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September 2008 Vol. XVIII, No. 6, $7.00



How to improve first-step acceleration New Nutrition Research Working with Pre-Varsity Athletes

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September 2008, Vol. XVIII, No. 6


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Student Corner To Err Is Human By Dr. Amanda Andrews


Q&A Charlotte LaVerne The Woodlands (Texas) High School


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Boyd Epley, MEd, CSCS Director of Coaching Performance, National Strength & Conditioning Association Peter Friesen, ATC, NSCA-CPT, CSCS, CAT, Head Ath. Trainer/ Cond. Coach, Carolina Hurricanes Lance Fujiwara, MEd, ATC, EMT Director of Sports Medicine, Virginia Military Institute Vern Gambetta, MA, President, Gambetta Sports Training Systems P.J. Gardner, MS, ATC, CSCS, PES, Athletic Trainer, Colorado Sports & Spine Centers

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Pat Wertman (607) 257-6970, ext. 21 T&C editorial/business offices: 31 Dutch Mill Road Ithaca, NY 14850 (607) 257-6970 Fax: (607) 257-7328 Training & Conditioning (ISSN 1058-3548) is published monthly except in January and February, May and June, and July and August, which are bimonthly issues, for a total of nine times a year, by MAG, Inc., 31 Dutch Mill Rd., Ithaca, NY 14850. T&C is distributed without charge to qualified professionals involved with competitive athletes. The subscription rate is $24 for one year and $48 for two years in the United States, and $30 for one year and $60 for two years in Canada. The single copy price is $7. Copyright© 2008 by MAG, Inc. All rights reserved. Text may not be reproduced in any manner, in whole or in part, without the permission of the publisher. Unsolicited materials will not be returned unless accompanied by a self-addressed, stamped envelope. Periodicals postage paid at Ithaca, N.Y. and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Training & Conditioning, P.O. Box 4806, Ithaca, NY 14852-4806. Printed in the U.S.A.

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Corner To Err Is Human How you react after a misstep in the field says a lot about who you are. BY DR. AMANDA ANDREWS


istakes. We all hate to make them. But mistakes are a part of every career, and athletic training is no exception. Whether it’s forgetting supplies on a road trip or misdiagnosing an injury, every athletic trainer has thought at one time or another, “I wish I hadn’t done that.” As a student, you may feel pressure to be perfect. You are striving to gain the trust of your patient and the respect of your clinical instructor. So when you make an error, it’s easy to feel angry and frustrated. But in reality, you are supposed to make mistakes. We often learn the most by correcting ourselves. Mistakes are golden opportunities for learning and personal growth. At the same time, it’s important to know how to handle errors. Your reaction and what you learn from them can be a defining part of your future. Your Reaction: Nobody likes to be embarrassed, especially in front of supervisors and patients. That’s why your first response after making a mistake may be to defend yourself. You may feel totally crushed or like you failed an important test. But it’s critical to push aside your initial reactions and act professionally.

Amanda Andrews, PhD, ATC, is an Assistant Professor and the Department Chair/Program Director for the Athletic Training Education Program at Troy University. She can be reached at: TR AINING-CONDITIONING.COM

How you respond in the face of adversity will not only tell your supervisors what type of person you are, it will give you an opportunity to prove you can overcome obstacles. For example, if you are teaching an athlete a rehabilitative exercise and the certified athletic trainer corrects you, you should stop, listen, and take in everything you are being told. If you break down in tears and run out of the athletic training room, you may lose the confidence of the patient. If you argue with your supervisors, you may lose their respect. The best response is to acknowledge that you were wrong and make a mental note of how to do it correctly the next time. You could say something like, “Thank you for showing me how to do that. I didn’t realize I was doing it

is part of the learning experience and you may be losing a valuable opportunity if you don’t try something because it seems difficult. For example, let’s say an athlete comes into your facility with a possibly torn anterior cruciate ligament. You shouldn’t be afraid to perform a Lachman’s test, even if you have never done one before. Supervisors and patients understand that you are in the athletic training education program. And if a supervisor corrects you, be thankful. Even if you feel you were doing a procedure appropriately, once the supervisor steps in, take the opportunity to learn. Remember that there are often multiple ways to perform a task. You might not be doing something wrong—you just may not be performing a procedure the way your

Remember that supervisors may be juggling 100 things at the same time and not have the time or patience to be gentle with their criticism … Try not to take their words personally. incorrectly. I’ll be sure not to make that mistake again.” Just because you made a mistake doesn’t mean people don’t like or trust you. It simply means you needed to be corrected for the safety of the patient. Take the correction as constructive criticism and move forward. A Learning Opportunity: Your experiences as an athletic training student should be viewed as building blocks. You need to be comfortable with foundational skills before progressing to more complicated tasks. However, you shouldn’t be so fearful of making mistakes that you never try advanced activities. Know that making mistakes

supervisor would like it done. If this occurs, consider yourself lucky. You now know two different methods to complete the same task. The Harsh Critic: Ideally, whenever someone corrects you, it will be in a supportive and educational way. But in reality, you may have supervisors who come across as abrasive when pointing out your mistakes. This can be a challenge. To start, remember that supervisors are trying to teach you—and fitting this task into their other duties. They may be juggling 100 things at the same time and not have the time or patience to be gentle with their criticism. T&C SEPTEMBER 2008



Corner Try not to take their words personally and remember that they may just be having a bad day. Learn from their instructions and do your best to ignore their demeanor. However, if you are upset about the way you have been treated, talk to your supervisor at a later time, away from the bustle of the athletic training room. You might ask, “Do you have any time when you and I can discuss what happened this morning? I would like to know if there are ways to avoid a situation like that in the future.” When you talk face-to-face, explain how you feel. Your supervisor may not realize how the experience affected you. Or, given a second chance, your supervisor may explain the situation in a way that teaches you something important. Either way, by bringing it to their attention in a professional manner, you will show your emotional maturity. You will not only learn from your original mistake, but you will also grow by learning how

to deal with conflict. You may even get a new perspective by hearing their ideas. And it sure beats bad-mouthing your supervisor to your fellow classmates, which just makes the situation worse. Traumatic Experiences: Sometimes, bad things happen to good people. You may find yourself covering a contest in which a catastrophic injury occurs. Maybe you assisted medical personnel in spine boarding an athlete during a football game and the patient ultimately became paralyzed. Even if

every action they performed. They may become emotionally drained, depressed, and distant from friends and family. After traumatic events, it could be a good idea to seek help from a professional counselor or supervisor. Bottling up emotions and trying to deal with life-altering experiences by yourself can negatively affect your career. Always remember that you don’t have to deal with problems alone. Your educational experience will be filled with highs and lows. You’ll have

After traumatic events, it could be a good idea to seek help from a professional counselor or supervisor. Bottling up emotions and trying to deal with life-altering experiences by yourself can negatively affect your career. no one made a mistake, you may feel like you did. After incidents such as this, people often blame themselves and replay

bad days and good days, mistakes and triumphs. How you handle adversity will not only build character, but also provide the building blocks for your career. ■

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Circle No. 105

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Circle No. 106

Q&A Charlotte LaVerne The Woodlands (Texas) High School In her 17 years as Head Athletic Trainer at The Woodlands (Texas) High School, Charlotte LaVerne, LAT, ATC, has grown used to the day-to-day challenges of the profession. But last November, she experienced a day like no other. She used an AED for the first time to save the life of 30-year-old assistant football coach Emory Bartolazzi. For LaVerne, it’s yet another reason to be proud of her career choice. After graduating from Lamar University in 1985, she served for three years as Head Athletic Trainer at New Caney (Texas) High School before moving to Spartanburg, S.C., where she worked at an orthopedic clinic providing rehab and sports medicine coverage for both Spartanburg High School and Wofford College. Returning to Texas in 1989, LaVerne spent a year coordinating rehab for work-related injuries at The Woodlands Sports Medicine Center. In 1991, she arrived at her current school, where she has worked with 23 state championship teams and 19 more runners-up. She has built a strong program for athletic training student aides, provided coverage for the rodeo at the Montgomery County Fair, and served as a national certification examination administrator for the NATA. Earlier this year, LaVerne was given the Montgomery County Hospital District Lifesaver Award and named Texas High School Athletic Trainer of the Year by the Texas High School Coaches Association. In this interview, she talks about preparing for an emergency, the difference between working in high schools and clinics, and her athletic training student aide program. T&C: What was it like to save someone’s life? LaVerne: Anybody who has ever been in that situation is going to tell you the same thing: You don’t think about what you have to do, you just do it. It was November 13, and started as a typical day, with 15 things going on at once. I was in the athletic training room doing rehab with some of our cross country kids while the football team was practicing on the field when I got a call from our head football coach telling me that Coach Bartolazzi had collapsed. I drove out in our golf cart, which is equipped with a portable AED, and got there less than a minute later with my coworker, athletic trainer Will Clark. Just by looking at Emory TR AINING-CONDITIONING.COM

While overseeing rehab in the athletic training room last November, Charlotte LaVerne (at left) was called to the football practice field, where she saved a coach’s life with an AED. and hearing the sound of his breathing, we knew exactly what to do. We grabbed the AED, put it on him, and waited for the signal. It was the longest moment in my life, standing there with my hands shaking over the button, saying “Come on, come on, come on.” Finally, we did the shock, and the AED evaluated him again and said to begin CPR. So I did compressions while Will did the breaths. After two cycles of CPR, Emory’s heart began to beat again. By the time EMS got there, he was asking why we were all standing over him, and it wasn’t until I finally got home from the hospital that I realized what we had done. How do you prepare for an emergency like that? First, you make sure your department has at least one AED. They’ve become the standard of care, and you don’t want to be saying after the fact, “Gosh, we really should have had one.” Second, you need to train people to use it. To prepare for something like this, you need to practice. In the past, some of our athletic training student aides complained that they felt silly practicing first aid. Well, they don’t complain anymore, because they were right there on the field with us and saw how important it is. It gave everyone a new sense of respect for our system. T&C SEPTEMBER 2008


Q&A Third, you need to be on good terms with your local physicians and EMS personnel. We have the same AED units they have at EMS, so all we need to do is unplug ours and let them plug in theirs. Once Emory was loaded into the ambulance,

“Coming back to Texas, I worked with industrial rehab, but I found workman’s comp injuries to be really difficult … So after a while, I wanted to come back to the high school setting. I like working with students and watching them become adults.” we called our team physician, who immediately called a cardiologist, and everything went smoothly. Emory now has an internal defibrillator and is coaching again. When did you know you wanted to become an athletic trainer? In my early years of college, I worked in a hospital as a physical therapy aid. Before that, I had been a swimmer and taught aerobics, and the physical therapist I was working with at the time suggested I look into athletic training. So I went to talk to Paul Zeek, who was the Head Athletic Trainer at Lamar.


He described everything to me, telling me the good, the bad, and the ugly about being an athletic trainer, and I just knew it would be a perfect fit for me. How did your earlier jobs prepare you for The Woodlands High School? Each position taught me a different aspect of the field, and each step I took made me that much better at what I do. New Caney was a small high school, and I was the only athletic trainer. It wasn’t an affluent community, so in a lot of situations I was the first stop for athletes before going to see a doctor. It was a crash course in learning to make referrals. In the clinical role at Spartanburg, I worked within the physical therapy department, where I learned a lot about rehab and gained a better understanding of the whole process. Then, coming back to Texas, I worked with industrial rehab, but I found workman’s comp injuries to be really difficult. I was working with adults, and of course they wanted to get better, but they often were battling a lot of other issues that went along with the injury, and it was emotionally draining. So after a while, I wanted to come back to the high school setting. I like working with students and watching them become adults. How has your job changed over the last 17 years? A lot more is expected of athletic trainers now. We need to work hand-in-hand with physicians, physical therapists, and

Circle No. 107 T&C SEPTEMBER 2008 Untitled-6 1


Q&A other medical personnel. We need to be professionals in everything we do, and we need to take responsibility for educating athletes, coaches, parents, and the public. How do you attract students to your athletic training student aide program? We start recruiting them at the junior high level, looking for kids who have an interest in medicine. Sometimes we recruit students who have been in athletics, but either due to skill level or injury are not able to keep competing. We bring them into the athletic training room, have them watch what we do, and let them decide whether it’s right for them. One of your student aides is Lauren Miller, who has brittle bone disease and often uses a wheelchair to get around. How does her presence impact your program? Lauren is amazing. She has had at least 20 broken bones and spent countless months in body casts, and her attitude is just incredible. Having someone like her on our staff teaches athletes not to complain too much. She’s also a motivating force for everyone she meets. She could easily sit back and say “Poor me,” but that’s not her personality. Lauren has the determination to push through anything, and that’s contagious. I wish all students worked that hard, and I don’t just mean student athletic trainers—I mean everybody.


Have you recruited other people with disabilities? Years ago, we had an athletic training student aide with Down syndrome who made a great contribution to our program. It’s important for athletes to see a mix of people involved in sports medicine. And it’s important for all kids to feel they’re a

“Lauren is amazing. She has had at least 20 broken bones and spent countless months in body casts, and her attitude is just incredible. Having someone like her on our staff teaches athletes not to complain too much.” part of something—even if we have to modify our procedures a little to let them work within their capabilities. How do you work with the other certified athletic trainers on your staff? We have three athletic trainers, two campuses, and three athletic training rooms. To make the system work, we treat one another as professionals. Even when an athletic trainer uses a slightly different approach than yours, it’s important to respect the difference because ultimately the rehab is going to be very similar. And you can’t be opposed to learning from it. After 17 years in the same job, if I hadn’t changed and learned from

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Q&A the people I’ve worked with, I wouldn’t be a very effective athletic trainer. How does covering rodeo make you a better athletic trainer? Rodeo teaches you to think on your feet. An injury could be life-threatening or it could be something very simple. It has also helped me build a larger network of connections in the field. For the rodeo here in Montgomery County, we work very closely with EMS. That builds relationships outside school and creates an even stronger sense of trust all the way around. What was your most challenging rehab? That’s a hard question—every rehab should be a challenge. You have to look at each injury and each athlete as unique. But a particularly challenging one began last spring with a football player who crushed his leg in a four-wheeler accident. It didn’t happen here at school, but it did affect his ability to play football. We rehabbed him through the spring, and

Charlotte LaVerne

“Rodeo teaches you to think on your feet. An injury could be life-threatening or it could be something very simple. It has also helped me build a larger network of connections in the field. For the rodeo here in Montgomery County, we work very closely with EMS.”

First job: Head Athletic Trainer, New Caney (Texas) High School, 1986-89

when football season came around, he was able to play—until he got sick with the flu and started having problems with that same leg. He ended up in the hospital with an infection in his leg, so we went back to work, helping him get his strength back again. What are the hardest and easiest parts of your job? The hardest is time management. It can be very difficult to give 110 percent to this job and still have time for your family. The easiest is coming to work every day and helping students succeed. That makes it all worthwhile. What have you learned about balancing school and home life? Being a good mom and wife comes first. But this job is important to me, and I want my family to feel it’s important to them, too. I want them to value the work I do, because in a busy week I can work 60-plus hours, and in a slow week it rarely goes below 50 hours. I try to involve my family whenever I can. My daughter is in high school now and helps as an athletic training student aide. She can tape as well as anybody. As athletic trainers, we need to plan in advance and be creative with our schedules. If I have to work until midnight so I can attend my daughter’s swim meet or my son’s baseball 12


Head Athletic Trainer The Woodlands (Texas) High School Education: BS, Lamar University, 1985

Honors: 2008 Texas High School Athletic Trainer of the Year 2008 Montgomery County Hospital District Lifesaver Award

game the next day, I’m more than willing to make that tradeoff. But it does take some thinking ahead. What’s your next goal? I’m working on my master’s in school administration, which I’ll finish next March. At that point, I could go into collegiate sports medicine, athletic administration, or school administration—or I could just stay here. We’ll see where it takes me. What are you proudest of in your career? Teaching my athletes and student athletic trainers, teaching their parents, and giving everyone a better understanding of athletic training by showing them that in the long run, everything is going to work out. It goes back to Lauren Miller, with me teaching her and her teaching me at the same time. For me, the bottom line is to be thankful for everything, learn from everyone, and appreciate every moment you have. ■

To read Q&As from past issues, visit us online at:


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Circle No. 112


News from the Lab


Research presented at the 2008 ACSM Annual Meeting offers new information about fueling during activity, the performance benefits of caffeine, the efficacy of some popular supplements, and more. Our nutrition expert shares her notes from the convention.

BY DR. JANET RANKIN oes consuming protein during exercise improve performance and endurance? What does the latest research say about certain new supplements on the market or in the pipeline—are they safe, and do they work? What kind of physical toll does an Ironman competition, one of the most grueling events in all of sports, take on its participants? In May, I attended the 55th Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) in Indianapolis and came back with interesting insights into those questions and many others. Every year, the ACSM meeting provides a forum for some of the country’s leading nutrition researchers to present their studies, discuss research methods, and share ideas.



In this article, I’ll summarize several of the most interesting sports nutrition findings presented at this year’s meeting. I’ll also explain how the research results can help you provide better nutritional counseling to athletes in your own setting. PROTEIN CONTROVERSY The debate over whether athletes should consume protein during and immediately after exercise is not new. Some researchers have found that carbohydrates on their own provide maximum performance and endurance benefits, and others have found that adding protein to the carbs offers optimal fueling. In one of the most interesting sessions at this year’s conference, Martin Gibala, PhD, Associate Professor of

Kinesiology at McMaster University, reviewed recent research to shed new light on the question. Gibala noted that at least three papers published since 2003—from the labs of John Ivy, PhD, of the University of Texas and Michael Saunder, PhD, of James Madison University—support adding protein to carbohydrate consumed during exercise. These studies have found increases in endurance performance ranging from 13 to 36 percent when protein is added to an athlete’s supplement. However, Gibala also refJanet Rankin, PhD, is a Professor in the Department of Human Nutrition, Foods, and Exercise at Virginia Tech. Her teaching and research specialty is sports nutrition. T&C SEPTEMBER 2008


NUTRITION erenced three recent papers (including one from his own lab) that found no boost in performance due to protein consumption. So what’s going on here? In trying to sort out the conflicting results, Gibala noted that all three studies showing a benefit of protein used “non-energy matched” treatments: The athletes who consumed protein along with the carbs actually received more energy (measured in calories) than the athletes who consumed carbohydrate alone. In addition, endurance was measured in these studies using a time-to-

exhaustion performance test. Meanwhile, in the three studies showing no benefit to adding protein, athletes in both the protein and proteinfree groups usually did receive energy matched treatments, with carbohydrate doses at the higher end of the recommended range. And the performance gauge used in these studies was a time trial, not an exhaustion test. Based on that analysis, it may be fair to conclude that energy intake—not necessarily the presence of protein— is the key to optimal fueling during

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exercise. If that’s true, a similar performance or endurance benefit can be achieved by consuming a high amount of carbohydrate (roughly one gram per kilogram of body weight per minute), or alternatively, less carbohydrate with some added protein. Gibala also took the analysis a step further, discussing the possible biochemical effects of ingesting protein during exercise. He said there is not enough evidence to conclude that protein replaces critical cellular compounds required during aerobic metabolism, or that protein directly affects central fatigue or muscle glycogen use. He also cited a lack of evidence that protein serves as an important energy substrate during exercise. However, Gibala said he remains intrigued by the possibility that consuming protein during exercise may improve protein balance during recovery and thus aid in the repair of exercise-induced damage. A small body of research suggests that protein ingested during exercise reduces markers of muscle damage, such as serum creatine kinase, but Gibala worries that these markers can be misleading, so he said future research should focus on actual muscle function to assess recovery. Although future studies may identify a specific benefit to consuming protein during activity, particularly for endurance athletes, the current evidence hasn’t revealed any special advantage. The best available information suggests that endurance athletes should focus on consuming enough energy, whether it comes from carbohydrate alone or a carb-protein blend. PUMPED UP ABOUT CAFFEINE Several studies presented at the ACSM meeting gave further support to the benefits of caffeine for athletes. Rather than just confirming old research, much of which focuses on caffeine’s effects on prolonged running, they branched out into three sports where the drug has not been extensively studied: cycling, shot put, and soccer. For the latter, researchers in New Zealand asked premier-level soccer players to ingest six milligrams of caffeine per kilogram of body weight or a placebo one hour before performing a 90-minute simulated soccer test. Every 15 minutes during intermittent running, the players performed a passing skill test and a timed 15meter sprint. Interestingly, even though previous re-

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NUTRITION search has shown caffeine to improve running performance, there was no measurable effect on these athletes’ sprinting speed. However, the caffeine group did experience a statistically significant increase in passing accuracy. They did not attempt to explain exactly why this occurred, but it was likely due to central nervous system stimulation allowing for superior focus on the task. The second study looked at shot putters, whose performance depends on brief, intense muscle power. Male and female collegiate throwers were asked to chew a piece of gum that contained either a placebo or 100 milligrams of caffeine—a fairly low dose—a few minutes before six throws of the shot. When throwing, those who had chewed the caffeine-laced gum experienced a moderate performance boost. The average first throw of an athlete who chewed the caffeine gum was 9.63 meters, while that of an athlete who chewed the placebo gum was 9.05 meters. The average of all six throws was higher for the caffeineconsuming athletes as well. While both these studies measured the value of caffeine consumed prior to exer-

cise, the third focused on its role in recovery. Presented by Australian researcher John Hawley, PhD, the study followed up on previous research suggesting that caffeine influences glycogen metabolism. To begin, body glycogen was drained from a group of trained athletes through a standard procedure involving prolonged exhaustive cycling and a low-

glycogen replacement among the caffeine-ingesting athletes after four hours. Analysis of key compounds involved in muscle metabolism suggests caffeine’s effect on cellular calcium could explain the difference. It’s notable that each of these studies demonstrates a performance benefit of caffeine despite using widely

Energy intake—not necessarily the presence of protein— may be the key to optimal fueling during exercise ... However, Gibala said he remains intrigued by the possibility that consuming protein during exercise may improve protein balance during recovery. carbohydrate meal. The next day, the athletes cycled again, followed by ingestion of either carbohydrate alone (four grams per kilogram of body weight) or the same amount of carbohydrate with eight milligrams of caffeine per kilogram of body weight. Analysis of muscle biopsies from both groups after the second bout of cycling showed similar glycogen replacement after one hour, but 34 percent higher

varying doses. The lowest dose, used in the study on throwers, could easily be obtained from beverages, while the higher doses would probably have to come from caffeine pills or another type of supplement. None of these studies sought to determine the minimum effective dose, so while the results are meaningful, further research is still needed. (For a link to a previous Training & Conditioning article on caffeine

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NUTRITION and its effect on athletic performance, see the “Resources” box on page 22.) Studies involving caffeine’s benefits can certainly grab the attention of anyone looking for an edge, but remember to proceed with caution: Competitive athletes may be tempted to “overdo it” with energy drinks, gels, and over-the-counter pills, which can put them at serious risk for health problems. It’s critical to remind athletes caffeine is a powerful stimulant that can increase heart rate and blood pressure, cause anxiety and sleep disturbance, and raise heat stress risk. Those who are interested in using caffeine as an ergogenic aid should be advised to stick with low doses—a cup of coffee or a soft drink for starters—which may provide the desired result without the potentially harmful side effects. OF MICE AND MEN Rarely does a supplement come along offering both a consistent ergogenic benefit and a demonstrable metabolic mechanism. Quercetin may fit into that

category, and as a result it’s emerging as a supplement to watch. However, it has mostly been tested on rodents thus far, and its relative effect on humans is one of the main unanswered questions. Quercetin is the major flavonol found in many fruits and vegetables. Its health benefits have been studied for years, and there’s some evidence it can help prevent cancer and other chronic diseases. More recently, it has been fed to mice and people to evaluate its effects on the immune system and athletic performance. Most of this research has been performed by J. Mark Davis, PhD, Professor of Exercise Science at the University of South Carolina, and David Nieman, PhD, Professor in the Department of Health, Leisure, and Exercise Science at Appalachian State University. The two presented a symposium at the ACSM meeting and summarized several of their recent studies. Davis’s lab has found that seven days of quercetin supplementation in mice

HOW MUCH CAFFEINE? This table shows the caffeine content of some popular products, and how much a person must consume to reach 100 mg or 6 g/kg of body weight. Caffeine (mg) For 100 mg

For 6 g/kg*

Starbucks grande coffee (16 oz)


5 oz

22 oz

Black brewed tea (8 oz)


17 oz

77 oz

Mountain Dew (12 oz)


22 oz

100 oz

Diet Pepsi (12 oz)


34 oz

154 oz

Red Bull (8.3 oz)


11 oz

49 oz

SoBe Adrenaline Rush energy drink (16 oz)


11 oz

49 oz

Jolt gum (1 piece)


3 pieces

14 pieces

NoDoz maximum strength (1 tablet)


Half tablet

2.25 tablets

Source: *Assumes 75-kilogram (165-pound) individual Note: These are not necessarily recommended doses. They merely provide reference points for some of the doses discussed in caffeine studies.



increased endurance performance and helped build mitochondria, the “powerhouses” of cells, which generate most of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP, a key form of cellular energy) required by muscle tissue, the liver, and the brain. Quercetin feeding also increased voluntary activity by about 40 percent as measured with running wheels in the mouse cages. Davis says the heightened exercise capacity is likely due to increased ATP production through synthesis of more mitochondria. He also points to quercetin’s stimulating effect on the brain, caused by opposition of adenosine receptors (the same mechanism that accounts for caffeine’s stimulating effect). Nieman described a major ongoing study in which quercetin is being provided to 1,000 people—not just athletes—to evaluate its effects. No specific results were presented at this time, but with the amount of interest generated by the rodent studies, it’s likely that more research involving humans will be conducted in the near future. Lest we jump too quickly on the quercetin bandwagon, the presenters noted that studies using humans have so far yielded much less impressive results than those using rodents. Nieman has published a number of studies evaluating the effects of ingesting 1,000 milligrams of quercetin per day on performance and immune response in trained endurance athletes, and he has not yet found many significant benefits. In one notable exception, he reported that the incidence of upper respiratory tract infections after three days of strenuous exercise was reduced with quercetin supplementation. One hypothesis to explain the discrepancy in results between animals and humans centers on training status. Nieman’s research used very highly trained athletes, who may have already maximized their aerobic performance and immune response through training, such that no further improvement could be observed by introducing quercetin. Support for this idea was presented by Stephen Chen, a member of Davis’s laboratory, who has studied quercetin supplementation in non-athlete college students and found that 1,000 milligrams per day for a week improved maximal aerobic capacity modestly (3.9 percent) and cycling endurance more significantly (13.2 percent). If positive effects can be reliably proven in humans, quercetin supplementation will likely become popular. TR AINING-CONDITIONING.COM

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NUTRITION To date, no evidence of side effects from larger doses (for instance, 1,000 milligrams per day) has been found. Our average quercetin intake through diet is only about 25 milligrams per day, primarily coming from foods like

for some athletes, leading them to search for alternatives. A fairly new compound, beta alanine, may provide similar acid-buffering benefits without the side effects. This amino acid, which occurs natu-

In one study, experienced resistance training athletes ingested 4.8 grams of beta alanine or a placebo for 30 days ... The athletes who took the beta alanine performed better in a resistance exercise test. apples and onions, though individuals who eat a diet rich in fruits and vegetables may consume significantly higher amounts. BUFFERING THE BURN Some athletes who compete in short, intense running or cycling events have experimented with bicarbonate ingestion in the hope of neutralizing the lactic acid that accumulates during heavy exercise. Their rationale is that buffering the acid delays muscle fatigue. However, bicarbonate use results in nausea and intestinal distress

rally in many proteins, increases the synthesis of a natural buffer inside the cell called carnosine. Several published studies have reported a carnosine increase of about 60 percent in muscle cells after four weeks of ingesting beta alanine, and researchers have observed a corresponding increase in maximum power during a graded cycle test and a muscle isokinetic endurance test to exhaustion. New research presented at the ACSM meeting further demonstrates the value of beta alanine for resistance exercise. In one study, experienced resistance

training athletes ingested 4.8 grams of beta alanine or a placebo for 30 days while following their regular resistance workout schedule. The athletes who took the beta alanine performed better in a resistance exercise test consisting of six sets of squats with 12 repetitions at 70 percent of one-rep max. A second study, presented by a group from San Diego State University, tested the effect of one large dose of beta alanine (15 grams), consumed with a beverage containing three percent sucrose 30 minutes before and at intervals throughout a 60-minute endurance cycling session. In a time trial conducted immediately after the cycling bout, there was no performance effect from the beta alanine consumption. However, this was not entirely unexpected, since the average duration of the time trial was about 10 minutes—a length of time in which acid accumulation would probably not cause fatigue for this type of exercise. Only a modest amount of research has been published on the ergogenic value of beta alanine, so strong conclusions cannot yet be drawn. However, results so far suggest it may offer


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NUTRITION benefits to athletes competing in sports that rely heavily on anaerobic glycolysis, where lactate accumulation can be a serious problem. Furthermore, studies using another buffer, sodium bicarbonate, typically show improvements in performance during maximum-effort bouts lasting between one and seven minutes. For these reasons, beta alanine warrants further inquiry. BEHIND THE IRONMAN Have you ever wondered how much energy is used during an Ironman

race? These grueling events typically include a 2.4 mile swim, a 112 mile bicycle ride, and a marathon run, and not surprisingly, fueling and maintaining hydration are major challenges for the competitors. Measuring fuel utilization and dehydration rates would certainly be useful in this setting, but unfortunately, the datacapturing process is quite difficult and requires invasive, complex, and expensive procedures. Walter Hailes and colleagues from the University of Montana and Appa-

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lachian State University recently collaborated to study a 39-year-old male athlete at the Ironman World Championship triathlon. The athlete consumed water that was chemically “labeled” with two non-radioactive isotopes— oxygen and hydrogen. Researchers measured the difference in loss rate of each of these labels by testing the athlete’s urine, and used the results to estimate total energy expended. In addition, muscle biopsies, blood samples, and body weight measurements were taken before and after the race. The results were fascinating. The subject used an amazing 9,290 kilocalories over the course of the race, and experienced a 68 percent reduction in thigh muscle glycogen. He showed no evidence of hyponatremia (low blood sodium, a potentially dangerous condition in endurance competitions), but had a 7.5 percent loss of body weight (caused mainly by dehydration) and an 18 percent drop in blood plasma volume. Unfortunately, the experimenters did not report the food and fluid consumption of the athlete to determine exactly what role nutrition played during the race. However, estimated total water turnover during the event was 16.6 liters, so he must have consumed a great deal of fluid to offset his dramatic water loss. If the athlete had consumed no fluid during the race (and yet somehow managed to finish), he would have lost roughly 21 percent of his body weight by the time he crossed the finish line. This case study gives perspective to the challenges of Ironman competition, and provides a rarely seen glimpse into the intense effort it requires of the body. It also demonstrates that even elite athletes can usually benefit from counseling and recommendations on nutrition and fluid intake to help limit the loss of muscle glycogen, achieve optimal hydration status, and ultimately improve performance. ■


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Pilates on the Run BY DANIEL WILSON Due to the repetitive nature of competitive running and the tremendous force put on the body, injuries to can be commonplace. The body works on a closed chain system when running. If the body is misaligned this chain can be interrupted or thrown out of balance, which can lead to injuries anywhere along that chain – from the ankles on up to the neck. Pilates is one method that trainers use to help athletes run more effectively. The core stabilizing principles of Pilates focus on creating an even musculature. An evenly developed body gets its power from the core and then transmits energy out to the extremities. The end result is a body that moves with maximum efficiency. And a body that moves efficiently can not only shave valuable seconds off a time, but do it without getting hurt. Barbara Wintroub is the owner of Retrofit Pilates Rx in Santa Monica, CA. She has worked in the medical field of Pain Management and is certified through the American Academy of Health, Fitness and Rehabilitation Professionals (AAHFRP) as a Medical Exercise Specialist. An avid marathoner who has competed all over the world, Wintroub has worked and trained with many competitive runners and feels Pilates is a phenomenal form of conditioning. Here’s what she had to say when asked how Pilates can help a runner. Q: We all know that runners often get muscle-related pulls and tears. What other injuries do you commonly see in competitive runners and how can Pilates help? A: Lately I’ve seen a lot of bad strains to the IT bands - particularly in cross-country or off-road runners. This can happen due to a variety of circumstances like a leg length discrepancy or running on a slanted surface, and end up causing major irritation on the lateral side of the kneecap. It’s extremely painful and can become chronic. Pilates has some incredible exercises – like side stretches over the short box on the Reformer - that can give a runner a fantastic stretch and elongation of the IT band.

Pilates armwork exercises are great for this because they strengthen the mid back and the neck extensors so that a runner can hold up the head more easily.

Selected Pilates Exercises for Runners

Q: You’ve mentioned long distance running, what about sprinters? Can Pilates help? A: Absolutely. Sprinters predominantly run on their toes. When you do that you tend to run more from your calf muscles as opposed to running from your heels and quads. That really shortens the calves. So sprinters need really strong and elongated soleus and gastrocnemius muscles. They can do things like lie supine and push off the Reformer jumpboard, or do heel drops on the footbar of the Reformer. This allows to them to stretch the calves in a non-weight-bearing position.

Goal: Strengthen quads, hamstrings, glutes, abs, ankles and teach pelvic stability Stand on the seat facing away from the pedal. Bend the front leg to 90 degrees, round the spine and place the back leg on the pedal. Press down the pedal with the back leg.

An exercise on the Pilates Chair


Q: Pilates is known as a mind-body exercise. How does the “mindbody” component help? A: There is a natural mind-body relationship between Pilates and runners. Pilates can teach them to be more kinesthetically focused – how the head is balanced on the neck and spine, how the feet feel on the ground, whether they are running in the proper sequence, as well as breathing patterns. It is being aware of the body and how it moves in space. This can definitely improve performance. Q: What kind of Pilates equipment do you recommend for trainers and coaches working with runners? A: Most people associate Pilates with either a mat or the Reformer; both are great. But lately I’ve really been using the Pilates Chair. It provides an absolutely kick-butt strengthening workout for athletes. And now some Pilates manufacturers have redesigned the Chair to include attachments for resistance tubing. This allows runners to push and pull off the chair. It also expands the exercise repertoire to include work that could previously be done only on a Reformer. This is great for trainers who want to implement an equipment-based Pilates training program but may not have the space for Reformers.

An exercise on the mat:

SWIMMING Goal: Strengthen back and hip extensors, including the erector spinae, hamstrings and gluteus maximus. Lie prone on the mat with the arms reaching overhead and legs straight. Reach one leg and the opposite arm out and up toward the ceiling. Switch the arm and leg quickly without losing the balance on the center of the torso. Daniel Wilson is a freelance writer specializing in fitness articles.

I’ve also seen a lot of shoulder injuries to long distance runners. Think about it - your arms weigh around 3 lbs. apiece, and your head weighs about 8 or 9 lbs. If that weight causes you to hunch forward – even slightly – you’ll have a tendency to let your head and arms hang which will greatly affect your neck and shoulders. TR AINING-CONDITIONING.COM








Taking Off First-step acceleration is among the more valuable skills in most sports, so it deserves special attention in a training program. Developing flexion-extension patterns, coordinated efficiency, and explosive strength are the keys to putting your athletes a step ahead.



n physics, acceleration is a vector quantity representing the rate at which an object changes speed. It’s what happens every time you step on your car’s gas pedal, drop an object from an elevated position, or take off running from a standing start. In an athletic context, first-step acceleration is one of those precious commodities that separates the best from the rest. A track athlete who can generate more force off the starting line, a wide receiver who can accelerate out of his stance faster than the defensive back, and a soccer player who can change direction and quickly build speed to chase down a loose ball all have a distinct advantage over their opponents. To enhance an athlete’s acceleration, several areas of training must be

David Donatucci, MEd, CSCS, is the Director of Fitness for the PGA of America. He is the former Coordinator of the Center for Athletic Performance at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation and has been a strength and conditioning coach and consultant for the Cleveland Cavaliers, Cleveland Browns, and Cleveland Rockers (WNBA). He can be reached at: TR AINING-CONDITIONING.COM

addressed. An athlete must be strong enough to push against the ground with maximum force, coordinated enough to flex and extend the extremities optimally, and efficient enough to do so without wasting effort or motion. Each of these areas can be improved with a properly designed, targeted training program. ELEMENTS OF ACCELERATION Biomechanically, the track athlete, wide receiver, and soccer player share many similarities when they begin to accelerate. There are some fairly obvious differences in the movement patterns for each sport, but the laws of force production and the physical mechanisms at work are mostly universal. The first concept is movement efficiency. Athletes should always try to minimize the number of steps it takes to accelerate, or to change direction and then accelerate. Each additional step amounts to wasted movement and decreased effective power output, so firststep acceleration training should always include drills that focus on developing fluid, efficient movement. The next element is extension. The crossed extensor reflexes often receive

inadequate attention in acceleration training programs, but I believe they are a critical component of building speed. Let’s explore this concept at the most basic level. Think about what happens when an infant crawls: The body’s reflex patterns complement one another, so as the right leg flexes, the left leg extends, and the arms do likewise. The limbs work in opposition to one another, and muscles throughout the kinetic chain translate this pattern into forward movement. Acceleration training should also harness these extension patterns, and recruit the key muscles to improve force production and forward propulsion. When an athlete runs, the crossed extensor reflex can be broken into two parts—the flexion movement and the extension movement. During flexion, activation occurs at the ankle (dorsiflexion), then continues up to the knee joint and the hip. This is why coaches cue athletes to “cock the toe” or “pull those toes up”—the ankle joint is the foundation of flexion. Conversely, activation for extension starts at the hip and moves down to the knee and ankle, creating the leg drive commonly referred to as triple extension. The final basic component of firstT&C SEPTEMBER 2008


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OPTIMUM PERFORMANCE step acceleration is the neurological patterns that govern all types of movement. From the time we first learn to coordinate our movements through crawling, then walking, then running, the body constantly seeks maximum efficiency by experimenting with movement mechanics and muscle use patterns. Why do so many athletes display suboptimal acceleration movements? A lot of factors can throw a wrench in the neurological system, from improper training during a growth spurt to early sport specialization to the overuse of bilateral strength training, which interrupts the body’s natural flexion-extension patterns. I believe even something as simple as improper breathing during exercise can cause an athlete to fall out of his or her natural, optimal movement patterns. And once a new pattern is learned, it can be difficult to break.

Phase IV: Unconscious Competence. The athlete can perform the task without thinking about it. The new movement pattern has become second nature, and they can execute it in a competitive setting while focused on the sportspecific situation at hand. In first-step acceleration training, athletes often must pass through the four phases as they relearn flexionextension patterns. Most athletes are posterior-chain dominant, meaning their quadriceps and hip flexors are overly tight or overactive during run-

ning movements. As a result, extension of the ankle, knee, and hip when attempting to generate force from the ground is not as efficient as it could be. A classic example involves skipping. When you watch an athlete skip, most will “skip up” instead of pushing down—their lower leg pushes up to create the hopping motion, instead of their upper leg driving down into the ground. Changing an athlete’s skipping pattern from a skip up to a drive down can help them with basic acceleration movements in their sport. It can be accomplished

TRAINING MOVEMENT Teaching optimal movement patterns for first-step acceleration usually involves changing some deeply ingrained habits. Most athletes I encounter exhibit a certain degree of wasted motion when they run, and it restricts their acceleration. When I work with them to address these problems, they can easily become frustrated with the challenge of learning mechanics that seem remedial—nobody wants to admit they don’t know how best to take off running from a stationary start. During these sessions, I always remember the phases of learning that lead to successful conditioning. They were first introduced to me by Loren Seagrave, the renowned track and field and football performance coach, who has worked with several college and NFL teams on speed development. They sound very simple, but they’re valuable when teaching movement patterns. Phase I: Unconscious Incompetence. The athlete doesn’t really know what he or she is doing and has difficulty with the task. Phase II: Conscious Incompetence. The athlete understands the task and the goal of a given drill, but still has difficulty executing it. Phase III: Conscious Competence. The athlete understands the goal of the drill and is able to perform it, but only if they think about what they are doing. Successful completion of the activity occurs only in slow motion, not at game speed. Circle No. 122 TR AINING-CONDITIONING.COM

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OPTIMUM PERFORMANCE through cross-crawl training, teaching the athlete how to extend when jumping, and using linear wall drills—I’ll explain these in detail later in this section. Proper movement progressions are the key to improving first-step accelera-

For running on the edges of their feet, linear and lateral wall drills are among the best forms of training. To begin, the athlete stands approximately half their height away from a wall or other immovable object. They lean forward,

Most athletes are posterior-chain dominant, meaning their quadriceps and hip flexors are overly tight or overactive during running movements. As a result, extension of the ankle, knee, and hip is not as efficient as it could be. tion. The specific goals of these progressions are threefold: 1. Teaching the athlete how to utilize the edges of their feet when accelerating. 2. Teaching the athlete how to “explode” into their acceleration quickly. 3. Teaching the athlete how to minimize their steps for maximum efficiency.

keeping the core tight and the arms straight, and place their hands on the wall at shoulder height with their heels raised slightly off the ground. While maintaining this body angle, they raise their right knee so the thigh and foot are parallel to the ground and the shin is parallel to the leaning position of the

body. This is the start position for several wall drills: Linear single leg switch. From the start position, the athlete extends the right leg to the ground while raising the left leg to imitate the right leg’s original position. When the right foot reaches the ground, it should be the same distance from the wall as the left foot was at the start. The athlete holds this position for two to three seconds before extending the left leg to the ground, and repeats the movement six to eight times, keeping their head still during the movement. Linear double and triple leg drive. From the start position, the athlete performs downward extension with the right leg while simultaneously raising the left leg, holds for two to three seconds, and once more extends to the ground. This movement is performed twice or three times (creating two or three hits on the ground) for each repetition. Throughout these drills, body

A DAY’S WORK One key to effective first-step acceleration training is varying the athlete’s workouts, and this can be accomplished by alternating between linear acceleration and multi-directional movement sessions. Below is a sample workout of each type, incorporating some of the drills discussed in this article and other well-known exercises that can improve acceleration. LINEAR ACCELERATION WORKOUT Active warmup

15 minutes

Skips, hip mobility, quadriceps work

Power training

10-15 minutes

Micro hurdle jumps (single, double, continuous: 2x each)


15 minutes

Wall drills (single, double, triple: 6-8 reps, 2-3 sets)

Full-speed movement

15 minutes

Acceleration ladder drills: 5-10 passes


15 minutes

Resisted marches, skips: 10-15 yards, 6-8 reps each

Full-speed movement

10 minutes

Hill runs, 20-yard dash: 5-8 reps each



Active warmup

15 minutes

Lateral skips, cariocas, lateral lunges

Power training

10-15 minutes

Lateral micro hurdle jumps (single, double, continuous: 2x each, right and left)


15 minutes

Lateral wall drills (single, double, triple: 6-8 reps, 2-3 sets)

Full-speed movement

15 minutes

Lateral resisted skips, marches: 10-15 yards, 4-6 reps each, right and left


15 minutes

Lateral bounding progressions incorporating both the inside and outside edges of the feet

Full-speed movement

10 minutes

Lateral micro hurdle runs: 3-4 reps



OPTIMUM PERFORMANCE position should be consistent and the core should remain tight. Lateral wall drills. Starting the same distance from the wall as in the above linear drills, the athlete turns 90 degrees and extends the arm closest to the wall sideways, then leans against the wall. They perform the same single, double, and triple leg drives as in the linear drills with each leg, facing in one direction and then the other. The free (non-wall side) arm should flex and extend with the opposite leg. To teach athletes to explode into their acceleration, I like to use power exercises that concentrate on extension of the hips. Here are two examples: Depth drops. From an erect standing position, the athlete rapidly moves down into a quarter- to half-squat position with the hips back, knees bent with a slight forward shift (over the shoelaces), feet flat on the ground, shoulders over the knees, back flat, and elbows bent at 90 degrees. They hold this squat position for three to five seconds, then return to the erect starting position, repeating the movement eight to 10 times.

Once the athlete masters this movement, you can increase the height of the drop by having them drop down from an elevated position into the squat, starting at six inches, then 12, then 18, and so on. A typical session of this drill might include four to six reps and three sets. Squat jumps. This drill is a natural progression from the depth drops. The athlete lowers him or herself into the quarter- to half-squat position, then rapidly stands up into an erect position. This non-jumping movement trains proper extension and emphasizes activation of the hips, and it teaches

plode upward, raising the arms as they “take off” and bringing the arms down as they land. The landing for this movement should be the same as with the depth drops. It’s important to note that the different angles of acceleration, in any sport, are all based on linear acceleration— that is, the athlete’s hip extension and posture are similar whether they are running forward, pushing laterally, or performing crossover movements. Of course, linear acceleration in a training exercise is not the same as movement during competition, so I recommend

The different angles of acceleration, in any sport, are all based on linear acceleration—that is, the athlete’s hip extension and posture are similar whether they are running forward, pushing laterally, or performing crossover movements. athletes to explode by generating force from the ground through hip extension. Once they’ve mastered this movement, have them actually jump as they ex-

varying the athlete’s acceleration workouts to promote maximum movement versatility. For instance, one week of first-step acceleration training might



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OPTIMUM PERFORMANCE consist of linear acceleration drills on Monday and Wednesday, multi-directional drills on Tuesday and Thursday, and maximum velocity drills on Friday. (For sample workouts, see “A Day’s Work” on page 28). WEIGHTROOM WORK The methods I’ve described thus far address movement mechanics and coordination patterns, the training for which would mostly occur in a gym or on a field. But strength is another major component of force production, so the weightroom must be a priority as well. The key to strength training for firststep acceleration is to recruit the muscle groups needed to execute explosive movements such as triple extension. A good starting point is to evaluate an athlete’s movement patterns during

The gravitational pull on the body is different when an athlete is in a standing rather than a seated position, and overcoming gravity is key to an explosive first step. Cables, plates, dumbbells, bands, and medicine ball exercises are all great choices for first-step acceleration strength training, because they can be performed in a vertical position and involve movement of the extremities. Cables in particular allow the athlete to simulate cross-crawl movement patterns to develop power and strength. A cable exercise progression for this type of training might include: standing cable one-arm rows (three sets, eight to 12 reps each), stationary lunge cable one-arm rows (three sets, eight to 12 reps each), single-leg cable one-arm rows (three sets, eight to 10 reps each), single-leg cable one-arm rows with free


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running and basic training exercises for any faults that might be caused by muscular weakness. For instance, an athlete who bends too far forward when accelerating, thereby throwing off their balance and limiting their extension, usually lacks core strength. Likewise, an athlete who cannot “sit back” and push through the heels while extending vertically on a squat jump probably lacks hip strength, which can directly hamper acceleration. Deficits like these can be highly individualized, so you must carefully observe the athlete’s movements, and also ask which muscle groups or body areas feel overworked or sore after running drills. Core stabilization is one area where many athletes are lacking, and they may not realize the role it plays in acceleration. The abdominals, lower-back musculature, hips, and upper legs must be strong enough to allow coordination and power development between the upper and lower extremities during crossed flexion-extension and changeof-direction movements. If the core is weak, acceleration movements become inefficient or delayed. For maximum benefit, the core needs to be trained in a vertical environment.

leg movement (three sets, eight to 12 reps each), and single-leg squats with cable one-arm rows and free leg movement (three sets, six to 12 reps each). This strength progression is ideal for acceleration training because it focuses on the essential movement patterns: Everything is based on opposite actions. For example, if the right arm is rowing, the left leg is extending. During the singleleg exercises, the right arm pulls while the right leg flexes forward, and the athlete stabilizes with the core muscles and the left leg. In the single-leg squat to onearm row, as the left leg straightens, the right arm pulls the cable in a rowing motion and the right leg flexes forward. By recruiting the cross-crawl muscles of the core and extremities, exercises like these provide maximum transfer for generating force from the ground during firststep acceleration. The glutes are another area that serves as a prime hip extensor and stabilizer. If they are not firing effectively, acceleration will be limited as the body is forced to compensate with sub-optimal movement patterns. I like to evaluate glute firing using the prone glute activation test with palpation. In this test, the athlete lies

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OPTIMUM PERFORMANCE face down with both legs straight and I place my right index finger on their right hamstring, my right thumb on their right glute, and my left index finger on the right side of their lower back. As the athlete raises their right leg, I can easily feel whether the glutes are firing adequately. There are several quality exercises that can activate and recruit the glutes. Here are some I use when training athletes for first-step acceleration: Two-leg hip bridge. The athlete lies face up with the knees elevated so the feet are about six inches from the buttocks, and the pelvis tilted so the lower back is as flat as possible. The athlete squeezes the glutes and slowly raises the hips off the ground, stopping when the belt line starts moving away from the sternum or when they reach the end of their range of motion. They hold the position for 10 to 15 seconds, during which time the glutes should be working more than the hamstrings. Single-leg hip bridge. This exercise begins with the same movement as above, but when the athlete reaches the top bridge position, they raise one leg

and hold for five to 10 seconds, again with the glute working more than the hamstring. If the athlete begins to feel a hamstring cramp, I have them perform more two-leg bridging before returning to this exercise. Outside leg raise. The athlete lies on their right side, extending the left hip to give the illusion that the left leg is longer than the right. From this position, they raise the left leg in the air, maintaining the extended hip position. They hold at the top of the leg raise for five seconds, then return to the starting position. Talk to the athlete as they complete these exercises, noting that they should feel the same glute firing mechanisms at work when they accelerate at the beginning of a running effort. If the glutes are not firing during simple movements such as these, the athlete will require some remedial glute strength work. Once that is completed, they will likely see a significant boost in acceleration. A final note on strength training for acceleration involves scheduling. If movement training and strength training are being performed on the same days, movement training should

come first (usually in the morning) and strength training should follow, after a recovery period of at least three to four hours. Any effective strength regimen will produce some muscle fatigue, and athletes in a fatigued state will have difficulty learning and executing precise movement patterns. UP TO SPEED As the old saying goes, “If you want to be fast, you must train fast.” Athletes who train using only slow movements in the gym and the weightroom will not experience maximum benefit. So no matter what specific exercises you choose for first-step acceleration development, it’s essential to incorporate game-like speed into the athlete’s training. Start slowly to ensure proper mechanics and technique, and build in speed as the athlete masters the movement patterns. By focusing on these areas, athletes will experience maximum results. Firststep acceleration is built on coordination, efficiency, and strength, and athletes who train for all these components will soon find that they are a step ahead, literally and figuratively. ■

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Performance Points

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Focus on Injury Prevention With Joshua Stoner, MS, CSCS, SCCC, USAW, Director of Strength and Conditioning, University of Missouri

How do you approach injury prevention in your football strength program? We are constantly evaluating our program to find areas where we need to improve the players’ strength or movement abilities. Our strength program focuses on the hang clean, squat, and bench, and we do all the compound movements and ground-based training exercises, but we know there’s more to football strength training than that. It’s also about targeting specific muscle groups where weakness can make a player more prone to injury. Can you give an example? This year we added a barefoot warmup to our workouts because we realized that when athletes are wearing shoes, the musculature in their feet isn’t being adequately trained. Stronger foot muscles help reduce ankle and knee injuries, and also improve players’ overall mobility and balance. When our players first did the barefoot work, they were surprised by how much more challenging basic movements were. During a standard forward lunge, some of them couldn’t keep their balance once they took a step. They weren’t used to making their feet activate and grip, so they didn’t have the same base of support as when their shoes were on. We keep the barefoot movements very basic. A typical warmup might include the forward lunge, backward lunge, and even a simple heel-toe walk, making them hit the heel and roll up on the ball of the foot. We also take the carioca or a shuffle and have them do it slowly—and it’s surprising how many guys almost fall over when first trying it. Some players have told us that after doing the barefoot warmups for a while, they feel a lot better coming out of their turns during our running drills, and they have better balance. I’m confident that it has also helped us avoid some foot, ankle, and knee injuries. How do you evaluate movements to look for deficiencies that may make players more injury prone? We’re currently implementing a movement screen for several of our teams. Essentially the goal is to identify some areas that are particularly important for mobility and injury prevention—like the shoulders, knees, hips, and ankles—and come up with a series of basic movements that we can put our guys through in five or six minutes to evaluate their movement patterns.

For example, one part of the movement screen is a simple standing-in-place backward lunge while holding a stick behind the back (one hand at each end). If an athlete’s rear leg goes out to the side during the lunge, we know he’s compensating. It might be a gluteus medius firing problem, so we’ll evaluate him further and prescribe an exercise such as a seated band movement: You wrap an elastic band around the knees while the athlete is seated, then he assumes a squat stance and opens his knees to activate the gluteus medius. Or we might have him stand up and do a walking band exercise. The point of the movement screen is to identify inefficient or deficient movement patterns, and we’ll come up with individual solutions to address any problems. What other areas are important to address for injury prevention? The shoulders take a beating during football games, and they’re also worked very hard during our strength training. So it’s essential that athletes are strong and flexible in this area. We use a basic three-day split for shoulder and scapula work. Day one is a rotator cuff circuit that incorporates internal and external rotation, empty-can style. The next day we do a scap circuit, with retraction, protraction, depression, and elevation to engage the scapulae. The third day is a rotator cuff circuit with upward and downward rotations, 90-degree internal/external rotation, and a bent-over shoulder extension. One area where we really see the benefits of this shoulder work is the bench press. Our players are better able to hold their position and keep their back tight. A lot of guys come in without adequate strength in the upper back and scapula region, so they become “arm pressers,” and the next thing you know their shoulders hurt. By addressing shoulder strength and flexibility, we make them better lifters in the weightroom, and more importantly, better players on the field.

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Panther POWER

Known for its toughness, the University of Pittsburgh men’s basketball team benefits from a strength program built around “training blocks” with specific goals and a plan for how to achieve them. BY TIM BELTZ hen I arrived at the University of Pittsburgh in 2000, our men’s basketball program was going through a rough patch. The team had finished with a winning record only once in the previous seven seasons and hadn’t won an NCAA Division I tournament game since 1991. During my first four years on the job, our team rattled off three consecutive Sweet 16 appearances, and we have reached the Big East Conference championship game seven times in the past eight seasons—a record-setting streak. We enter the 2008-09 season as the reigning conference tournament champions, and all indications are that we’re poised for another deep postseason run. There are several reasons our program has experienced such a successful turnaround, and strength and conditioning is definitely one of them. We’ve put together a program that combines a team-wide training approach and individualized planning, with a focus on consistent progress and ensuring that all weaknesses are quickly identified and addressed. I don’t pretend that we’ve achieved perfection, but I believe we have developed a system that works.


BLOCK BY BLOCK In preparing the strength and conditioning program for our basketball team, my philosophy is based on “block periodization.” This concept was popu-




Tim Beltz, MS, CSCS, SCCC, is the Strength & Conditioning Coordinator for men’s basketball at the University of Pittsburgh. He can be reached at: TR AINING-CONDITIONING.COM

Circle No. 130

SPORT SPECIFIC larized by Vladimir Issurin and Anatoly Bondarchuk, the latter an Olympic gold medal-winning hammer thrower now considered one of the world’s foremost throwing coaches. The philosophy is based on using several different exercises to train a specific function and pursue well-defined goals. Block training starts with identifying team qualities, or “training traits,” and designing a program that enhances them through cycles of highly concentrated, specialized workloads. The basic blocks involve accumulation (developing basic abilities), transformation (developing specific abilities), and realization (pre-competition training, maximum speed, and recovery). For example, let’s say I want our players to perform the speed squat to improve explosiveness, but I feel their spinal stability is insufficient or their technique is not sound enough to make speed squatting completely effective, and more importantly, completely safe. In our next block, we might utilize single-leg exercises in combination with explosive med

ball throws until we have improved our movement mechanics and stability to the point where speed squatting is possible. During the season, our training blocks normally last for three to six lifting workouts over a two-, three-, or occasionally four-week span, depending on the focus and our travel schedule. In the off-season, we schedule roughly 10 workouts over the course of a block. I like to use small training blocks that hone in on one specific concept, skill, or area of strength. By focusing on concrete short-term goals in each block, such as speed strength, relative strength, or explosive strength, the athletes can master a skill or correct a weakness, feel a sense of accomplishment, and then move on to more difficult tasks and more advanced training. If we tried to simultaneously address too many aspects of training, the players could easily lose focus and feel I was putting them through workouts with no particular direction. Another advantage of our philosophy is that it relies on the concept of linear teaching. Once you’ve developed a

particular training trait or addressed a shortcoming, you can shift your focus to the next priority and simply use maintenance cycles to prevent backsliding. For instance, if we focus on improving aerobic fitness in one training block, we can move on to a sport-specific skill or strength development regimen and incorporate moderate aerobic work into our training sessions. The players see themselves adding new strengths, skills, and exercises to their repertoire and building on old blocks with new ones, so it makes team progress a very tangible and accessible concept. Block periodization provides the framework around which we build our training year. Here is an outline of our typical calendar: • Summer: Four three-week blocks focusing on general physical preparation work. • Early fall: Two three-week blocks focusing on speed of movement and strength development. • Preseason (mid-October to mid-November): One four-week block focusing

TABLE ONE: DAY BY DAY This is a sample block that we might use during our summer training period to teach the Olympic movements, improve body weight squat technique, and promote upper-body hypertrophy.

Day #1 Clean pulls Body weight squats Bench press RDLs One-arm DB rows

heavy light light heavy heavy

Day #2 RDLs Bench press Squats One-arm DB rows Clean pulls w/stick

light heavy heavy light light

Side bicycles Alternate lunges Strap pulleys

3 x 15 3x8 3 x 15

Bent knee HE Triceps DB shrugs

3 x 15 4 x 10 sec. 3 x 15 sec.

Day #4 One-arm DB rows Squats Clean pulls Bench press RDLs

light heavy light light heavy

Day #5 Clean pulls Squats RDLs One-arm DB rows Bench press

heavy light light light heavy

Accessory work Strap pull chest Biceps Alternate lunges DB laterals

3 x 15 4 x 10 2 x 12 3 x 15

Ground pull-ups Golf ball pick-ups DB shrugs Triceps

x 25 3x8 4 x 15 sec. 4 x 15 sec.

Accessory work

Day #3 Myofascial Conditioning w/Karvonen heart rate formula 40 min. Incline squats 2 x 20 Swiss crunches 3 x 25




SPORT SPECIFIC on restorative work and core training. • Non-conference season (mid-November to late December): Two threeweek blocks with training two days a week, focusing on strength. • Conference season (January to late February/early March): Three blocks of varying length with the focus determined by team performance and observed needs. • Tournament (March): No scheduled blocks. I try to arrange the best possible opportunities for our players to train at hotels and local gyms, but I also understand the demands of the travel, team commitments, and NCAA obligations, so I’m careful not to overwork the team at this time. • After the season: We like to give the players a week of complete down time and rest to begin the off-season. Then we’ll start working with individuals while conducting four weeks of strength training, usually broken into two blocks. We’ll typically have six to seven training days in each block, and focus primarily on corrective exercises and bodybuilding. There’s a more relaxed atmosphere during these sessions, which allows the players to recover mentally after an intense season.

THOROUGH EVALUATION One of the most important aspects of our strength program is the way we evaluate incoming athletes—freshmen and transfers alike—when they first arrive on campus. As they are introduced to college-level training, there are several ways we make sure they are physically ready for the rigors of the Pitt basketball program. Our evaluation includes tests of their body weight bench press (for max reps), vertical jump, and vertical jump with drop step. This is followed by movement analysis. Movement screens have become a popular training tool in recent years, and I have devised my own screen that isolates what I feel are the most important movement skills for basketball players and reflects my understanding of the Functional Movement Screen. The results give me the information I need to tailor our strength program for each individual. My movement screen consists of an overhead squat with a stick, ankle range of motion (ROM) tests, and having the athlete step off an 18-inch box and land in a squat position, holding the landing

for eight seconds. As the players complete each movement, I first look for ability to perform the exercise without discomfort. If they tell me something hurts or they show signs of difficulty, I’ll refer them to our athletic training or medical staff for evaluation. Here is a deeper look at what we evaluate during each movement: Overhead squat with stick. I’m less interested in seeing a perfect squat, and more concerned with two specific abilities. First, I observe whether the athlete can keep the stick’s position consistent while squatting. This shows how effectively the trapezius and latissimus dorsi support the arms when they’re extended over the head, a common position in basketball. It also reveals how the thoracic spine reacts when put into extension. The second thing I look for is pelvic stability. The movement is a traditional Olympic-style full squat, so I want to see if the athlete can maintain good pelvic position without an anterior shift as they pass 90 degrees of ROM. Pelvic stability during hip flexion is very important during the frequent short sprints required in high-level college

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SPORT SPECIFIC basketball. I’ve noticed that most basketball players cannot get into a good deep squat position with their feet flat on the ground, so I’ll often adjust their foot position during the screen by allowing slight plantar flexion. Ankle ROM. This exercise is performed on a balance board. At first, the athlete is allowed to wear a running shoe, but once they’re comfortable on the board, they go barefoot. As they perform plantar flexion and dorsiflexion movements and inversion and eversion, I look for any lack of mobility. Ankle ROM on circle board. This helps identify individuals who have experienced ankle problems in the past and may have lost ROM as a result. Once again we progress from wearing a running shoe to using the board while barefoot, and the movements focus on proprioception. Players displaying ROM deficits are referred to our medical staff for further evaluation, and de-

pending on the advice I receive, I may prescribe more balance board work on an individual basis. Landing off an 18-inch box. The key thing I look for as the athlete steps off the box is the landing position of the feet and knees. I want to see the gluteus firing, and any instability around the femur is easily visible with this movement. It also reveals how well the entire kinetic chain absorbs the impact of a two-footed landing. Our evaluation process also includes a spinal endurance test based on the McGill Big Three, outlined by Stuart McGill, PhD. The test includes the hyperextension isometric hold, 1/2 sit-up isometric hold, and side hover (plank) on the right and left. I want to see at least a three-minute hold for each position, and will limit spine loading exercises until the athlete can demonstrate adequate spinal endurance. I believe most lower back injuries can be pre-

vented by developing endurance in the spine—specifically the musculature of the lower back and abdomen—so this has become an important prerequisite in our strength program. SUMMER INTO FALL I feel our greatest conditioning and skill gains come from the summer program. During this time, we place special focus on getting new players up to speed after their evaluations. Early on, we are looking to build aerobic endurance, add muscular strength, and reinforce proper technique for all exercises. The specific drills and exercises we use vary from year to year. Table One on page 36 shows a sample of a typical summer block, designed to teach the Olympic movements, improve body weight squat technique, and promote upper-body hypertrophy. Each workout in Table One would be preceded by a warmup like the one

TABLE TWO: FOCUS ON WEIGHT Below is a sample template for our basketball team’s fall workouts. Players who need to lose weight follow the “Weight Management” regimen on the right, while players who are at their playing weight follow the regimen on the left. No Weight Adjustment Needed

Weight Management


Leg press

Incline squats Side bicycles

2 x 30 3 x 20

Ankle mobility drills Side hovers Hyper ISO VertiMax jumps

5 1 x 60 sec. 2 x 45 sec. light day

Goologs Clean pulls at knee

2 x 12 24 reps, .7m/sec w/tendo unit

Front squats RDL isometric (3 spots) Step-ups DB w/vest Reverse hypers

3x5 4 x 2, 7 sec. 3 x 10 4 x 15, one leg at a time

2 x 30 sec. (30 on/30 off) 3 x 18, 15 sec. 6 x 4 jumps, 25 sec. rest 3 x 12 4x6 3 x 15, no rest 4 x 15, one leg at a time, no rest

Goologs VertiMax jumps, clean pulls w/stick DB front squats RDL DB BW step-ups Reverse hypers “Red” or “green” day cardio: 45 min.*

* “Red” and “green” days are based on individual workout schedules. If an athlete is performing an individual workout that day, it is a red interval-based cardio day. If they do not have an individual workout, it is a green conditioning day. A red day’s cardio work might include 10 reps of two minutes each on an elliptical machine at moderate effort (aiming for a heart rate of around 140 bpm) followed by 40 seconds at maximal effort (around 180 bpm). A green day’s conditioning work might include Fartlek training for 35 minutes in a heart rate range from 130 to 150 bpm.




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SPORT SPECIFIC shown below. This is our movement prep/dynamic warmup and focuses on ROM development while also engaging the anterior and posterior abdominal muscles: • Myofascial warmup • Ankle ROM movements • Isometric lunge hold, 3 x 8 seconds (glute contraction) • Thomas test hip flexor stretch • Leg swing (abduction, flexion, and extension) • Clock lunge at 2, 4, 8, and 10 o’clock, 2 x 3 • Elevated lateral lunge, 2 x 8 • ISO hyperextension, 3 x 35 seconds • 1/2 ISO Sit-up, 3 x 30 seconds • Side hover, 3 x 25 seconds. A day’s workout from the cycle shown in Table One is then performed, and we’ll typically stick with that cycle for the full length of a block, with an emphasis on technique and work capacity. The light- and heavy-day reps are based on the wellknown Prilepin chart of percentages and repetitions. We limit volume early in the cycle until the players can perform the exercises reliably with proper technique, then we transition toward strength as a main goal. Building muscle is important for some athletes, but our main objective is to improve each individual’s relative strength—not add bulk as a team. In the second summer block, we’ll typically implement a familiar “top-down” approach to teaching the Olympic lifts—so if we’re teaching the snatch, for example, we’ll start with the overhead squat and work our way toward the ground. We’ll also increase the quantity of posterior-chain exercises. By the third block, we expect to see increases in the McGill Big Three tests, and we put the athletes’ added strength to use with more unilateral lower-body exercises. Once fall arrives, I add an extra dimension to our block scheme by individualizing athletes’ workout plans to address any weaknesses or movement deficits I observed over the summer. Everyone follows a template broken into lower- and upper-body segments, and I split the athletes into groups based on the exercises they perform. These groups allow athletes to push one another, and allow those with similar weight management goals, such as fat loss, to work out together and support each other. Table Two on page 38 shows a sample fall template broken into two parts. The column on the left applies to individuals who do not need to lose weight before the season begins, and the column on the right is for those who do. I often make significant modifications to meet individual needs, but this template provides a sense for how our fall conditioning program is built. MANY PIECES Our strength program’s success is a direct reflection of the support we receive from our sport coaches and athletic administration. Athletic Director Steve Pederson and Head Basketball Coach Jamie Dixon have made an unwavering commitment to developing our strength program, giving my colleagues and I the resources we need to help our athletes reach the next level. In describing the Pitt basketball team’s training strategies, I’ve sometimes used the word “I,” but in reality, the credit for our team’s success is shared among many people. From the guidance provided by our sports medicine staff, led by Athletic Training Coordinator Tony Salesi, to the nutrition counseling and personalized recommendations provided by our Sports Dietician, Leslie Bonci, there are many professionals working hard so that our players can be successful on the court. I’m proud to say that the strength program is just one important piece of the puzzle. ■ Circle No. 133


BY R.J. ANDERSON lace an 18-year-old and 20year-old side by side and try to guess who is older. That can be a tough task. Unless the 18year-old is a late bloomer, they both typically look like young adults. Now, put a 14-year-old and a 16year-old side by side. In most cases, you can immediately tell who’s who. Even when a 14-year-old has the physical maturity of someone older, once you start talking to the athlete, it becomes clear pretty quickly that he or she is not yet a young adult. If you’re in a setting with high school athletes, it’s easy to lump them all together. But in reality, the 13-, 14-, and 15-year-olds are very different—physically, mentally, and emotionally—from the 16- to 18-year-olds. When working with what we’ll call pre-varsity athletes, you need to alter your communication style, evaluation, and treatment plans to provide the best care.


SIMPLIFY YOUR MESSAGE Communicating with any high school athlete can be a challenge. When they are pre-varsity age, it’s important to adapt your communication techniques even further to match their listening and comprehension abilities. “Athletic trainers need to realize that these younger athletes are not simply mini adults, and they shouldn’t be treated as such,” says Ryan Hedstrom, PhD, ATC, Assistant Professor of Physical Education at Manchester College, who has an educational background in counseling and sports psychology and worked with Michigan State University’s Institute for the Study of Youth Sports and the Michigan High School Athletic Association from 2001 to 2006. “Athletic trainers should be very clear and concise in their communication with pre-varsity athletes. They receive and interpret feedback differently than older adolescents, so you have to be very careful about how you talk to them.” P.J. Gardner, ATC, CSCS, PES, AthR.J. Anderson is an Assistant Editor at Training & Conditioning. He can be reached at: TR AINING-CONDITIONING.COM



AGE Student-athletes in their early teens are no longer “kids” but not yet adults. When they’re injured, everything from your communication to assessment and treatment methods must follow an ageappropriate strategy.





PARENT ADVISORY While pre-varsity athletes crave autonomy, they still rely on their parents for many things. That’s why it’s important to involve parents in any injury discussions as early as possible. For Eric Scott, ATC, Head Athletic Trainer at Ashland (Mass.) High School, that means speaking at preseason parents’ meetings. “It’s so important to open the lines of communication and introduce yourself early on,” he says. “We do that before each season during meetings that involve every player and their parents. That way, parents see us and know who we are. If their son or daughter goes down on the field and we go out there to treat them, the parent knows who is standing there touching their kid.” Like most athletic trainers, Scott calls or e-mails a student-athlete’s parents anytime he refers the athlete to an orthopedist or other medical professional. He also contacts them for less severe injuries that might require missing a day or two of practice or competition, or to keep them abreast of any medical concerns he has about their child. “It shows that we really care about their kids,” Scott says. “And it’s also good for us. Parents can be your best ally for getting a pre-varsity athlete to complete in-home treatment and rehabilitation exercises.” Mary Shinkwin, PT, ATC, Head Athletic Trainer at Cambridge (Mass.) Rindge and Latin School, also recruits parents to reinforce rehab work. “If a younger athlete sprains an ankle for the first time and doesn’t know they have to RICE it and be vigilant about treating it, I’ll call the parents and tell them what needs to be done,” she says. “The kid is then getting the message from me and at home.” When a young athlete is hesitant to let P.J. Gardner, ATC, CSCS, PES, Athletic Trainer at the Colorado Sports & Spine Centers and at Liberty High School in Colorado Springs, Colo., evaluate an injury, he’ll immediately bring a parent into the process. “Sometimes I have to call the parents and tell them their son or daughter came off the field with a knee injury and wouldn’t let me touch them because they were scared and very emotional,” he says. “I explain that their child maybe doesn’t know or trust me yet, so I’m not getting a good read on things,” Gardner continues. “I then tell the parents I would like to see the athlete the following day when he or she has had a chance to calm down. The parents are usually very appreciative of that call and can prep their child for seeing me.”

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TREATING THE ATHLETE letic Trainer at the Colorado Sports & Spine Centers and at Liberty High School in Colorado Springs, Colo., says one common mistake athletic trainers make is overwhelming young athletes with too much information. “Using complicated medical terminology and describing the names of ligaments and tendons is not a good way to reach them,” he says. “If you get too technical, younger kids won’t understand and they’ll tune you out. “Also, if you give these kids too many options or descriptions, they won’t retain any of the information you’ve given them,” Gardner adds. “Instead, I try to spoon feed them just a little at a time. Over the years I’ve learned that the kids remember so much more of what I tell them when I boil it down and describe their injury in two or three sentences.” For Gardner, an example of streamlining a message might go like this: Your tendon is irritated. We’re going to ice it and then tape it. If you do these two exercises daily, it will help you get better. Do you have any questions? To make sure her instructions sink in, Mary Shinkwin, PT, ATC, Head

Athletic Trainer at Cambridge (Mass.) Rindge and Latin School, uses repetition. “You can’t take for granted that they understand or remember what you tell them,” she says. “When I’m teaching them about ice and compression, I ask them to repeat any instructions I gave. Or I may quiz them: ‘How long do you need to ice it for?’”

like children and are starting to want more autonomy in their lives, so they crave control. For example, give them a choice of exercises, brace colors, or other options whenever possible.” Communicating effectively with prevarsity athletes also means understanding that they want very specific truths. “Be careful what you say because they

“Be careful what you say because they always take you at your word,” Gardner says. “For instance, if you say they are going to be out for three days and you keep them out for four, they are likely to become upset and may not trust you the next time they get hurt.” Although you need to simplify communication with pre-varsity athletes, be careful not to talk down to them, says Hedstrom. “Educate them in a simplified manner about what you are rehabbing and why, and include them in the decision-making,” he explains. “This helps them become invested in the process. Pre-varsity athletes are at an age when they’re leery of being treated

always take you at your word,” Gardner says. “For instance, if you say they are going to be out for three days and you keep them out for four, they are likely to become upset and may not trust you the next time they get hurt.” APPROACHING ASSESSMENT When Shinkwin sees a 13-, 14-, or 15-year-old athlete go down with an

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TREATING THE ATHLETE injury, she takes a deep breath. For example, when a freshman girls’ soccer player begins rolling around on the field screaming bloody murder, Shinkwin, who has been an athletic trainer at the high school level for over 18 years, knows the situation may not be as dire as all the howling would indicate. “Freshman athletes are very, very emotional, especially girls at that age,” she says. “Some freshmen will cry and scream like they have a really serious injury, and it turns out they have a minor finger sprain. So when one of them has

an injury on the field, I spend a good amount of time trying to calm them down before I do anything medically. That way, I can get a truer indication of what’s really wrong.” Shinkwin makes a point of not arriving on the scene breathless and panicked. “I don’t rush out—I walk out so that I’m more composed when I get there,” she says. “I ask them what’s going on and remain calm. Sometimes, if they’re really hysterical, I just wait until they’re able to collect themselves. “If they don’t calm down, I tell them,

‘Okay, I’m going to start my evaluation,’” Shinkwin continues. “But I start by feeling around an area far from where I think they’re having pain. I don’t want to start twisting or poking the injury site because they might just shut down and not let me touch them anymore.” During the assessment, Andrew Gregory, MD, FACSM, Assistant Professor of Orthopedics and Pediatrics at Vanderbilt University, says growth plates are the biggest concern athletic trainers need to be aware of. “A lot of young teens have open growth plates, so they are at greater risk for fracture than sprain,” says Gregory, who is also Team Physician for Hillwood (Tenn.) High School and Vanderbilt and Belmont Universities. “The same mechanism of injury that’s probably going to result in a sprain in a more physically mature varsity athlete might be a fracture in a pre-varsity kid.” When assessing whether an injury is a sprain or a fracture, Gregory says locating bone tenderness is the key. “If you press on the bone and it causes pain, you can be pretty confident it’s a fracture,” he says. Palpating the injured area is especially important with younger athletes who have never been injured before. “They might not be able to explain an injury as well as an older athlete because they’re not sure of their body mechanics or able to describe different pain levels accurately,” Hedstrom says. The rehab process also requires special strategies. Shinkwin makes it very clear to her athletes what they need to do and reminds them that there is no instant gratification. “I spend a lot of time telling the younger kids there’s no magic cure and that it’s important for them to comply with the instructions I give them,” Shinkwin says. “I tell them they have to apply ice on a consistent basis and do all the exercises I prescribe.” Hedstrom makes it a point to carefully explain every exercise in detail. “Be clear with your expectations for each exercise and make sure the athlete knows what is and isn’t proper form,” he says. “Since they are less familiar with exercise and their bodies, understanding both the right way and the wrong way is very important.” When rehabbing pre-varsity athletes, it’s critical to not push too hard. “Because their bodies are likely not yet

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TREATING THE ATHLETE fully mature, a pre-varsity athlete cannot be pushed like an adult can,” Hedstrom says. The difference in rehab capacity should also be factored into return-toplay decisions. “I am more apt to keep younger athletes out a little longer than varsity athletes because they’re less familiar with their pain tolerance and what they can and shouldn’t play through,” says Eric Scott, ATC, Head Athletic Trainer at Ashland (Mass.) High School. “You don’t want to push them too hard because there is still a lot of growth and development going on and you don’t want them doing anything that could exacerbate a problem or predispose them to another injury.” MAKE THEM COMFORTABLE Addressing the physical aspects of rehab is only part of the puzzle. Gardner makes sure he is acutely aware of how younger athletes deal with the psychological side of their rehab. “I try to find out how they’re handling their injury mentally and tap into any emotional issues they’re going through because of it,” he says. For example, some younger athletes may be embarrassed by their injury or the extra attention it brings. “Some athletes need to be part of the background, doing their thing without me making them the focal point of the athletic

Keeping motivation levels high is also important. “To avoid overstress and burnout when rehabbing younger athletes, athletic trainers need to take creative measures and use variety to keep their interest,” Hedstrom says. “Maybe even provide a rehab teammate or incorporate games and goals into the rehab process. These athletes really need to see success and accomplishment to stay motivated.”

“Having just the kid and the athletic trainer in a one-on-one situation is intimidating for some younger athletes,” Scott says. “But if they have a friend with them, the three of us can develop a dialogue and the other person can help them answer questions.” Another major difference between a pre-varsity athlete and an older adolescent is their comfort level communicating with adults. Many are very shy around authority figures, including athletic trainers. “You sometimes have to go out of your way to introduce yourself to these athletes,” says Scott. “It helps to initiate conversations with kids by saying, ‘Hey, I saw you limping that last lap. Is everything all right? Are you experiencing pain?’ and go through the diagnostics that way.” For extremely shy kids, Scott calls on

“I am more apt to keep younger athletes out a little longer than varsity athletes because they’re less familiar with their pain tolerance and what they can and shouldn’t play through … You don’t want to push them too hard.” training room,” Shinkwin says. “If a kid is particularly shy, I might even ask if they’d rather meet in a one-on-one setting during school when the other kids aren’t around. “With pre-varsity athletes, you also have to be very sensitive to how they think they look when doing an exercise,” she adds. “I once had an athlete with a groin injury who was totally embarrassed doing the exercises I gave him, which I didn’t realize at the time. He did his reps the first day, but I didn’t see him for a while after that because he was so embarrassed. Since then, I make sure to ask athletes how they feel about specific exercises.” TR AINING-CONDITIONING.COM

‘Remember last practice you were limping after we ran that one play?’ The injured kid might reply, ‘Oh, yeah. My ankle twisted this way.’ The two of them are having a comfortable conversation while I’m listening and asking questions to keep it going and find out what’s wrong.” Making your athletic training room a welcoming environment can also help put young athletes at ease. Going to see

older siblings and varsity athletes to act as conduits. “I’ve had pre-varsity athletes who had a hard time approaching me when they got hurt, so I would ask an upperclassman to talk to them and introduce them to me,” he says. It can also be effective to ask younger athletes to bring along a friend or a coach they trust when visiting the athletic training room. “Having just the kid and the athletic trainer in a one-on-one situation is intimidating for some younger athletes,” Scott says. “But if they have a friend with them, the three of us can develop a dialogue and the other person can help them answer questions. The friend may say,

you should never feel like a trip to the principal’s office. “I try to make our athletic training room a safe haven,” Shinkwin says. “When they’re in here, I want them to feel open to tell me about whatever is going on. There shouldn’t be the same expectations about being tough that they get from their coaches.” “When they’re in the athletic training room, I tell them it’s okay to cry or scream, just don’t curse or bash their coach,” Gardner says. “I also let non-injured athletes come in and hang out. A lot of times younger kids’ parents can’t pick them up right after practice, so they’ll come to the athletic training room and read or do their homework.” BENEFICIAL EXPERIENCE Though pre-varsity athletes can be a difficult age group to reach, doing so effectively can be very rewarding for both the athlete and the athletic trainer. Having a positive experience with an injury early in an athlete’s career can help ease the emotional pain and distress of future injuries. And more than one athletic training career got its start from an injury suffered in the early teen years. For Shinkwin, the rewards of working with pre-varsity athletes far outweigh the difficulties. “One of the things I love about this age group is that they are blank slates and very impressionable,” she says. “There are so many opportunities to teach kids things that can really help them throughout the rest of their lives.” ■ T&C SEPTEMBER 2008



Knowledge at a Premium


Being well versed in health insurance issues can increase your value to your department. Here, an experienced and decorated athletic trainer offers his perspective on today’s insurance options.



BY DR. ROD WALTERS ou’re sitting in your office late one night, filling out health insurance forms that have piled up over the past week. Three athletes suffered injuries and you referred two more for consultations with a specialist, and the result is a mountain of timesensitive paperwork. Finally you stop, put down your pen, and sigh aloud: “This is not why I became an athletic trainer.” Sound familiar? Negotiating the complex and sometimes aggravating world of insurance and the financial side of health care has become part of the job


for many athletic trainers and administrators. Most view insurance issues as a burden, since every hour spent filling out claim forms is an hour you’re not providing care to athletes, organizing the athletic training room, or planning the future of the department. It’s not a problem I can solve in this article—though I would if I could. But I can equip you to better handle the administrative side of your job by presenting an overview of the health insurance landscape as it relates to athletic departments, based on my experience as a college athletic trainer for more than 28 years. What follows is some of what I’ve learned about the health insurance industry, and what it means to those responsible for ensuring that athletes receive all the care they need and deserve. THE CHALLENGE Athletic programs have diverse needs and priorities when it comes to budgets, programming, and administrative philosophy. Athletic directors and other program leaders must deal with shrinking budgets in our current tough financial times, while constantly striving to “keep up with the Joneses” in terms of facilities, recruiting, academic support, and countless other areas. On the health insurance front, potential liability for NCAA Division I schools increased in 2004 when the association removed existing limits on health care expenditures. Previously, these institutions could only cover “athletically related” accidents and injuries. Today, they may cover any accident or illness suffered by a studentathlete, whether or not it is related to sports activity. Many managed care plans limit the benefits available to physically active participants, especially those taking part in intercollegiate athletics, and thus the responsibility for medical expenses may fall on either the student-athlete’s family or the athletic department. The amount and quality of coverage provided typically reflects a deRod Walters, DA, ATC, is a sports medicine consultant and the former longtime Director for Sports Medicine at the University of South Carolina. A member of the NATA Hall of Fame and a former member of the association’s Board of Directors, he can be reached at: TR AINING-CONDITIONING.COM

LEADERSHIP partment’s available resources, and coverage levels should be consistent for all athletes within a program. Determining insurance coverage for studentathletes is an administrative issue and should not be the responsibility of the athletic training staff, but often, athletic trainers are given a share of the responsibility for handling paperwork and the administrative side of processing claims. Many also have a say in choosing a plan that will provide an adequate level of protection for the student-athletes. After a typical injury or illness, an athletic department initially files a claim with the athlete’s primary insurance, which often comes from a parent’s employer or a university-wide plan for enrolled students. Any leftover balances are then filed under the supplemental insurance coverage purchased by the athletic department. What about athletes who have insufficient primary insurance? While many colleges now require all students to have a minimal degree of coverage, it is possible to encounter athletes who are uninsured or whose primary coverage has a very large deductible. The athletic department assumes greater financial risk in these cases, and that may translate into higher premiums. Administrators typically take any uninsured or underinsured athletes into account when working with the insurance company to determine deductibles, premiums, and projected out-of-pocket expenses. EVALUATING THE PRESENT To judge the efficiency, effectiveness, and overall success of a health care delivery program, including the department’s insurance coverage, it’s important to look not only at costs but also the level of services provided to athletes. On the cost side, there are insurance premiums, out-of-pocket medical expenses, contracts for physicians, and medical pharmacy needs. Other specific costs vary by institution, and can include anything else not covered by the insurance company. You should ask several questions when deciding whether these costs are acceptable to your program: Do they fit within the department’s budget, or do they seem to be constantly straining the bottom line? Are the costs predictable from one year and one season to the next, or do they fluctuate unpredictably? Do you feel the services received TR AINING-CONDITIONING.COM

justify all the costs involved? And how does the total value of all services received by athletes compare to the actual out-of-pocket expenses paid by the athletic department in a given year? The services side of an evaluation should focus on the care given to athletes. For instance, how often is it necessary for an athlete to go off campus or even out of town to receive services? To avoid this problem, some schools have found success having athletes designate the team physician as their primary care physician under their primary insurance plan. With this arrangement, urgent cases requiring specialized tests can be expedited, with less red tape from the insurance provider. Here are some other key questions: If a special brace, an MRI, or another less common medical service is needed, is the authorization process lengthy and complicated? How satisfied are athletes with their non-athletic department health care providers? And what is the relationship like between athletes’ primary insurance plans (which can of-

ten vary quite substantially) and the supplemental insurance provided by the athletic department? Then there are those in-between areas to be evaluated, which touch both the cost and benefit sides. For instance, many athletic departments take advantage of the high profile and cultural importance of college athletics by forming an affiliation with local health care providers. In exchange for promotional benefits and access to a group of healthy young athletes, physicians and hospitals may enter into agreements to provide free or reduced-price services. These arrangements can be beneficial to both parties involved and often come with mutual goodwill, but that shouldn’t prevent an objective evaluation of the quality of services provided. Whenever one of these agreements is up for renewal, the athletic department—with the sports medicine staff taking the lead—should make an effort to compare the services received with other available options in the area. Many segments of the health care in-

HEALTH INSURANCE GLOSSARY Below is a list of some important terms to know when dealing with health insurance in an athletic setting. Aggregate Deductible: The total amount an insured party is responsible to retain for the sum of all losses up to a specified deductible during a policy period. Disappearing Deductible: A deductible that decreases as the cost of a medical service increases, so that small claims are not covered at all but large claims are paid in full. Flat Deductible: A set amount that is the responsibility of the insurance policyholder for each claim. In-Network/Out-of-Network Benefits: In-network providers have prearranged fee schedules for certain services provided to policyholders. Out-of-network providers do not have any such agreements, and as a result, some insurance plans will not cover their services, or cover them only at a reduced percentage. Loss Run: A report of claims and actual payments. Notification of Injury Form: A communication device used between a policyholder and an insurance company to establish pertinent injury and demographic information. Out-of-Pocket Expenses: Payments made by a policyholder for costs not covered by the insurance plan, such as per-claim deductibles. When calculating out-of-pocket costs, institutions may include policy premiums as well.



LEADERSHIP dustry are highly competitive, and clinics and doctor’s offices may compete with each other by adding new diagnostic and treatment equipment, improving facilities, or hiring specialists with in-demand skills. Because of your level of sports medicine knowledge and frequent interaction with the athletes who receive services, you are in an ideal position to advise athletic administrators on whether their existing local health care relationships are providing the best possible results. NEW & EXISTING OPTIONS Turning our focus back toward insurance, it’s important to understand there are currently two standard options available to athletic departments. Each has its advantages and drawbacks depending on a program’s needs and resources. I’ll briefly explain them below, and then discuss a couple of trends I have recently observed in the insurance marketplace. Traditional supplemental plans offer coverage on a per-injury basis up to a pre-set policy limit, in exchange for an agreed upon premium. The policyhold-

er (in this case the institution or athletic department) pays the premiums and may also cover any deductible applied over the coverage period. Deductibles play an important role in setting premiums, because they determine who assumes the risk for most low-cost health care services that will be needed over the course of a given year. Essentially, lower deductibles typically mean higher premiums, and higher deductibles mean lower premiums. Aggregate deductible plans, sometimes referred to as self-insurance, typically feature a high deductible and lower premiums. An institution that chooses this option assumes greater risk of loss because the coverage doesn’t kick in until many expenses have accrued. Aggregate deductible plans are very popular with programs that contract directly with health care providers to control their costs. With an aggregate program, the athletic department can pool resources into an account from which claims are paid, and the unused amount is refunded to the department annually. This way, the institution is rewarded for cost contain-

ment and limiting the number of claims it files in a given year. If your athletic department uses a higher-deductible plan, there are usually significant savings on premiums in exchange for the higher out-ofpocket costs. Another cost-saving measure, especially for programs with students who have no primary insurance, is the use of a third-party administrator (TPA), who will subrogate claims based on established global contracts. In plain speak, that means a TPA can negotiate discounts for client institutions to maximize savings. Most TPAs can also help clients manage and project their costs from year to year to avoid financial difficulty due to a “surge”—for instance an unusually high injury rate over a semester or academic year. The TPA can even help uninsured student-athletes obtain group discounts on their own coverage. For either type of insurance plan, but especially with the aggregate policies, a major goal for the institution when setting a deductible is to minimize out-of-pocket expenses through contracts with health care providers.

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LEADERSHIP Using this strategy, athletic departments can improve the level of care and services provided to student-athletes while controlling their spending. It’s also important to remember that athletes’ primary insurance plans will share a large part of the health care cost burden, so collecting and evaluating insurance information from each athlete in the program is essential to planning the department’s own insurance and projecting expenses. One more important aspect to understand is that some insurance plans come with network requirements. This means that in order to receive benefits, an athlete must use a health care provider who has signed on as a member of an insurer’s network. Many consider this to be among the most troublesome aspects of health insurance today, but insurance companies see the use of networks as one of the keys to controlling their own costs. They would argue it allows them to improve the quality of coverage they provide to all their members. If an athlete’s primary health insurance uses a strict network model, the athletic department’s supplemental insurance may

be called upon to cover a greater number of medical expenses. An important recent trend among college athletic departments is the increased use of some form of an aggregate insurance policy. Essentially, an agreement is signed between the insured institution and the provider of coverage, and a set amount is paid to the insurance company. A portion of that money covers the actual insurance premium, and the balance is put into a reserve account to pay claims once they have been adjusted by third-party administrators. Claims are paid from the reserve only after all adjustments have been made and primary insurance has been exhausted. This way, all claims are adjusted to the maximum, and the institution receives the most health care for its financial investment. FUTURE CONSIDERATIONS How can all this information help in your own setting? When working with administrators to evaluate the quality of care provided under your current insurance program, I believe it can assist in setting priorities.

For example, almost all athletic trainers agree there is a sense of urgency when it comes to evaluating injuries and screening athletes for medical problems. Special testing such as MRIs, cardiovascular screenings, and other special radiographic tests are important for maintaining athletes’ health and safety. Insurance plans of any type that seem to “understand” the importance of these tools by including them as covered services can be most advantageous to athletic programs. As members of the athletic health care team, we want all decisions to be made based on what’s best for the athlete—never on whether a certain test or procedure will hurt the department’s bottom line. The right insurance plan can help us in this regard. Let’s be honest: Health insurance is not one of the more fun or fascinating aspects of an athletic trainer’s job. But increasingly, it’s an area where we must maintain an up-to-date understanding to help our athletic departments make the best decisions. And ultimately, that allows us to do what we really care about—ensure the wellbeing of our athletes. ■

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Behind the Products Here’s a look at how leading companies have utilized research and the trends in sports nutrition to advance their products. The information below was provided by the participating companies, and these companies are responsible for the statements presented in their profiles.

CytoSport Nutrient Timing: For all athletes, collegiate or otherwise, timing and convenience are very important factors in meeting dietary requirements for energy, nutrients, and recovery. Ideally, real foods provide the fluid, energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients. But in reality, the exigencies of daily living, travel, study, training, and completion require that attention be paid to meeting the dietary needs of athletes more conveniently. Athletes require nutritious, good-tasting, stable, and transportable foods that can be available at any time of the day. According to George A. Brooks, PhD, Professor of Integrative Biology at the University of CaliforniaBerkeley, Muscle Milk Collegiate from CytoSport is an excellent option when considering these factors. Circle No. 544 Recovery and Hydration: Athletes, coaches, athletic trainers, and scientists all know that recovery takes time, and that fluids, energy, and electrolytes lost in training and competition must be replaced. Because sweat rates can exceed an athlete’s ability to consume fluids, particularly in hot and humid environments, fluids and corresponding electrolytes need to be restored regularly. Some can be restored during training and competition, but most restoration needs to occur in the recovery phase. Dr. Brooks says that Cytomax Performance Drink and Cytomax Collegiate provide added benefits for recovery. For recent university study results, visit 50

T&C SEPTEMBER 2008 To learn more about CytoSport’s nutrition products and how they can benefit athletes, call 888-298-6629. Circle No. 545

EightBall Nutrition

A carb-free Creatine Clear shuttles creatine into muscle stores. Research indicates that there is no need for high-calorie dextrose to be included with creatine supplementation for optimal results. In a study that looked at 11 male athletes over five days, creatine transporters were up-regulated by an average of seven percent with EightBall Nutrition Creatine Clear, whereas creatine-plus-dextrose led to down-regulation by six percent. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of Creatine Clear for driving creatine into muscle, and shows that the product actually outperforms creatine-plusdextrose for up-regulating creatine transporters, thereby further increasing its effectiveness. For more information on EightBall Nutrition products, call 888-331-6601. Circle No. 546

Lifexpand Glyc-N-Go from Lifexpand is a novel, chewable dietary supplement designed to maximize nitric oxide, which may have implications related to improved exercise performance and recovery. Data from recent scientific studies

conducted at a major research university in the U.S. indicate that the active ingredient in GlycN-Go results in increased blood nitric oxide. These findings were seen in previously sedentary men and women (a sample of 30 people), as well as in resistance-trained men (a sample of 15 people). Additionally, the active ingredient, glycine propionyl-L-carnitine, results in a potent antioxidant effect. Glyc-N-Go is certified and tested by Informed Choice for banned subtances, so Olympic athletes can safely use it. For further information, contact Lifexpand at 866-399-LIFE. Circle No. 547


Lyte’N Go from Lifexpand is a convenient, tasty, chewable electrolytereplacement tablet. In addition to electrolytes, all-natural Lyte’N Go contains vitamins and minerals that research has shown to be important for athletic performance, including vitamins B3, B5, B6, B12, and C, folic acid, zinc, chromium, and calcium. Several studies have found that these ingredients can reduce oxidative stress, boost energy, and aid in recovery after strenuous physical activity. Lyte’N Go also helps with the body’s intake of water to prevent dehydration, and restores energy lost during heat exposure or strenuous activity. Many endurance athletes find the chewable TR AINING-CONDITIONING.COM

NUTRITIONAL PRODUCTS delivery system better because they do not need to force themselves to drink excess fluids before working out. For further information, call Lifexpand at 866-399-LIFE or visit the company’s Web site at Circle No. 548

endurance gains within the first month - use. of Con-Cret To learn more, call ProMera Health at 781-878-8798 Circle No. 549

ProMera Health

ProMera Health

- is a proprietary form of Con-Cret creatine that has undergone a variety of tests for safety and performance at three major universities. The main - is that clinical advantage of Con-Cret it greatly enhances absorption from the gastro-intestinal tract compared to other forms of creatine. That means more creatine in the bloodstream to supply the muscles when compared with standard creatine monohydrate (CM), without the side effects that come from “super-dosing” with CM. This yields dramatic strength and endurance gains. Studies reveal a nearly 60-fold increase in potency (solubility and bio-availability) in Con- as compared to CM, and more Cret than a five-fold increase compared to second-generation creatines. As a result, more than 95 percent of volunteers reported dramatic strength and

At the 5th World Congress on Sports Trauma, researchers reported that pain relief drugs designed to inhibit or block cyclooxygenase pathways (COX-2) also interfere with tendon, bone, and cartilage repair. NSAIDs in particular were found to not only inhibit COX-2, but also virtually block protein synthesis in muscle tissue. Other researchers have found further evidence that NSAIDs have negative effects on muscles health. AminoActiv® is a new compound that research has shown to be as effective as the leading NSAID (ibuprofen) at controlling and relieving pain and inflammation from athletic over-exertion, without G.I. and kidney the toxicity, impedance to healing, or negative effects on muscle. Even super-therapeutic doses had no negative on blood chemistry or organ profiles. AminoActiv is also an ATP accelerator, so it actually enhances the rate of recovery of tissue that has suffered damage due to over-exertion. Circle No. 550


Informed-Choice Informed-Choice is committed to helping ensure the purity of nutritional supplements and it relies on HFL Sport Science to conduct product tests. HFL Sport Science has been testing supplements for banned substances against the World Anti-Doping Agency list to ISO17025 standards since 2002. The lab tests more than 3,000 products annually, and currently works with more than 90 companies worldwide, including 35 American and Canadian brands. HFL works closely with supplement manufacturers and suppliers to reduce the risk of contaminated products finding their way into sports, thus helping ensure that athletes know exactly what they are putting into their bodies. This track record has earned HFL the support of UK Sport, the United Kingdom’s equivalent to the U.S. Anti-Doping Agency. For more information, call 720-289-2401 Circle No. 551



A Better Way to Sled Train “The Gilman King Crab Sled is one of the most innovative products on the market today for developing explosive power in football players. Every football coach and strength coach in America is looking for that edge to develop power in the hips, knees, and ankles. In football, the goal has always been to stay low and drive hard. It has been proven time and again that the “low man wins,” and this concept applies when training is supplemented with the King Crab Sled. “The special elevated handlebar allows a player to drive the sled in a footballspecific body position. Pushing the sled develops an explosive burst and improves hip flexibility, while pulling the sled develops total-body strength. The versatility of the sled and the four different harnesses (belt, shoulder, singlehandle, and rope), make it one of the best sleds available. The 30-foot-long, two-inch-thick pulling rope for developing strong hands, grip, upper back, and core muscles is one of the many innovative features and accessories available to take your team to the next level.” Al Johnson, MS, CSCS, MSCC Former Ohio State University, West Virginia University, and Baltimore Orioles Strength Coach; currently the Sports Performance Director at Velocity Sports Performance in Mount Pleasant, S.C.

Gilman Gear P.O. Box 97 Gilman, CT 06336 800-243-0398 Fax: 860-823-1859 T&C SEPTEMBER 2008



Meeting Coaches’ Needs with Innovative Products How do you determine when there is a need for a new product in the market?

J.P. Stockton is the Brand Manager at Hammer Strength. He has been with the company for four years, and received his degree in marketing from the University of Tulsa.

There is always a new and better way to achieve success. Leaders in the athletic market are constantly striving to improve and push the limits of the human body. We work very closely with our customers and with leaders in the strength and conditioning industry to understand what their goals are. Based on their needs, we look to develop products that provide a vehicle to help them achieve their goals. How much research and development goes into making a new product? Our research and development is done on the ground with experienced coaches and athletes every day. There is a continuous flow of information between our product development teams and the coaches we collaborate with. We combine the information and feedback we receive with our experience and commitment to quality, and design products to specifically meet and exceed identified needs. Our equipment is built to go beyond the rigorous standards of an athletic weightroom. We extensively test our products to make sure they meet Hammer Strength’s criteria of reliability, durability, and performance. It is extremely satisfying to work with a coach or group of coaches on a specific problem or goal they have in mind, and deliver a product that assists in achieving that goal. We are a tool in a coach’s tool box and we want to be part of the solution. Can you explain the process for developing a new product?

Hammer Strength 5100 N. River Rd., Ste. 300 Schiller Park, IL 60103 800-634-8637 Fax: 847-288-3796 52


A concept comes from a need within the market. Ground-based training, for example, was developed to address the need for strength and power training that allows an athlete to “ground” his or her feet on the floor, generating force from the ground—just like the athlete must do on the playing field. We then analyze the specific movements the machine is expected to perform, training applications, user height and weight ranges, and most importantly, biomechanics. When these details are finalized, our engineering staff designs a

product that will move naturally with the human body. We go through a couple rounds of prototypes with various functional teams reviewing the progress to make sure we have achieved our objectives. We then subject the product to about 45 days of load and cycle testing to verify the strength and rigidity of the machine. If the product passes our tests, we look to experienced coaches and industry professionals for final tweaks and improvements before releasing the product for production. What are the latest trends in the athletic industry? The trends reflect the coaches’ objectives. Nearly every coach is faced with limitations in time, money, and space. Therefore, multi-functional machines that allow a coach to train several athletes in a short amount of time, inside the parameters of budget and floor space, are critical. Winning games and keeping athletes healthy is the ultimate objective. Coaches are constantly looking for ways to maximize speed and strength training to benefit their teams during a game. They are looking for ways to train explosively in a controlled environment, which is why Olympic platforms and power racks have become staples in most athletic weightrooms. What determines the trends? Trends are based on ideas and concepts that challenge the traditional way of thinking or executing. There are many talented coaches who are always looking for the edge on their competition through preparation, training, and diet. The network is so small that if someone starts having success—winning games—with a new set of philosophies, there will quickly become a trend to replicate that success in other programs. What trends do you foresee in the future? Developing athletes in ways that replicate real-world scenarios in a controlled environment will continue to increase in importance. Speed training and strength training will grow in performance, as will the measuring of results to track progress. TR AINING-CONDITIONING.COM

NEW Product Launch The Polar Pool™ Unique features: • Cryotherapy spa offers cold-water therapy, hotwater therapy, and saltwater therapy all in one • Completely portable • Purification and sanitization systems keep the water clean while the solid-state cooling system maintains the desired temperature

CytoMax® PerformanceEnhanced Drinks Unique features: • Composed of a blend of Polylactate™, complex carbohydrates, electrolytes and functional ingredients • Polylactate™ aids in energy production, stamina, and endurance

Benefits for the user: • Programmable filtration, automatic ozone oxidation, and digital water safety monitoring • Solid-state cooling system allows for cold-water therapy without the need for compressors or chemicals such as Freon®

Benefits for the user: • Clinically proven to help users go stronger, longer by 26 percent over a leading sports drink • Available in several low-sugar, delicious, functional formulas: Anti-Oxidant, Vitamin C Bomb, Anti-Stress, Endurance, Focus, and Joint Support

The Polar Pool™ 617-480-7683

CytoSport, Inc. 888-298-6629

Circle No. 500

Thermoskin Heel-Rite Unique features: • Support straps lift the arch and provide even compression to help relieve heel pain Benefits for the user: • Provides effective daytime treatment for plantar fasciitis during a normal daily routine • Added benefits of heat therapy and increased circulation to speed the healing process

Swede-O 800-525-9339 Circle No. 502


Circle No. 501

Double Drawer #4 Athletic Trainer’s Case Unique features: • Large drawers glide for easy access • Includes tilt bins, organizer trays, and removable trays • Turf tire option available for easy mobility on any surface Benefits for the user: • More organization than ever before • Allows the athletic trainer to take the training room anywhere with ease

Wilson Case 800-322-5493 Circle No. 503




Egg Whites: The Natural Protein Source for Maximum Strength Gains Mac McCabe is the President of Egg Whites International.

How is your product different from ordinary egg whites? Our product is a liquid egg white, not a raw egg—it has been pasteurized, so it contains no salmonella, listeria, or other types of bacteria. It has also been double-filtered to remove the slimy texture normally associated with egg whites, so the product is as smooth as milk. We don’t add anything else, so it really is 100-percent pure egg whites. You can take a cup of our egg whites, throw it in a frying pan, and make the fluffiest omelet you’ve ever had; or take a cup of our egg whites, add some chocolate flavoring, and it tastes exactly like chocolate milk. What is the nutritional content of a serving? An eight-ounce cup of egg whites contains 26 grams protein, no fat, no cholesterol, only two carbs, and 120 calories. What are the main advantages of liquid egg whites? Egg whites are the purest, most bioavailable protein source known to man. The best protein powders on the market today are only about 70- to 80-percent bioavailable for up to three hours of muscle support. Liquid egg white protein is 100-percent bioavailable for up to five hours of muscle support.

Egg Whites International P.O. Box 18731 Anaheim, CA 92817 877-344-9448 Fax: 714-921-4674 54


Besides being a better source of protein, egg whites are also more affordable than typical whey protein powders. I’ve told a lot of athletes who use protein powder to cut their standard powder dose in half—instead of taking two scoops with water, take one scoop and stir it into an eight-ounce glass of egg whites. That way, their body will absorb about 20 percent more protein for two hours longer, and they’ll only use half as much of the expensive powder. What results have athletes seen after starting to use egg whites?

professional athletes and Olympians have lost an average of three percent body fat and put on five pounds of muscle. That’s because they’re getting a 100-percent building block from an all-natural food protein instead of a 70-percent building block from a protein powder. Their metabolism speeds up, which accounts for the fat loss, and their muscles benefit from the greater bioavailability of the egg white protein. How would a typical athlete use egg whites on a daily basis? The average athlete requires one gram of protein per pound of lean body weight per day. For a 200-pound athlete eating five times a day, that means 40 grams of protein per meal. One eight-ounce cup of egg whites covers 26 grams, and you can add a scoop of protein powder to make a 40-gram shake that’s convenient and easy to drink. We recommend that athletes have a shake first thing in the morning, and another one right before they go to sleep. The body does more muscle repair while you are sleeping than at any other time of the day. That’s why you want to consume ample amounts of protein not just during the day, but just before you go to bed as well. Athletes who use egg whites right before bed notice a real difference in the morning. They wake up feeling better— refreshed, more alert, and not as hungry—because their body wasn’t starved for protein while they were sleeping. Egg whites are also a great option for right after workouts. Nutritionists know that if you don’t take in protein within 30 minutes of a weightlifting session, you won’t build muscle effectively. Our liquid egg whites are easy to drink and provide a great post-workout protein source that can help athletes get the most out of their strength training.

In the first 30 days after incorporating egg whites into their nutrition plan, TR AINING-CONDITIONING.COM

LEG STRENGTHENING Creative Health Products, Inc. 800-742-4478 Creative Health Products, a leading discount supplier of rehabilitation, fitness, exercise, and athletic testing and measuring products, offers a unique legstrenght testing device. It is also ideal for measuring the strength of the thighs, chest, back, and upper torso. This easy-touse product is an innovative way to measure athletes’ improving strength and assess overall fitness. Circle No. 504 888-894-0204 is a new Web fitness resource that offers Manufacturer Direct Pricing for all your weight training needs. Check out the Flexgard brand of rubber-coated cast iron weight plates, available from 2.5 to 45 pounds. The Grip collection features a three-handle grip design on all weight plates, even the 2.5- and five-pound weights. If you are looking for a one-stop shop to purchase your weight training equipment, including weights, racks, bars, and dumbbells, has exactly what you need. In addition to the already excellent savings, log on now and receive a $25 discount on your initial Web site order over $100. Circle No. 505 Jump Stretch, Inc. 800-344-3539 The Strong Fireout Station provides 50 to 500 pounds of resistance and is ideal for helping linemen learn to play lower, longer. This station, which is excellent for improving players’ TR AINING-CONDITIONING.COM

first two steps off the line, consists of two rows of four Strong Bands that connect across the shoulders using Jump Stretch’s adhesive strap. Undo the strap and you’ve got two Strong Shuffle Stations to perform regular quick-feet running drills. For details, call Jump Stretch today. Circle No. 506 Keiser 800-888 7009 Combining low-impact technology with the ability to move safely at higher speeds, the Air300 Squat enhances explosive power—the key to superior athletic performance. The machine features conveniently positioned thumb-button resistance control on the ends of the hand grips, allowing the user to increase or decrease resistance without leaving the machine. With self-adjusting comfort pads and a sturdy, wide base, the Air300 Squat suits a wide variety of users. For additional safety, a rangelimiting feature helps prevent ligament and knee injuries. Circle No. 507 A unique and innovative product designed for the athletic performance market, the Air300 Runner from Keiser allows athletes to train the lower body for power by using the components of speed and resistance. Developed specifically for sports teams to improve acceleration and explosive power, this unit will improve the performance of any individual looking for a competitive edge. Its unique design, with easy entry, provides comfortable positioning while mimicking the body’s natural movement. Circle No. 508

Lane Gainer Sports 800-443-8946 Training Sweeps are a revolutionary new training tool used to provide instant technique feedback for drills in nearly any sport. Hurdle Sweeps and Target Sweeps provide tactile, audible, and visual feedback for hurdle training. Ground Sweeps provide a safe alternative for drills revolving around foot placement. Plyo-Box Sweeps feature a soft brush edge that provides varying heights and a soft edge for more traditional workouts. Circle No. 509 Hammer Strength 800-634-8637 The Hammer Strength Linear Leg Press was developed through years of collaboration with athletes and coaches to simulate the most natural, ergonomically correct paths of motion. The machine’s longlasting linear bearings create a smooth feel, and the intuitive flip-in, flip-out weight-racking mechanism is easy to use. Maximize your athletes’ performance with this durable and reliable machine. Circle No. 510 A top-selling product from Hammer Strength, the Jammer is part of the innovative Ground Base line. This versatile machine is ideal for training explosive movements. To maximize athletic performance, users train with their feet on the ground, promoting total-body stabilization and balance that transfers to movements on the playing field. With the addition of band pegs and a reinforced frame, the Jammer is the ultimate variableresistance training machine. Circle No. 511 T&C SEPTEMBER 2008


LEG STRENGTHENING Perform Better 800-556-7464 For leg strengthening, consider the Sled Dawg Elite, which now has added push handles to allow for powerful hip and leg drive. Its multipoint harness attachment allows for even load distribution during pulling, while the rear handles are great for pushing. Designed with heavy-duty 11-gauge steel and welded to create an extra-strong frame, its plate mount allows for standard or Olympic plate use. Find it in the 2008 Perform Better catalog. Call or go online today to request your copy. Circle No. 512 Perform Better now offers Prostretch, an amazingly affordable, simple, and effective way to stretch lower-leg musculature and increase skin and calf flexibility. Prostretch is particularly great for warmups and cooldowns. It’s portable and easy to tote with you. Printed instructions are included, offering a variety of stretches. Find it in the 2008 Perform Better catalog. Circle No. 513 NZ Mfg. Inc. 800-886-6621 TurfCordz Ankle Cordz are designed for abduction, leg curls, hip flexion, and other lower-body exercises. They can strengthen and rehabilitate after injury, or help prevent injury from happening in the first place. Ankle Cordz are easily portable and each unit includes two interchangeable eight-inch tubes for two different 56


resistance levels. To learn more about the full line of innovative TurfCordz products, go online or call the company to request a catalog. Circle No. 514 OPTP 800-367-7393 OPTP has introduced the new crystal blue Franklin Mini Roll. It is designed to comfortably support the spine, legs, and shoulders while athletes perform the Franklin Method exercises. The peanut shape massages the back, rolls away tension, and helps strengthen the pelvic floor. Approximately 10 centimeters in diameter and 16 centimeters in length, the Franklin Mini Roll is just the right size for a variety of exercises. Call or go online for more information. Circle No. 515 Power Systems 800-321-6975 The Power Stepper gives athletes the ability to develop strong firststep quickness and target the hardto-isolate inner- and outer-thigh muscles. Made of a 10-inchlong latex tube and two padded ankle cuffs with adjustable Velcro™ straps, the Power Stepper can be incorporated into any sport-specific drill or training exercise. It is available in three challenging levels: intermediate, advanced, and elite. Circle No. 516 Samson Weight Training Equipment 800-472-6766 The Samson #112U Unilateral/ Bilateral Leg Press is one of the most user-friendly, durable leg presses on

the market today. It features adjustable foot pedals, swivel-action hand controls for easy release, and .188 sevengauge stainless steel tubing that can be removed to allow one leg to work independently from the other. It operates on linear ball bearings for a smooth action that has to be felt to be believed. Call or go online today for more information. Circle No. 517 The new Samson Belt Squat is yet another way Samson Equipment is leading the way in custom, heavyduty weight training equipment. The brand new design limits the amount of floor space needed for this unique piece while still making it easy for athletes of all different sizes to use. It features adjustable handles, a unique load release that brings the athlete’s hands closer together while performing the exercise, an adjustable yoke that allows each athlete’s hips to stay in their natural range of motion, and an adjustable chain with three different size belts. Go online to learn more. Circle No. 518 SPRI Products, Inc. 800-222-7774 SPRI’s Xercuff® is the perfect tool for conditioning all the muscles of the lower body. The Xercuff was designed for full range of motion integrated movements, making it perfect for lower-body drills and exercises. Use it for forward, backward, side-to-side, and diagonal movement activities that help develop muscular strength, endurTR AINING-CONDITIONING.COM

LEG STRENGTHENING ance, agility, and balance. Combine it with the Xercuff Exercise Guide, also from SPRI, for a complete lower-body workout program. Circle No. 519 Gilman Gear 800-243-0398 The Mobility Arch helps develop dynamic mobility by improving athletes’ flexibility and range of motion in the groin, glutes, hamstrings, and lower back while bending, stepping, squatting, and lunging. It is an excellent tool for off-season conditioning and in-season flexibility training and is ideal for obstacle courses and agility stations. The Mobility Arch can be used indoors or out. It is

made entirely of aluminum, so it’s guaranteed not to rust. Circle No. 520

Lebert Fitness, Inc. 905-785-0626

The King Crab Sled from Gilman Gear develops power at the height of a player coming out of a stance. The special elevated handlebar allows a player to drive the sled in a posture that simulates game conditions. An athlete can generate force more efficiently when operating from a power position. Develop strength and power in the three most important joints: the knees, ankles, and hips. Use it to increase work capacity and pillar strength. It’s also excellent for general physical preparation. Circle No. 521

The Lebert Equalizer trains athletes for strength, agility, plyometrics, and so much more. Originally developed for portable body weight compound strength training exercises, this product has many outstanding functions. For instance, when used in cardiovascular training, the Equalizer works great for circuits and interval training. In a circuit, the participants can move from one of 75 different strength training and cardio exercises to another to get their heart rate way up. In an interval setting, a coach can have athletes break in two groups, with one doing Equalizer pullups and the other doing jumping jacks or Equalizer agility drills. Circle No. 522

Stabilize Chronic Shoulder Dislocators, Separators, and Subluxators With over a decade of experience in shoulder brace design the MAXTM Shoulder Brace by Brace International, Inc. is an evolution in shoulder girdle support. The snug-fitting, lightweight material (under 2 pounds) allows for comfort with movement while its strap design system allows for many options to help protect the glenohumeral joint. Maximum Protection, Maximum Range of Motion

We highly recommend its use for all sports.

800-545-1161 Toll Free - Circle No. 140

Circle No. 141


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LEG STRENGTHENING Lebert Fitness, Inc. 905-785-0626

Power Lift 800-872-1543

When it comes to athletic conditioning, most coaches agree that athletes should master body weight training before external loading. The Lebert Equalizer is the perfect tool for compound body weight exercises like chin-ups, pushups, and dips. Using their own body weight, athletes can adjust the level of difficulty (usually by a simple change in foot placement) to suit their needs. The Equalizer is perfect for everyone from beginners to pro athletes. Made of long-lasting steel, the Equalizer is portable, versatile, and easy to store. It is a leading tool for sports teams, boot camps, and athletes everywhere. Circle No. 523

Power Lift offers a unique method of exercising the glute and hamstring muscles with the Rotating Glute-Ham Bench. This machine more effectively works the hamstrings, gluteus maximus, gastrocnemius, and erector stabilizers for more pelvic stability than traditional methods. The large rotating pads greatly reduce discomfort on the thighs, allowing for complete stretches and contractions of the hamstrings. An Easy Glide sliding mechanism effortlessly adjusts the machine so lower kneepads can properly position the body for a more fulfilling workout. Circle No. 524


CREATIVE HEALTH PRODUCTS We stock popular brand name instruments for Fitness Measuring and Testing at the lowest prices.


Power Lift’s Full Body Squat is the latest addition to its lower-body strength training equipment line. The design of the Full Body Squat allows for a broader range of motion through the hip than traditional leg presses. Users can perform explosive movements due to the low inertia created by the four-bar linkage design. Adjustable shoulder pads let users of all heights properly align themselves in the unit. Single-leg movements can be performed as well, by lowering the single-leg isolator to the proper position. Standard features include weight

UCS Strength and Speed’s fully padded Elite Plyo-Safe boxes offer the ultimate combination of durability, stability, and safety, providing protection from common plyo box injuries. The understructure is made of 3/4inch oak covered in a dense foam and upholstered in tough 38-ounce vinyl. A raised lip on all the boxes allows for stacking and locking of the lids. The 24-inch box is bottomed with 3/4-inch high-density rubber for stability. Circle No. 526 UCS Strength and Speed’s Plyo-Safe G2 boxes provide a lightweight, safe, and sturdy option for your plyometric routines. An extra-large landing surface (30” x 36”) is covered in durable 21-ounce vinyl. The 100-percent foam core will not break down, delaminate, or soften over time. Handles allow for quick repositioning. Each box has three two-inch strips of Velcro™ to enable stacking and prevent slipping during use. Circle No. 527

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storage, four-weight loading horns, band attachments, a single-leg isolator, and an oversized angled footplate. Circle No. 525

Circle No. 143



5/22/07 11:41:29 AM


Fueling Champions Reprinted with permission from American Football Monthly

Sound nutrition practices contribute to Coach Tommy Moffitt’s strength and conditioning program at Louisiana State University and the Tigers’ BCS national championship. As Director of Strength and Conditioning at Louisiana State University, Tommy Moffitt knows how to train athletes to become champions. With his second BCS national championship at LSU in the last five years, Moffitt solidified his reputation as one of the country’s top strength and conditioning coaches. The 2003 Samson Strength and Conditioning Collegiate Coach of the Year, Moffitt understands the critical role that nutrition plays in supplementing the hard work athletes do in the weightroom. Moffitt was asked to address a topic of increasing importance to coaches, nutritionists, and athletes: How to help muscles recover from strength training with proper post-workout nutritional management. What has winning the BCS national championship meant to you personally in terms of your strength, conditioning, and nutrition program? It gives us satisfaction that what we are doing here at LSU for our studentathletes is working. There are so many different means and methods to use when training for various sports. Winning the SEC and BCS national championship gives our strength staff, our football staff, our team, and our administration the reassurance that we are headed in the right direction in terms of putting healthy, well-conditioned athletes on the playing field. How important is post-workout nutrition for athletes in your program? It’s actually as important as the workouts themselves. The body gets stronger, faster, and more conditioned when

CytoSport, Inc. 4795 Industrial Way Benicia, CA 94510 888-298-6629 Fax: 707-747-1534 TR AINING-CONDITIONING.COM

it recovers from the workout due to proper rest and nutrition. Therefore, it is very important that the athlete puts the correct amount of nutrients in the body at the right time to ensure that he or she recovers and is ready to go for the next training session or competition. Muscle Milk Ready-to-Drink (RTD) offers us a great source of quality proteins, carbs, and fats in a ratio that ensures the muscles get what they need—proper regeneration. What is your post-workout nutritional strategy and what products do you use as part of your program? It all basically depends on the type of work we do for each particular day. An easy recovery workout, the day after a game, a general flexibility training, or a rehab session would consist of basically a light carbohydrate solution like the new Collegiate Series CytoMax and/or a small serving of Muscle Milk either in powder or RTD form. More strenuous workouts are followed with at least one serving of Muscle Milk Collegiate Series powder or RTD. If we know the individual isn’t going to immediately eat a good, nutritious meal within an hour and a half, we would also recommend a Muscle Milk snack bar or two, depending on the size and caloric needs of the athlete.

their nutritional needs. What is your nutritional strategy for your athletes between workouts? As stated earlier, if they are not going to immediately eat a meal, they naturally would consume more products than those who will consume a meal within an hour to an hour and a half. Although Muscle Milk Collegiate products are well-balanced and nutritious, it’s important that athletes consume whole foods as meals and use our nutritional products to immediately fuel recovery following intense training sessions and competition. How has your understanding of how nutrition can help athletes recover from workouts changed over the years? When I first started coaching 20 years ago, there was a big emphasis on carbohydrates for recovery. But today, we know that a balance of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats actually improves recovery substantially over using just one of the nutrients alone.

Do you use different products, such as powders, bars, and RTDs, for different types of athletes?

How would you compare Muscle Milk Collegiate products to others on the market?

Yes we do—this is a very good question. We have so many different types of athletes with different body types and rates of metabolism that this is probably the most important aspect of supplementing an athlete’s diet. To supplement means “in addition to,” so in that regard you have to first educate your student-athletes that they must eat right and then use our products to add to what they have eaten, to round out or fine-tune

The thing that we like most is the variety of flavors that we get in the powders. Most companies limit your selection to strawberry, chocolate, and vanilla, but not CytoSport and Muscle Milk. CytoSport and Muscle Milk products taste great and are made with quality proteins, carbs, and fats to meet the demands of serious athletes all over the world.



PILATES EQUIPMENT Balanced Body, Inc. 800-PILATES Balanced Body has introduced the perfect athletic training tool: the EXO Chair. As the only Pilates chair in the industry with attachments for resistance bands, the EXO Chair lets your athletes do many exercises that used to be possible only on a Reformer, but in a fraction of the space. The EXO Chair improves strength, balance, flexibility, and agility—all of which are paramount to improving athletic performance and decreasing injury risk. Circle No. 528

Balanced Body’s Allegro Tower of Power provides your athletes with a complete full-body Pilates workout,

Power Systems 800-321-6975 Power Systems gives athletic trainers a new way to provide their clients with a Pilates workout. The new Reform Bar

keeping them on the field and performing at the highest level. A three-in-one exercise system with a Reformer, mat station, and tower, it easily folds down for quick storage. Find out why the world’s top athletes have made the Allegro Tower of Power system a crucial part of their training regimen. Circle No. 529

enables users to perform Reformerstyle movements with one simple piece of equipment. It consists of a 39-inch padded bar, two 30-inch resistance tubes (light or extra light), and adjustable cuffs. Plus, it fits in its own carrying bag. A 55-minute Reform Bar DVD featuring Leslee Bender is also available. Circle No. 530

Calling Cards Here is what these companies are most known for...


Equipment for training without straining.

Winning taste... Championship results.

The ultimate pool for home, healthcare, and sports.

Supplier of quality tools and resources for more than 30 years.

Uniquely designed products with unparalleled comfort and effectiveness.

Celebrating 25 years of being the professionals’ choice for fitness.

Get injured athletes back up to top speed quickly and safely.

The first topical OTC proven to kill more than 99.9 percent of MRSA.

Supplier of functional exercise equipment for rehabilitation and athletic training.




Warehouse Sale Raises $20,000 for Special Olympics

From left to right: Mike Akers (COO), Julie Pauletto (President and Owner), Bruno Pauletto (CEO and Owner), Alan Bolick (President, Special Olympics Tennessee), and Monty Kilburn (Vice President of Marketing).

Power Systems, a leading marketer of fitness and sports performance equipment, recently donated more than $20,000 to Special Olympics Tennessee, following the success of the company’s warehouse sale on May 10th. Power Systems founders and owners Bruno and Julie Pauletto presented a check for $20,022.35 to Alan Bolick, President of Special Olympics Tennessee, on July 1st at the company’s new headquarters in Knoxville. Power Systems raised the money for the donation during its Charity Warehouse Sale, a special sale that gives local fitness and sports performance professionals and enthusiasts the opportunity to purchase training equipment and other merchandise at discounted prices, with all proceeds benefiting the Special Olympics. Power Systems held its first Charity Warehouse Sale in 2005, and due to its success, the sale has become a regular event that employees and customers look forward to. This year’s record sales quadrupled the amount raised during the previous sale. Power Systems is a leading marketer of fitness and sports performance training equipment. Founded in 1986, the company aims to advance health, fitness, and physical performance for everyone by offering more than 2,000 innovative products. For more information, visit the company online.

Power Systems P.O. Box 51030 5700 Casey Dr. Knoxville, TN 37909 800-321-6975 Fax: 865-675-6566






Helping Athletes for a Quarter Century

Shouldn’t Your Athletes Get the Same Nutrition Boost as the Pros?

Total Gym® has been a leader in the functional rehabilitation, training, and conditioning of athletes for 25 years. Brett Fischer, PT, ATC, CSCS, owner of Fischer Sports Physical Therapy & Conditioning in Tempe, Ariz., had this to say about returning college and professional athletes to the field successfully with the aid of Total Gym: “Total Gym trains multiple joints simultaneously while allowing for sport-specific, functional training. Furthermore, because of the unique design of Total Gym, integration of balance and proprioceptors occurs during an exercise program on this machine. Fischer Sports Physical Therapy & Conditioning’s success directly depends on the results of our patients. Total Gym has been an invaluable tool to help our patients reach their goals.” Here are some other satisfied Total Gym customers: Bentley College Georgia Institute of Technology University of Idaho Florida State University University of Cincinnati Washington State University Benedictine University Nova Southeastern University Southern Methodist University San Diego State University University of California-San Diego Chicago White Sox Seattle Seahawks Pittsburgh Steelers Olympic Training Facility (Otay, Calif.) Mike Singletary Kellen Winslow, Jr. Kellen Winslow, Sr. Steven Tyler Chuck Norris Kenny Florian Wesley Snipes Todd Durkin Kathy Kahler

efi Sports Medicine 7755 Arjons Dr. San Diego, CA 92126 800-541-4900 Fax: 858-566-8898 62


The CytoSport Web site offers visitors a look at product offerings, information, usage suggestions, and more. Featured athletes include three recent Rookie of the Year stars: football’s Adrian Peterson, baseball’s Ryan Braun, and basketball’s Brandon Roy. You can also read about Chrissie Wellington, the current women’s Ironman Triathlon champion. There are testimonials from athletes who have found success with CytoSport products, and in-depth Cyto-Science information explaining why the company’s products can work for your athletes. Visit the site today to see all these features for yourself. Information Can Help Protect Your Athletes from Infection StaphAseptic® first-aid antiseptic has been proven as an effective over-the-counter wound treatment for preventing skin infections from cuts, scrapes, and abrasions. The product Web site offers a one-stop resource for education on MRSA and staph infections. Go online to find a training video called “MRSA...The Ticking Time Bomb.” You can also view pictures of skin infections, download a bilingual educational brochure, and see a six-step staph prevention program and recent news about MRSA. In addition, you will find product information on StaphAseptic, including where to buy it, along with an efficacy study showing that it kills more than 99.9 percent of MRSA, staph, strep, and other germs. Dive In to Extensive Aquatic Therapy Information HydroWorx believes it is important to educate consumers on the incredible benefits of aquatic therapy, and the HydroWorx Web site reflects this aim. Not only can customers and consumers discover the specific details of all HydroWorx products, but they can also read incredible stories of recovery and exercise involving the company’s pools. Moreover, the site’s Instructional Video Library provides nearly 100 intimate case study videos from around the country, showing new ideas and techniques in aquatic therapy. The main goal of the HydroWorx site is to inform current and future customers and the community about how therapy in a HydroWorx pool dramatically improves health and fitness. See Outstanding Strength Equipment at Life Fitness’s Site For more than 30 years, Life Fitness has been a global leader in designing and manufacturing a full line of reliable, high-quality fitness equipment. The Life Fitness Web site is a one-stop destination geared toward the needs of fitness facilities. It provides in-depth product information, key performance features, and specifications on Life Fitness cardio, strength, and Hammer Strength products to guide you in your purchasing decisions. Detailed information on the company, including articles, press releases, facility showcases, printable brochures, career opportunities, and more are all available online. Check Out Elite Resistance Products on NZ’s Site TurfCordz resistance products by NZ Mfg. meet the demands of high-level athletic training. Leading professional sports teams and international Olympians train with TurfCordz for explosive start drills and power-building footwork to enhance performance through resistance. Visit the company’s Web site to view NZ’s extensive line of TurfCordz, StrechCordz, and MediCordz resistance products. You can purchase products, request a catalog, access usage guide brochures, receive overstock item discounts, and get free UPS Ground shipping to the contiguous U.S. on any order placed through the site (certain restrictions may apply).



Overcoming Adversity: Nikko and Tyler’s Story By Caroline Creager

Caroline Creager, PT, is a successful physical therapist, award-winning author, and internationally recognized speaker.

Flashing lights, sirens, ambulances, flight for life: What happened? It was a dark, cold January evening when five students were driving home from a high school dance. A tire went flat, so they pulled over as far as they could on the snow-packed shoulder of a country road. Two 17-year-old boys in the group, Tyler Carron and Nikko Landeros, both high school wrestlers, walked around to the back of the vehicle as they prepared to change the tire. Suddenly, without warning, another vehicle crested the hill and slid right into them— pinning their legs up against their SUV. The boys’ lives would change dramatically forever. Both would become amputees— bilateral transfemoral for Nikko, and knee disarticulation on one leg and transfemoral on the other for Tyler. Rehabilitation would soon become a necessity. Less than two months after the accident, the boys were referred to my clinic, Executive Physical Therapy, to begin their long rehab journey. Nikko and Tyler’s parents requested that they have the same physical therapy appointment times so they could work out together.

OPTP 3800 Annapolis Ln., Ste. 165 Minneapolis, MN 55447 800-367-7393 Fax: 763-553-9355 TR AINING-CONDITIONING.COM

How could I prepare to work with not one double-amputee, but two? As young athletes, they were both accustomed to intense physical exercise regimens. How long would these boys stay interested in the standard amputee exercises of pressing their residual limbs into towel rolls? Not long at all, I surmised. After reviewing books on amputee rehab and researching exercises for amputees, it was clear that the literature lacked updated core strengthening

exercises for amputees. As the owner of the Berthoud Athletic Club, I had access to expensive cardio and weight machines, but I instead decided to create a fun, unique, and challenging exercise program for Nikko and Tyler using inexpensive equipment—items found in most training facilities and clinics throughout the world. I purchased two each of the following items from Orthopedic Physical Therapy Products (OPTP): Core Challenge Rollers, Soft Gym Overballs, Gymnic Exercise Balls, Power Medicine Balls, Thera-Bands®, BOSUs, and foam rollers. I adapted exercises from several texts, including Core Strength Training Using Inflatable and Foam Rollers, Therapeutic Exercises Using the Swiss Ball, Therapeutic Exercises Using Resistive Bands, and The Intrinsic Core: Using Soft Gym Overballs. These items, too, are available for purchase from OPTP. Improving core and leg strength and decreasing sensitivity in the residual limbs were top priorities, since this would enable Nikko and Tyler to progress to walking with prosthetics. The unique, dynamic nature of the Core Challenge Roller, Soft Gym Overball, BOSU, and Thera-Band allowed the boys to desensitize their residual limbs and improve their balance, strength, coordination, and endurance much more rapidly than they could have with a rolled up towel and traditional amputee exercises. After two months of rehab, thanks to OPTP and its high-quality, innovative products, Tyler was able to walk down the aisle, wearing prosthetics, to receive his high school diploma. Nikko—a junior—stood close by, cheering on his friend. Nikko returned to wrestling in his senior year, and Tyler attended college—where he walks all over campus, of course! T&C SEPTEMBER 2008



“I told them I would take on the assignment, but I would need two Shuttle MVPs.” What have you been up to recently? I was fortunate to be invited to train the U.S. women’s Olympic basketball team for six months. This was a dream assignment. They expect to have China in the NBA in the next four to five years. I also had a chance to train the men’s team as well. How does the MVP help you in your basketball training? Upon retiring from the Sacramento Kings after 18 years, I trained young athletes in the Sacramento area using three Shuttle MVPs. I had used Shuttle MVPs with the Kings for 11 years before I left. The success I had with the units was exceptional, whether I was rehabilitating ankle and knee injuries or increasing players’ vertical jump. The workout and rehabilitation protocols that I contributed to the Shuttle MVP operating manual have been adopted by athletic trainers and therapists all around Sacramento. I also used the MVP protocols very successfully with Chris Webber and Doug Christie while I was working with the Sacramento Kings. Using the MVP got the guys back on the court more quickly. That makes a big difference in any major sport. I also encouraged them to get the MVP for their homes to train with during the off-season, and they did. Al Biancani, EdD, CSCS*D, is the former Strength and Conditioning Coach for the Sacramento Kings and Sacramento Monarchs. He is currently the owner of Biancani Fitness Training & Rehabilitation.

With my young athletes, excellent vertical jump height gains were obtained—typically three or more inches—without the use of plyometric boxes. The Shuttle MVP provides a non-weight-bearing exercise program that is safe for the early development of young athletes. I used a four-to-one rest-to-work ratio with a 40-second workout duration on a run-and-jump sport-specific protocol. This works great for both basketball and football. Have you used any other Shuttle products? Yes, I have also used the Shuttle Balance. It has been a great addition to my training program, improving balance and agility, which are so necessary for all serious athletes. So what did you say when your country came calling? I told them I would take on the assignment, but I would need two Shuttle MVPs. I can’t function without the MVP. I would be like a fish out of water. I love that product!

Contemporary Design Co./ Shuttle Systems P.O. Box 5089 Glacier, WA 98244 800-334-5633 Fax: 360-599-2171 64



MORE PRODUCTS Brace International, Inc. 800-545-1161

Cho-Pat 800-221-1601

Brace International offers the MAX™, a major advancement in the design of shoulder girdle supports. The snugfitting, lightweight material allows for comfort with movement while protecting the glenohumeral joint from subluxations and dislocations. Its strap design system offers many options for maximal stability where needed, allowing athletes to reach their required range of motion. Circle No. 531

Cho-Pat’s Shin Splint Compression Sleeve eases the pain associated with shin splints. Designed and evaluated by medical professionals, this unique device tackles inflammation and discomfort by using gentle compression to support the lowerleg muscles. It also stimulates circulation, maintains warmth, and controls excess fluid. Finally, two straps act as shock absorbers to reduce microtrauma to the tendons and other soft tissue and keep the device in the proper position. Call Cho-Pat or visit the company’s Web site for more information. Circle No. 534

Brace International offers a full line of bracing and support products. The FLUK™ knee strap is ideal for treating such injuries as patellar tendonitis, chondromalacia patella, and OsgoodSchlatter’s disease. It applies compression to the knee area without restricting circulation. Circle No. 532 C.H.E.K Institute 800-552-8789 The C.H.E.K Institute provides cuttingedge, scientifically based educational programs, products, and services for fitness and healthcare professionals, and individuals in pursuit of better living through optimal health. C.H.E.K Institute-trained professionals are recognized as experts in their field, performing detailed assessments and client evaluations as a prerequisite to designing corrective or performance-enhancing exercise programs, recommending lifestyle changes, or implementing stress-reduction techniques. Circle No. 533 TR AINING-CONDITIONING.COM

NCCPT 800-778-6060 The National Council for Certified Personal Trainers is the only personal trainer certification company that

information), and how you respond to that perception. The book is illustrated, hardcover, and has 240 pages. Call OPTP or go online for more information. Circle No. 536 Save-A-Tooth® 888-788-6684 Without proper care, a knocked-out tooth begins to die in 15 minutes. The SaveA-Tooth emergency tooth preserving system utilizes Hank’s Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) to not only preserve, but also reconstitute many of the degenerated cells. The patented basket and net container are designed to protect tooth root cells. This is the only system that keeps tooth cells alive for up to 24 hours. Circle No. 537 Watkins, Inc. 507-457-3300

compensates its members for referrals. Members of the NCCPT receive up to 20-percent discounts on select products and services while receiving commissions on membership dues and referrals four levels deep. The NCCPT has been in business since 1995 and provides personal trainers with the tools to succeed in their field. Many companies recruit directly from the NCCPT. Call or go online for details. Circle No. 535 OPTP 800-367-7393 The Body Has a Mind of Its Own, by Sandra and Matthew Blakeslee, is a summary of current research on how the brain and body interact via body maps. Body maps in the brain determine how you perceive reality (filter

For 140 years, Watkins has been America’s pioneer in natural living, utilizing the finest natural ingredients in its products. To this day, Watkins adheres strictly to the same quality standards set forth by company founder J.R. Watkins. Through its topical analgesics, first aid, and natural personal care offerings, Watkins continues to provide products that are good for the earth, good for others, and good for you. Circle No. 538




Why do more than 13,000 unique users each month rely on AthleticBid. com?

With AthleticBid’s online Buyer’s Guide, you may: View the complete product lines of companies listed. ● View catalog pages or spec sheets from many of the top companies. ● Read a profile or description of select companies. ● Send an e-mail directly to a supplier or make a request to be contacted by a company representative. ● Request catalog and sales literature from companies.

Mueller Sports Medicine 800-356-9522 Mueller TapeWrap is the cohesive, breathable, sweat-resistant alternative to pre-wrap. TapeWrap doesn’t trap moisture so it won’t slip. Your tape

Swede-O, Inc. 866-317-5678 job stays tight, and that means more support. Cohesive TapeWrap applies directly to the skin so you don’t need pre-wrap or adhesive spray. Thin, flexible, easy-to-tear TapeWrap will help you perform the most sophisticated taping techniques quickly and accurately. With its flexibility, it conforms to any body part and won’t inhibit the natural movements of the athlete while acting as a fixation bandage for pads or splints. Cold packs, blister care, bleeding—they’re all covered with TapeWrap. Circle No. 539

Quickly find the products, services, and deals you are looking for

Athleticbid .com 66


against breakage. The Hydration Station is produced in 20-, 25-, and 50-gallon capacities. The new drinking cart is intended for indoor use. Circle No. 541

Mueller’s patented No Glare™ Premium strips have been proven to reduce the amount of light entering the peripheral area of the eye by 12.3 percent, due to the extra coverage on the bridge of the nose. An independent study demonstrated that No Glare Premium strips are more than 10 percent more effective than grease. The pressure-sensitive strips are easy to use and remove, and will not smear or sweat off, even when the face is dried with a towel. Circle No. 540 WissTech Enterprises 800-809-8184 WissTech Enterprises offers a complete line of indoor and outdoor portable drinking fountains. The company’s Hydration Station is manufactured for durability and features an all-welded cart with industrial casters and wheels to ensure years of worry-free service. Durable chrome-plated brass drinking valves are easy to use and warranted

Swede-O has launched Thermoskin AP Rigid Lumbar Support for superior stabilization of the lower back. The anterior and posterior rigid panels control pelvic tilt and rotation while providing critical support to the back and abdomen. The adjustable closure offers compression variation for additional comfort and support. The AP Rigid Lumbar Support helps maintain correct posture, stabilize the lumbar spine, and reduce or relieve back pain. It is available in beige and comes in nine sizes (XS through 5XL) to fit most body types. Circle No. 542 The Strap Lok from Swede-O is made of lightweight, durable ballistic nylon and features figure-8 straps that lock the ankle in a protected position. A new fully adjustable top strap provides additional stabilization of the ankle and a more secure fit. An exclusive offset panel traps the laces between the inner and outer panels to hold the laces tighter and longer while the closely spaced eyelets lock the heel in place. The Strap Lok has a full elastic back for a more conforming fit to eliminate blistering. A seamless arch prevents irritation to the arch. The breathable tongue wicks moisture away from the skin to keep the ankle cool and dry. The Strap Lok is available in white or black and comes in six sizes (XS–XXL) to fit most patients. Circle No. 543 TR AINING-CONDITIONING.COM


An Industry Pioneer Continues to Expand and Improve

Cramer Products, an industry leader in the manufacturing and marketing of sports medicine and physical education products, has acquired Active Ankle Systems, a Louisville, KY. based company. Active Ankle is a leading manufacturer of ankle braces used by professional and amateur athletes of all ages. “We are extremely pleased and honored to make this announcement,” says Thomas K. Rogge, President and CEO of Cramer Products, based in Gardner, Kans. “Active Ankle braces have been included in Cramer’s product line for many years, and we have always been impressed with their quality, innovation, and customer service. Active Ankle has an excellent reputation and we are thrilled with this deal and with the opportunity to manufacture Active Ankle products under the Cramer umbrella.” For the present, Active Ankle will continue to operate from Louisville with no changes to its staff. Also, Rogge notes that Tandem Sport will continue to be a valued distributor of Active Ankle products. “As the new owner of Active Ankle, we will gladly continue that relationship,” Rogge says.

Cramer Products, Inc. P.O. Box 1001 Gardner, KS 66030 800-345-2231 Fax: 913-884-5626 TR AINING-CONDITIONING.COM

“This transaction is exciting for Active Ankle,” says Glen Snow, Active Ankle’s President and CEO. “We have enjoyed an excellent relationship with Cramer Products since 1992, when the company became a distributor of Active Ankle products. Cramer’s standing in the sports medicine industry is second to none, and both companies are known for innovation, quality, and outstanding customer service. Bringing our two companies together makes

sense from every aspect. We look forward to working with Tom Rogge and his team at Cramer, and we anticipate a smooth transition that will be seamless to our customers.” Cramer Products was founded in 1918, and the company is celebrating its 90th anniversary this year. Its first product was an athletic liniment created by pharmacy student Chuck Cramer to soothe his sore ankle. He and his brother, Frank, began selling the product to local athletic teams, and Cramer Products was born. Cramer is known for numerous sports medicine innovations, its role in the founding of the National Athletic Trainers’ Association, and its dedication to education and educational products for athletic trainers. In the early 1980s, Cramer expanded its product lines to include physical education equipment, and acquired Cosom Sporting Goods of Thorofare, N.J., in 2004 to further grow its line of physical education products. Active Ankle Systems is a worldwide leader in the development of highvalue, high-function ankle and foot products. Athletic trainers, physical therapists, podiatrists, and orthopedic physicians use the Active Ankle brace and Dorsal Night Splint for athlete and patient care, injury prevention, and rehabilitation. Active Ankle is the official ankle support supplier and sponsor of USA Volleyball. More information about Cramer Products can be found online (, and more information about Active Ankle Systems is available Web site as well (





122 . . Balanced Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 103 . . Biofreeze®/Hygenic Performance Health® . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 123 . . Brace International (FLUK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 140 . . Brace International (MAX) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 137 . . C.H.E.K. Institute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 114 . . CeraSport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 101 . . Cho-Pat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 127 . . Concentra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 142 . . Creative Health Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 119 . . Egg Whites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 116 . . EightBall Nutrition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 138 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 113 . . Fozo Cast Covers, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 131 . . G&W Heel Lift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 121 . . Gilman Gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 144 . . Glyc’N Go . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IBC 129 . . Hammer Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 111 . . Hibiclens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 117 . . Informed-Choice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 135 . . Jump Stretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 102 . . Keiser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 132 . . Lebert Fitness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39




120 . . Lifexpand (Lyte’N Go) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 105 . . Mueller Sports Medicine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 145 . . Muscle Milk (CytoSport ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BC 104 . . NASM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 141 . . NCCPT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 115 . . ONS Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 139 . . OPTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 108 . . Perform Better . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 130 . . Power Lift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 118 . . Power-Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 134 . . PRO Orthopedic Devices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 112 . . ProMera Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 136 . . Samson Weight Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 143 . . Save-A-Tooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 107 . . TerraQuant (Multi Radiance Medical) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 126 . . Training Sweeps (Lane Gainer) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 124 . . TurfCordz/NZ Mfg, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 133 . . UCS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 100 . . Watkins, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IFC 125 . . WissTech Enterprises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 106 . . Zoll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8







529 . . Balanced Body (Allegro Tower of Power) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

535 . . NCCPT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

528 . . Balanced Body (EXO Chair) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

514 . . NZ Mfg, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

532 . . Brace International (FLUK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

536 . . OPTP (book) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

531 . . Brace International (MAX) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

515 . . OPTP (Franklin Mini Roll) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

533 . . C.H.E.K. Institute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

513 . . Perform Better (Prostretch) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

534 . . Cho-Pat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

512 . . Perform Better (Sled Dawg Elite) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

504 . . Creative Health Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

525 . . Power Lift (Full Body Squat) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

545 . . CytoSport (Cytomax) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

524 . . Power Lift (Glute-Ham Bench). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

544 . . CytoSport (Muscle Milk Collegiate) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

516 . . Power Systems (Power Stepper) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

501 . . CytoSport (product launch) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

530 . . Power Systems (Reform Bar) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

546 . . EightBall Nutrition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

550 . . ProMera Health (AminoActiv) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

505 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

549 . . ProMera Health (Con-Cret) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

521 . . Gilman Gear (King Crab Sled). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

518 . . Samson (Belt Squat) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

520 . . Gilman Gear (Mobility Arch) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

517 . . Samson (Leg Press) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

511 . . Hammer Strength (Jammer) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

537 . . Save-A-Tooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

510 . . Hammer Strength (Linear Leg Press) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

519 . . SPRI Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

551 . . Informed-Choice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

542 . . Swede-O (Lumbar Support). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

506 . . Jump Stretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

543 . . Swede-O (Strap Lok) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

508 . . Keiser (Air300 Runner) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

502 . . Swede-O (Thermoskin Heel-Rite) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

507 . . Keiser (Air300 Squat) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

500 . . The Polar Pool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

522 . . Lebert Equalizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

509 . . Training Sweeps (Lane Gainer) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

523 . . Lebert Equalizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

526 . . UCS (Plyo-Safe boxes) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

547 . . Lifexpand (Glyc-N-Go) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

527 . . UCS (Plyo-Safe G2 boxes). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

548 . . Lifexpand (Lyte’N Go) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

538 . . Watkins, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

540 . . Mueller (No Glare Premium strips) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

503 . . Wilson Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

539 . . Mueller (TapeWrap) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

541 . . WissTech Enterprises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66




T&C September 2008 Volume XVIII, No. 6

Training & Conditioning is pleased to provide NATA and NSCA members with the opportunity to earn continuing education units through reading issues of the magazine. The following quiz is based on articles that appear in this issue of Training & Conditioning. By satisfactorily completing the quiz and mailing it to MAG, Inc., readers can earn 2.0 BOC Athletic Training and 0.2 NSCA (two hours) continuing education units.

Instructions: Fill in the circle on the answer form (on page 71) that represents the best answer for each of the questions below. Complete the form at the bottom of page 71, include a $25 payment to MAG, Inc., and mail it by October 30, 2008 to the following address: MAG, Inc., ATTN: T&C 18.6 Quiz, 31 Dutch Mill Road, Ithaca, NY 14850. Readers who correctly answer 70 percent of the questions will be notified of their earned credit by mail within 30 days. To Err Is Human (pages 5-6) Objective: Help student athletic trainers learn to deal with mistakes and turn them into positive learning experiences. 1. After a student makes a mistake, an appropriate response is for him or her to: a) Never enter a similar situation again. b) Acknowledge they were wrong and work to correct the error. c) Argue their perspective with their supervisor. d) Ignore all criticism.

6. A supplement called ________ that’s currently being researched may benefit the immune system and boost athletic performance. a) Flavonol. b) Quercetin. c) G3. d) Glyco-enhance. 7. One fairly new acid-buffering compound is: a) Gamma-alkaline. b) Beta-amino. c) Beta-alanine. d) Alpha-alkaline.

2. If a supervisor harshly criticizes a student, the student should: a) Tell the instructor they are not acting like a professional. b) Immediately ask the supervisor to adapt their teaching methods. c) Stop talking to the supervisor. d) Talk to the supervisor at a later time, away from the bustle of the athletic training room.

8. When studying an athlete who competed in an Ironman Triathlon, researchers found that the subject used ________ during the race. a) 9,290 kilocalories. b) 5,040 kilocalories. c) 4,450 kilocalories. d) 11,330 kilocalories.

News from the Lab (pages 15-22)

Taking Off (pages 24-31)

Objective: Learn about recent nutrition research presented at the 2008 ACSM Annual Meeting.

Objective: Understand how to help athletes improve first-step acceleration through a specialized training approach.

3. According to this article, the key for athletes who want to fuel optimally during exercise may be: a) Consuming more fats. b) Consuming enough energy. c) Consuming double the protein. d) Consuming sugary beverages.

9. One key to improving first-step acceleration is developing: a) Eye-hand coordination. b) Backpedaling proficiency. c) Proper movement progressions. d) Lateral shuffles.

4. One study found that soccer players who ingested caffeine had a significant increase in: a) Protein uptake. b) Blood sugar. c) Sprinting speed. d) Passing accuracy.

10. The crossed extensor reflex can be broken into these two parts: a) Flexion and adduction movements. b) Flexion and extension movements. c) Adduction and extension movements. d) Rotation and adduction movements.

5. A study that analyzed muscle biopsies after cycling showed ________ glycogen replacement after four hours when athletes had ingested caffeine. a) 24 percent lower. b) 34 percent lower. c) 34 percent higher. d) 42 percent higher.

11. Conscious incompetence is: a) A phase in which the athlete understands the task and goal of a drill but has difficulty executing it. b) A phase in which the athlete understands the goal of a drill and is able to perform it at game speed. c) What happens when a new movement is second nature. d) A phase in which the athlete doesn’t really know what he or she is doing and has difficulty with the task.

Answer sheet is on page 71 TR AINING-CONDITIONING.COM



CEU QUIZ 12. According to the author, for maximum benefit in first-step acceleration training, the core must be trained in a: a) Plyometric routine. b) Weight rack. c) Vertical environment. d) Prone position. 13. One of the prime hip extensors and stabilizers is the: a) Rectus femoris. b) Gluteus. c) Sartorius. d) Hamstring.

Panther Power (pages 34-40) Objective: Learn about the University of Pittsburgh men’s basketball strength program and how it prepares players to succeed on the court. 14. A philosophy based on using several different exercises to train a specific function and pursue well-defined goals is known as: a) Stacking. b) Training randomization. c) Block periodization. d) Gradual development. 15. One advantage of this philosophy is that it relies on: a) Athlete independence. b) Long periods of rest and inactivity. c) The concept of linear teaching. d) Muscular hypertrophy at all times of the year. 16. This article discusses a spinal endurance test based on: a) Holding isometric positions for seven minutes. b) The McGill Big Three. c) Initiating spine loading exercises early. d) Functional movement hyperextension.

A Tough Age (pages 41-45) Objective: Develop a better understanding of the unique challenges associated with training and rehabbing pre-varsity athletes. 17. According to Andrew Gregory, what is the biggest concern for athletic trainers when working with pre-varsity athletes? a) Growth plates. b) Hormonal changes. c) Emotions. d) Parents. 18. When a pre-varsity athlete is extremely shy, one way to make them more comfortable in the athletic training room is to: a) Let them bring a friend along. b) Offer highly detailed medical explanations. c) Make appointments well in advance. d) Have the school principal accompany them.

19. In the article, Ryan Hedstrom explains the importance of educating pre-varsity athletes and involving them in decisionmaking because: a) They are adults. b) This helps them become invested in the process. c) They can relay information to parents. d) They view the athletic trainer as a peer.

Knowledge at a Premium (pages 46-49) Objective: Get a veteran athletic trainer’s perspective on the state of health insurance options for college athletic programs. 20. Potential liability for NCAA Division I institutions increased when: a) The NCAA removed existing limits on health care expenditures. b) Title IX was passed. c) Programs moved from PPOs to HMOs. d) More paperwork was required to complete claims. 21. After a typical injury or illness, the athletic department initially files a claim with the athlete’s: a) Head coach. b) Primary insurance. c) Parents. d) Third-party administrator. 22. A ___________ decreases as the cost of a medical service increases. a) Premium. b) Disappearing deductible. c) Loss run. d) Flat deductible. 23. A _________ can negotiate discounts for client institutions to maximize savings. a) Traditional supplemental planner. b) Aggregate deductible planner. c) Third-party administrator. d) Self-insurance agent. 24. For planning the athletic department’s insurance and projected expenses, it’s important to: a) Collect co-pays from athletes directly. b) Seek second opinions during all pre-participation physicals. c) Collect and evaluate athletes’ insurance information. d) Perform preseason drug testing. 25. Aggregate deductible plans are sometimes referred to as: a) Self-insurance. b) PPOs. c) HMOs. d) High-premium plans.

Answer sheet is on page 71 70



CEU QUIZ ANSWER FORM Instructions: Fill in the circle on the answer form below that represents your selection of the best answer for each of the previous questions. Complete the form at the bottom of this page, include a $25 payment to MAG, Inc., and mail it to the following address: MAG, Inc., ATTN: T&C 18.6 Quiz, 31 Dutch Mill Road, Ithaca, NY 14850, no later than October 30, 2008. Readers who correctly answer 70 percent of the questions will receive 2.0 BOC Athletic Training and 0.2 NSCA (two hours) CEU’s, and will be notified of their earned credit by mail within 30 days.





To Err Is Human

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Taking Off

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Panther Power

News from the Lab

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A 14. 15. 16. A Tough Age

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Knowledge at a Premium

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Last Name ____________________________________ First Name _______________________________ MI______ Title ______________________________________________________________________________________________ Mailing Address ____________________________________________________________________________________ City ________________________________________________ State _________ Zip Code _____________________ Daytime Telephone ( _________ ) ________________________________________ E-Mail Address ____________________________________________________________________________________ Payment Information

❏ $25 check or money order (U.S. Funds only) payable to: MAG, Inc. (please note “T&C 18.6 Quiz” on check) ❏ Visa

❏ Mastercard

❏ Discover

❏ American Express

Account Number _______________________________________________ Expiration Date ____________________ Name on Card _____________________________________ Signature ______________________________________





Next Stop: Web Site Our editorial continues on Here is a sampling of what’s posted right now:

WEEKLY BLOGS Happy New Year!

MONTHLY FEATURES Heat Illness Study Roundup

The start of September signals the kickoff of another school year. Ryan Johnson, CSCS, Coach Practitioner and Strength and Conditioning Coach at Wayzata High School in Plymouth, Minn., blogs about what this exciting time of year means to him and his strength and conditioning program.

Through late summer, athletic trainers need to be proactive about keeping their athletes safe from heat illness. This Monthly Feature provides the most updated research and other useful resources for winning the battle against heat illness.

International Support There weren’t any athletic trainers on the medal stand during the Beijing Olympics, but they certainly played a significant role in helping the athletes who did get there. We highlight a number of athletic trainers from high schools and colleges across the country who made the trip to Beijing.

Q&A with Dave “DC” Colt T&C talks to Dave “DC” Colt, MSEd, LAT, ATC, Head Athletic Trainer at Northwest Missouri State University, about his induction into the NATA Hall of Fame. Colt shares his thoughts on his most recent honor and how the profession has changed during his 27 years in and on the field.

Larry Nassar, DO, ATC, FAOASM, a professor in Michigan State University’s Division of Sports Medicine and the national medical director for USA Gymnastics, right, helps gymnast David Sender during practice for the U.S. Olympic gymnastic trials. Nassar traveled with the U.S. gymnastics teams to Beijing in August.


Circle No. 144 Circle No. 144

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Available in Calorie Replacement Powder, Ready-to-Drink formula, and now Bars! 707 747-3377 /

©2007, CYTOSPORT, Benicia, CA 94510.

Circle No. 145

Training & Conditioning 18.6  

September 2008

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