Issuu on Google+

A Jewish Art Magazine for the Young

Bezalel’s Voyage September 2010 | Tishri 5771

6 Moses at Dura Europos 14 A Venetian Wedding 28 FĂŠlix Nussbaum Gutman Museum um ah N e th to it is V 4 3 ah 40 The world's largest Mezuz

no1

Quarterly

8$


Hello, I am Bezalel, son of Hur of the tribe of Judah. Our flag is sky blue and our symbol is a lion.

We have left Refidim and have reached the Sinai desert. Shabbat approaches.

Our tribe is surround ed by those of Issachar an d Zebulon. When the camp of Israel is on the move, we are always at the front.

«the seventh day shall be holy for you, a day of complete rest for Hashem», Moses reminds the people that it is strictly forbidden to work and to light fire on Shabbat.

For the building of the Tabernacle Moses announces to the people «This is the word that Hashem has commanded; everyone whose heart motivates him shall bring it (…) gold, silver and copper (…)»;

People are running in all directions, carrying their worldly goods....

To be continued….


Contents READERS MAIL

4

From Verse to Verse

5

Moses at Dura-Europos

6

Rosh Hashanah competition

12

A Venetian Wedding

14

Once upon a time‌

20

Exhibitions around the world

22

Pull-out-and-Keep Poster

24

In the footsteps of our grand-parents‌ 27 Felix Nussbaum

28

Visit to the Nahum Gutman Museum

34

The World's Largest Mezuzah

40

A Budding Photographer

42

Comic: The Discovery of Dura Europos

43

Solutions to Puzzles

47

Nonprofit Organization September 2010 Tishri 5771 Quarterly no 1 10 Rehov Beer Sheva, Nahlaot 94507, Jerusalem, Israel

Editors Florence Soulam Michele Fingher Graphics Meirav Bezzubov Illustrations Nechemia Bezzubov Comic Illustrator Refael Chalfine Communication Joelle Rubin

l e v o y a g e d e b e t s a l e l @ g m a i l . c o m


Edit rial Dear Readers, Hello, my name is Oholiab – the one with the green tee-shirt. My friend is Bezalel. We invite you to come and meet us in Bezalel's Voyage, a magazine about Jewish art for young people all over the world. Come and discover the Jewish communities that survived the destruction of the second Temple in the year 70 and which existed in exile until their return to Israel in 1948. Become familiar with the synagogue of Dura-Europos in Syria discovered purely by chance in 1932. Join us at the wedding of Esther and Jacob in Venice in 1750. Find out how difficult it was to be a German Jewish painter during the Second World War. Eat an ice cream with us before visiting the Nahum Gutman museum. Listen to my interview with Abraham Borshevsky and above all take part in all the games and send us your drawings! You might be lucky enough to see your work on our blog‌

4

READERS MAIL Dear Oholiab, Why is it you that ask the questions and Bezalel that answers? I am sure that if Bezalel asked for your opinion, you would also be able to tell us some stories. Annael, 8.

Hello, My 4th grade. e h t in m Ia anada and C in s e v li her o grandmot cribe me t s b u s o t e lik this? she would can she do w o H . e in Yael, 10. the magaz

Hi, Your magazine is great and helps m e with my homework. A re you going to pu blish an article about C hagall? Jonathan, 12

Hello, stic. Even a t n fa is e azin we Your mag it because e v lo s t n e r my pa a fun way. in t r a r e v Yona, 10. disco


Vers rse

From to

"When the earth was astonishingly empty, with darkness upon the surface of the deep‌" (Genesis1, 2).

Yona Adiv, 10, Jerusalem "God saw that the light was

Get ready with your crayons for the next verse! good, and God separated the light and the darkness" How do you imagine the next verse! (Genesis 1, 4)

Send your picture by post to reach us before 1st October, to the following address: Bezalel's Voyage, 10, Beer Sheva Street, Nahlaot, 94507, Jerusalem, Israel. Don't forget to add your name, your age, a photo, your email and the town where you live! The best drawing will be published in our next issue. The runners up will appear on the magazine blog.

5


I

n

A

n

c

i

e

n

t

T

i

m

e

Moses at Dura-europos

s

Today is an exceptional day! Bezalel and Oholiab take us to Dura-Europos in Syria, to visit an ancient synagogue decorated with frescoes. Bezalel points to the walls that are painted with images of Abraham, Jacob, Moses, Aaron, Samuel, David, Solomon, Eli, Esther... Is it possible for a town to disappear?

Let’s go inside with them and take a look...

The city of DuraEuropos is situated in the east of Syria, 400 kilometers away from where the large Jewish community of Nehardea existed, in Babylonia. The Greek general Seleucos I built Dura-Europos on top of the remains of a GrecoRoman fortress. The position is well chosen. Looking over the valley

France

Antioch

Yes, Dura-Europos was founded in 300BCE and was destroyed in 256CE.

Palmyra Sidon

Dura-Europos Poumbedita Nehardea Sura

Damascus Jerusalem

of the Euphrates River, he can survey and protect the caravans of silk and spices traveling through. It is thanks to the compressed sand used to reinforce the town ramparts before the Sassanid invasion that the frescoes in the synagogue have been protected against the ravages of time. The synagogue has been reconstructed at the Damascus Museum in Syria where it can be seen today.

e word es from th fortress in Dura com ich means h w ,” ra a ges. “Daw itic langua m e S t n ie c the an e town name of th e th is s o rn, the Europ s I was bo o c t u le e S ynasty tha where Seleucid d e th f d o n r a e found 5BCE between 30 ruled Syria 64CE. nasty. ersian Dy Sassanid P

-350-100 350 10 00 -332 Judea under Greek rule.

-168 Antiochus IV erases all traces of Judaism.

-166 Revolt of the Maccabees against the Greeks

-164 Prayer is reinstigated in the Temple

-350 -300 -250 -200 -150 -100

6

-300 Founding of Dura-Europos

-247 Founding of Soura School

-50

-113 The Parthes occupy Dura-Europos

0

50

100

115 Trojan occupation of Jerusalem


Moses on Mount Horeb, by the Burning Bush. Dura-Europos synagogue

Game RĂŠponse p

age 47

Can yo u the 7 m help Bezalel spot istakes?

Original

Copy

7


I

n

A

n

c

i

e

n

t

T

i

m

e

s

How can we tell it is a synagogue? Niche de la Torah. Synagogue de Doura-Europos.

Various clues lead us to this conclusion. 1. The frescoes in the synagogue illustrate the Tanah. Tanah 2. There is an alcove in the wall facing Jerusalem, where the scrolls of the Torah would have been placed. 3. A Greek inscription commemorates the renovation of the synagogue carried out thanks to Samuel Bar Idi. 4. There is an inscription written in Aramaic marking the date of inauguration of the new synagogue in 245-246.

Bezalel is the first to enter the synagogue. In front of him are 26 frescoes, one next to the other, on three levels, illustrating various episodes in the Tanach.

rew Bible.

Heb Tanah The

Law or Torah The Moses.

ooks of

The five b

of the language, ic it m e S Aramaic w. y as Hebre same famil ook of the e second b ebrew. Exodus Th emot” in H h S “ , h c u Pentate k of the Fourth boo Hebrew. Numbers Midbar” in a B “ , h c u Pentate

The ceiling stands a good 7 meters high high...Oholiab notices the alcove for the Torah scrolls, richly decorated, facing towards Jerusalem. All around the walls he recognizes Moses portrayed during different episodes in his life: his rescue from the River Nile, (Exodus Exodus 2 5), before the Burning Bush, (Exodus Exodus 3 2-3), during the period of exile, (Exodus Exodus ı4-ı5) and at the well (Numbers Numbers 2ı ı6).

-150-300 150 30 00

-63 End of independent Jewish state in Judea

-150 -100

8

-63 Judea under Roman rule

-50

64 Construction of Temple complete

0

50

70 Titus destroys Temple.

100

150

200

166 The Romans seize Dura-Europos 211 Dura-Europos becomes a Roman colony.

250

227 The Sassanids replace the Parthes.

300


Game The edi to the sto r mixed up the ry! p four pa Help her to m arts of rts of th a e fresco tch the correct to the descript ion!

Answer pa

ge 47

Jochebed and Moses, Dura-Europos Synagogue

Jochebed, Moses' mother, resigning herself to giving up her child to the Nile. (Exodus 2 3).

Bithya, Pharaoh's daughter, has given the child to Miriam, who then entrusts him to Jochebed. (Exodus 2 7).

Pharaoh's daughter is bathing in the Nile; a young child sits on her hip. A cradle floats close by. Behind her stand three women carrying utensils. (Exodus 2 5).

Pharaoh giving orders to two midwives, Chifra and Pua, to kill the first born Hebrew males. (Exodus 覺 覺6).

What do you notice about the fresco?

9


I

n

A

n

c

i

e

n

t

T

i

m

e

s

Are we permitted to draw a person? Asks a surprised Oholiab, looking at Moses You know, of course, the second commandment which appears twice in the Tanah, asks Bezalel: (Exodus 20 4) and (Deuteronomy Deuteronomy 5 8) You shall not make yourself a carved image nor [of] any likeness of that which is in the heavens above or on the earth below or in the water beneath the earth. These prohibitions are meant to protect us from falling into idolatry. But there are none to prevent us from using images to tell a story. Look at the frozen position of Moses next to the Burning Bush! The artist was not attempting to paint a portrait. He made no effort to express a character's beauty nor to imitate nature. It does not matter whether Moses is large or small, fat or thin; the important thing is to illustrate the verse in images. The prohibition against representing a face or a body in Judaism has been respected more or less strictly according to the times. The Rabbinic authorities wanted to prevent idolatry, and avoid the possibility that by looking at an image, one might forget its meaning and focus only on the perfection of the image itself. With the frescoes of DuraEuropos, the idea was not to create beautiful art but to tell the story of events that have occurred throughout our history with images.

nal book Fifth and fi � in y m o n ro Deute evarim tateuch, “D of the Pen Hebrew. graven worship of e h T y tr Idola s. d sculpture images an

The frescoes at Dura-Europos have been miraculously preserved. Their presence suggests that other frescos probably existed in synagogues of the region, but unfortunately archaeological research has as yet revealed nothing to this effect. The fact that the town of Dura-Europos remained uninhabited for such a long time after the synagogue's construction is without doubt what allowed it to remain so well preserved.

0-300 0 300

132 Bar Kochba uprising against Rome. Beginning of Jewish diaspora.

0

10

50

100

135 Hadrian seizes Jerusalem and renames the city Aelia Capitolina

150

175

200 Writing of the Mishnah (oral laws)

200

225

250

245 Expansion of the synagogue at Dura-Europos 253 Sassanids reconquer Dura-Europos

275 256 Sassanids destroy the town and deport the population

300


Äą

Find Jo

chebed

ge 47 Answer pa Miriam passes Moses to Jochebed. Synagogue of Dura-Europos.

Game ’s shado

w!

11


Competition

Rosh

The 1st and 2nd of Tishri are fast approaching. This year Rosh Hashanah falls on the 9th and 10th September. Oholiab and Bezalel have gone back to school. In class they have been asked to draw a fish. So they draw the shape of a fish on a big sheet of paper and are cutting up different colored paper into small pieces. Soon they will stick them onto the fish which will have multicolored scales.

12


Hashanah

Can you too make a collage representing a fish? Send it to Bezalel's Voyage without forgetting to add your name , your age, your photo your email and the town where you live. The best fish will be published on our magazine blog!

13


IF r on m yAe a rn 1 0 c 00 i et o n t hte E m T a ni c im p a t ei o ns

A Venetian Wedding

We are in Venice France

Venice

Jerusalem

9limani (覺69 Simha Ca i who composed 覺784) R abb song called Kol a wedding t is recited at all Simha thaddings? Jewish we ract rriage cont a M h a b b Ketu

Elul 8, 5510 or September 9th, 1750. The Mendes and Cardozo families invite our two friends to their children's wedding. The Mendes are a family of wealthy bankers.

Oholiab has chosen to wear his best clothes for the occasion and is one of the first to arrive just as the father of the groom and the father of the bride are leaning over the wedding contract. Simha Calimani Calimani, one of the two witnesses, is proud to show him the illuminations on the Ketubbah Ketubbah.

The guests arrive and wish each other Mazal-Tov. Bezalel joins the group, made up of the fathers of the future couple, the rabbi and the two witnesses. He looks over Oholiab's shoulder at the magnificent illuminated parchment laid out on the table, ready to be signed by Jacob Mendes. It is a solemn moment. With his signature Jacob promises to provide his wife with food Mendes and clothing, to look after her if she is sick, to oversee her burial in case of her death, or to pay a ransom if she is taken away into captivity. A clause in the contract makes provision for the indemnities to be paid to the bride in case of divorce or death of her husband.

1700 180 1700-1800 00 1714-1718 War between the Republic of Venice and Ottoman Empire. 1718 Treaty of Passarowitz draws up borders of Venetian Republic

1700 1720 1740 1760 1780 1800 1820 1840 1860 1880 1700 Non-Jews prohibited from staying in the ghetto.

14

1734 Excommunication of Rabbi Moses Chaim Luzzatto (Ramchal 1707-1747)


Game The bird s of the ketubba are mixe h have e d up wit scaped a h a flock Find the nd of aviary m and r birds! eturn th em to E sther!

Venetian Ketubah, 1750, National Library of Jerusalem

ge 47 Answer pa

15


IF r on m yAe a rn 1 0 c 00 i et o n t hte E m T a ni c im p a t ei o ns

.. ency used.. Zuz - curr sident Shetah, pre the n e B n o ng Shim hedrin duri of the San Hasmonean King rule of ther Janee, brought Alexande y educational about man reforms.

The ketubbah, a legal document At the time of the destruction of the Temple more than 1800 years before the marriage of Esther of Cardozo and Jacob Mendes, the idea of a written contract already existed, but with a completely different purpose: to decide upon the amount of money that the young man had to pay the father of the bride for her hand in marriage. This is called a dowry, and in Hebrew «Mohar». It was quite a business for young people of modest wealth to collect the sum of 200 zuz and many had to work long years before being able to marry. It was Shimon Ben Shetah's idea to change this clause to delay payment to the actual time of divorce. By transforming the Mohar from a condition of marriage to a husband's obligation to pay

his wife in case of separation, Shimon Ben Shetah made it easier for poor people to wed. The new Mohar also reduced the number of divorces and gave a widow or divorcee relative financial independence. Oholiab asks Simha Calimani what the text, written in two different scripts, is about. Simha Calimani, known for his knowledge of Hebrew, explains that the writing on the right hand column is in square script and constitutes the text of the Ketubbah proper. On the left-hand column in cursive script, are the «Tenaims» the conditions of the contract which record in very precise terms, what each family is contributing to the new couple - land, properties…- and what happens to them in case of remarriage or death of either one of the spouses.

1700 180 1700-1800 00

1700 1720 1740 1760 1780 1800 1820 1840 1860 1880 1737 Simha Calimani composes Kol Simcha sung henceforth at weddings. 1750 Marriage of Esther Cardozo to Jacob Mendès.

16

1777 Conditions are made difficult for the Jews in the ghetto. 1766 The Jewish population numbers 1700 inhabitants.


Game Let's as

k an ex

pert!

Detail from the Ketubah. Jerusalem surrounded by walls.

ge 47 Answer pa

Which features remind us of Jerusalem? Which are of Italian origin? Can you read the psalm written above the mountains of Judea?

17


IF r on m yAe a rn 1 0 c 00 i et o n t hte E m T a ni c im p a t ei o ns

Stars for Israel? 75), R abbi -2 0 8 (ı n a n R av Yoha alestine during living in P le. Amorite ru i ama R abb H n e B a f in o R av Han ylonia at beginning e. born in Bab and lived in Palestin 11th century zra, ham Ibn E f the ı2th ra b A v a R n R abbi o Andalusia thor of the Book of century, auht. the Straig ben es, Moses he id n o im a t M known as Maimon, (ıı38-ı204) author of R ambam the Perplexed. Guide for

The signs of the zodiac drawn on the Ketubbah represent a wish for a good future, a way of saying Mazal-Tov, «under a lucky star», to the young couple. Oholiab points out that the illustrator has drawn the astrological signs from right to left as in Hebrew writing, in accordance with the sequence of the months of the year. The attitude of the religious authorities towards the stars and astrological symbols is ambivalent. For Rav Yohanan, there is no Mazal for Israel in particular but Yohanan rather for all nations. For Rav Hanina Ben Hama, Hama on the other hand, there are stars for Israel. Abraham Ibn Ezra takes a positive view of astrology while Maimonides associates it with superstition.

Coat of Arms

Bezalel is mainly interested in the coat of arms at the top of the Ketubbah. It takes the form of a heart with a crown. Jacob and Esther are not the only ones to have a coat of arms. They share this privilege with the Italian Jewish families who, since the 15th century, are permitted to have them as well. Some are engraved on the facades of houses; others are used to decorate stationery. Many are inscribed in prayer books. From now on rich and poor alike have coats of arms, therefore, their inclusion on

the top of the Ketubbah is not a sign of nobility. The lion is the animal that appears most often on Italian coats of arms. Symbol of the tribe of Judah, the lion embodies the idea of justice, and in equal measure, the courage of youth and the wisdom of maturity. Lions are most often represented standing on their hind legs against a tree, holding a palm leaf or wearing a crown.

11700-1800 700 180 00 1796 Napoleon Bonaparte puts an end to the era of ghettos and declares the emancipation of Italian Jews

1797 French occupy Venice: end of the Republic

1700 1720 1740 1760 1780 1800 1820 1840 1860 1880

18

1797 Abolition of restrictions on the Jewish community.

1866 Ghetto abolished once and for all.


Game Match th corresp e Hebrew m onths onding wit find th G eir righ regorian cal h the e t astro logical ndar and signs!

ge 47 Answer pa

Hebrew Calendar

Gregorian Calendar

Av Kislev Teveth Tammuz Heshvan Iyyar Tishri Elul Adar Sivan Shevat Nissan

March-April April-May May-June June-July July August August-September September-October October November November-December December-January January-February February-March

19


O

n

c

e

u

o

n

a

t

i

m

e

Moroccan Shofar, Gross family collection

A shofar

p

Provenance: Morocco (Casablanca) Materials: horn and silver Technique: silver inlay Date: 1920 Location: Gross family collection Dimensions: 34 cm x 21.5 cm The Shofar is the horn from a kosher animal like a ram, a sheep, a gazelle, a goat. The Jews avoid using the horns of cattle as they remind us of the sin of the Golden calf. The most commonly used horn is a ram's horn is from a ram. The Shofar is sounded on Rosh Hashanah and at the end of Yom Kippur that the shofar is blown. The rabbis have established an order in which the different sounds must be made. The order is set out in the tractate for Rosh Hashanah (Seder Moed). The person sounding the shofar must produce four different sounds. • Tekia Tekia: one long continuous sound: • Terua: one short sound. • Shevarim: series of 9 broken sounds. • Tekia guédola: the longest continuous sound.

20

On Yom Kippur it marks the end of the fast. It is forbidden to blow the shofar on Shabbath. Maimonides sees the sound of the Shofar as a call to repentance. Very few shofars are decorated. Those that have been found come from Morocco but are extremely rare. There were in fact families that specialized in decorating shofars. The Barsheshet family was one of them. They emigrated to Israel where they continued their profession. It is therefore very possible that the shofar you see comes from their workshops.


Would you like to meet Bar Kokhba?

Suscribe

Are you ready to join us on our future adventures?

ters Would you like to know why the let lous «Mem» and «Samech» are miracu letters? Were behin you ever d the the of a t scenes w o heatr kn an u e? m o o y w Do the o buy f o e Would you like to see nam wanted t all? w your name, your photo who estern and your work appear the W on our blog? Would you like to

collect posters?

Cut out and send to:

Order form

Bezalel's Voyage

7 Jerusalem | Israel 50 94 | t lao ah N | et re St | 10 Beer Sheva ues), 25$

iss o 1 year subscription (4 o One issue _ _] 8$

........ ........................................ .... .... .... .... e m na st Fir ............................ ........ Surname ........................ ........................................ .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ............................ ........ Address ........................ ........................................ .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ............ ........................................ Voyage r made out to Bezalel'ss de or l sta po or ue eq ch O Payment O credit card _] _ _ _ _] _ _ _ _] _ _ _ Card Number _ _ _ _] _ _] year _ _] Expiration Date: month

........... Signature: ....................


Worldwide Exhibitions France (Paris) “The Splendor of Camondo from Constantinople to Paris,” Museum of Jewish art and Judaism, 6th November 2009 - 7th March 2010 Germany (Berlin) “It must Schwing” Photographs by Francis Wolf and Jimmy Katz Jewish Museum of Berlin 10th October 2009 - 7th February 2010 Israel (Jerusalem) “Shmuel Katz” Israel Museum From 25th November 2009 United States (New York) “Reinventing Ritual” Contemporary Art and Design Jewish Museum 13th September 2009 - 7th February 2010 United States (San Francisco) “A Mystery: Sendak or Sendak” Contemporary Jewish Museum 8th September 2009 - 19th January 2010

22

Australia (Victoria) “Women in the Bible” Jewish Museum of Australia 15th October 2009 - 14th March 2010

Belorussia (Vitebsk) Marc Chagall Permanent collection

United Kingdom (Manchester) “Albert Einstein- Man of the century” Jewish Museum of Manchester 7th October - 17th December 2009

Italy (Venice) “Soul and Exile - Giorgio Celiberti” Jewish Museum of Venice 6th September 2009 - 31st January 2010 Belgium (Brussels) “Arnauld Stern Retrospective” 13th November 2009 21st February 2010


Sponsor our magazine:

Bezalel's Voyage

Reserve this page! For all enquiries contact us:

levoyagedebetsalel@gmail.com or call either: Michele Fingher: 00972-2582-0735 Florence Soulam: 00972-2624-9101


In the footsteps of our grand-parents…

Page from the Book of Customs by Shimon Levy Ginsburg, Gross Family collection.

The Book of customs oly Ark sh : the H e d o K a h f the Law. Aron e Scrolls o th g in in conta ew Year. hanah : N R osh Has

The Book of Customs is a book that explains the different religious practices that cannot be found in the Tanach. They describe family ceremonies, how festivals should be observed, and explain the significance and times of prayer… The oldest known book of customs dates from the 8th century and is called the «Sefer hahillouqim ben Mizrah ve Erets Israël» that can be translated as «the book of customs of ancient Babylonia and the land of Israel». Why were so many books of customs written? There are three reasons for this: - To teach observers how to behave during festivals, - To record new customs that develop as the Jewish communities gradually become more and more dispersed. - To prevent the pogroms from wiping out all traditions and by consequence all religious observance. The Book of Customs by Shimon Levy Ginsburg was published by Shlomo ben Yossef Proops in Amsterdam, Holland, in ı728.

21

On page 35 of the book, a wood engraving shows men dressed in long pleated robes. They are wearing large flat hats. They are all standing in front of the Holy Ark and are listening to the Shofar. At the top of the page we can read Rosh Hashanah. Hashanah Underneath the engraving are the names of the different soundings of the Shofar. The part of the text that was written in Yiddish appears in Rashi script and the Hebrew text in square script.

27


M

o

d

e

r

n

T

i

Felix Nussbaum

m

e

s

Oholiab is very sad. The newspapers are announcing that war is imminent. His friend, Felix Nussbaum, who already had exhibitions at the age of 23 in Berlin, Loves to walk in the countryside and paint. Oholiab calls him up: «Times are dangerous, Felix. You must be careful.»

Germany Poland

Belgium

France

Italy

Jerusalem

Philippe Nussbaum is an amateur painter who takes his son Felix on long walks during which both father and son paint the landscapes of Osnabruck. In ı922, Felix decides that he does not want to finish high school. He wants to be a painter. Philippe encourages him and supports him financially for the rest of his life. So Felix leaves Osnabruck to begin studying art in Hamburg. In ı925, ı925 he is accepted into the National School of Applied Arts in Berlin. There he meets Felka Platek, a painter of Polish origin, who later becomes his wife. In ı998, ı998 a museum is dedicated to his work in Osnabruck, his place of birth.

1900 19945 1900-1945 1922 Mussolini comes to power in Italy

1914 First World War

1900 1905

28

1910

1904 Birth of Felix Nussbaum, Germany.

1915

1920

1924 Attends Prussian Academy

1925 Adolphe Hitler writes Mein Kampf

1925

1930

1933 State quota limiting number of Jews in German schools and universities.

1935

1925 Felix meets his future wife at the Berlin Academy of Art.

1940

1945


Game Autoportrait, F矇lix Nussbaum, 覺943

In whic h of his s fragments, t o the r elf-por ight t r colors been c ait, have the hanged ?

ge 47 Answer pa

29


M

o

d

e

r

n

T

i

m

e

s

Felix Nussbaum Villa Massimo

lgian

49) Be or (ı860-ı9 s n E s e m Ja nd rn in Oste painter bo

Felix leaves Berlin in ı932. The German Academy of Art offers him a grant and send him to Rome to the Villa Massimo, where he continues his studies. During his sojourn in Italy, he finds out that a fire broke out in his studio in Berlin, destroying ı50 of his canvasses In Rome things do not improve for him him. Another pupil insults him. Felix retaliates and is expelled. He joins his parents

who have taken refuge in Rapallo, an Italian coastal resort, while waiting to decide where to go – to Palestine, to America or to return to Germany? Despite their son’s warnings Rachel and Philippe choose to return to the country where they were raised. Felix will never see his parents again.

homeland. With German nationality and without documents and work permits, they live from then on in a small family guest house in Oostende in Belgium and with friends. Felix loves to observe the light of the seashore, the fishermen repairing their nets, the fishing boats and the line of the horizon that sometimes disappears into the sky. He produces many seascapes. James Ensor notices his work.

1900 19945 1900-1945 In January ı935 ı935, Felix and Felka decide never to return to their

1937 German Jews excluded from the liberal professions 1936 Berlin Olympic Games

1900 1905

30

1910

1915

1920

1925

1930

1932 Resides at Villa Massimo, Rome

1935

1938 Night of the Broken Glass

1940

1935 Granted tourist visa for Belgium

1945


Game A boat has dep is ship-wreck on the osited all kin ed. The sea d shore. Can yo s of objects u find them?

Answer pag

e 47

Fishing Boats on the Beach Felix Nussbaum, 覺929

31


M

o

d

e

r

n

T

i

m

e

s

To continue painting in spite of danger… Of German nationality without papers and work permits, Felix and Felka live from then on in a small family-owned guest house in Oostende, Belgium, or stay with friends. Felix loves to observe the light over the seashore, the fishermen repairing their nets, the fishing boats and the horizon merging sea and sky. Felix produces many maritime works. The Belgian expressionist painter James Ensor notices his work. In ı940 Belgium is occupied by Germany. As a German citizen Nussbaum is arrested and interned at the camp of St. Cyprien. While being transferred to another camp he escapes and returns to Brussels.

Jews are arrested in increasing numbers numbers. Felix and his wife are hidden by an art dealer. A friend brings him canvasses, gives him a studio at no. 2 Archimedes Street and provides them with food. On July 2ı, ı944 the Germans come to arrest Felix and Felka. They are deported to Auschwitz and are murdered August 2nd ı944, one month before the liberation of Brussels. Felix Nussbaum, who sensed the magnitude of the destruction to come, once wrote “Even if I disappear do not let my paintings die.”

1900 19945 1900-1945

1940 First prisoners arrive at Auschwitz (1st March) 1938 German Jews have to give up their driving licenses.

1900 1905

32

1910

1915

1920

1925

1930

1935

1941 Jews forced to wear yellow star

1940

1937 Felix et Felka live on 2 Archimedes Street, Brussels 1938 Exhibits with other Parisian artists in Brussels 1940 Felix Nussbaum is arrested and deported to Gurs but escapes 1944 Felix Nussbaum deported to Auschwitz with his

1945


View from studio in Archimedes Street, Felix Nussbaum, 覺938

Game e 47 Answer pag

Which de you of tails remind freedo m?

33


I

n

I

Visit to the

s

r

a

Nahum Gutman

e

l

Museum

Bezalel and Oholiab decide to stop at Neve Tsedek in the south of Tel-Aviv. There they will visit the Nahum Gutman Museum before eating ice-cream on one of the museum terraces. Oholiab loves Nahum Gutman, especially his illustrations of Bambi, Pinocchio and Sinbad the Sailor. The Hebrew editions of these books form part of Oholiab’s school library.

Who is this painter who illustrates Hebrew books for children, even though Israel has not yet declared independence?

A young man who settled with his parents in Neve Tsedek, in order to escape the already overcrowded town of Jaffa.

1880 1880-1970 0 1970

1887 Founding of Neve Tsedek

1897 Theodore Herzl presides over first Zionist Congress in Basel 1906 Boris Schatz establishes 1909 Founding Bezalel School of Tel-Aviv. of Arts.

1880 1890 1900

34

1898 Birth of Nahum Gutman

1905 Gutman emigrates to Israel

1910

1920

1930

1940 1950

1909 HaĂŻm-Nahman Bialik becomes friends with Gutman family 1908 Gutman meets the painter Arnauld Lehubesky

1960

1970


Game to Sch On the way

in the ool, appeared

chil

ment of “D dren’s supple

avar,” Novem

ber ı96ı

In the illu that we stration, fou r a 1960's re in the 193 details indica . Can you fin 0's and not i te n the d them !

35

Answer pag

e 47


I

n

I

s

r

a

e

l

I want to learn to paint! Nahum Gutman was born in ı898 in Bessarabia. His family is staunchly Zionist. In Odessa, his father, the famous writer Simha ben Zion, teaches in a school where all the subjects are taught in Hebrew. In ı905, the family emigrates to Israel; Nahum is seven year old. At ı5, Nahum decides to stop studying and learn drawing at the Bezalel Academy of Art. There he attends classes taught by Boris Schatz and Abel Pann Pann. In ı9ı7, the year of the Balfour Declaration Declaration, Nahum Gutman volunteers for the Jewish battalions of the British Army and finds himself in Egypt as a camp guard for Turkish prisoners of war. After the war he travels to Vienna, Berlin and Paris, to complete his art studies. In ı926, at the age of 28, he returns to Israel and has his first exhibition at the “Ohel” theatre in

Tel-Aviv. Nahum paints scenes of daily life in Israel. Some of his paintings are exhibited in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York and in the Museum of Modern art in Boston. He dies in ı980. The Nahum Gutman Museum was founded after his death. It is situated in Neve Tsedek, the first neighborhood in which he lived when he arrived in Israel.

32) tz (ı866-ı9 Boris Scha as first to w d ius an n il V in rn Bo arts in a school of f o e iv e c n co still under ı903, then in e ol n ti s le Pa . The scho occupation n a m o tt O 06. being in 19 came into ettonia. 63) from L ı9 38 8 (ı n Abel Pan settles in Schatz, he y b ach in d e it v In begins to te d n a 20 ı9 Palestine Bezalel. e 2nd ration - th la c e D r u o m The Balf ed Kingdo r ı9ı7, Unit sing her Novembe pres a letter ex publishes national h is r a Jew support fo e in Palestin Homeland

1880 1880-1980 0 1980 0 1911 The Bezalel School of Art numbers 460 students.

1880 1890 1900

36

1910

1910 Moves to Ahuzat Bayit close to Jaffa.

1914-1918 First World War

1915 Vladimir Jabotinsky envisions a Jewish Legion. 1917 Balfour Declaration. Promise of National Jewish homeland

1920

1930

1920 Leaves for Vienna 1914 Gutman returns to Tel-Aviv 1913 Gutman attends Bezalel.

1940 1950

1960

1970


Shabbat in Tiberias 覺928, Nahum Gutman Museum

Game Find th

e 7 diff

Original erence

s

Copy

37

Answer pag

e 47


I

n

I

s

r

a

e

l

What does this earthenware jar make me think of? The sculptures in clay that you see here would probably not have existed had Nahum not undergone an eye operation. The doctors forbade him to paint and draw. Unable to remain inactive, he began working in clay, leaving behind over one hundred figures and small-scale objects. The shapes of these sculptures are inspired by a particular event in his life. During the war of independence, he discovered an ancient earthenware jar half buried in the sand.

A double - sided face 1

which he visualized each day that we see here now. Taking as his starting point the shape of a jar, jar Nahum creates Man with two faces, a kind of Janus. One face expresses anger. His arms are raised; his legs seem to be moving. The other face is the same character but shows a more serene expression. His legs are crossed under him; his eyes are closed.

A double-sided face 2 Nahum Gutman Museum

He brought it back to his tent, placed it before his bed and proceeded to meditate upon its shape: the more he looked at it, the more he imagined living characters inhabiting its rounded form. It is these men and women

Using the shape of a jar for his piece, the two handles transformed into simplified arms, Nahum Gutman manages to express opposite feelings: the will to conquer and the satisfaction of having conquered.

1880 1880-1970 0 1970 1923 Mustafa Kemal founds the Turkish Republic.

1925 Founding of Hebrew University of Jerusalem 1948 Israel declares Independence.

1880 1890 1900

38

1910

1917 The Turks force Gutman to leave Tel-Aviv.

1920

1930

1940 1950

1956 Suez campaign

1960

1961 Gutman 1950 Gutman publishes executes a series Sipourim Metzuiarim 1923 Resides in Berlin. Series of mosaics for the of drawings inspired by Job. Rabbinate of Tel -Aviv.

1970


Game Use th e make t expressions the tw he conversat below to o neig hbors! ion between

The Neighbour’s Dispute ı968-ı972

Answer pag

e 47

1. But that is absurd, I was at home all day! 2. My fish was on the window sill! 3. You took it! 4. Stop shouting!

39


A

C o n t e m p o r a r y

The World's

A r t i s t

Largest Mezuzah

Abraham Hersh Borshevsky, who lives in Jerusalem, invites Oholiab and Bezalel to come and see his masterpiece: the world's largest mezuzah. But before showing them, he can't stop himself from expressing his passion for Hebrew letters. As you know, it is with the 22 letters of the Hebrew alphabet that God gave us the Law. This is the reason for which scribes take their work so seriously. As Rabbi Ichmael emphasised:

porary of

ntem maell, a co R abbi Ish iva R abbi Ak

”Take great care in your labour as your work is of a divine nature, if you miss a letter or add an extra letter the whole world will be destroyed” (Babylonian Talmud, Sota 20a)

First of all you have to know, Bezalel. that the alphabet was born in the Middle East. For the first time drawings were matched with sounds. The Egyptians had to draw actions so if you wanted to write ”look at the water” you had to draw an eye and water! Letters have changed shape over time but the Talmud teaches us that the tablets of the Law were engraved in square script. Do you know what tells us that this was the case?

40

According to the Talmud (Shabbat ı04 ı) the Eternal carved the letters out of stone stone, piercing the stone all the way through. So in fact the carved spaces form the letters: instead of the letter aleph, a hole appears in the shape of aleph. Of course there are two letters that presented a problem, ”mem” and ”samech” which are closed letters, like the letter ”O” in English. The inner part of these letters should have dropped out but the bits of stone that form the middle stayed miraculously suspended. That is how we know that God wrote the Ten Commandments in square script.


Game True o

r False?

Why are the scribes so meticulous in their work?

How do we know in which script God wrote the Law?

1. Abraham's Mezuzah measures about 36 inches long. 2. Abraham's Mezuzah is written on 22 lines. 3. The text is written on the parchment of a kosher animal. 4. The text consists of extracts from Deuteronomy 6, 4-9 and 11, 13-21. 5. We have to put a Mezuzah on all the doors of a house. 6. The text of the Mezuzah is the prayer the Shema. 7. Abraham's Mezuzah is kept in the Contemporary Museum of Calligraphy in Moscow. 8. Abraham's Mezuzah was written in Jerusalem.

41 7


A Budding Photographer Yom Kippur has just finished. Soon it will be 15th Tishri and the festival of Tabernacles. Bezalel and Oholiab are walking around Jerusalem taking pictures of the succahs. Take a picture of the most beautiful souccah and send it in to Bezalel's Voyage, not forgetting to include your name, your age, your photo, your email

address and the name of the city where you live. If your print is chosen it will be posted on the magazine blog.


Solutions to games Moses at Dura-Europos

Felix Nussbaum

p. 7 :

p. 23 :

p. 25 : 2 3 4 p. 9 : 1 we can see that the scene reads from right to left. p. 11 : 5

p. 27 :The fresh colors of spring, the trees in flower, the two people playing, the ladder, the laundry drying in the fresh air…

A Venetian wedding p. 15 : 1 2 3 4 5 6 p. 17 : Jerusalem : the Temple, the ramparts, the mountains of Judea. Italy : the towers, les bannières, the bells, the rooves covered with tiles. p. 19 : Hebrew C. Gregorian C. 7 Nissan March-April 8 Iyar April-May 9 Sivan May-June 10 Tammuz June-July 11 Av July-August 12Elul August-September 1 Tishri September-October 2 H'eshvan October-November 3 Kislev November-December 4 Tevet December-January 5 Shevat January-February 6 Adar February-March Adar II March-April

Visite to the Nahum Gutman museum p. 31 : Électrification, (1930); a man with a donkey carrying bread (1930); a man on a camel (1930); the tractor (date unknown); a cow near a house (date unknown); a palm tree (date unknown). p. 33 :

The World's Largest Mezuzah p. 41 : 1. T ; 2. T; 3. T ; 4. T ; 5. F ; 6. T ; 7. T ; 8. T.

Credits Front cover : Gross Family Collection, Israel. | Page 3: private collection, VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2010. | Page 15: Collection of Jewish Marriage Contracts from the National Library Funds and the University of Jerusalem. | Page 17, 18: Collection of Jewish Marriage Contracts from the National Library Funds and the University of Jerusalem | Page 20 : Gross Family Collection, Israel. | Page 24,25 : Gross Family Collection, Israel | Page 27: Gross Family Collection, Israel | Page 29: Felix Nussbaum Fund, Osnabruck, VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2010 | Page 31: Private Collection, VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn, Bonn 2010 | Page 33: Museum of Yad Vashem. | Page 35-39: Nahum Gutman Museum fund, Israel. | Page 40-41: Abraham Borshevsky. | Page 47: Felix Nussbaum Fund, Osnabruck, VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2010; Nahum

47


. . . . e u s s i t x In the ne

oliab h O d n a l e l a z eriod p -Comic - Be a b h c o K r a g the B n i r u d s n i o C ible B n a n g i p r e P -The eaux d r o B f o e u g Art c -The Synago i m a l s I f o useum M e h t o t t i s i -V u Sidi o h a i l E h t i w -An interview treet S e g u o r e s s a e in C -Comic - Fir Where does this Chanukia come from? That's interesting- I must to show it to Oholiab!


betsalel voyage