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Ken Hultgren

THE ART OF ANIMAL DRAWING Construction, Action Anaiysis,Caricature

Wirh 759 111usrraliolls


Pr. face

Ti", on Drowing ""imob

Mood ond fHIino The \keo! 1....

Adion Analysi.

In>lh TIKlu'ique

no. Hot• • Th.


0.., family

The COl Family

Cow. Dnd Bull. Gi,,,ff..

eo..../, Gorilla.

.... Pig.





The s.o, family Compo. irion in Animol GrOliping


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TIPS ON DRAWIN G ANIMALS II i. w.llla divide Ihoo body inla rhr •• po.1I _ lar.quo.I.", b.lly, and qUOrT.rLSinnrhi.i.anal\l.oldivu,on, it aid. in achi.~ing prap.r proparl,an. Draw in dOrlol.lrilH'(lino01 ".rlobra.). Tho. h.lp. la c.nllr th. animol

lleOtl hO~1 a tendency to be pigeon. toed The POWI 01 me COllomily .proad alltslighrly

AI",ay' indical••lol.'an bon ••, Ihuo • wIUholdth •• lalChtag.,ho •. Qnuyau a •• lamiliar",ilhth••• Iolj~e.iuof Ih. ~a.iau.banes,

. Masthaal.donimol.aro slighrlyknock . kneed _ mo •• .a when rh.y·r. yO<lnQ

Fasten ears onto the b k For simplicity "d' oc of the head on oval. ' In Icote ,h. bose with

Divide Ihe head in Ihe m"dd construclion", 'I I' S a natural I division" Ie for Bear in mind Ihol Ih on the side of the ~ eyes are usually "d I' ead" Draw your gUI e mes when conslructing With bears, cols, a nd dogs th"e are more forw ard" ,eyes


l-~r' fff '-h


When drawing animals, try to gel variety in leg positions. Note the add",d inleresl in a sketch when the legs ore placed at different angles, ,in controst with the stiR, slilted pose with the legs parallel.

II is well to keep these box forms in mind when working with angl~ shols. If in doubt about 0 pose, rough In y~ur box lightly, and check your perspective.

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SIMPLIF" ,0""""0""


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(oncerning the some focls Once you have at . In general. edge of the PivolqUlf~d some know!· {] sk.reton, your d~Ot~ts or joints in more easily. o .....'"g will come


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--, .... ,..~"



0" "b the <og reap the • •pose 10" b.I,w. ",," how

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Once you hove the basic principles of the skeleton in mind, you may proceed with more auurance in your drawing


In .ketching, it is helpful to indicote the positions, or pivot points, on the sketch








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~, /~lf';1'.路/ /0 "

in mind when drawing ony animol in this position.


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A diagram such as the one obove will prove helpful when you hove forms behind one another. Keep this


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Aft" 10'01;,. Ih ..., d,ow Ih. mo,"





MOOD AND FEELING Every artist is on actor, in that he conveys 10 the observer the mood or altitude 01 his animal characters and muSI feel the siluotion before he con pul il down on paper. If Ihe mood is a tense one, such as Ihat of the deer .. group, then you strive for a lout; tense mood in your charocters. At such a time, animals drop lower on their hindquarters, prepared for a quick departure if the situation warrants. The eors and toil are perked up. The whiles of the eyes are seldom visible in animals e~cept when they are e~tremely tense and frightened. In the deer skelch, the stretched neclu olso help ta convey tension.

In a very tired pose, like that of the horse, the effect requires os much droop 05 possible. Animals shift their weight from leg to le g when tired. The ir h '~ ods hong low. Keeping the withers high accents ,hot effect.





To convey excitement, noring the mones of the horses was helpful. The nostrils ore wide, eors bock, and the whites of the eyes visible. The neck muscles ore lout.


The best way to stage the cowering pas. for th. dogs I • • m.d to b. to ke.p th. h.ods low, with their attention drown up. The rear are dropped, and the toils or. betwe.n th. legs.

Th. lions b.low express a mood of lazy contentm.nt. like their dom.stic cousins, lions lazily swish their toils in relo ....d moods such as thes • . Th. h.od of the forth.r animal resting on th. oth.r cot's bock gives the scene a quiet peace. Whatever the mood, see it mentally beforeyou start to work. It may b. n.cessary to sketcn several rough poses before you find oroe which you feel is satisfactory. Th. follow ing are good questions to ask yourself : W,ll this pose convey the m.oning in silhoueltll t Is my staging clearY How can I make th,s pose strong.r~


THE USE OF LINE Bo.kolly thoro oro two kinds of line路 a straight line, and a curved line of varying degree. Primarily we use lin" to build form and solids and 10 creole movement.

)1 1\

( ) )( (I fig. 1

fig . 2

fig . 3

Fig. .4

Here are some basic lines used forms and solids. An example of fig . 1 is the cot. Nole heavy lines in these examples.

Fig. 3 is a good one also weight in horizontal view.





Fig. 3

Fig. 2

Fig . .4

Fig 5

The ...,,' u" 01 line . wi,h this are tw

m~nt 1m....

'~ to ~r.ote motion.

been 掳st:~:~:ons 01 mo". -

To build lurth. ..... hich relie ... e:路t~se the Itrooghtline e mono tony 01 a li curves.

To more mo .... m.n t, r.".ne the creo'e are.

for rhythm and sweep in your draw. ings always establish a line or action Some of the occep.ed lines are .helll

aasically rhe line of aclion is Ihe flow of a graceful line

The neck and loil ore e;o:cellenl lor establishing this flow, either can be used in different ways. In .hlne two poses, both are port 01 the line 01 action.

In this case Ihetail is used as on accenl Note leg leoding inlo line of action,

Accents are good, for they relieve the sameness of now of action -1,l.e e touch of red on an bock. ground


Weight In the ,~etch below'dn~~: !;t~e~;~~ng~ ing leg octioll,' llonfor 'he ground, 0/ leg, reoch, ~ddle drowillg how Obs<l"'" in th<l ml the w<l;gh, 01 th<l right leg '<lOC~ ;o,he lell leg is t 'he body, Note d dOo<l~n" receive the ~!iU ~tre'ched, olld ull!ilthe nellt pose, weight o/the bo ~ ond nec~ ore Note how 'i9h~ ,,9 ,he "ellt leap, throw" lo,wor or

ACTION ANALYSIS -ANIMATION Feel weight, sIren Clnd strain, action

and reaction ArC$ ore imporlont in animotion. There

is always a pivot point, bur even that pivot point is movable, as below. ,

The use of reverse action is good

Note .the bunching up and elongoling of forms, as in a rabbit taking off.

Overlapping action is another imporlant foclor in animation, where parts of the body loke different paths of oction. Nole legs.


ACTION ANALYSIS -IMPACT Like 0 rubber boH wh ich elongoles in fall . i"g and squashes on impoct, so a living body ..... ill reoel in comparable Clrcums tonces. In his deleent, The horse hOi Thrown his head bock, hi' stretched forelegs ore reoching 10 prepare for the impact, and his body e longotes i~ his' fall. ' The legs ore fint 10 reocl. loking his weight 01 the firsl shock o f his fall. His head pulls down ward, and his whole body revel"Ses as he slorts his roll. The boll on the rebound elon gates ogo;n, olthough nol 0$ much as in the originol fall, since it hOI. lost some of ih momentum. Similarly, the horse in this cose regoins more of his normal shope as he slows down in the roll.

;:~ohvove ,d "h,dipped ';p 01 it,h.In bink . Th, d";,, hm ;, " ,:::.01 'h, ho;" 01 'h, w;,h 'he ,h;, ood h 0 ",e. Th. w 'u,' w,' ,"ough 01 ,h. b,u.h R e lone volu " I e paper my b"gOldl", 01 ,h, ";h~;oU w;1I o,h;.,â&#x20AC;˘. I u.h ., I would 0 . que, I olwoy, hold 01 ~y b,u.h "lOk" .,",,1, u,;ng w,;" o,';on





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ere are some procti ~tyles described. ce

. exerCises for the

THE HORSE FAM llY- Bon e Structure Withoul knowledge of the principles 01 bone slrucllJre, it would be difficult to show consTrucTion, onimoTion, or caricature. Naturally the skeleton vor路 ies with the conformation of eoch type of onimol. but there is 0 bosic similority in tne skeletons of all animals. Here is a sim plified approach for the skeleton of a hone.

Build on the rib cage (here the rib details are omitted).

Starting with the spinal column, treo! it, for the sake of si mplicity, like 0 rubber hose, tapering down 10 a poinl otthe toil end.

Now attach skull

Nut odd the vertebroe, simplified again. Note variety in shope. The two high points ore support for leg bones.

View showing shope of skull.

Ne",! "II"f;h the If;opulo.


poinh to socket for humerus bone.


Add humerus, elbow, and foreleg.

Finished leg.

The scapula fils around the contour of the rib cage. .

For sketching purposes, you can think of it as simply as this.

Next slep: odd the bock plate for rear legs. Note sockets for legs.

Perspective view of bock plote c,.,d socket.


Rone fils inlo sockeT.

With the building downward of Ih e reor leg, the skeleton i5 completed.


Study each skeleton with the reloted drawing. Observe how lIonh turn out and knee, turn in on hindquorters01$0 ,light knock路knee in stonding pose.

MUSCLE STR UCTURE Not. u"d ..layer of mUl(lalleCld;~Qt heod.11 would b. a good UllfC.i.II' drowin tM ,keleton ovtl,rhil drc","" ~ sinee it would show dearly wh ••, I"l musd" wrop around ..",;OUS b On!

VARIOUS PARTS Thinking of the horse in separate units will help yov to visualize the animal solid, and 10 see the relative size ~~rio.ul port,: .; _ "....

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Note th e position of the ,copula.

Fit the stomach under.


HEADS Tj.,.~.

:. no .ooy ...... Y 10 1;.1 .. ,,1.. it> ..

horse"s head, since fhere are so many plane, to consider. Once you ore fomilio. with the skull, me job will be relatively simple, especially since much of me "bone slrvctwe of the head is very pronounced.

Thinking of the heod in two sections moy help you. In the lower right-hond sketch, not" how both the neck musde and Ihe bone behind the eye follow around the eor


A common mistake of b . place the eye of Ih eglOneu is 10 forword. When rou : . hO.rsfl 100 fa r check the di."isions 109 .n the heod, sure il is in

~ p~o~e.~ pe.r.sp~c!;"e~ ~e







l ike a


rubber bond, the muscles

elongate in stretched positions. In crouched positions, as in the Fiut sketch, the muscles bunch up.

When the horse pushes off with his forefeet, not only do the leg s stretch oul, bUI the whole forequarter section as well. The neck becomes longer, with

a 101 of tension on the under muscle s connecting 10 his heod.



Always think of the elasticity of I


Even the rib cage is plioble for sq


and elongo/ion.


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.;.: .......... .:..â&#x20AC;˘â&#x20AC;˘ ~ . . ~._... -..,."J, .. .

\ Tendonl also ploy on imporlont POri

There ore points 10 remember in dra w ing oction poses, some of which ho ve

been mentioned before but o re worth repealing. They or.: Siren and $troin Bongoting and bunching of form Weight

Action and readion Wllian! fAochon. O~ in Ihlt im"oet fro m

a high fall.


8o.,n"in..... h"'_nh .. ~ ... ;... O .... "e ... ;". in keeping your figures in per~pecl;"e .

Without iI, ir"s very eosy to min.

Arcs in perspective, os shown below, ore worth puning in once you 've deter. mined the perspective of your figure . Your eye is 0 pretty good ludge.


Kick Animated step in perspective.


As a practice exercise, give yourself a problem such as a horse pulling 0 heovy lood forword . Gel as much drive in Ihe pose 05 possible. Then

revene your pose by hoving the horse pull against the load, bockwords.




Righ I reor leg end left fo releg pushing off, right foreleg toking weight.

Note dip of reor os legs pun through, . right foreleg pulling body.

Sock to beginning of cyde.



", I Fee'- YOur drawmgs! Gjve plenty of

'0 th.

ot'.'ch.d I_g •• and put

renslon In the



pulls on muscles.

~ge i;~~~

pose mentolly before rough-

DRAFT HORSES These boxed -in drawings show the difF. r onco in size ond ",,,,, f or",,,,j;,,,"

between the draft and sadd le types of horse.

The draft horse is mauive in neck and shoulders. For show purposes, me legs ore Feathered oul.

Nole width of rear.


COLTS Calls are very long _legged in pro portion to the body. Note bO)led -in figures for compo rison. In drawing colh, keep in mind large ioinls on legs, small hooF$, slightly larger ears, shorl to il ond mone, $moll muzzle, ond slight dome of head.




Because he is young, there is on owk路 word legginess to a colt's (Ktions, as though he is never quite lure of his balance. Try to capture that ~eeling in your poses. Approach : gettil"lg the attitude or pose and ' placing pivot points. Feeling form - solidifying drawing. Workil"lg in the detail of the Forms.



When you hove your horses sketched in and you desire fone, block in your planes. Concentrate on basic plenes

first, and then work to the minor ones. When doing this, sketch in yoor lines , following the contours of the body.

If the basic planes ore right, the lesser ones will not be difficult.




. d end is higher in f the horse.

thol the hm ~r~:ortion than thot


.. f the zebra ore lorge, Chorocleml':~O~1 head, and, os a rule, round ears, f, than the horse. â&#x20AC;˘


.~ b low was done p.ur~ The drawing e "d conslrucllo osely without outs~ee stripes follow

f.thenes,form sh~7h:::jmol. 10


Note larger stripes on rear.


HORSES and ZEBRAS - C ARICAT URE On 'he draft horse, exaggefa'e ches' and try to keep on oll路orovnd sharI

To me, the zebra sugges's cutenen and decafoti"enen. The points of exaggeration Ofe : large eon, small muzzle, short body, Jorge rear, rather small, tapering legs, and smoll feet. The end of ,he toil is fuJI and bushy.

NO'e how small knees occen' the full路 ness of feathering althe legs.

To suggest toll, sleek, oristocrotic thor路 oughbred, all proportions ha", bee n kept slim and tapering.

Note ROfe gj"en to toil for like impression.




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u1 b "' .. I.., .1,: ........ 1., l~~u. I.. ... .J...... .J

knock.knees with large hoofs.

On the colt, I exaggerated the length of the legs, the shortness of the body, and the high crown ond small muzzle.

The teeth hove it in this one. Hones' teeth do protrude at nearly 0 45° ongle.

The Trojan mane occents the thick neck

of the droh horse. 1.Ienderized hi. leg. IQ

accentuate the fullness of the hoofs.



Tbe deer is slender, graceful, and angular in body, Work for tapering

forms . The bone structure is very prominent in the legs.

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The leg i$ very thin between tendon ond le g bone.


Ju mp

Note the 10 ..... arc Ih e e Observe 01$0 how neck reor lok !.. bock in drawin wh and head ore

landing, and the~ ho:r~ the de. r is forward in toke-off. throws them

Work for rhythm - their bodies ore

fu ll of

Slow. molion pi .. lur â&#x20AC;˘â&#x20AC;˘ r."eal $ome "ery e~treme


positions, like the one ohove.


STAGS The bone struclure of the slog is nalu· rnll v hOClvior thtIPI thl'lt b~ Iha tl..",.

Its neck is thicker, the muscles ore .... o~. pronov"".d, ond

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o"erolly throughout the body.

The cntlers vory in size and number of prongs, in accordance with the age cnd type of deer. They furnish a nice decorative occent to the drawing.

A few lines can 5uggesl many farms.


h ve II is action, leading rom the head.

~estrong reor

line of leg to

DEER - CARICATURE Keep clean, sweeping lines, fopering body In the odulr, the arched neck co ntr ibule. 10 the Feeling of gro,,8.

. :~~d;h~n~i;~g路~:~.o~:~e I~:;hlhr; . crown is suggested.


Goo"all,. all row In


aeo I


body with long end




the bod .


(_up ~ng, tapering legs, f' ..... " ..


To get rhythm in

flow of line


d your. cots, work for

n tapering forms.

bl .. "g

Y In one graceful line.

: ' e rh~ $hortnen of !he the hInd leg in com length of the up

. lower port me

porl~n with

characteristic w~e~ section. It is this spring in leaps. IC gives cols their

For the feeling of rhythm, weave your forms together. It not only unifies yOU; drawing but gives it movement on groce os well.


Particularly on the lion h overhangs quite far ,I.e upper lid visor far the eye. ,making 0 good

Difference between noses:

Baby puma, spoiled when young.





Head of lioness

!i~b:r;ol~d~work is righI, !he drawing


l ion Cub Cule ond' killen . like in oppeoronce, the lion cub is olwoys lun. Nole how. body is broken up inlo three ports: the shoulden ond forefeel, Ihe body, Ihe hindquorters.

LION fl........ n .

... p ....

b .."I.. .._ •• Io,._;.1o,

en. On an adult lion, il also grows lome dislonn bock on the undenide.

B.ecou'o h;is heavy and lolid,rh. lion be .horter · bodied than

appearl 10



80dy in push-off. Nole slr~ng line of action through the whole body. Forequarters mow cion to body in forward thru$l.

RighI foreleg lak.s weight in landing. left foreleg stretches lor ground. Hindquarters pull through from streIch position.

Forelegs arch up, pre poring 10 t'lnd.

Righi hind leg slrelches in Igndino. This pose would lead inlo (I pose similor 10 number one if the col ...... r. to jump again.


BUILDING A HEAD Work for brood plones of fint. See that your forms relate to each other. Dividing the head down the middle will help, since it will give you a line of comparison by which to keep your forms in proper penpecliv~.

The lines are shaded in, following the contours of the forms .

The tiger is long' b .. He hOi with 0 th"irc/y ond 's pleosonl to â&#x20AC;˘ 'opering line, wolch becouse hi, grocefulneu.







As in all baby animals, the body is short, the forehead forge.

CATS - CARICATURE I like to empholize the sl.,koess and rhythm of the block panther - the long, lope ring legs and long body.

The open mouth 01 the left gives 0 comic effect. In this sketch, I mode the mouth brood at the top and narrow 01 the bottom 10 give vorie~ of shope, and 10 emphasize the open, stretched position.

路 e above, I emphasized In the comic ~Pheod mone, ond chest the ~ize of hlh' whtskers are elloger.

~:~~~~. :~~ ~h:n tip

to obtain


of the tail is full flare effect.


and BUllS - Cows

Nature built the cow 10 corry a heavy lood. Note prominent spinol column. Bone structure is very prominent

throughout the body.


~aking the ti p of the lail full gives a nice accent.

The emphasis he . c:nlrasl, Ihe sm~jl IS on the jowls. By e effeci. muzz.le points up



BULLS The neck and shoulders ore thick and $olid. Ther. is


good deal of loose

.kin honging on Ihe under porI of the




e I have em~hoJi%ej t~:;~~~ 0th~ mo" boll size of the leg h f the horns IS the body. The leng;he o,ip of Ihe foil exaggerated, and as on accent. II mode very full 10 serve

lo~:qoo"" ~:"~: .~~.


effect I hoy. used For on incongru0'h$ hor~clers below. very thin legs on I . c


The gl,oHe IS very ongulor onimol, wITh o wide jaw and a pointed, V.shoped nose. The upper lip is split, and the eyes protrude lomewhot Irom The ,ide 01 the heod. The hindquorter settion is set low, in tontroil to the high withers.


GIRAFFE- CARICATURE Points of exaggeration: Spre~d horn, Long neck

Very ongulor


Split lip Very high ot the ,houlder Very low in reot Flored tail _ong split hoof


CAMELS A cornel hOI many dominont charoc-

tenstlcs. 'He is a very leggy ammol with 0 deep chesl. T(I me, his most unusual feolure is the very small oreo on which the hindquarters ore set.

Unlike most animols, the angle of the eye is different from tho I 01 the mouth.

The eyes are wide -set, and protrude from the head, somewhot like those of the giraffe.


The hump il a fatty substance and is not attached to the backbane.

CAMELS -CARICATURE Being caricatures in themselves, camels are comparatively easy. I emphasize the following points, very small pelvic region where hind legs aNoch to body, long lower lip, hump (accentuated by making it wider at top.)

Mou;ve and barrel. like body.

The cheekbones are very pronovnced, the eyes deep and inset, the nO$l(il$ wide, and the forehead low.

GORILLAS- CARICATURE For the comic type,l have exaggerated the size of the chesl and arms, in relation 10 the small legs. The points which I believe give this drawing a silly appearance or8 : the long upper lip, brood mouth, smail pointed crown, and long arms in (onlrO$llo short legs.

To convey the feeling of formidable powe r to this "menace" type, t hove' exaggerated his powerful .shoulders and arms. The head is buried right in the body, and the size of the mouth is exoggerated. The smoll crown helps to accentuate, by controst, the mossiveness of the body.


',.. II~ ...._ .l ....... 路t 0 .... I ...... round on their forms. The sketch belo_

In .~ : '-


shows how fat hangs o . . er the body.

Note the breaks on the bock. I use this division for all animo Is.

The piglet's high forehead glV8S him cuteness. Keep the body relatively short.




The bone sTructure is very similar to

,hot of its domestic cousin. The nose is longer; the eors ore more erect, end do nol hong like the domestic pig's.

There is hair running from the forehead olmost 10 the middle of the bock.

From the bock the wort hog closely resembles the common pig.



Jowls cnd oll 路 around beefiness or. good points of exaggeration, 0$ ...... 11 OJ small eyes ond heavy, Happy ears. On the dowager type above, the top of the head is smoll so thol the curls will hove more flore. On the pig betow the norrow shoulders emphasize, by contrOl!, the size of the stomach.

In "menau" wort hog type, not. vol. ume of chest and how head is buried right in the chest. In caricature, mok. use of controsling types 01 much as possible. Controst establish.s types more definitely.

DOGS Dog$ 'lory in conformation cnd size, but are closely alike in many respects. Below ore two simplified slcelelons for !wo different typel. They are kepI the some for r.lo'ive .i",. of paTh

of the skeletons. Keep in mind the chorocler of the dog - for a.ample, th. long bock and shorl legs of 0 doc;hshund contrasted with the relotive shorl squaT.nen of on English bull



English bulldog is brood of ch I Wlth 0 flat nO$e ond over-all bl:~;


Nole the bowlegs.

GREYHOUND In ,he greyhound gnd whlppe, breed),

the bone structure is very pronounced. They are extremely flexible in body.







DOGS- CARICATURE Dogs ore morvelou$ for caricature because of the many contrasting types. When you hove several together, work lor opposite types. This will make each one Jlo?d a,ul more definitely.



Exaggerated length of body, long pointed head, and length of ears.

EJl:oggeroled angular body, size of

nose, and loose skin on the head. The eOfS ore low 10 give 0 heavy eHec!.


Sheep Dog

Exaggerated heavinen of chell, short,

Exaggerated woolliness. The tail wos Rared for occent.

stocky bowlegs, and mossive iow. The spiked collar helps in this cose to establish the chorocler of the dog.



FOX-CARICATURE I he loll, IS very tlexlble 10 hondle. Here I have illustrated both the more conventional and the humanized typn

In the above sketch points of exag geration are: small, pointed nose, slender legs, small feet, pointed ears, slanted e~es, and full toil.

For cuteness I emphasize the large head with the eyes set low, giving more forehead. The body is short and small, thus further exaggerating the size of the head.


KANGAROOS The rib cage is small, and the forelegs hong, rodent. like. Head and ears ore similar to those of the deer. The IOit is long and pointed and quiTe full 01

the bose where it is onoched 10 the body, The toil is very i mporlont 10 kangaroos, since they vse il as a rud路 der and 10 help support their weight, Secause of ils prominence, it will give you 0 slrong line of action, Dnd odd

sweep to your drawing.

Molt of the bulk of the kangaroo is carried in his strong hindquorterl_


kongo~:~ 路 leg

NOle porollel in deer and




oclion of

KANGAROOS- CARICATURE Points of exaggeration: square nose, lorge hili eors, thin neck. (Use this. for co nlrosl with the very large hInd. quarters.)

Their bodies ore v double their positions.

~~.elosrj(, end they




In strelched-oul

~~ In the lower sk e1ch ' basic units- he d â&#x20AC;˘ nole ,he thr port of body. (] , chesl, and the


In sitting positions, you'll notice gen erolly that there's a bunching up of forms _ Bul studying motion路-pic ture fromes reveols that they are copoble of really spreading out.

When spotting your darks, ploy your lights agoinst the darb.

Bunnies are always fun to drow. It is well to use a dry brush for sohness. Jump Noto tho bunching up ond olongol;ng

of the rab bit on the toke_off.

~ -.


2' [/L. _










. . ...




RABBITS - CARICATURE Rabbits are excellent for humanized types, their heads and badies ore so flexible for expression. It is especially interesting to work with their jowls and muzzles. The buckteeth odd 10 the comic effect, and their ears can be used in various ways for expression. Hong Ihe ears for sodneu; stretch them bock in a surprise toke, etc.










Squ;".I,-Co';colu,. keep ,au,d a,d lull.





ElEPHANTS Work for big, lweeping formt. The elephonT i5 0 very angulor animol in 'pile of ill tremendous bul~. There is a very prominent .... rt.bral column

on 'he bod:.

r... ~ .:mpl•• l. ...:. t......... "... 1. Ih •• L.lch aT the


On underside af trunk, nale Aatness a nd haw it is divided. Refer to skeleton drawing _ it will u plain the hallow cheek.

The opprooch : the moin forms ore rounded in.

Finish off.

The lener form5 ore odded.

JU)I bCl;uuu: CIClJhUIlIl UI C



bulky, don 't be ofroid to move them around, On action drawings below, nole how Ihe hind legs and Irunk are u •• d ro~ the

I;n. or oc!;on.

11 5

T ke this pose interesting, I oPP05e~ thOe m;osition of the the line of mo ... eme~t 0 n heod Note pull of loose skin betwlu left and chest in the drawing at ower .

heo~ :~ethbo~d~.

Various shopes for voriouJ type'.


Remem ber

the three body breob; nole

beor below.

Build on your

forms when oV~:ough on the

~nd fol~:l:w. from

storl, of oC'Ion a s



the rear leg

to front leg,

these qUic'k sketches, nole how

~~m$ follow through.

For standing positions, think of the three units which I have indicated below. The high point of the withers breoks the flow of form between the neck and ,he bock.

Observe the use of diogonal and curved lines in this ske tch.


The brown bear is brood and massive.

CUBS Cubs ore small in muzzle and high in crown, which gives them a high fore. head. Their bodies are short, and

mey ere slIgtllly plgeon -Ioed hke lhelr parents. Keeping Ih. eyes low in Iheir heods ';dd, to the effect o f culenos;.


BEARS - CARICATURE On the odult, exaggerate the lorge

The use 01 heavy jowl, work, nicely

rorso and massive "arms"路 By keeping legs short, you accentuate size of body.

on 6eo", For a silly effect, leave out rhe chin on your choraCler.

For cuteness in small bears keep Ihe body short and dumpy, Ihe forehead

high, eyes low, cheek and stomach full, and Ihe moulh shorl and smoll.

mic types, I hoye us~d two for the co k h the mom moss extremes. I~ one $Io~~; area, while in is carried I~ t:e carried in the chest k I h the Ihin neck the other, It , area. In the I.Ippe~ s e ~h' the bulk of conlrosts absurd y WI the body.

s to lend ilself to The polor beor ~eem Here I exoggero stylized drowmt oinl~d nose, and oled Ihe long nec , p heavy, long forelegs .


COMPOSITION IN ANIMAL GROUPING Composition may be on old story to many reoders, but for the benefit of those 10 ..... hom

certain direction is repoa~d in another port of rhe picture. Except in abstract compositions,

it is new, I should like to summarize some fundomenrol painlS. A good picture 5hould be on effective combination of vertical. horizontol. and diagonal lines. There should be opposi.

the use of curved lines is nalural throughout

tion, such as a verTical opposing

is always importont, since il tends to breok



line. and repetition, where a line moving in a

the picture. It is advisable

100, 10




nite line of oclion in your picture sa Ihol Ihe An otcenl

viewer can follow the movement.

the monotony of a line of oclion.

The problem in th is elephant picture was

how to stage it most effectively. Believing that on underneath shot would give the desired dramatic effect, t first concerned myself with a satisfactory pose, in which the observer

would be looking up. Then I worked oullhe rest of the picture so os to in tensify thot effect.

Note the lines of composition. The girl's hair is used as an accent.





To show the powerful bulk of these draft horses, I used a three-quarter front perspective_ For dramatic eHect, the camero ongle is low, thus accentuating the size of the forequarters and the height of The withers of the horse in the foreground. .

The grooves in the earth give movement to the picture. The grooves, running downhill in the foreground create contrast with the up-angl., of the foreground horse.


The arrows indo !he panther's !Cote the paths IS

used os th heod;n the b of oct;on. e accent,


In Ihil leyeul, Ihe use of diogonal, vertical, and horizontal lines is em phasized. A strong vertical, such as Ihe lelt foreleg 01 Ihe horse ,n Ihe foreground, tends 10 hold the picture together. Note how it leods into the

three heods. The recr hone 's head is

the occent. Observe the right foreleg of the horse in the leod. It furnishes a good diogo, the picture, as, well as extending in the direction of the rear horse 's head. (See arrows

in sketch .)

••• •1. ,_ ... . : __

J . __ :__ .l_ 1: ___ £ _ ...:_"

:. ,.".r;"~ Irl"lm thto d~A't ritlnt rear lea through the bUC~'S left foreleg. To direct attenflon fO fhe fawn, the mother


head is turned to ii, and the fawn is ploc.d in another line of molion. Observe the usc of diogQna15 and verlicalt, and Ihe repelilian of both.

Again in this drawing, the various paths of action are indicated by a r rows, A strong line of action from the right hind leg of the rear horse follows through to the left foreleg of the fron t horse, Here, the rear horse's head works as an accent. The ang le of , the front horse's heod is in opposition 1o the line of his left foreleg, The left foreleg of the reor horse gives a vertical line to the, picture,


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