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November 2005 Vol. XV, No. 8, $5.00

No Pain, No Gain? Understanding workout thresholds When Athletes Have Disabilities Iron & Performance


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Circle No. 100


November 2005, Vol. XV, No. 8


11 4


Q&A Mike Pace Spring (Texas) High School Student Corner Searching for a Summer Internship


Equipment Solutions Hurdling to New Heights


Sideline Effective Weight Loss

60 Advertisers Directory 50 58 61 63

Product Pages Strength Training Power Racks Arm & Shoulder More Products


CEU Quiz For NATA and NSCA Members


37 Special Focus


Ready to Serve? It takes educating yourself and thinking outside the box, but serving athletes with disabilities can be an extremely rewarding challenge. By David Hill Nutrition

Iron 19 Understanding It is easy for an athlete’s iron stores to become depleted. And it is easy for their performance to suffer as a result. By Michelle Rockwell & Dr. Pamela Hinton Optimum Performance

Pain, No Gain? 28 No You want your athletes to dig down and get the most out of their workouts. So what is the fine line between pushing them hard and pushing them too hard? By Vern Gambetta Leadership

the Press 37 Meet Being media-savvy may not be in your job description, but it can go a long way toward boosting your image and promoting the athletic training profession. By Abigail Funk Sport Specific

Your Boat 43 Row As more schools add women’s rowing to their athletic offerings, Cover Photo: Janice Levy


strength coaches must learn how to address the power and endurance needs of this unique sport. By Ed Nordenschild



Great Ideas For Athletes...

Editorial Board Marjorie Albohm, MS, ATC/L Director of Sports Medicine and Orthopaedic Research, Orthopaedics Indianapolis Jon Almquist, ATC Specialist, Fairfax County (Va.) Pub. Schools Athletic Training Program Brian Awbrey, MD Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, and Instructor in Orthopaedics, Harvard Medical School Jim Berry, MEd, ATC, SCAT/EMT-B Director of Sports Medicine and Head Athletic Trainer, Myrtle Beach (S.C.) High School

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Gary Gray, PT, President, CEO, Functional Design Systems Maria Hutsick, MS, ATC/L, CSCS Head Athletic Trainer, Boston University Christopher Ingersoll, PhD, ATC, FACSM Director, Graduate Programs in Sports Medicine/Athletic Training University of Virginia Jeff Konin, PhD, ATC, PT Assistant Athletic Director for Sports Medicine, James Madison University Tim McClellan, MS, CSCS Director of Perf. Enhancement, Center for Human Performance

Leslie Bonci, MPH, RD Director, Sports Medicine Nutrition Program, University of Pittsburgh Medical Ctr. Health System

Michael Merk, MEd, CSCS Director of Health & Fitness, YMCA of Greater Cleveland

Christine Bonci, MS, ATC Asst. A.D. for Sports Medicine, Women’s Athletics, University of Texas

Jenny Moshak, MS, ATC, CSCS Asst. A.D. for Sports Medicine, University of Tennessee

Cynthia “Sam” Booth, ATC, PhD Manager, Outpatient Therapy and Sportsmedicine, MeritCare Health System

Steve Myrland, CSCS Owner, Manager, Perf. Coach, Myrland Sports Training, LLC Instructor and Consultant, University of Wisconsin Sports Medicine

Debra Brooks, CNMT, LMT, PhD CEO, Iowa NeuroMuscular Therapy Center Cindy Chang, MD Head Team Physician, University of California-Berkeley Dan Cipriani, PhD, PT Assistant Professor, Dept. of Exercise and Nutritional Sciences, San Diego State Univ. Gray Cook, MSPT, OCS, CSCS Clinic Director, Orthopedic & Sports Phys. Ther., Dunn, Cook, and Assoc. Bernie DePalma, MEd, PT, ATC Head Athl. Trainer/Phys. Therapist, Cornell University Lori Dewald, EdD, ATC, CHES Athletic Training Program Director and Associate Professor of Health Education, University of Minnesota-Duluth Jeff Dilts, Director, Business Development & Marketing, National Academy of Sports Medicine David Ellis, RD, LMNT, CSCS Sports Alliance, Inc. Boyd Epley, MEd, CSCS Asst. A.D. & Dir. of Athletic Perf., University of Nebraska Peter Friesen, ATC, NSCA-CPT, CSCS, CAT, Head Ath. Trainer/ Cond. Coach, Carolina Hurricanes Lance Fujiwara, MEd, ATC, EMT Director of Sports Medicine, Virginia Military Institute Vern Gambetta, MA, President, Gambetta Sports Training Systems Joe Gieck, EdD, ATC, PT Director of Sports Medicine and Prof., Clinical Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Virginia Brian Goodstein, MS, ATC, CSCS, Head Athletic Trainer, DC United

November 2005 Vol. XV, No. 8 Publisher Mark Goldberg Editorial Staff Eleanor Frankel, Director R.J. Anderson, Kenny Berkowitz, Abigail Funk, David Hill, Dennis Read, Greg Scholand, Laura Smith Circulation Staff David Dubin, Director John Callaghan Art Direction tuesdaythursday Brand Advertising Production Staff Kristin Ayers, Director Adam Berenstain, Jonni Campbell, Jim Harper IT Manager Mark Nye Business Manager Pennie Small

Mike Nitka, MS, CSCS Director of Human Performance, Muskego (Wisc.) High School

Special Projects Dave Wohlhueter

Bruno Pauletto, MS, CSCS President, Power Systems, Inc.

Administrative Assistant Sharon Barbell

Stephen Perle, DC, CCSP Associate Prof. of Clin. Sciences, University of Bridgeport College of Chiropractic

Advertising Materials Coordinator Mike Townsend

Brian Roberts, MS, ATC, Director, Sport Performance & Rehab. Ctr. Ellyn Robinson, DPE, CSCS, CPT Assistant Professor, Exercise Science Program, Bridgewater State College Kent Scriber, EdD, ATC, PT Professor/Supervisor of Athletic Training, Ithaca College Chip Sigmon, CSCS Strength and Conditioning Coach, Carolina Medical Center Bonnie J. Siple, MS, ATC Coordinator, Athletic Training Education Program & Services, Slippery Rock University Chad Starkey, PhD, ATC Associate Professor, Athletic Training Educ. Program, Northeastern University Ralph Stephens, LMT, NCTMB Sports Massage Therapist, Ralph Stephens Seminars Fred Tedeschi, ATC Head Athletic Trainer, Chicago Bulls Terrence Todd, PhD, Co-Director, Todd-McLean Physical Culture Collection, Dept. of Kinesiology & Health Ed., University of Texas-Austin

Marketing Director Sheryl Shaffer Marketing/Sales Assistant Danielle Catalano Advertising Sales Associates Diedra Harkenrider (607) 257-6970, ext. 24 Rob Schoffel (607) 257-6970, ext. 21 T&C editorial/business offices: 2488 N. Triphammer Road Ithaca, NY 14850 (607) 257-6970 Fax: (607) 257-7328 Training & Conditioning (ISSN 1058-3548) is published monthly except in January and February, May and June, and July and August, which are bimonthly issues, for a total of nine times a year, by MAG, Inc., 2488 N. Triphammer Rd., Ithaca, NY 14850. T&C is distributed without charge to qualified professionals involved with competitive athletes. The subscription rate is $24 for one year and $48 for two years in the United States, and $30 for one year and $60 for two years in Canada. The single copy price is $5. Copyright© 2005 by MAG, Inc. All rights reserved. Text may not be reproduced in any manner, in whole or in part, without the permission of the publisher. Unsolicited materials will not be returned unless accompanied by a self-addressed, stamped envelope. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Training & Conditioning, P.O. Box 4806, Ithaca, NY 14852-4806. Printed in the U.S.A.


Circle No. 102


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Mike Pace Spring (Texas) High School It’s often said that you can’t go home again, but Mike Pace, LAT, ATC, did just that and has found the surroundings much better upon his return. Pace is six years into his second stint as Athletic Trainer at Spring (Texas) High School, just outside Houston. His first time at Spring, from 1984 to 1988, he was the sole athletic trainer at the school. This time, he shares responsibility for the care of more than 1,000 athletes with two other athletic trainers. During the intervening 11 years, Pace worked as an Athletic Trainer and Orthopedic Physician’s Assistant at Houston Northwest Ortho & Sports Medicine. There, he rehabbed patients and assisted in orthopedic surgeries. A 25-year member of the NATA, Pace is also the Texas State Representative to the Southwest Athletic Trainers’ Association (SWATA) and a member of the Board of Directors of the Greater Houston Athletic Trainers Association. Pace was an athletic trainer for the United States baseball team during the 1992 Olympics in Barcelona and has worked at three U.S. Olympic Festivals as well as the 1991 Pan-Am Games. He recently received a Stephen F. Austin State University Distinguished Alumnus Award for his service to the athletic training profession. In this interview, Pace talks about how his clinic experience has made him a better athletic trainer, working on a staff of three in which no one is the head athletic trainer, and giving back to the profession. T&C: What led you down the career path of working at a high school, then going to a clinic before returning to the same high school? Pace: In my first stint at Spring, I was working by myself and faced a growing number of sports programs to cover, which was difficult. In 1988, I was offered a job working alongside a local orthopedic surgeon and thought that would be an excellent opportunity. Then in 1999, he became incapacitated and I was on the job market. Spring High School happened to be looking to hire a third athletic trainer, and one of my associates remembered I was looking for a job and asked me to come back. 4


Having worked with Olympians and an orthopedic surgeon, Mike Pace has returned to treating high school athletes. What did you learn at the clinic that has helped you in your current position? The biggest thing I gained is a better understanding of anatomy by seeing it first hand. Assisting in surgeries provides a different perspective than what you get from a textbook. I also now better understand some of the clinical examinations, different conditions that arise, and lab test values. How did the job of high school athletic trainer change in the 11 years you were at the clinic? I think it’s changed radically, at least here at Spring. I was by myself before, and now we have three athletic trainers on campus, which is a big plus. It makes us much more efficient. I used to work from 6:30 a.m. until 10 or 11 at night and have to get up the next day and do it again. Now, we work a rotating schedule. If I work until 9 at night then I don’t come in until noon the next day. That gives me an opportunity to have some family time and do things I need to get done. I’m not living in the athletic training room like I used to. ATHLETICBID.COM

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Q&A ■ Mike Pace Athletic Trainer Spring (Texas) High School Colleagues at Spring: Randy Dumas, LAT, ATC Denise Chuick, LAT Previous Jobs: Athletic Trainer and Orthopedic PA-C, Houston NW Ortho and Sports Medicine, 1988-99; Athletic Trainer, Spring (Texas) High School, 1984-88; Athletic Trainer, MacArthur High School, Houston, 1978-84 Offices Held: Texas State Representative to Southwest Athletic Trainers’ Association Board of Directors; Board of Directors of Greater Houston Athletic Trainers Society As someone who has worked closely with physicians in a clinic setting, what do you think athletic trainers can do to improve their relationships with their team physicians? If they can, they should try to find a team physician they’re comfortable with and maybe even spend a week or two in the physician’s office working alongside him or her. The key is finding someone who will help you and not try to keep things a big secret. Once you have that kind of relationship with a physician, you can begin to tap into their knowledge. How about dealing with other physicians? In today’s environment, that’s sometimes difficult. A lot of physicians are hesitant to divulge information because of the HIPAA law. In our district, when an athlete goes to a doctor, he or she must return with a written statement from that physician explaining what the physician would like the athlete to do here. If they can’t do anything, that’s fine. But if they have a sprained ankle, we’d like to know if they can still do an upper-body workout. How do you develop a good rapport with coaches? Sometimes, it simply takes time. You have to draw from your knowledge and experience and make good decisions. You also need to be flexible: “Maybe this kid can’t go full contact today, but he can go out there for drills.” Once a coach sees that you’re really not trying to hold everybody out for two weeks, you can develop that relationship. It also requires constant communication. I go to my coaches every day after practice and give them an updated report on our players at all levels. How do you work with parents? As a parent myself, the last thing I want is for my son or 6


daughter to sprain an ankle and not find out about it until they show up at home on crutches. So we make every attempt to call parents after any incident and let them know what’s happened to their child. But we have to know exactly who to call at home because there can be parental rights issues if the parents are divorced or separated. You can’t just call home and talk to anyone. You have to be cognizant of who to call and who not to call. I also feel it’s important to protect yourself from very aggressive parents. In today’s society, I advise every person in this profession to get their own personal malpractice insurance. What’s the structure of the athletic training staff at Spring? Our athletic director feels we’re all equally qualified and he doesn’t want to name a head athletic trainer because he feels that would step on some toes. So no one is the boss. We handle things through a democratic process. If it’s two votes to one, the two votes win. And that has worked really well. We each have certain duties that we focus on. Mine are more administrative—I make sure all the kids are eligible to play and have completed all the proper paperwork. I’m the one who usually goes to meetings, and I handle the scheduling. One of my associates makes sure all the physicals are up to date, the other handles the equipment, and all three of us do the normal day-to-day athletic training work. Does that structure ever present a problem? Sometimes I’ll go home and say, “Gee, I didn’t get my way on that.” But the problems have been minimal because we get along so well. We all know that we’re here for one reason and that’s to do what’s best for the program and for the kids. Ultimately, that’s the thing that keeps us all going. How do you divide the sports coverage? ATHLETICBID.COM

Q&A We don’t actually divide it up into specific teams where you cover this team and I cover that team. We’re each responsible for what’s going on when we’re working. I look at the schedule a week in advance, and I keep in mind the different things each of us likes to do. Do you have any student help? We have a very good program with 17 students. They help us set up for practices and get our equipment ready for games. They assist with treatments and the office work we need to do. We’ve also started an accredited class in sports medicine that is taught by a teacher in the school who is a certified athletic trainer. What was it like working at the Olympics? As a young boy, I always wanted to go to the Olympics. But I was kind of a sickly child and was never big enough

What role do you think the professional associations, from the state associations to SWATA to the national association, play in the profession? I believe they play a big role. Our biggest ongoing effort right now is to get government recognition that would allow us to bill Medicare and get third-party billing for athletic training services, whether it be in a doctor’s office, a healthcare clinic, sports-medicine clinic, or wherever. We are working to convince others that athletic trainers provide a very viable and cost-effective service to the public and that we can help keep healthcare costs down. What can the typical athletic trainer do to help gain recognition for the profession? They can become involved in their state organization, and they can get the word out about our profession. Don’t ever get tired of explaining to someone what

“I spent some years in the trenches in the dark ages, and now it’s time to make it better for the younger athletic trainers who are coming up. I want to leave the profession better than it was for me, and I’ll work until my dying day to do that.” to participate in sports, which is part of the reason I got into athletic training. So going to the Olympics in Barcelona was the ultimate experience for me as an athletic trainer. It’s something I’ll never forget. How did it differ from your other athletic training experiences? You’re working with a higher caliber of athlete. I went with USA Baseball, and most of the players had signed professional contracts—guys like Nomar Garciaparra and Jason Giambi. So you always had to have a physician backup and notify the major league team when you worked on them. Not that I treated them differently than I treat the kids here, but if your hands were tired from giving somebody a rub down, maybe you’d let them hurt a little bit longer. ATHLETICBID.COM

you do for a living. Word of mouth is very powerful. And if you or one of your associates does something positive, let the local media know about it. How do you find the time to participate in association work? It’s kind of a juggling act sometimes, but I’m in a great situation here with my two associates who understand my involvement. They know what it means to me, and for them, too, to be involved. I get a lot of personal satisfaction knowing that I’m serving in a leadership capacity. I spent some years in the trenches in the dark ages, and now it’s time to make it better for the younger athletic trainers who are coming up. I want to leave the profession better than it was for me, and I’ll work until my dying day to do that. ■

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Circle No. 104 T&C NOVEMBER 2005



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Corner A special feature for your athletic training students

Summer Plans Ready or not, now is the time to start looking for a summer internship. BY ABIGAIL FUNK


es, athletic training students are busy during the school year and deserve a summer vacation. And yes, summer jobs are a way to earn extra money for the next school year. But trading in that downtime and extra cash for a summer internship experience can enhance your resume before you even have a diploma in hand. In this article, educational program leaders share advice on what types of internships you should look for and where to find them. They also suggest that the sooner you start looking, the better. Prep for Real Life: The first reason to consider an internship is that it can be the edge that gets you a job offer over a competing graduate. “Students are essentially all going through the same type of program and coming out with the same tool set,” says Timothy Howell, EdD, ATC, Assistant Professor and Athletic Training Program Director at Alfred University. “An internship can set a student apart from other applicants.” Howell also says that an internship is a great way to see what options are out there after graduation. “One of our students contacted the athletic trainer of his hometown baseball team and asked if he could volunteer over the summer,” Howell says. “He must

Abigail Funk is an Assistant Editor at Training & Conditioning. She can be reached at: 8


have enjoyed it and done a good job, because he now has a paid position lined up for next summer. “We had another student who volunteered at a clinic over the summer because he was very interested in the clinic setting,” he continues. “And it was a good thing he tried it, because he realized that working in a clinic wasn’t a good fit for him at all.” No matter what your specific motivation is, the hands-on experience is invaluable. “A summer internship is a time when students can gain more experience in a selected sport or work with a certified athletic trainer in an intense time period,” says Brent Mangus, EdD, ATC, Associate Professor and Program Director of Athletic Training Education at the University of Nevada-Las Vegas. Options Out There: Unless there are special summer opportunities for athletic training students on your campus, it’s best to leave the comfort zone of your school’s practice fields, says Mangus. “Students can apply to the NFL for a paid internship. The US Youth Soccer organization has camps across the United States. And there are numerous sports-medicine clinics in most larger cities that will hire students,” he says. However, it’s important to check out who will oversee your work, especially if you’ll be interning with a youth league. “When working with an AAU team or other summer league, make sure you’re being supervised by a certified athletic trainer,” says Cliff Pawley, MEd, ATC, Program Director and Instructor of Athletic Training at Union University. “That will ensure you get the best education possible.” If you’re able to find a paid internship

in an area you really want to pursue, great. But there are some benefits to non-paid positions. “You’ll have more flexibility with an unpaid internship,” Howell says. “It’s usually the better option, especially for students who are exploring options and still want to enjoy their summer.” Getting Started: To get a jump on your competition, Mangus and Howell suggest talking with your program director in the fall, so he or she can help you start strategizing for a position. This gives a program director time to start making alumni and peer contacts on your behalf. If your program does not offer this type of assistance, start searching at the end of the fall semester. “Most organizations with summer internships begin advertising around the holidays,” Pawley says. “Your winter break is a good time to get started.” “For instance, baseball internships are filled by the end of February or March,” Howell says. “If you don’t get started before January rolls around, you’re going to be very far behind in the whole process.” Alfred’s department urges all of its athletic training students to become members of the National Athletic Trainers’ Association (NATA), which puts out the NATA Newsletter with job and internship openings posted in the back. The NCAA News also has similar announcements, as do professional and minor league team Web sites. And don’t be afraid to call clinics in your home area to see if they need any summer volunteer help. “Be aggressive in trying to secure a summer internship,” Mangus says. “It will pay off in the long run.” ■ ATHLETICBID.COM

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Circle No. 106


Ready A to Serve?


ssessing a deaf football player for a possible concussion years ago drove home for Hal Hilmer what it means when disabilities and sports mix. Hilmer, LAT, ATC, Head Athletic Trainer at John Hersey High School in Arlington Heights, Ill., was running through the standard assessment of the 220-pound nose tackle when he realized there was a problem. “One of the questions was, ‘Do you have any ringing in your ears?’” Hilmer recalls. “Well, he didn’t hear anything, so I couldn’t ask that question.” Luckily, Hilmer had been educated in working with athletes with a disability, and aided by a sign language interpreter, he completed the assessment. The nose tackle was held out for a week with a mild concussion. For athletic trainers and strength and conditioning specialists who’ve done it, working with athletes with physical, developmental, or intellectual disabilities can be highly rewarding. But it takes a willingness to educate yourself and the flexibility to think outside of the routine.

It takes educating yourself and thinking outside the box, but serving athletes with disabilities can be an extremely rewarding challenge.

BEFORE YOU DO ANYTHING A college sophomore who’s missing a limb. A 13-year-old who could outrun you any day of the week but struggles with a question about how much something hurts. A wheelchair athlete participating in a sport you’ve never heard of before. Athletes with disabilities are a diverse group. But no matter the specific disability of the athlete you’re serving, a few fundamental steps will get you off to the right start. The first is to learn as much as possible about the disability—and the strengths and weaknesses of the particular athlete. Linda Platt Meyer, EdD, ATC, PES, Associate Professor in the Duquesne University Department of Athletic Training, has been a Special Olympics volunteer for nearly 20 years and has


David Hill is an Assistant Editor at Training & Conditioning. He can be reached at:





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SPECIAL FOCUS attended five Special Olympics World Games. Before working with athletes with any type of disability, she says you may need to abandon your own expectations and biases about what it means to have a disabling condition. This was made clear early in her involvement with disabled athletes, when she was treating a teenager with cerebral palsy and made a rookie mistake. “I assumed that he had cognitive difficulties and kept asking, ‘Do you understand?’” Platt Meyer says. “He said, ‘Yes, I understand you.’ I hadn’t known he was literally a genius. He was 16 years old and going into his junior year of college, and he wanted to learn to swim. I was the person who looked really stupid. Don’t assume that if a person has multiple sclerosis or cerebral palsy that they also have a cognitive dysfunction, because most times they do not.” Ideally, you should also do some research on how the specific conditions of the disability are likely to affect athletic participation. For example, people with Down syndrome, Platt Meyer explains, are more prone to joint laxity, which can leave them vulnerable to sprains and unable to gain strength as quickly as many other people. The condition may also come with a predisposition to diabetes, cardiac conditions, foot deformities that lead to tendonitis, and atlantoaxial instability, a laxity in the upper spine that can preclude certain athletic activities. Or, if you’re working with an athlete who has a spinal cord injury, you’ll need to find out more specifics of the injury and how it affects the athlete’s movement. “Even the same level of spinal cord injury can be very different, depending on the individual. While one person may be able to do a chest press, that might be impossible for another person, depending on their specific disability,” says Heather Pennington, MA, CSCS, ACSM H/FI, Strength and Conditioning Specialist for the Lakeshore Foundation in Birmingham, Ala., a rehab center for people with disabilities and a USOC Paralympic training site. To learn as much as possible about an athlete who has a disability, Lori Glover, MS, ATC, Community Sports Medicine Manager for the Institute for Athletic Medicine in Eden Prairie, Minn., turns to the athlete’s parents for advice since they are often much more involved than other parents. “They are used to being a big part of their children’s lives, and that carries over into everything they do,” ATHLETICBID.COM

Heather Pennington, Strength and Conditioning Specialist for the Lakeshore Foundation in Birmingham, Ala., works with USA Quad Rugby athlete Bob Lujano as he performs a cross-over punch to strengthen his chest, shoulders, and core muscles. Glover says. “I’ve had instances where I’ve called to say, ‘This happened,’ and the parent says, ‘Okay, that’s normal. Give it five minutes, and this will happen.’ The communication has to work really well, because the kid might not be able to tell you what’s going on.” Regardless of the disability, it’s also important to understand the social implications of injury to an athlete with a disability. Alison Talley, MS, ATC, who works in clinical and high school settings

ties, a relatively minor injury may affect their everyday life in drastic ways. “If you or I sprain or break a finger, we might not be too upset,” says Hilmer. “But for someone who is deaf, that’s their means of communication. So it’s really quite traumatic and scary to be unable to use that hand or finger. “When I get deaf kids who injure a finger, I know I have to work a little harder to get mobility back in that injured digit quickly,” Hilmer continues. “Normally,

If you’re working with an athlete who has a spinal cord injury, you’ll need to find out more specifics of the injury and how it affects the athlete’s movement. “While one person may be able to do a chest press, that might be impossible for another person.” for the Institute for Athletic Medicine in the Minneapolis-St. Paul area, which has an extensive adaptive sports system, says that an injury can cut a young person off from not only teammates, but daily involvement with disabled peers. “Most of these kids stay together as a team through all three seasons—they play soccer, floor hockey, and softball,” Talley says. “This is their group of friends, this is what they can do, and they’re accepted doing this. So if one of them can’t play, suddenly he or she loses that aspect of their life.” Another big-picture consideration is that, for athletes with physical disabili-

you’d tape the two fingers together to get them through. Well, with a deaf person I devise something to support it differently so the finger is free and can be used to communicate with people.” Another example of how an athletic injury can affect life is the athlete whose mobility depends on maneuvering his or her wheelchair. “If an athlete who uses a wheelchair has a shoulder injury, should we go ahead and put it in a sling, or can we do something else, since they use that shoulder for mobility?” Hilmer says. “You have to make some accommodations, do things a little differently, because of how they spend their day.” T&C NOVEMBER 2005



Andrea Kushman, Athletic Trainer for the New England Ice Sled Hockey Team, works on core and balance training with Paralympian Kip St. Germaine, a 2002 Ice Sled Hockey Gold Medalist who is a paraplegic. “For someone who relies on their arms for mobility, you also have to jump on it a little bit faster—make sure they’re icing, stretching, and strengthening the rotator cuff and all the little muscles they might not realize they’re using,” Talley says. “This helps the big-

ger muscles rest and get back into shape so the athlete is pain-free faster and able to maintain their daily life activities.” PHYSICAL DISABILITIES Along with general guidelines for working with athletes with disabilities, there

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SPECIAL FOCUS contralateral side,” he says. “If the athlete is an above-the-knee amputee and you’re working on the remaining knee, you don’t have a comparison, whereas in the able-bodied athlete you’re able to compare side to side.” In terms of rehab and strength work, the biggest change from working with an able-bodied athlete is dealing with safety and balance. Strapping and spotting require extra care because a person missing or without use of their lower extremities may need help maintaining balance. And core work is crucial because lower abdominal muscles have often gone unused and ignored. Andrea Kushman, MEd, ATC, CMT, is Athletic Trainer for the New England Bruins ice sled hockey team, a sport in which players are strapped on specially made sleds and use a pair of shortened sticks with picks on the end to move about and control the puck. When she wanted an amputee with a prosthetic leg to do single-leg squats to strengthen his hips, she put him in a corner. “When he did wall squats, he sagged to one side, so I had to get him to push against that side to straighten himself

out,” she says. “I put him in a corner so he could put his arm out to push himself back upright when he started leaning over. Little considerations like that make a big difference.” Pennington suggests taking a close look at how the athlete’s body already compensates and works before designing a rehab or strength program. “For example, some people might have a prosthetic leg that allows them to do a two-leg press, but others might not have as high-tech a prosthetic leg,” she says. “We might just do a one-legged leg press, then to work the other leg, we might use some tubing with their prosthetic leg, or use a one-legged squat to simulate the exercise and get the same load without challenging that prosthetic leg to the point where we might damage it.” Because other muscle groups must compensate for what’s not available, overuse injuries are a major concern. “With wheelchair athletes, everything they do is pushing forward. So the more I can get them to do pulling and rowing motions, such as lat pull-downs, the more I can protect their shoulders from

injury,” Pennington says. “I emphasize back strength—the shoulder girdle and the posterior deltoid and all parts of the back muscles. We’re training those areas nearly two-to-one compared to chest muscles.” Athletes with physical disabilities will often benefit from modifications to traditional strength training equipment. Pennington has worked with two quadruple amputees—including a player in “Murderball,” a prize-winning documentary about wheelchair rugby—and that has presented challenges. But with the use of prosthetic limbs, hooks, and cuffs on the stumps of their arms, quadruple amputees are able to work out on cable-column machines and with barbells and dumbbells. Less severely disabled athletes also benefit from modified equipment, including a machine with a pad against which wheelchair athletes can press their chests to stabilize the trunk when they work out. “We could hold their shoulders steady, but then they’re not getting the full strength gains because we’re doing some of the work for them,” Pennington says. “So that machine is great.”

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Cardiovascular training also requires some adjustments. Research is ongoing into precisely how loss of limbs affects oxygen use and efficiency, but Pennington has begun making adjustments based on preliminary results. “When I’m working with a paraplegic on an ergometer, their heart’s having to work just as hard whether they’re working their arms or legs,” she says. “But they don’t have as many muscles to get their heart rate up as someone who’s working all four limbs, so I alter their target heart rate accordingly. Sometimes I’ll drop it 10 or 20 beats, based on conversations I’ve had with our research director.” MENTAL DISABILITIES Working with athletes with mental disabilities takes an understanding of the specific athlete’s cognitive abilities. It also requires tailoring your communication practices. Using simple terms and repetition, without being patronizing, is often what’s needed. “Patience is totally different from patronizing,” Glover says. “You explain something to them and realize they’re going to have questions. If they look totally lost, you just have to do it again. Keep it simple, and keep the medical terms out of it. It can help to slow down—I talk fast, so I know I have to slow down my speaking a bit.”

“All the skills you learn in athletic training are applicable to athletes with disabilities … You just have to adapt your style, skills, and ability to theirs. So the patience is more of a personal patience with yourself and realizing what you have to adapt to.” Platt Meyer tries to get an understanding of the athlete’s cognitive abilities from the start. “If I say, ‘How much pain are you in, and they say ‘Number 10,’ am I sure they know the difference between a number-one level pain and 10?” she says. “You need to talk to the caregiver, parent, guardian, or physician ahead of time so you understand where this athlete is coming from. “I’m not going to talk baby talk, though,” Platt Meyer adds. “If it’s a 13-year-old student-athlete, that’s how I’m going to treat him or her. If I know it’s a 13-year-old working at an 8-year-old’s level, I have to back that down to how I’d treat an 8-year-old. It’s looking at the athlete as a whole person and deciding how I can best serve him or her.” One condition that can take great finesse is autism. The parent of a child with autism, Glover says that when these athletes are injured, it often helps to have a familiar face present, such as a coach or parent, and to approach them empathetically. “There are some autistic kids who are very touch-sensitive,” she says. “You have to get them calm and settled, then work slowly. You try compressions to get them used to having the affected area touched, and gradually work over the area.” Some autistic children don’t like to be touched at all. “Make sure you talk to an autistic child before you do anything, and ask, ‘Okay, can I touch your ankle now?’” Talley adds. “You ATHLETICBID.COM

SPECIAL FOCUS want them to know it’s coming. Don’t assume that they expect anything. Sometimes you can’t touch them, and you have to just do whatever you can.” In addition, Glover says pain is not always an effective guide to the severity of an injury. “Some autistic children don’t feel as much pain as a person typically would because their sensory system is off-key,” she says. “So they might have a more severe injury than it appears because they’re tolerating it at a higher level.” It pays to be aware of less severe cognitive conditions as well. “One of the common tests for concussion is having the athlete count backward by threes or sevens. There are some people with learning disabilities who just can’t do that,” Glover says. “So it’s important to know their mental status before they were concussed. And in rehab, if they are a visual learner, make sure they have a picture of the exercise you want them to do.” It boils down to patience, and not just with the athlete, Talley says. “Everybody has the same basic anatomy, so all the skills you learn in athletic train-

ing are applicable to athletes with disabilities,” she says. “It’s just that when you’re dealing with a population out of the ‘norm,’ you have to adapt your style, skills, and ability to theirs. So the patience is more of a personal patience with yourself and realizing what you have to adapt to.” A REWARDING PATH Once they get the hang of it, most athletic trainers and strength coaches find working with this population very meaningful. In fact, Kushman’s paying job is Head Athletic Trainer for the Reggie Lewis Track and Athletics Center in Boston, and her work with the sled hockey team is voluntary. “The sled hockey guys I work with never wanted to associate with anybody else with a disability until they started playing,” says Kushman. “But a person needs a peer support group, and sports provide that for them. Now they wear hockey gear and USA Hockey shirts, and they’re proud to say, ‘Yeah, I play ice hockey.’ And then they watch people’s mouths drop.” Her performance-enhancement and

rehab work involves a lot of trial and error, but that seems okay with the players, who appreciate the help and attention. Much of the feeling, Kushman believes, results from their gratitude— and surprise—at having someone go beyond rehab that allows them to merely carry out basic daily life to being able to play and excel at a sport. “They tell me, ‘I’ve never been sore in the muscles I was sore in, ever. You had me using stuff I have never used before,’” she says. “One amputee told me, ‘My butt was killing me! I can actually feel my low back now.’” Pennington has found similar rewards in her work. “You see people with disabilities who go from being totally depressed and thinking, ‘My life is yuck,’ to, ‘Oh my gosh, there are other people like me and they can compete at an elite level,’” she says. “I wish that more athletic trainers would become involved, because it’s a population that absolutely could utilize our services,” Platt Meyer adds. “And speaking selfishly, we get so much more out of it than we can ever imagine delivering.” ■

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IRON It is easy for an athlete’s iron stores to become depleted. And it is easy for their performance to suffer as a result. BY MICHELLE ROCKWELL & DR. PAMELA HINTON


isa is a freshman college soccer player. Before arriving on campus, she spent the summer playing for her club team. She wanted to report to her new team as fit as possible, so she also got up early every morning to run stadiums and sprints, went to the gym several evenings each week to lift weights, and played pick-up games every chance she got. She worked hard on improving her diet by choosing healthier snacks and cutting down on her favorite foods—chicken wings and fast food burgers. Her high



school coach says Lisa is the hardest working athlete he has ever coached. But two weeks into preseason college workouts, she begins dropping toward the back of the pack during team runs. She struggles to make her time goals in conditioning sessions. She has twice

slept through her alarm clock and missed morning workouts. She doesn’t focus well in film sessions. Her roommate says she’s moody. Her new coaches think she can’t cut it at the college level. Her parents wonder if she’s just homesick. Lisa is referred to a physician who

Michelle Rockwell, MS, RD, is the former Coordinator of Sports Nutrition for the University of Florida Athletics Association and currently serves as a consultant for athletes and teams nationwide. Based in Durham, N.C., she can be reached at: Pamela Hinton, PhD, is an Assistant Professor of Dietetics at the University of Missouri, specializing in sports nutrition, iron deficiency, and the female athlete triad. She can be reached at:




NUTRITION suspects mononucleosis or another virus. She works with a sports psychologist. She completes extra cardio workouts. Eventually, the real culprit is discovered— iron deficiency anemia. The athlete had drained her iron stores by training hard all summer, had lowered her intake of dietary iron (by limiting burgers and chicken wings, which are both high in iron), and had begun having heavier menstrual periods as her body matured (and thus, more blood loss). Lisa starts taking iron supplements and working with a sports dietitian on dietary iron strategies. Six weeks later, she is in the starting line-up and back to her old self. Because iron deficiency is so common among athletes, particularly female athletes, it is critical that sports medicine staff members and coaches know the facts about iron and performance. Below is practical information on iron deficiency designed to help you detect and treat iron deficiency in your athletes. HOW IT WORKS Iron plays a critical role in carrying oxygen from athletes’ lungs to their working muscles, allowing aerobic metabolism to take place. When an athlete is operating without adequate iron, less

oxygen is delivered to muscles, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) drops, and performance suffers. Athletes have a higher rate of iron deficiency than non-athletes because their bodies lose iron through sweat, urine, and in the gastrointestinal tract (for example, it’s not uncommon for runners to have blood in their stool following races). Footstrike hemolysis, the breakdown of red blood cells due to the impact of an athlete’s foot striking the ground, can also contribute to a slight decrease in hemoglobin for athletes in many sports. And because they also lose iron through menstruation, female athletes are particularly at risk for deficiency. When an athlete is not getting enough iron to maintain his or her iron stores, iron deficiency will develop and progress through three stages: depleted iron stores (but functional iron is unchanged); early functional iron deficiency without anemia; and iron-deficiency anemia. In the first two stages, hemoglobin appears normal, so the condition often goes undetected or is dismissed as inconsequential in the absence of anemia. However, it’s critical to understand that low iron stores, even without

SAMPLE MEAL PLAN An iron-rich diet that combines plant and animal sources is the best way for athletes to maintain iron stores. The following menu contains iron-rich foods that are easy to prepare, even in a dorm room.

Breakfast: Bagel with margarine and strawberry jelly (2 mg) 2 hard boiled eggs, prepared in microwave (2 mg) Orange juice (Vitamin C)

Lunch: Canned soup containing meat and/or beans (4 mg) Grilled cheese sandwich on wheat bread (1 mg) Fruit yogurt (Vitamin C) or pudding

Snack: Trail mix: nuts, dried fruit, chocolate if desired (2 mg)

Dinner: Canned meat and/or bean chili (5 mg, Vitamin C) French bread (1 mg) Carrots and dip Milk

OR Sliced roast beef or pre-cooked chicken tenderloins (3 mg) Spinach salad with assorted veggies and vinaigrette dressing (5 mg) Blueberry muffin (1 mg) Grapefruit juice (Vitamin C)



anemia, can be detrimental to athletic performance. By the time an athlete’s condition reaches early functional iron deficiency, he or she will begin experiencing reduced endurance capacity and loss of energy. The hallmark symptom of iron deficiency anemia is fatigue that worsens with exertion. Since fatigue is a common complaint of athletes and can have many different causes (such as other nutritional imbalances, illness, stress, or mental health concerns), the key is to look for fatigue that worsens with exercise. If an athlete complains of fatigue throughout the day, but feels fine during workouts, the cause is likely not exclusively iron deficiency. Other symptoms of iron deficiency include: • Breathlessness or feeling abnormally winded during workouts. • Decreased performance, especially a sudden decrease. • Lethargy, sleepiness, and apathy. • Poor concentration. • Moodiness or irritability. • Increased injury susceptibility. • Always feeling cold, and unable to tolerate cold tank or ice treatments. WHO IS AT RISK? Anemia is often perceived as a problem that only female endurance athletes need to worry about, but recent research has shown that iron deficiency can occur in athletes in any sport at any level, male or female. One recent study found that 25 to 35 percent of adolescent and adult females competing in a variety of sports were iron deficient. The same study found that 11 percent of males competing in a variety of sports were iron deficient, and males competing in certain sports appear to be more at risk: Fifteen percent of male basketball players and 36 percent of elite male gymnasts in the study were iron deficient. At the University of Florida, we saw a significant number of cases of iron deficiency anemia in football and soccer players and in gymnastics athletes. Don’t assume that any athlete is immune to iron problems—we have observed iron depletion in baseball, softball, and golf, all sports with a minimal endurance component. While any athlete can develop problems with iron, certain athletes do fall into high-risk categories: • Female athletes, primarily because they lose iron through menstruation. ATHLETICBID.COM

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NUTRITION Heavy or irregular periods may contribute to iron deficiency. Additionally, because female athletes typically consume fewer calories overall than male athletes do, they are less likely to consume adequate iron. • Dieters or athletes restricting caloric intake. When overall food intake decreases, getting adequate iron is unlikely unless the athlete is specifically focusing on eating high-iron foods. • Vegetarian athletes. Plant sources of dietary iron are not as dense or well absorbed as meat sources.

• Athletes initiating a new or significantly more intense training program. Rapid depletion of iron stores can occur with the onset of harder training, particularly if levels were borderline before the athlete intensified his or her program. • Athletes who frequently donate blood. Blood donation results in a loss of 200-250 mg of iron per 0.5 L of blood. THE IRON-ADEQUATE DIET The FDA recommends that women 18 to 50 years of age get 18 mg of iron per day. The RDA for men in the general popula-

Circle No. 114



tion is eight mg per day, but because of their high iron turnover, some nutritionists recommend that male athletes aim for 30 percent more, or 10.5 mg. The best way to help athletes protect their crucial iron stores is by helping them choose a diet that supplies adequate iron from a variety of sources. Athletes who eat meat should focus on getting some of their iron from animal sources, since the iron in animal products (which contains hemoglobin) is absorbed better than iron from plant sources (called non-heme iron), which contains no hemoglobin. Consuming three to four small servings of beef per week is effective in increasing iron stores for many athletes. Vegetarian athletes can also meet their iron needs through diet, but it takes significant effort and planning. Some nutritionists feel that vegetarian athletes should aim for an iron intake as high as 24 mg per day since their iron sources are not as bioavailable (readily absorbed). It may be helpful to explain to vegetarian athletes why they need to pay particular attention to their iron intake by using the following example: A one-cup serving of raw spinach contains six mg of iron, but only 0.1 to 0.6 mg of that is absorbed in the small intestine. In contrast, a three-ounce serving of steak contains less iron—only four mg—but 50 percent of that is absorbed in the intestine, for an actual iron intake of two mg. It’s also important to note that there are many athletes who do not necessarily label themselves “vegetarian” but who do follow a diet extremely low in meat products, such as athletes following a very high carbohydrate diet, on a limited budget, or with limited cooking skills (think dorm room macaroni and cheese). These athletes also need to be particularly careful to get adequate dietary iron. In addition to consuming more iron, both vegetarian and meat-eating athletes can take steps to enhance the iron their bodies absorb from nonheme sources. One of the best ways to accomplish this is by combining nonheme iron sources with foods high in Vitamin C. Easy examples include: • Iron-fortified cereal with a grapefruit. • Spinach salad with strawberries. • Chili with lentil beans and tomatoes. • Iron-fortified bread with real fruit preserves. ATHLETICBID.COM

NUTRITION • Noodles with marinara sauce. • Nuts with dried apricots. • Bagel and orange juice. Preparing non-heme iron foods in cast iron cookware can significantly increase iron content. For example, using a griddle made of cast iron will add extra iron to foods like pancakes, French toast, scrambled eggs, and stir fry. It’s also important to help athletes avoid nutritional practices that decrease the absorption of iron. For example, drinking tea or coffee with iron-rich foods may impair absorption. Similarly, the phytates present in some grains and vegetables can reduce iron absorption. It is also recommended that iron supplements be taken at a separate time from calcium supplements and even calciumcontaining foods because calcium can inhibit iron absorption. Athletes may be advised to not select calcium-fortified orange juice if their intent is to use the juice to enhance iron absorption. As an added dietary insurance policy, many sports nutritionists recommend a multivitamin that contains iron. Look for a multivitamin from a reputable company that contains approximately

VEGETARIAN MEAL PLAN Vegetarian athletes need to pay particular attention to iron intake because iron from plant sources is more difficult for the body to absorb. The following is an example of a 2,500-calorie vegetarian meal plan containing 25 mg of iron.

Breakfast: 1 cup iron-fortified cereal (5 mg) 1 cup skim milk or soy milk 12 oz orange juice (Vitamin C)

Lunch: Spinach salad with 1/4 cup sunflower seeds and Italian dressing (7 mg) Veggie burger with cheese (or soy cheese) on wheat bun (3 mg) 1 fruit yogurt (Vitamin C)

Snack: 2 oatmeal raisin cookies (3 mg)

Dinner: Tofu/broccoli stir-fry or 2 slices cheese pizza (6 mg) 1 cup rice (1 mg) 1 cup ice cream




NUTRITION 50 percent of the iron Daily Value (9 mg) for men and 100 percent of the iron Daily Value (18 mg) for women. However, caution your athletes not to become too dependent on supplements for achieving their iron needs. Remind them that even though their supplement contains a high percentage of iron and is an excellent back-up, not all of the iron is well-absorbed, so they still need to focus on dietary sources. (For a listing of the iron content of common foods, see “Adding Up Iron,” below.) DETECTING DEFICIENCY If you are working with an athlete who has symptoms consistent with iron deficiency, they should be referred for blood work and further evaluation. Many insurance companies will pay at least a portion of lab expenses for iron analysis when symptoms are present. Blood tests for iron depletion most commonly measure serum ferritin. Ferritin is a measure of hepatic (liver) iron stores. Depleted ferritin can be associated with decreased performance. The cut-off for what is considered “low”

varies. At the University of Florida, we considered less than 40 ug/L low for females and less than 70 ug/L low for endurance sport males. It is worth mentioning that ferritin is an acute-phase protein that can be elevated in response to inflammation, hard exercise in an untrained person, or illness. Thus, if a ferritin test comes back high in the presence of these circumstances, it should be re-evaluated after one week. Athletes whose iron deficiency has progressed to iron deficiency anemia may also have blood tests that show hemoglobin and hematocrit below the normal range. Hemoglobin is the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs throughout the body. Iron is a critical structural component of hemoglobin and when iron is inadequate, hemoglobin can become diminished. Hematocrit reflects the actual percentage of red blood cells in the blood. When hematocrit is low, aerobic function is likely diminished. Normal ranges vary by lab, but a hemoglobin level of 12.0-14.8 g/dl for

ADDING UP IRON General dietary guidelines recommend that women 18 to 50 years of age get 18 mg of iron per day. We recommend that endurance or intensely trained male athletes get 10.5 mg a day. Vegetarian athletes and those who eat very little meat should aim for 24 mg per day.


Food Hamburger Roast Beef Steak Turkey Chicken Tuna/Fish Ham Pizza Beans or Lentils Bean Soup or Chili with Beans Eggs Nuts or Seeds Bagel Waffle or Pancakes Cereal with iron

Serving Size 1 patty 3 oz 6 oz 3 oz 3 oz 3 oz 3 oz 1 slice 1 cup, cooked 1 cup 2 1/4 cup 1 1 1 cup

Raisins, Dates Spinach Vitamin+Iron

1/2 cup 1 cup, raw 1 vitamin


Iron per serving (mg) 3 5 9 3 3 2 2 3 2 2 2 1 2 3 5, varies by brand and type 3 6 18

females and 13.7-16.5 g/dl for males and a hematocrit level of 37-43 percent for females and 40-48 percent for males can be used as good reference points. However, there appears to be an individualized component to hemoglobin concentration. In other words, an athlete may have hemoglobin in the standard normal range, but still be low relative to his or her own normal level. This is known as relative anemia, and it can significantly impact exercise tolerance and should be treated. Thus, it’s valuable to compare hemoglobin and hematocrit over time as a drop in these (even if still in the normal range) may have negative effects. Also be aware that a condition called sports anemia can cloud the iron deficiency anemia diagnosis in athletes. Endurance training increases the volume of plasma an athlete has. When plasma volume increases, it dilutes red blood cells and can make hemoglobin and hematocrit appear falsely low. Blood work should be done prior to the start of the season or a few weeks into training to minimize alterations caused by sports anemia. Anemia is not always caused by iron deficiency. This is why exclusively testing hemoglobin and hematocrit is not enough to clarify the origin of anemia. If true iron deficiency exists, MCV (a measure of the size of the blood cell) will likely be low because iron deficiency causes a reduction in cell size and because ferritin levels are also low. Some physicians use a full iron panel to diagnose iron deficiency anemia, including tests such as total iron, iron binding capacity, and percent saturation. While blood analysis is certainly a very valuable tool in uncovering iron deficiency, it is not always possible. If you are in a situation where testing is not an option, there are many non-invasive tools effective in assessing iron habits and iron deficiency risk. Consider giving athletes a questionnaire that asks about typical diet, current supplementation, menstrual history, training status, and history of iron deficiency. If you feel that an athlete’s symptoms and habits point to iron deficiency, but no bloodwork is available to back up your suspicions, you can still take action. The conservative, but appropriate, step would be to supplement with an iron-containing multivitamin and ensure that dietary iron is greater than 20 mg per day. ATHLETICBID.COM

NUTRITION REPLENISHING STORES When an athlete does have blood work showing that he or she is suffering from iron depletion or iron deficiency anemia, supplemental iron is usually needed. Because of the risk of iron overload, supplemental iron should only be given under a physician’s care and with warranting blood work. An athlete who is prescribed supplemental iron will need to choose among a variety of forms. Most athletes with iron deficiency can tolerate ferrous sulfate, the most common form of iron supplements. One tablet per day (containing 35-60 mg of elemental iron) should be used for iron depletion and two tablets per day (one in the morning and one at night) for iron deficiency anemia. Some athletes experience gastrointestinal upset with supplements. Nausea, cramping, constipation, dark stool, and diarrhea are typical complaints. To minimize these side effects, have the athlete start by taking one tablet per day and build up to two. He or she should take the iron with food (preferably food low in phytates and calcium and high in Vitamin C) and take it right before bed.

For athletes who cannot tolerate ferrous sulfate, time-released iron supplements or supplements containing small amounts of laxative or Vitamin C may work. Liquid iron supplements are a popular choice, especially among runners. They can be mixed into orange juice, which adds Vitamin C. Athletes should be advised to brush their teeth after taking liquid iron supplements since the iron can stain teeth. Once an athlete begins treatment, hematocrit and hemoglobin will respond to the supplemental iron after about two weeks. It may take up to 12 months to fully replete iron stores. The athlete should be re-tested in three months. If improvements have not been made in lab values and symptoms by this point, a further medical and nutritional evaluation is warranted. ROUTINE SCREENING Another way of protecting your athletes against iron deficiency is to set up a standard testing protocol within your athletic department. Routine screening, especially of athletes at risk for iron deficiency, is tremendously beneficial since wait-

ing until symptoms become significant enough to detect can be very costly in terms of performance. The longer the deficiency exists, the more severe the symptoms, and the longer the wait to return to optimal performance. The cost of iron screening is not nearly as prohibitive as many think. A complete blood count (CBC), which includes hemoglobin and hematocrit, generally costs between $30 and $35. Ferritin evaluation costs $20 to $25 per test. Some labs offer discount prices for groups of athletes. It’s easy to argue that this nominal price is well worth it. Many college programs already screen female endurance athletes, but we believe there is evidence to support broadening this to include all female athletes and male endurance athletes. At Florida, we expanded our screening to include all three groups, and the number of deficiencies we uncovered was significant. Many sports medicine staff members, coaches, and athletes felt that the attention we paid to our athletes’ iron status was a very important factor in their success both on the field and in the classroom. â–


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Editor’s Note: Set up eight to 10 hurdles three feet apart for each of the following exercises. For variation, hold a medicine ball during each exercise, chest pass a medicine ball to a partner during the exercises, or when setting up, alternate between the six- and 12-inch hurdles. For more information on the equipment used in these exercises, call 800-321-6975 or visit


Lateral Hurdle Run

Single Leg Jump and Stick

ACTION: Standing sideways to the first hurdle with arms bent at a 90-degree angle, run laterally over the hurdle, leading with the inside leg, followed by the trailing leg. Continue down the row of hurdles and repeat the sequence with the other leg.

ACTION: Standing on one foot and facing the hurdles perform a small counter-movement arm swing and hop over the first hurdle, landing on the take off leg. Hold for a count of “one-one thousand” and then continue down the row of hurdles. Repeat on the other leg.

FOCUS POINTS: Concentrate on the correct technique before speed. Emphasize good arm action and oppositional movement patterns (right arm/left leg, left arm/right leg). Do not allow excessive leaning at the hips.

FOCUS POINTS: Start with six-inch hurdles, progressing to the 12-inch hurdles as proficiency increases. Perform this exercise with proficiency before adding any complex variations.

BENEFITS: Improves mobility, lateral speed and agility, coordination, kinesthetic awareness, and reaction time, while strengthening the hip abductors and flexors.

BENEFITS: Improves dynamic balance, stability, and power in the lower extremities.




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Hurdle Skips

Hurdle Hop with Cone Reach

ACTION: With arms bent at a 90-degree angle and facing the hurdles, skip over each hurdle utilizing either a highknee or low-knee leg lift, depending on the height of the hurdle. Continue down the row of hurdles and repeat the sequence leading with the opposite foot.

ACTION: Add cones to the drill. Facing the hurdles, perform a counter-movement arm swing and jump over the first hurdle. Upon landing, reach down and touch your side or your opposite-side hand to the cone. Continue down the row of hurdles.

FOCUS POINTS: Concentrate on the correct technique of the step/hop pattern before speed. Emphasize good arm action and oppositional movement patterns. Do not allow excessive leaning at the hips.

FOCUS POINTS: Start with six-inch hurdles, progressing to the 12-inch hurdles as proficiency increases. Perform this exercise with proficiency before adding any complex variations.

BENEFITS: Improves locomotive mechanics, foot speed, total body coordination, and ambidexterity, as the limbs of the upper and lower body must work in concert with one another to perform coordinated movement patterns.

BENEFITS: Improves power, coordination, kinesthetic awareness, and reaction time, while increasing mobility and strengthening the lower extremities.





No Pain,





No Gain? You want your athletes to dig down and get the most out of their workouts. So what is the fine line between pushing them hard and pushing them too hard?




ometime in the 1500s, an English poet named Robert Herrick used the phrase “no pain, no gain” in his writings. He was conveying the idea that if you don’t work really hard at something, you won’t benefit from it. A good, noble phrase from a well-respected poet of his day. Ben Franklin and, a little closer to home, Adlai Stevenson, also used the maxim with success. They, too, were promoting the idea of hard work. More recently, “no pain, no gain” has been linked with athletics. Today’s coaches motivate their athletes with the phrase and it has become the mantra of the hard-working team. The problem is that many coaches and athletes take the phrase too literally. For many athletes today, experiencing pain has been linked with working out. They approach the weight stack with the assumption that a little hurt is what will get them to the next level. In reality, nothing could be further from the truth. For sure, proper training in the weightroom or on the field demands that athletes be pushed to their limits. And there is no doubt that a good sport or strength coach can get athletes to accomplish things beyond what they ever thought possible. But achieving this does not mean you have to inflict pain. In fact, pain is a red flag that something is wrong with the workout. WHY NOT PUSH IT? The main reason not to push your athletes to their threshold of pain is that it won’t help them achieve their strength and conditioning goals. To make gains in the weightroom, it’s critical to follow a progression. An athlete should ATHLETICBID.COM

not move to a higher weight until he or she has mastered the weight he or she is at. If an athlete has pain, his or her body is struggling to adapt and needs rest. If you push more weight on a body in pain, it will lead to more pain and no adaptation. It may even eventually lead to injury. It is important to understand the various stimuli that cause an adaptive response to strength training and how they correspond to your specific goals. If the goal is hypertrophy, then volume is the stimulus. If the goal is more neural, then intensity is the primary stimulus. To make gains, it is necessary to achieve a certain stimulus threshold. This threshold is dependent on the individual and the objective of the training. In addition, some workouts should be very difficult and others should almost seem easy. This ebb and flow of challenge intensity is essential for proper adaptation. The question I always ask coaches when I am teaching at a clinic is: Are you making your athletes better, or are you making them tired? If you are just making them tired, I suggest you reconsider your approach. You need to continually keep the big picture in mind: achieving the training objective entails more than just pushing to pain at every workout. Another reason not to push your athletes to their limit is that it can simply wear them out at a time when you don’t want them worn out. It is important to remember that the weightroom is only one facet of the athlete’s total preparation. If you expect them to peak in the weightroom, what will they have left for practice? And, more importantly, what will they have left for gameday? I believe the “no pain, no gain” ap-

proach is a direct outgrowth of the fact that historically, strength and conditioning was a field driven by football. Often, the football strength and conditioning coach set the tempo for all the sport programs because he was also the head strength coach. The mentality that pervaded football served to reinforce the “no pain, no gain” approach. The goal was to make the players tough, so without pain there was no gain! I don’t know about you, but I want my players tough on gameday. That should be the goal of training. A thoroughly conditioned athlete who is supremely confident in his or her preparation will be mentally and physically tough. But an athlete can only go to the well so many times before it will begin to run dry. Push a “no pain, no gain” message in the weightroom, and you risk depleting that well and leaving the athlete with nothing for competition. KNOW THE LINE The obvious question, then, is: What is the line between working hard and not overdoing it during weightroom workouts? I tell my athletes that they are finely tuned race cars. To stay finely tuned, they must work with high energy and push themselves. But just like race cars, they cannot be at red line all the time or there will be a breakdown. The test of work done in the weightroom is soreness. There is good soreness and bad soreness. Good soreness is soreness in the muscles involved in a Vern Gambetta, MA, is the President of Gambetta Sports Training Systems in Sarasota, Fla. A frequent contributor to Training & Conditioning, he can be reached through his Web site at: T&C NOVEMBER 2005





ere’s one more good reason not to push your athletes to the point of pain during their workouts: It can result in injury. And injuries that may have been preventable can lead to lawsuits. Last year, Scott Koffman, a former baseball player at Brigham Young University, filed a $9.2 million law suit in U.S. District Court against the school and one of its strength and conditioning coaches, claiming a weight-training injury ended his hopes of pitching professionally. The suit said the pitcher suffered three herniated disks in September 2001 after being forced by the coach to lift too much weight. While performing an elevated leg press, Koffman says that he tried removing some weight from the press and was stopped by an assistant strength and conditioning coach who called him a vulgar name, added another 100 pounds, and ordered him to lift. The lawsuit indicated that Koffman suffered the injury on the first repetition he attempted. Although Koffman participated in 16 games during the season following the injury, he says the pain eventually became too severe to continue his career. He claims it also affected his ability to study, causing his grades to drop. Once drafted by the Baltimore Orioles, Koffman says he is no longer able to be even moderately active and that he will be affected physically and financially for the rest of his life. In February, BYU and Koffman settled out of court, though terms have not been disclosed. School officials claim they provided Koffman with adequate medical care, although they have not commented on the strength coach’s actions. — R.J. Anderson

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Circle No. 119






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particular movement, such as the glutes in squatting. If the glutes are sore after a heavy squatting session, that is good. However, if there is soreness in the joints, that is not good. For example, if the knees are sore after squatting, that is a bad sign. It often means the training is being performed incorrectly. In addition, soreness that persists is a red flag. The inability to recover for the next workout often indicates that the athlete is at red line all the time, or the workload was excessive. Soreness should dissipate after a good thorough warm-up the next day. An unexpected performance plateau is another sign that an athlete is doing too much. During a time when performance should be rising, a plateau or decline indicates that there is a problem. The athlete may very well be pushing too hard. HOLDING THEM BACK Even if your workouts have the proper progression and you’re asking your athletes about any soreness they are experiencing, you need to be on the lookout for those who take the “no pain, no gain� mantra literally. There will always be athletes who want to go past their limits every day, and they need to be reined in. As coaches we are teachers, and it is our job to teach our athletes how to train. I certainly do not want to discourage an athlete from working hard in the weightroom—or anywhere for that matter—but I feel I must teach them that training is more than feeling the burn. It’s sometimes hard for a young athlete to think about the big picture, so I try to make it very clear where they are going and outline the steps they must take to get there. The first thing I explain is that training is cumulative. Progress is not made through one heavy max session in the weightroom, but through the cumulative effect of many sessions over a period of weeks and months. I also talk about how workouts in the weightroom correlate to their performance. I tell them why and how a certain lift will help them2/11/05 on the12:08:59 field,PM and why overdoing it will hurt their performance. If they are very driven on a daily basis, I ask them to put that effort into performing their lifts with concentration and intensity— making their technique perfect and exploding at the perfect moment. Another part of the solution is giving athletes strength and conditioning goals—the more individualized, the

Circle No. 121






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OPTIMUM PERFORMANCE better. This provides direction and purpose to the training. It helps the athlete see each workout not as a one-time heroic effort, but as part of the big picture. It is also important to provide a lot of feedback, especially to the very driven athlete who has formerly worked with a “no pain, no gain” coach. For this athlete, the hurt that comes from training may be seen as a form of feedback. If

back to all your athletes and show them they are achieving gain without pain. The tests should be carefully chosen to accurately reflect what is going on in training at the present time. Young, developing athletes, especially, want to see tangible progress. Testing reinforces the positive effects of proper training. Some day-to-day solutions include providing close supervision and structuring

Testing is a great way to provide feedback to all your athletes and show them they are achieving gain without pain. The tests should be carefully chosen to accurately reflect what is going on in training at the present time. it hurts, that’s good, they think, and it gives them the incentive to keep going. This is not an easy athlete to work with, because in their eyes you are taking away the opportunity to get better. The solution is to provide this person with a lot of feedback and motivate them in different ways. Also, they must not be allowed any leeway in their workouts. Testing is a great way to provide feed-

the training away from big lifts. I have seen too many athletes get caught up in the moment and try lifts they had no business attempting. It should be clear what the protocol is every day, and coaches should circulate around the weightroom to ensure that athletes aren’t trying to do more than what is prescribed. I know some strength coaches who make a conscious effort to downplay

any competition over who can lift the most weight, and that tends to work well. One way they have gotten away from this is by not emphasizing one-rep maximums. Instead, they use three-rep maximums and project a one-rep max off of that. This can help. NOT A PUNISHMENT Part of the problem with the “no pain, no gain” mentality is that it is ingrained in many sports. Coaches and athletes think: More is better and the more weight someone lifts the better, regardless of the technique (or lack thereof). In addition, some coaches use workouts as a type of punishment. If you aren’t listening to the coach, you have to do 100 pushups. But training is not punishment, and it should not be thought of as such. It is an opportunity to get better. If we can shift our thinking in these two areas—more is not always better and training has a specific purpose— then the “no pain, no gain” school of thought will have a lot less credibility. And our athletes will, ultimately, make the most gains. ■

Circle No. 123





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Circle No. 125


Meet the Press CHRIS MURPHY

Being media-savvy may not be in your job description, but it can go a long way toward boosting your image and promoting the athletic training profession. BY ABIGAIL FUNK


ou’ve just arrived at the practice field to cover the football team and a newspaper reporter approaches you. She explains that she’s doing an article about the team’s playoff game this weekend and is looking for more details about the injuries of some of the players. You quickly shoo her off, telling her you just don’t have time. You need to get your equipment set up, talk to the offensive line coach about the center’s nagging ankle injury, and watch the kids warm up. There are also HIPAA regulations to think about. And, well, you really just have no interest in talking to a reporter—it’s not what your job is about. Or is it? If one aspect of your job is to ATHLETICBID.COM

support the athletic department, if you want to be seen as a leader, and if you are interested in promoting the athletic training profession, maybe you can give up five minutes to talk to that reporter. Maybe being quoted can help achieve some of those important goals. Most athletic trainers shy away from talking to the media. They are not trained to do so and they are wary of reporters who don’t speak their language. But some are learning that the media can be an ally—if you know how to work with them. WHY TALK? The first reason to consider talking to the media is that your words can promote your athletic department. When reporters rely on coaches for injury in-

formation, there is a chance for inaccuracies, which can make the program look bad. However if a quote from you, as a certified athletic trainer, explains the injury with clarity and accurate terms, the public sees the athletic department as professional and in tune with the sports-medical needs of its athletes. “In the world of sports, reporters’ closest contacts are usually the coaches,” says Marion Vruggink, MS, LAT, ATC, Head Athletic Trainer at West Lafayette (Ind.) High School. “The athletic trainer, though, is the best person to talk to about injuries because Abigail Funk is an Assistant Editor at Training & Conditioning. She can be reached at: T&C NOVEMBER 2005


LEADERSHIP we’re the ones who provide care, and we’ll have more accurate information than a coach. “For example, a reporter may say that they heard an athlete is ‘questionable’ for an upcoming game, whereas you know the athlete is ‘probable,’” continues Vruggink. “That’s your chance to correct the reporter about something a coach may not have picked up on. Making sure the media have information that is accurate is more important than we often realize.” A second reason to cooperate with media outlets is to promote the profession of athletic training. What you say to a reporter helps the public understand how critical athletic training is to the success of athletic programs. It may also help to expose the public to what athletic trainers do behind the scenes. “We are always trying to educate the public about our profession,” says Mark Gilbert, LAT, ATC, Head Athletic Trainer at Granbury (Texas) High School. “For instance, if you can make sure a reporter has our title as ‘athletic

trainer’ and not just ‘trainer,’ that’s a great use of the media.” “The media can be a window into the athletic training profession for many people,” says Artie Poitras, MEd, ATC, Head Athletic Trainer at the University of Massachusetts-Lowell. “Whether it’s for a newspaper article or a human interest piece on a local cable channel, it’s the only way a lot of people will ever hear an athletic trainer speak.” Tim Neal, MS, ATC, Head Athletic Trainer at Syracuse University, says that early in his career he shied away from talking to reporters, but more recently he has found them to be a great conduit for educating the public. In 2001, when a football referee collapsed on the field from cardiac arrest and Neal and his staff helped to save his life, Neal was bombarded with interview requests. “I used that event as a platform to educate people on the capabilities of athletic trainers and the need for AEDs,” he says. “I then found that the local media were asking me to talk about various health topics like heat-related

injuries. The media are good vehicles for an athletic trainer to get information out about common injuries and prevention techniques—especially to parents and their kids.” You may also want to talk to the media to further your own career. Gilbert was contacted by the NATA after one of his student-athletes suffered a catastrophic neck injury, to speak at the national convention on the topic. He has since had over two dozen public-speaking opportunities. “It’s because of word of mouth saying I was a good presenter, I guess,” says Gilbert. “I’ve always been a big proponent of student athletic training education, and it’s a lot like teaching a class. I’ve gotten more comfortable with the whole idea of public speaking and talking to the media over time. It’s definitely helped my career.” HEY, OVER HERE! So how do you go about shifting the spotlight in your direction? The first thing you can do is inform the people



o comply with the US Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA), athletic trainers do need to be cautious when talking to the media. But this should not be a stumbling block or an excuse to back out of the spotlight. HIPAA and FERPA privacy rules are national laws that protect both educational and medical records of individuals. In regard to injuries, HIPAA states that a “covered entity,” which includes most colleges and universities, may not disclose an athlete’s health care information without his or her permission, which may be given verbally or through a HIPAA information release form. At the high school level, because you’re dealing with minors, it’s up to the athlete’s parent or guardian if they want to make any injury information public. Mark Gilbert, LAT, ATC, Head Athletic Trainer at Granbury (Texas) High School, has passed many an inquiry off to a student-athlete’s parents, explaining that he isn’t at liberty to discuss the situation without their permission. Most college student-athletes sign a HIPAA release form. Find out which athletes have not signed the form, if any. If you can’t answer a reporter’s questions due to HIPAA or FERPA laws, explain this to the reporter instead of saying “no comment.” “Those two words are a red flag to journalists and you can see their competitive juices start flowing,” says Kathleen Hessert, President and owner of Sports Media Challenge, a consulting firm specializing in working with the media. “They’ll think there’s a good story there somewhere, and try to find out what it is.” Gilbert has found that most reporters don’t understand or even know about HIPAA and FERPA law, and that’s when athletic trainers make the mistake of saying, “no comment.” “A sportswriter called me about an injured athlete, and I told him up front that I wasn’t going to be able to tell him much,” says Gilbert. “He wanted to know why, and I realized he had no idea about HIPAA and FERPA law. “I explained to him that I wasn’t trying to hide anything, but that these are federal restrictions,” Gilbert continues. “Communication in our business is so critical in every aspect, including with the media.”




LEADERSHIP you work with that you have an interest in helping out with media inquiries. “Tell your athletic director you’re interested in talking to the media, and explain that you think it’s important for people to be educated and understand what an athletic trainer does,” says Kathleen Hessert, President and owner of Sports Media Challenge, a consulting firm specializing in working with the media. “Most people don’t like to talk to the media, so if you volunteer to your athletic director that you’d like to, they’ll most likely say, ‘Great! Go right ahead, I think that would be really good exposure.’” Also tell the coaches you work with that you’re available for interviews. Discuss when and why you, as an athletic trainer, should answer reporters’ questions. “The coach is probably the number one contact a reporter goes to,” says David Wilson, LAT, ATC, Communications Chair for the Indiana Athletic Trainers’ Association. “Hopefully if a reporter asks about an injury, the coach will redirect the question to you as the athletic trainer. Some coaches also have radio morning talk shows, and they’re always looking for something that can benefit the community, so maybe the coach can have an ‘athletic trainer’s corner’ segment for injury prevention or helpful tips. It never hurts to ask.” Third, let your sports information director know you are available for comments. This simple step worked well for Poitras. “Our sports information director brought reporters to hockey practice and introduced me to them,” says Poitras. “So I’ve developed a good relationship with all the local sports reporters and photographers throughout the years and know them all by name. “When I was first quoted in the Boston Herald, it was in regard to hockey injuries,” Poitras continues. “Now, if the reporter needs any sports-medicine advice for a story, he knows I’m here and willing to help out.” That relationship has led to broader coverage for Poitras and UMass-Lowell. “Their health and science editor called the sports desk looking for an athletic trainer, so the hockey reporter gave her my contact information and I was quoted in a story about men’s and women’s sprinting times in that section of the paper,” says Poitras. Vruggink suggests that instead of waiting for a reporter to approach you, ATHLETICBID.COM

go to them. “Typically, athletic trainers are very busy people,” says Vruggink. “But if they have the time, they might offer to write a weekly question and answer or health and nutrition advice section for their local paper. Some of the health editors are very interested in that type of thing, and it helps introduce to the public what we do.” Wilson agrees that going straight to the broadcast or print outlets that cover your teams is a good idea. “For example,” he says, “send them a paragraph about how your staff helped out for free

at a youth event, and they may give you a call.” DO’S AND DON’TS When you’ve never been quoted before, talking to the media can be intimidating. What if I say the wrong thing? What if they misquote me or I sound stupid? There is an art to representing yourself well through the media, but it can be learned. “Working with the media is a skill that needs to be learned and practiced in order to get good at,” says Hessert.

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Circle No. 126 T&C NOVEMBER 2005


LEADERSHIP To start, listen carefully to the reporter’s questions, and take some time to think about your answers. “Try to boil your message down to a single, concise, high-impact sentence,” says Hessert. Use complete sentences and concrete terms, and speak slowly and clearly. In addition, don’t feel constricted by the way the question is phrased. “If a re-

interview is going to reach,” says Poitras. “They may not care that the athlete is out because of a second-degree medial collateral ligament tear, so using the term ‘knee injury’ when talking about it may be a better choice.” Ray Begovich, Associate Professor of Journalism at Franklin College —where he teaches public relations courses

“Don’t go into an interview simply answering a reporter’s questions, therefore giving the questioner all of the power … Know that the journalist’s questions are purely vehicles for you to educate the public about whatever the situation may be.” porter says, ‘Give me two reasons why something shouldn’t happen,’ the person will generally give two reasons,” says Hessert. “What if there are three or four reasons, or no reasons at all? Don’t let the format of a question box you in.” And always think about the audience. “We also have to remember who our

and conducts media training for various professions, including coaches and athletes—says that knowing your message and intended audience ahead of time will keep you on track to answer questions intelligently. “Each time you deal with the media, you should have a message that you want to get across to

the various ‘publics’ you care about,” says Begovich. “Your publics may include players, parents, administrators, coaches, and sports experts. Remember that the media are not the real target of your message, but are simply conduits to your intended public audiences.” As you become more comfortable with answering questions, the next step is to frame the information the media outlet is reporting on. That means you aren’t just answering the question, but thinking about the message you want to get across. “Too often, interviewees think they have to wait for a reporter to ask the right question,” says Begovich. “And too often, that question never comes— in which case the door is closed on getting your message across. The bottom line is to have something to say and make sure you say it.” Hessert agrees that it is key to have a goal heading into an interview. “Don’t go into an interview simply answering a reporter’s questions, therefore giving the questioner all of the power,” she says. “Know that the journalist’s questions are purely vehicles for you to

Circle No. 127




LEADERSHIP educate the public about whatever the situation may be.� Also know that it’s okay to ask what questions the reporter has in mind before the interview takes place. When Gilbert was interviewed several years ago by a local television station after some student-athletes were hit by lightning, he wanted to know what the reporter was going to ask him about. “I told the reporter it would help me give thought-through, concrete answers, and I wouldn’t stumble through it,� says Gilbert. “That way, I also wasn’t blindsided by anything I wasn’t prepared to answer or didn’t know the answer to. And the reporter was completely fine with that.� The opportunity for a television interview may also arise, and Begovich has some tips for looking professional to your viewing audience. “Always look at the reporter, not the camera, and control your body language in order to come across as calm and confident,� he says. “Dress successfully, not as a distraction, and speak in brief, meaningful sentences.� In addition to what you should do

when talking to the media, there are a few things to be careful to avoid. “Never say a negative,� says Hessert. “Don’t let emotional words or phrases in a question stop you in your tracks. If the reporter asks a question with a negative word in it, like a player ‘choked’ tonight, don’t repeat it. Take the time to rephrase it in your head and leave the negative out.� Begovich adds that when being recorded by either a print journalist or on television, whenever a microphone is near you, assume it’s on. “Don’t say anything before or after the official interview you don’t want broadcast,� he says. “And if you make a mistake during an interview, it’s okay, just correct yourself.� GETTING TO KNOW THE MEDIA The final step in working well with the media is to understand the profession and some of its nuances. For example, know that journalists often work on short deadlines. “Journalism is a deadline-driven business,� says Begovich. “Sometimes you’ll need to drop what you’re doing in order to meet a jour-

nalist’s deadline. But media-savvy professionals in all fields know that media coverage is well worth the schedule adjustments it sometimes requires.â€? Also understand that being recorded on tape is a sign of a journalist seeking to do a professional job. “Don’t be nervous when a print reporter pulls out a tape recorder,â€? Begovich says. “Instead, be glad. The reporter is more likely to quote you accurately.â€? Finally, know that the media are not always looking for something controversial to reveal about your program. “The media are not your enemy,â€? says Poitras. “They’re not bad people. They’re just like you and me—trying to do their job. It’s not bad to be friendly with them. You just have to watch your step.â€? So next time that reporter approaches you, remember that talking to them can help your own career, your athletic department, and the athletic training profession to gain exposure. The more you can put yourself in the spotlight, the more the public will understand what athletic training is about and see how vital the profession is to the sports world. â–










Circle No. 129


Row Your Boat As more schools add women’s rowing to their athletic offerings, strength coaches must learn how to address the power and endurance needs of this unique sport.

The University of Virginia’s varsity four placed first at this spring’s NCAA Division I championships.




ith an increasing number of women’s rowing teams being added to collegiate programs across the country, more and more strength and conditioning coaches are faced with training athletes for a sport they know little about. In most ways, training rowers is the same as training athletes in any other sport, but there are some important differences that strength coaches need to keep in mind. Few sports require the combination of strength and endurance that is needed for rowing. Although both strength and endurance will certainly benefit athletes in most sports, usually we can lean toward developing one more than the other. Rowers, however, need an ample supply of both to be able to go all out for more than six minutes at a time. In addition, female rowers tend to have less experience with strength trainATHLETICBID.COM

ing than other athletes. This is partially because, unlike in other sports, rowing teams may include novice boats with rowers who have never before competed in the sport. Some novice rowers may have never participated in any organized sports, let alone have any strength-training experience. As a result, we spend more time than usual teaching technique for even the most basic lifts. On the other hand, athletes who have had no exposure to strength training usually show the greatest gains. Obviously, aerobic conditioning plays a large role in a rower’s performance. Here at Virginia, the rowing staff is responsible for the aerobic conditioning of the team through the use of rowing, ergometer (rowing machine) work, running, cycling, stair climbs, and so on. This frees the strength coaches to focus on developing strength, power, and power endurance, which we do through

a periodized program and constant communication with both the rowing and athletic training staffs. PHYSICAL DEMANDS Simply put, rowing is a very physically demanding sport. During the main spring season, rowers will typically cover 2,000 meters in six to seven minutes. This requires about 200 or so full pulls on the oars. Races during the fall season can last 13 minutes or more as crews cover 6,000 meters. Even the strongest and most skilled rower will be of little use if she can’t Ed Nordenschild, MEd, CSCS, is Head Strength Coach for Olympic Sports at the University of Virginia. Previously, he was the Head Strength and Conditioning Coach at Fresno State University and an Assistant Strength and Conditioning Coach at the University of Texas. He can be reached at: T&C NOVEMBER 2005





Workouts for a sample week in Mesocycle One are listed below. Rowers lift twice a week, either Monday and Wednesday or Tuesday and Thursday.

Workouts for a sample week in Mesocycle Two are listed below.

Monday or Tuesday Monday or Tuesday

Clean high pull (use power clean max) 5x50%, 5x66% Core exercise x20 Clean high pull 4x70-80% x2 Core exercise x20

Clean pull (use power clean max) 5x50%, 3x75%, 3x95-105% Core exercise x20 Clean pull 3x110-120% x2 Core exercise x20



Dead lift 5x50%, 5x70-75% Squat jumps x5 Dead lift 5x70-75% x2 Squat jumps x5

Squat 6x50%, 4x66%, 2x75%, 4x80%, 3x85% Incline DB rows 6x30-50 lbs. (each hand) Squat 1-2x90% x2 Incline DB rows 6x30-50 lbs.



Overhead step-ups 6x10 kg. plate x3 Core exercise x20


Bench press 8x50%, 6x66%, 2x75%, 5x80%, 3x85% RDL (use squat max) 8x50% Bench press 2x90% x2 RDL 8x50%

DB incline press (use incline press max) 5x20%, 6x25-30% SB ham curl x8 DB incline press 6x25-30% x2 SB ham curl x8



Ab circuit: four core exercises done for 15 to 20 repetitions each and repeated twice.

Lat pull 8x60-100 lbs. x3 Core exercise x20


Wednesday or Thursday Power clean 5x50%, 5x66%, 2x75%, 3x80%, 2x85% Core exercise x20 Power clean 1x90% x2 Core exercise x20

Wednesday or Thursday Power clean 5x50%, 3x66%, 4x75%, 4x75% Core exercise A x20 Core exercise B x20 Power clean 2x80% Core exercise A x20 x2 Core exercise B x20


Dead lift 6x50%, 6x66% Incline press 8x50% Dead lift 2x75% Incline press 6x66% Dead lift 4x80% Incline press 6x75% Dead lift 3x85% Incline press 5x80% Dead lift 2x90% Incline press 3x85% Dead lift 2x90% Incline press 1x90%


Back squat 5x50%, 3x70%, 5x75%, 2x80% Box jumps x5 (step down) Core exercise x20 Back squat 2x80% x2 Box jumps x5 Core exercise x20


Step-ups 6x30% of squat max each leg (minimum 45 lbs.) x3 Chin-ups x max (minimum six, single-leg help if needed)


Ab circuit: same as Monday/Tuesday

Bench press 6x50%, 3x66%, 5x75%, 4x80% Core exercise x30 RDL (use back squat max) 8x50% Bench press 4x80% Core exercise x30 RDL 8x50% Bench press 1x85% Core exercise x30 RDL 8x50% Reverse hyperextensions 14x10 lb. ball High bench DB rows x50 lbs. (each hand) x3 Core exercise x20





SPORT SPECIFIC maintain that strength and technique through an entire race. But since power plus technique equals speed, endurance is only useful when accompanied by strength. Fortunately, the biomechanical motions of rowing are similar to a power clean or a dead lift. Along with back squats, these exercises and their derivatives target the prime movers for rowing (quadriceps, hamstrings, hips, and upper and lower back) and form the bedrock of our strength-training program. But there are two other areas that we pay special attention to in our workouts. First, we do a large amount of core training throughout the year. Second, we include at least one pushing exercise, such as a bench press, in every workout to strengthen the antagonist muscles and offset the over-development that can result from rowing’s pulling motions. With all the time these athletes spend rowing in the boat and on ergometers, if we don’t train the opposite side of their bodies, their chance of injury increases greatly. We rely on complex sets to produce the greatest benefits in the limited time

we have with the rowers. Each main exercise has a corresponding auxiliary one that is worked into the main exercise sets. For example, we will pair clean pulls with a core exercise. We begin with a set of five clean pulls at 50 percent (of power clean max) and three reps at 75 percent as a warmup. Then

the jump rope followed by 20 reps each of low twists, lizards, back arches, push-ups, and overhead squats. A STRONG FALL To make sure we adequately develop strength, power, and power endurance in our rowers, we split the school year

We include at least one pushing exercise, such as a bench press, in every workout to strengthen the antagonist muscles and offset the over-development that can result from rowing’s pulling motions. we start our work sets with three clean pull reps at 95 to 105 percent followed by 20 reps of a core exercise. We then do two sets of three clean pull reps at 110 to 120 percent, each of which is followed by 20 reps of a core exercise. We use the same complex-set system with all main exercises, which are cycled through a typical periodization of three weeks of increasing work followed by a “down week.” In addition, every workout begins with a standard warmup consisting of 300 touches on

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MESOCYCLE THREE Workouts for a sample week in Mesocycle Three are listed below.

Monday or Tuesday Power clean 5x50%, 3x66%, 3x75% Chin-ups (choice of grip) x6 Core exercise x20 Power clean 2x80% x2 Chin-ups x6 Core exercise x20


Squat 6x50%, 5x66%, 3x75% Squat jumps (continuous) x6 Core exercise x20 Squat 3x75% Squat jumps x6 Core exercise x20 Squat 1x80% Squat jumps x6 Core exercise x20

Wednesday or Thursday Bent-over row/power clean/clean high pull/front squat (use power clean max) 5x50% Core exercise x20 Bent-over row/power clean/ clean high pull/front squat 5x60-66% x2 Core exercise x20


DB incline press (use incline max) 6x20% (each hand), 4x30-33% Core exercise x20 DB incline press 4x30-33% x2 Core exercise x20


Bench press 6x50%, 6x66%, 3x80% RDL (use squat max) 6x50% Core exercise x20 Bench press 3x80% RDL 6x50%

SB ham curls x8 x3 Core exercise x20

After approximately a month of basic strength training, the newcomers are gradually incorporated into the full workout with the veteran rowers. For experienced rowers, the fall workouts are all about building strength with power and Olympic lifts. (See “Mesocycle One” on page 44.) Even though there is a fall competition schedule with races on selected weekends, we simply train through these competitions. For weekends without races, we use an extended Saturday circuit workout. (See “Saturday Circuit” on page 47.) At the end of this fall training cycle the rowers are tested for their one repetitive max in the bench press, back squat, and power clean. These new maxs determine the weight loads for the next two training mesocycles.

as jumps that are directed at increasing lower-body power. But just as importantly, we focus on increasing the speed of the exercises. Even when we do a slower lift, we complex it with a faster exercise. For example, when we do a dead lift in Mesocycle Two, we will immediately follow each set with squat jumps. This way, the explosive tempo needed to produce power is maintained. (See “Mesocycle Two” on page 44.) During Mesocycle Two we also try to incorporate more sport-specific exercises, such as dead lifts off a box, cleans, high pulls, and one-arm rowing movements. We still use the Saturday circuits, but increase the work-to-rest ratios and include more power-producing exercises.

WINTER POWER Mesocycle Two takes place during the first six weeks of the spring semester and is run on a schedule similar to Mesocycle One with two lifting sessions per week. The biggest change is that the emphasis shifts to increasing power while maintaining previous strength gains. We reflect that change by incorporating more Olympic-style lifts as well 46

Core exercise x20 Bench press 2x85% RDL 6x50% Core exercise x20



SPRING ENDURANCE When Mesocycle Three begins with the start of the competitive spring season, workouts are scheduled for two days a week as travel and competition schedules allow, but are shortened to 30 to 35 minutes. The first workout of the week is geared toward maintaining strength and power levels. The second workout, which is closer to the day of competition, is lighter and faster both in the exercises we use and the way they are performed.

Since power endurance is a main goal during this cycle, we’ll use lighter weights and more reps, especially in the second workout. Using lower weight also decreases the chance for injury in already fatigued rowers. In addition, we adjust our complex sets by using two auxiliary exercises for each main lift. (See “Mesocycle Three,” above.) Once the season ends, the rowers have a few weeks off and then are given a workout to take home for the summer. These summer workouts are lighter and more varied, with an emphasis on areas that we do not work directly during the rest of the year, such as biceps, triceps, and lateral movement. SCHEDULING & COMMUNICATION Although the purpose and format of each mesocycle is determined in advance, the actual workouts are written on a weekly basis, and are sometimes even altered daily if the rowers are getting tired or sore. The main exercises are typically changed every three or four weeks, but the intensity and set/rep scheme is adjusted each week to maintain the periodization scheme as well as prevent staleness and keep the athletes interested in the workout. Writing the workouts weekly gives me ATHLETICBID.COM

SPORT SPECIFIC the opportunity to adjust them as needed based on the condition of the rowers and feedback I receive from them and their coaches. Fortunately, one of the hallmarks of the Virginia program is close communication among the athletic training, rowing, and strength staffs. Since the conditioning workouts are designed and implemented by the rowing staff, we confer often to prevent overuse injuries. These injuries result from overuse of the rowing musculature, poor rowing or lifting mechanics, or an acute strain or sprain. Rowing is somewhat different from other sports in that its practices and competitions are held about five miles from campus. Although I can’t go to practices on a regular basis, I do stop by on occasion to observe. I also attend as many home events as possible and even ride in the launch boat for an up-close view.

For the most part, I must rely on the rowing staff, which usually has a presence at every strength workout, to let me know how the rowers are doing. If the rowing coach feels that the rowers are unusually fatigued due to previous rowing or conditioning workouts, he communicates that to me, which allows me to make the necessary adjustments to the strength workout. I also talk daily with our athletic trainer. Any injured rowers are responsible for seeing the athletic trainer before the workout so that he can advise me of needed changes to their workout. When combined with a solid periodized plan, this constant communication allows us to provide the athletes the opportunity to improve daily. After all, the effectiveness of our strength-training program is shown not in the weightroom, but on the water. â–



SATURDAY CIRCUIT Since the fall rowing season at the University of Virginia has limited competitive dates, we fill the other weekends with a special Saturday strength and endurance circuit workout done right after a rowing or ergometer workout. A sample is listed below. Rowers do two repetitions of 35 seconds on and 25 seconds off at each station. The goal of each circuit is to complete as many reps as possible. Varsity rowers use the higher weight listed while novice rowers use the lower weight.



Power clean Alternating step-ups Straight leg crunches Lat pull Jump rope Back squat Incline sit-ups Back extensions Hamstring curl Low ab crunch DB push press Dead lift Grab and reach Bench press Speed step-ups Inverted row Bar crunch Incline press Romanian dead lift Swiss ball crunch Incline DB rows Sumo squat Treadmill

30 kg/20 kg. 25 kg/20 kg. Body weight 4 plates Body weight 30 kg/20 kg. Body weight Body weight 6 plates 10-lb. ball Choice of 15- or 25-lb. DB 50 kg./40 kg. 4-lb. ball 65 lbs./55 lbs. 14-inch box Body weight 55 lbs./45 lbs. 55 lbs./45 lbs. 65 lbs./55 lbs. 10 lbs. 30 lbs./20 lbs. 40 lbs./30 lbs. 9 m.p.h.





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Revitalizing On-Campus Strength Facilities Texas Christian University used to have one strength-training facility for all its student-athletes. Now, the school has a rejuvenated main weightroom with all new equipment in its football stadium, a completely new weightroom in its two-yearold basketball training center, and plans are in the works to add a third strength facility near the baseball and soccer fields. We asked Don Sommer, Head Strength and Conditioning Coach at TCU, how improving the facilities gave new life to his strength and conditioning program.

How did the upgrading of your school’s strength facilities begin? When a donor gave the athletic department millions of dollars for a new basketball facility, with offices for the staff and a practice gym, we convinced him that there should be a weightroom in it as well. I said this was an opportunity with a brand new facility to have a weightroom right off the practice court, and the facility planners decided it was a good idea. It has been a great addition for our athletic department. It is 3,500 square feet, and we outfitted it with five half-racks, some elliptical equipment, and two sets of dumbbells. It has become the main strength-training facility for our men’s and women’s basketball, soccer, and golf teams. The basketball players especially like it, because it’s right next to their practice floor, and it’s large enough that the whole team can work out together. The players are in there every day and they have a sense of pride in that weightroom—it’s theirs and they take good care of it. How did the new basketball weightroom lead to improvements in the school’s main strength facility? It’s funny, I had been saying for years that we should upgrade our main weightroom, which is part of the

football stadium, but it hadn’t happened, and I think that was because people just couldn’t visualize it. Once we got the basketball project going, people saw that and it made a big impression—one person gave me a donation and said, ‘Do for the football program what you’re doing for the basketball program.’ Our main facility is around 10,000 square feet, and we gutted it and purchased all new equipment. It is now a first-rate weightroom. What do the athletes like most about the new equipment? They love the racks because they can do everything in one place—they don’t have to go all around the weightroom to do different types of exercises and lifts. We bought 18 double-sided racks with platforms on both sides. Previously, we had five inclines, five benches, five power racks, and five platforms, and they were all spread out. The racks are a much more efficient way for the athletes to train and a much better use of the space in the weightroom. What are the advantages of having multiple strength facilities on campus? Usually if there’s just one big weightroom, everybody thinks it’s the football team’s weightroom and all the other athletes are just using it. With more than one facility, everyone can take ownership of where they’re working out. Scheduling is a lot easier as well. I can have most of the football team working out in the main facility at the same time, and the entire men’s or women’s basketball or golf teams can use the basketball weightroom together. It is also a great investment in terms of recruiting. I say that our main strength facility is like the athletic department’s front porch—it has giant windows that look out over the football field, so you’ve always got your eyes on the prize while you’re working out. Especially here in Texas, a lot of kids come from high schools with phenomenal weightrooms, so great facilities are a tremendous asset for our program.


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Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 800-638-3030 WWW.LWW.COM

The Hammer Strength Olympic HeavyDuty line, including the new Combo Rack, 6’ x 8’ platform and wood inserts, offers facilities a comprehensive selection of performanceenhancing training products. Tough and rugged, the space-efficient Combo Rack lets two athletes train simultaneously. The premium lifting platform features full subfloor framing, a finished oak surface, and rubber impact mats. With the new Combo Rack, platform and inserts, no other brand offers a lineup this deep. Call toll-free or visit online. Circle No. 512

ACSM’s Resources for the Personal Trainer is a valuable resource that is also the official ACSM preparatory tool for the ACSM Certified Personal Trainer exam. It provides essential information on developing and implementing an individualized approach to exercise supervision in healthy populations and/or those individuals with medical clearance to exercise. It covers the fundamental knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) used to improve, maintain, and/ or optimize health-related components of physical fitness and performance. It retails for $27.95. Circle No. 513 Therapeutic Exercise, by William D. Bandy, Ph.D., PT, SCS, ATC and Barbara Sanders, Ph.D., PT, SCS, published by LW&W, focuses on the implementation

of treatment plans and intervention using the appropriate therapeutic exercise techniques. It provides descriptions and rationale for use of a wide range of exercises to improve a client’s function and health status and to prevent potential problems. The techniques presented accomplish a variety of goals, including increased mobility and strength, and introduce the important concepts of balance and posture, body mechanics, and spinal stabilization. This book retails for $59.95. Circle No. 514 Magister Corp. 800-396-3130 WWW.MAGISTERCORP.COM Virtually identical to latex bands, REP Bands® resistive exercise bands from

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Strength Training & Cardio Magister Corp. offer greater elastic response, higher resilience, and faster recovery. Patented REP Bands are the only resistive exercise bands manufactured exclusively in the United States. Circle No. 515

stricted change of direction and side movement when contacted, forcing the body to balance and stabilize. For more information, contact Perform Better or visit online. Circle No. 518

AIREX® exercise and balance products from Magister offer maximum protection with a non-slip surface for safety combined with superb cushioning that has a comfortable tactile quality. AIREX products can be used with a variety of patients, young and old, and are ideal for exercise, rehabilitation, training, balance, and stability programs. The AIREX balance-beam (shown) can be used for static and dynamic stabilization exercises in training and rehabilitation programs. Circle No. 516

Perform Better’s new Akrowheel dramatically develops multi-planar core strength and stability. Use one or two wheels at a time to perform rollouts, flys, push-ups, wheelbarrows, and other core exercises in any direction. The Akrowheel is ideal to use for various stretches and flexibility and is now part of the 2006 Perform Better catalog. Contact the company or check its Web site for more information. Circle No. 519

OPTP 800-367-7393 WWW.OPTP.COM Ultimate Back Fitness and Performance by Stuart McGill, Ph.D., provides professionals with the knowledge base to design and prescribe the best programs for back care. This text was written to educate, to prevent low back pain disorders, and to enhance efforts for performance training. This book proposes valid alternatives to perpetuate clinical and training myths. It explains why, how, and when specific exercises work. For a free catalog, call OPTP toll-free or visit online. Circle No. 517 Perform Better 800-556-7464 WWW.PERFORMBETTER.COM New in Perform Better’s Catalog is the G1 Extreme Athletic Training System. Use the system as a multidirectional training apparatus or as a traditional slide board to develop lateral speed, agility, coordination, and balance. The extra long 5’ x 8’ surface allows for a variety of sport-specific exercises. Six rotating discs swivel to allow unreATHLETICBID.COM

Power Lift 800-872-1543 WWW.POWER-LIFT.COM Power Lift’s new Uni-Lateral Linear Leg Press is an independent leg-training unit capable of locking together to create a bilateral training system. Its heavy-duty steel frame allows linear-movement carriages to glide on 16 high-grade polyurethane wheels and holds 18- to 45-pound plates, with optional holders available. The straight-legged starting position with two back pad positions and adjustable stops fits a wide range of users. Standard floor bumpers, weight storage, and a 40-degree angle seat are included. A Bi-Lateral Leg Press is also available. Circle No. 520 The Power Lift® Belt Squat is a great way to train hamstrings, glutes, quadriceps, and hips while eliminating spinal compression. From a standing position, athletes disengage the work arm to start the exercise. The squat belt attaches to the work arms on each side over an athlete’s hips. The force is evenly distributed through the athlete’s heels, emphasiz-

ing the muscles in the hips, glutes, and hamstrings. The machine is ideal for teaching the squat, rehabbing injuries, and performing one-legged squats and lunges. Weight storage and three custom belts are standard. Circle No. 521 Power Systems 800-321-6975 WWW.POWER-SYSTEMS.COM Enhance athletic performances and pump up routine medicine ball workouts using the new, exclusively-designed Power Systems Medicine Balls. Use these perfectly-balanced, textured med balls to perform squats, lunges, explosive tosses, abdominal crunches, and a variety of other exercises. The all-rubber med balls are durable, weatherresistant, and retain their shape. They’re color-coded by weight, from two to 12 pounds in two-pound increments, 15, 18, 20, 25 and 30 pounds with diameters between eight and 11 inches. An instructional manual, VHS, and DVD are also available. Circle No. 522 PrePak Products 800-544-7257 WWW.PREPAKPRODUCTS.COM PrePak’s Web-Slide Exercise Rail System is for those who use exercise equipment such as tubing, bands and pulleys—devices that provide resistance, stretching, and ROM. The rail system includes everything needed to quickly and effectively train and monitor those in need of rehab and fitness programs: fixtures, exercise devices, and instructional materials. The Deluxe Assortment offers three additional posters, an ExerBand Fitness Bar, and EzChange Handles on all tubes. Circle No. 523 Check out to contact these companies.



Strength Training & Cardio Rogers Athletic Co. 800-248-0270 WWW.ROGERSATHLETIC.COM Rogers Athletics’ Monster Arms feature an unrestricted range of motion that helps athletes develop specific muscle groups. Monster Arms develop power and skills using free weights, with the added safety of predetermined start and stop points and a positive-lock height adjustment. With Monster Incline, Decline, and Horizontal Arms from one Brute Rack station, athletes will save floor space, compared to exercise-specific machines. Call Rogers Athletic for information. Circle No. 524 Rogers Athletics’ Docking Synchro Bench™ features synchronized movement of the seat and back to seven angle settings (0-80 degrees) with a single lever. The seat also adjusts an additional five to 10 degrees. With the bench docked in one of two locations

in the Brute Rack, it can move forward and back 17 inches, providing a total of 27 inches of travel. Call Rogers Athletic for information. Circle No. 525 Samson Equipment 800-4 SAMSON WWW.SAMSONEQUIPMENT.COM Samson Equipment’s 907RHP Reverse Hyperextension continues to be one of the best in its class. Quality construction is the key to its design, which features 1630-DS precision-ground, sealed ball bearings for unbelievably smooth action. Like all Samson equipment, this power bench is produced with .188-inch steel square tubing. All of this, combined with easily adjustable handles and a

roll pad for ankle placement, makes the Reverse Hyperextension one of the smoothest, most durable power benches you will ever find. Circle No. 526 Samson Equipment’s 102HHIBP is quite simply one of the best ways to incorporate multiple exercises into one unit. Athletes can perform bench presses, inclines, and shoulder presses from multiple positions thanks to an easily adjustable bench coinciding with a smooth sliding rack. The rack slides on Samson-standard Rockwell 70 casehardened rods with 16 lineal ball bearings for a smooth action that must be seen to be believed. Circle No. 527 Spencer Medical, Inc. 877-348-6692 WWW.SPENCERMEDICAL.COM Athletic trainers and strength coaches have long recognized the importance of

Stabilize Chronic Shoulder Dislocators, Separators, and Subluxators With over a decade of experience in shoulder brace design the MAXTM Shoulder Brace by Brace International, Inc. is an evolution in shoulder girdle support. The snug-fitting, lightweight material (under 2 pounds) allows for comfort with movement while its strap design system allows for many options to help protect the glenohumeral joint. Maximum Protection, Maximum Range of Motion

We highly recommend its use for all sports.

800-545-1161 Toll Free - Circle No. 136




Strength Training & Cardio accurately measuring the body fat and hydration levels of their athletes. With FUTREX®’s patented near-infrared professional body composition analyzer, measuring your athletes is as easy as 1-2-3. Most importantly, it measures hydration levels within 60 seconds. The FUTREX system is accurate and portable, enabling you to measure your athletes anytime, anywhere to help achieve optimal performance. Circle No. 528 Sports Imports 800-556-3198 WWW.VERTECJUMPTRAINER.COM Virtually all professional and college sports teams, and the NFL Scouting Combine, use the Vertec jump training system, distributed by Sports Imports. It is the best way to evaluate and improve jump reach and lower-body explosive power. The Vertec jump training system challenges athletes to improve their vertical leap through instantaneous feedback and recognition. The process is simple, offering a true vertical target, visual motivation, and an immediate, accurate measure of success and growth. A wall-mounted version is now available. Circle No. 529 Tanita Corp. 847-640-9241 WWW.TANITA.COM The all-in-one compact design with integrated printer makes the durable BC418 Body Composition Analyzer ideal for fitness professionals working in limited workspaces. Dual hand grips enhance Tanita’s ability to calculate body composition results for five body segments— trunk, left arm, right arm, left leg, and right leg. The BC-418 determines the segmental body composition profile, including body fat percentage, fat mass, fat-free mass, BMI, BMR, total body water, and weight. Circle No. 530 ATHLETICBID.COM

Total Gym/efi Sports Medicine 800-541-4900 WWW.EFISPORTSMEDICINE.COM efi Sports Medicine’s Plyometric Rebounder with Medicine Balls provides a fun and highly-effective workout that improves coordination and core stabilization. The Rebounder’s sturdy materials and design make it a safe yet challenging jogger and balance training device as its circular trampoline adjusts to any incline. This training unit promotes core stabilization in safe and functional positions for the spine, trunk, and extremities, and improves dynamic rhythmic stabilization of the involved joints. Circle No. 531 The Total Gym 26000 is the new generation of the original clinical model. It provides 10 resistance levels and comes equipped with impressive new features inspired by the needs of the commercial environment. The new wide-based telescoping squat stand adjusts to three heights, facilitating correct biomechanics for squats, bridges, calf raises, and plyometric exercises. The new folding foot holder for hamstring curls and ab crunches locks into place for use and then easily folds away. The folding platform also allows the telescoping squat stand to be folded away for storage. Circle No. 532 VertiMax 800-699-5867 WWW.VERTIMAX.COM The VertiMax V4 has long been the “go to” device for building lower-body reactive power. No training system will do more to increase an athlete’s vertical jump, firststep-quickness, and competitive moves. It is the world’s most advanced lightload velocity-specific training system, providing maximum transfer to the

field of play. Please go to VertiMax’s streaming video Web site for all the details on this and its new V6 series. Circle No. 533 The new VertiMax V6 is a revolutionary advance in functional, sports-specific total body training. It is the only training system capable of applying a synchronous loading to the arms and shoulders while athletes perform explosive lowerbody training. The V6 is strongly endorsed by many NFL, NBA, and Division I head coaches. Visit VertiMax’s Web site for more details and satisfied customer testimonials. Circle No. 534 UCS, Inc. 800-526-4856 WWW.UCSSPIRIT.COM The SPS Glute-Ham from UCS offers stylish engineering with its front-dip welded-steel arms and 360-degree rotating independent support pads that separate to accommodate larger athletes, and has the ability to include additional exercises. Footrests are padded and upholstered to eliminate slipping, and leg rests are adjustable. The Glute-Ham does not require a support bar across the middle, allowing for a free walk-through platform. Circle No. 535 SPS Plyo Boxes from UCS provide the optimal combination of durability, functionality, customization, and safety for developing speed, explosive power, and flexibility in athletes. Fully-padded sets—at 12, 18, and 24 inches each—provide protection from common plyo box injuries. The understructure is comprised of fine oak covered in a dense foam and upholstered in tough 21-ounce vinyl, so no sharp edges or dangerous corners are exposed to athletes. Custom-made logos are available for these plyo boxes. Circle No. 536 T&C NOVEMBER 2005


Strength Training & Cardio Xvest 800-697-5658 WWW.THEXVEST.COM Xvest has a new weight configuration, and it’s heavy: 84 pounds of heavy. The new Xvest, known as the Fire Fighter model, was developed especially for fire fighters and their rigorous training. It has the same basic design as the original Xvest, but internally it has a new weight configuration that allows for 84 pounds of weight. Because of its ability to adjust weight like the original Xvest, everyone from body builders to military personnel is buying them. For more information on all the Xvest models, call the company or visit its Web site. Circle No. 537 “I have found the Xvest to be an excellent tool for providing overloads in plyometric, strength training, conditioning, and rehabilitation programs. The fit and adaptability are excellent. The Xvest

allows freedom of movement and doesn’t interfere with any of the agility, bounding, or running programs that I write for a wide variety of athletes; collegiate and professional. The Xvest has proven itself in my programs. Thank you for all your efforts and help in improving my capability as a strength and conditioning specialist.”— Donald A. Chu, Ph.D., PT, ATC, CSCS, author of Jumping Into Plyometrics. Circle No. 538 InTek Strength 866-996-3825 WWW.INTEKSTRENGTH.COM At InTek Strength, the customer’s complete satisfaction is the top priority. Its technology is engineered to design safe, durable, and quality free weights. With 1.5 million pounds of inventory, turnaround time is nothing less than

amazing. Intek Strength promises to deliver products when customers need them most. Contact the company’s friendly and knowledgeable staff to find out why InTek Strength is quickly becoming recognized as one of the industry’s best value in free weights. Circle No. 539 The technology involved in the engineering of InTek Strength’s free weights is among the top in the industry. The Pro-Solid Urethane dumbbells and ProUrethane Olympic weight plates are made of solid steel encased in urethane and the dumbbells have no caps or bolts. The Pro-Rubber series are dumbbells comprised of rubber-encased weight plates, chrome handles, and end caps. Steel weight plates, chrome handles, and urethane-encased end caps complete the Pro-Steel line of free weights. Circle No. 540

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Power Racks There are plenty of reasons why power racks are a great choice for a strength-training facility. Their versatility means that athletes can perform a wide variety of exercises on one apparatus. Their efficient use of space makes them ideal for smaller weightrooms. And their ease of use means that even inexperienced lifters can quickly learn how to train effectively. But perhaps the greatest advantage of power racks is safety. Used properly, full racks, half-racks, and multi-racks provide a training environment that protects the lifter and everyone else nearby. “Power racks are the safest way to train, because they have only a couple of moving parts,” says Boyd Epley, MEd, CSCS, Associate Athletic Director at the University of Nebraska. “The bar catch, which supports the weight until it is lifted, can be moved up or down to adjust to the height of each individual lifter. That makes a power rack safer than machines that have a fixed height, or ones that require special attachments to make an adjustment.” The safety level is another important feature that protects lifters from injury. “During a squat, when the bar is behind the athlete’s neck, there’s always a possibility that he or she won’t be able to come back up,” Epley explains. “A safety level will be there to catch the weight, and that level is adjustable, too.” Epley says that because power racks—particularly full racks and multi-racks—surround the lifter with posts on four sides, they create a ver y stable (and therefore safe) lifting area. But some people prefer the half-rack because it feels less restrictive, with only two posts that the lifter stands in front of. Epley says that for some lifts, such as the hang clean, the half-rack is best because it allows the lifter more freedom of movement. There are also optional features that can give a power rack added safety. One of the most practical is called a technique tray, a device that protects the athlete’s hands during difficult lifts. “If someone were to rest the bar on a safety level and their fingers were in the wrong place, they could get pinched,” Epley says. “The technique tray catches the weights themselves instead of the bar, giving the lifter nine or 10 inches of clearance—their hands don’t come anywhere near the safety device. It’s a great idea, and another thing that makes racks a very safe training option.”

Keiser Corp. 800-888-7009 WWW.KEISER.COM Keiser’s Power Rack 3110 allows for a wide spectrum of training exercises that enhance athletes’ power and stability. Athletes who have trained on the Power Rack 3110 have seen overall strength gains, better speed, more control, and explosive power. Special Features: The Power Rack works by incorporating pneumatic strength columns, which can be attached to the bar—with Keiser’s patented air technology—either by itself or in combination with free weights. Circle No. 541 The Half-Rack 3150 by Keiser is a smaller version of the original Keiser Power Rack. This unit incorporates the same exercises as the Power Rack, ATHLETICBID.COM

but has been designed for space-conscious applications. Special Features: The Half-Rack is the smaller version of the original Power Rack, but has been specifically designed for space-conscious applications. Circle No. 542 Life Fitness 800-634-8637 WWW.LIFEFITNESS.COM The Hammer Strength 8’ Olympic Heavy-Duty Power Rack is ideal for athletic fitness facilities. The adjustment rack, which supports the bar catches and bar supports, is numbered for quick and easy position identification.

Special Features: This rack has a nonslip spotter’s stand, multiple pull-up and chin-up grip positions, and a Dock ‘N Lock bench-locking system which lets the adjustable bench lock into place quickly ensuring proper alignment relative to the rack. Circle No. 543 Power Lift 800-872-1543 WWW.POWER-LIFT.COM The 9’ Power Rack is a full-cage lifting rack that allows users to perform the bench press, incline press, shoulder press, squat, hang clean, push press, and other overhead lifts in a full enclosure. Special Features: Dual grip chin-up bar. Optional features include dip attachments, Olympic lifting platforms, and other training accessories. Circle No. 544 T&C NOVEMBER 2005


Power Racks Power Lift 800-872-1543 WWW.POWER-LIFT.COM The 9’ Combo Power Rack from Power Lift combines two lifting stations into one space-saving rack. Dip attachments, Olympic lifting platforms, and other training accessories are available. Special Features: This rack has two dual grip chin-up bars, two pairs of safety spot bars, two pairs of “rhino hook” bar catches, weight storage, adjustable bumper plate storage, and bar storage. Circle No. 545 Power Systems 800-321-6975 WWW.POWER-SYSTEMS.COM Adjustable bar hooks and solid steel safety catches can accommodate athletes of all sizes on Power Systems’ Pro Power Rack. This durable strength-training unit is constructed from 2-1/2-inchsquare, 11-gauge steel tubing. Special Features: The Pro Power Rack

allows the right amount of room for serious lifting with an inside cage measuring 44”L x 24”W, and 17 height adjustments spaced every four inches from 14-78 inches. Bumpers are attached at the base to protect the rack from scrapes. A wide lat bar is mounted on top of the frame as a chinning station, and cross pieces bolt on in minutes. The Pro Power Rack is shipped freight, and assembly is required. Circle No. 546 The Power Systems’ Pro Multi Station power cage system maximizes floor space and offers a variety of movement options in one unit. Complete with an adjustable incline bench, the Pro Multi Station has 13 height adjustment options, spaced at four-inch increments each. Six built-in weight plate storage posts keep work area organized and safe.

Special Features: The Pro Multi Station frame is available in six colors and its upholstery in four colors at no additional cost. Circle No. 547 Rogers Athletic Co. 800-248-0270 WWW.ROGERSATHLETIC.COM Rogers Athletic, known for football training equipment, is applying its years of expertise in athletic skills training to strength and conditioning equipment by introducing the Brute Rack System. The Brute Rack System, equipped with Monster Arms, provides your athletes with a closed-chain, free-weight training experience. Special Features: The Brute Dual Rack workstation enables athletes to perform multiple exercises that typically require four to six exercise-specific machines. Call Rogers Athletic toll-free for information. Circle No. 548

Power Racks Specifications Company


Height x Width x Depth/Length

Tubing Size


Chin-Up Bar

Plate Storage

Adjustable Bench

Life Fitness

Heavy-Duty 8’ Rack

97.5” x 65.5” x 73” D

3” x 3”, 9 ga.

10 yrs. Frame

Keiser Corp.

Half-Rack 3150

108” x 73” x 103” L**

3” x 4”, 3/16” thick

Up to 10 yrs.

Keiser Corp.

Power Rack 3110

108” x 73” x 103” L**

3” x 4”, 3/16” thick

Up to 10 yrs.

Power Lift

9’ Combo

108” x 86” x 72” D

4” x 3”, 7 ga.

Frame life

Power Lift

9’ Power Rack

108” x 71” x 72” D

4” x 3”, 7 ga.

Frame life

Power Systems

Pro Multi Station

73” x 66” x 45” L

2.5” x 2.5”, 11 ga.

Frame life

Power Systems

Pro Power Rack

92” x 48” x 43” L

2.5” x 2.5”, 11 ga.

Frame life

Rogers Athletics Co.

Brute Dual Rack

114” x 98” x 84” D

3/16” thick, 11 ga.

10 years

Rogers Athletics Co.

Brute Full Rack

114” x 71” x 76” D

3/16” thick, 11 ga.

Samson Equipment

Triple Power Station

105” x 44” x 96” D

Samson Equipment

Double Power Station

105” x 44” x 96” D


10 years

3” x 3”, 3/16” thick

Frame life

3” x 3”, 3/16” thick

Frame life

SPS X-40 Rack System 96”–108” x 75” x 78” D

3” x 3”, 7 ga.

10 years

SPS X-60 Rack System 96”–108” x 75” x 78” D

3” x 3”, 7 ga.

10 years

✽ Denotes accessories sold separately, or as available options. Please contact the company for more information. ** Measurements listed for Keiser Corporation’s Power Rack and Half-Rack are for the nine-foot models.




Power Racks The Brute Full Rack from Rogers Athletic provides the benefit of both power racks and exercise-specific machines in one system. The company’s patent-pending Monster Arms™ feature omnidirectional movement to develop specific muscle groups. Special Features: All accessories lock into place on the uprights, such as the Monster Arms, chin-up bar, “lock-andload” hooks, and technique trays. The Docking Synchro Bench also adds diversity to athletes’ exercise program with its two locking positions and 27 inches of travel adjustment. Circle No. 549 Samson Equipment 800-4 SAMSON WWW.SAMSONEQUIPMENT.COM Samson’s Triple Power Station features an adjustable bench and a triple rack. It accommodates three lifters simultaneously, performing upperbody, lower-body, and Olympic movements. Samson custom builds to your needs. Special Features: The Triple Power Station’s platform uses steel as thick as any in the industry, and includes a hickory platform that features a custom logo and basketball finish. A chin-up bar, plate storage, and spotter’s bars are included. The bench adjusts from 0-90 degrees. Circle No. 550 Double Power Station from Samson Equipment features an adjustable bench and a double-rack. It accommodates two lifters simultaneously, performing upperbody, lower-body, and Olympic movements. Special Features: The platform of

the Double Power Station uses steel as thick as any in the industry, and includes a hickory platform that features a custom logo and basketball finish. A chin-up bar, plate storage, and spotter’s bars are included. The bench adjusts from 0-90 degrees. Circle No. 551 SPS by UCS 800-526-4856 WWW.UCSSPIRIT.COM The SPS X-40 System is a versatile piece of equipment. Adaptable to any lifting activity, it is an ideal addition to any strength facility providing optimal safety for the athlete. Construction includes four 3” x 3” seven-gauge welded uprights, equipped with interior 3/4-inch steel nickel-plated hook plates. Special Features: The SPS X-40 Rack is available in eight- and nine-feet heights, featuring a Combo Grip Pull-Up Bar, single-bar catchers, interior safety spot arms, and 18-inch deep diamond plate spotter’s platform. It is compatible with all SPS system accessories. Circle No. 552 The SPS X-60 System from UCS offers two activity zones with space for individual spotters. Its versatility makes it ideal for larger facilities. Constructed with four 3”x 3” sevenguage uprights with 3/4-inch nickel-plated hook plates as well as two interior facing hook plates to create the interior activity zone. Special Features: The X-60 is available in eight- and nine-feet heights, with a Combo Grip Pull-Up Bars, two pairs of single-bar catchers, interior safety spot arms, and a 12- and 18-inch deep diamond plate spotter’s platform. It is compatible with all SPS system accessories. Circle No. 553

Circle No. 138


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Antibody (BodyGuards) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IBC Austin Plastics & Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Beacon Athletics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 BioMedical Life Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Brace International (Fluk) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Brace International (MAX) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Cadlow Shoulder Stabilizer (DM Systems) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 California University of Pennsylvania . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 CeraSport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Cho-Pat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Creative Health Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 efi Sports Medicine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Equalizer Exercise Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Exertools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Fast-Twitch Training Centers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Ferno Performance Pools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Fitness First . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Game Ready . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 Gebauer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Hammer Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 InTek Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Jump Stretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56



555 . . 554 . . 501 . . 500 . . 502 . . 503 . . 568 . . 556 . . 569 . . 557 . . 558 . . 559. . . 560 . . 531. . . 532 . . 505 . . 504 . . 506 . . 508 . . 507 . . 509 . . 561 . . . 571. . . 570. . . 562 . . 563 . . 512 . . . 539 . . 540 . . 510 . . . 511 . . . 542 . . 541. . . 543 . . 513 . . . 514 . . . 516 . . . 515 . . . 573 . .

Antibody (Elbow Brace) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 Antibody (shoulder brace) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 (Creatine) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 (Whey Powder). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Austin Plastics & Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Beacon Athletics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 BioMedical Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Brace International . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 Cera Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Cho-Pat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 Creative Health Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 DM Systems (Cadlow) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 DM Systems (The Adjusticizer) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 efi Sports Medicine (Rebounder) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 efi Sports Medicine (Total Gym 26000) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Exertools (Functional Trainer) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Exertools (Magnum E350) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Fast-Twitch Training Centers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Ferno (custom pools) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Ferno (HydroTrack) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Fitness First . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 Game Ready . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 Gatorade (Endurance Formula) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Gatorade (Nutrition Shake) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Gebauer (Instant Ice). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Gebauer (Spray and Stretch) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Hammer Strength (Olympic line) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 InTek (free weights) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 InTek (Pro-Solid Urethane dumbbells) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Jump Stretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 Keiser (Air 350 Biaxial Upper Back) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 Keiser (Half-Rack 3150) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Keiser (Power Rack 3110) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Life Fitness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 LW&W (Personal Trainer Resources) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 LW&W (Therapeutic Exercise) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Magister Corporation (AIREX) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Magister Corporation (REP Bands) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 MET-Rx (AMPED ECN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63




102. . . 113 . . . 126 . . . 100 . . 112 . . . 123. . . 144. . . 128. . . 111 . . . 142 . . . 119 . . . 107. . . 121 . . . 124 . . . 127. . . 114 . . . 120. . . 130. . . 105 . . 140. . . 104 . . 129. . . 118 . . .

Keiser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Magister Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 MET-Rx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IFC NSCA Certification Commission. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 NSCA (Sport-Specific Conference) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Oakworks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BC OPTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 Perform Better . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Perform Better (seminars) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71 Power Lift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 Power Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 PrePak Products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Rogers Athletic Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 SAM Medical Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Samson Weight Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Spencer Medical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 SPS by UCS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Tanita . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 TurfCordz/NZ Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Vertec (Sports Imports) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 VertiMax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Xvest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30








572. . . 574 . . . 575. . . 564 . . 565 . . 517 . . . 519 . . . 518 . . . 545 . . 544 . . 521. . . 520 . . 522 . . 547 . . 546 . . 523 . . 566 . . 549 . . 548 . . 524. . . 525 . . 576 . . . 567. . . 527 . . 526 . . 551 . . . 550 . . 528 . . 529 . . 552 . . 553 . . 530 . . 535 . . 536 . . 533 . . 534 . . 538 . . 537 . .

MET-Rx (RTD 51) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NSCA Certification (CEU Quiz Packets) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NSCA Certification (Practice Exam) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NZ Mfg. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OPTP (B.O.I.N.G.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OPTP (Back Fitness & Performance) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Perform Better (Akrowheel) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Perform Better (G1 Training System) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power Lift (9’ Combo Power Rack). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power Lift (9’ Power Rack) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power Lift (Belt Squat) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power Lift (Leg Press) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power Systems (Medicine Balls). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power Systems (Pro Multi Station) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power Systems (Pro Power Rack) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PrePak Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pro-Tec Athletics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rogers Athletic (Brute Full Rack) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rogers Athletic (Brute Rack System) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rogers Athletic (Monster Arms) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rogers Athletic (Synchro Bench) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SAM Medical Products (Blist-O-Ban) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SAM Medical Products (Soft Shell splint) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Samson (102HHIBP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Samson (907RHP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Samson (Double Power Station). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Samson (Triple Power Station) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spencer Medical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sports Imports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SPS by UCS (X-40 System) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SPS by UCS (X-60 System) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tanita . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UCS (SPS Glute-Ham) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UCS (SPS Plyo Boxes) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VertiMax (V4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VertiMax (V6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Xvest (Don Chu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Xvest (Fire Fighter model) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

63 63 63 62 62 53 53 53 58 57 53 53 53 58 58 53 62 59 58 54 54 63 62 54 54 59 59 54 55 59 59 55 55 55 55 55 56 56


Arm & Shoulder Antibody, Inc. 301-782-3700 WWW.ANTIBODYWEAR.COM The BodyGuard shoulder brace from Antibody is designed to accommodate shoulder injuries, including dislocations, subluxations, and slight separations. Because of its inner surface and custom design, the BodyGuard actually attaches to the wearer and works with the entire muscle group, providing strain distribution over the entire garment and significant compression to the injured area. The BodyGuard is effective for a wide array of sports in which shoulder injuries occur, including baseball, football, basketball, wrestling, hockey, and volleyball. Circle No. 554 The Bodyguard Compression Elbow Brace from Antibody is designed to add comfort, stability, and performance enhancement to the elbow suffering from tendonitis, as well as athletes who have strained, sprained, or bruised elbows. The Bodyguard Compression Elbow Brace reduces the incidence of pain and swelling occasioned by use, and it provides stability and performance enhancement to the affected area. As with all Bodyguards, this brace provides compression, support, muscle and tendon heat circulation, strain distribution, and impact absorption. Circle No. 555 Brace International, Inc. 800-545-1161 WWW.BRACEINT.COM Brace International offers the MAX™, a major advancement in the design of shoulder girdle supports. The snugfitting, lightweight material allows for comfort with movement while protecting the glenohumeral joint from subluxations and dislocations. Its strap ATHLETICBID.COM

design system offers many options for maximal stability where needed, allowing athletes to reach their required range of motion. Circle No. 556 Cho-Pat, Inc. 800-221-1601 WWW.CHO-PAT.COM Cho-Pat’s Forearm Support secures and supports forearm muscles that are over-exercised or strained during athletic activities such as baseball, tennis, or any other activity in which an athlete repeatedly extends the arm and applies force. The strap applies compression at the forearm to absorb and disperse pain-causing forces, easing stress on the forearm muscles and their attachments and reducing inflammation. Circle No. 557 Creative Health Products 800-742-4478 WWW.CHPONLINE.COM Creative Health Products, a leading discount supplier of rehabilitation, fitness, exercise, and athletic testing and measuring products, offers the Hudson UBE, a portable, lightweight tabletop upper-body and arm ergometer with pulse monitor. The belt-driven electromagnetic resistance system has eight different loading levels and uses precision-sealed bearings to make the unit both quiet and smooth. The Hudson UBE displays heart rate, speed, distance, time, odometer, and estimated number of calories burned. Circle No. 558 DM Systems, Inc. 800-254-5438 WWW.DMSYSTEMS.COM The Cadlow™ Shoulder Stabilizer allows athletes to fully function at their sport without fear of shoulder pain or re-injury. Cadlow provides glenohumeral stability while maintaining the athlete’s full range of motion (ROM). The stabi-

lizer’s unique, patented pull system strengthens the shoulder by providing graduated resistance through the full ROM. “Prescription pads” are available to make it easier for physicians, physical therapists, and athletic trainers to recommend Cadlow to their patients and athletes. Circle No. 559 The Adjusticizer™ exercise system from DM Systems adjusts to fit the user’s workout and schedule. Interchangeable, adjustable components can be configured to work the back, chest, shoulders, biceps, triceps, forearms, and legs. Composite cord adjusters shorten or lengthen the Adjusticizer and change the tension with a simple pull. The Adjusticizer exercise system includes one single-strength cord (in your choice of light, medium, or tough), two composite cord adjusters, two handles, two foot/door attachment straps, three spring links, and a 64-page exercise manual. Circle No. 560 Game Ready 888-426-3732 WWW.GAMEREADY.COM Used by athletic trainers from the high school level to the top pro teams in every league, the Game Ready™ Accelerated Recovery System simultaneously provides controllable cold therapy and adjustable intermittent compression to help accelerate healing after acute or chronic injuries. It also aids in post-operative recovery. “The results have been outstanding and Game Ready has become our modality of choice for acute and chronic injuries,” says Chuck Barta, Head Athletic Trainer for the Minnesota Vikings. Circle No. 561 T&C NOVEMBER 2005


Arm & Shoulder Gebauer Co. 800-321-9348 WWW.GEBAUERCO.COM Gebauer’s first non-prescription topical skin refrigerant, Instant Ice™, is ideal for the temporary relief of minor pain and swelling from sprains, strains, bruising, contusions, and minor sports injuries. Available in either mist or medium stream spray cans, Instant Ice stream spray is also used for the temporary relief of muscle spasms. Call Gebauer or visit online for product and prescribing information and a local distributor. Circle No. 562 Gebauer’s new Spray & Stretch® prescription skin refrigerant provides a fine stream spray and cooling effect equivalent to Gebauer’s Fluori-Methane®. Spray and Stretch is available in

a convenient aerosol but is nonflammable, so it can be used anywhere. Call Gebauer or visit online for product and prescribing information and a local distributor. Circle No. 563 NZ Mfg. 800-886-6621 WWW.NZMFG.COM TurfCordz™ SquatCordz (S99) are specifically designed to work the shoulders, quadriceps, and gluteus all in one movement. Easily portable, SquatCordz consists of two heavyduty 13-inch long tubes with handles on a center strap, and is available in five resistance levels. For the latest catalog featuring the complete TurfCordz line of professional agility and strength training products and all other innovative products, call toll-free, or view the entire catalog online. Circle No. 564

For Outstanding Arm and Shoulder Strengthening and Rehabilitation!

© 2005 NZ MFG LLC, Tallmadge, OH (TC0511)

Circle No. 140



The B.O.I.N.G.™ (Body Oscillation Integrates Neuromuscular Gain) is an inexpensive oscillating exercise device that provides a combination of isotonic, isometric, and plyometric resistance for the upper extremity. The B.O.I.N.G. is fun, easy to use, and provides a quick workout while promoting comfortable rhythmic exercise. For more information on this product or to receive our complete product catalog, call OPTP toll-free or visit online. Circle No. 565 Pro-Tec Athletics 800-779-3372 WWW.INJURYBEGONE.COM Experience the benefits of direct, active ice massage with Ice-Up portable ice massager by Pro-Tec Athletics. Ice-Up provides quick deep-tissue relief for ligament, tendon, and muscular injuries. It stays frozen up to 10 hours within its portable leak-proof carry cooler, allowing for immediate post activity ice massage anywhere. Treatments take only five to seven minutes—as opposed to 15 to 20 minutes for passive ice packs—for speedy recovery. Circle No. 566 SAM Medical Products 800-818-4726 WWW.SAMMEDICAL.COM

• Our TurfCordz Cuff Tuff (S117)

is a portable tool for shoulder rotator strengthening. • Can also be used to perform internal and external rotation exercises to rehabilitate an injury or strengthen to help prevent one. • Available in 5 resistance levels. • To learn more about the entire TurfCordz line, call 800-886-6621, or view our catalog online at

OPTP 800-367-7393 WWW.OPTP.COM

Cuff Tuff shown being used with MediCordz Wall Mount (MAWS)

The Soft Shell™ splint is an economical alternative to the materials currently used to form simple hand and wrist splints. Your time, money, and materials are saved because no gloves, water, heat, or cleanup is required. Plus, the splint is lightweight and comfortable, and it can easily be remolded and held in position with a wrap of your choice. For convenience, the Soft Shell splint can be hand washed and air dried. Circle No. 567 ATHLETICBID.COM

More Products BioMedical Life Systems 800-726-8367 WWW.BMLS.COM

Nutrition Shake is available in two flavors: chocolate and vanilla. Circle No. 570

BioMedical Life Systems introduces its new generation of electrotherapy devices: the fourchannel QuadStar® Elite. This unit includes T.E.N.S., N.M.S., High-Volt, and Interferential Stimulators in one portable unit. Simple-to-understand instructions guide users through nine preprogrammed protocols and four types of waveforms. Users may also sequence two or more modalities for complete treatments. The device includes a patient lock/compliance system and timer, and is ready to use with all accessories and a rechargeable battery pack. Wall adapter is included. For more information, visit online. Circle No. 568

After years of extensive research, scientists at the Gatorade Sports Science Institute have developed Gatorade Endurance Formula for athletes’ longer, more intense workouts and competitions. Gatorade Endurance Formula is a specialized sports drink with a five-electrolyte blend containing nearly twice the sodium (200mg) and three times the potassium (90mg) of Gatorade Thirst Quencher to more fully replace what athletes lose in sweat when fluid and electrolyte losses become substantial. Circle No. 571

Cera Products, Inc. 888-237-2770 WWW.CERASPORT.COM CeraSport is a rice-based electrolyte drink that was developed with physicians at Johns Hopkins University to provide athletes with superior hydration, enhanced energy, and prolonged endurance. CeraSport’s patented formula promotes fast absorption of electrolytes and fluids without causing the cramps and nausea associated with sugar-based drinks. While sustaining athletes’ energy levels, CeraSport improves the body’s circulation of fluid volume. Circle No. 569 The Gatorade Co. 800-88-GATOR WWW.GATORADE.COM Gatorade Nutrition Shake is a balanced nutritional supplement that’s ideal for use as a high-energy meal replacement, or a pre-event or between-meal snack. Gatorade Nutrition Shake contains vitamin C, calcium, and iron, so it’s great for athletes who want to perform at their best and need to supplement their diet with a convenient, balanced, and nutritious product. Gatorade ATHLETICBID.COM

MET-Rx Engineered Nutrition 800-99 METRX WWW.METRX.COM Fitness-conscious individuals can now get exactly what they want in a readyto-drink shake—high performance and plenty of it. MET-Rx’s RTD 51 is the powerhouse of protein shakes. Each nutritionally-advanced, ready-to-drink shake is packed with 51 grams of Metamyosyn® protein to help support muscle.* It’s low in fat and net carbs and is a natural source of valuable amino acids. *This statement has not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

Circle No. 572 MET-Rx’s AMPED ECN supports muscle size, strength, power, and recovery from high-intensity exercises. The four drink blends—Muscle-Nitro, Nuero-Muscle, ECN NOS, and Neuro-Energy—contain amino acids that sustain muscle nitrogen levels and help magnify energy levels.* The blends also feature cutting edge ingredients, such as Taurine, L-Tyrosine, Caffeine Anhydrous, White Willow, and Vinpocetine. *This statement has not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

Circle No. 573 NSCA Certification Commission 888-746-2378 WWW.NSCA-CC.ORG

These packets are a quick and easy way for CSCS® and NSCA-CPT® certificate holders to earn 0.5 CEUs before the December 31, 2005, re-certification deadline. Each packet contains six previously-published articles—authored by leaders in the industry— and their corresponding quizzes. CEU quizzes are also an excellent way to earn CEUs for Re-certified with Distinction credit. Visit the NSCA Certification Web site for pricing information. Circle No. 574 The NSCA Certification Commission is excited to announce the addition of a third volume of the Practice Exam series, available both in paper format and online. The Practice Exams allow candidates to learn the nature and the scope of the CSCS or NSCACPT examinations, experience examination formats, discover the level of difficulty of the questions, and receive feedback on their level of preparedness before taking the actual examination. Individuals who are CSCS- or NSCA-CPT-certified may earn 1.0 CEU by taking a Practice Exam. The cost for NSCA members is $31.95; nonmembers must pay $39. Circle No. 575 SAM Medical Products 800-818-4726 WWW.SAMMEDICAL.COM SAM Medical’s Blist-O-Ban® incorporates Bursatek® gliding action to prevent blisters caused by friction and shear forces and their associated pain. The Blist-O-Ban is extremely thin, breathable, and stretchable. With a latex-free medical-grade adhesive and a slick outer surface, the sterile Blist-O-Ban adheres to skin, while the Bursatek dome dissipates friction and shear. Blist-O-Ban was recently selected as one of the most innovative product designs of the year in ID Magazine’s 51st Annual Design Review. Circle No. 576

CEU Quiz Packets for the 2003-2005 reporting period are now available. T&C NOVEMBER 2005



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Customers Speak Out About Cadlow’s Benefits

Web-Slide Rehabilitates in Various Environments

“I recently dislocated my shoulder while playing basketball. I wore the Cadlow with the black tubes and it worked great. I used to have a MAX shoulder harness, but it took away almost all of my motion. The Cadlow gives me a full range of motion. It has also strengthened my shoulder. I’ve hurt my shoulder playing football, lacrosse, and basketball, but I feel great about playing all of them with the Cadlow. I can’t say enough about the Cadlow—I love it!” Rory Cooper Boulder, Colo.

“We love the system, and so do our patients. It makes it so easy for patients to perform the exercises they learn at the clinic in a home setting. The rails are designed so patients can anchor the prescribed exercise device at exactly the same level on any door in the home. The tear-off exercise sheets show the same exercises that appear on the clinic wall poster, giving patients a visual reminder of the exercises they’ve learned at the clinic. We’re very pleased.” Michelle Glazier ATC Wilmington Pain & Rehabilitation Center Wilmington, Del.

“The brace was excellent and we would recommend it to anyone who has shoulder dislocation or subluxation problems. If my son had the brace when recovering from his first dislocation, he might have avoided surgery.” Susan Lutostanski Pediatric Occupational Therapist Arlington Heights, Ill. “I had an athlete who was able to continue as a football quarterback and defensive back because of the Cadlow. He said it worked well enough to allow him to play in the last three games of the season with no major problems. He was able to throw and catch without any apprehension.” John V. Joslin ATC/L Tulsa, Okla.



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“The Web-Slide has been a very popular exercise in the outpatient clinic. We like the variety it offers for effective exercises for all age groups. The Thera-Tubes all store very easily and help reduce clutter in our clinic.” Ben Gilbert, PT OCS PT Supervisor Burke Rehabilitation Hospital White Plains, N.Y. “The Web-Slide Exercise Rail is easy to set up, easy to use and appropriate for many different types of patients. We use the Web-Slide continuously with our patients with shoulder and elbow dysfunction. It’s a great product.” Linda Lucuski, MPT Administrator/PT Magee-Moss Rehab Voorhees, N.J.


10/15/04 9:55:25 AM


Craig Horswill, PhD, Senior Research Fellow, Gatorade Sports Science Institute

Every athlete seeks a competitive edge and in some sports that edge can be found by altering body weight. Body weight is one of the few physical characteristics that an athlete can change in a relatively short period of time in hopes of gaining a performance edge. WEIGHT LOSS MOTIVES Reasons for weight reduction include: esthetics in sports such as gymnastics and diving; perceived performance enhancement in weight-bearing sports like running, gymnastics, and cycling; meeting the restrictions of a certain weight class in wrestling, youth football, or rowing; or to meet arbitrary weight goals established by the coach or even by the athlete. All too often, the focus becomes losing as much weight as possible. The misconception is that athletic success is directly proportional to the amount of weight loss. For competition in many sports, athletes believe they can get by with inappropriate weight reduction – exercise-induced dehydration or fasting – because the duration of the sporting event is short enough to avoid adverse consequences. Unfortunately for the athlete, rapid weight loss increases the risks of heat illness and limits the athlete’s ability to develop strength, endurance and sport-specific skills.

OPTIMIZING BODY COMPOSITION FOR PEAK PERFORMANCE The goal of effective weight loss is to optimize body composition for peak performance, not shoot for the lowest weight possible. Minimizing body fat without compromising muscle mass or fuel stores is the overarching goal. There is no more effective way to accomplish that goal than to increase energy expenditure while moderately decreasing energy intake. That combination will maximize fat loss and minimize lean tissue (muscle) loss while protecting carbohydrate stores. The basic guidelines are these: ឣ Encourage athletes to create a 500-to-1000 calorie deficit per day to generate weight reduction of 1-to-2 pounds of fat per week. Teach athletes that effective weight loss that protects performance takes weeks and requires discipline and planning. ឣ Teach athletes that effective weight loss that protects performance takes weeks and requires discipline and planning. The best method to create an effective weight-loss plan is to first estimate body composition and use those results to set a target minimal weight and a reasonable timeframe in which to achieve this goal.

LOSING THE FAT To lose fat and protect or even increase lean mass, athletes should consume a diet that provides: ឣ A minimum of five servings of fruits and vegetables per day. Most of these are naturally low in calories and high in nutrient content. Preparation without sauces, butter, or sugar is key to keep the calorie content low. ឣ A minimum of six servings of grain products, preferable whole grains so that fiber content is high. Again, avoiding butter, margarine and other sources of calories will help.

Two-to-three servings of lean meat and three servings of lean dairy per day. ឣ Minimize or eliminate desserts, extra food oils, and alcohol. ឣ

For additional information on appropriate serving sizes, see the GSSI Roundtable Youth in Sport: Nutritional Needs found at To create a diet plan that protects performance while accelerating fat loss, athletes should work with a registered dietitian (RD) who specializes in sports nutrition. Once the athlete has achieved his or her weight goal, the amount of calories can actually be increased somewhat to maintain the new weight.

KEEPING PERFORMANCE Even with a sound diet and training program, athletes may be tempted to dehydrate quickly to achieve the desired weight. This tempting shortcut does not protect performance. In fact, it does just the opposite – it impairs performance. Hydration must be maintained by replacing the majority of sweat lost during training because this will help maintain power efforts during workouts. Research shows that a sports drink consumed during training helped physical performance more so than when a water placebo was consumed. Selecting a beverage that contains carbohydrate, sodium, and other electrolytes will enhance hydration, especially after the weigh-in when the athlete may be partially dehydrated.

FINAL WORD An effective weight-loss plan places the emphasis on body fat reduction while protecting or even increasing lean mass. Minimizing dehydration as a way to reach the desired body weight should be strongly encouraged to prevent undue fatigue and to control the risk of heat illness. In addition to trying to lose weight, athletes must also develop endurance, strength and power, technique, strategy and mental preparation. These improvements occur best when the athlete is well hydrated, well nourished, and therefore able to focus mentally and perform physically while the body weight drops with fat reduction.

For more information, please visit ADDITIONAL READING

American College of Sports Medicine. Position Stand: Weight loss in wrestlers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 28: ix-xii, 1996. Bar-Or, O., Barr, S., Bergeron, M., et al. Youth in sport: nutritional needs. GSSI Roundtable #30 8(4):1-4, 1997. Fogelholm M. Effects of bodyweight reduction on sports performance. Sports Medicine 18: 249-267, 1994. Fritzsche RG, Switzer TW, Hodgkinson BJ, Lee SH, Martin JC and Coyle EF. Water and carbohydrate ingestion during prolonged exercise increase maximal neuromuscular power. Journal of Applied Physiology 88: 730-737, 2000. Gonzalez-Alonso J, Heaps CL and Coyle EF. Rehydration after exercise with common beverages and water. International Journal of Sports Medicine 13: 399-406, 1992. Walberg-Rankin J, Ocel JV and Craft LL. Effect of weight loss and refeeding diet composition on anaerobic performance in wrestlers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 28: 1292-1299, 1996.


Pro-Tec Athletics Offers Leading Edge Orthopedic Supports and Cryotherapy “With the Pro-Tec Ice-Up portable ice massager, the benefits of ice massage are ready for me anytime, anywhere.” Scott Jurek Physical Therapist Ultra Marathon champion “It is my opinion that the Knee Pro-Tec is the best patellar tendon strap on the market today. It outsells the competition three to one.” Joe Shipman Owner The Brace Center Stephenville, Texas “I have found the Pro-Tec IT Band compression wrap offers unmatched effectiveness in alleviating conditions of iliotibial band syndrome. We are recommending it to our patients” Dr. Shintaro Ohtake Aim Treatment Center Manhattan Beach, Cal. “Pro-Tec Athletics offers the most effective and comfortable orthopedic braces and supports. More specifically, We have found the Shin Splints compression wrap to be very efficient in alleviating conditions of medial and anterior shin splints. Our athletes are asking for them by name.” Sharon Allanson ATC (20 years experience) Hamilton College, N.Y.

Pro-Tec Athletics 2743 152ND AVE., N.E. REDMOND, WA 98052 800-779-3372 PRO-TEC@INJURYBEGONE.COM WWW.INJURYBEGONE.COM 66



Company News

Blist-O-Ban Helps Athlete Win Race

Many Teams Reap the Benefits of the Power Tower

“This letter is merely a ‘thank-you’ for helping me in my quest to complete a third Ironman Triathlon.

efi Sports Medicine’s electric PowerTower™ no longer requires the user to get on and off the unit between exercises. It delivers level changes at the touch of a button. This results in a more comfortable experience for the user, fewer transitions, and a more cohesive exercise session.

“I had recurring blister problems throughout my training runs, and found that the blister prevention products I had been trying were not providing the protection my heels needed. I was given a sample of your Blist-O-Ban product, and found that it remedied my blister problem without compromising the fit of my shoes. I was confident enough with your product to switch into a new pair of shoes just 10 days before the race. “On race day, I applied a Blist-O-Ban to each heel before the swim. The BlistO-Bans protected my heels throughout the entire bike and run, enduring moisture from the swim and sweat. Not once did I feel them impose on my comfort, either while on my bike or in my running shoes. The Blist-O-Ban is a product I would highly recommend for eliminating the chances of blistering and discomfort while running or cycling.” Phil Cook Ironman Triathlete Portland, Ore.

SAM Medical Products 7100 S.W. HAMPTON ST., STE. 217 PORTLAND, OR 97223 800-818-4726 WWW.SAMMEDICAL.COM

The PowerTower features a groundbreaking dynamic pulley system that adjusts to girth and height to allow for optimum force angles specific to each exercise. Other features include a wide base, a telescoping squat stand with three adjustable heights, built-in pull-up bars, and a fold-away foot holder for hamstring and abdominal work. The schools, teams, and training facilities using the PowerTower include: The Back Gym, Hollywood, Fla. Leonardo Physical Therapy, Wilmington, Mass. Hurst Physical Therapy, Blythe, Calif. FitWell Physical Therapy, Flat Rock, Mich. Orthopedic Care PT Center, Fair Lawn, N.J. So. Cal Aquatic Therapy, Huntington Beach, Calif. JP Rehab Solutions, Raleigh, N.C. Somerset Hills Physical Therapy, Basking Ridge, N.J. Rehab Dimensions, Fall River, Mass. Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wis. The Training Club, San Diego, Calif. Seattle Seahawks, Kirkland, Wash. University of Maryland, Princess Anne, Md. Pittsburgh Steelers, Pittsburgh, Pa. Christus Sports Physical Therapy, Corpus Christi, Texas Doylestown Rehab & Sport, Doylestown, Pa. Children’s Fitness Foundation, Las Vegas, Nev. National Medical Alliance, Baltimore, Md. Miami Physical Therapy, Miami, Fla. Hershey Spine & Sport Rehab, Hummelstown, Pa.


Company Q & A

CogState’s Dr. Adam Whybrew Discusses the Importance of Concussion Testing “Formal cognitive ... testing is recommended to assist in determining injury severity and readiness to return to play.” NATA Position Statement: Management of Sport-Related Concussion, Journal of Athletic Training, September 2004

What should athletic trainers know about concussion testing? There are few treatments for concussions other than rest, so the most important decision is when should the athlete return to play. It’s a tough balance between being overly cautious and risking permanent harm to the athlete by having them return to play too soon. Concussion Sentinel can help. It’s a quick, simple computer test that helps doctors make confident return-to-play decisions. Trainers need to know about it because to use it, all athletes must take a 15-minute “baseline” test while healthy. The testing is not only limited to the start of a season; it’s much better to start after a season has started than not at all.

Is it an intelligence test? No, the computer measures the speed and accuracy of making very simple decisions. It is not an intelligence test. Does this kind of testing lead to overcaution? No. This is because doctors know that athletes do not always tell them the truth about how they are feeling. This means that doctors are usually very cautious and do not let people play again for some time. But you can’t cheat a Sentinel test, so doctors tend to trust the result. Who uses it? The technology in Concussion Sentinel was first used five years ago by the University of Notre Dame, and it is now used in over 10 sports in 10 nations around the world, including by Olympic champions. Last year, after coverage in USA Today and on CNN and Fox Sports on TV, over 500 U.S. schools and colleges signed up for a free trial offer, sponsored by Schutt Sports. It’s not free this year, but you can save $100 if you act now. How do I start? Go to Everything you need is there. You can save $100 by entering the code backtoschool2005 on the sign-up page.

How does it work?


Athletes from age 9 to adult take a computer-game test in the computer lab. This is called a “baseline test,” and you get a report back for every athlete so you can check to make sure the athletes performed the test properly. Sometimes the report will say that the athlete should take another test, or that the athlete should go to his or her doctor.

For more information, contact: Dr. Adam Whybrew




T&C November 2005 Vol. XV, No. 8

Training & Conditioning is pleased to provide NATA and NSCA members with the opportunity to earn continuing education units through reading issues of the magazine. The following quiz is based on articles that appear in this issue of Training & Conditioning. By satisfactorily completing the quiz and mailing it back to T&C, readers can earn 2.0 BOC Athletic Training and 0.2 NSCA (two hours) continuing education units.

INSTRUCTIONS: Fill in the circle on the answer form (on page 70) that represents the best answer for each of the questions below. Complete the form at the bottom of page 70, include a $20 payment to Training & Conditioning, and mail it by December 15, 2005 to the following address: Training & Conditioning, ATTN: 15.8 Quiz, 2488 N. Triphammer Road, Ithaca, NY 14850. Readers who correctly answer 70 percent of the questions will be notified of their earned credit by mail no later than January 31, 2006. READY TO SERVE (pages 11-17) Objective: To gain a better understanding of the nuances of working with both physically and mentally disabled athletes. 1. Athletes with Down Syndrome are more prone to: a) Early fatigue. b) Anemia. c) Joint laxity resulting in increased risk of sprains. d) Breathing difficulties and therefore unable to participate in endurance sports. 2. A sprain or fracture to a finger may drastically affect someone with: a) Down Syndrome. b) A hearing impairment. c) A lower extremity amputation. d) Cerebral Palsy. 3. Research is ongoing looking at precisely how loss of limbs affects: a) The overall attitude toward sports participation. b) Safety in high speed sports. c) Oxygen use and efficiency. d) Joint mechanics. 4. One special consideration when working with an athlete with autism is: a) The communication ability is exceptional and one will provide accurate and detailed information. b) Some are very touch-sensitive and do not want to be touched to have an injury evaluated. c) The communication ability reflects the cognitive ability. d) One will react similar to a normal athlete who sustains an injury.



UNDERSTANDING IRON (pages 19-25) Objective: To learn how iron affects athletes’ performances, how to detect an iron deficiency, and how to ensure athletes consume enough iron. 5. Insufficient iron intake affects performance by: a) Delivering less oxygen from the athlete’s lungs to working muscles, which disallows aerobic metabolism to take place. b) Requiring the body to take longer rest periods. c) Affecting nerve conduction. d) Decreasing the function of fast-twitch fibers. 6. The hallmark symptom of iron deficiency anemia is: a) Improved anaerobic capacity. b) Fatigue that worsens with exertion. c) Athlete will complain of fatigue but complete a workout without fatigue. d) Athlete will feel warm and run a low-grade fever. 7. One recent study found that _________ percent of adolescent and adult females competing in a variety of sports were iron deficient. a) 10-15 b) 15-25 c) 25-35 d) 35-45 8. The same study found that _________ percent of elite male gymnasts were iron deficient. a) 11 b) 24 c) 36 d) 40 9. Females are considered at high risk to develop problems with iron because: a) They lose iron through menstruation. b) They tend to perform more aerobic exercise. c) They prefer lean meats and trim excess fat. d) They are more concerned with their body image.


10. Vegetarian athletes are at a high risk to develop iron deficiencies because: a) They participate in higher levels of aerobic exercise. b) Plant sources of dietary iron are not as dense or well absorbed as meat sources. c) They tend to consume less food and fewer calories. d) There are no plant sources containing dietary iron. 11. Blood donation results in a loss of _____ milligrams of iron per .5 liters of blood. a) 100 b) 200-250 c) 240-280 d) 300 12. This article recommends that women aged 18 to 50 years aim for _____ milligrams of iron intake per day. a) 12 b) 14 c) 16 d) 18 13. Iron from animal sources is absorbed better than iron from plant sources because: a) The iron in animal products contains hemoglobin. b) Animal products have less fiber than plant products. c) Animal products contain more fat-soluble vitamins such as A, D, E, and K. d) Plant sources provide fewer calories per serving. 14. Some nutritionists recommend that vegetarian athletes try to consume _____ milligrams of iron daily since their iron sources are not as bioavailable. a) 18 b) 22 c) 24 d) 26 15. To significantly increase their iron consumption, athletes should prepare non-heme iron foods in a(n) _________. a) Microwave. b) Ceramic dish. c) Oven. d) Cast iron pan. 16. A condition called _________ occurs when endurance training increases plasma volume and dilutes red blood cells, causing hemoglobin and hematocrit levels to appear falsely low. a) Sports anemia b) Iron binding deficiency c) Iron deficiency anemia d) Dietary anemia 17. Which of the following offers the highest iron content per serving? a) Eggs. b) Beans or lentils. c) Roast beef. d) Spinach.

NO PAIN, NO GAIN? (pages 28-34) Objective: To understand and be able to pass along to your athletes that there is a fine line between getting the most out of a workout and pushing too hard. 18. To make gains, it is important to remember: a) The “no pain, no gain” philosophy. b) It is necessary to achieve a certain stimulus threshold. c) A threshold is a standard required to make gains for all athletes. d) A program should discourage adaptation. 19. Proper adaptation should occur with: a) Hard efforts interspersed with easier efforts. b) Intense training bouts six weeks in length. c) Over training the body weekly. d) Utilizing the “no pain, no gain” philosophy. 20. A red flag of over training is: a) Decreased flexibility. b) Decreased speed. c) Soreness that persists. d) Increased respiratory rate.

ROW YOUR BOAT (pages 43-47) Objective: To learn about one strength coach’s approach to training athletes in the sport of rowing. 21. The biomechanical motions of rowing are similar to: a) A bench press. b) A power clean or a dead lift. c) A back squat. d) High pulls. 22. To offset the over-development of muscles that rowing can cause, strengthen the: a) Hamstring muscle group. b) Gluteal muscle group. c) Pectoralid muscle. d) Antagonist muscles. 23. The focus of Mesocycle One is: a) Strength development. b) Endurance training. c) Power development. d) Recovery. 24. The emphasis for Mesocycle Two is: a) Endurance training. b) Strength development. c) Increasing power while maintaining previous strength gains. d) Recovery. 25. The main goal of Mesocycle Three is: a) Power endurance. b) Strength development. c) Complete one repetitive max test. d) Recovery.






INSTRUCTIONS: Fill in the circle on the answer form below that represents your selection of the best answer for each of the previous questions. Complete the form at the bottom of this page, include a $20 payment to Training & Conditioning, and mail it to the following address: Training & Conditioning, ATTN: 15.8 Quiz, 2488 N. Triphammer Road, Ithaca, NY 14850, no later than December 15, 2005. Readers who correctly answer 70 percent of the questions will receive 2.0 BOC Athletic Training and 0.2 NSCA (two hours) CEU’s, and will be notified of their earned credit by mail no later than January 31, 2006.

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No Pain, No Gain? Understanding Iron

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Row Your Boat

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• Complete quizzes found in the Strength & Conditioning Journal • Complete online quizzes at Phone


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Company Q & A

A Dialogue About Foam Roller Production with OPTP Designer Jeff Polley Jeff Polley, OPTP Designer/ Copywriter, is a member of OPTP’s New Product Review Board. He takes part in evaluating new products to ensure they meet OPTP’s quality standards.

Please provide our readers some background on OPTP. OPTP started out as a supplier of physical therapy products in 1976. Since then, we’ve gained an international presence supplying virtually all health and fitness industries. Over the years, we’ve also expanded into the development of exclusive products, publishing, and DVD production.

and more susceptible to breakdown because of the tiny air pockets within the cells of the foam. Tie in an inadequate amount of time for curing and the quality suffers tremendously: during the curing process, the foam hardens and becomes what we know as firm. It’s this firmness that contributes to the roller holding its shape. When not allowed to firm up to 100 percent, the roller will soften, dent, and deform sooner than intended, causing investment, inventory, and ordering problems for those dependent on rollers. In most cases, these rollers can’t be expected to hold up for any longer than a few months. Signs of breakdown will usually begin sooner if they’re used repetitively. And what makes the OPTP Axis Roller superior?

Foam Rollers would be one of the exclusive products you’ve developed then? Yes. Our development of the OPTP Axis™ Roller is a fairly recent project that came about due to the declining quality of the standard white foam rollers. OPTP alone has had to reject thousands of rollers over the past year. Part of the problem has to do with the nature of the foam, and part has to do with the manufacturers trying to save time and increase production by cutting a few, yet essential, corners. OPTP 3800 ANNAPOLIS LN. STE. 165 MINNEAPOLIS, MN 55447 800-367-7393 CUSTOMERSERVICE@OPTP.COM WWW.OPTP.COM 72


What causes these standard white rollers to break down? The process of making these foam rollers includes an air-blown element and a specific amount of time for curing the foam. Being air-blown makes these particular rollers inconsistent

Our Axis Roller gives all the benefits of traditional rollers without the break down. Its molded foam technology is firm in density, has a smooth surface, and will not lose its shape after repetitive moderate-to-heavy use. The reason is that the Axis Roller is made up of solid foam beads that get compressed during the molding process. Fitness, athletic, and rehab professionals will love the durability and lasting power of this roller—you can depend on it to last several months without any sign of breakdown. There seems to be more to foam rollers than originally thought. Is there a place to learn more about them? OPTP recently published a newsletter about the various foam roller production methods. It’s available on our Web site,, as a downloadable PDF. Our latest catalog—Volume 18— has quite a bit of information on the different types of rollers, as well. For a free copy, call us at 800-367-7393. We’re also more than happy to answer any questions you might have about our products.


Circle No. 143

Every Second Counts

Don’t miss the Golden Period. “Any athlete with an acute injury should be seen immediately, on the field, later on the sidelines, or in the training or emergency room. There is a momentary golden period with sudden trauma, prior to the surrounding muscles going into spasm when information can be gathered.” ~ Orthopedic Physician Associates,

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w w w. o a k w o r k s p t . c o m Circle No. 144

Training & Conditioning 15.8  

November 2005

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