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A GREAT GENIOUS: NIKOLA TESLA II. SCIENCE PICNIC IN ZAGREB EXPERIMENT: DNA EXTRACTION ABOUT ANTIBIOTICS


Author: Elif Koyuncuk Published by: Mladinski center Dravinjske doline Contact: elif.koyuncuk@hotmail.com Ĺ˝iÄ?ka cesta 4a 3210 Slovenske Konjice Slovenia Edition: 2/ September-October 2013 Copies: 100

Photo: Heart muscle capillary http://education.denniskunkel.com/


INDEX: Editor’s page

Tesla: A Great Genious

Astronomy: Quasars

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Antibiotics

Experiment: DNA extraction

II. Science Picnic in Zagreb

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Did you know?

Google Science Fair 2013

Let’s Learn Turkish

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Working Brain

World Records

Science Pages

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EDITOR’S PAGE Second edition of SCI Popular Science Magazine is again full of interesting themes like first one. From this edition, SCI will be published once in two months. As you can see on cover page, you are reading now September-October edition. On 15th of September we were in Zagreb to see Second Science Picnic. It was a great event and I wrote an article to share my experiences with you. Maybe next year you also want to attend it and learn too many things about different kind of topics in science. Specially youngsters will be inspired to make experiments after they read about Science Picnic. They can find a DNA extraction experiment after Science Picnic article. It is very easy to make and they need just simple materials which they can find at home. If they have their original ideas, maybe they can think about to attend Google Science Fair with their projects, specially after they know about prizes. They can read about Google Science Fair 2013 in this edition. There is also a wide range of topics so that you can find something interesting, depending on your interests, such as astronomy, health, mathematics, langauge... Enjoy! Elif Koyuncuk Author and Designer of SCI

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TESLA: A GREAT GENIOUS Nikola Tesla was a genious scientist who had a lot of theories and inventions which changed the world. He was one of the greatest electrical inventors who ever lived.

Education He was born on 10th of July 1856 in Croatia. He was a Serbian by origin but he spent most of his life in USA. He was fourth of the five children in his family. His father wanted him to be a priest like Nikola Tesla, 1983 himself, but fortunately he did the right choice and decided to be a scientist. He studied at Politechnik School in Graz, Austria and later he continued his education in Prague Technical University. besides his langauges Serbian and German, he also learned foreign langauges such as English, French and Italian to be able to understand technical books in other langauges.

Great inventions All his life he invented numerous great new things, most of them were revolutionary. He had around 700 patents for his inventions. One of his greatest invention of was AC-induction motor. In the beginning of 20th century, scientists didn't even dream about any alternative for direct currency. He surprized them with his works on alternative current and also devised motor which works with alternative current. no

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Scientist Tesla: A great inventor

Tesla's AC-induction motor is widely used troughout the world in industry and household devices. This new device started the industrial revolution at the turn of the century. Tesla was so far ahead of his time that many of his ideas are only appearing today. His legacy can be Tesla AC Electric Motor-1888 seen in different devices from microwave ovens to MX missiles. Besides this, Tesla's life inspires us to believe that anything that we imagine can be accomplished, especially with electricity.

USA years His early discovery of the alternating current motor led him to USA to seek a venue for his discovery. There he developed the polyphase AC system of power transmission, which drives every home and industry in the country. He invented Tesla coil to create high-frequency electricity, neon and florescent lighting, radio transmission, remote control and hundreds of other devices which are now an essential part of our everyday lives. His technological achievements transformed USA from a nation of isolated communities to a Transmitter and country connected by power grids Laboratory, where information was available 1901-1905, upon demand. located in He met with Thomas Edison and Wardencliffe started to work with him in his company in 1884. He was improving Edison’s motors and generators to get higher level of efficiency until they had a disagreement about money.

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Scientist Tesla: A great inventor

Tesla finished working with him after Edison refused to give him money which he promised for a task which Tesla achieved. After that case, they became competitors. Tesla started to search new business partners or investors to support his works. In 1886 he found investors and formed his own company called Tesla Electric Light & Manufacturing. But it didn’t work out on long term and investors didn’t want to support his ideas any more. After almost one year without money and good job, he met with Charles Peck and Alfred Brown and they made an aggreement to work together. They established Tesla Electric Company. Finally, they built a research laboratory for him in West Broadway. In this laboratory he worked on his new discoveries and in a short time he got a lot of patents. His ideas were so original and ingenious, so that he was never rejected. Also Westinghouse made a deal with his company to use Tesla’s AC motor idea and to have the license for this invention. Tesla's goal was to make new inventions and to take humanity one step further. He didn't care about prizes or money at all. He spent money which he earned from his inventions and patents again on new experiments. He spent his last years of life alone in hotel rooms. Because he didn't care about the money, he could't make enough savings for him. When he died, in New Yorker Hotel in USA, all his hand writings and papers were taken by US government. In 1960, in honour of Tesla, the General Conference on Weights and Measures for the International System of Units dedicated the term "tesla" to the SI unit measure for magnetic field strength.

Sources http://www.teslasociety.com/index.html http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikola_Tesla http://www.pbs.org/tesla/ http://www.yurope.com/org/tesla/5e.htm http://www.elektrikport.com http://www.croatianculture.org

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QUASARS: A LITTLE KNOWN OBJECTS IN THE UNIVERSE Discovery Quasars or quasi-stellar radio sources are objects which shine with an enormous energy from so far of the universe. Astronomers named this objects quasi-stellar radio source when they first time observe them in 1960's, because they saw that they were objects like stars and that they give off radio signals. Actually after more research they understood that a few of them emmit radio signals, but they didn't change their name. In addition to radio waves, they emmit also visible light, ultraviolet rays, infrared waves, x-rays and gama rays. Despite of their brightness and high energy, it is very hard to observe them by telescope because of their distance.

Properties Quasars are galaxies which A beautiful quasar drawing which is have very active galactic nuclei at drawn due to photos captured by the center. It is generally telescopes accepted that quasars are powered by accretion around the central supermassive black hole. Evidence for the black hole includes the high degree of emission emanating from a small central area. And there are also accretion disc and jet formation areas in central region. Although quasars appear faint when viewed from Earth, the fact that they are visible at all from so far is due to quasars being the most luminous objects in the known universe.

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Astronomy Quasars: A little known objects in the universe

They can be trillion times brighter than sun because of their enormous energy. They give off more energy and have luminosity more than 100 normal galaxies combined. A typical quasar has 39 26 luminosity of about 10 watts. The Sun’s luminosity is about 4*10 watts. Energy which they release in one second could satisfy electrical energy needs of Earth for next whole billion years.

How far? They are the most distant objects detected until now. Because they were born in early times of the universe. Light from quasars takes billions of years to reach the atmosphere of the Earth. We know how Quasar 3C 273 they looked like billions of years ago. The light we see coming from them was produced when the universe was only one tenth of its present age. It means, if you observe a quasar, you observe childhood of the universe. We know that we can determine the distances of celestial objects from us based on the red-shifting of their light. All observed quasar spectra have red shifts due to their distances. For example Quasar 3C 273, has a red shift of 0.158. It means it is 2 billion years away from us.

Sources Jones, G., Quasar Jets on Parsec and Kilopasec Scales, 2012 http://www.universetoday.com http://csep10.phys.utk.edu http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quasar http://www.britannica.com

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II. SCIENCE PICNIC IN ZAGREB II. Science Picnic was organized on 15th September in Zagreb, Croatia and has brought together a lot of science lovers from several different countries. People from various science centers worked on preparing and implementation of this event. It was possible to find a lot of experiments and exhibitions refering to every field of science. Children, families and participants of all ages could find opportunity to observe and make experiments on various topics in different fields such as biology, physics, Besides science children also had fun chemistry and paleontology. It’s always better to make experiments by oneself, because that’s the best way to learn. In addition it makes more fun! This kind of events are perfect to make children and youngsters like science and discover their favorite field. They can get inspired by observing and carrying out experiments. Perhaps they can Mitochondria model to explain energy production choose their future profession after in cell this experience. As science lovers we were also there to see what is going on. We observed, applied, and took photos. Experiments were well-chosen for learning and enjoying. Everything was clearly understandable for a wide age range. Each part was full of people.

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Explorer II. Science picnic in Zagreb

We could select among a wide variety of topics and every one of them was educational and enjoyable. There was walking on a liquid surface, making batteries, static electricity tests, determining density difference between liquids, making origami, paleontology researches, usage of solar energy, learning about photosynthesis, discovering robot technologies and 3D printers, energy production in mitochondria, making soap, observing reaction between baking powder and lemon juice... To get more information, we made a small interview with Bruno Blumenschen, who was employee of science picnic. SCI: What is the purpose of this event? B.B.: Through this event we want to popularize sience. This event is a big opportunity for NGO's and science o rg a n i s a t i o n s t o p ro m o t e t h e i r programs. This event also promotes a Children found opportunity great science center, ZEZ, which will be to see different inventions built in Zagreb in two and a half years. Now, we organize science picnic outside without a roof, but finally we will have a science center and everyday will be a science picnic for us under its roof. SCI: How was the feedback after first science picnic? B.B.: Last year around 10,000 people visited our science picnic. We made a questionnaire with 2000 people and totally we got 4,7 points out of 5. For this year our prediction is 20,000 visitors. SCI: Who is your target group? B.B.: Target group of the science picnic is mostly families with children, but also of course every person who are interested in science. The 60% of visitors are children between 8-13 years old. It will be almost same in ZEZ Science Center but also teenagers and adults will be a big target group and they will find a lot of interests in it. Visiting the science picnic was a great experience for us. We refreshed our knowledge, learned new things and had fun. We wish this event will continue with more and more visitors each year. no

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Explorer II. Science picnic in Zagreb

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Experiment Time for Youngsters: DNA Extraction A short look at DNA As you allready know, DNA is a macromolecule which exist in every cell and has genetic codes. Long DNA chain consists of nucleotide monomers which have one phosphate, one five-carbon sugar and one organic base. This organic bases are adenine, guanine (purines) and cytosine, thymine (primidines). Proliferation is one of the essential properties of life. DNA is the material which every living organism need for proliferation. When prokaryotic organisms like bacteria, viruses and blue green algae have their DNA exist in cytoplasm, in eukaryotic cells it is packaged as chromosomes and located in nucleus. Each chromosome refers to one long DNA chain. Length of the DNA can change between a few and 10 centimeters. One part of the first chromosome of human is 7.3 cm length. A macromolecule with this length, must be folded perfectly to be able to locate in nucleus of a cell. This perfect folded DNA structure is called the deoxynucleoprotein. In this structure there are DNA, histone proteins and other proteins. As you can see on the picture, all double strand DNA folds and gets packaged in its special way and became a chromosome structure.

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Experiment time for youngsters DNA extraction

Each species has their own chromosome number. Onion which we will use for DNA extraction, has 16 chromosomes, dog has 78 and human has 46 chromosomes. Don’t forget, genetic properties of an organism doesn't depend on cromosome number, they depend on information which their DNA codes have inside.

DNA extraction from onion We choosed an extraction method which you can try out at home with regular materials. Materials: 1 middle-sized onion, salt, detergent, ethanol (70%), coffee filter, funnel, jar (500 ml), 2 big bowls, pasteur pipette (5 ml), an experiment tube or a small glass.

Method: Cut the onion into small pieces and put pieces in the jar. Solve 1 teaspoon of salt in 100 ml water and add 10 ml detergent. Mix gently, without making bubbles. This solution is called lysis solution and it will disintegrate cell and nucleus membrane and DNA will be outside of the cell, so we will be able to collect it. · Pour this solution on onion particles. o · Prepare approximately 55 C hot water in a large and deep bowl and put the jar in it. Jar needs to stay in this hot water bath 10 minutes. Meanwhile smash onion pieces gently with a spoon, without making bubbles. After hot water bath, put jar in 0oC icecold water. At this moment, be careful! Jar can crack when you put it from hot water to cold water. To prevent this, you can make it a little bit cool in tap water. After you put it in cold water, again wait around 10 minutes and at the same time smash onions with spoon. · Put a coffee filter in funnel and pour the onion mix in it. During filtration don't mix or shake, just let gravity work. Mix will be strained in 5-6 minutes. · ·

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Experiment time for youngsters DNA extraction

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Take 5 ml of strained liquid with pasteur pipette and pour it in experiment tube. Slowly add ethanol on it around 1 cm tickness. Don't mix. Ethanol will stay at the top of the liquid. In a few minutes you will see thin white strings are coming up. After 10 minutes, all DNA will be collected in ethanol side of the tube. You can easily take this white cluster with a rod. DNA is water-soluble but it can not be solved in alcohol. That’s why when you add alcohol, DNA strands get together and became visible. If you see that in the tube, you extracted DNA succesfully. Congratulations!

As you can see in the picture above, we succesfully extracted DNA at home and got a good result. Now it is your turn to try!

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ANTIBIOTICS: THEIR DISCOVERY, CHARACTERISTICS AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE When we are sick or have an infection in some part of our body, we usually use antibiotics to heal. Today, they are among most frequently prescribed medications in modern medicine. Altough it seems an ordinary medicine today, before discovery of antibiotics, a lot of people died because of simple diseases or injures. Antibiotics are chemicals produced by or derived from microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi. In the beginning they have been produced from these microorganisms. Now they are produced synthetically.

First discovery After first antibiotic was discovered by Alexander Fleming, a Scotch scientist, in Alexander 1928, millions of lifes had been Flemming saved. When Flemming was working on some bacteria which causes skin disease, he noticed that some fungi from air, destroys this bacteria. This fungi was Penicillium and chemical which is product of this microorganism called 'penicillin'. Antibiotics were a significant breakthrough for medical science. But until 1939 Flemming couldn't produce this chemical because of financial difficulties. In 1939 with help of two scientists Sir Howart Florey and Ernest Boris Chain, Flemming worked on clinical trials in Oxford University. After trials, penicillin began to be produced in USA. Besides normal life, during second world war, people were saved from death of simple injures or sicknesses. For this discovery, Flemming earned Nobel Medical price in 1945.

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Health Antibiotics

How antibiotics work? Some antibiotics are 'bactericidal', meaning that they work by killing bacteria. Killing process can be done by several ways. Some antibiotics damage the peptidoglucane layer of cell membrane, by working like detergent. Therefore bacteria can During II. World War not keep its shape and die. Another penicilin saved way of destroying cell membrane is thousands of life stopping peptidoglucane producing mechanism and activating otolityc enzymes. Some of them might inhibit bacterium's ability to turn glucose into energy, or its ability to construct its cell wall. When this happens, the bacterium dies instead of reproducing. Other antibiotics are 'bacteriostatic', they stop multipying of bacteria by breaking nucleic acid (DNA and RNA) synthesis mechanism. They can’t reproduce themselves and our immune system can fight with them easily. Probably you have seen some explanation on package of antibiotics which you have used, such as broad spectrum or narrow spectrum. 'Broad-spectrum' antibiotics are used to treat a wide range of infections. 'Narrow spectrum' antibiotics are used to treat a few types of bacteria.

Antibiotic resistance Bacteria are capable of developing resistance to antibiotics. After they get resistance, they can not be killed by commonly used antibiotics. When bacteria are exposed to the same antibiotics over and over, they can change and are no longer affected by the drug. Actually bacteria naturally have a resistance mechanism of antibiotics. It is called natural resistance. They can also develop resistence to antibiotics in time by some mutations. Bacteria have number of ways how they become antibiotic-resistant.

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Health Antibiotics

For example they can possess an internal mechanism of changing their structure so the antibiotic no longer works, they develop ways to inactivate or neutralize the antibiotic. Also bacteria can transfer the genes coding for antibiotic resistance between them. One more resistance mechanism that bacteria have is decreased membrane permeability to antibiotics. Resistance to antibiotics can cause serious problems, because some infectious deseases become more difficult to treat. Resistant bacteria don't response to antibiotics any more and continue to cause infection. Some of these resistant bacteria can be treated with more powerful medicines, but there some infections that are difficult to cure even with new or experimental drugs. According to the ECDC (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control), antibiotic resistance continues to be a serious public health threat worldwide. In a statement issued in 19th November 2012, the ECDC informed that an estimated 25,000 people die each year in the European Union from antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections. Specially in hospitals, uncontrolled use of antibiotics can cause antibiotic resistance. This becames first reason of hospital infections. Resistant bacteria can survive and proliferate despite existence of antibiotics and this situation makes treatment process longer. The worst is that sometimes patient’s life can not be saved. After hospital infections staying at hospital gets longer and between 2-8 days and treatment costs become higher.

Sources TĂźbitak Bilim ve Teknik Dergisi, May 2013, edition 546 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Flemming http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/10278.php

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DID YOU KNOW? How much caffeine can be harmful? Most of us drink a cup of coffee to get out of bed every morning. When we meet with a friend we order a cappuccino. In summer time we take a can of cold coke to refresh ourselves. But if we consume too much caffeine in a short time, we can have serious hearth or nervous system problems. There are 85-150 mg caffeine in one cup of coffee, 100-130 mg caffeine in one liter of coke. When you have caffeine in your body, its rate in your blood increases highest level in first 15-20 minutes. In 5 hours you use and remove at least half of caffeine which you have in your body. Caffeine increases fatty acids in your blood, they are turned into energy and it makes your body resistance higher. It stimulates your nervous system, supports your attention, makes you resistant to sleep. If a person drinks 6-7 cups of coffee in a short time, feels restlesness, sleeplessness, has diarrhea and abnormal heart rhythm. In addition to high blood pressure, heartburn and headache can happen. But for caffeine poisoning a person should drink 80-110 cups of coffe or 200 cans of coke. But this is not practically possible. Symptoms of caffeine poisoning are vomiting, heart palpitation and coma. Death is also possible because of respiratory failure and heart attack. If you directly take caffeine powder to your body, 5-10 grams of it is enough to kill you. Of course you wouldn't like to try! Just enjoy your morning coffee.

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Curious mind Did you know?

How microwave ovens cook? In a normal oven, heat comes from its inner walls and transfers inside of oven by conduction. It means first of all oven heats air inside of it, after heat transfers from surface of food to interior. That's why, if you heat oven more than food needs, you burn surface of food but inner side of it still stays raw. On the contrary in microwave oven heat is everywhere at the same time. Because heat doesn't travel by conduction. Energy in microwaves reaches each part of food at the same time. Waves specially effect water and fat molecules inside of food. Frequence of waves is related to energy which they have. In a microwave oven there are radiowaves which have frequence of 2500 megahertz, and are generated by a vacuum tube. This frequence is 20 times more then FM radio frequences. Radio waves have one electric field and one magnetic field and they change their directions 2,450,000 times in one second. That change moves water and fat molecules back and forth. This movement causes fraction and it creates heat energy. While this waves are absorbed by water, sugar or fat, they can’t be absorbed by oxygen and nitrogen. That's why air in microwave stays in room temperature. Air doesn't make food dry. This situation prevents a crusty surface and raw interior. Like every waves, microwaves in oven has peaks and nodes. Distance between two peaks refers to wavelength of waves. While peaks of waves has greatest energy, nodes don’t. It means heat energy focuses around peaks. That’s why microwave ovens turns our food to heat every part of it. Still there can be some parts which are heated too much or less. This happens because several parts of food have different resistence to heat.

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Curious mind Did you know?

How glue sticks? Sticking is a simple chemical reaction. Actually, if you bring closer enough two surfaces, they are supposed to stick eachother, because anti poles of two different surfaces want to get together. But it is practically impossible. Distance between two surfaces must be less than 10-7 milimeters. But even if a surface looks very smooth, it has roughness around 4x10-4 milimeters depth. In this case molecules can not get closer because of roughness. Glue fills gaps between surfaces therefore much more molecules can make bonds. Molecules of glue must have affinity to both of surface molecules. How can glue stay in tube without sticking itself? Most of glues has two kinds of materials inside. When one of them pushes molecules of glue to get together, second one (called stabilizer) makes reverse effect. This situation makes a neutral medium and there is stability inside the tube. When glue goes out of tube, air eliminates effects of stabilizer. So, glue hardens and sticks on the surface. Actually human invented glue a long time ago. In prehistoric ages different kind of materials such as blood, egg white or extracts of water plants have been used by our ancestors to stick some colors on cave walls. From BC 3500 Ancient Egyptians and Sumerians invented stronger glues by using animal skin and bones. Today a wide variety of glues are produced by chemical processes from hundreds of chemical materials.

Sources http://healthmad.com Korugan, T.,L端zumsuz Bilgiler Ansiklopedisi, 2007 http://commons.wikimedia.org/ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kp33ZprO0Ck

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Google Science Fair 2013 This year again Google Science Fair got young science lovers and their brilliant ideas together from all around the world. Great projects of future scientists between 13 and 18 years old gave people inspiration and enthusiasm. Grand award ceremony was held on 23th September in Google Center California. 15 finalist were competing with their projects. Google Science Fair Winner Award which is sponsored by Scientific American, 50,000 USD and Voter's Choise Award, 10,000 USD went to 17 years old Elif Bilgin from Istanbul, Turkey. Purpose of this foundations is support further researches of young scientists. Her project was ‘Creating bioplastic from banana peel’. 17 years old Eric Chen from USA won Grand Prize and 17-18 Age Group Winner Award with his project, ‘A New Anti-flu Medicine’. Grand Prize includes 10 days trip to Galapagos Islands with National Geographic Expeditions. In addition 50,000 USD Google scholarship is intended to further the Grand Prize Winner's education. Winner can choose a hands-on experience at one of these partner organisations: LEGO, CERN or Google. 15 years old Ann Makosinski from Canada won 15-16 Age Group Winner Award with her ‘Battery-free Flashlight’ Project. Viney Kumar, 14 years old, from Australia won 13-14 Age Winner Award with his project, ‘A Signaling System for Emergency Vehicles’.

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Young scientists Google Science Fair 2013

Age group awards are these: A scholarship worth 25,000 USD toward each finalist's education costs. The finalists have the second and third choice of one of the remaining LEGO, CERN or Google experiences. The finalists' schools enjoy one year's free digital access to Scientific American archives. To see other finalists’ projects and winners of previous years, please visit: www.googlesciencefair.com. You will see brilliant projects which young intelligent brains achieved.

Creating bioplastic from banana peels In this edition of SCI we will shortly introduce project of Elif Bilgin, winner of of Science in Action Award and Voter's Choice Award. Project's name is ‘Using banana peels in the production of bio-plastic as a replacement of the traditional petroleum based plastic’. Elif Bilgin describes her project shortly like this: 'I developed a method for making plastic by using banana peels and found new areas for the use of plastic that I manifactured: Using the bioplastic in the making of cosmetic prosthesis and in the insulation of cables. This project was done over a time period of 2 years. During this time period, I was able to succeed in my endeavor to manifacture plastic that can actually be used in daily life.' She knew that she had to use a plant which is a good starch source to produce bioplastic. Using banana peel in her project was perfect reuse of organic source which is everyday thrown away. This idea completely satisfies her sustainable and environmentalist vision. Because she wants to live in a better environment like everyone of us. For that, she decided to make something to change the world. Elif says that succesful scientists inspired her for her researches and experiments.

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Young scientists Google Science Fair 2013

Marie Curie is her role model as a female scientist and Thomas Edison’s working principle is her motivation. She never gave up even if she didn’t have results which she expected.

Working hard She worked on her project more than two years to obtain a bioplastic which has appropriate characteristics. After a lot of researches and trials, finally she achieved. First of all she researched to find contents of banana peel to decide that if it is a good starch source or not. Her aim was to produce a bioplastic which can not easily decay and at the same time elastic. She used propane 1-2-3 triol as a plasticizier which she Elif was trying to find researched and found in best method articles about bioplastic production. Bioplastic which she created in first trials, was decaying in few days. To prevent decaying of plastic she found a solution after a lot of trials. She dipped banana peels in 0.5% of Na2S2O5 solution before boiling and mechanical smashing process to make it stronger. It worked and material passed strength test and also it didn’t decay for weeks. During her trials she heard about Google Science Fair and decided to attend it with her project. After her long hard work and endeavor, finally she deserved prize.

Sources https://www.googlesciencefair.com http://www.scientificamerican.com/science-in-action

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H S I K R U T N R A E LET’S L

In August edition we learned Turkish alphabet, some different letters in Turkish, numbers and some templates. It is time to learn more. This time we will continue with some simple and useful dialogues. Dialogue 1 (Introduction) A: Merhaba, benim adım Ali. (Hello, my name is Ali.) E: Benim adım Ece. Tanıştığıma memnun oldum. (My name is Ece. Nice to meet you.) A: Ben de. (Me too.) Dialogue 2 (Asking ages) A: Kaç yaşındasın? (How old are you.) E: Ben yirmi beş yaşındayım. Sen kaç yaşındasın? (I am twenty five years old. How old are you?) A: Ben otuz yaşındayım. (I am thirty years old.) Dialogue 3 (Shopping) C: Merhaba, bu kitabın fiyatı ne kadar? (Hello, how much is this book?) S: Sekiz avro. (8 Euros.) C: Tamam, bunu alıyorum. (OK, I buy this one.) S: Buyrun, teşekkürler. (Here it is. Thank you.) C: Teşekkür ederim. İyi günler. (Thank you. Have a good day.) S: İyi günler. (Have a good day.)

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SCIENCE PAGES http://www.worldometers.info In this web page you can find istatistics about a lot of different topics such as economics, water, energy, population growth, health, food... Constantly changing numbers can make you confused but I am sure that you will find very useful informations. Sources of every statistical data in this page are specified. It means, by reaching source page you can read more information about the topic which you have chosen. When I first discovered this page, I was impressed especially by birth and death statistics, energy consumption and remained energy sources. When you sometimes compare some information which can be correlated with eachother, it is possible to find very intersting results. For example, you can obtain this contradiction: when 23,000 people dies of hunger in one day, there is more than half million obese people in the world!

www.johnkyrk.com This page is very useful for students before their biology exams. Videos about a lot of topics in biology will be very educational either for highscoolers and undergraduate students. Animations and informations which you can find here will make you understand some biological processes and cell metabolism better.

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Editor’s suggestion Science pages

When you look at pictures, if you put cursor on one part, you will see explanations beside picture. In addition, I am sure that after watching, you will love biology more. You will find very common topics such as DNA translation and transcription, meiosis, crebs cycle, photosynthesis, energy productuion in cell and more. There are seven different langauge options.

www.thenakedscientists.com I always think that science doesn't have to be so serious! Creators of this page made a perfect combination by bringing together science, fun and creativity. Don't be afraid of the name of web page. Creators of it can be little bit crazy but there are too many serious scientific articles besides crazy ones. In articles it is possible to find very good ones about different kind of fields such as maths, chemistry, space, physics, biology, technologhy and other topics. In kitchen science part you can have fun with small tricks which you can easily make at home.

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WORLD RECORDS Longest-standing maths problem Since the 1995 proof of Fermat's Last Theorem, a problem which stood for 365 years, the current longest-standing maths problem is the conjecture posed by Christian Goldbach (1690-1764), a Russian mathematician, in 1742. Goldbach's Conjecture states that every even positive integer greater than 3 is the sum of two (not necessarily distinct) primes. No one has succeeded in proving or disproving the validity of this conjecture in 257 years.

First use of smallpox as biological weapon The earliest documented use of the smallpox virus being used as a biological weapon was during the French and Indian Wars between 1754 and 1767. British soldiers fighting in North America at that time distributed blankets that had been contaminated with smallpox amongst the native American Indians. Epidemics followed, killing more than 50% of the affected tribes. Smallpox is extremely lethal to TEM image of populations that are not vaccinated Smallpox virus against it. Death usually occurs education.denniskunkel.com within 2 weeks.

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World records Science& animals

Longest fur on a cat Colonel Meow, a Himalayan-Persian cross-breed holds the world record for longest fur on a cat. The 2 year old has fur that reaches 22.87 cm. The incredible feline from Seattle, Washington, USA was named 'Colonel Meow' by his owners, Anne Marie Avey and Eric Rosario, because of his “epic frown and fur”. It was adopted as a rescue cat from the Himalayan & Persian Society, needs his fur brushed 2–3 times a week, and it takes both Anne and Eric to complete the job. The couple say that they never use products on Colonel Meow's fur, applying only water and brushes if he gets dirty. Colonel Meow has his own facebook page, if you want to send him a message!

Longest ears on a dog ever The longest ears on a dog measured 34.9 cm and 34.2 cm for the right and left ears, respectively, on 29 September 2004. They belong to Tigger, a bloodhound, who is owned by Bryan and Christina Flessner of St Joseph, Illinois, USA. Tigger has won many show titles and over 180 Best of Breed awards. He was inducted into the Bloodhound 'Hall of Fame' in 2003. Unfortunately Tigger passed away in October 2009.

Source http://www.guinnessworldrecords.com

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WORKING BRAIN SOME MATHEMATICS TO HAVE GOOD TIME 1.1 Calculate 28 with numbers 4,6,8,8 Use each number just once.

1.2 1.2

Calculate 39 with numbers 2,5,6,9 Use each number just once.

2 SEND + MORE = MONEY In equation above, each letter refers one different number. Find numbers.

3

Answers: 1.1: (6+8)*(8/4)=28 1.2: 6*(9-5/2)=39 2: 9567 + 1085 = 10652 3: 36421

28

We have a number which has 5 digits. Number in first digit equals to sum of last two digits. Second digit is 2 times of first digit, at the same time it is 3 times of fourth digit. If sum of all digits is 16, what is our number?


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