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FOREIGN AFFAIRS > Spain puts all its efforts into helping Haiti > Half-way point of the Spanish presidency of the EU > Interview with Inés Alberdi COOPERATION > The government approves PACI 2010 CULTURE AND SOCIETY > Juan Valera, the gentleman writer > The Spanish transplant miracle THE INTERVIEW > Jesús del Pozo

An Informative Diplomatic Publication of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation JANUARY-MARCH 2010 N˚13.

Spain participates in election observation missions through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, which has trained, selected, and assigned professionals since the year 1996

Election observation, an essential part of democracy

The implementation of the European External Action Service is the main topic of discussion

Cordoba hosts the Informal Meeting of Foreign ministers (Gymnich)


the facts and the image THE DATA



346 million euros


March 12, 1986


The amount that Spain will contribute to the Multi-Donor Fund for the reconstruction of Haiti, according to the commitment adopted March 31 at the Donors' Conference in New York

Spain held a referendum on its participation in NATO, of which it had been a member since 1982. 52.5% of the voters said “yes”, while 39.8% voted against.

It was April 4, 1910 when King Alfonso XIII initiated the construction of a boulevard of modernity for the Madrid of the time.

The image

years since the birth of the Gran Vía in Madrid


U.S. President Barack Obama received King Juan Carlos at the White House on February 17 for a lunch in the company of U.S. National Security Advisor James Jones, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, Spanish Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation Miguel Ángel Moratinos and the chief of staff of the Spanish royal household, Alberto Aza. King Juan Carlos has been received by every U.S. president since John F. Kennedy.

editOrial office > Director: Julio Albi de la Cuesta. Editor-in-Chief: José Bodas. Art Director and Editor: Javier Hernández. Editors: Beatriz Beeckmans. Contributors: Alexandra Issacovitch, Arturo Carrascosa, Virginia Castrejana, Rafael Valle, Begoña Lucena, Rafael Osorio, José Carlos Pacheco and Jacobo García. MANAGEMENT > Directorate General of Foreign Communication. Serrano Galvache, 26. 28033 MADRID. Published and printed by the Directorate General of Foreign Communication, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation. Total or partial reproduction prohibited without express consent of the publisher. Miradas al Exterior is not responsible for the editorial content or for the opinions expressed by the authors. e-mail contact > > NIPO: 501-10-013-7

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68 > Jesús del Pozo (fashion designer): “Only in the dictionary does success come before work.” “If the leading Spanish brands are promoted, they will ultimately take the whole Spanish industry with them.”

the interview

56 > Silestone, the power of quartz. 58 > Portrait of Carlos Saura (by Jacobo García)

culture and society

40 > Building peace from within the Autonomous Communities. 42 > Spanish, a language on the rise in the world. 41> Interview with Giovanni Camilleri, International Coordinator of the ART Initiative.


foreign affairs

on er the cov-

6 > Election observation: an essential element in the strengthening of democracy. Spain has participated in these missions since 1996, and has created more than 200 election observer groups.

12 > Spain, at ground zero in Haiti. 16 > Spain's commitment to the global fight against the death penalty. 18 > The Spanish Presidency of the EU reaches its halfway point. 20 > Córdoba hosts the informal meeting of Foreign Ministers. 32 > Ukraine, a young democracy with a strong cultural focus.

46 > Juan Valera, the gentleman writer. 48 > The Route of Don Quixote: on the trail of the Giants. 52 > The Spanish transplant miracle.

editorial board > President: Deputy Secretary of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation. First deputy chair: Director General of Foreign Communications. Second deputy chair: Technical Secretary General. Members: Cabinet Chiefs of the State Department of Foreign Affairs, the State Department for International Cooperation, the State Department for the European Union and the State Department for Ibero-America, and the Cabinet of the Director of the Spanish Agency for International Development Cooperation.



Election observation: Twenty years of learning Rafael L贸pez Pintor

professor, specialist in the electoral cycle at the IFES

Election observation, both domestically and internationally, as it is practiced today, is a post-Cold War phenomenon. Although there had previously been groups of people who monitored the outcome of specific elections on site - at least as early as the Crimean War up to the 1980s in Uruguay, El Salvador and Chile - the new practice began in 1990 with the elections in Sandinista Nicaragua and the referendum on self-determination in Namibia. For the first time, the international community, through the United Nations, deployed massive missions of observers to report on the democratic quality of electoral behavior. The principle of national sovereignty and non-

interference in the affairs of each country was formally amended. On the one hand, nation states requested, and on the other, the United Nations accepted that external agents observe elections and declare whether they were carried out in accordance with the democratic principles outlined in international legal instruments. Nicaragua and Namibia were followed by other observation missions in compliance with peace agreements sponsored by the UN in El Salvador, Cambodia, Angola, Mozambique and Liberia, and those related to the conflict in the Balkans (Bosnia and Kosovo). Common features of these operations were their great magnitude, with thousands of observers,

their short duration of just a few days, and their hazy and variable methodology. By the end of the 1990s, the main lesson learned was the need to do away with these types of missions, given their high cost and lack of effectiveness in developing electoral democracy. At the beginning of the 21st century, multi-party elections were held with varying degrees of freedom in the vast majority of the nations of the world, compared with some thirty nations in the 1970s and 1980s. A significant change occurred with the replacement of the mass missions with smaller and longer delegations, which sought to cover the electoral cycle from voter registration up to the vote count and publication of results. This new model came to be established quickly, particularly by two international organizations with regional influence: the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) in the regions of Eastern Europe and Central Asia, and the European Union (EU) in the nations of Africa, Latin America and Asia that had signed the Lom茅 Accord, which contains a clause allowing for this type of intervention. At the same time, the UN and certain international NGOs based in North America began employing the observation model whose most fully codified version is that of the EU. This model includes a group of experts deployed to the nation for several months and the presence of a larger number of short-term observers - around 100, never 1,000 - for the election itself, all of them working with a proven methodology and under the close supervision of the permanent team. The EU deploys six to eight missions of this kind per year and runs a permanent

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observer training program. In other cases, the mission consists of a small group of experts that visits the country at different times during the electoral process and prepares the relevant reports. Other regional organizations, such as the OAS and the OAU, continue to practice the old style of electoral observation, although the size of their missions depends on the funding available from the principal donors. In all cases, the observers' report is made public and offers recommendations for good democratic practices. As important to electoral observation as the proliferation of NGOs is the fact that the political pressure applied by such organizations has led to a growing recognition of observation as a right of civil society

It is not enough merely to change the model of the observation mission; the methodology must be fine-tuned further, and the observation itself must be strengthened by means of an adequate international legal framework.

Another notable development in this area is the proliferation of national civil society organizations responsible for the monitoring and observing the electoral process. These are often NGOs operating in the field of human rights, which deploy teams of observers during elections. Sometimes, the opposite occurs; an organization founded to observe elections develops into a permanent civil and political rights watchdog. This is what happened in the Philippines with NAMFREL, a huge success at the end of the Marcos regime, whose example has been followed in a number of countries, in some cases with extraordinary effectiveness; Acci贸n Ciudadana in Chile at the end of the Pinochet regime and Transparencia in Peru upon the fall of Fujimori are two Latin American examples. In the rest of the world, these NGOs, which normally amalgamate with other groups during elections, continue to multiply, almost always with at least initial support from international donors. In recent years, the EU has been able to sponsor regional meetings of these NGOs in Latin America, Eastern Europe, Africa and the Middle East, with the aim of promoting the exchange of experiences and

methodologies. As important to electoral observation as the proliferation of NGOs is the fact that the political pressure applied by such organizations has led to a growing recognition of observation as a right of civil society, in addition to representatives of the political parties. Nothing similar has occurred as yet in the international regulatory context, although this lack of activity should not be viewed in absolute terms. On the one hand, international electoral observation - which requires an official invitation from the country observed and the acceptance of the observer organization - is based on the notion of the right to good electoral practice, as detailed in the eight components of Article 25 of the International Convention on Civil and Political Rights adopted by the UN in 1966. Equally legitimizing value (although restricted to different regional contexts) could be given to the Inter-American Democratic Charter of 2002, the foundational charter of the OSCE or the clause on democracy in the Lom茅 Accord. On the other hand, a UN Declaration was passed in 2005 on the practice of election observation which, although merely declaratory in nature, is endorsed by virtually all the organizations working in this area at both the international and national levels - which could be viewed as a first step toward a clearly legal international framework. This is no small matter - and the sting is in the tail - as the more countries there are holding elections and the more frequently they are held, the more necessary will be the presence and pressure of the international community as an element for the defense of rights and the improvement of the quality of

democracy. Although the administrative apparatus for elections is easy to establish and to improve on, it is not so easy to ensure the quality of elections themselves, which requires, among other factors, the general strengthening of the state apparatus, solid and independent media, an adequate operation of the rule of law and the existence of political parties with the capacity to monitor one another mutually throughout the country and to ensure electoral fairness. It is no coincidence that irregularities and fraud, which observation reports around the world are identifying with increasing frequency, occur more at the foundations and the top of the electoral structure than at its most visible levels on the day of the vote. In fact, registration offices and electoral rolls on the one hand, and the additional vote counting by the central computers of the electoral administration on the other, tend to be the weakest links in the electoral process. At both levels, the eyes of the observers are not always able to see the details, due to the short duration of the mission, a lack of local knowledge, an inadequate methodology or plain technical incompetence. The main lesson learned in this second wave of electoral processes in fragile democracies and states: it is not enough merely to change the model of the observation mission; the methodology must be fine-tuned further, and the observation itself must be strengthened by means of an adequate international legal framework. Only in this way will we be able to put paid to the saying that while it's true that without elections there can be no democracy, democracy cannot be reduced to the mere presence of elections.



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Election observation, an essential element in the strengthening of democracy Election observation and electoral support or assistance on the part of different organizations is in most cases set within the specific context of support for democracy in certain countries and for their processes of democratization, and forms part of what has come to be referred to as “good governance�. by Alexandra Issacovitch and Arturo Carrascosa

For the European Union, the UN, the OSCE and other inter-governmental, regional or non-governmental organizations that undertake professional work in this area, genuine elections are the basis for the sustainable and democratic development of a country and, although they alone cannot guarantee that a country is democratic, they do constitute a sign of democratic will. Public participation in free and fair elections also contributes to peace, security and the preven-

P tion of conflicts. Not all countries that cise in foreign intervention; rather, it hold elections are real democracies, is an objective and neutral mechanism but the fact that elections that are usu- of international non-partisan support ally classified as "free and fair" are tak- for democratic processes. Spain acing place is one element more in the tively supports this policy by always construction of stable democracies. ensuring a solid presence of national Thus, although it is true that holding observers in any election observation elections does not necessarmission. ily mean that a country is a The two primordial tasks democracy, the fact remains Spain takes to be performed in the provithat the ability to cast a vote part in election sion of electoral support for freely and secretly continues observation a country's democratic proto be widely considered a and electoral cesses are election observastep forward in the develop- assistance tion and electoral assistance. ment of the democratic life missions These two tasks compleof a country. through ment one another, and both specialized are performed widely in How an election observa- NGOs and different countries around tion mission is developed. through the the world by various orgaThe various processes of Ministry nizations working in this democratization initiated of Foreign area. These organizations in much of the world nearly Affairs and are, on the one hand, interthree decades ago have led Cooperation national organizations such to a constant demand for as the UN, EU, OSCE, OAS international election obserand OAU, and, on the other, vation missions. The purpose of these NGOs such as IDEA, IFES, NDI and missions is to perform a rigorous anal- the Carter Center. ysis of all the phases of the electoral Spain participates in these elecprocess being observed and to provide tion observation and electoral asan independent, impartial and profes- sistance missions at the institutional sional evaluation of that process. The level through specialized NGOs and international election observation through the Ministry of Foreign Afmission will draw specific conclusions fairs and Cooperation, with the trainabout the degree to which the elector- ing, selection and presentation of proal process has been developed in ac- fessionals. cordance with international standards for democratic elections set forth in How to become an election observer. the international and regional agree- Within the Ministry of Foreign Afments signed by the countries whose fairs and Cooperation, the Human elections are being observed, which Rights Office is the area responsible recognize, as in the case of the Univer- for training and selecting Spanish sal Declaration of Human Rights, the election observers for short- and longright of all citizens to choose a rep- term missions. To become an election resentative government by means of observer, candidates must be Spandemocratic elections. ish nationals and demonstrate a solid An election observation mission knowledge of English, regardless of is deployed only at the invitation of any other particular requirements the authorities of the country holding they may fulfill. Candidates lacking the elections, and its aim is to support previous experience in international these countries and their societies in election observation must complete their efforts to strengthen democratic a training course for short-term obprocesses. International election ob- servers organized by the Human servation does not constitute an exer- Rights Office in collaboration with

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the Diplomatic School twice a year, one in Madrid and the other held in a different Spanish city each year; to date, courses have been held in Barcelona, Pamplona, JaĂŠn and Santiago de Compostela. The call for applications for these courses is published on the Diplomatic School website. How an Election Observation Mission is structured. A long-term election observation mission is made up of a management team and of long- and short-term observers. The Core Team is deployed approximately two and a half months before the election date and remains in the country for two or three weeks after the elections in order to monitor the post-electoral period. This team is led by a Mission Chief, with an assistant and various analysts. The Core Team receives weekly reports from the long-term observers and the results of the short-term observers' findings. The team analyzes this information and identifies general patterns that will be outlined in the “Preliminary Reportâ€?, a document in which the Election Observation Mission presents the electoral process for national and international public scrutiny, and which also demonstrates the effectiveness of the methodology applied by the organizations responsible for the observation. The long-term observers are deployed in two-person teams for an average period of 2 months, and are responsible for monitoring the voting and vote counting, the calculation of results and the period immediately following the elections. Their main function is to observe and gather information which must then be impartially and rigorously analyzed. They are also responsible for the deployment of the short-term observers, who represent the quantitative reinforcement of the Mission. Their deployment throughout the country enables the Core Team to be provided with information on the electoral process almost instantly.



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What organizations provide election observation? Below is a list of websites that provide specific information on the activity carried out by the organizations dedicated to tasks of international election observation. > International Organizations EU website: human-rights/election_observation_ missions/index_en.htm This site outlines the tasks performed by the European Commission in support of human rights in various countries outside the European Community, including support for elections held on other continents. It also includes employment opportunities and documents of interest. The EU has developed a Guide for EU Election Observation Missions and has compiled and published a Compendium of International Standards for Elections. The EU responds to invitations from countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America to provide observation missions. UN web pages: The UN is the organization with the longest experience in electoral support activities, through its Department of Political Affairs, to which the Electoral Assistance Division belongs. Its website offers the possibility of joining a "roster" database of election observers, as well as providing employment opportunities in the field, through the hiring of professionals with extensive electoral experience or from the UN

Volunteers program: UNV. htm In the 1990s, the UN published the Peace Program and the Development Program, which state explicitly that there can be no peace in any given country or region without the presence of human development, democracy and security. For this reason, a specific task of the UNDP in its work in development is electoral support and the promotion of electoral processes. The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) This organization, created in the 1970s, has been conducting election observations since 1995, and is also dedicated to providing technical electoral assistance in OSCE countries. Its website provides a calendar of elections in OSCE countries, as well as reports on those countries where an election observation mission has been sent, and information on how to become an election observer. Organization of American States (OAS) The OAS Secretariat for Political Affairs (SPA) develops and maintains a permanent, professionalized service of election observations for OAS member countries. In the same context, the SPA organizes, coordinates and carries out election observation, investigative and electoral technical assistance mis-

sions. Its website provides information on election missions, the electoral calendar and the electoral authorities of the Americas. Organization of African Unity This regional organization performs election observation and electoral assistance on the African continent. > Non-Governmental Organizations The Electoral Knowledge Network (ACE): ACE is a joint initiative of nine associated institutions that are leaders in the provision of specialized technical assistance in the field of elections. Its member institutions are Elections Canada, the Electoral Institute of Southern Africa, the Federal Electoral Institute of Mexico, the International Foundation for Electoral Systems, the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, the UNDP, the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs and the United Nations Electoral Assistance Division. Its website features electoral calendars, comparative data on systems, legislations and electoral organization by country, sample electoral materials and even a discussion and general advice forum. International Foundation for Electoral Systems (IFES) A non-profit organization created in 1987 that has worked in more than 100 countries supporting the development of democratic societies. Its website contains news on elections and research projects, as well as documents related to democracy and elections. Its team of 150 professionals currently operates on the front line of new and developing democracies in over 20 countries, providing comprehensive management of technical electoral


calendar of upcoming elections in 2010 Sri Lanka Parliamentary Hungary Parliamentary 1 Sudan Legislative and Presidential Nort. Cyprus Presidential 1 Austria Presidential Central Presidential 1 African Rep. Parliamentary Hungary Parliamentary 2 Laos Parliamentary Sao Tome Parliamentary and Principe (Tentative) Solomon Is. Parliamentary Philippines Legislative and Presidential Dominican Legislative Republic Ethiopia Parliamentary Surinam Legislative Czech Rep. Parliamentary 1 Colombia Presidential Georgia Local Central Presidential 2 African Rep. Parliamentary Cote d'Ivoire Presidential Egypt Legislative Madagascar Parliamentary Holland Parliamentary Slovakia Parliamentary Guinea Presidential 1 Burundi Presidential 1 Hungary Presidential Laos Presidential Qatar Parliamentary U- Kingdom Parliamentary (Tentative)

April 8 April 11 April 11 April 18 April 25 April 25 April 25 April April April May 10 May 16 May 23 May 25 May 28 May 30 May 30 May May May May June 9 June 12 June 27 June 28 June June June June

Palestine Guinea Burundi Japan Mauritius Sudan Surinam Tuvalu Rwanda Afghanistan Sweden Venezuela

Local July 17 Presidential 2 July 18 Legislative July 23 and Presidential 2 Legislative July Parliamentary July Referendum July Presidential July Parliamentary July Presidential August 9 Parliamentary Sep. 18 Parliamentary Sep. 19 Legislative Sep. 26

Estonia Parliamentary October 2 Brazil Legislative October 3 and Presidential 1 Brazil Presidential 2 October 31 Bosnia Presidential and October & Herzegovina Parliamentary Czech Rep. Legislative October Madagascar Presidential October Poland Presidential 1 October Tanzania Legislative and October Presidential U.S. Legislative November 2 Azerbaijan Parliamentary November 7 Burkina Faso Presidential 1 November 21 Chad Parliamentary 1 November 28 Bahrain Parliamentary November Egypt Parliamentary November Haiti Presidential November Nauru Presidential December St. Vincent Parliamentary December & the Grenadines Jordan Parliamentary

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A website with electoral information examining regularities and patterns in electoral results. The Carter Center Created in 1982, the Carter Center operates in various fields in an attempt to alleviate unnecessary human suffering and promote peace, health, democracy and human rights, including support for democratic elections in some countries. Network for Enhanced Electoral and Democratic Support Created with the support of the EU to provide information on elections to citizens of its 27 member countries, this network is made up of several organizations, including IDEA, the International Organization for Migration, EISA-Promoting Credible Elections and Democratic Governance in Africa, the Inter-American Institute of Human Rights (through its Center for Electoral Promotion and Assistance) and Internews Europe. The National Democratic Institute NDI is an American NGO that has supported democratic practices and institutions in different regions of the world over the last 20 years. Part of this work has centered on electoral support for various countries around the world.

Note: 1 1st round / 2 2nd round

support projects. The International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA) An inter-governmental organization that supports sustainable democracies, IDEA has offices in Africa, Asia and Latin America. It works in the areas of elections, democracy and political parties, among others, and supports democratic change.

Election Guide A website created by the International Foundation for Electoral Systems, providing up-to-date information on national elections and other electoral events of interest, provisions for referenda, current news on political and legal events related to elections around the world and governmental electoral structures.

Regional electoral project for the African continent. Electoral Reform International Services A British NGO that offers advice and assistance in the areas of elections and democracy. This is the British agency responsible for training potential election observers and selecting them for the British Foreign Office.


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Spanish experiences in observation missions The complex, thorny and delicate electoral process undertaken in Nigeria in 2007 helped me to appreciate in all its breadth and drama (more than 200 deaths) the essential work of international observers in reducing fraud and intimidation. But also as an international instrument for the creation of trust between the candidates and the voters, and as such, an instrument that contributes decisively to the resolution of conflicts and the consolidation of young democracies. I encourage international organizations and governments to promote this type of international mission, with more resources if possible. ● Javier Morera Marcos expert in electoral processes and long-term observer for the EU in the elections in Nigeria “Early October 2004, Bamyan, Afghanistan: In the middle of a premature snowstorm, dozens of Afghans stand out in the open, waiting to cast their votes. Mid-May 2005, Dessie, Ethiopia: An enraged crowd knocks down the doors of a polling station that had failed to open on election day. Late April 2009, Quito, Ecuador: a presidential candidate makes accusations of fraud that later prove unfounded. In these three different moments, election observers were present, watching and verifying. To some, observation is an expensive, unnecessary exercise, and as such, ineffective. But without the presence of an observer, the accusations of fraud in Ecuador might have led to serious disturbances, the polling station in Ethiopia might never have opened, and the lines of voters in Afghanistan would have been left without

The training courses for short-term observers are organized by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation's Human Rights Office, in collaboration with the Diplomatic School.

a witness to the fact that voting is not merely about dropping a piece of paper in an urn, but an inherent human right: the ability to decide for yourself on what is best for you. It is as simple (and as complex) as that. ● Manuel Sánchez de Nogués election consultant and journalist On a November day in 2001 in Kosovo, at 6 in the morning, long lines of people stand out in the cold, anxiously but in no hurry, sensing a spirit of change in the air, as they wait for a polling station to open. They are going to have their say. On a day in March in 2002 in the Republic of the Congo, a group of women visit us in a small hotel of bungalows in Dolisie, their hands full of gifts. They have decided that we are the reason they have not been afraid to go and cast their ballots. They have been able to participate. On a November day in 2003 in

Mozambique, electoral officials, with a mixture of excitement, alarm and amusement, seek out the supervisor of the provincial counting station who, out of pure exhaustion, had gone off to sleep with the key guarded close to his chest. They must go on; the results must be known urgently. All are agreed. A day in January 2005 in the Palestinian Territories, the streets filled with people, the noise, the excitement. The women have taken a leading role, presiding over the tables, and with joyful looks they convey their satisfaction that something is happening. In the face of an uncertain future, nothing is more certain than the fact that they are shaping their destiny. And what we always find is, whatever happens and whatever the outcome may be, elections remind us for a few hours that we are all equal. We are all equally important. And although many other experiences may attempt to demonstrate the contrary, what we always find is that elections bring hope. ● Raquel Prado Pérez associate professor of Administrative Law and election expert The countdown began when I received an email from the EU informing me that I had been selected as an observer. After no end of red tape (visa, medical exam, etc.), I arrived in Mexico in record time, along with 32 colleagues, to observe the electoral process. I was sent together with an Italian observer to Sinaloa, a state located in the northwest of the country. Thanks to the solid training received from the core team, including the aspect of security, our long-term mission was completed without incidents and we were able to bear witness to the transparency of the electoral process and thus contribute to the consolidation of democracy in Mexico. ● Óscar Alarcón Jiménez official with the Council of Europe, election expert.


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Spain in international observation missions Isabel Mench贸n

head of the ministry of foreign affairs and cooperation's election observation service

Currently, Spain participates in the election observation missions of the EU, OSCE and OAS, and organizes bilateral election observation missions with a parliamentary and technical focus. Our country's participation in international election observation missions dates back to the first general elections in Bosnia Herzegovina, supervised by the OSCE in 1996 following the signing of the Dayton Peace Agreement.

elections in Nicaragua in 2006 and the presidential elections in Mauritania in 2009 - and a mixed parliamentary-technical bilateral mission to observe voter registration for the local elections in the Occupied Territories in Palestine in 2005. Throughout 2009, the total number of Spanish election observers and experts deployed in the election observation missions of the EU, OSCE, OAS and bilateral missions was 171.

Spain's presence in these missions has been growing consistently due to our generous commitment to the efforts promoted by the EU, the OSCE and the OAS to support the building of democracy and the promotion of human rights around the world. To date, Spain has taken part in all of the election observation missions of the EU (approximately 100 since 2000), most of the election observation missions under the auspices of the OSCE (around 120 since 2000) and in six election observation missions organized by the OAS. At the same time, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation's Human Rights Office (the agency responsible for the selection and training of Spanish short- and long-term election observers) has organized two bilateral election observation missions of a technical nature - the legislative

It is worth highlighting the extremely positive reputation that Spanish election observers enjoy in international election observation missions. The recognition of their high level of professionalism is largely the result of the training policy adopted by the Human Rights Office, which has to date delivered 10 training courses for short-term election observers. The first took place in October 2004, and since then two courses have been organized each year - one in the spring and the other in the fall. These courses have the aim of ensuring the professionalism of our election observers by providing them with the knowledge, tools and attitudes necessary for the fulfillment of their duties. Since 2004, approximately 400 short-term election observers have been trained. Along with these courses, between 2005 and 2009 the

Since 2004, a total of 200 shortterm election observers have been trained in the 10 training courses delivered

Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation's Human Rights Office provided another three election observation courses for Members of Parliament, training around 110 MPs, and two training courses for Spanish government officials. One last point worth highlighting is the way in which Spain finances the participation of its observers. In the case of those taking part in OSCE missions, our country fully funds their participation, which mainly involves travel and meal and accommodation allowances for the observers. In the case of observers for the OAS, Spain only covers travel expenses and allowances. The participation of Spanish election observers in European Union missions is fully financed by the EU. As a footnote, I would like to point out that until the 2010 budget, the Ministry's Human Rights Office was receiving an allotment of 275,000 euros to finance the participation of our election observers in the various missions of the OSCE, OAS and bilateral missions. Sadly, this amount has been reduced to 150,000 euros, which will have a negative impact on Spanish participation in these missions, which have been growing considerably in number in recent years.

foreign affairs

photos agencia efe / virginia castrejana / juan bartolom茅

12 a

Image of one of the airplanes chartered by the Spanish Agency for International Development Cooperation (AECID) from Torrej贸n de Ardoz Air Base with emergency humanitarian aid for Haiti. At right, various images of AECID's operations in Port-auPrince and of the visits by the Secretary of State for Cooperation and the Secretary of State for Ibero-America. Also shown is the Spanish ambassador's residence, severely damaged by the earthquake.

The earthquake that devastated Haiti on 12 January caused one of the largest disasters with which humanitarian operations have been faced in recent years. This was not only because of the frightening and ever-larger figures that reflect the scope of the emergency: 7.3 on the Richter scale, 220,000 dead, 300,000 seriously injured, one million displaced people, three million victims affected in some form... It was also because of the dramatic consequences for the population and the difficulties of responding to the crisis in Latin America's poorest country. by Virginia Castrejana

Spain Puts All its Efforts into Helping Haiti Spain, one of the countries in the international community most committed to Haiti, immediately deployed all means at its disposal to support a government that was also decimated by the disaster. Nothing less than this was required to deal with the thousands of victims who wandered through the city, the critically injured, the survivors without supplies, and the corpses piled up in the streets. One thing that is surprising but still

undeniable is Haitian people's responsiveness. Without electricity, without communications ... They searched for survivors among the ruins with only their hands for tools and formed spontaneous local committees to share scarce provisions and to care for the victims, while teams from around the world were mobilizing to get to Port-au-Prince. Spain, as holder of the rotating presidency of the European Union and with a

solid presence in Latin America, placed at the disposal of the EU's other member states the support of its diplomatic and consular teams, as well as the emergency team sent by AECID to Port-au-Prince, its warehouse in Santo Domingo, and Spain's humanitarian logistics base for development cooperation in Panama. Visits by the First Deputy Prime Minister, the Secretary of State for Cooperation and the director of AECID, as


well as the presence of the Secretary of State for Ibero-America and the ambassadors, diplomats, officials, and humanitarian workers sent to reinforce the mission made it possible to provide a high level of on-site coordination with the government, the European and Latin American community, other countries, and agencies belonging to the United Nations system. The first assessment team from AECID's Humanitarian Action Office arrived in the hours immediately after the earthquake to categorize the most urgent needs and evaluate the country's capacity to absorb arriving teams. From the very beginning, the Spanish contingent was called on to join in search-andrescue and rubble-clearing work in coordination with UNDAC (United Nations Disaster Assessment and Coordination) teams from the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). At the request of Haitian civil defense, the Hospital de la Paix was also designated as the headquarters for Spanish healthcare personnel.

Thanks to AECID's established mechanisms of coordination with other ministries, autonomous communities, municipalities, and other entities, 110 team members and 15 dogs belonging to various search-and-rescue (SAR), postdisaster needs assessment (PDNA), and medical teams, sent by the Community of Madrid, Castile and Le贸n, the Basque Country, the Civil Guard and the National Police, Navarre, Catalonia, and Andalusia, began arriving at the Spanish base, located next to the airport runway. For its part, AECID activated its humanitarian agreements with specialized NGOs and offered its flights and support to transport their personnel and supplies to the country. The Spanish NGOs (Red Cross, Doctors of the World, Doctors without Borders, Adventist Development and Relief Agency (ADRA), etc.), came together in carrying out their respective international operations, taking charge of the distribution of water, food, hygiene kits, medical kits, and other supplies in accordance with the areas and tasks assigned to each organization.

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Humanitarian workers accustomed to facing disasters of all kinds described this one as one of the worst they had seen, based on the number of dead, the severity of the survivors' injuries, the thousands of children left on their own, and the number of displaced persons. The ability of the rescue teams, medical personnel, and humanitarian workers to keep functioning has undoubtedly been exceptional, after days without a break of deciding whom to save, performing 40 amputations, and treating 400 trauma cases in a day. The harsh conditions and the lack of supplies that also affected the international teams brought them, if possible, even closer to the victims of the disaster. Despite the enormous logistical difficulties (a single runway, scarcity of vehicles and fuel, and problems with telecommunications), AECID succeeded in arranging the arrival of more than 170 tons of cargo with the necessary emergency supplies for the teams, as well as guaranteeing the security and freedom of movement of the entire Spanish operation in Port-au-Prince. For this purpose,

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foreign affairs

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation participated in a Haiti solidarity event held at Casa de América on 14 January.

the support of the warehouse operated by the Technical Cooperation Office in Santo Domingo, along with backup from Madrid, the Dominican Republic, Panama, Colombia, El Salvador, Mexico, and Nicaragua, was undoubtedly fundamental. The close relationship that the the Water and Sanitation Cooperation Fund

had previously established with the Haitian National Potable Water and Sanitation Directorate (DINEPA) also enabled a rapid response to the problem of water supply and sanitation, one of the needs that still remains most pressing today and one that will need continued attention over several years. At present, the Water Fund is continuing to work with

DINEPA on rebuilding the water and sanitation systems in the Port-au-Prince metropolitan area and on reorganizing and training local personnel. The country's extreme fragility has so far made it impossible to move beyond the phase of emergency response. A series of international missions--in which Spain has taken an active part--prepared the reports that were presented at the meeting on Haitian reconstruction held in New York. Their conclusions will be key to defining a rapid and effective strategy that will enable Haiti to come out of this disaster in a stronger position for the future. Meanwhile, the priorities are clear, and the Haitian government, its citizens, and the international community continue to work to guarantee clean water and food, to promote projects for food independence, to improve the provision of shelter for the homeless, and to implement programs for amputees, as well as to extend the network of aid-distribution locations, to study migratory flows, to design sustainable architectural plans, and to plan the genetic identification of minors in order to reunite them with their families.

spain promises to donate 346 million On 31 March in New York, the Secretary-General of the United Nations opened a donor conference for Haiti, sponsored by the UN in collaboration with the United States and Haitian governments, together with the principal donor countries: Spain, Brazil, France, and Canada. Ban Ki-moon announced an “ambitious plan to raise the severely injured country from its ruins” and for this purpose, asked the international leaders to contribute 3.9 billion dollars in a first installment and 11.5 billion more over the next

ten years. The United States specified its contribution as 1.15 billion dollars, and the European Union confirmed a contribution of 1.2 billion euros. Of the latter figure, 346 million will come from the Spanish treasury. The meeting was attended by the first deputy prime minister, who affirmed that the international community can only be a traveling companion to Haiti along the road of reconstruction, “because it is the Haitian

government and people who should decide the direction to take, and this should be an irrevocable principle." María Teresa Fernández de la Vega noted that the government is determined to guarantee a better future for all Haitians. To this end, our country is supporting the creation of an international committee for Haitian reconstruction that can guarantee the coordination, transparency, and effectiveness of aid, and which is to

be followed up in 2011 by an exclusively Haitian development authority. The deputy prime minister commented on Spain's economic contribution to the multi-donor fund for Haitian reconstruction, noting that slightly more than 121 million will be turned over to the fund this year, 75 million next year and the year after, and 74.5 million in 2013. She also specified that,in accordance with the Haitian government's own preferences, this aid will be primarily directed to eight very specific sectors: water and sanitation, education and basic housing, environmental sustainability, food security, and agriculture and primary production.


Soraya RodrĂ­guez Secretary of State for International Cooperation

Not Forgetting Haiti

Francisco de AsĂ­s BenĂ­tez senior adviser / consular emergency unit

Activating Resources for Coordinating with the European Union

Spain's commitment to Haiti preceded the earthquake, increased during the devastating disaster suffered by the Caribbean country, and will continue during the long stage of reconstruction that is now beginning. Our cooperation with Haiti began already some years ago, as we realized that this was the poorest country in Latin America, with a fragile state and with some very basic needs in the areas of health, education, and infrastructure for a population the majority of which lives on less than two dollars a day. I had visited Haiti a couple of times as Secretary of State for International Cooperation, before the terrible earthquake, which has claimed more than 200,000

victims, and the poverty of a large city like Port-au-Prince had made a deep impression on me. The emergency phase demanded, as a result, a rapid, broad, and effective response, and in this regard all of Spain threw itself into helping Haiti. Through the Spanish Agency for International Development Cooperation (AECID), our country has deployed more than 700 people in search-and-rescue and medical teams and has sent 24 airplanes with nearly 200 tons of food and supplies of all kinds, at the same time that it has mobilized resources worth more than 100 million euros.

Immediately upon receiving news of the earthquake in Haiti and the extent of the destruction, the Consular Emergency Unit activated all its resources for on-site coordination and of management of the situation. Thus, an official was sent to Port-au-Prince to help in the tasks of locating and possibly evacuating Spanish and European citizens, in light of the fact that Spain held the rotating presidency of the European Union.

times difficult communication. Spain's diplomatic representation in Haiti was installed, as a last resort, at the UN base in Port-auPrince. With the help of personnel shifted from the embassy and consulate-general in Santo Domingo, the task of locating Spanish citizens began. Meanwhile, the Unit's headquarters in Madrid, in contact with the other European Union member states, sent information about Europeans who might have been affected.

The scene in the capital was devastating. The embassy and the ambassador's residence had been destroyed. There was neither electricity nor fuel. The communications network had ceased to function, and security posed a serious problem when moving around in the city. In Port-au-Prince, only a satellite phone was available with which to communicate with Madrid, which meant unstable and at

However, we cannot rest on our laurels, because true reconstruc-

Multiple evacuations were organized to Santo Domingo and from there to Spain, taking advantage of flights by Spanish Army planes and by the planes chartered by AECID. Organizing these operations was enormously complex; it was necessary to coordinate and monitor not only the groups of evacuees, but also a series of highly changeable flight plans and schedules. Especially dur-

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tion to build a new Haiti will be a task of years for which the principal donors, Spain among them, and the international community as a whole will need to sustain our cooperation efforts. Otherwise, when this Caribbean country is no longer on the television news and the front pages of the newspapers every day, poverty and abandonment will take over in Haiti once again. After the donor conference held in New York on 31 March, it's more urgent than ever that we all, from the government to the municipalities by way of the NGOs and the autonomous communities, commit ourselves to not wasting our final opportunity to rescue Haiti from the tragic destiny that has been hers until now.

ing the first few days, obtaining transportation to get the evacuees to the airport was a truly arduous mission. At the same time, the localization of the remains of the four Spanish fatalities, as well as their identification and transfer, were successfully carried out despite the enormous difficulties. The collaboration of our search-andrescue teams and AECID personnel, as well as of personnel from the Civil Guard and the National Police, was essential for this. The efforts made in Haiti to provide assistance to Spaniards and Europeans in an emergency situation were well worth the trouble. I would like to thank all those who, in Madrid, Santo Domingo, or Port-au-Prince itself, made it possible, in a highly adverse environment, for the results of this operation to be a source of pride for our ministry.

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foreign affairs

The abolition of the death penalty is one of the priorities of Spanish foreign policy in the human-rights area. With this commitment, Spain is contributing with all its bilateral and multilateral diplomatic efforts to furthering the establishment of a moratorium on the death penalty in the countries that retain it, as a preliminary to its definitive abolition. by Rafael Valle Garagorri Ambassador/National Coordinator against the Death Penalty

During the last few decades, in practically every region of the world, there has developed an increasing tendency toward the abolition of the death penalty, as a consequence of the consolidation of an international movement affirming respect for human rights, which have as their basis and reason for being the right to life and to human dignity. If we compare the situation that existed only three decades ago to the current one, the change has been enormous, since today two-thirds of the member countries of the United Nations have

The Death Penalty in Figures Around the World 8,864 people were condemned to death in 2008, in a total of 52 countries. 2,390 people were executed in 2008 in 25 countries. 93% of all executions carried out in 2008 were carried out, in this order, inn China, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, and the United States. 139 countries have abolished the death penalty or ceased to practice it as of 2008. 9 countries maintain the death penalty in their legislation only for common crimes.

Spain and the Worldwide Fight against the Death Penalty

a abolished the death penalty either de facto or de jure. But despite the successes obtained, we cannot rest satisfied, since there are still many places in the world where the death penalty continues to be applied. According to the most recent figures available, in 2008 there were 2,390 executions in 25 countries - China, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, and the United States carried out 93% of all executions - and at least 8,864 death sentences in 52 countries. Spain today is an entirely abolitionist country, as is evident both from its national legislation and from the fact that it has ratified all international treaties promoting the abolition of the death penalty to which the country is eligible to be a party. In the framework of the United Na-

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tions, so important because of its uni- the death penalty. The International versality, Spain voted in favor of the Commission will begin its work in General Assembly's two resolutions the second half of this year, and its in 2007 and 2008 on a moratorium on activities will be backed by a Support the use of the death penalty and was Group made up of government reppart of the group of co-sponsoring resentatives from countries on every countries. continent. In the speech he delivered to the As holder of the rotating presiGeneral Assembly of the United Na- dency of the Council of the European tions on 25 September 2008, the Union during the first half of 2010, Spanish prime minister proposed Spain continues to promote the reto make 2015 the year of a universal cently-updated European Union dimoratorium on the death penalty, as rectives in this regard, furthering the a first step toward obtaining its total establishment of a moratorium on the abolition, and he repeated this pro- death penalty in the countries that posal when speaking at the opening retain it, as a preliminary to its abolisession of the Fourth World Congress tion. At the same time, direct efforts against the Death Penalty held in Ge- are made to ensure that no country in neva on 24-26 February. carrying out a death sentence violates Given the complexity of this task, the minimum criteria established by this plan provides for a gradual ap- international law. In another sphere, proach that can open a period of re- coordination has already begun flection on the meaning of among member states with this punishment inflicted the aim of moving forward by some states. At the same Spain's on the approval at the end time, this initiative calls for commitment of this year of a new United the immediate suspension to the fight Nations General Assembly of those executions that vio- against the resolution on establishing late the minimum criteria death penalty a moratorium on the death established by international is reflected in penalty, which is expected law, particularly executions the National to be even more ambitious of minors, pregnant women, Human Rights and obtain even more supand individuals with mental Plan approved port than the previous resodisabilities. in 2008 lutions in 2007 and 2008. Spain's strong commitThe fight against the ment to the fight against the death death penalty is a shared task in penalty is reflected in the National which civil-society actors, internaHuman Rights Plan approved by tional organizations, and government the government in December 2008, representatives from countries in evwhich considers the abolition of the ery region of the world all participate. death penalty as a foreign-policy pri- The Fourth World Congress against ority in the human-rights area. the Death Penalty that was just held The National Human Rights Plan in Geneva with very positive results, also calls for the creation of an In- and the next edition of which, within ternational Commission against the the next two years, might take place Death Penalty, currently in the plan- in Spain, is evidence of the close colning stages, to be made up of promi- laboration that already exists on all nent individuals with a high level of fronts with the purpose of giving demoral authority and international cisive momentum to the worldwide prestige, drawn from every region of abolition of the death penalty. Spain the world, with the objective of con- will continue contributing to this tributing to the international com- task with all its bilateral and multimunity's efforts in the fight against lateral diplomatic efforts.

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Cartel tipo Roller para promocionar y señalar la entrada de un determinado evento. Aunque este tipo de soportes tienen unas medidas fijadas por los diferentes fabricantes las imágenes que se muestran en esta página pueden servir como modelo a la hora de plantear su diseño.

Measures to channel the economic recovery have marked the first three months of the Spanish presidency, which is coordinating the activities of the member states in a context of economic crisis and within a new institutional framework. by Begoña Lucena

The Spanish Presidency of the European Union Reaches Its Midpoint The Spanish presidency has reached the halfway mark. Since 1 January, the actions of the 27 member states of the European Union have carried a Spanish imprint. These three months have served to put the Spanish agenda's priorities on the table and to set the rhythm of a complex period, immersed in an economic crisis unparalleled in recent years. To this must be added the entrance onto the scene of a new institutional model after the Lisbon Treaty took effect on 1 December, with new positions and new instruments that are now starting to come into play.

Economic recovery. From the first day that Spain assumed the presidency of the Council of the European Union, economic recovery was the principal overarching objective of whatever measures the country would promote from its new position at the head of the 27 member states. The Spanish presidency has called for and worked toward obtaining greater coordination among the economic policies of the member states in such a way that the Union can move toward a single economic administration, implying greater commitment

by the community members to carry out such measures. The first step was taken in the informal meeting of heads of state and government called by the new permanent president of the Council, Herman Van Rompuy. Subsequently, this program was ratified at the European Council's spring meeting, which marked the end of the first three months of the Spanish presidency and at which the so-called "EU 2020 Strategy" received strong backing. This strategy, which replaces the failed "Lisbon Strategy," proposes a new model of economic growth in ac-

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Cartel tipo Roller para promocionar y señalar la entrada de un determinado evento.

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e Spanish presidency of the EU | in brief 19

cordance with the Spanish presidency's policy positions, based on green industries, knowledge, and education and training as the principle guarantees of stable and quality employment, which can strengthen the EU's competitiveness in the global market and make it less vulnerable to crises like the current one. The goal is that its essential elements will be approved at the final European Council meeting of the Spanish term in June. Meanwhile, other steps are being taken toward an exit from the economic crisis. During these three first months, two important agreements have been approved, the first to reduce the bureaucratic burden on small and mediumsized business and the second to use microcredit to finance the creation of new businesses. In addition, a directive has been approved to simplify VAT invoicing, a far from trivial issue, and an agreement (the Donostia Declaration) has been reached to promote the production of electric vehicles, something of which Spain is strongly in favor. European citizenship. “We want to bring the Spanish presidency into citizens' hearts, and to this end, we're going to bring to the European Union the Spanish administration's concern for social matters.” This was an assurance made by the Secretary of State for the European Union, Diego López Garrido, during preparations for the presidency, and it is an idea on which Spain has insisted

since then. In these first three months, the Spanish presidency has obtained the unanimous support of the 27 member states for the creation of the European Observatory on Gender Violence, a special focus of the Spanish government, the first in Europe to pass comprehensive legislation against gender violence. Two significant debates have also been launched that will lead to greater protection for citizens and to greater participation in decision-making within the EU. On the one hand, the Spanish presidency has proposed the creation of a European attorney-general who could fight fraud, corruption, and attacks on the euro, and in a second phase, crossborder crimes. On the other hand, one of the essential objectives of the Spanish agenda is the launch of the European Citizen Initiative, included in the Lisbon Treaty, through which a million citizens will be able to press the European Commission to begin a legislative process in one of its areas of competence. Many other initiatives have also moved forward during this time, such as a directive that extends workers' parental leave to four months, an agreement on a directive on injury prevention in the healthcare sector, and measures to enhance external border protection. Likewise, an Internal Security Strategy has been approved, an agreement has been signed between the EU and the United States (the Toledo Declaration)

to enhance cooperation in the fight against terrorism, and measures have been taken to improve transportation security and investment in the energy sector. In the fight against climate change, decisions have also been made with the objective of maintaining the EU's role as a world leader following the failure of the Copenhagen Conference. Europe as a global actor. It is along this path that the Spanish presidency is working to give form to the new instruments and new positions resulting from the Lisbon Treaty: the new permanent President of the Council, the High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and the new European External Action Service (the European diplomatic corps). This balance has been evident in the various meetings that have been held during these first three months of the Spanish presidency and is helping to shape a more coherent and united image of the European Union abroad. Significant advances have been achieved in this sphere, as has been demonstrated by the response to the crises in Haiti and Chile, the conclusion of negotiations for agreements with Colombia and Peru, and the progress in negotiations with Ecuador. In addition, two new chapters have been opened in the process for Croatia's accession to the EU, and Iceland has obtained a favorable ruling on its candidacy.

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spanish presidency of the EU | in brief


Cartel tipo Roller para promocionar y señalar la entrada de un determinado evento. Aunque este tipo de soportes tienen unas medidas fijadas por los diferentes fabricantes las imágenes que se muestran en esta página pueden servir como modelo a la hora de plantear su diseño.

The city of Cordoba, an unrivaled historical landmark, provided the setting for the Informal Meeting of Foreign Ministers (Gymnich) of the Spanish Presidency of the Council of the European Union. Taking as its focus the implementation of the European External Action Service and the situation in the Middle East, the first Gymnich to be held under the Treaty of Lisbon provided an opportunity for the EU's foreign ministers to exchange ideas in a relaxed environment. by Beatriz Beeckmans

Cordoba hosts the Informal Meeting of Foreign Ministers

Every six months, the Foreign Ministers from each of the European Union's member states hold an informal meeting, known as Gymnich after the German castle in which the first meeting was held in 1974. This informal meeting, which has an agenda but no formal outcome, is an opportunity for the Foreign Ministers to exchange ideas and outline future plans. Spain, as the country currently holding the presidency of the Council of the EU, was selected to host the meeting, and so the first Gymnich under the Span-

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spanish presidency of the EU | in brief

The Meeting of the European Union's Foreign Ministers was held in Cordoba's Palacio de Viana and the Royal Alcazars of the Andalusian city. PHOTOS JAVIER HERNÁNDEZ

ish presidency and the Treaty of Lisbon was held on March 5 and 6 in the city of Cordoba, which was chosen as a symbol of tolerance and cooperation. The Spanish Minister for Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, Miguel Ángel Moratinos, invited his foreign counterparts to join him at this Gymnich which was also attended for the first time by Catherine Ashton, the new High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and Vice-President of the European Commission. During two intense days, a distinctly European spirit was evoked with the arrival of the European delegates and the staff of various Spanish ministries, while some two hundred journalists were based at the press center in the city's Palacio de Congresos, providing coverage for

national and international media. Both the Palacio de Viana, the historic landmark chosen to host the meeting, and the limited number of discussion items allowed for, in the words of Miguel Ángel Moratinos "the creation of a European family spirit which has always characterized these meetings, where we exchange ideas in order to allow the High Representative to plan and implement real foreign policy strategies for the EU". Upon arriving in the Andalusian city from all over Europe in a highspeed AVE train specially commissioned for the meeting, the ministers discussed issues of utmost political importance for the future of the European Union. The main theme was, undoubtedly, the implementation of the European External Action Service. “For the first time in 50 years, we are

building a new institution aimed at consolidating the positions taken by the Member States, while recognizing the role of the Commission and the Council", stated the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. Ashton underlined her desire to keep within the projected timeframe and confirmed that distinction and transparency in the selection of its members should govern this initial phase: “it must be an open and dynamic process that leads to the creation of an authentic European External Action Service, which, once complete, will enjoy the participation of all States.” EU relations with emerging countries, such as China, India and Brazil, was the focus of another working session, during which the Ministers reiterated the need for the Union to


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Cartel tipo Roller para promocionar y señalar la entrada de un determinado evento. Aunque este tipo de soportes tienen unas medidas fijadas por los diferentes fabricantes las imágenes que se muestran en esta página pueden servir como modelo a la hora de plantear su diseño.

The EU's foreign ministers had the opportunity to visit the Cathedral, formerly the mosque of Cordoba, at the end of their first day.

consolidate its role as a global player that interacts with these powers not only economically, but politically. The Foreign Ministers also discussed the situation in the Middle East and the role the Union might play in the region. “The EU has a clear position and terms of reference on the conflict, but action now has to be taken so that the Union is seen as a credible partner and that the two-State solution becomes a reality” –stated Miguel Ángel Moratinos during a press conference. “We cannot eternally hope for a two-State solution –the Minister reiterated-, unless we make advances which include positive incentives for both parties”. As such, the Gymnich served as an opportunity to consolidate positions within the EU regarding its action as regards restarting of the Middle East peace process. Miguel Ángel Mora-

tinos referred to the EU position set by the twenty-seven Member States, forth on December 8, 2009, in which reinforcing EU support for the Palit was stated that if the desire is to estinian Authority so that it may take create a lasting peace, a negotiation responsibility for security, and makmethod must be found to resolve the ing the Quartet more dynamic so that status of Jerusalem as the future capi- the EU can play a greater role in its tal of the two states. He also activities." made it clear that the EU At the end of the first must work with the US Ad- The European day, the Ministers enjoyed ministration to help restart External Action a guided tour of the Corthe indirect negotiations Service and the doba Cathedral, formerly through the US Special En- situation in the a mosque, before posing voy, George Mitchell. The Middle East took for the traditional group Minister also stated that center stage photo taken under one of during the discussions there at the working the porticos in the Patio de was a palpable "sense of gen- sessions held in los Naranjos. The next day, eral agreement regarding Cordoba the Alcazar of the Christhe actions of the EU" and tian Kings played host to a said that the humanitarian situation working lunch focusing on the Westin Gaza was also discussed during the ern Balkans, which was also attended meeting. The High Representative by the countries currently waiting confirmed that her role now "consist- to join the European Union: Croatia, ed in advancing the decisions taken Turkey and Macedonia.

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spanish presidency of the EU | in brief

The Minister represents the EU during a visit to the Caucasus  On March 2 and 3 Miguel Ángel Moratinos traveled to the South Caucasus on behalf of the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, Catherine Ashton, with the objective of ensuring that Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia understand that the region represents a priority for the EU's foreign relations.

Inauguration of the European Year against Poverty and Social Exclusion  The Spanish Presidency has inaugurated 2010 as the European Year against Poverty and Social Exclusion, during which numerous activities will be held throughout all European countries. As part of this effort, the twenty-seven member states are joining forces to combat a problem that affects one in six European citizens. The objective: to raise awareness among governments and citizens about the need to adopt effective measures.

The Spanish Prime Minister, José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero; the President of the European Commission, José Manuel Durao Barroso; the former Spanish Prime Minister, Felipe González, and the Ministers for Health and Equality, Trinidad Jiménez and Bibiana Aído (respectively), with others, at the group photo taken during the meeting. photo efe

Advances in European air transport  Issues regarding aerial navigation informed the recent actions of the Spanish Presidency in the transport sector, leading to notable advances in the fields of security and the investigation of accidents. Furthermore, according to the Spanish development minister, José Blanco, the conference on the Single European Sky, held in Madrid on February 25 and 26 ended with "the approval of the Madrid Declaration and a road map consisting of over 60 initiatives to execute this strategic EU project".

Spain, Belgium and Hungary aim for 75% female employment  During an informal meeting in Valencia held at the end of March, the Equality ministers from the Trio of Presidencies presented a joint statement in which they urged the EU to double its efforts to eliminate inequality between men and women. In this statement, which they presented to the European Commission and the European Council, they ask that the new 2020 strategy (which will be approved in June) include an increase in female employment from the current level of 63% to 75% as one of its objectives.

In Barcelona

Presentation of the new Secretary General of the Union for the Mediterranean On March 4, Barcelona was the setting for the presentation of the new Secretary General of the Union for the Mediterranean, Ahmad Masa’deh. During the ceremony, Miguel Ángel Moratinos expressed his satisfaction at both "the choice of Barcelona as the host city for the Secretariat of the Union of the Mediterranean, and the presentation of the new Secretary General who has set in motion a project that was neither a utopia nor a dream, but a meeting point for Europeans, Arabs, Israelis and all Mediterranean neighbors". “It is also - the Minister highlighted - a body that is fundamental for reaching peace in the Middle East as it includes representatives from both sides”. During his visit to Barcelona, the Minister for Foreign Affairs and Cooperation also inaugurated the First Anna Lindh Forum for intercultural dialogue, held in Barcelona, which brought together over 700 representatives of civil society from the 43 countries that make up the Union for the Mediterranean.

The Spanish Presidency promotes a plan of action for underage immigrants  Spain has begun working with the European Commission regarding the proposal on the immigration of unaccompanied minors the Commission aims to present on May 5. The community-wide regulation of the status of these children and adolescents who flee their countries without their parents, often in the hands of human traffickers, is a priority for the Spanish Presidency, which hopes that such measures will be adopted before June 30.


The New Secretary General of the Union for the Mediterranean, Ahmad Masadeh, with the Mayor of Barcelona, Jordi Hereu, at the presentation on March 4. photo EFE

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Prelude to the business summit between the EU and Morocco. The first bilateral summit with our of the EU's Southern neighbors

Granada hosts the first EU Morocco Summit Under the Spanish Presidency, the European Union held its first bilateral Summit with one of its Southern neighbors on March 6 and 7 in the city of Granada. The Summit has led to a reinforced commitment to cooperation from both regions. The EU was represented by the Spanish Prime Minister, José Luís Rodríguez Zapatero, in his role as the incumbent President of the Council of the European Union and host, the Permanent President of the European Council, Herman Van Rompuy, the President of the European Commission, José Manuel Durao Barroso, the Commissioner for Trade, Karel de Gucht, Commissioner for Enlargement and European Neighborhood Policy, Stefan Füle, and the Minister for Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, Miguel Ángel Moratinos. The Moroccan Prime Minister, Abbas El Fassi, was accompanied by his Min-

isters for Foreign Affairs, Economy and Finance, Agriculture and Fisheries, Education, Industry, Trade and New Technologies and Foreign Trade. The meeting allowed those present to tackle, among other issues, the current economic situation, the fight against climate change, integration in the Maghreb, the Union for the Mediterranean, the peace process in the Middle East, relations between the EU and Africa, immigration, security in The Sahel and the prospects of the Advanced Status granted Morocco by the EU. In the words of Miguel Ángel Moratinos, the event constitutes “one more step in a privileged relationship between both regions, which will be reflected in significant political and economic support". A business meeting between EU representatives and Morocco had previously been held in Granada.

From Left to Right: the Spanish Prime Minister, José Luís Rodríguez Zapatero, the Moroccan Prime Minister, Abbas El Fassi, the Permanent President of the European Council, Herman Van Rompuy and the President of the European Commission, José Manuel Durao Barroso, during an appearance in Granada. photo efe

Ministers of Justice and the Interior meet in Toledo The EU and the US met in Toledo during the meeting of Ministers of Justice and the Interior to progress the fight against terrorism and organized crime. In a joint resolution, the EU Member States and the US Administration committed to increase aerial security

through the exchange of information for the early detection of terrorists and explosives in airports and on flights. In the document, the Ministers also urge the European Commission to move swiftly to finalize the registry of European passengers.


Cartel tipo Roller para promocionar y señalar la entrada de un determinado evento. Aunque este tipo de soportes tienen unas medidas fijadas por los diferentes fabricantes las imágenes que se muestran en esta página pueden servir como modelo a la hora de plantear su diseño.

The EU defends the value of culture as a source of wealth  The culture industry generates 5 million jobs and represents 2.6% of the GDP of all EU countries. For this reason, the nearly 600 professionals who took part in the Second European Forum on Cultural Industries in Barcelona, restated the value of culture as a source of employment and wealth, and named piracy as one of its main threats.

Agriculture ministers for an improvement in the food chain  During the meeting of the Council of Agriculture and Fisheries held on March 29, Agriculture ministers agreed upon a document of conclusions regarding how to improve the way in which the EU's food chain functions. Its priorities are the promotion of sustainable market relations for all parties and an increase in food chain transparency to foment capability.

II European Summit on Actions and Policies in favor of the Gypsy Population  Coinciding with the International Day of the Gypsy Population, Cordoba hosted the Second European Summit on Actions and Policies in favor of the Gypsy Population during which various round tables and working groups held in-depth discussions on the commitments and tools provided by the EU to improve the effectiveness of public policies and social initiatives aimed at the gypsy population.

Spain to support the European Protection Order  At the next Council of Interior Ministers, the Spanish Presidency will support the European Protection Order for victims of gender-related violence. This is a project supported by twelve Member States, a number which constitutes a sufficient majority for it to pass to consideration by Parliament.

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ACP-EU Parliamentary Assembly  The reconstruction of Haiti, the conflict in Sudan and the financial impact of climate change are just some of the subjects that were discussed over three days at the Parliamentary Assembly of the EU and African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States held in Tenerife, which was attended by members of parliament from the ACP countries and the European Parliament, as well as the European Commissioner for Development, Andris Piebalgs. The Assembly's working groups also studied the viability of a single financial tool for cooperation, which would help overcome the difficulties in using the ERDF funds for this purpose.

La Granja hosts the first Meeting of the Presidency  From January 12 - 14, La Granja (Segovia) hosted the Informal Meeting of Ministers for Europe, in which the priorities for the Spanish Presidency were announced and the debate on the European Citizenship Initiative was launched.

‘Ellas crean’, an artistic festival from the Trio of Presidencies  More than one hundred and fifty cultural activities, led by almost 200 artists and spread throughout 40 cities on 5 continents, make up the sixth 'Ellas Crean', the festival that celebrates the creative activity of women. Joan Baez, Luz Casal, Agnès Jaoui, Barbara Hendricks and Marisa Paredes are just some of the celebrated artists appearing at the event, which this year has seen us join forces with our counterparts in the Trio of Presidencies, Belgium and Hungary.

Culture, present in the Presidency with Eurojazz 2010  Madrid has been transformed into the European capital of jazz in a festival, founded in honor of the Spanish Presidency, that brings the best contemporary musicians to our country.


Aunque este tipo de soportes tienen unas medidas fijadas por los diferentes fabricantes las imágenes que se muestran en esta página pueden servir como modelo a la hora de plantear su diseño.

spanish presidency of the EU | in brief 25

Drive to negotiate with Mercosur. According to Miguel Ángel Moratinos, the meeting revealed the serious interest in the Spanish Presidency for reinforcing the global relationship with Latin America and, in particular, with strategic players such as Brazil.

Miguel Ángel Moratinos, Catherine Ashton and Celso Amorim, during the press conference. photo j.hernández

Ministerial Meeting on Political Dialog between the European Union and Brazil On February 15, Madrid's Palacio de Viana hosted the Ministerial Meeting on Political Dialog between the European Union and the Republic of Brazil. In attendance at the meeting, celebrated during the Spanish Presidency of the Council of the European Union, were the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, Catherine Ashton, the Minister for Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, Miguel Ángel Moratinos, and the Brazilian Minister for External Relations, Celso Amorim. The meeting set in motion a highlevel political dialog between the EU and Brazil, planned for in the Strategic Association established by the first Summit between the two parties in Lisbon, 2007. During the Summit, the principal issues regarding the bilateral and international agenda of the European Union and Brazil were discussed; one of the most salient being the drive for the EU to negotiate with Mercosur, a move which will allow an agreement on association to be reached this semester. “Significant advances have been made", confirmed Catherine Ashton. As regards the "interest of the Spanish

Presidency of the EU in reinforcing the global relationship with Latin America and important and strategic actors like Brazil", Miguel Ángel Moratinos added it would be an honor, "to advance in what will be a good alliance between the European Union and Mercosur thanks to the role and leadership that Brazil brings to the table”. During the meeting's press conference, the Brazilian Minister for External Relations also chose to emphasize the progress that had been made. Amorim highlighted the role that the agreement could play: “We have worked a great deal to take the EU-Mercosur agreement forward so that it may, in turn, have a positive impact not just on the economies of the two blocks, but also serve as an inspiration for multilateralism”. Similarly, Moratinos emphasized "the advances in the preparation of the great Summit between the EU and Latin America that will be held in Madrid this May”. Alongside the negotiation of the commercial agreement between the EU and Mercosur, other key issues such as the reconstruction in Haiti, the Copenhagen Agreement on Climate Change and the Iranian issue were also discussed.

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KNOW YOUR EMBASSY Stretching from the coalfields of Donbass to the Carpathians, from the Crimean Peninsula to the Danube estuary, and over its fertile central and northern plains, the Ukraine boasts great geographic diversity and is home to 46 million inhabitants. By Rafael Osorio

The Ukraine: a young democracy steeped in culture

Historically, the Ukraine was the first independent Slavic state: the Kievan Rus. Between the 11th and 13th centuries, the city of seven hills and golden cupolas along the banks of the Dnieper was an important religious, artistic and trading center in Eastern Europe. After this period, the territory was invaded by the army of Batu Khan, and remained divided for centuries. Different regions of the Ukraine have been under rule of Lithuania, Poland, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Russian Empire, Czechoslovakia between the world wars, and the USSR until 1991, when the country gained independence as presently constituted. The Spanish Government immediately recognized the Ukraine as an independent state on January 31, 1991, and diplomatic relations were established one year later. Relations were consolidated with the visit of the thenSpanish Minister of Foreign Affairs Francisco Fernåndez Ordóùez in 1992.


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View of modern Kiev and its port on the Danube.

Since then, the two countries cratic standards. Thanks to have always enjoyed excel- Spain is one the impulse from Ukrainian lent relations both on a bilat- of the top ten society, the country has deeral level and through Spain's investors in the cisively embarked on the European policy. During this Ukraine. path to democracy and now time, Spain has cooperated there is no turning back. with the Ukraine's various However, still suffering governments in opening up the coun- from the economic crisis, the complete try up to democratic values and to Eu- development of the Ukraine's full porope. tential for growth has been stunted. The Ukraine is a young democracy. The Ukraine's economic relations with During its almost 19 years of inde- Spain are exemplary. Spanish imports pendence, the Ukraine has witnessed to these countries had shown a positive various political and economic crises trend during the first few years of the and suffered numerous rises and falls. new century, almost doubling in bareTowards the end of 2004, the Orange ly two years (2006-2007). However, Revolution gave rise to high expecta- in 2009 Spanish exports were half of tions among the Ukrainians, who had those of 2008. The crisis has affected all become frustrated during the previous of the countries in the region but it has years. The country has continued to been especially harsh on a country such move forward towards the strength- as the Ukraine, which had maintained ening of democracy, as was evident strong growth in previous years. during the recent presidential elecMost Ukrainian exports to Spain tions that received the approval of are iron or steel, as well as fats and international observers for the way in oils, from both animal and vegetable which the election respected demo- sources. Cars, trucks and industrial

Ukraine in Figures Government: Presidential republic Population: 16.5 million inhabitants Population density: 77.1 people per km2 Illiteracy rate: 0 % Life expectancy at birth: 68 years HDI ranking (2005): 78 GDP: 139.7 million US dollars (2007) Inflation rate: 11.3% (2007) Main Export Partner: Russia Main Import Partner: Russia Main Exports: Non-precious metals Main Imports: Energy and gas Source: Min. of Foreign Aff. & Coop.

machinery make up the most noteworthy Spanish exports. Spain is also one of the top ten countries to have invested in the Ukraine. One of the largest Ukrainian companies to operate in Spain is Sicilio Solar: a company which specializes in renewable energies and has one of its largest plants in Puertol-

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lano (Ciudad Real), the construction of which involved an investment of €50 million. Providing hope of greater stability allowing sustained development in these times of uncertainty, Ukrainian culture is booming: its creativity and efforts have more than compensated for the lack of economic resources. To be sure, the Ukraine boasts a highly skilled population and a flourishing, varied cultural heritage. The Festival of Contemporary Art, GOGOLFEST, is a good example of this, as is demonstrated by its strong appeal

to Ukrainian youth. The Festival brings in an audience that is eager to see the art world's latest offerings: nonconformist, open and tolerant works that value the true meaning of liberty. It is the ultimate expression of a democratic society. It is for this very reason that the Spanish Embassy in the Ukraine and AECID (Spanish Agency for International Development Cooperation) support GOGOLFEST. Last year, the Embassy took part with a play and a photography exhibit that also served as a vehicle to promote Spanish culture in

the Ukraine. This year, an inaugural ceremony is being planned in cooperation with the festival organizers and the 'La Fura dels Baus' theater company which aims to elevate the artistic content of the event and to gain a place among the best Festivals of Contemporary Art in Europe. This festival expresses the best of Ukrainian youth: their desire to live in a modern, democratic and stable European State. Indeed, helping to consolidate the local cultural institutional structure in the Ukraine is helping to consolidate the country itself.

From left to right: Kiev's dynamic port area, traditional golden cupolas (the Ukrainian capital's hallmark), and an aerial view of Khreshtyk Street, the capital's main arterial road.

A SPANISH WOMAN IN THE UKRAINE Antonia Estrada Vázquez A Spanish nun who has lived in Kiev for 13 years IN KIEV

How and when did you decide to go to the Ukraine? Thirteen years ago, the Congregación Santo Domingo (a religious order) founded a mission in Kiev officially named “Vicariato Madre de Dios (the Mother of God Vicarial)”. I came with the intention of opening a Catholic school, which proved to be impossible. However, while trying to provide a well-rounded education to the children and helping them with health issues, we opened La Casa de los Niños or Dim Ditey (The Children's House) in 2002, which is now known in Kiev as the "Hispanka Skola"; the Spanish School. Please explain the project to us... Dim Ditey is an after-school children's center which is open Monday through Saturday. We provide free extracurricular classes which include languages,

music, singing, dance, theater, self-defense, computer skills, handicrafts, painting, drawing and sports. We also send children to Spain every year: to Ciudad Real, Asturias and Valladolid. We also help young adults with training and study, and give monthly presentations to parents and tutors about, among other things, education and religion. The aim is to prevent our pupils from becoming "street children," a problem which affects many Ukrainian children due to a lack of role-models to guide them, take care of them and instill proper values in them. Most of them come from large families who lack the means to care for them properly, which is why we have a certain focus on families. The Madre de Dios mission also has a boarding school in

Zhmerinka, 370 km from Kiev, where children live in abysmal conditions because the building is in ruins. Winters there are terrible, as there is no heating. We are doing everything we can to improve the conditions there, but it is very difficult as we are lacking resources. In general, how has your experience in the Ukraine been? Very positive. Working with children is very rewarding: working for them, for their benefit and happiness. What image of Spain and the Spanish people do you think they have? Ukrainians tend to say that Spain is a paradise: because of the sun, the sea and the people. This is why they enjoy studying Spanish so much; their dream is to go there.


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Spain and the Ukraine, at the two extremes of Europe José Rodríguez Moyano

Spanish Ambassadorto the Ukraine

The Ukraine, as hinted at in the etymology of its name which means "marker" or "border", is geographically located on the eastern edge of Europe, and has taken on increasing importance since its independence on 25 August 1991. Today the Ukraine finds itself consolidating its democratic system following the recent and wellregulated presidential elections in January and February of this year, in which Victor Yanukovich won the presidency. The Ukraine's natural calling is to serve as a bridge between Eastern and Western Europe. As long as it continues the internal processes of democratization and economic modernization, and the continuing consolidation of its political system, its value as a stabilizing force in the region will grow alongside its strategic importance. For this same reason, the Ukraine's commitment to Europe is of crucial importance. As the Ukraine draws progressively closer to Europe, the relationship will act as a catalyst giving rise to changes in the economic, political and social order of the country, and producing a climate more favorable to the free movement of people and investment capital. For this very reason, the signing of an Association Agreement between the EU and the Ukraine (such as that which is currently being negotiated with Spanish support) at the heart of which is the proposal of a Free Trade Area that aims to include

550 million people, deserves serious consideration. The bilateral relations which were established 18 years ago on January 30,1992 and which, while as young as the Ukraine itself, are also just as strong and full of promise, are near the point of achieving robust maturity. Very soon after these relations were established, the then-Spanish Minister of Foreign Affairs, Fernández Ordóñez, visited the Ukraine for the first time in April 1992. Since then, subsequent visits by the Minister of Foreign affairs have shaped and established the foundations of political dialog. Minister Moratinos visited Kiev on November 2 and 3 of 2009, and the Ukrainian Foreign Minister Petr Poroshenko visited Spain in January of this year as part of an effort to increase both visits and political contact at all levels. Spain and the Ukraine are two countries which, while being geographically distant, are brought closer together by common ground: both are located at the edge of Europe, have a similar population, a strong culture, and share great friendship and mutual admiration as well as a desire to learn from each other. The two countries also have shared interests, given that Spain has an industrious Ukrainian community that is well-established in our country. Military relations are also close, with the Spanish Army Chief

Spain wishes to contribute to the Ukraine becoming a prosperous, modern, democratic and open country that fosters stability.

of Staff and Chief of Defense Staff visiting the country in recent years. Furthermore, the Ukrainians' taste for all things Spanish is palpable, and represents a potential that must be harnessed. To this end, Spain plans to open a branch of the Cervantes Institute in Kiev in the near future. The Ukraine's economic potential also deserves to be highlighted: the country is a major producer of cereals, steel and avionics. This means that sectors of the Ukrainian economy such as the agricultural and energy sectors, infrastructure and even tourism are increasingly attractive to Spanish businesses; and while the Ukraine moves closer to the EU and promotes a more favorable climate for foreign investment, Spanish investment will feature prominently. Spain wishes to contribute to the Ukraine becoming a prosperous, modern, democratic and open country that offers stability. The two countries share the same point of view regarding how to approach many global issues, such as the necessity to fight against international piracy: an area in which mutual cooperation has already proven to be successful. In short, bilateral relations, much like the Ukraine's own evolution, have reached an important moment of consolidation and progress which Spain, as an entrepreneurial nation, should and will take advantage of.

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“From and for the public sector”. That is the motto of the FIIAPP (International and Ibero-American Foundation for Administration and Public Policies), which was founded as an institution for foreign action. In this interview, the director of the FIIAPP discusses the purpose and orientation of the Foundation, and announces "Agora, Latin America", the First Leadership Retreat for Social Cohesion in Latin America, which will take place next month in Madrid.

Antonio Fernández Poyato Director of the FIIAPP

“Overcoming inequality is Latin America's foremost challenge, and democracy is our most powerful weapon” — What is the FIIAPP? — It is a public foundation for foreign action that focuses on development cooperation--particularly with respect to governability and institutional strengthening. We support democracy building and social cohesion processes in developing countries; we help to strengthen public institutions and provide training and education with regard to politics, public policy, and public management. We work from the public sector: we harness public "know how" and facilitate public worker participation in foreign projects. In effect, we are the Administration's tool for channeling public technical aid into foreign countries. — There are many organizations involved in cooperation efforts today. What is the FIIAPP's principal contribution? — As I said before, we harness public "know how" and share our best experiences in public resource management. At the end of the year, we were responsible for managing the involvement of some 1,500 experts in international cooperation projects, and we are one of Europe's top public technical aid players. Our main assets are an accumulated critical mass of expertise, the management of knowledge and best practices arising from collective European experience and the coordination of complex

European Commission programs. For instance, the EUROsociAL program, which we have headed for the past four years, has seen the participation of nearly 10,000 experts on both sides of the Atlantic, garnered the involvement of over 2,000 institutions, and resulted in the initiation of over 160 reform and public policy processes in Latin America. Thus, our main contribution is the individuals with whom we collaborate. — What role does the FIIAPP play in Spain's cooperation system? — The Democratic Governability, Citizen Involvement, and Institutional Development Sectoral Strategy of Spanish Cooperation describes our work in terms of a relevant three-fold role: public technical aid, social cohesion, and public leadership. In recent years, we have intensified efforts to align our structure and activity with these three areas of cooperation-through them we hope to become a an integral part of both the Spanish and European cooperation systems. — Throughout the 30 years you have been involved in cooperation efforts, both as an AECID official and as one of the instigators of Spain's first cooperation plan, you have invariably been associated with and linked to Latin America. What are your views of the region, and what are the FIIAPP's main efforts there? — I do consider myself very closely tied

to Latin America--I have spent a lot of time there... In my opinion, combating inequality is Latin America's foremost challenge, and democracy is our most powerful weapon against it. And the FIIAPP has risen to this challenge. Thus our efforts in the region can be summarized in terms of promoting democracy, promoting equality, strengthening the public sector, getting citizens involved... We work to promote social cohesion by focusing on human rights through the creation of opportunity and ensuring protection and by strengthening the State; we work alongside public leaders and politicians who are fighting for the people, for democracy, and for equal opportunity--in short, individuals fighting to ensure decent living conditions. In this process, we launched an Initiative for Social Cohesion in Latin America and organized its first leadership retreat, which will be called: “Agora, Latin America. 100 different voices. One single commitment”. — Agora, Latin America? — We wanted the name to be a reflection of the spirit of the retreat and the challenges to be discussed. Agora, Latin America is the result of a process launched in 2009 that resulted in the drafting of a Core Document on social cohesion, which will serve as a conceptual framework for the leadership retreat. The purpose of Agora, Latin America is to bring together 100 individuals from


profile. Antonio Fernández Poyato studied Political Science at the Complutense University, where he received a Doctorate Degree in International Relations and was also Associate Professor of International Studies. He received an Executive MBA from the Business Institute and has served as Director of the FIIAPP since 2004. His professional career has been almost entirely within the AECID, where he acted as Assistant Director of Scientific-Technical Cooperation with Ibero-America and Executive Advisor to the President of the Ibero-American Cooperation Institute among other positions; he later served as President of the Agency. His ties to Córdoba, his place of birth, have remained strong, from his time in the Executive Vice Presidency of Cajasur to his service in the Presidency of the Social Council of the University of Córdoba.

Latin America's political, social, and cultural spheres who will be responsible for setting the region's public agenda for the coming years and allow them to debate and analyze the importance of making social cohesion a part of that public agenda, both as the basis for a new social model of well-being and safety for the public as a whole and as one of the objectives for achieving humane, sustainable development. Agora, Latin America is a symbol of Spain's commitment to

civic duty, to economic, social, and cultural rights--it is a promotion of democracy; it is a symbol of the commitment to the creation of a political leadership capable of combating inequality, ensuring human rights, and of our desire to form part of the building of a new social agenda in the region. — But the Foundation's activities are not limited solely to Latin America. What are you doing in other regions? — With regard to public technical aid we

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cover a broad range of areas including justice, social and civic projects, public administration and decentralization, environmental, agricultural and industrial projects, as well as migration, internal and defense matters. We also enjoy a strong presence in Eastern Europe, the Balkans, and the Mediterranean Arc. Our efforts have also extended to SubSaharan Africa and even into Asia. In all, the FIIAPP has carried out projects influencing more than 100 countries throughout the five continents. — Earlier, you emphasized the fact that the FIIAPP has a clear European vision and focus. What are some examples of this? — With regard to institutional cooperation, the FIIAPP is a key player in Europe. Today, the European dimension is fundamental to successful cooperation. We have seen how important this truly is and we strive to implement Spain's commitments to Europe. Nearly 50% of our funding comes from the European Commission--in fact the Commission is our principal source of funding. We take part in European cooperation programs, such as the Twinning program, TAIEX, EUROsociAL, and URB-AL III, as well as in bids issued by EuropeAid and other international bodies. And these efforts have made the FIIAPP one of the primary public operators in the European Union with regard to public technical aid, and it plays a key role in the expansion of the Union and in the European Neighborhood Policy. — In conclusion, what does the future hold for FIIAPP? — The FIIAPP can expect to become the leading democratic governabilty action tank, promoting and overseeing development processes in the countries and regions where Spanish and European Cooperation is taking place. Likewise, I feel that it is crucial to establish forums for debate, promote critical thinking, and encourage the sharing of experience, always in a constructive manner, with regard to the issues of concern to the Foundation, in order to effect change in the new global public agenda.

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Fifth Meeting of Women for a Better World. Valencia hosted the 5th annual Spain-Africa Conference of Women for a Better World, which brought together 500 women from Africa, Europe and Latin America, the leaders of 50 African nations, government ministers as well as several Nobel Prize winners. It was the fifth in a series of meetings, the previous ones being held in Mozambique (2006), Spain (2007), Niger (2008) and Liberia (2009).

Her Majesty Queen Sofia, together with First Deputy Prime Minister María Teresa Fernández de la Vega and delegates at the 5th Meeting of Europe-Africa Women for a Better World, which brought female leaders from around the world together in Valencia.

Spain proposes a plan to promote equality The two day event, held during Spain's presidency of the EU, hosted discussions relating to peace and human rights, economic growth, health and education, training and culture. The Meeting also played host to the 2nd Forum for Food Security with delegates from Benin, Burkina Faso, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Sierra Leone and Spain. Her Majesty, Queen Sofía of Spain, chaired the Meeting's opening ceremony, in an event at which the First Deputy Prime Minister, María Teresa Fernández de la Vega, the Liberian President Ellen JohnsonSirleaf, the UN Deputy Secretary General Asha Rose Migiro, the President of Finland, Tara Jalonen, and the mayor of Valencia, Rita Barberá, also attended. According to VicePresident De la Vega, since the Meet-

ing in Maputo in 2006, Women for a Better World has worked constantly to rally more women, Governments and institutions to the cause of making the world "a more just, dignified and inhabitable place". The Meeting was concluded by the Spanish President, who recognized the work carried out by the women united in this cause who, in his opinion, have managed to open a public dialog regarding gender politics across the Mediterranean. He then highlighted the measures taken since 2004 to promote equality, quoting as examples the Spanish Law against Gender-based Violence, the Dependency Act, paternal leave, the Effective Equality between Men and Women Act, and the Plan against trafficking in humans for sexual exploitation. He also highlighted the

creation of a Ministry of Equality, which he lauded as being "most useful in relation to its budget" . Plan for gender equality and empowerment. It was the head of the Ministry for Equality, Bibiana Aido, who presented Spain's Strategic Plan for a Better World as an essential tool to protect women's rights, remove obstacles and promote opportunities for women. The Plan affirms the right to a life free from violence, the right to healthcare and the right to education. Finally, it touches on the effective implementation of equal opportunities to achieve greater public, professional and social positions. The plan is open to all proposals from those participating in the Meeting in Valencia, and will be passed in six months, thereafter to remain in effect for three years.


The International Community and Afghanistan

Moratinos greets his British counterpart, David Milliband, at the meeting.

 On January 28, London hosted an international conference with the aim of supporting the priorities outlined by President Karzai in his inauguration speech by establishing an outline for the progressive transfer of power to the Afghan government, enabling it to exercise full sovereignty. During the conference, which was attended by the Spanish Minister of Foreign Affairs, Miguel Ángel Moratinos, the Afghan government presented a collection of strategic documents relating to security, reintegration of insurgents, anti-corruption measures, economic development, efficiency of aid and regional cooperation.

Manuel Ocaña to renovate the future Casa Mediterráneo headquarters  The architect Manuel Ocaña won the contest to refurbish Benalúa station in Alicante, which will be the headquarters of Casa Mediterráneo, a public consortium promoted by the Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation. The panel chose his proposal because of its level of technical innovation, providing a building capable of adapting to new uses and facilities. Casa Mediterráneo, under the management of Yolanda Parrado, was introduced to the society and institutions of Alicante at the beginning of the year, and is part of a network of public diplomacy consortiums belonging to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation.

New Ministerial Crisis Management Center  In January, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation became the owner of a cutting-edge communications system that uses secure and efficient technology. The system enables crisis management and guarantees maximum coordination with other Government bodies. Now operating under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the center is an addition to the President's National Center and those of other government ministries.

Javier Solana awarded the “Carlos V” European Prize 2010  Javier Solana, the EU's ex-High Representative for Common Foreign and Security Policy was awarded the "Carlos V" European Award. Previous winners of the prize awarded by the European Academy of Yuste Foundation include Mikhail Gorbachev and Felipe González. “If there is one person who has dedicated their life to Europe, it is Javier", stated the Extremaduran president Guillermo Fernández upon hearing the panel's decision.

Yemen International Conference  The Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, Miguel Ángel Moratinos, attended the Yemen International Conference in London. The conference was organized to consolidate international support for the country, coordinate aid efforts and reach an agreement on helping Yemen carry out political and economic reforms.

Meeting with the High Commissioner for Refugees  Miguel Ángel Moratinos met with Antonio Guterres, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), in Santa Cruz Palace, to take advantage of the opportunity to discuss the work carried out by the Office of the High Commissioner.

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In Viana Palace

High Level Seminar on the Eastern Partnership The High Level Seminar, "The Future of the Eastern Partnership: Challenges and Opportunities," was held in Viana Palace. The conference was opened by Miguel Ángel Moratinos and his Czech and Polish counterparts, Jan Kohout and Radoslaw Sikorski. The event, jointly organized by the three countries, brought together high level representatives of EU Member States, the European Commission and Council, the six neighboring countries of the Eastern Partnership (the Ukraine, Belarus, Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan, and observers from Russia, Turkey and the US. Also present were representatives from the European Investment Bank, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the World Bank and various European think tanks.

Lecture Series

Human development and the knowledgebased society in Arab countries A series of conferences running until May and organized by Casa Árabe will be held in Madrid, Cordoba, Barcelona and Alicante. The conferences will bring together numerous experts on issues such as "Human Security in the Arab World", "Human Development in Iraq: the Current Situation and Points of View", "Knowledge for Development in the Arab World: Evaluation and Action Plan", and ‘Algeria: Teaching, Gender and Society. Difficulties Facing the Emergence of a Female Elite". The aim of the conferences is to identify and analyze the priorities and determining factors of human development in Arab according to reports from the UN and other investigating bodies.

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Multilateral Cooperation. Spain and South Korea currently hold the presidency of the EU and the G20, respectively.

60 years of diplomatic relations between Spain and Korea The March 17 marked the 60th anniversary of the opening of diplomatic relations between the Kingdom of Spain and South Korea. Since both countries' mutual recognition and the opening of diplomatic relations through the exchange of information in Washington on March 17, 1950, Spain and South Korea have progressively strengthened their political, cultural and economic ties. Ties based on universal values shared by both nations include democracy, the market economy and human rights. To celebrate the anniversary, Spain and South Korea have planned a series

of cultural, artistic and sporting events throughout 2010. These events will certainly strengthen and consolidate the knowledge and friendship shared by both societies. Furthermore, this year is of special significance to both countries as Spain and Korea hold the presidencies of the EU and the G-20, respectively. This turn of events will no doubt be used to work towards a tighter cooperation both on a bilateral and a multilateral level in the name of securing common global objectives across the international community.

The King emphasizes the prestige of the Spanish army during a visit to Lebanon On February 9 His Majesty the King make his first visit to troops stationed in Marjayoun in southern Lebanon, where the Spanish army has recently taken command of the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL). During the visit, King Juan Carlos expressed his support to the Spanish soldiers and thanked them for their efforts on a complex mission which called for great commitment and sacrifice. In parallel with these events, the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, Miguel Ángel Moratinos, met with Lebanese Prime Minister Saad Hariri in Beirut and stated that now is the time for "political decisions" in the

6th Asia-Europe Interfaith Dialogue  ASEM's (Asia Europe Meeting) 6th Asia-Europe Interfaith Dialogue was held in Madrid and Toledo. Entitled "Consolidating religious freedom and mutual understanding through interfaith and intercultural dialogue", the meeting brought together delegates of the Asia Europe Foundation (ASEF) and those from the 27 ASEM member states. Russia and Australia were represented for the first time as the President's guests, preceding their official entry into ASEM in October.

A delegation from Badghis visits Spain  A delegation of officials, dignitaries and important figures from the Badghis province of Afghanistan, headed by the Governor Jelbar Arman, visited Spain in March. Spain has been a presence in the region for five years with a team from the Agency for International Cooperation and Development (AECID) involved in educational, health, agricultural, infrastructural, gender-related and institutional consolidation projects.

Spanish-Australian relations  Miguel Ángel Moratinos and his Australian counterpart, Stephen Smith, held a meeting in Viana Palace to discuss different aspects of bilateral relations such as shared international interests.

Microcredit for Senegal

His Majesty the King Juan Carlos, during a ceremony for those who died in battle, at the Spanish Miguel de Cervantes base in Marjayoun. foto efe

Middle East peace process and asked the parties involved to commit to resolving the issue through negotiation.

 On February 18, Casa África held a seminar which brought together managers from the AECID's Microcredit Concession Fund and the main Senegalese microfinance organizations. In Senegal, 90% of businesses are small or medium-sized, which has led to strong growth in the microfinance sector, although not all of the country's regions share the same situation.


The Government pays homage to the victims of the Holocaust  The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation commemorated the Day of Remembrance of the Holocaust and Prevention of Crimes against Humanity in Madrid at the end of January. Participants included the Ministers for Education, Culture, the State Secretary for Justice, and the Director General of Casa Sefarad-Israel.

Garrigues to advise the Spain India Foundation Council  In March, the collaboration agreement was signed which will provide advice to the Foundation formed in January 2009 with the aim of cementing bilateral relations and foster Spanish and Indian cooperation in various fields.

BT: connecting Spanish embassies around the world  The Spanish subsidiary of Britain's BT has been chosen to carry out the contract which over the next four years will provide central services with fixed telephony, as well as the national and international data network belonging to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation and the 260 diplomatic and consular missions across the globe.

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Meeting in Madrid. International environmental experts discussed the priorities of the Green Diplomacy Network over the coming months at the AECID headquarters.

The Green Diplomacy Network meets in Madrid The AECID headquarters in Madrid held the 15th Green Diplomacy Network (GDN) Meeting on the January 21 as part of Spain's EU Presidency program. The meeting joins a network of experts and ensures the coordination of the international environmental agenda in the EU's Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The meeting was attended by representatives from the Ministries of Foreign Affairs of 24 EU Member States (Ireland, Cyprus and Hungary sent their apologies), as well as those from the European Commission and European Council. The Presidency's program for the International Environment was outlined (priorities are to include Climate Change, Biodiversity, Water and the Marine Environment, and Environmental Quality. The state of negotiations on Climate Change following the Conference of the Parties in Copenhagen last year was explained, as was the Road Map de-

signed by Spain. Also reviewed were international dates in 2010 relevant to Biodiversity, with special attention to the next Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (COP10) which will be held in Nagoya in October. Likewise the Presidency's representatives revealed the GDN's priorities for the next six months. The Network's tasks will be centered on Biodiversity (such as supporting the International Biodiversity Year 2010), Climate Change (in line with instructions received from the European Council's Climate Change Workgroup), and on the production of a compilation of "best practices" regarding environmental diplomacy in the Ministries of Foreign Affairs of the 27 EU Member States. Finally, the various models for integrating environmental issues in the Ministries of Foreign Affairs of Member States will be discussed.

The Minister Moratinos visits Bosnia-Herzegovina

Latin American Ministers of Education at Casa de América

 Miguel Ángel Moratinos and US Deputy Secretary of State Jim Steinberg visited Sarajevo in order to form a common strategy for promoting stability in the country and its integration into the Euro-Atlantic community. During the visit, leading Bosnian politicians were interviewed with the objective of discussing the necessary reforms to bring BosniaHerzegovina closer to the EU and NATO.

Under the slogan "Education, Innovation and social inclusion", Casa de América held the European UnionLatin American-Caribbean Ministerial Forum on Education over two days on March 25 and 26. The event was held to discuss the important role that education plays in social development in Latin America and the challenges that it faces. Organized by the Spanish Ministry of Education and the Organization of

Ibero-American States (OEI), the event serves as preparation for the next EULatin America-Caribbean summit and has various objectives. These include the drive for quality and improvement of education in Latin American countries, especially now, given that they are celebrating their bicentenary. The event also aims to contribute to the project "Education Goals 2021: the education that we want for the bicentennial generation”.

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foreign action in brief

State Society for International Exhibitions. May 1st will witness the opening of the Shanghai Universal Expo, in which Spain shines with a Pavilion that is an example of sustainability.

Countdown to Shanghai Expo 2010 January saw the unveiling, in Madrid, of the Spain Pavilion for the Shanghai Universal Expo to be held from May 1 to October 31. The event was attended by the Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, Culture and Housing as well as representatives from various institutions. Spanish participation constitutes an excellent opportunity to promote Spain's image in China, which is hosting the event for the first time and expects more than 70 million visitors. The Spain Pavilion (an original design by Miralles-Tagliabue) will become the headquarters of Spanish organizations in the city once the event is over, and is built in line with green criteria. The Pavilion's centerpiece will be

the exhibit entitles "From the city of our fathers to the city of our sons," a retrospective of Spanish life organized by film directors Bigas Luna, Basilio Martin Platino and Isabel Coixet. The cultural agenda also includes flamenco, dance, theater, photography, cinema and architecture thanks to the collaboration of Spanish Institutions such as Casa Asia and the Elcano Institute. Cuisine will also play an important role, with a special program that will transport some noteworthy Spanish chefs to the city. The Spanish entry in the exposition also seeks to promote business connections, with a meeting place for entrepreneurs in order to facilitate economic relations between the two countries.

Javier Solana and the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, Ángel Lossada. foto efe

Spanish Security Strategy  On February 1, Javier Solana chaired the meeting of the Commission responsible for developing Spanish Security Strategy, as called by the President. Spain's strategy will have to be determined before November 30th, and the goal is to reach maximum political and territorial consensus. Its objective is to guarantee the security of the State and its citizens. Along with Javier Solana, the Secretaries of State for Foreign Affairs, Defense, Revenue and Security are also part of the Commission. The Director of the Cabinet and the director of the CNI (Spanish intelligence) will also serve on the commission.

Palestinian Ambassadors meet in Madrid

Miguel Ángel Moratinos examining the Spain Pavilion alongside the Director General for Foreign Policy and Director General of SEEI, José Eugenio Salarich. foto efe

 The Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation met with the Prime Minister of the National Palestinian Authority in Viana Palace. The meeting was one of an annual series of meetings for Palestinian ambassadors in Europe, and they chose Spain on this occasion to coincide with the country's presidency of the EU.

International Women's Day

The US: main target of Spanish investment Under ‘Made in/by Spain Plan’, 300 business promotion events took place in the USA last year, with the participation of 1500 Spanish companies. Spanish investment is firmly committed to the US mar-

ket, in the light of plans for recovery. Spain invested more than ¤4 billion in the country, a figure equal to 47.8% of all Spanish investment abroad and more than 10 points higher than the year before.

 The Ministry for Equality has announced various plans to coincide with this event, including a help line for victims of abuse. It also published its conclusions regarding gender violence, which include the implementation of a European Observatory.


The Cluster Ammunition Convention will soon go into force  With the delivery of the "Cluster Ammunition Convention's" 30th instrument of ratification to the Secretary General of the UN by Burkina Faso, the countdown has started for the convention to take effect on August 1, 2010. This new instrument of International Humanitarian Law outlaws an entire category of conventional weaponry whose impact has an unacceptable effect on civilian populations both during and after conflicts. Spain has played an active role in the negotiation process, and signed the Convention on the first day possible: December 3, 2008 in Oslo.

Spain, Latin America and the United States, for transatlantic integration  The Secretary of State for Ibero-America, Juan Pablo de la Iglesia, attended the conference "Strengthening Transatlantic Partnerships: Latin America, Spain and the United States”, organized in Madrid by the General Secretariat for Ibero-America and the Americas Society/Council of the Americas. The conference analyzed the present situation and its impact in terms of economic recovery, growth and job creation in the Western Hemisphere.

Spainprovides aid to Chile in the aftermath of the earthquake  The Spanish government, through the AECID, sent a plane full of rescue teams in response to the Chilean government's request following the earthquake. Since the earthquake, AECID has carried out a coordinating role with public institutions and NGOs with experience in these types of disasters to ensure a rapid and efficient Spanish response to the needs outlined by the Chilean government.

The Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs visits Namibia  Ángel Lossada traveled to Namibia to witness President Phoamba taking office, and to attend the events in celebration of the 20th anniversary of the country's independence. Namibia is on of Spain's privileged associates in southern Africa, and this year is celebrating the 20th anniversary of the opening of diplomatic relations between the two countries.

Preparations for the Year of Spain in Russia  The Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, Angel Lossada, presided over the bilateral Spanish-Russian meeting in Viana Palace to celebrate the Year of Spain in Russia, and the Year of Russia in Spain. The project's origins can be traced back to a joint initiative launched by President Medvedev and President Rodríguez Zapatero at the Yaroslav Conference on September 14, 2009. The initiative's aim was to carry out a wide-ranging program of educational, cultural and economic projects throughout 2011 in order to give a qualitative boost to relations as the two countries look to the future.

foreign action in brief 37

A coordination tool

Map of Spanish Foreign Action in Latin America The Map of Spanish Foreign Action in Latin America is now operational, having been conceived and developed by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation and the Carolina Foundation. Its aim is to increase knowledge of Spanish relations with Latin America. Among the main features of the Map worth pointing out are that the information it contains offers multiple opportunities for consultation, and that it is updated on a regular bases. One of the providers worthy of special mention is the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation's General Directorate for Planning and Evaluation of Development Policy (DGPOLDE). Map includes a web application ( mapa) that allows users to query the information simply and dynamically.

in its first year

Almost 82, 000 new Spaniards as a result of the Historical Memory Law During the first year of the Historical Memory Law, Spanish Consulates have approved 81,715 requests for Spanish nationality, or 50.6% of those received. In total, 160,000 requests for Spanish nationality have been received at the 183 Spanish Consulates under the aforementioned law. Of these, 95% were received in Consulates in Latin America. The vast majority of cases are those with a Spanish-born parent.

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The United Nations is preparing for the creation of a new entity that will have as its mandate the promotion of equality of opportunity for men and women. This will mean the consolidation of the four United Nations entities that currently address gender issues. One of them is the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), led by Spaniard Inés Alberdi.

Inés Alberdi Executive Director of UNIFEM

“Spain is a country committed to women's advancement and gender equality” — The announced reform at the United Nations is beginning to be translated into concrete actions, and once again, women are pioneering the changes. What is the aim of creating this new entity focused on gender? — The current context is highly favorable to changes intended to strengthen the capabilities of the United Nations system in areas such as gender equality and women's human rights. It's urgent that we have a strong agency and one with sufficient funding to respond to women's concerns. With the establishment of a new entity, both the member states and the United Nations system hope to see their capabilities expanded, in addition to their effectiveness and efficiency. It is also hoped that there will be a significant increase in resources, which will translate into a larger budget dedicated to gender equality. —How is this reorganization going to contribute to obtaining better results? — The hope is that the new entity focused on gender will carry out innovative and catalyzing programs on the national lev-

el, will develop technical-cooperation initiatives that really respond to women's needs on the national and regional levels, and will help to strengthen local capabilities. In any event, it is important to note that the creation of this new entity does not exempt other agencies in the UN system from the responsibility of including gender issues and training in their programs, budgets, and human capital. — How will the four agencies that have been concerned with women's progress around the world until now be integrated into this new structure? What are the principal challenges? — The new entity will be created on the basis of four United Nations bodies that have been working in favor of women for decades: the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), the United Nations International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (UN-INSTRAW), the Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW), and the Office of the Special Adviser on Gender Issues (OSAGI). Although the logistical issues are still

profile. The first Spanish executive director to lead UNIFEM, Inés Alberdi has worked on gender issues and in politics for more than 25 years. A professor with a doctorate in sociology, she has taught at Complutense University in Madrid. Previously, she was director of the research department at the Sociological Research Center (CIS). From 2003 to 2007, she was a parliamentary representative in the Madrid Assembly. She has also been a research associate at George Washington University and a visiting scholar in the sociology department at Georgetown University. She is the author of numerous publications on subjects related to family and gender.


being discussed, the expectation is that the new entity will draw its support from the existing resources and from personnel present at the national and subregional levels. In addition, it is important to note that programs currently underway, funded on the basis of bilateral agreements between UNIFEM and donor countries, will not be affected by the reorganization. — UNIFEM is present in more than 60 developing countries; it has 15 subregional offices and currently has liaison offices in Japan and Spain, another in Brussels for the EU, and another in Addis Abeba for the African Union. Madrid has one of these offices. What does a liaison office do? — It's precisely a matter of working closely with the government and other partners to promote women's advancement.

Spain is a country committed to women's advancement and gender equality. This includes the national government, regional governments, local administrations, civil society, the universities, and increasingly, business. UNIFEM has collaboration agreements with many of these actors, and we believe that it's important to be present close at hand in order to be accountable to the citizens of Spain for the use made of the public resources dedicated to development aid. Spain is among UNIFEM's leading donors worldwide. This support has been very important in expanding UNIFEM's capabilities in developing countries. — What activities does UNIFEM carry out with the support of Spanish funding? — We are in the process of signing a strategic-association agreement with the

analysis 39

Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation in order to carry out activities during the next three years. This agreement, based on successful previous experience as partners, will strengthen this fruitful cooperation and will permit better planning over time. This framework for cooperation, which coincides with the development of our 20082013 strategic plan, makes reference to programs and initiatives in the area of equality and the fight against poverty, the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals, gender justice, peacebuilding, and the advancement of women's human rights as presented in the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) and the Beijing Platform for Action, which marks its fifteenth anniversary in 2010. For example, with regard to CEDAW, a very significant legal instrument ratified by 186 states and one which celebrated its thirtieth anniversary in 2009, Spain is supporting UNIFEM's work in Asia, where we want more states to take up these obligations, not only in general terms, but with institutional changes, changes in media and cultural stereotypes about women. In Africa, we are developing with Spanish support programs as significant as those related to the fight for women's economic rights, the fight against gender violence, and peace-building in conflict and post-conflict areas; this year marks the tenth anniversary of Resolution 1325 on women, peace, and security, and this task is one of UNIFEM's pillars. Another example is the reform of the family code in Morocco, which is supported by Catalan cooperation. In addition, the Latin American and Caribbean region is a priority action area for Spain, and we have large regional programs there, such as the Gender Budgets program, the Safe Cities program, and the indigenous women's empowerment program. UNIFEM also benefits from the excellent work done by Spanish professionals, the majority of them women, financed by the government and by some autonomous communities.

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Analysis. The Escola de Cultura de Pau (School for a Culture of Peace) in Barcelona, with the support of the AECID, has released a diagnostic report, which among other issues, evaluates to what extent Spain's Autonomous Communities have peace-building and conflict sensitivity policies.

Building peace in the Autonomous Communities There is a widely-held idea that promoting development helps to achieve peace; in other words, more development equals more peace. Since the end of the 1990s, however, conflict sensitivity theories break down this equation, arguing that while achieving their cooperation or humanitarian aid goals to a satisfactory standard, cooperation or humanitarian projects can lead to heightened insecurity, the strengthening of the armed groups in a region, etc. For this reason, these theories maintain that there must be specific cooperation policies for peace, or at the very least, that cooperation with countries where there is tension or armed conflict should adopt a stance that is sensitive to the context, and in this way avoid having a negative impact on the level of violence in the country. Based on the MAEC publishing

its Spanish Cooperation Strategy for Peace-Building, which recognizes peace-building as a priority area for Spanish cooperation, a study conducted by 'En primer lugar' shows that a significant proportion of the Autonomous Communities' cooperation goes to countries where there is tension or armed conflict. 61.7% of priority countries are in situations of tension or armed conflict. Of the top 50 countries receiving aid, 55.85% of the funds go to countries experiencing tension or armed conflict. Therefore, the Autonomous Communities' involvement in situations of tension and armed conflict represents more than half of their interventions. Does this significant amount of involvement in situations of tension and armed conflict translate into implemented peace-building or conflict sensitivity policies?

On the one hand, 64.7% of master plans are said to include peace-building objectives of one form or another (as governing principles, setting out specific interventions, etc.). On the other, some Autonomous Communities are identified as possessing peacebuilding or conflict sensitivity strategies while having a low proportion of countries in situations of tension or armed conflict, while others with a high proportion of these countries do not prioritize peace-building policies. In the majority of cases, since there is no minimum allocation for peace-building, the spending on these types of projects fluctuates considerably (average expenditure of 2.88% in 2006, and 0.61% in 2007). In the same vein, only two cooperation actors have personnel specifically assigned to peace-building: the Catalan Agency for Development Cooperation and the AECID. These and other conclusions of the initial diagnostic report enable the outlining of several proposals to continue strengthening the Autonomous Communities' peace-building policies. These include the need for the proportion of these priority countries, where there is tension or armed conflict, to be taken into account when defining cooperation policy. This policy must also be reflected in official announcements and forms. The Autonomous Communities must also incorporate DAC directives on cooperation within the context of armed conflict, and those of the Spanish Cooperation Strategy for PeaceBuilding. In addition, they must carry out mid-point and final evaluations of their activities and training of technical personnel from cooperation agencies and NGOs in peace-building and conflict sensitivity. The full report: Diagnostic Report on Peace-Building. An analysis from the perspective of peace-building in the Autonomous Communities' development cooperation, can be viewed at

ccooperation 41

Spain donates 3 million to the Commission against Impunity  Spain gave a donation of 3 million euros to the International Commission against Impunity in Guatemala (CICIG), a UN agency that has been investigating “high impact” crimes in Guatemala since 2007. This donation brings the amount that Spain has now contributed to the CICIG over the last year to 6 million euros. The Commission, which is run by more than 150 professionals and presided over by the Spanish judge, Carlos Castresana, is currently investigating around 20 cases which are thought to involve drug trafficking groups, organized crime and youth gangs.

The photography of Isabel Muñoz and the Rights of the Child  UNICEF, Obra Social la Caixa and the AECID are putting on an exhibition of portraits of children throughout the world at the CaixaForum Barcelona until August 29. The portraits were created by Isabel Muñoz in commemoration of the 20th anniversary of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Isabel Muñoz traveled across 20 countries in Europe, Africa, Asia and the Americas, using her camera to capture the realities of life for the younger generations. The exhibition includes 40 installations distributed around the vestibule and terraces of the CaixaForum Barcelona. The exhibition will be showing at the headquarters of CaixaForum in Madrid beginning September 15.

TVE premieres ‘Stories of the Millennium’  With its series “Stories of the Millennium”, Televisión Española will travel the world over to tell different stories related to the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), through the people who make change possible, those who get by in the most disadvantaged countries and Still of one of the episodes on the brickfight to make their way in life. The MDGs works of Huachipa in Peru. photo AECID. were created in September 2000 as a worldwide commitment to save the world. Leaders of 189 countries drew up a plan to reduce poverty by 2015 and set out 8 goals to combat inequality, disease and ignorance, while respecting the Earth and the people who live on it.

Spain, double award winner at the Alexandria Biennial  Spain's participation at the 25th Alexandria Biennial, which brought together works from the artists Valeriano López (Huescar, Granada, 1963) and Rómulo Royo (Zaragoza, 1976), received two major awards from the organization. Valeriano López's work, “Top Balsa”, won an Honorable Mention from the jury, while Manuel Romero won an important award for his career as the event organizer. In this way, the AECID is reasserting Spain's presence at this Biennial, as the only country, together with Egypt, which has taken part in all 25 events.

Legal library in East Timor  On February 8 the President of East Timor, José Ramos-Horta, opened the Legal Library Specializing in Human Rights and Good Government, funded by the AECID. It has a capacity of over 2,000 volumes and has initially been provided with over 700 specialized books. It includes an expansive main reading room and is equipped with an audiovisual and multimedia system.

It will surpass 5 billion euros

The government approves the Cooperation Plan for 2010 The plan is focusing its priorities on tackling the economic and financial crisis as well as studying its impact on developing countries. It is also promoting the fight against climate change and environmental sustainability. The current difficult economic climate has forced a review of the forecasts in the Annual Plan for International Cooperation, recently approved by the government. This resulted in a projected net Official Development Assistance (ODA) of 5,264.61 million euros for 2010, which represents 0.51% of Gross National Income. This figure means that Spain is meeting its commitment to achieve its target of 0.56% of GNI and is continuing to increase its aid. This global figure for ODA is made up of resources allocated to development assistance from the Spanish central government (4,586,100,000 million euros), the Autonomous Communities (516.36 million euros), Local Entities (152.67 million euros) and Universities (9.49 million euros). With regard to central government, the largest contribution is from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation (2,757.23 million euros, 52.37% of Spanish net total ODA), followed by the Ministry of Economy and the Treasury (1,500.27 million euros and 28.50%). Geographically speaking, Africa will become the leading recipient of aid (46.37% of ODA), followed by Latin America (34.92%). In addition, the 2010 Plan follows the trend towards achieving greater precision and brevity in its content, getting rid of doctrinal or descriptive references in order to be more functional. From a strategic point of view, it sets out essential priorities, which include seeking to achieve effectiveness and coherence in aid and backing the Development Agenda during the EU Presidency.

42 ccooperation

Cervantes Institute. The 2009 Annual Report ‘Spanish in the World’ reflects the increasing demand for Spanish in Brazil.

photo Alberto Apolo (I.C.)

the annual report in figures 450 million Spanish-speakers in the world. 5 million Brazilians currently studying Spanish. The Cervantes Institute has 9 centers in Brazil. 20,000 people studying Spanish in Russia. 100,000 students of Spanish in Senegal.

Spanish, a language on the rise in the world The Director of the Cervantes Institute, Carmen Caffarel, recently presented the 2009 Annual Report, which analyzes the status of the Spanish language and culture in different regions of the world. The report describes the reality for Spanish in three particularly important geographical areas: Russia, Sub-Saharan Africa and Brazil. Russia has over 20,000 students of Spanish, of which almost one quarter are enrolled in the Cervantes

Institute in Moscow. Spanish is also the fourth most popular foreign language and can be studied at 18 of the country's universities. Sub-Saharan Africa is a prominent region when it comes to promoting Spanish, as illustrated by the various actions set out in the latest Africa Plan, with a sizeable investment in the promotion of the Spanish language within the academic restrictions presented by the region. The Cervantes Institute in Dakar is

an example of the promotional efforts made in this region. However, Brazil is undoubtedly the country where there is the most significant interest in Spanish, to a large extent due to the decision by the Brazilian government to teach Spanish in its high schools since 2005. As a result, Brazil has over 5 million students of Spanish, to whom the country's nine Cervantes Institute centers provide special support. The document also underscores the important work done by the Spanish Agency for International Development Cooperation in disseminating Spanish by carrying out important strategic actions in many of its projects.

Agreement with the Sociocultural Basketball Foundation

The AECID supports sport The Secretary of State for International Cooperation and the President of the Spanish Basketball Federation signed an agreement to set up a series of joint projects and activities in Africa. This cooperation model has already manifested itself in a program that is improving the education system for 550 children in Morocco and social welfare for their families, as well as a health program designed to improve health care in a hospital in the Ivory Coast. Soraya Rodríguez

maintained that “for many African children, a basketball court is a hugely powerful catalyst to help lift them out of poverty and despair”. José Luis Sáez thanked the Secretary of State for her support and stated that “sport will not be the definitive solution for Africa but important goals can be achieved along this pathway. We want African basketball to be able to develop, because it is also a concept that makes us better ourselves”.

The Secretary of State for Cooperation, Soraya Rodríguez, signing the agreement together with José Luis Sáez, President of the Spanish Basketball Association and Jaime Lissavetsky, Secretary of State for Sport. photo feb.

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How do Europeans view development aid?  Around 90% of Europeans see development as important, and 72% are in favor of the existing aid commitments to developing countries and are in favor of increasing those commitments. A significant majority of Europeans (61%) think that Europe can contribute to the debate on global development in a positive way. Interestingly, the global economic crisis is not considered as a significant risk to developing countries.

Two photographs by the Argentinean Roland Paiva included in the show.

Cultural expedition along the Paraná River  During March, Argentina and Paraguay jointly developed the project titled Paraná Ra’Anga, ’The Figure of the Paraná’. Resurrecting the old tradition of cultural-scientific expeditions, Paraná Ra’Anga went up the Río de la Plata, Paraná and Paraguay rivers from Buenos Aires up to Asunción. The idea of touring the region follows in the historic tradition of using travel as a vehicle to promote knowledge and collaboration between the arts and sciences, in order to create new ways of viewing and understanding the Paraná. Artists and scientists from Argentina, Paraguay, the Netherlands and Spain took part in the event (including anthropologists, ecologists, engineers, architects, musicians and writers).

African Film Festival in Equatorial Guinea  An initiative by the Spanish Cultural Centers of Malabo and Bata and the NGO Al Tarab, has enabled Equatorial Guinea to hold its first African Film Festival. It aims to bring African cinema culture closer to the local population, in a country where there are no movie theatres in use and where, this universal form of expression has been banished to cultural centers far removed from the general public.

Madrid, the center for debate on social cohesion in Latin America  From May 18 through 20, the Royal Botanical Gardens of Madrid will play host to ‘Agora, Latin America’, an encounter in which distinguished personalities from the political, social and cultural spheres, who have been called on to lead out on the political agenda in Latin America over recent years, will analyze the importance of maintaining social cohesion as a necessary objective for reducing inequality. This event, organized by the FIIAPP, will include group discussions and debates which are open to the public.

The AECID attends the International Student Fair  Under the slogan “Education builds citizenship”, the AECID took part for yet another year at AULA, the International Student Fair and Education Exhibition, where it had a stand showing the action it is taking related to education for formal development along with the projects and agreements that it has undertaken with Spanish development NGOs in this area. During the AULA, free copies were being handed out of various books published by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation through the AECID and the Ministry of Education.

In Cartagena de Indias

Socio-Linguistic Atlas of Indigenous Peoples On March 10 in Cartagena de Indias, the Spanish Cooperation Training Center hosted the launch of the Sociolinguistic Atlas of Indigenous Peoples in Latin America, created by UNICEF, AECID and the Foundation for Education in Multilingual and Multicultural Contexts. Released in two volumes, the Atlas covers 21 Latin American countries from south to north, from Patagonia to Mexico, describing the 522 indigenous communities, using demographic and geographical data and providing a critical view of their current situation. The Atlas hopes to become an instrument for the design and implementation of public policies that take Latin America's socio-linguistic richness and complexity into account. The publication also comes with an interactive DVD containing graphs, statistics and maps for use among schools, the media and indigenous Latin American organizations.

Held at the AECID headquarters

Tourism and Development in Central America Against the backdrop of the International Tourism Fair FITUR, a meeting was held at the AECID headquarters in Madrid between Spanish tourism managers and Central American countries to analyze the current status and the most significant results of the projects undertaken through the Action Plan for Promoting Sustainable Tourism in the Central American Region. Tourist safety, quality and competitiveness, as well as institutional strengthening are some of the new challenges to be faced by the sector in order to achieve the integration of tourism in Central America.

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Human development. The International Coordinator of the ART Initiative of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) talks about the results achieved and the future plans of a cooperation initiative that promotes a new type of multilateralism, encouraging territorial participation in human development and contributing to the effectiveness and efficiency of aid targeted to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

Giovanni Camilleri “ART provides greater coherence between international cooperation actors” International Coordinator of the UNDP's ART Initiative

— What does the ART Initiative consist of and how did it come about? — The ART Initiative (Interfacing Territorial and Thematic Networks) was created in 2005 when the UNDP set it up in its Geneva Liaison Office as a gateway for decentralized cooperation actors interested in exchanging innovation and good practice and operating on the ground in a complementary and coordinated fashion, in support of national processes for local development. — Which types of institutions or organizations take part in ART? — Firstly, the member countries interested in strengthening the development capacities of their sub-national governments and increasing the impact and coherence of international cooperation operating at a local level; next, there are the donor countries interested in supporting the territorial approach and thus contributing to the implementation of Accra and Paris along with the interfacing of actors at a local level, and finally, the local and mid-level administrations with the many different social and economic players in their regions. To date, the donor countries include Belgium, Canada, Spain, Greece, Italy, Sweden and Switzerland, with Spain being particularly prominent both due to the amount of resources it has contributed and the number of decentralized cooperation actors it has taking part. The common denominator among these actors is their

interest in operating in a strategic and coordinated manner to tackle huge challenges such as sustainable development processes, provision of public services, democratic governance, and the causes and effects of migratory movements. — Which country has the greatest presence in the ART Initiative programs? — Rather than name any individual country, I would say that the results are more evident in those countries where the initiative has been operating for longer. This is the case in Sri Lanka, where more than 1,000 Spanish town councils have coordinated their respective efforts, creating a support program, in conjunction with the AECID, the UNDP and the country itself, for managing the restoration and rebuilding in the wake of the Tsunami in the Southern Province. It is the same with Morocco, in the Tangier regions- Tetouan and Oujda, where more than 52 decentralized cooperation actors are drawing up actions within the scope of Community Development Plans. In 2009, the General Directorate of Local Communities of the Ministry of the Interior in Morocco ordered the national appropriation of these instruments in order to offer them to the other regions in the country interested in sharing the most important challenges for local development. Cuba has also demonstrated how decentralized cooperation can play a highly innovative role in

the national process of restructuring the sugar refining industry based on positive experiences in Guantánamo and Pinar del Río, as well as the process of restoring the Old Town in Havana. Another particularly noteworthy experience was that of the rebuilding in Lebanon after the conflict in 2006. There, over 120 decentralized cooperation actors are supporting the territorial plans drawn up by the mayors in the regions of Akkar, in the north, the Bekaa Valley, south of the capital, and in the southern region. — What role does ART play in the sphere of Spanish development cooperation? Which organizations does it work with? — Since 2006, the AECID has identified a further opportunity in the ART Initiative to promote an unusual feature of Spanish cooperation and at the same time deal with a challenge for international cooperation: developing the potential of decentralized cooperation and reducing the fragmentation of the many different actors that are operating within local communities. European decentralized cooperation, and Spanish cooperation in particular, have helped to enrich the development processes in countries supported by the UNDP with dynamic and pragmatic actions capable of generating a wide-ranging exchange of innovation and good practice between lands of the north and the south. This was demonstrated by the recent


profile. Giovanni Camilleri, an Italian doctor specializing in Emergency Medicine and Public Health, started working in the United Nations in 1980 as a volunteer. He worked with the UNDP on bilateral cooperation programs in various countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America, with a particular focus on disaster prevention, conflict and post-conflict situations. He has written a large number of articles and publications. He has been the International Coordinator of the ART Initiative since 2005.

agreement signed in November 2009 between the SECI and the UNDP. This multilateral framework is used by many institutions, from the Autonomous Communities or universities, to various town council cooperation funds. At the same time, ART benefits from the work of onsite Spanish Technical Cooperation Offices (TCOs) and holds regular monitoring meetings with the organizations in charge of Spanish Cooperation. — Is there agreement among the vari-

ous Spanish Cooperation actors and are any future projects in the pipeline? — I can state that agreement is expressed through a common objective, which takes the form of future plans. In other words, the desire to pragmatically and constructively tackle two enormous challenges for international cooperation: making best use of the human and financial resources of the various actors that are operating in a country, and

analysis 45

strengthening local and national capabilities so that development aid is an effective response to the needs of regions and countries. In short, backing a new active multilateralism and focusing on the complementary nature of actors, which is one of the unique features of the Spanish cooperation system. — Seville recently played host to an International Forum where a review was carried out of the first four years of the ART Initiative. What conclusions came out of the meeting? What is the immediate future for ART? — The purpose of the Seville Forum was to find out if countries were satisfied with the progress made in the four years since the creation of the ART Initiative. Over the two days, representatives from national and local governments and civil society all agreed that the ART instrument is a demonstration of concrete support for achieving greater coherence between the many different international cooperation actors operating in local communities and greater coherence between local action and regional strategies. They also talked about the difficulties they had encountered, aware that they must be constantly dealt with. One very clear recommendation was the need to consolidate this instrument over the three-year period from 2010-2012, by focusing on a group of countries from different geographical areas and defining directives for interfacing between the multilateral framework and decentralized cooperation. The creation of an Advisory Council was also proposed, made up of representatives from countries, donors, decentralized cooperation networks and the UNDP, which can continue to direct ART's action with a view to the future. In order to pursue these objectives, over the three years from 2010-2012 the UNDP has decided to cross over the use of this instrument in the UNDP Strategic Plan to better combine national and regional capabilities with the efficiency and effectiveness of cooperation operating in local communities, thereby implementing the MDGs.

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culture and society

Inundated by the stereotypical images of Spain under the rule of Queen Isabella II--a city bathed in the pallid glow of lanterns after the dance has ended, with foot soldiers waiting anxiously to rush the Palace, it is difficult to conceive that during these same decades was born an imagery as peaceful, pleasant and free of violence and bloodshed as that found in the fictional works of Juan Valera (1824-1905). by Jacobo García WRITER DIPLOMATS (2nd Installment)

Juan Valera, the gentleman writer He is most widely remembered for his first novel: ‘Pepita Jiménez’ (1874), the story of the triumph of profane love over divine love, which condemned him to be forever cited in Catholic school texts as the "author of the highly dangerous Pepita Jiménez". But no one can paint a masterpiece without first making sketches; and Valera was no exception. He spent several years building up the courage to publish and several more years finding his own voice and the genre that would bring him fame. Correspondence was his training ground. A prolific letter writer, it was his letters that eventually made his writing known to the general public. It happened while he was living in Russia, as a member of the Extraordinary Embassy headed by the Duke of Osuna. The Head of Mission's colorful personality was rife with opportunities for humor, which Valera exploited fully and unapologetically. The letters were submitted to a newspaper and made a fortune. From that time on, journalism became one of his regular activities. Diplomacy was not his inclination, but rather a springboard that would

give him a professional name and salary worthy of acceptance in gentleman's circles, while also leaving him time to read and write. He was stationed in Naples (1847), Lisbon (1849), Rio de Janeiro (1850), Dresden (1854), and Saint Petersburg (1856-57). In 1859, after being elected to Congress, he abandoned his diplomatic career. He returned to diplomacy in 1865 as Minister to Frankfurt. The Revolution of 1868 put him back in Congress and named him Assistant Secretary of State. Under Amadeo I de Saboya he became a Senator and Director General of Public Education. He left politics in 1873, after the proclamation of the First Spanish Republic. He returned after the Restoration and became an Assembly Deputy. He picked up the mantle of Senator again in 1879 and was named Senator for Life two years later. His return to diplomacy was nothing short of ideal, serving as Ambassador to Lisbon (1881), Washington (1883), and Vienna (1893). In 1896, at age 72, he retired as a diplomat. Except for the final stage of his career, none of his diplomatic assignments were a burden in the least. His

official work schedule was often from 11 to 2. He mentions in more than one letter that the Secretary of State would do better by closing the Embassy entirely rather than leaving it in such lethargy. However, despite the many advantages his diplomatic service offered in terms of his writing career, he would abandon it as often as he could, in order to dedicate himself more fully to politics and writing. And in spite of his prolific brilliance, he was never able to support himself as a writer. In the end, circumstances invariably obligated him to return to active diplomatic service, which, fortuitously, did provide a welcome distraction from a miserable marriage. More than a few have written about his life, most giving lavish praise. There are, however, a few exceptions. Azorín, for example, describes Valera as a man who was excessively concerned with money, which was never abundant, and who tended to spend beyond his means, due to his fondness for high society and consequential disdain for uncouth, common folk, and due to his indomitable attraction for women. In time, however, Azorín did soften his highly critical judgment of Valera.


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A prolific letter writer, it was his letters that eventually made his writing known to the general public, while he was living in Russia as a member of the Embassy headed by the Duke of Osuna.

His friends, quite naturally, cast him in a vastly different light: a delightful companion at literary gatherings, a brilliant conversationalist, imbued with a classical culture uncommon for his time, and very given to jokes and caricatures. However, the deepest, most careful, and best-written analyses of the life of Juan Valera are those by Manuel AzaĂąa. The modern reader will find it easy to draw his or her own conclusions,

as the Cordovan writer's entire life is reflected in the thousands of letters he wrote, most of which have been preserved to this day. There are collections of letters for all tastes and occasions: letters to his family, letters to his wife, intimate letters, letters from Russia, letters to friends, letters from America... And whatever is not found in his letters can almost certainly be had in the rest of his literary output, in which

Valera gave full flight to his ideas, his likes and his dislikes, limited only by good taste and respect for others (while reserving the right to poke healthy fun at the idiosyncrasies of his fellow men). His characteristic tendency to state his ideas explicitly is so strong that it even makes its way into his fiction, turning it at times into something more reminiscent of an essay than a novel. Throughout his life, Valera's work spanned practically every literary genre: academic discourse, novel, short story, theatre, poetry, literary criticism, philosophy and religion, history and politics, American letters, miscellaneous works, correspondence, political discourse, and translations. His "Complete Works", edited by his daughter Carmen between 1905 and 1935, occupy 53 small octavo volumes; however, readers who wish to get an accurate view of mid-19th century Spain would do better to read GaldĂłs or ClarĂ­n. Reading Valera, rather than portraits of his era, one will find a meandering path through a wilderness of mystery that was already ancient when the path was forged: and in most cases, part of that mystery is a woman.

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Over four centuries ago, Miguel de Cervantes gave to humanity one of the crowning jewels of world literature. The two main heroes of that story, Don Quixote and Sancho Panza, have since become two prototypes of human nature, inseparably tied to the cultural geography in which their adventures took place. The route taken by the two adventurers is an eco tour over 2,500 km long, which was recognized in 2007 as a European Cultural Itinerary by the European Council. by JosĂŠ Carlos Pacheco and Fernando Remiro


The Route of Don Quixote: Following the Route of the Giants Dulcinea lived oblivious to the insanity that created her beauty. After visiting Belmonte, we end up in San Clemente, known for its central square, which has been named a Historic Site.

Then without further delay, let us be on our way in the incomparable company of the Ingenious Hidalgo and his wise and faithful squire, and let us travel "at the whim of the paths of life," to quote Unamuno. From Toledo to San Clemente, through El Toboso and Belmonte. The Route of Don Quixote begins in the 1000-year-old city of Toledo, capital of Castilla-La Mancha, and a World Heritage Site. From here we head toward Villacañas, then through Quero and the Alcázar de San Juan lagoon complex, finally reaching Campo de Criptana. We then make our way along the regions near Mota del Cuervo, where those centenary windmills still stand, having defeated Don Quixote only by the force of the wind. We will soon reach El Toboso, where the lovely

From San Clemente to Villanueva de los Infantes, by the Ruidera Lagoons. From San Clemente, our itinerary offers three choices, but heading toward Las Pedroñeras, known for land that is justifiably presumed to produce the best garlic in Spain, is the recommended route. To the south, in the region of Ossa de Montiel, there are two spots of special importance in the adventures of Don Quixote: the magical Cave of Montesinos and the ruins of the Rochafrida Castle. Near here, the traveler will find the Ruidera Lagoons Natural Park, an obligatory stop for migratory birds en route between Europe and Africa. Continuing on after a short time, our next stop will take us to Villanueva de los Infantes, which has also been declared a Historical Site due to its importance as an enclave during the Rennaissance and Baroque periods. It was here, in a cell in the Convent of Santo Domingo, where Francisco de Quevedo died. From Villanueva de los Infantes to Almagro and Calatrava la Nueva.

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The third leg of our route takes us to the border of La Mancha, to the lonely heights of the mountains that served as a place of retreat and meditation for Don Quixote after each new and reckless campaign. Further along, we have two choices: toward Santa Cruz de Mudela or Almuradiel, not forgetting the historical significance of municipalities such as Moral de Calatrava and Viso del Marqués. Returning to the main route, we will soon see the town of Valdepeñas silhouetted against a sea of vineyards. We now make our way west, until we reach Almagro, which is known for its Central Square and Open-Air Theater. From Valle de Alcudia to Campo de Calatrava. The presence of ancestral humans, thermal springs, volcanoes, mediterranean forest, and dehesa pastures alongside vast grape, olive, and cereal plantations, castles, and forts characterize this section of the route, which also contains many Cervantine sites. Our destination is Corral de Calatrava, after traveling through Valenzuela de Calatrava and Almodóvar del Campo. From Albacete to Alcaraz and Bienservida. From Albacete, known for its artisan knives and daggers, we head deep into the Sierra de Alcaraz Mountains, at the edge of the Sierra Morena mountain range. From here, we reach Bienservida, approaching the Reolid Hot Springs Resort. From La Roda to Campos de Montiel. North of Albacete, the La Mancha Plain surprises the traveler with its beautiful fluvial canyons, like those where the infinite patience of the Júcar River has continued to carve its meandering path into the underlying rock. We leave La Roda, the principal connection to the Levante region of Spain. After crossing a region of lagoons and following the course of the Guadamena River, we reach Campos de Montiel. From Campo de Criptana to Tomel-

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Images of various landmarks along the Route of Don Quixote. From left to right: Don Quixote Inn in the town of Puerto Lápice, sculpture near the Cave of Montesinos in Ossa de Montiel and windmills and a castle in Consuegra. castilla-la mancha tourism promotion institute

econOmic impulse The Route of Don Quixote, inaugurated in 2005 as a tourist itinerary, has become an economic impulse for the region, where tourism now makes up 10% of Castilla-La Mancha's Gross Domestic Product. During the past few years, a significant amount of money has been put into upgrading and posting signs along the various sections of the Route, all in compliance with the strictest environmental standards. As a result, in 2007 the Route was named a European Cultural Itinerary. This honor places the Route in the same category as the Way of St. James, the Route of the Castilian Language, and the Legacy of Al-Andalus, which are the other Spanish routes that have received the same classification by the European Council.

the longest eco-toUr in europe Beginning this spring, the 2,500 km long Route of Don Quixote will become part of the National Geographic Worldwide Network of Sustainable Destinations, an achievement that will certainly increase promotion of the Route as a tourist destination all over the world. In fact, National Geographic is the primary institution people turn to when searching for sustainable destinations and is internationally renowned in the dissemination of scientific and environmental research. The scant industrial development that has taken place in Castilla-La Mancha during the past two centuries is in large measure responsible for the immaculate preservation of its nature, royally decreed transhumance roads and drover's roads that make up the Route.

loso, Argamasilla de Alba and La Solana. The exploits of the Knight of the Sad Countenance along this leg of the route run through the heart of La Mancha from north to south, beginning in Campo de Criptana, at the feet of the infamous windmills located on the battlements of Sierra de la Paz. We then come to Tomelloso and Argamasilla de Alba, which is home to the Medrano Cave, where Cervantes was imprisoned, and according to legend, where he began to write his famous story of knighthood and chivalry. From Almagro to Toledo, through Ciudad Real and Consuegra. After enjoying the medicinal springs at Carrión de Calatrava, our journey will take us through the Tablas de Daimiel National Park, which contains some of Europe's most important wetlands. Heading north, we reach Consuegra and Cruz de Piedra. We are now high in the Toledo Mountains and traveling through the haunts of lynx and deer. After Herencia and Villarta de San Juan, we reach Puerto Lápice, which is mentioned several times throughout Don Quixote and has managed to preserve the spirit of the Cervantine era in its streets, squares, and inns. Returning to Consuegra, we once again make our way along the "Trail of the Spaniards" through Manzaneque and Orgaz. From Esquivias to Illescas and Carranque. A stop in Esquivias, the town where Cervantes' wife was born, allows us to enjoy a landscape far from the bustle of the city, where partridges, rabbits, and hares still pause to watch the traveler go by.

From La Hoz del Río Dulce to Sigüenza and Atienza. At the northern border of Castilla-La Mancha, in the Province of Guadalajara, the rich past of Sigüenza and Atienza shines brightly. No less spectacular are the Torresaviñán Castle and the Barranco del Río Dulce Natural Park, where many episodes of naturalist Félix Rodríguez de la Fuente's programs were filmed. Taken as a whole, the Route of Don Quixote places within our reach the ever-bright, endlessly profound landscape of La Mancha that stands as the universe and backdrop for the ambitions and ideals of two truly unique literary characters. And, as was well stated by Azorín, "after hours and hours of walking through this countryside, we were overwhelmed, dumbfounded, by the unceasing plain; by the infinite, transparent sky; by the unreachable distance. And it is not until now that we can truly comprehend how Alonso Quijano had to be born in this land, and how his spirit, unfettered and free, was compelled to take frenetic flight through a world of fantasy and unrealizable dreams”. In the end, we find that our journey has taken us through the heart of culture and human existence. And the landscape that remains at the threshold of our memory will not be simply a collection of photographs and paintings, nor of differences, but rather a panorama of similarities, of the very fiber of humanness. Because in the end, in spite of the beliefs of the giants upon whose shoulders we write, it is not that Spain was Europe, but rather that Europe was Spain.


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Much More Than a Simple Tourist Destination JosĂŠ MarĂ­a Barreda

president of castilla-la mancha

"Now I declare," said Don Quixote, "he who reads much and travels much sees and knows a great deal". A wise argument from the lips of the ingenious knight of La Mancha, which I have chosen to open this article on the Route of Don Quixote in 'Miradas al exterior'. The 400th Anniversary of the publication of Don Quixote, Spain's most significant contribution to world literature and the story that created the mythical land of La Mancha, presented an unparalleled opportunity to introduce to the world the real Castilla-La Mancha--an Autonomous Community whose name the entire world should remember. Therefore, in honor of this special anniversary, the regional Government proposed the creation of a route that would serve not only as a way to visit the places mentioned in the book, but also to discover the modern landscape and people of Castilla-La Mancha--a land that continues to captivate the imagination, dreams, and hopes of readers all

over the world, as well as those who visit Spain hoping to follow in the footsteps of Don Quixote. Today as always, Castilla-La Mancha is that immense place between the sky and the land--a place of light and beauty, of magic and adventure, of dreams and enchantment. Because Castilla-La Mancha actually exists. It is a real land that can be explored and enjoyed from one corner to the other. We have therefore established the "Route of Don Quixote", in an attempt to offer a sampling of the best of La Mancha: of our history and heritage, of our natural beauty and our food. This is a pioneering project, whose purpose is to organize the cultural and natural resources that bear the richness of the Castilla-La Mancha region by making connections between them and sharing them, particularly with tourists seeking unique, fascinating, quality alternatives to typical vacation destinations. The "Route of Don Quixote" is much more than a simple tourist destination: It is a socio-

The 400th Anniversary of the publication of Don Quixote, our greatest contribution to world literature, presents an unparalleled opportunity to introduce the Route to the world

economic development and social reactivation project for the Castilla-La Mancha region that is designed to take advantage of the momentum and economic investment that occurred at all levels within the region during the celebration of the 400th Anniversary of the first edition of Don Quixote. At nearly 2,500 kilometers in length, the Route is intended to become one of the top cultural and eco-tourism destinations in Europe. And it has a very significant head start toward reaching this goal: the worldwide fame of the immortal story by Don Miguel de Cervantes. The European Council has weighed the significance of the Route and has named it a "European Cultural Itinerary"--the first time an itinerary based on a literary character has received such a distinction. The "Route of Don Quixote" brings together a collection of cultural, literary, and environmental treasures that deserve to be experienced and enjoyed with an eye on the future and "our book" in hand, because following in the footsteps of Don Quixote will only make us wiser, freer, more united, and more tolerant.

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Spain is the land of transplants No other country has reached similar levels of efficiency, prestige and international recognition. A leader in organization and solidarity, it is the only country in the world where the organ donation rate is constantly increasing. Behind this success, since 1989, is the National Transplant Organization, which coordinate a process in which nothing can be allowed to go wrong. Now its goal is “to hispanicize Europe” with a directive that could be approved in the home stretch of the Spanish Presidency of the European Union. by Beatriz Beeckmans

The Spanish transplant miracle They say that no matter how many times you see it, there is still something magical about the moment when a transplanted heart starts beating again. What's more, this magical moment has taken place in Spain more than 6,000 times to date. These are figures of which we should feel proud since, for the last 18 years without exception, Spain has been the world leader in organ donation and transplantation. No other country has reached similar levels of efficiency, prestige and international recognition. Spain's actual donation rate (which could be interpreted as the degree of solidarity among the population) is 34 donors per million people. This figure is double the European Union average and eight points higher than that of the United States. “It's not the fact that we do a lot of transplants, it's the fact we do a lot of transplants and we do them well. Out of quantity also comes quality,”

says doctor Rafael Matesanz, Director of the National Transplant Organization (ONT). Furthermore, a law that in its day was innovative and has now just turned 30 without needing even the slightest of tweaks, has served as a legal framework that has led to the Spanish system being considered as the most effective in the world. All of this has happened in spite of the fall in the number of donations resulting from traffic accidents, which in Spain have become less common thanks to the constant improvements in road safety. Currently only 8% of donations come from people who were killed in accidents, compared with around 50% at the beginning of the 1990s. “Fortunately, nowadays the profile of a donor is a man of around 65 who dies in hospital as a result of a stroke and is no longer that of a young motorcyclist who was riding without a helmet”, the doctor explains.

Another figure: as a result of including immigrants in the culture of organ donation, currently around 10% of donations come from the immigrant population. “Spain operates according to the maxim that everybody should donate because everybody should receive, and this includes people from all countries, ethnicities, races and religions”. In Spain there are 167 hospitals authorized to perform organ donation and 45 for transplantation, and to date they have carried out over 74,000 organ or tissue replacement operations. The National Transplant Organization was created in 1989 to coordinate these operations, and since then, as one of the jewels in the crown of the Spanish health care system, it has managed all of the steps from receiving notification of a potential donor to actually performing the transplant. Owing to the spectacular progress experienced by the sector, the organi-


zation has supported the emergence of help implement the Spanish model in transplants that were unimaginable only their respective countries. a few years ago and is currently organizAccording to doctor Rafael Mateing the donation and transplantation sanz, the success is based on three facnot only of organs, but also of tissue and tors: the solidarity among the Spanish cells. population, a strong health system that Furthermore, in recent years it has covers the entire population, and the become an international benchmark existence, within the health care sysfor all countries and institutions look- tem, of a centralized organization such ing to improve their results in this area. as the ONT, which is capable of proAs a result, there are lots of countries– moting organ donation and which has including the Great Britain, Australia, a network of hospital coordinators disSwitzerland and South Korea, among tributed across the whole of Spain. “The others–who have asked the thing that differentiates Spain ONT for advice, regarding from other countries, which is both management and organi- In Spain known internationally as the zation, as well as the training there are 167 ‘Spanish model’, is an excelof professionals. Noteworthy hospitals lently structured system based in this area is the ‘Alliance’ authorized on the work of highly trained program, which now has re- to perform doctors–the transplant coorsulted in the training of more organ donation dinators–, an organization that than 200 Latin American pro- and 45 for provides them with training fessionals, who will go on to transplantation and coordination and, above

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Madrid is becoming the world transplant capital On March 23, the Minister for Health and Social Policy, Trinidad Jiménez, opened the “Madrid Conference on Organ Donation and Transplantation,” which brought together EU health ministers, health authorities and experts from all over the world. The debates on the future Directive championed by Spain followed a WHO Global Consultation on organ donation and transplantation, where experts analyzed different formulas for achieving self-sufficiency in donations as a vital mechanism for eradicating organ trafficking and transplant tourism.

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In the 1990s, 50% of organ donations came from people killed in traffic accidents. The improvement in road safety has now reduced this percentage to less than 10%.

all, leaving nothing to improvisation”. It must be remembered that a donation can mobilize over 100 people and countless resources including nurses, surgeons, airport personnel, planes, police officers and ambulances, which means the system needs to be perfectly streamlined. It seems obvious that success is a question of organization. Another key factor for the success of the Spanish model is the humane treatment demonstrated at the time of requesting the organs from the relatives of the deceased. The team at Alicante General Hospital, a world leader in the field, has achieved a family refusal rate of less than 4%, when the average in the rest of the country is around 17%. “With as much empathy as possible, we explain to them that we can no longer do anything for their loved one but that, nevertheless, they can still do a lot for other people,” says doctor Carlos de Santiago,

nephrologist and transplant coordinator at the hospital. Given that there is a very high foreign population in the area, the team at the hospital includes translators and cultural mediators who work with the doctors and contribute to the success of the model, which has been rolled out to the rest of Spain. Thanks to them, more and more relatives are turning out to be sympathetic to the arguments of the doctors. “This produces an interesting paradox: while in England the family refusal rate is 40%, here we have never had a single negative response from the British people who live here or are on vacation in the region,” points out doctor De Santiago. This organizational capacity has also been recognized in the mandate that Spain has to maintain and manage the International Donor Registry. “We are an organization that works with the World Health Organization (WHO), which is

THE CHALLENGES FOR THE FUTURE The Strategic Donation Plan 40 implemented by the ONT aims to achieve 40 donors per million people over the next few years, which would result in 4,500 transplants per year compared with the 3,800 that were performed in 2008. The plan includes a set of measures, which include encouraging donation among the immigrant population and ethnic minorities, reducing family and legal refusals, optimizing donation in brain death and promoting living donation.

supported in Spain by its international strategy”, explains Matesanz. Now, taking advantage of the opportunity presented by the Spanish Presidency of the Council of the European Union, Spain is backing the European Directive on Quality and Safety of Organ Transplantation. The objective, according to its managers, “is to hispanicize Europe” in the area of organ donation, setting out clinical criteria which can be standardized across all countries of the European Union, meaning that all teams performing transplants would be following the same protocols. “The aim is for 500 million people to be guaranteed organ transplants with levels of safety, quality and quantity similar to our own. It's a very ambitious plan because the disparities are enormous. It means, for example, that if in Spain a certain kidney wouldn't be transplanted, neither could this take place in Bulgaria,” says Encarna Sagredo, a coordination nurse of the ONT. Alongside the directive, there is an Action Plan that sets out 10 actions to be implemented by 2015, which include the exchange of information and good practice between countries. “If the donation rates across the whole of the EU approach those of countries with higher rates, such as Spain, over 20,000 lives will be saved each year”, said the Minister of Health, Trinidad Jiménez. And the fact is, as they point out at the ONT, that faced with all the encouraging figures and initiatives that are surrounding the Spanish system there is, however, no room for complacency: “You have to remember that the patients have names and surnames, and they are the ones that we continue to work for. The best transplant system in the world has been achieved thanks to the effort and professional merit of many people from our health care system, as well as the generosity of the Spanish people. It is a job for us all to preserve and protect this system from anything that could cause it to take a step backwards,” stresses its director.


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The Spanish donation and transplantation model Rafael Matesanz

director or the National Transplant Organization

Spain, with between 33 and 35 actual organ donors for each one million inhabitants, is the country with by far the highest rate in the world, way above the European and US averages and with a yawning chasm between it and other European countries with long scientific and technological traditions, such as the United Kingdom and Germany which fluctuate around 12 and 14. Of similar or even greater importance is the fact that this likelihood is in no way increased or reduced by their ability to meet the costs of the surgery (which are nearly always considerable), nor by social or racial factors, or any other reason. The entire process is covered by Spain's national health system. The question is obvious: How has it been possible to achieve these results? It is clear that the generosity of the citizens is vital, however in 1989, when the National Transplant Organization (ONT) was created, the Spanish figure of 14 donors per million people was situated around the mid to low end of the European figures. Since then, it cannot be said that there has been a cultural revolution in Spain that has selectively modified the willingness of the Spanish people to donate their organs.

Many things have been done to achieve what has been referred to as “the Spanish miracle,� but they all focused around two main areas: Firstly, taking decisive action to help the professionals in their work. Thousands of intensive care doctors, coordinators, surgeons, clinicians, anesthesiologists, nurses and the other professionals who make up Spain's health care system have been part of this exciting adventure; they have received training, coordinated themselves through the ONT, and made what will always be a difficult job slightly easier. Secondly, clear and direct communication with society regarding the importance of this work. It is people who make transplants possible thanks to their donations and by supporting the system. As a result, we need to be properly accountable to them for any actions that are undertaken. Everything else comes much further down in the order of priorities, which explain our model and differentiate us from the rest of the world. One might think that this boom in transplants is an inappropriate luxury in a country with other shortages and that it is difficult to

It is people who make transplants possible thanks to their donations and by supporting the system.

translate into other spheres with more severe economic problems. Nothing could be further from the truth. If one considers that in the last 20 years most European countries have only been able to maintain their donation rates and some have even seen them fall, we are able to say that around 40,000 patients have received a kidney transplant over this period, with some 18,000 of these a result of this organizational system. During the first year after receiving a transplant a patient ends up costing more or less the same as one receiving dialysis. This cost then falls to far lower figures. As a result of dialysis patients receiving transplants, every year the public health system is saving twice the amount of the cost of all kidney, liver, heart, lung, intestine and pancreas transplants, plus that of the ONT and its entire network of coordinators. And of course this is not counting all of the lives saved and suffering avoided by our people. All of this has been made possible by this model, which as we said has helped both health care professionals and Spanish society itself, under the coordination of the National Transplant Organization.

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Spanish companies abroad

What do the Agbar tower in Barcelona, the hotel Burj Al Arab in Dubai, American Airlines check-in desks, the Namibian Parliament and London's Wembley Stadium all have in common? The answer: Silestone, natural quartz surfaces from the Cosentino group in Almeria. As the world leader in production, it has thrust Spain into the international forefront of this industry. by Beatriz Beeckmans

Silestone: the power of quartz When, on February 6, 2005 more use in construction and for decorathan 100 million Americans watched tion, Cosentino exports a product one of the Super Bowl's extremely composed of 94% natural quartz to expensive commercials, few would more than 60 countries. Today, one have thought that following the 30- in four Spanish kitchens includes second spot featuring NBA player their products, and in the USA it is Dennis Rodman, we would find Sile- the most sought-after brand in its stone, a business based in Macael, category. More than 40,000 kitchAlmeria: a town of barely 7000 in- en showrooms sell Silestone, while habitants. Cosentino products are on sale in As well as being the first Spanish major American stores such as Home business to have placed a commer- Depot, Sears and Direct Buyers. cial in such a huge sporting Quartz is one of nature's even (the most important strongest and most beaupublicity spot in the world, Almost 70% tiful elements. The raw for some), Cosentino is the of the group's material for Silestone has company that has revo- revenues been used by some of the lutionized its industry. A come from the most noteworthy architects world leader in the produc- international and designers in the world tion of quartz surfaces for market. on high-profile projects. A


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Images of some of Silestone's various finishes, many of which are water- and acid-resistant.

good example is the Hotel Al Arab in Dubai, where more than 10,000 square meters of paving, countertops, worktops, stairways and elevators were installed. Another example is the Agbar tower in Barcelona, the majority of whose interiors include this material. Jean Nouvel also chose Silestone for one of his last projects, the Arab World Institute in Paris. Behind this success is Cosentino, a group which boast a family atmosphere and 100% Spanish ownership and focuses its activity on the design, production and distribution of architectural and decorative solutions made from natural rock. 70 years of experience. Eduardo y Eduarda Cosentino, parents of Grupo

Cosentino's current owners, started the business in the 1940s. It began as a modest operation that developed in spite of the difficult times, and began operating quarries and cutting marble in Macael (AlmerĂ­a). Located in Sierra de los Filabres, the town has a type of marble that is sought-after everywhere because of its quality and purity. This stone has been extracted in the region since the time of the Phoenicians, and since that time the stone taken from the region has been used by subsequent civilizations to build such important monuments as the Alhambra in Granada and the Mosque of Cordoba. Felipe ll himself ordered white marble from the quarries in order to build the Royal Monastery of San Lorenzo de El Escorial.

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social commitment. “We want to give something back to society, from all that it has given us”, states Eduardo Martínez-Cosentino. In line with this maxim, and as a member of one of the region's most important markets, Cosentino has always been committed to its environment. This commitment can be seen in the continued support, through training and sponsorship, of a wide range of cultural, educational and sporting activities. Among these is the Eduarda Justo Foundation, whose aim is to improve Grupo Cosentinos' social environment through two fundamental activities: international postgraduate grants so that young people in Almeria can pursue studies at the world's best universities, and the Future Leaders of Almeria Seminar, which identifies and trains young people from the province who have the potential to be leaders in the region.

Image of Silestone headquarters in Macael.

three types of product. Cosentino produces different products based around natural stone. The "Scalea" line consists of marble, granite, limestone, travertine, quartzite and the stain-resistant granites sold under the ‘Sensa’ brand. Quartz surfaces are marketed under the name "Silestone", and surfaces made from recycled materials are known as "Eco by Cosentino".

Cosentino's extensive experience was also very popular with interior in the industry led to the family's decorators. This was the key to sucsecond generation creating, in 1979, cess.” Marmoles Cosentino S.A, a company which originally had 17 employees. It High technology and natural beauty. was during the 80s that the company Silestone is made using cutting-edge extended its activity across Spain technology, through an industrial and Europe. Aware that their busi- process that uses quartz as well as ness could not be limited merely to crystal, mirrors and polyester resin. the extraction and transformation of All of the components are compact"Blanco Macael" marble, the found- ed at high pressure and a constant ers' children decided to undertake temperature to give a final material an international diversification and of exceptional quality. Cosentino expansion strategy, driven by inno- currently produces 3 million square vation. meters of Silestone every year, and "We realized that marble has its machines produce the largest many limitations, and was stifling blocks on the market: more than our expansion. It was a difficult pro- three meters wide and nearly two cess that required a lot of effort and meters long. Available in more than sacrifice, but as I always 60 colors, Silestone sales say: where there's a will make it the company's flagthere's a way," stated Edu- Silestone is ship product. ardo Martínez-Cosentino, made from Cosentino oversees the the senior member of the natural quartz, whole production process, three-brother team, after pigments and from extraction and transmore than 50 years of dedi- polyester resin formation to installation. cation to the company. The company owns 14 natural stone quarries, six factoThe power of quartz. Within a few ries and 19 plants across the world, years, research efforts led the group from the USA to Sweden, including to develop what was to become their in Mexico and Brazil. The group, best seller: Silestone, a new mate- which owns 11 subsidiaries, currial that unites the best of natural rently employs 2000 people, 1000 stone and design: a quartz surface of which work in Spain. Cosentino's with properties that fit in well with extraordinary distribution capacity new public, commercial and private is possible thanks to the Cosentino spaces. It is an innovative product Centers: 45 centers in 15 countries in that is highly attractive to the de- Europe and the Americas. sign world and, since its invention Bearing in mind that marble from in 1990, offered a new solution for Macael is the primary business ac21st century architecture. As a re- tivity in the region, Cosentino's role sult, Cosentinos' international ex- takes on extra importance as the repansion was unstoppable. “Silestone gions largest employer. Furthermore, revolutionized our business. It was the group has always remained comvery novel and nothing like it had mitted to the environment: a concern ever been seen," explains Martínez- which has resulted in the constant Cosentino. "It was very difficult to improvement of environmental progain acceptance by marble masons, tection methods. Cosentino's high a guild which had always worked domestic market share and its solid with natural stone. Direct promo- position abroad have been recogtion through stores was where we nized by the "Well-known Spanish found our market: a new, attractive Brands Forum", which both Silestone product, which does not stain and and Cosentino are part of.


Spanish companies abroad 59

Internationalization is, now more than ever, the key to competitiveness Francisco MartĂ­nez-Cosentino President of Grupo Cosentino

Innovation, our human capital and international expansion are fundamental to our business. The past twenty years have seen important changes in the political, economic and social aspects of the global economy. The fact that markets are becoming more international is a consequence of increasingly intense globalization, and it is causing greater interaction of national economies. We are, then, in an open market: a globally expanding market, but we also have a higher skill level. At Grupo Cosentino, we view this new reality as a challenge and an opportunity. Only by entering foreign markets with products and brands that are different and have high added value can a company grow and generate wealth for itself, its partners and associates. With a current presence in more than 60 countries with our SilestoneÂŽ brand, we have 11 subsidiaries all over the world and 70% of our volume comes from foreign markets. This is why we know from first-hand experience that even with all of the known difficulties, it is entirely possible to be a truly international company. It is useless to make a serious export effort without the backing of solid research and development. The competitive-

ness of a global environment means that today more than ever, choices are made according to tangible attributes that aim to improve quality of life. Furthermore, without the right distribution system that is able to recognize and adapt to the differing needs and tastes of individual markets, the process can very well end in failure. Cosentino has ample experience with international markets, experience that has enabled us to clearly contrast two different strategies: production, which takes place on site at our headquarters in Cantoria; and distribution. Opting for a comprehensive distribution model is the result of a clear vision of service to our professional customers, and direct communication with the end user. The operational base of our model is called the Cosentino Center, and Grupo Cosentino already has fifty of these across Europe, North America and Brazil. Continued investment in research and development, improvement and expansion of distribution facilities around the world, and growing the company's human capital are the pledges that we have maintained since the beginning, and which have allowed us to reach a stable position in the countries where we currently

Continued investment in research and development, improvement and expansion of distribution facilities around the world, and growing the company's human capital are the pledges that we have maintained since the beginning.

do business and, for example, to overcome recent negative situations such as the euro-dollar exchange rate. Now is the time not only to maintain these pledges, but to increase them. In a recent article, Guillermo de la Dehesa strongly advised "obtaining positions in other countries such as the USA, Canada, the UK, Germany, France and Scandinavia, as they will be the first to recover from the current crisis or recession because their economies are more flexible, or because they are highly competitive countries that tend to more readily take advantage of global recovery. Cosentino is ready for this bounce, and urges all Spanish companies to maintain the entrepreneurial spirit and the ambition to compete outside of our own borders. Certainly, with the acceptance of cultural differences we aim to integrate our models, which have strong foundations in the diversification of our products, the strength of Spanish brands and a more refined and controlled distribution system making it possible to offer more and better quality products to reach the consumer, as well as to achieve international success in the current socio-economic climate.

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culture and society

50 years after his death. An exhibit entitled "Gregorio Marañón 1887-1960. Doctor, Humanist, and Liberal," will be on display at the National Library of Spain in Madrid from March 22 until June 6, at the Cantabria Library and Archive in Santander from July 1 to August 29, and at the San Marcos Cultural Center in Toledo from September 20 to December 12. The exhibit was organized by the State Cultural Commemoration Society in memory of Spanish scientist and intellectual Gregorio Marañón on the 50th anniversary of his death.

From left to right, visit to Las Hurdes with King Alfonso XIII in 1922; at a tribute to Galdós at the Parque del Retiro Park; during a book signing at the Madrid Book Fair in 1959; and the funeral procession after his death in March of 1960. Above, portrait dated in the '20s. photo efe.

A Retrospective of Gregorio Marañón A well-known figure of the Silver Age of Spanish Culture, Gregorio Marañón was a member of the so-called Generation of '14, the generation that sought the Europeanization of Spain, as expressed by philosopher José Ortega y Gasset. Both his work as a professor and his clinical work are characterized by his humanist vision of medicine. A strong advocate for the study of endocrinology in Spain, his other focus of research was the battle against infectious disease, where he became well known for his study of the flu pandemic that swept through Spain and Europe, as well as for his famous visit to Las Hurdes at the northern tip of the country with King Alfonso XIII in 1922. A writer of psychobiographies, he studied aspects of human behavior, such

as shyness, the need to control, powerlessness, and resentment, in high profile individuals including the Emperor Tiberius, King Enrique IV of Castilla, and the Count-Duke of Olivares. The exhibit explores the life and intellectual and scientific legacy of Gregorio Marañón in seven segments, emphasizing his multi-faceted personality. A physician and researcher, humanist, essayist, and historian, he was truly one of the exponents of the best Spanish liberal tradition. Marañón understood that being liberal was part of the essence of a person--it was a way of being, a personal ethic. He also played a key role during an extraordinarily turbulent time in the history of Spain. Although he ended up in prison during the dictatorship of Pri-

mo de Rivera for defending the liberal parliamentary system, he, together with Ramón Pérez de Ayala and José Ortega y Gasset launched what became known as the Group at the Service of the Republic, for which they enlisted the help of intellectuals to support the regime of 1931. When the civil war started, placing his life in danger, he fled to exile, where he helped as many as he could; at the same time he constantly asserted the need for national reconciliation in order to begin building Spain for the future. Gregorio Marañón returned to Spain in the autumn of 1942. His many testimonies favoring the repatriation of those in exile, the close friendships he maintained with many of them, the help he rendered to all who sought him, his participation in the tribute ceremony held by the university after the death of Ortega y Gasset, and his critical statements about the dictatorship published in foreign newspapers combine to make him a liberal par excellence.


Barcelona to receive new supercomputer in 2012  With an investment of 100 million euros, the Spanish Government will be placing one of the major European supercomputers in Barcelona. The new machine will be on a par with the computers already operating in Germany, France, and Italy. The computer will be housed at the National Supercomputing Center and will be 100 times more powerful than the Mare Nostrum supercomputer that was installed in Barcelona in 2004. This technological advancement is of vital importance to medical research.

Government honors poet Miguel Hernández  On the 100th anniversary of the birth of poet Miguel Hernández, the Spanish Government awarded a Declaration of Restitution and Personal Recognition to his descendants, in fulfillment of the Historical Memory Law. The purpose of this honor is to rehabilitate the name and memory of the writer, who died in a Francoist prison in 1942. Throughout the year, various institutions have scheduled events intended to highlight the life and work of the Alicantine poet.

Opening performance of ‘2036 Omena-G’ at the Lope de Vega Theater in Sevilla.

50th anniversary of Els Joglars  ‘2036 Omena-G’ is the first show of the 50th year of the Joglars, the longest-lived permanent private theater company in Europe. But rather than looking back, Albert Boadella -the group's director- has put together what could be called an "anti-tribute". Thus, ‘2036 Omena-G’ takes us 25 years into the future to imagine a 75th anniversary tribute. The sarcasm with which the Joglars have depicted the evolution of Spanish society over the past halfcentury is now applied, no holds barred, to the troupe itself, resulting in a cruel, entertaining, sarcastic play without limits.

‘Cell 211’, winner of the 2010 Goya Awards  Daniel Monzó's 'Cell 211' was the big winner at this year's Goya Awards ceremony, taking home eight prizes. Alejandro Amenábar's latest production, 'Agora', won seven of the 13 awards for which it was nominated. The ceremony also saw the reconciliation between Pedro Almodóvar and the Spanish Film Academy; Almodóvar presented the award for best film, which went to 'Cell 211'

Political magazine 'Claves de Razón Práctica' reaches 200th issue  The political opinion magazine 'Claves de Razón Práctica' (Keys to Practical Reason), edited by Javier Pradera and Fernando Savater, just published its 200th issue, representing two decades of constant coverage and discussion of international and Spanish events. The first issue was published in the spring of 1990 with an essay by Rafael Sánchez Ferlosio. Issue 200 includes articles by Karl Popper, Joseph Stiglitz, and editor Fernando Savater.

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Spanish research

Russian railways want to use Spain's AVE model The largest railway company in the world, Russian Railways, is seeking collaboration with Spain's top high-speed rail companies (Adif, Renfe, and Talgo) to implement high-speed rail transport in Russia. The first project for which talks have reached an advanced stage is the construction of a rail line connecting Moscow and Sochi, which will host the 2014 Winter Olympic Games. Over the next few months, Talgo will undergo several tests by the Russian operator, and trains will be tested on the Moscow-St. Petersburg and Moscow-Brest lines. Spain has enjoyed a fruitful exchange with Russia in railway innovation for many years.

Spanish research

Part of today's Mediterranean Sea dried up six million years ago According to data from a recent scientific study by the University of Alicante, the connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean closed some six million years ago at the Strait of Gibraltar as water failed to enter the strait. Rain and river runoff were insufficient to counter the effects of evaporation, and the sea dried up. This theory is supported by several investigations performed over the last century, which used submarine exploration ships to demonstrate the existence of plaster on the seabed. These mineral deposits only form under conditions of rapid evaporation.

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culture and society

2010, St. James Holy Year. Galicia is taking advantage of the Holy Year to ramp up its plans to increase tourism and cultural awareness. The visit by Pope Benedict XVI in November will be a catalyst for the Holy Year celebration.

The Santiago de Compostela Cathedral, the epicenter of the Holy Year.

Galicia to celebrate the St. James Holy Year With hopes to turn the region into a world-class tourist destination, Galicia begins celebration of the St. James Holy Year, a celebration that occurs on the years when St. James' Day (July 25) falls on a Sunday. The St. James Jubilee was established by Pope Calixtus II in the year 1122 and for centuries it has brought millions of pilgrims to what must be considered the premier European cultural itinerary. Aside from the clear spiritual content of the celebration, this year's festivities are based on a complete plan of action focused on promoting the nature, cul-

ture, and gastronomy of Galicia as tourist attractions. Based on the current economic situation, the expected number of visitors has been reduced and a goal of 10 million visitors has been set. The number of visitors reached 12 million during the last Holy Year in 2004. The economic impact of the Holy Year is an important part of the Galician economy and it has been estimated that it may serve to increase the Galician GDP by 1%. Pope Benedict XVI has confirmed his visit to Santiago de Compostela on November 6 to participate in the Holy Year celebrations.

Two contracts in India and China signed for 41 million euros

Spanish technology company Indra dominates Asian aerial navigation market The signing of two new contracts in China and India, worth 41 million euros, will make Indra the largest aerial navigation company in the world. Its aerial traffic control system, based on entirely Spanish technology, is currently in use in airports, navigation control centers, and control towers in 80 countries throughout the world. The great value of this contract lies in

its ability to optimize aerial transport in China. The contract will give Indra control of 60% of China's air routes in the 50 largest airports in the country and allow the Asian country to expand its saturated airspace. On the other hand, the contact with the Indian Government will hand control of the navigation systems in 38 of its airports over to the Spanish company.

Spanish technology at CeBIT fair in Hannover  Spain was selected as Partner Country for the CeBIT Fair in Hannover in March, the largest technology innovation showcase in the world. Indra demonstrated itself as a world leader in healthcare, energy efficiency, intelligent infrastructure, and sustainability; Telefónica exhibited its online learning program; ISBAN, from the Santander Group, exhibited its selection of banking software products; etc. In all, exhibits from 70 companies demonstrated that our country is at the forefront of future technology.

The Lizarrán restaurant firm increases its presence in the United States  Lizarrán, known as the leading restaurant company in Spain and part of the Europa Comess Group, has decided to strengthen its U.S. presence by opening 20 new establishments in New York over the next 10 years. Lizarrán currently enjoys an international presence in 12 countries.

Spain fifth in the world for renewable energy patents  According to the latest OCDE report, Spain has reached fifth place in the number of renewable energy patents filed, exceeded only by the U.S., Japan, Germany, and the United Kingdom.

‘The Secret in Their Eyes’ wins Oscar for best foreign film  The Spanish-Argentine coproduction 'The Secret in Their Eyes' received an Oscar for best foreign film at this year's awards ceremony. The film, which was directed by Juan José Campanella, has become the most watched Argentine film in the past 35 years.


Doñana sees highest level of flooding of the decade  The Doñana National Park wetlands reached their highest levels in a decade this winter, due to intense precipitation over Andalucía. This will help strengthen this fragile ecosystem that is the only one of its kind in Europe and an important stop for many species of migratory birds.

Picasso at the Cervantes Institute in Istanbul  Princess Elena opened an exhibit of Picasso's 'Suite Vollard' etchings in Istanbul. The exhibit was co-organized by the Cervantes Institute, the Mapfre Foundation, and the Suna ve Inan Kiraç Foundation of Istanbul, with collaboration from the Spanish Embassy in Turkey. ‘Suite Vollard’ is a collection of 100 copper etchings made by Pablo Picasso between 1930 and 1937 at the request of Ambroise Vollard.

The Idea of Europe, at the National Library  An exhibit, organized in collaboration with the State Society for Cultural Commemoration and intended to inspire reflection on the idea of Europe and its evolution from Classical Greece, will be on display at the Spanish National Library until June. Divided into the four periods of European history -classical, medieval, modern, and contemporary- 'Europe on Paper' contains over 100 pieces illustrating the condensation in recent years of the splendid adventure known as Europe. Included in the exhibit are some master works from the Library, such as the Beatus of Liébana, the recently restored codices of Leonardo da Vinci, drawings by Velásquez, and some of Picasso's etchings from 1910, which are only seldom put on display.

culture and society 63

Contemporary art. The collection represents a journey of one of the greatest exponents of Spanish contemporary art from youth to maturity

Caixaforum Madrid contemplates the last 25 years of the pictorial works of Miquel Barceló This exhibit, on display in Madrid, celebrates Barceló's achievements over the past 25 years and offers spectators the possibility of understanding the mystery and personal uncertainty surrounding the creative process. As a result, this particular selection of works was chosen to allow viewers to coherently and passionately experience Barceló's work through 140 pieces, from enormous canvases created between 1982 and the present, to ceramic works and sculpture, to watercolors, sketches, posters, books, and travelogues. The purpose of the selection is to allow the public to truly experience the work of Barceló by discovering his energetic response to the material world, his relationship with tradition, his travels, his use of unsettling elements, and his representation of the human and animal kingdoms. The artist himself was directly involved in choosing the works for this selection, which was commissioned by Catherine Lampert, and even lent a few paintings from his personal collection

The sculpture “Gran Elefant dret”, by Miquel Barceló, stands at the entrance of CaixaForum Madrid.

for the exhibit. ‘Miquel Barceló. 19832009’ will later be on display at CaixaForum Barcelona, where it will be open to the public beginning in July 2010.

FITUR 2010 hosts the Investour Forum

Casa África and the OMT promote Spanish investment in African tourism Casa África, together with the World Tourism Organization and FITUR introduced Investour, a forum dedicated to the promotion of Spanish investment in Africa's tourism sector, at this year's International Tourism Fair, which was held in January. The venue allowed over 50 Spanish businesses to hear firsthand the possibilities offered by the African continent as a tourist

destination. In fact, Africa has been the only region of the world that has seen an increase in the number of visitors since 2009, indicating the growing interest in international tourism. 15 ministers of tourism from various African countries were present at Investour, which took place at one of the most important tourism fairs in the world.

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culture and society

Inauguration of the synchrotron. The facility, with a budget exceeding 200 million euros, will be operating at full capacity by the beginning of 2011

The particle accelerator places Spain at the forefront of modern technology Near the end of March, Prime Minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero inaugurated Spain's first large particle accelerator, known as a synchrotron, in Cerdanyola del Vallès in Barcelona. The facility, which was financed in equal measure by the National and Catalonian Governments, has a total price tag of 201 million euros and is intended to be the driving force that will allow an innovative and competitive industry to overcome the crisis. The facility covers an area of 26,000 square meters, making it the largest particle accelerator in Southern Europe, and placing Spain alongside the United Kingdom, Switzerland, and France,

which all have similar accelerators. The accelerator will be operating at full capacity by the beginning of 2011, and will open with seven research lines, although it is designed to accommodate up to 33. The laboratory will not only make its facilities available to public researchers, but will be open to the private sector as well. The facility will employ more than 140 workers. The facility consists of a 268 meter-long circular track, capable of accelerating electrons to speeds very close to the speed of light. The results of research being performed at the accelerator are critical to the chemical, biological, and pharmaceutical industries.

PhotoEspaña 2010 to schedule 69 exhibits  The 13th annual PhotoEspaña festival will begin on June 9, with participation by more than 400 artists from 41 countries. During the nearly two months that the event will run, Spain's top photography festival will explore how time is experienced in the work of visual artists and photographers.

Soledad Puértolas

Puértolas joins the Royal Academy of the Spanish Language  The Aragonese writer is the fifth woman academic to become part of the institution, which consists of 44 members. The widely recognized institution, which dates back over three centuries, is responsible for overseeing changes to the Spanish language and its adaptation to the needs of Spanish speakers.

Repsol strengthens presence in Venezuela View of the core of the ALBA synchrotron on inauguration day.

Madrid Fusión holds eighth annual summit

Spain becomes the world capital of gastronomy with Madrid Fusión During the month of January, Madrid was host to the annual event featuring the best of national and international food. During the summit, various gastronomy experts discussed world trends that influence cooking from nation to nation. The summit, which is now in its eighth year, has become the leading conference of its type in the world, in large measure because of the prestige that Spanish cooking

has achieved in recent years. Many top names were present at the event, including Juan Mari Arzak, Martín Berasategui, Pedro Subijana, and Ferrán Adriá. It was Mr. Adriá who surprised everyone by announcing the closing of his restaurant 'El Bulli' during 2012 and 2013, to allow him "to reinvent himself". This restaurant has been the recipient of the top international gastronomy awards in recent years.

 In February, the Spanish oil company was granted permission to begin work in a new deposit in the Orinoco Belt, which is expected to produce 400,000 barrels of crude oil per day for 40 years. With 11% of the stake in production, Repsol leads all foreign involvement in the project.

Algeciras at the center of debate on birds and climate change  In March, the city of Algeciras hosted the 2nd International Congress on Bird Migration and Climate Change. The conference brought together the top 200 specialists, to issue warnings and propose measures for protection. These conclusions will be debated by the European Council in June.


culture and society 65

The first stage of his cinematic career was characterized by discontent and rebellion. The second stage seems to have found peace and satisfaction. by Jacobo GarcĂ­a. JOURNALIST

With thanks to... Carlos Saura

L'enfant terrible His biography bears the mark of the civil war that sent his childhood to hell. The son of a Treasury official and a pianist, he opted to study industrial engineering. But one fine day, the tyranny of school became too much and off he went to wander about Spain, carrying nothing but a camera. That experience lent him enviable technical expertise, which today allows him to build new, working cameras from parts cannibalized from devices that have long since ceased to function. His other strengths were drawing, which came almost naturally, and a taste for music (from his mother's side) and documentaries. Carrying this baggage, he started taking classes at the School of Film, where, after graduating, he became a professor. Once he realized that he was not being considered for the recently created tenure positions, he left the School determined to demonstrate to his colleagues the truth of the axiom that he who has something to say, goes and says it, and he who has nothing to say, goes and teaches it. He had always wanted to develop his own plotlines and

make "independent" films, like his French colleagues of the "new wave". His cinematographic language was brusque and syncopated, as he tried to eliminate all unnecessary shots and fill his works with continual action. It wasn't always easy, even for the natives of the era, but he was able to push the limits of conventional realism, although it wouldn't be long before he was overtaken by the precipitous changes in cinematographic grammar. He strung together scenes of social and family conflict on a background of routineness interrupted by some fortuitous accident, social conflict, or intentional violence. The strokes of apparent irrationality scattered throughout his films were part of the daily experience of nearly everyone at the time, but, when cleverly placed throughout the script and associated with the dearest symbols of Franco's regime, they became sticky blobs of red paint that he would launch at the carefully starched white shirt of the socalled organic democracy. The censors won a few battles, but as soon as his films began to win awards

abroad, the censors suddenly found themselves in a rather sticky situation. Forced to choose between preventing the dissemination of those scandalous tapes throughout Spain and having the opportunity to show off the regime's avant-garde talent to the world, the General Department of Cinematography chose the latter. That was the salvation of that young rebel with the face of an altar boy. Had he lost his confrontation with the regime, he would have had to seek refuge at the top of Aneto peak, in his hometown of Huesca, or apply his photographic talents to some non-controversial art, like selenography. Following in the footsteps of mentor and friend Luis BuĂąuel, he mustered the courage to break down the sacrosanct image of the family on the psychiatrist's couch and allow families to come unhinged on camera, in order to capture their internal conflicts with some measure of liberty. His films, as did so many other things, took a drastic turn after Franco's death. The bit he had been chomping

under the yoke and arrows of the Franco regime began to disappear the day that television broadcasts began to talk openly about atrocities far worse than those he had had to fight tooth and nail to even hint at. The Aragonese warrior, the UNINCI travel companion gave way to the passionate Andalusian Arabic poet from the paintings of Goya, to the plays of Lorca, to flamenco, to tango, and especially to the houris that inhabit the dance academies signing death sentences of love and sensuality in a blur of flounces and rapid-fire footwork. It was the evolution of the country that led him to change his style, although he may have simply become bored with Spanish society as it gradually conquered democratic normalcy. But his post-1982 work demonstrates that he was not truly a rebel at heart, and certainly no Mephistopheles. And even though his early work appears to be dragging traditional values through the mud, it was because in some way he had to leap the wall of censorship to be able to recount what was going on.

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“Get to work, and then we'll see, I tell my students”, says one of Spain's greatest fashion designers. Restless, perfectionist, and highly dedicated to the education of young talent, Jesús del Pozo talks to Miradas al Exterior about the students at his Foundation –I have no secrets with them-, about his deepest passions –“I love ballet”-, and about the role of style as a service -“I hate fashion victims”-, he confesses. by Beatriz Beeckmans.

Jesús del Pozo

“Only in the dictionary does success come before work” A staunch defender of keeping only the essential in a product line and of the innovative use of materials, Jesús del Pozo welcomed us into his Madrid showroom--a space filled with extraordinary creations hanging in wait to dress thousands of people all over the world. “It's my idea lab”, he says, before launching into a long chat. — Fashion is one sector where our country enjoys a strong presence abroad. How would you define the Spanish business model? — I believe that there is, in fact, a definite model, but I feel that it is an incorrect, antiquated model that looks like it will be abandoned in favor of another that we have been pushing for for many years. I have always felt that the best way to do things with Spanish brands is using the new model that ICEX is starting. Up to this point, industry-oriented projects have had too broad a focus. We need to support and strengthen the leading brands, like they've done in Italy, France, and even the United States, which has a much younger fashion industry than we do. If you strengthen and push a few select brands, they will pull along and strengthen the entire industry. If you try to deal with the entire industry, it becomes impossible, because the initial needs are too great and you can't diver-

sify as well. — Now that you've mentioned these other countries, the Italians use the image of their country to sell, for example, shoes, and the French do the same to sell their wines. Do you think there is a brand/country association for the Spanish textile industry? How do you perceive our worldwide presence? — The worst part is that we buy Italian shoes made in Spain! It is because, among other things, they knew how to sell their products. You really have to know how to package and recognize the worth of what you have, but in the end it is exactly as I said before: the main thing is take a few specific, leading brands, and invest in the promotion of those brands--not for the short term, but do as Italy and the United States have done, not to mention France, which has been involved in the world of fashion for nearly two centuries. However, there are countries that have been able to create this sort of market based on promotion of their leading brands, like Italy, which started doing this after the Second World War, with the first European industrial reconversion. It's true that Spain was not involved in the reconversion and had to wait, so we are behind by a few years. It's a significant handicap, but there is one positive aspect that we

have to take advantage of: We don't have to make the same mistakes as everyone else. We need to adapt the formulas they have used successfully in their countries to our needs. — Have you thought of measures that could improve the situation? — I'm really a 'homebody'. What I like to do is design, model...and that is what I understand. I'm a businessman because I have to be: I've had to learn business, because unfortunately, it was impossible to separate the two. And I've had to do things that I was not trained to do, things that were not my vocation--I had concentrated on building my creativity. The whole business side really should have been handled by another person, but in Spain there have never been business projects in the fashion industry. And that has been the big problem. — Then let's talk about your vocation, what you have dedicated your life to, although I am aware that you started out in engineering... — Yes, I started out in industrial engineering because I was forced to. Once they saw that there was no way that was going to work, they told me 'Do whatever you want'. That was when I began to explore interior decorating and furniture design. What I have never had is formal training.


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— And what is the self-teaching process like? — It seems very natural to me--at some point you ask yourself 'How should I twist this?' (moves hands as if twisting a piece of cloth), and you discover that it works much better one way than another, based on trial and error... But many times errors form part of the creative process, and what was a mistake becomes the better way of doing something. All that experimentation has served me well. It has also served me well to live in a country where there was not a lot of money to create collections, not a lot of types of fabric, and not a large industry to fall back on, because it forces you to create something new in spite of the limitations. Like my grandmother would say, 'hunger makes a genius', and the need to create new things forces you to find ways to make something unique using the same old materials. That sort of exploration is extremely fun for me. Now we have access to so many pre-fabricated items, but as I look back I see, for example, that when we get compliments on our color palette and how personal it feels, it's that way because I didn't have color swatches to choose from, so I had to make my own. So, the handicap of having to make my own colors became a distinct advantage. And there are countless other examples, such as pleating. In order to do what I wanted with the same ordinary cloth, I had to not only change its color, but also break it down, twist it, essentially destroy it. That allowed me to create a series of textures that later became industrialized. — Now the obvious question: What inspires you to create? — Calling it inspiration seems a bit pretentious. I feel that you can get inspiration from life, on the street, from the needs of those close to you, or even acquaintances who aren't that close. That's what makes you tailor your work to a specific audience. In the end, you're providing a service. I have always said that fashion has to make our lives easier, not more complicated. I cannot tolerate

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profile The professional career of this fashion designer from Madrid is solidly backed by many awards and more than 30 years of experience. Since 1974, when he opened his first men's clothing shop on Almirante street, Jesús del Pozo has put his heart and soul into the creation of a world of beauty where distilling the essence of a product line and innovation in materials

fashion victims. In my opinion, fashion has to be very enjoyable, it has to be fun. If it's not, it's not really worth it. I have a lot of respect for people who don't worry about what to wear--if they don't care, well that's fine. But for those who really enjoy it, it can be a whole lot of fun. I love how people can be so chameleonesque-at night they're one person, and someone completely different during the day, even though there tend to be general trends in the way a person acts or dresses; in any case, transformations can be great fun. I think, more than inspiration, it is an innate sense of proportion and volume. An architect will apply it to architecture, while a designer applies it to the things he or she designs--and it can be applied to anything really. For example, take this table, (points to the table next to us) that I made 40 years ago, before I started designing clothing. I can also apply this sense to a vase, an evening gown, or a uniform. — How does the world perceive a designer of your stature? And how close is this perception to reality, in your opinion? My life is very enjoyable and very rich. In some senses it is quite enviable, and in others a bit masochistic. For example, I realize that in some situations I will make comments and people will tell me 'Only you can see that'. But if something

take priority. From his enclave on Almirante Street, today the nerve center of the Madrid avant-garde, the designer began his journey through the world of style and fashion shows. His first collection for men was revealed at the SEHM in Paris in 1976. Four years later he introduced his first Prêtà-Porter collection for women. He showed his designs at the Fashion Foundation in Tokyo in

really bothers me, it's hard for me to ignore or not worry about it. As I watch my fashion shows, I can only see what's wrong, because everything that's right seems normal and the way it should be. It's the things that don't work out quite right that get to me. But on the other hand, you get a lot more out of things: you can see things that don't actually exist or imagine things to be something they're not, which is absolutely fantastic... — An example for those of us who aren't quite as creative? — We've all experienced it: you see something and you think 'how nice'. But when you really get a good look, or a closer look, at it, you find that what you had imagined was much nicer and you are even capable of reproducing it, in spite of the fact that what you imagined has nothing to do with what you actually saw. It could be anything from the pleat in a skirt to someone's nose. You look at a picture and you see a crease that turns out to be just a shadow, but you retain the idea of the crease because that's what really got your attention. It's really quite entertaining, and simply a matter of practice, like anything else. I'm always jotting down new ideas, only to forget about half of them completely... (laughs). Sometimes it will be to the point that I'm not sure whether I've seen something or merely imagined it, and I start searching

1989 and at the Louvre's Coure Carrée in Paris. From his first showing at Pasarela Cibeles, Jesús del Pozo has become a key figure in Madrid's fashion week, to which he has always remained faithful. In the early '90s, he entered the world of fragrances with Duende (1992). His first perfume for women, with its sensuous, fresh tones, complements his

for images that have never existed--it's wonderful. — You have mentioned that in difficult situations, your work is the only thing that has brought you complete satisfaction and allowed you to forget about the problem. A statement like that shows a deep passion for your profession… — I have only experienced a few very difficult times, and I was only able to get them out of my head during a few small moments of tremendous satisfaction at work. That is the only thing that allows me to stop thinking about the problem for a few seconds, only that. And you find that once you really get involved in something, everything else ceases to exist. — How do you see your career? How do you feel after dedicating your entire life to fashion? — I have always said that I'm a worker, just like anyone else. You should never, ever think about success. If it comes, it comes, and if not, well, it doesn't. I always tell my students that only in the dictionary does success come before work. Get to work, and then we'll see. I feel very fortunate to have been able to dedicate myself to design in Spain at a time when that was extremely difficult--especially coming from a very conservative family, for whom design and fashion was a distant, foreign concept, with very little tan-

i fashion collections. In 1994, he introduced his first fragrance for men, Quasar. Besides his love for style and fashion, Jesús del Pozo is a fanatic of the scenic arts, a passion that has led him to design costumes for plays, ballets, films, and operas, collaborating with such highly esteemed directors and artists as Alicia Alonso and Fernando Trueba. His most significant project in this regard

was the creation of the 500 costume design sketches for Bizet's opera "Carmen", produced by the Royal Theater of Madrid. With the arrival of the new century, Jesús del Pozo is broadening his horizons to include a wider range of accessories: eyeglasses, watches, and a large collection of tableware and linens for the home. He has therefore moved to a new studio on Ronda de Toledo street--a bright,

gible benefit. My father would tell me: ‘you're just a goldbricker’, and I found myself facing the adversity of a family that could not see anything worthwhile in what I wanted to do. Not having access to materials or color swatches, and the fact that fashion was a very limited industry in Spain, especially since I started with men's fashion, was yet another obstacle. But once you get used to dodging the rocks in your path, you kind of get bored when they're not there anymore. — It must feel very satisfying to have overcome, and been strengthened by, all those obstacles... — Strengthened on one hand, and ground to dust on the other (laughter), because it does wear you down. But yes, it is an interesting history that is good to remember. — You have always been very committed to training and education, most recently through your JP Foundation. What legacy do you feel is most important to pass on to the youth? — In my profession, people getting started now have an advantage that my generation never had: the opportunity to receive technical training. If I had been able to get training, I would have made far fewer mistakes. I had to start by essentially inventing the wheel, because no one taught me that it had already been invented! They, however, are going to

interview 73

open space where he can more easily work in his shop or "idea lab" and research concepts, materials, and cuts with his design team. This creative work is reflected both in his Cibeles Fashion Week collections and in his JP Jesús del Pozo product line. Through the JP Foundation, he shares his experience and enthusiasm with a new generation of designers and fashion lovers.

have to push their way into a much more difficult and competitive market. This is not a profession that can really be taught, but it can be learned, and the only way to learn is by watching how it's done. It is not a matter of teaching classes or giving explanations, but rather observing how someone you think is good does what they do. This was my basis for creating the Foundation, which now offers grants to several types of students. Some are in design, some in directing, and some in communication. It is very gratifying to me that these kids have the opportunity to learn what I never had the chance to. Throughout the years we have seen many, many students, some of whom have been just amazing--soaking in every detail and dedicating themselves completely to what they were doing, while others came through as if it were a supermarket, and never really learned anything. It's too bad that people like that end up occupying a spot that someone else might have taken better advantage of, but it's very difficult to know who will be good based on a few samples and short interviews. — Is that how you make your decisions? — Of course, by looking at their work and based on letters of recommendation from school directors, but I do realize that even that is no guarantee. I have had people with outstanding recommen-

dations that have been great students, while others with good references from the very same school just aren't that good. I suppose whether or not people identify with you and your vision is also a factor. I have a lot of affection for my students; I guess I have a little of the old trade master in me, because when I'm with them, there are no secrets. When something comes up, I teach them about it, even if it's a technique I used 30 years ago to pleat; if something needs to be dyed, we'll dye it; or we'll open a book and study it together. They also see that I am completely involved in all aspects of testing. They see everything, even how I think out loud. You really can't worry about who might think what, you just say it and go on. You have to work hard and concentrate on what you're doing. I'm very impatient; when I want something, I want it done now. When I think of something, I want to have it finished right then. The people who model for me frequently say that the only things they hear me say are: ‘Where's a piece of cloth like this?’ and ‘Where are the scissors?’, so I can add, remove, alter, twist, or change something. And that is how I need to be all the time. — From what you've said, I get the idea that you like more of a natural look, no gimmicks... “— Yes, no ornaments. I'm an old, tradi-

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tional Spaniard; even though I was born in Madrid, my father is from Segovia and my mother is from Valladolid. I like the austere, intimate sort of luxury. I am much more interested in having silk on the inside than having silk on the outside. I am much more interested in feeling like I'm wearing silk than making sure you see that I'm wearing silk. That is the philosophy that governs my work and my life. It is very much related to the Arabic culture's tendency to eschew outward appearance and strengthen inner appearance. It also has a lot to do with how I was brought up--to show off less and enjoy the things I had. Showy demonstrations have never seemed elegant to me; in fact, I find them a bit vulgar. That's how I was brought up and educated, and that is part of who I am. My mother had an extraordinarily refined sense of aesthetics. In my first communion photograph, there are eight or ten of us from the Sacred Heart Elementary School on Claudio Coello Street in Madrid. I am the only one not wearing a pure white suit, and mine is the only book that doesn't shine. Everyone else's was mother-ofpearl, mine was white leather. That sort of thing has a profound impact on you. I don't remember anything shiny in my house--there were no gold frames or shiny drapes. I remember the smell of wax, natural woods, satins, but never anything gaudy... — And that's what you put into your creations... — That's what I know how to create. Sometimes I see things I like with bolder or flashier colors, but I really don't know how to work with them. If I sit down and try, I discover that it's just not in me, and well, you do what you know how to do, and I believe that the only way to do something well is to truly feel it. — You really enjoy other artistic performances, like opera and ballet. How do you work those emotions into your profession? There is no real channel for connecting the two. I feel that those sorts of emotions do affect your work, but not in a conscious way. Those feelings are deep

“If we strengthen the leading Spanish brands, they will pull the entire industry along” “I like to teach my students like an old trade master, with no secrets” within your subconscious, and they feed your intellect, your soul, your life, and your heart; they may or may not come out in your work, but not in any planned or premeditated way. Images that affect you deeply become burned into your retina, and while the result may have nothing to do with any of them, they are still part of your education. My eyes are much more educated than my ears. Thus, even though I appreciate the lyrical and musical part of opera very much, I am much more interested in the visual aspects of the show. If the production is poor, I don't enjoy watching it, no matter how good the voices are. I can't say that the visual aspect is more important, but it is just as important as everything else. That's why I find ballet so interesting, because the aesthetic and visual part is so significant. I love ballet. The problem is that I only love the really excellent ballets, and there are not a lot of really excellent ballets. And in order to see real excellence, you have to put up with a lot of mediocrity. But when I do enjoy ballet, I truly relish it. I think the strongest emotions I've ever felt, the truly overwhelming emotions, I've felt during a ballet. — Have you ever felt that way at one of your fashion shows? — Never. Nothing I've made has ever made me feel like that. I only see the defects in my work. I have felt similar emotions while creating my work, but never during the show--I've never felt ecstatic about what I've made. I might think about what a great time I've had. And yes, I have had those sublime moments, but only while I'm working, during the

creative process. Fleeting moments they are, but very much worth it. — After 35 years in the industry, what projects do you see yourself taking on in the future? — Anything involving new materials and new elements is the most exciting, because on one hand you're new to it, but on the other, you can still apply all your previous experience. I've been designing clothes for 35 years, and the research part is becoming less and less necessary. If I sit down to design a porcelain or glass item, there is much more to explore and I can experiment to a much greater degree. When I started out in fragrance, it was wonderful. I would go to Paris to smell, to create, to differentiate, to educate my nose; it was fascinating, because now you are trying to translate all your aesthetic criteria to your sense of smell. I really enjoy anything that's a challenge. The thing is, I used to be able to do this with just about anything, but now I need really good teams at my side, or it wears me out. It is very important to work with good people who understand you and can bring you a lot of satisfaction: people that, when you put an idea out there, they get it and can immediately make it a reality and even improve upon it. That only happens with first-rate teams. Otherwise communication becomes clumsy and slow, and there is so much I want to make--I am in a tremendous hurry. — You have dressed women from all over the world. Do you feel that your approach to style varies by region or country? What sort of women do you have in mind as you design? — I don't design for any particular type of woman with any specific social or economic status--not even for a specific age. But we do design for individuals with a certain mentality. And that mentality exists in Spain, in Japan, and in New York; and in this sense, a woman from Madrid may be much more like a woman from Japan, living thousands of miles away, and vastly different from the neighbor downstairs. It's a way of thinking, and that is the type of person we design for.

Miradas al exterior es una publicación oficial de información diplomática del Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores y de Cooperación del Gobierno de España, con una distribución trimestral de 14.000 ejemplares en todo el mundo y traducida al inglés y francés. Disponible en versión on-line en

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Recuerda que en el extranjero

Tu Embajada puede ayudarte Para atender a nuestros compatriotas en el extranjero, España cuenta con una amplia red consular dependiente del Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores y de Cooperación, compuesta en la actualidad por 187 Oficinas Consulares y Secciones Consulares de Embajadas, así como cerca de 375 Consulados y Viceconsulados Honorarios. > La función de los Consulados consiste en prestar determinados servicios administrativos a los ciudadanos españoles, ayudar a quienes hayan sido víctimas de delitos o abusos y asistir a quienes se encuentren en situación de necesidad. > Cuando te encuentres en un país o ciudad donde España no posea Consulado, podrás dirigirte a la Sección Consular de la Embajada de España, oficina que se encontrará únicamente en la capital de dicho país

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