site sewage treatment system specifically designed for use in remote locations. It is the perfect example of a complex system that has been made to operate simply. By minimising the reliance upon instruments and drives, the RoadTrain® is easy for operators to monitor performance and maintenance requirements. Much of this simplicity can be achieved by making the system smart and intuitive. Perhaps the best example of an intuitive system is the HySMART™ SBR. Rather than rely on an operator to identify that the aeration system is running too long, wasting energy and placing unnecessary wear on equipment, the HySMART™ SBR will intuitively adjust its cycle times for optimum performance. These are only two examples of a variety of wastewater treatment and sludge management processes that can be designed for effective asset management.

For more information on the RoadTrain® visit and for HySMART™ SBR visit www. biological-systems/hysmart-sbr/.







— HOW TO DESIGN MORE RESILIENT ROADS With climate conditions changing, our roads need to as well. The Australian Road Research Board — Australia’s national transport research organisation — looks at how we can design our roads to be more resilient in the face of extreme weather, and some of the new sustainable materials and technologies we can use. Extreme weather and the need for resilient road pavements The 2018 Bureau of Meteorology’s Annual Climate Statement reported that 2018 was the third-hottest year on record, at 1.14°C above the long-term average. Each of Australia’s ten hottest years on record has occurred since 1998. In addition, large parts of the country experienced drought while others had their highest summer rainfall in decades. There has also been a trend towards wetter and longer wet seasons across much of northern Australia, while southern Australia has seen reduced falls and an increase in extreme fire risk days. Previous major rainfall events, particularly the 2010–12 events across Queensland associated with La Niña, highlighted the vulnerability of our transport infrastructure network to such events (refer Figure 1). The impact of climate trends may mean that parts of the country are exposed to more frequent and more severe weather events, that may not necessarily be appropriately accounted for in current planning and design practices.

Impact of extreme weather on our road pavements Both very high temperatures and rainfall could have a detrimental effect on the performance of pavements, if not properly accounted for during the materials selection and design process. The impact of high temperatures is more prevalent to bituminous materials (i.e. asphalt and sprayed seals), whereas the effect of high rainfall is more prevalent on unbound granular pavement materials. Given that the majority of the sealed road network across Australia comprises of unbound granular pavements with either a sprayed seal or asphalt surface, the importance of adequately considering the more frequent extreme weather events being experienced cannot be overstated. Bitumen used in asphalt and sprayed seals is visco-elastic in nature, and its rheological properties are a function of temperature. The lower the temperature, the stiffer and more brittle the bitumen becomes. Conversely, the higher the temperature the softer the bitumen becomes, increasing the risk of bleeding or flushing in sprayed seals or permanent deformation in asphalt layers (see Figure 2).

Figure 1: Flooding in Queensland (Source: TMR)

Figure 2: Typical bleeding of a sprayed seal (Source: ARRB)



The softening point of bituminous binders is often used to assess the temperature at which the binder reaches a certain degree of softness under specific test conditions. Conventional unmodified bituminous binders have a typical softening point of less than 50°C. It is however not uncommon for road temperatures in Australia to reach in excess of 60°C during very hot conditions, significantly compromising the ability of the bitumen to perform as intended. Granular materials commonly used in pavements throughout Australia are often moisture sensitive, meaning that the performance of these materials is a function of the moisture condition at the time of loading. Figure 3 shows an example of how the permanent deformation in an unbound granular specimen increases with increasing moisture content.

Figure 3: Moisture sensitivity of granular materials

Moisture related pavement failures (typically in the form of blow-outs or permanent deformation) are common across the road network following severe rainfall events and can be very costly to repair. As an example, the 2010–2013 floods in Queensland cost the government $6.4 billion in repairs to the road network, with over 50 per cent of these costs used for pavements. It is therefore important for decision-makers to appropriately consider and account for extreme weather conditions during the planning, design and construction phase of the road network. There are a number of ways to better cope with these conditions, including improved climatic and design modelling, the use of more resilient materials, appropriate technical specifications and improved construction techniques.

How to better cope with extreme weather events Planning and design Addressing the need for greater resilience in road infrastructure has been a major focus of the National Asset Centre of Excellence (NACOE) research program, an initiative between the Australian Road Research Board (ARRB) and the Queensland Department of Transport and Main Roads (TMR). A study of alternative approaches to the resilience of our road

infrastructure found that significant long-term benefits could be realised from investing more heavily in critical routes to minimise the impact of road closures and reconstruction after events. In one such example, TMR has increased the use of resilient pavement materials such as foamed bitumen — and reaped immediate benefits with only minimal remedial works required on newly constructed pavements after significant inundation caused by ex-Tropical Cyclone Debbie in early 2017. Rural roads have long been designed with consideration of the likely rainfall totals each year. As an example, pavements constructed in Queensland regions receiving more than 500mm of annual rainfall are typically designed to a more resilient standard. However, a shifting climate means that the lines separating these climate zones have shifted in some years. Some parts of western Queensland may experience more frequent heavy falls, while also having longer periods of drought. The 2010–13 major rain and flood events in Queensland were spread far and wide, and showed that the state may be more exposed to widespread pavement failures than previously thought. By tracking climate trends, as well as monitoring the annual likelihood of phenomena such as El Nino and La Nina, asset owners will be better placed to allocate maintenance and rehabilitation funding to bolster the resilience of their networks in a more targeted manner. To date, the design methodology for pavements in Australia has been relatively simplistic — for example asphalt pavements are designed with a single temperature value assigned according to the closest population centre. With reduced cost of real-time monitoring, and the relative ease of analysis of complex data sets, engineers can better characterise materials, climate and traffic at the design stage. This methodology not only allows for a much more tailored approach, but it enables designers to capture future climate and traffic trends during design. Similarly, the risk of early failures of sprayed seal surfacings in very cold and/or wet conditions is being addressed through a location-specific risk-based approach. Project engineers will soon be able to access historical climate data and real-time weather forecasts to better understand their project risk of sprayed sealing at any time of year and take appropriate risk mitigation measures when necessary.

Materials selection and design In urban and semi-urban environments, asphalt materials can deliver good resistance to water and recover well in the event of flooding, if properly design and constructed. Furthermore, appropriate asphalt mix design and materials selection (e.g. the use of polymer modified binders) can also reduce the risks associated with increased pavement temperatures. The successful technology transfer of the enrobés à module élevé (EME2) in Australia is just one example of an asphalt material with increased structural capacity and high resistance to rutting in warm climates which can deliver resilient roads at lower cost to the community. Between major cities, sealed granular pavements constitute the majority of the road network. As mentioned previously,



these pavements can be vulnerable to extreme climatic conditions such as high rainfall or heat. Furthermore, environment factors are often combined with an increased freight task. In order to better cope with these conditions, ARRB together with a number of key stakeholders is investigating the structural and material enhancement delivered by in-situ stabilisation techniques (see Figure 4). As an example, foamed bitumen stabilisation has a proven track record to provide resilient pavements during previous flooding events in Queensland. ARRB/Austroads research currently underway is developing significant improvements to the laboratory-based mechanistic design methods being used for these cost-effective materials. Using the Accelerated Loading Facility (ALF), ARRB is testing full-scale foamed bitumen pavements and recycled materials. A first phase of the testing program has confirmed the good rut resistance in warm conditions and a second phase is currently assessing the resistance to fatigue cracking. Crumb rubber modified binders are also gaining popularity across Australia as a sustainable and resilient technology that can provide improved performance when used in sprayed seals and asphalt, especially in severe and challenging locations. A number of road authorities are currently investigating opportunities to facilitate the increased use of this high performance binder on their road networks.

material assessment protocol to manage situations where naturally occurring material can deliver value for money compared with transporting material from distant quarries.

Materials specification Internationally, there is a strong drive towards performance based specifications for pavement materials and surfacings to better cope with increased traffic volumes and local environmental conditions. Locally, ARRB has also been proactive in developing improved laboratory assessment methods and performance-based specification framework for road making materials including granular, stabilised and bituminous materials. As an example, the new and innovative approach to asphalt pavement design adopted by the Queensland Department of Transport and Main Roads allows designers to use mix specific asphalt performance criteria to better deal with the higher temperatures experienced in parts of Queensland. Ongoing research by ARRB is also underway to assess the rutting and cracking properties of bituminous binders and asphalt mixes. These performance specifications are also a key element to the assessment of material with increased proportion of recycled constituents supporting sustainable practices. Reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and crushed glass or crumb rubber are commonly used in pavement materials reducing the need for premium quarry aggregates to be produced. For unbound granular materials, the development and validation of an extra-large wheel-tracking device (see Figure 5) has been very useful to assess the moisture sensitivity of available local aggregates. Advanced laboratory testing can assist in selecting the best fit-for-purpose source in a given environmental condition.

Figure 4: In-situ stabilisation (Source: TMR)

Preserving roads in a good condition in remote regions is extremely important to maintaining access between communities during extreme weather events connected. However, sourcing good-quality road materials can be challenging and locally occurring natural materials are often moisture sensitive and perform poorly when exposed to high moisture conditions. In order to better address the risk of using these materials on rural roads, ARRB has developed a


Figure 5 Extra-large wheel-tracking device (Source: ARRB)


Next generation pavements Advanced pavement monitoring Advances in technology now make it possible to collect information about the condition of road pavements at regular traffic speeds. ARRB’s Intelligent Pavement Assessment Vehicle (iPAVe) consists of Greenwood’s Traffic Speed Deflectometer (TSD) vehicle with ARRB’s Hawkeye and is equipped with doppler lasers, GPS, cameras, temperature probes and 3D sensors (see Figure 6). The large amount of detailed structural and condition data that can be captured continuously along our road networks using innovative equipment can be a valuable tool for road owners to understand the performance of their pavements, especially pre and post extreme weather events.

improved resilient behaviour of road infrastructure. As an example, nanotechnology (applied to material science) refers to the alteration of materials at the molecular level to improve the properties and characteristics observed at the macro-scale (Figure 7).

Figure 7: Typical particle size of concrete materials [23] [23] Sobolev, K., Flores, I., Hermosillo, R., & Torres-Martínez, L. M. (2006). Nanomaterials and nanotechnology for highperformance cement composites. Paper presented at the Nanotechnology of Concrete: Recent Developments and Future Perspectives, Denver, USA

Figure 6: ARRB’S iPAVe (Source: ARRB)

A range of low-cost wireless instrumentation technology is now available or under development, which will allow for nondestructive real-time measurement of pavement condition and performance. For example, moisture sensors can detect when pavements are vulnerable to premature failure in saturated lower layers, and temperature sensors embedded in the pavement can provide continuous temperatures for modelling and design purposes. These technologies, if harnessed effectively, can lead to better informed design, research and real-time decision making across the network.

Next generation materials ARRB is actively involved in research and application of so-called next generation materials that may add to the

A project currently in progress through the Western Australia Road Research and Innovation Program (WARRIP) is investigating the possible improvements of modification of bituminous binders used in asphalt and surfacing seals with nano-silica. Potential improvements include increased fatigue, aging and rutting properties, all of which are important properties to ensure more resilient pavements in future. International researchers have also shown that some asphalts have the ability to self-heal under certain conditions, potentially prolonging the predicted design life of asphalt pavements in warm climates. ARRB has also been exploring the concept of healing in asphalt at its state-of-the-art laboratory in Melbourne with the aim to optimise our current asphalt pavement design procedures. Extreme weather events continue to have a profound effect on Australia’s road network. It is therefore essential that decision-makers have the necessary tools to plan, design and construct more resilient pavements to better cope with these conditions. These tools can only be developed through continued robust research initiatives and collaborative with all spheres of the road infrastructure industry.

Authors: Andrew Beecroft, Senior Professional Leader, Future Transport Infrastructure, Australian Road Research Board (ARRB) Dr Didier Bodin, Principal Professional Leader, Future Transport Infrastructure, Australian Road Research Board (ARRB) Dr Elsabe van Aswegen, Principal Professional Leader, Future Transport Infrastructure, Australian Road Research Board (ARRB) Joe Grobler, Principal Professional Leader, Future Transport Infrastructure, Australian Road Research Board (ARRB)



CONPLANT LAUNCHES SMART COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEM Compaction equipment specialist, Conplant, has lifted the covers off its newest safety innovation, the Integrated Intelligent Collision Avoidance System (IICAS).


uch like a car’s auto emergency braking system, IICAS detects obstructions in the machine’s path and will automatically slow down or halt the machine if the obstruction becomes too close for safe operation. IICAS took Conplant several years to develop and test in real-world applications before it was launched to the public at the National Construction Equipment Convention in Sydney last November. “Some of our customers asked us to look into safety technologies and this came about as a result,” Conplant National Sales and Marketing Manager, Andrew Wheeler, said. “The IICAS system was developed using a third party software which took two years to integrate into the machine. “Now it’s fully integrated which enables us to control the machine’s revs, slow the machine down or apply the brakes to stop the machine.” The IICAS system consists of True 3D Smart Cameras with intelligent functions to actively detect potential collisions and take appropriate measures to avoid them.

An audible alarm and traffic light system inside and outside the cab is used to warn the operator and people on site of potential hazards. Green signals that there are no obstructions detected and the machine can continue to operate safely, while yellow means an obstruction is detected within a set distance at which point the machine will start to slow down, and audible and visual warnings will activate to alert the operator. When the red light comes on, it means the obstruction has come too close for the machine to continue operating safely and the machine will come to a complete stop. System parameters such as field of interest, zone heights and widths, as well as slowing and braking distances can be set according to the job at hand. While designed to suit its range of compaction equipment, Conplant said there is potential for IICAS to work on other equipment as well. “We’re currently in the process of determining what customers want and how we can integrate IICAS technology into their machine fleet,” Mr Wheeler said.

CONPLANT’S MULTI-BRAND STRATEGY Effective 1 March 2019, Conplant became the Australian distributor for an expanded range of Wacker Neuson compaction equipment.


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n a world first which is unique to Australia, Conplant now distributes a comprehensive range of Wacker Neuson branded rollers, manufactured in Germany by Hamm. The move sees an additional world class compaction equipment brand being distributed by Australia’s largest compaction specialist. Under the agreement with Wacker Neuson, Conplant now also distributes Wacker Neuson’s market leading light compaction equipment, excavators, wheel loaders, dumpers, telehandlers and general equipment in Sydney, Brisbane, Perth and other selected geographies throughout New South Wales, Queensland and Western Australia. As part of its multi-brand strategy, Conplant will expand its new Intelligent Integrated Collision Avoidance System (IICAS) across all of its brands which will become commercially available during 2019. “We’re extremely proud to be in a position to represent such strong brands and high-quality manufacturers. For our customers, it means a larger range and more choice from both a technology and price perspective,”said Conplant’s Managing Director, Ian Coleman. For further information please visit the Conplant website –




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THE CHANGING FACE OF RAIL EQUIPMENT Increased investment in rail over the past decade has seen exciting developments in technology and innovation with construction, condition monitoring and maintenance processes becoming safer and more efficient than ever before. Infrastructure recently spoke with Thomas Kerr, President of the Rail Track Association Australia (RTAA), about some of these advancements in rail equipment, and what opportunities we might expect in the future.


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March 2019 // Issue 10




t’s no secret there has been a considerable boom in Australia’s need and want for more rail infrastructure over the last decade, following on the heels of an urban infrastructure boom in the early 2000s. This project growth in the rail and transport sector has coincided with major advancements in digital technologies that are now having positive effects for those in the sector. Mr Kerr said the industry has undergone a digital revolution, and one of the biggest changes is how new technology is improving the way maintenance is undertaken, making it far safer and more cost-efficient. “We’ve had this sort of digital revolution over the last few years, and that’s really changed the way we undertake maintenance in the rail industry. According to Mr Kerr, maintenance is not allocated a great portion of a project’s budget, especially with clients and company executives consistently pushing to reduce costs in many different areas. “Ultimately, some of your largest costs are around labour and ad hoc maintenance. Obviously there’s a need to reduce costs, because maintenance can be very expensive. Rail, in general, is very expensive. “There’s a lot of opportunity for these efficiency improvements,” Mr Kerr said. “The use of this technology in condition monitoring and predictive maintenance will reduce the headcount in maintenance depots, and prevent the ad hoc maintenance by better planning.” Mr Kerr cites drones as a key example of a technology taking off in the rail industry. “It’s really reducing the labour required that’s traditional in the undertaking of maintenance tasks,” he said. While condition monitoring equipment and technology are nothing new, new advancements are enabling better and more efficient preventative maintenance processes. “The technology we’ve got these days can allow the predictive failure of assets more readily, so we can better plan when we need to renew or repair an asset,” Mr Kerr said. “Obviously that


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would also reduce the unexpected failures that would cause network disruption.” In a similar way, technological developments in track recording equipment are allowing for smoother and more accurate maintenance. “Track recording equipment has been around for a number of years, but it’s becoming more efficient and more mainstream in all networks,” said Mr Kerr. “The technology of track recording equipment is really built into the maintenance regime to enable better identification of defects, and better planning of maintenance activities by analysing big data and looking at trends.” Whereas in the past these processes were more manual and required more analysis from personnel and engineers, it is now faster and easier with the use of technology and software for those maintenance and management tasks. Condition monitoring and preventative maintenance are not the only areas positively impacted by recent technological developments. Mr Kerr said he witnessed a hybrid track resurfacing machine in Austria. This vehicle can operate using onboard diesel generators outside of urban areas or by utilising overhead traction systems in electrified networks closer to sensitive receptors. This is just one example of enhancements in environmental noise reduction on construction sites. “There’s a lot of these technologies that our suppliers are now introducing,” he said. “Manufacturers are creating hand tools, equipment and vehicles that are investing more in reducing the environmental impact, the noise or waste in a lot of different areas. This is in addition to investing in the development of safety improvements with more ergonomic equipment or by eliminating the need for manual labour all together through equipment such as high output rail fastening clipping machines that are operated by an excavator.” He called to mind another piece of technology that excavators and mobile plants are taking onboard: devices that make exclusion zones more visible. “For example, there


is a piece of equipment that is basically like a light that draws a circle around the safe zone, or the safe limits around an excavator,” Mr Kerr said. “In the past, it’s been a big challenge as a procedural and cultural thing to prevent people from entering that unsafe zone, whereas these days, there is development to improve this and prevent workplace injuries with this type of technology.” For Mr Kerr, this is one great example of technology’s ability to provide simple, elegant solutions to keep workers safer whilst simultaneously increasing efficiency. Mr Kerr also said, “The RTAA actually hold one of the largest outdoor rail exhibitions in the southern hemisphere, co-hosted with Sydney Trains. This event allows our corporate members to showcase their latest wares and technology in the rail industry, such as these, and is free to attend.”

MORE INVESTMENTS NEED MORE SKILLED WORKERS Alongside its encouraging technological and economic developments, however, the boom in rail infrastructure also poses considerable challenges for the industry. More projects being funded, means that there has been a corresponding skills shortage. Mr Kerr said the Australasian Rail Association (ARA) is one of the organisations doing great work in highlighting this issue, and has recently undertaken an extensive study on the skills shortages in Australia. “They’re lobbying the Commonwealth Government to address these issues of the workforce and skills shortages. Certainly, the RTAA are supporting them on that front, and supporting the development of young rail professionals into the industry.” Mr Kerr said the key to combating this shortage is to inspire university students to choose a career in rail, as well as encouraging young rail professionals to stay in the industry. Alongside this advocacy from peak industry bodies, new initiatives are emerging to help young rail professionals enter and navigate the industry. In the track space, Mr Kerr has been involved as a facilitator and tutor in a new course developed by

Engineering Education Australia, sponsored by Transport for New South Wales. This track engineering course, which is still in development, aims to bridge the skills gap between the technical understanding of track, and the interfacing stakeholders and assets. “There’s quite a shortage of track skills and track engineers, so this is one way of addressing that issue,” Mr Kerr said. However, Mr Kerr cautioned that the skills shortage issue is broader than just ensuring clear routes through the rail industry. Alongside an increased demand, the other catalyst for the shortage is the industry’s aging workforce. “You’re going to see a lot of baby boomers retiring. So there’s a lot of work being done to pass that knowledge onto the younger generation. That’s certainly another one of RTAA’s priorities, to facilitate and enable that through initiatives such as mentoring and networking programs.” Moreover, the project-based nature of rail construction can also result in unstable employment. “After a project is complete, there’s a massive workforce there that needs to find another job. You can’t just keep these people employed if there’s no other work.” Mr Kerr said the influx of new projects is indicative of the Federal Government’s commitment to supporting the workforce. Ensuring there is funding available for a ‘project after project’ construction schedule results in a more stable workforce and allows workers to continue developing their skills in relevant areas. The corresponding challenge, then, will be sustaining this funding for rail infrastructure in the decades to come. Yet despite the challenges ahead for the rail industry, Mr Kerr said the technological advancements and getting more young and diverse people involved in rail represent encouraging signs of progress. “With a bit of investment and support,” he said, “anything’s possible.”

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Sydney’s heavy rail network has served the city and surrounding regions for more than a hundred years. Over that time, systems have become outdated and management and maintenance of the network has grown incredibly complex.


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by Stephen Lemon, Program Director Digital Systems, Transport for NSW


he network is also carrying more people than ever. It took 160 years for the railway to reach 300 million journeys annually and just five years for that total to reach 404 million. That’s a 30 per cent increase in annual journeys since 2013. Demand will continue to grow. Between 2016 and 2056, the population of Greater Sydney is expected to increase by around 40 per cent, from 4.7 million to 8 million people. Even after the opening of the new Sydney Metro and light rail projects, the Sydney heavy rail network is still expected to do the heavy lifting in peak hour public transport trips. It’s therefore critical we increase capacity of the existing Sydney rail network by modernising systems and technology. The Digital Systems program will increase network capacity and enable more frequent and reliable services. In 2018, the NSW Government allocated over $800 million towards the first stage of the Program, which will replace legacy signalling and train control technologies with modern, internationally proven, intelligent systems.


The Program consists of three main elements: ♦♦ Replacing trackside signalling equipment with the latest European Train Control Systems (ETCS) Level 2 technology ♦♦ Implementing Automatic Train Operation to assist drivers, who will still remain in control, and provide faster and more consistent journey times ♦♦ Introducing a Traffic Management System (TMS) for more effective incident management and service regulation across the network These elements will enable the increase in network capacity that is crucial to satisfying current and future demand, as well as benefiting our customers with more reliable services, reduced journey times and enhanced, realtime information. This technology will also allow for safer and more efficient operation and maintenance, lower capex and opex costs and lower energy consumption. The Program will be delivered in stages with services progressively deployed from the early 2020s.

Global lessons learned The game-changing technology we’re delivering is already proven in many cities around the world. We employ a rigorous lessons learned process using knowledge and experience gained from comparable local and international projects, to ensure our Program is delivered in the best way possible. Each

lesson learned is assigned to a senior leader in the project team who has accountability for implementing that lesson into their Program area. We have commissioned an International Independent Peer Review Group (I2PRG) made up of local and international experts. The group provides ongoing insights from local and overseas developments and maintains and updates our lessons learned register. The I2PRG also supports the project team with independent assessments to support informed decision-making and identify potential issues and risks.

Program Principles We know that to succeed, major transformational projects like Digital Systems must take into account people and processes while implementing new technology. The deployment of the Digital Systems program will be as revolutionary to Sydney’s rail network — and the 10,000 plus people who work on it — as the network’s change from steam to electrification in the 1920s and 30s. With this transformational challenge in mind, we’ve thoroughly examined all of our lessons learned and distilled

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them into seven key Program Principles. These principles provide ongoing guidance and direction to everyone involved in the Digital Systems program: 1. A learning and growth culture – We’re focused on creating a learning and growth culture, implementing global lessons learned to continually improve the Program and develop a sustainable workforce. We don’t just ‘set and forget’. Rather, we ‘set and refresh’. We continuously update our Lessons Learned register to inform our Program while we live and breathe our principles. 2. Early wins for customers – Digital Systems provides a step-change in improvement of system reliability, availability and maintainability, and a pathway to further improvement. Realising early project benefits for customers will help reinforce our stakeholders’ motivation and buy-in. 3. New systems, new ways of working – To fully realise the benefits of the new systems and technologies, we will develop new rules, principles, procedures and competencies. Our new ways of working will support a sustainable future for our customers. 4. Whole-of-life thinking – Digital Systems will embrace ‘whole of life’ systems thinking and asset management to optimise future operations and maintenance efficiency. We will not sacrifice long-term Program benefits to achieve short-term gains. 5. Configure not customise – Digital Systems will adopt standard equipment and systems, taking off-theshelf solutions and configuring them for the Sydney


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network. This approach will allow us to benefit from future developments and innovation as part of global technology roadmaps. 6. No network disruptions – We’re determined that the implementation of Digital Systems will not disrupt services for customers. Innovative tools and methodologies will allow us to deploy and test new systems while minimising the need for network access. 7. An integrated and collaborative approach – International experience has consistently demonstrated the need for meaningful collaboration between clients and suppliers, moving away from adversarial client/contractor relationships. The Digital Systems program will also integrate this collaborative approach with the operator/ maintainer, ensuring engagement and meaningful consultation with frontline employees as end-users. A meaningful approach to collaboration Every large project involves collaboration and we recognise that it’s an often-used term. The Digital Systems program has set out a number of commitments and practical arrangements to ensure meaningful and ongoing collaboration. This collaborative framework includes documented processes towards, for example, creating and maintaining a positive work environment, developing and upholding clear agreements, communicating openly, and taking prompt and cooperative action to secure best mutual outcomes when issues or ambiguities arise. Meaningful action towards improved collaboration is also a key element of the NSW Government Action Plan: a ten point


The Digital Systems program principles.

commitment to the construction sector. The plan aims to drive quality, innovation and cost-effectiveness in procurement for NSW government infrastructure projects. This commitment has also guided us in the successful execution of our first major contract package – the System Integrator. Network Rail Consulting (NRC) in combination with its partners Acmena, The Go- Ahead Group and Ineco have joined the Program, overseeing the integration of the new technology into the Sydney Trains network. The System Integrator team brings a unique combination of Australian, Spanish and UK expertise in the latest digital

railway technology. New team members are co-located in our project office and are already providing valuable insights from other digital railway initiatives. Momentum is building on the Digital Systems program with major procurement continuing through 2019. We are laying solid foundations to seamlessly transform the Sydney network into a modern digital railway. By implementing global lessons learned, adhering to sound Program Principles and recognising that successful transformation requires a people, process and technology approach, we will help meet Sydney’s growing public transport needs.

Proud to be the System Integrator for TfNSW’s transformational Digital Systems Program Hands-on railway experience, world class consultancy skills Digital Railway Systems Project & Program Management Safety & Assurance Asset Management & Maintenance Level 4, 62 Pitt Street, Sydney NSW 2000

Rail Operations

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by Dr Frank Heibel


March 2019 // Issue 10


Automated vehicles are a major trend in transportation. While autonomous cars are still a rather juvenile technology, automatic operation of trains just celebrated its 50-year anniversary. The evolving adoption of Automatic Train Operation (ATO) for mainline rail systems coincides with the modernisation plans for numerous rail signalling systems across Australia, which now seems to become all but a showcase of automated railways.

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he automatic operation of trains is far from a novel concept. The Victoria line of the London Underground went into service in 1968 — with automatic trains. Other applications followed in Philadelphia in 1969, San Francisco in 1972, Washington DC in 1976 and Atlanta in 1979. From the mid-1980’s, Automatic Train Operation became more widespread as a key feature of the Communications-Based Train Control (CBTC) technology. Today, CBTC is the de-facto standard for control of highperformance metro railways with automatic train services in far over 100 cities around the world.

15 per cent. Stopping positions at station platforms can be very accurate and consistent under ATO; this is a necessity when using platform screen doors but proves also useful for management of passenger flows and platform crowding. Coordination of train doors and platform screen doors is a common supplementary function of ATO. In a wider operational context, ATO allows for improved regulation of train movements. Main benefits are the prevention of movement conflicts at junctions or on single line sections with passing loops, and more general a much faster recovery of punctual train services from minor delays.

AUTOMATION PEDIGREE IN CITY METROS Those automated rail systems share certain characteristics which make them suitable for automation. The ideal application is a new-built end-to-end railway without interference with the outside world, like in underground tunnels or on elevated skyways. Station platforms are often secured from the railway tracks by platform gates or screens, and road-rail crossings are usually avoided altogether. A finite number of trains to be automated and very high requirements for capacity and efficiency help justifying the substantial investment in automation. All these characteristics of ideal automated rail systems fit much better for city metro railways or people-mover systems than for complex overground ‘mainline’ railways. Two reasons why automated mainline railways are uncommon are the enormous costs of migrating a widespread railway operation with several thousands of track kilometres and hundreds of trains to be fitted, and the perceived safety risk from trespassing cars or pedestrians onto an automated railway line where “ghost trains” run without drivers.

DIFFERENT GRADES OF AUTOMATION ATO comes in standardised ‘grades of automation’. Grade of Automation 2 (GoA2) is often called Semi-automated Train Operation (STO). The ATO system accelerates and brakes the train, but a train driver is retained for door operation, traffic supervision and to take over in an emergency situation. Driverless Train Operation (DTO) in GoA3 allows a train attendant to roam the train for providing service to passengers without the need to sit still in the cab. And lastly, Unattended Train Operation (UTO) in the highest automation grade GoA4 does not require any operator to be on the train as everything works automatically. An obvious concern with automated trains is their safety, both regarding the train itself and the potential damage a train can inflict on its environment when out of control. Every contemporary ATO system therefore comes in combination with Automatic Train Protection (ATP) which is the safety function preventing a train from running faster or farther than authorised. ATP supervises ATO in the same way as it would supervise manual driving by a train driver, with safe brake applications if trains run too fast or do not slow down enough to stop where they are supposed to.

CAPACITY PRESSURE DRIVES MAINLINE RAILWAY AUTOMATION However, as cities and their commuter traffic demands grow, there are increasingly urgent needs to increase capacity and performance of inner-city mainline railways by automating them. A prominent example overseas is the London Overground rail system where automatic train operation is just being introduced for the Thameslink and Crossrail projects. Closer to home, the city railways in the four biggest Australian cities are all challenged to increase capacity and use the existing railway infrastructure better, and in all four cities automation is at the forefront of upgrade considerations. WHAT IS AUTOMATIC TRAIN OPERATION? Before we look at the current developments in Australia, let’s see what Automatic Train Operation (ATO) actually does and why it is so desirable for railways. ATO has only two fundamental functions, accelerating and braking a train. Diligently applied, this enables trains to run accurately by their timetable with punctuality no longer measured in minutes, but in seconds. Train runs can become very smooth for higher passenger comfort, and less wear and tear for trains and tracks. ATO increases train running efficiency with the potential of energy savings in the remarkable order of ten to


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AUTOMATIC TRAIN OPERATION IN AUSTRALIA Now that ATO and the benefits of train automation are clearer, it is understandable that railways in Australia consider ATO as their next generation of signalling technology in order to improve the efficiency and performance of their infrastructure. Sydney leads the way by planning not just one but two separate rail systems with automated trains. The new Sydney Metro which will operate on its first section between Cudgegong Road and Chatswood by mid-2019 boasts unattended train operation in GoA4. Surely there will be crowds at the front of the train where people can freely see the track where the views are usually blocked off by the back wall of the driver cab. The existing suburban railway in Sydney, too, will introduce ATO as part of the Digital Systems project. This will be a GoA2 application with drivers, which is more suitable for an ‘open’ unconfined operation. Initial applications will be on the two end sections of the Illawarra Line between Bondi Junction and Cronulla, while further rollout on priority corridors will be done as part of the wider ‘More Trains, More Services’ initiative. In Melbourne, trains will run automatically between Watergardens on the Sunbury Line and Dandenong via the


new Metro Tunnel underneath the city centre. A first trial is planned on the outer end of the South Morang Line which itself is a suitable candidate for automatic operation in the future. As for the suburban network in Sydney, drivers will be retained to operate the trains outside the automated areas and to deal with the eventualities of abnormal operational conditions. Brisbane will have platform screen doors in all stations of the Cross River Rail. A new signalling system with ATO was earmarked to interface with those platform screen doors, but alternative options are still being considered as the business case for ATO seems less compelling than in the other cities. Perth, too, has been planning its next generation of signalling and control systems with ATO. Their Automatic Train Control project has been included in the State Government’s METRONET transport program and is currently seeking funding for the first rollout stages. Western Australia has another railway which is in fact the country’s first to operate automatic trains. Rio Tinto’s AutoHaul project has achieved the seemingly impossible — building a compelling safety case for driverless operation of heavy haul iron ore freight trains in unsupervised open territory across the Pilbara region. After only a few months since its first fully driverless train run, most of its trains operate driverless and this technology step change will help it greatly in progressing its ‘Mine of the Future’ initiative.

AUTOMATIC TRAINS TO BECOME MAINSTREAM Looking into the future, Automatic Train Operation is here to stay. Positive operational experience will undoubtedly lead to more applications. For the mining operations in the Pilbara, for example, it might not take long until BHP will strive for automatic trains, expanding the functionality of its currently introduced new signalling technology. The signalling system of the Roy Hill mining railway is based on the same technology platform as Rio Tinto’s AutoHaul, allowing it to migrate to driverless operation once required. Sydney Metro will continue its journey of unattended train operations. A major challenge for the second stage from Chatswood via the city to Bankstown will be to quarantine the existing railway line between Sydenham and Bankstown for safe operation of driverless trains. The other lines currently planned, Sydney Metro West to Parramatta and Sydney Metro Western Sydney Airport are newly-built lines which will be easier to quarantine against external interference with unattended train operation. There is potential for driverless or unattended train services in other cities, but that would require captive rail systems as previously described. The proposed suburban rail loop around Melbourne could be a candidate for future driverless operation, or the Stirling-Murdoch Orbital Railway outlined in the long-term public transport plan for Perth. In the meantime, Melbourne, Perth and eventually Brisbane are set to gradually migrate to automatic trains with driver supervision. Automatic Train Operation has the potential for significant optimisation of railway transport. Its ongoing application will keep the city railways in Australia at eye level with international role models for railway productivity, and the Australian mining

railways at the forefront of high-performance pit-to-port transport. There is further potential in integrating automated train services with other automated transport modes to optimise the end-to-end transport of passengers and goods — the holy grail of transportation. An example already in proven service are the driverless haul trucks in several Pilbara iron ore mines which carry raw material to automated processing plants. A vision for passenger traffic is the integration of driverless road vehicles with public transport, providing lastmile services to and from transport hubs. The future of automatic trains is Australia has barely begun, but what a promising future it is.

About Dr Frank Heibel ‘Doc Frank’ as he is widely known in the railway industry, is one of Australia’s leading strategists and thought leaders for high-performance signalling technologies. He has advised railway organisations in Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and overseas on the modernisation of their signalling systems, including the introduction of Automatic Train Operation, for increased capacity and enhanced operational reliability. His topical training courses for rail professionals with or without prior signalling knowledge have been game changing in that they open the understanding of modern signalling fundamentals to everyone in the railway industry, not just the signalling specialists.

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Deadline: 10 May 2019


Smart infrastructure


Earthmoving outlook

Noise and vibration


Investment and financing




September 2019

Deadline: 2 August 2019


Energy infrastructure


Cranes and heavy lifting


Safety and risk management


Asset management

Freight and logistics Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS)




November 2019

Deadline: 4 October 2019

March 2020

Deadline: TBC


IoT & cloud communication


Signalling, tracking and control systems


Construction standards and codes

Rail Equipment

Condition monitoring and maintenance

Land access


Urban transport corridors

Software, communications and connectivity

Spatial & GIS

Mobility as a Service

Public private partnerships

Road surfacing and design



Security and critical infrastructure

Landscaping and vegetation management





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March 2019 // Issue 10

1 8 - 1 9 J UNE 2 0 1 9 | WWW.QLDCONFERENCE.COM.AU

10th Annual Queensland Transport Infrastructure Conference 2019

Queensland’s Transport Future of the upcoming transformation of the State’s transport capacity.

The Queensland Transport Infrastructure Conference will be held on the 18th - 19th June at the Brisbane Convention & Exhibition Centre. Running in its 10th year, the 2-day event will profile a vast range of transport and infrastructure works critical for a growing state. The theme of the 2019 event is “Queensland’s Transport Future – Moving People and Places”. Alongside updates on the major transport projects in the pipeline, the conference will also showcase innovative new digital trends and industry game changers such as the rise of disruptive applications and their convergence with transport infrastructure.

Vermeer surface miners and track trenchers have been part of With exciting developments for the state on methodologies proven on numerous Australian infrastructure projects. agenda, the 2-day Whether it’s lowering the bench in a roadthe tunnel, a box cut forconference a train will bring together over 20 expert speakers and provides station, or trenching a comms channel, we have the equipment and team the perfect platform for discussion, debate to support your project. Contact your localand Vermeer team to learn more. doing business. Graeme Newton Chief

VERMEER.COM.AU | 1300 VERMEER / VermeerAustralia

Executive Officer, will be presenting the latest updates on the state defining $5.4 billion Cross River Rail Project (CRR). With more than $10 billion in infrastructure projects invested into Brisbane city over the next few years, the Cross River Rail Project forms a major part

The role of emerging technologies in revolutionising the transport industry and how people engage with the transport system and view mobility will be a reverberating theme across the two days. A keynote presentation on Mobility as a Service (MaaS) and what it means for the future of transport in Queensland will round out the dialogue on this topic. Perceived as a better way to manage traffic congestion using existing public and private infrastructure, MaaS combines mobility services from public transport, taxis, car rental and car/ bicycle sharing under a single platform that’s accessible from a smart phone. Queensland’s Electric Vehicle Strategy will be predominantly featured in this year’s program. The strategy aims to prepare and position Queensland for a transition to a greater uptake of electric vehicles (EVs) ensuring that the state is in the best position to capture the benefits and opportunities that these vehicles will bring. Other projects and topics to be discussed at the conference include the Brisbane Metro, Brisbane International Cruise Terminal, Pacific Motorway M1 upgrade Mudgeeraba to Varsity Lakes Project, CAVI Project as well as a panel discussion exploring Brisbane’s transport challenges and debating the sustainable transport conundrum.


Registrations are open for the 10th Annual Queensland Transport Infrastructure Conference 18-19 June 2019 at the Brisbane Convention & Exhibition Centre. At this exclusive event, attendees gain the opportunity to meet and connect with industry experts who are shaping infrastructure to support a growing Queensland.

Vermeer and the Vermeer logo are trademarks of Vermeer Manufacturing Company in the United States and /or other countries. © 2019 Vermeer Equipment Holdings Pty Ltd. All Rights Reserved. .

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Infrastructure March 2019 Digital Edition  

Risks and rewards of stakeholder management, mobility as a service MaaS, Hobart Airport, Smart Cities 2019, driverless vehicles, zero emissi...

Infrastructure March 2019 Digital Edition  

Risks and rewards of stakeholder management, mobility as a service MaaS, Hobart Airport, Smart Cities 2019, driverless vehicles, zero emissi...