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Cross Fire Fusion Reactor Clean, Safe, Environmentally Friendly Atomic Energy

pat. pend.: PCT/IB2013/050658

Moacir L. Ferreira Jr. February 19, 2013

Earth: our planet, our home. • Aneutronic fusion is the only that can effectively be at the same time a clean, safe, dense and environmentally friendly power source to supply the world's energy needs, with no greenhouse gases, no neutron emission, no radioactive waste, no thermal waste, no large land areas, no interruptions by the weather or time of day, easy shutdown, no meltdowns and no proliferation, bringing a peaceful and prosperous future to Earth. • Most of the energy produced by aneutronic fusion is in the form of charged particles instead of neutrons.

• Pretty simple in its essence, the Cross Fire Fusion Reactor, in an energy-efficient way, uses steady-state magnetic field to confine radially, and electrostatic field more helicoidal moving magnetic forces to both accelerate and trap axially the plasma, for inducing fusion reactions but allowing the charged byproducts to escape longitudinally to be forced to work against electric/magnetic fields for converting directly their kinetic energy into electricity. • The magnetic fields can withstand very high-temperature ion plasma (r=mv/qB)

Blender 3D - Trees (credit: Yorik)

• With few power consumption (few kilowatts), the Electrostatic Acceleration can reach great kinetic energy(600keV ≈7billion °C) enough to fuse hydrogenboron, lithium-6/7, beryllium-9, helium-3, that can be easily proven by simple and consistent calculations.

• The charge-to-mass ratio is calculated to be as low as possible for keeping the plasma in a quasi-neutral state. Before startup, or in case of ionic saturation, the electrostatic generator can be turned off so that the vacuum pump can clean up the reactor core to get rid of the excess of ions. Alternatively, a short overboost on the multiphase accelerators can be used instead.

• The multiphase accelerator consists of six concentric helix-coils, axially rotated 60° from each other and feed by six phases [0° 60° 120° 180° 240° 300°], for producing moving magnetic fields in both radial and axial directions resulting in helicoidal moving forces for both accelerating and confining radially and unidirectionally plasma of charged particles. • It is to be shorter with much more torque than Linacs, and the speed of the resulting moving force can be calculated and adjusted for maximum power transfer.

• The multiphase coils can be enclosed with Periodic Permanent Magnet(PPM) (NS SN NS SN NS SN) in order to strengthen the radial containment.

• The Plasma Pellets are accelerated by the helicoidal moving forces and attracted by the electrostatic field toward the chamber interior reaching enough kinetic energy for fusions to take place. In few micrograms of fusion fuel there are trillions and trillions of atomic nuclei, and also free electrons that can decrease the Coulomb repulsion, then fusion reactions are far more likely to take place. • The resulting charged fusion byproducts are confined radially by the steady-state magnetic field, but run away longitudinally, transferring energy to the Energy Converters for landing smoothly on the multistage collectors to be neutralized. After collected, the byproducts and unburned fuels can be separated to improve the fuel utilization.

• Aneutronic Fusion is clean and safe, only a minimum of radiation shielding is required.

• Unlike nuclear fission, most of the energy produced by aneutronic fusion is in the form of charged particles instead of neutrons, which can be converted directly into electricity by making them work against electric/magnetic fields that can potentially exceed 90% efficiency. 1

H + 2 6 Li → 3 4He + 1H + 20.9 MeV (153 TJ/kg ≈ 42 GWh/kg) 1 H + 7 Li → 2 4He + 17.2 MeV (204 TJ/kg ≈ 56 GWh/kg) 1 H + 9 Be → 4He + 6Li + 2.1 MeV ( 22 TJ/kg ≈ 6 GWh/kg) 3 He + 3 He → 4He + 21H + 12.9 MeV (205 TJ/kg ≈ 57 GWh/kg) 1 H + 11 B → 3 4He + 8.7 MeV ( 66 TJ/kg ≈ 18 GWh/kg) note: high-Z atoms can facilitate p-e-p formations -» virtual neutrons -» catalyzed fusion.

Hydrogen Boron Fusion (p-B11): • p + 11B → 3α + 8.68MeV = 4He (3.76 MeV) + 4He (2.46 MeV) + 4He (2.46 MeV) 1 eV(electron-volt) = 1.60218E-19 Joules p-B11 mass: 6protons + 6neutrons = 6* 1.67262E-27 + 6* 1.67493E-27 = 20.0853E-27 kg specific energy: (8.68MeV * 1.60218E-19)/( 20.0853E-27) = 69.2393E+12 J/kg charge-to-mass ratio: (6* 1.60218E-19)/ 20.0853E-27 = 47.86127E+6 C/kg

• E=½mv² → v=((E/m)*2)0.5 → v= (69.2393E+12 * 2)0.5 → v=11.7677E+6 m/s superconducting electromagnet 30cm bore (15cm of internal radius): r=mv/qB → B= (v/r)/(q/m) → B=(11.7677E+6/0.15)/ 47.86127E+6 → B=1.64 T → ideal ≈ 4 Teslas • Fuel consumption to produce 200 megawatts (mass flow controller and ammeter): 200MW = 200E+6 J/s → 200E+6/((8.68MeV*1.60218E-19)/( 20.0853E-27)) = 2.88853E-6 kg/s ≈ 2.89 milligram/second (2.88853E-6 /2 = 1.44426E-6)

• Multiphase accelerator: frequency and reactive power for 150 keV:

E=½mv² → (150keV * 1.60218E-19)=½( 20.0853E-27)v² → v=1.54695E+6 m/s 1 m Length: vL=Lf → 1.54695E+6=1*f → f = 1.54695E+6 Hz ≈ 1.55 MHz ((150keV * 1.60218E-19)/( 20.0853E-27))*(2.88853E-6 /2) = 1.72811E+6 J/s electrical current for 900VAC : 1.72811E+6/900 =1.9201E+3 A → IAC ≈ 2 kA

• Having a Van de Graaff (or Pelletron) generator 20MV(20E+6) to accelerate ions at 150keV. E = qV → (E/m)= (q/m)V → (q/m)=(E/m)/V → (q/m)=( (150keV * 1.60218E-19)/( 20.0853E-27))/20E+6= 59.8266E+3 C/kg ≈ 59.8 µC/µg microcoulomb/microgram (charge-to-mass ratio) • Ion source current: 2.88853E-6 kg/s * 59.8266E+3 C/kg = 0.1728 C/s ≈ 0.2 Amperes 2.88853E-6 / (20.0853E-27) = 144E+18 reactants/second (144 quintillions) which is a very high probability of having fusion reactions as well unburned fuels to be further recycled. • The multiphase accelerators are to induce 150keV each one, the electrostatic acceleration is to induce 150keV at each side, totalizing 600keV.

• The Energy Converter also uses Multiphase Coils but with purpose of decelerating for converting kinetic energy into electric power. The speed of moving forces must be very slow and toward the multistage collectors. Wherein the fast fusion byproducts boost the slow moving magnetic fields produced by the multiphase coils, thereby electrodynamically transferring energy to be effectively harvested by diode bridge rectifiers of the system. • The multiphase coils are more reactive than just resistive, because moving magnetic fields exert forces on moving charges F=q(v × B) and vice-versa. Just like an AC motor that can behave as AC generator and vice-versa. F=i(L × B) ε=(Bℓv sinθ)

• Any waste heat produced by the fusion reactor, and its peripherals, is recycled into electric power by the Multiphase Thermoelectric Converter in order to keep the overall efficiency above 90% for reducing drastically the thermal waste to the environment.

• The waste heat comes mainly from the electromagnetic radiation in the reactor's core, mostly in X-ray range (bremsstrahlung) that is shielded by the tungsten layers. • The Multiphase Thermoelectric Converter operates by radially forcing the hot coolant to push axially the electrical charges against electric/magnetic fields.

• The Cross Fire Fusion Reactor can replace more than 10 billion tons/year of carbon dioxide (CO₂) by only 10000 tons/year of non-radioactive, inert, and safe helium-4 gas. • Boron-11 is relatively plentiful on Earth's crust, (66 TJ/kg ≈18GWh/kg) no more than 0.1% of neutrons. Helium-3 (205 TJ/kg ≈57GWh/kg), found in the lunar regolith, is virtually neutron-free.

• Electric power can be used for electrolysis of water: H₂O + (286kJ/mole) → H₂ + ½O₂ Hydrogen can be combined with atmospheric CO₂ to produce methanol(CH₃OH): CO₂ + 3H₂ → CH₃OH + H₂ • This process can reduce CO₂ concentration and increase oxygen in the atmosphere, producing hydrogen for fuel cells and methanol for vehicles; methanol is relatively clean compared to gasoline or diesel which can substantially reduce the worldwide pollution.

Blender 3D - Trees (credit: Yorik)

Aneutronic Star on Earth ☀ • Following the calculations, the multiphase accelerator alone is energetic enough to achieve fusion ignition. Thus without the electrostatic acceleration, the charge-to-mass ratio can be zero, neutral plasma, no ionic saturation, higher energy production. • A reaction chamber, with 14 multiphase accelerators attached at the openings, can be based on a truncated octahedron having eight magnets with bore placed at the hexagonal faces [NSNS][SNSN] to form quadrupole fields in the square faces. • The plasma is prevented from touching on the inner walls of the reaction chamber by the magnetic mirror effect, and the plasma is also accelerated and confined isotropically by the helicoidal moving fields produced by the multiphase accelerators. • The fourteen multiphase accelerators can make plasma collisions isotropically much denser, much higher fusion rate. • Paradigm Shift from electrostatic to multiphase acceleration.

• Clean, safe, secure, compact, affordable and virtually inexhaustible fusion electric power to the grid. • Technologically feasible and economically attainable space travels will open vast horizons for humanity. • Phase-shift Plasma Turbine powered by the aneutronic fusion reactor, fueled with p-B11, can provide a powerful and safe propulsion means for commercial space travels in our solar system.

• Furthermore, fusion-powered relativistic space drive can be developed for interstellar journeys.

Plasma Turbine

• It is possible to produce a FTL moving magnetic force using spaced-apart phase-shifted EM oscillations (f ≥ c/L): (f ≥ c/L) → (c/λ ≥ c/L) (L ≥ λ) e.g., Length of 5m: f ≥ (c/L) → f ≥ (3×10⁸/5) → f ≥ 60 MHz

Phased Standing Waves

Relativistic Space Drive

Vacuum of space in the universe is filled with electric/magnetic fields/waves, thus with proper interaction (phased EM waves) it is possible to produce net thrust force in a more energy-efficient way than what is achievable by expelling-mass propulsion.

Conclusion: • The fuels for aneutronic fusion reactions are readily and virtually inexhaustible, also energetically dense, neutron-free and radiation-free. • As described, and according to the calculations, the Aneutronic Fusion Reactor has low power consumption and is able to contain fusion reactions long enough for a net energy gain.

• The Cross Fire Fusion Reactor can produce safe, clean, dense, cost-effective and virtually unlimited electric power in a stable, reliable, predictable and controllable manner for large-scale energy production with no pollution and no radioactive waste, contributing for a pollution-free Earth.

Thank You Milk Way (Photo credit: ESO/S. Brunier)

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