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An Informative Diplomatic Publication of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation OCTOBER-DECEMBER, 2009. N˚12.

The Spanish Presidency of the EU begins

Rótulos y carteles señalizadores / Arquitectura en interiores

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Beginning January 1 and extending through June 30 of this year, Spain will be in charge of the political direction of the Twenty-seven, in a context not lacking in challenges. It will be an opportunity to demonstrate once again the organizational capabilities of our country and the profound European sentiment felt by its citizens. The big moment has arrived.

FOREIGN AFFAIRS > Diplomacy and energy in the twenty-first century> The Ibero-American summit backs innovation > Interview with the Director of Casa África COOPERATION > Meeting of African women parliamentarians in Madrid CULTURE AND SOCIETY > Homage to the Foreign Service of the Second Republic > Cava, a Spanish wine worth celebrating > Roca, a global Spanish firm INTERVIEW > Juan Navarro Baldeweg


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the facts and the image THE DATA



305 million euros


of December of 1955


This is the sum that Spain set aside over the course of the year 2009 for childhood nutrition programs, as part of its commitment to the fight against hunger.

Spain is admitted to the UN ten years after its founding in San Francisco by 51 countries, following the end of the Second World War.

December 1st was the fiftieth anniversary of this accord, through which twelve countries initially renounced all claims to sovereignty over Antarctica.

The image

Anniversary of the Antarctic Treaty


Representatives of 192 countries participated in the World Summit on Climate Change. Spain went to Copenhagen seeking a legally binding global agreement on future international cooperation in the fight against climate change. In keeping with this goal, the Spanish Presidency of the European Union ha placed top priority on the environment. The image shows the ‘CO2 Cube', a sculptural work that symbolizes a nearly dry snowfield above St. George's Lake in the Danish capital.

editOrial office > Director: Julio Albi de la Cuesta. Editor-in-Chief: José Bodas. Art Director and Editor: Javier Hernández. Editors: Beatriz Beeckmans. Contributors: Rafael Matos, Pilar Cuadra, Arturo Carrascosa, José Carlos Pacheco, Laura Losada, Miguel Lizana y Jacobo García. MANAGEMENT > Directorate General of Foreign Communication. Serrano Galvache, 26. 28033 MADRID. Published and printed by the Directorate General of Foreign Communication and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation. Total or partial reproduction prohibited without the express consent of the publisher. Miradas al Exterior is not responsible for the editorial content or for the opinions expressed by the authors. e-mail contact > > NIPO: 501-09-006-1

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68 > Juan Navarro Baldeweg (architect, painter and sculptor): "Architecture's deepest emotions are very simple: the way light passes through a window."

the interview

ing. 54 > Roca, a global Spanish firm. 58 > Accord for the promotion of Spanish culture abroad.

culture and society

38 > Meeting of African women parliamentarians in Madrid. 39 > The Government approves the FAD reform. 41> Campaign against gender-based violence.


foreign affairs

on the cover

6 > From January 1st until June 30 of this year, Spain will exercise the Presidency of the Council of the European Union.

18 > Diplomacy and energy in the twenty-first century. 22 > The 19th Ibero-American Summit backs innovation. 26 > Know your Embassy. Japan: east meets west. 30 > Interview with Ricardo Martínez, General Director of Casa África. 32 > Casa Mediterráneo begins its activities.

42 > Writer diplomats: Salvador de Madariaga. 44 > Homage to the Foreign Service of the Second Republic. 46 > Cava, a Spanish wine worth celebrat-

editorial board > President: Deputy Secretary of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation. First deputy chair: Director General of Foreign Communications. Second deputy chair: Technical Secretary General. Members: Cabinet Chiefs of the State Department of Foreign Affairs, the State Department for International Cooperation, the State Department for the European Union and the State Department for Ibero-America, and the Cabinet of the Director of the Spanish Agency for International Development Cooperation.



The Spanish presidency of the EU: a great challenge and a great opportunity Miguel Ángel Moratinos

minister of foreign affairs and cooperation

In the words of Ortega, there are moments in history when the old is not yet behind us and the new is still to come. These moments are times of change, moments for shifting the current paradigm of our society, and in order to do so, action needs to be taken. There’s no doubt that today, coming to the end of the first decade of the 21st century, we are experiencing one of those transition periods, where the rules that have governed the world over the second half of the last century are changing. In an international context marked by an economic crisis which, to a greater or lesser extent, affects every country in the world, we today find ourselves faced with a series of challenges that we have

to confront. Climate change, international terrorism, poverty and inequality are challenges that demand, now more than ever in our globalized world, the joint action of all nations and communities worldwide. However, faced with this new situation and these new threats that lie in wait for us, there’s no room for pessimism or defeat. Quite the opposite, we have to unite our efforts in favor of joint actions, common solutions that allow us, once and for all, to create a fairer, more responsible world, free from the scourge of war. Europe is by no means removed from this reality and, going back decades, has been a model for joint action on the path to the

future. Today, fortunately, the European Union has, in addition to the shared will of its twenty-seven Member States, a new instrument for tackling this new situation: the Lisbon Treaty, which came into force on 1 December of this year. A new and ambitious legal, political and institutional framework, which will not only enable it to face up to this new era, but will also be to the benefit of the more than five hundred million citizens living within its borders. The Lisbon Treaty, then, constitutes a huge step forward in the process of creating a stronger, more powerful European Union, with a stronger voice in the international arena. To do this it is creating a new institutional architecture, with new figures such as the President of the European Council and the High Representative for Foreign Policy of the European Union –both elected in the informal European Council in Brussels in November 2009- as well as streamlining and democratizing the decisionmaking process, and setting out the legal foundations for policies and initiatives that benefit the Union's citizens, such as the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union –which will become binding- and popular initiative.

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Within this double context, on January 1 Spain assumed the Presidency of the Council of the European Union. It will be the fourth time that Spain has presided over this institution, vital for the proper functioning of the Europe we want to build, but this time the Presidency also represents both a challenge and an opportunity for our country. A challenge because we are tackling this double context of shifting the international paradigm and institutional change, an opportunity to demonstrate that Europe is capable of speaking with a single voice on the international stage, and to face up to the challenges that stand before us in this new century, which we have only just begun. Spain has a rich historical and cultural heritage which it has been exceptionally savvy in promoting; Spain has been a great source of actors, athletes, writers, and people from the world of art and culture, who have taken Spanish culture to the far corners of the globe. But today Spain is, above all, a symbol of modernity, a country committed to the environment and sustainable development. It has quality infrastructure and is a devoted supporter of clean energy and encouraging competitiveness and innovation.

For all of these reasons our country can take on the challenges that arise over the six months ahead with optimism, working especially hard on the priorities that we have identified for our Presidency. Right now, the economic recovery of Europe and the international system is of vital importance. From that starting point, one of the priorities of our Presidency is to get behind the reform of the international financial system, promoting a new model for sustainable, competitive growth, where quality employment is created, based on innovation and social guarantees. Over the next six months, Spain, one of the leading promoters of the concept of European citizenship, aims to consolidate to so-called “Europe of the Citizens,” a Europe in which its five hundred million inhabitants feel part of the political project that, since 1957, we have been trying to build. Furthermore, we want Europe to be a true global player, capable of speaking with a single voice in a context where dialogue, respect for international law and effective multilateralism are values upon which international relations of our global era should be

based. One of the most innovative aspects of this new institutional framework is the creation of a European External Action Service, a revolutionary support tool for the Union’s foreign relations. And as part of Europe’s role in the international arena, Spain, with its firm commitment to developing all the world's communities, cannot forget that a strong and global Europe must also be a caring Europe, a pioneer in the field of development cooperation, called upon to support and help those who are most vulnerable in the world. Finally, we mustn’t forget that it is we who are responsible for safeguarding the transition from the Nice Treaty to this new legal framework created by the Lisbon Treaty. Spain, who has always been committed to the Union’s progress, will try to ensure, to the greatest possible extent, the correct and effective implementation of the Treaty’s provisions that have recently come into force. In short, against this backdrop of change and transition we can be optimistic. Europe, after decades of building, thanks to the will, effort and persistence of all of us, as Europeans, can be a shining beacon and benchmark for the new era that is about to commence.



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The big moment has arrived. From January 1 through June 30, Spain will hold the Presidency of the Council of the European Union; one of the most important events for Spanish foreign policy in recent years. A historic opportunity that is not, however, free from challenges. These include, among others, the global economic crisis and the new institutional framework arising from the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty. Spain is embarking on an intense six-month term, which will include an ambitious program to push forward the issues that most directly affect all Europeans. Furthermore, for the first time, this task will continue for the 12 subsequent months because of the joint program of the Trio Presidency which, with Belgium and Hungary, Spain is inaugurating. by Beatriz Beeckmans

Spain begins its Presidency of the EU



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On the night of December 31, there was a double celebration in Spain: the twelve-bell chimes with which we traditionally celebrate the new year welcomed not only 2010, but also the Spanish Presidency of the Council of the European Union. In many Spanish towns, the streets were lit up in blue and ceremonies were held displaying the European flag to celebrate a brilliant international occasion for our country. The fact is that, for the fourth time since joining the European Community in 1986, Spain is in charge of the political direction of the Union. This time, in a context that has its fair share of challenges: on the one hand, an economic and financial crisis of the highest order, a new institutional framework arising from the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty and the desire to give European citizens a bigger role. On the other, the need to consolidate the Union's role as a global player as well as ensuring that the European Union continues to lead the way in the international fight against climate change. In the words of the Spanish Prime Minister, José Luís Rodríguez Zapatero, this will be an “ambitious, demanding and committed presidency that will work hard to face up to the many challenges that are facing Europe and international society as a whole”. The Minister for Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, Miguel Ángel Moratinos, also described it as “an opportunity to highlight our country's organizational skills and the profound European sentiment felt by the Spanish people.”

What type of Europe does Spain want to promote? During the Presidency, Spain will lay down a new route for the European Union, almost 25 years after it first joined. Within the framework of the Trio Presidency, the new system for organizing the Council's projects, the Spanish program will revolve around four main priorities and two guiding principles that will serve as the inspiration for our country's action over the next six months.

the presidency that manages to put us on the right track towards a definitive recovery in Europe”. Spain's top priority will be to concentrate its efforts to overcome the economic crisis and create a new, more competitive economic model, which above all will be more innovative and sustainable. Our country wants to lay the foundations for a new model which will allow the EU to emerge stronger from the crisis, and consolidate its position as a competitive and dynamic global player. To this end, we will promote a new model for sustainable growth and the creation of quality employment, based on the definition of the Post-2010 Lisbon Strategy. This revision aims to strengthen competitiveness, linking the fight against the crisis with a social Europe, and placing special emphasis on the issues of education and advances in R&D&I. Thus, the transparent regulation of financial institutions, the solidification of a European supervisory mechanism and, above all, the creation of employment, are some of the main pillars of our project.

Economic recovery. Achieving a common response to the crisis is a primary objective for the Spanish Presidency in light of the difficult economic and financial situation currently being experienced worldwide. During the first six months of 2010, Spain will play a decisive role in the development of the European strategy for combating the crisis, without neglecting, as a result, the push towards a social and united Europe based on sustainable growth. The economic crisis will unavoidably set the agenda over the upcoming months and, as the Minister for Foreign Affairs and Cooperation has high- The push for a citizens' Europe. The lighted, “in no way is it arrogant to as- Spanish Presidency wishes to put citi1.3 > Logo oficial de la Presidencia compartida / Uso en países de la Unión Europea y países candidatos sert that the Spanish Presidency can be zens first. For this reason, the push toEste logotipo con la leyenda “eu” se utilizará en los países de la Unión Europea, países candidatos y en las sedes de las Instituciones europeas

A common logo for the Trio Presidency For the first time in history, and to demonstrate their shared responsibility in the joint presidency, Spain, Belgium and Hungary are sharing a common logo. Made up of a joined element -the letters "EU"- and single elements that individualize each of the six-month terms -the colors of the respective flags-, the logo is the result of a competition held simultaneously in the three countries and aimed at design students. “The two letters are interlinked to symbolize the spirit of unity and the bond of solidarity between the Union, and the flags are related to the countries holding the EU Presidency”, explained the young Belgian designer Antoine Duieux, winner of the competition.


Se muestra en esta página el logo de la Presidencia compartida con la leyenda trío.


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Economic recovery: global action, local reaction Diego L贸pez Garrido

spanish secretary of state for the european union

Challenging times lie ahead. Free from any great fears of catastrophe, but charged with the responsibility that is required for managing an agenda packed with meetings and urgent priorities awaiting resolution. In the midst of all this, the imminent Spanish Presidency of the Council of Europe is facing an economic crisis that, despite finally starting to show the first signs of recovery, unavoidably sets the priorities for Spain's political direction of the EU over the upcoming months. We will approach these difficulties from a positive perspective. If there is anything we can salvage from this financial storm that we are still suffering, it is a clear lesson: together we are stronger. The coordination and joint action of the member states at a time of global instability such as now has allowed us to implement several responsive guidelines for short-term containment that are beginning to take effect. The 400 billion euros in stimulus measures included in the EU Economic Recovery Plan are a good example of this. But we know that it is not enough; that experience and society demand both preventive and long-lasting solutions as well as political actors willing to assume responsibility for outlining a new economic framework. Transforming an unstable and

volatile growth model into another, more efficient, fair and resistant to uncertainty, is no simple matter. It demands a pragmatic and sacrificial effort, detached from special interests for the sake of the common good, which does not always prove fruitful. Nevertheless, the Spanish Presidency has the key tools for overcoming the difficulties which, without doubt, we will encounter along the way. Furthermore, we have the knowledge, initiative and explicit commitment to dedicate our time to working towards responsible, effective and sustainable economic governance in the long-term. In addition, there is the Post-2010 Lisbon Strategy, which will push forward the aforementioned core transformations and the consequences of which will not only affect the macro-economic and financial spheres, but also, most importantly, will extend into the actual economy. What does all of this translate into? Into the only thing it can: specific actions that respond to specific problems. The Spanish Presidency will promote and implement, for example, the agreements reached within the European Union and the G-20, supporting the establishment of a framework for financial supervision with regard to tax

The Spanish Presidency has confidence in and is working towards fostering European economic growth based on sustainability, knowledge, innovation and the creation of more and better jobs

havens, regulation of high risk securities and crisis management in banking. In this regard, we consider it vital that our presidency will push for the immediate implementation of the European Systemic Risk Board, an early warning and control mechanism designed to assess risks to the financial system and propose ad-hoc solutions. This, together with the work supervising the banking, real estate and insurance industries carried out by already existing European authorities, will guarantee, to a great extent, good practice in the private sector and economic governability based more on preventive than reactive strategy. But no economic system that aims to be lasting can establish itself without a solid productive base. The Spanish Presidency has confidence in and is working towards fostering European economic growth based on sustainability, knowledge, innovation and the creation of more and better jobs. These are new challenges for new times which require, now more than ever, commitment and coordination of shared policies from a mature European Union, which takes on its responsibility in the international economic equilibrium and which promotes structural transformations that protect us against the mistakes of our most recent past.

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daniel canogar and the artistic imprint of the presidency. In keeping with tradition, the Spanish Presidency will leave its artistic mark in the atrium of the European Council's Justus Lipsius building in Brussels. “Travesías” (shown below), which plays with the themes of circulation of politicians, officials and experts, created by the artist Daniel Canogar, was the chosen work on this occasion. According to the creator, the installation, which tries to be a type of mirror for the actual corridor of the Council's entrance hall, “plays with the comings and goings of the men and women who turn the wheels of Union's machinery and bring the European project to life”. A unique vision of reality captured in an original work: a huge LED screen, 33 meters long by almost 2 meters wide, which functions “like a magic carpet floating above the heads of the public”. Projected onto the screen will be videos of “micro-stories that attempt to communicate the European Union project's obstacles, conquests and opening up of borders”. The piece will remain in place for the entire six months and will also be visible from the outside through the windows surrounding the building.

wards a European citizenship for the 21st century, which aims to strengthen the link between the Union and its citizens, is another of the main features of the Spanish Presidency. Its inclusion in the treaties, upon Spain's initiative, is already behind us. From that point onwards, our country hasn't stopped fighting for the expansion of the socalled “Citizens' Europe” and now, the implementation of an advanced statute for all Europeans is one of the Spanish Presidency's most important priorities.

Implementation of the Lisbon Treaty. The rules by which the Union operates were designed for a much smaller EU, one that wasn't facing challenges such as climate change, a global recession or cross-border crime. The recent entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty is the instrument that will provide the Union with the potential to tackle these and other problems, and the Spanish Presidency is charged with putting it into practice. With Lisbon, the Union will become more democratic, efficient and transparent, while at the same time making citizens feel more a part of the European Union and giving Europe a clearer voice on the world stage. And the truth is that, as the Secretary of State for the European Union, Diego López Garrido, has underlined, “with Lisbon a new historic era for the Union is beginning”, in which the EU will be quicker and more adept at responding to the management requirements of a Union that now has 27 members. Its effective implementation is, therefore, another priority focus for the Presidency.

The EU as a global player. The challenges of the 21st century increasingly demand that the European Union act as a global player capable of speaking with a single voice. Achieving this objective is another of the fundamental ideas behind the Spanish Presidency in a six-month term typified by its EuroMediterranean and Euro-American character and its ambitions for solving the multiple conflicts that characterize the current international situation. The objective: to allow the EU to speak as an equal to all the world powers. “We already have the instruments to formulate our foreign policy and now we also have the economic resources. We have a great opportunity and we must be ambitious”, stated Miguel Ángel Moratinos. One of the most important dates will be the summit with the United States, which will provide a new impetus to transatlantic relations. Summits will also be held with Canada and Mexico, as well as the Bi-Regional Summit with Latin America and the Caribbean, in which Spain has traditionally played an essential role as a facilitator. The second focus of international attention during Spain's six-month term will be on the European-Mediterranean area. Spain will host the first EU-Morocco Summit and will give an ambitious boost to the Union for the Mediterranean by holding the second Summit of Heads of State and Government in Barcelona. Moreover, the external agenda of the Spanish Presidency includes the organization of summits with Russia and Japan, two important partners for the European Union. It will, therefore, be an intense sixmonth period for Spain at the head of


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Europe reasserts its worldwide leadership Ángel Lossada

secretary of state for foreign affairs

Several months ago, the cover of The Economist displayed an image of how China sees the world. The visible horizon appeared dominated by its Pacific neighbors; the United States and other regions rich in resources, such as Latin America and Africa, where the Asian giant is increasing its presence. Only in the distant background, and of a smaller size than Africa, does Europe appear: an inconspicuous promontory where the advertisements of several luxury brands, which are appealing to the eyes of the new class of Chinese shopper, are barely visible. Is that really how people view us from Beijing, New Delhi or Brasilia? Is Europe's destiny to be a shop and a museum for the emerging power centers? In opposition to the image that some people are trying to portray of a Europe in decline and removed from the big issues, overtaken by BRICS or overlooked by “Chimerica” (China plus the United States, the so-called G2) who would be destined to dictate the world's fate, I'm convinced that Europe will continue to be a vital player: it generates one fourth of the world's wealth; it is the largest donor of cooperation and humanitarian aid and is the leading commercial player, not to mention the “soft power” that its organizational model represents, based on shared values, rights and freedoms, on exercising tolerance and the capacity to

accommodate the increasing diversity of our societies. But we can't be content with what we already are and are doing. We must demonstrate that the EU has the capacity to adapt to a competitive and changing background. And we must demonstrate it at a critical moment, in the midst of an ongoing process towards a new model of global governance in which Europe, more that ever, has to listen to its own voice. To a large extent, the way in which Europe will participate in the next phase of globalization will start being defined under the Spanish EU Presidency. It will be then when we have to boost the Union's foreign influence and security and play a part in implementing what has to be its principal instrument: the European Foreign Service. One of the goals that we hope to achieve will be to get the institutions of the reformed EU working at full capacity. To fulfill the objective of cementing Europe's position as a global player, our Presidency will roll out an ambitious program, with a particular focus on ensuring that Europe provides a united response to the more or less predictable crises that we will have to tackle. Likewise, our goal will be to strengthen the Union's capacity for dialogue and influence with strategic regions and countries.

Our presidency will have a marked EuroMediterranean and EuroAtlantic character, in harmony with the primary direction of our foreign policy

To this end, we have made plans to hold several summits, two of which will be regional -with Latin America and the Caribbean, and the Union for Mediterranean- and others will be bilateral, with key countries such as the US, Canada, Russia, Japan, Pakistan and, for the first time, Mexico and Morocco. But we don't want to restrict ourselves to continuing with what is already underway. The EU must also respond to new challenges and threats. In this regard, the Spanish Presidency will have to push for a common EU position at the Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference; manage the results of the Copenhagen Summit and face up to the potential crises related to energy security, international terrorism and the fall-out from failed states. In Spain we have been suffering the very consequences of the existence of countries such as Somalia, where the absence of state structures feeds phenomena such as piracy. It is our intention to convene an international conference that will deal with how to provide a coherent and systemic response to the situation in that country. To sum up, although our presidency will have a marked Euro-Mediterranean and EuroAtlantic character, in harmony with the primary direction of our foreign policy, its scope will be effectively global, in line with our ambitions and the Europe we want to create.

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THE PRESIDENCY ON THE WEB WWW.EU2010.ES In real time and from anywhere in the world, you can follow the Presidency on the website It's a simple and accessible multimedia space that offers content in Spanish, English and French and will also be translated into the other official languages of Spain. In addition to being a tool for people to keep up-todate with current events, the website enables the media to authorize themselves online for the various events and summits related to Spain's six-month term at the head of the 27 member states and receive SMS information alerts. 1 DE ENERO-30 DE JUNIO DE 2010

Presidencia Espa帽ola de la Uni贸n Europea

INFORMATION PUBLICATION ON THE EU PRESIDENCY In the context of the Presidency's actions to provide information, the General Directorate of Foreign Communication has published an information leaflet on the priorities for our European leadership and the principal features of our country. It is an attractively designed publication that has been distributed in Spain's Embassies and Consulates, as well as in the approved embassies in Spain so that citizens can, at a glance, find out more about Spain and the things it wants to promote during its presidency.

the 27 member states, at a time when attention will continue to be focused on the process of EU expansion, with Croatia, Turkey and Iceland all aspiring to join the Union. Important challenges that Spain must coordinate with a final objective: making the European Union into a vital global player in 21st century international society.

Environment and climate change. Spain is of the firm belief that climate change represents a challenge for current growth models, and that all countries should evolve towards development models which include new energy sources. Our country, one of the most committed to this issue, will bring this commitment to the Presidency, because it wants the European Union to continue to lead the international fight against global warming and its consequences. To this end, and with the conviction that economic growth and respect for the environment are not incompatible, Spain will manage the results of the Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen. This will take the world towards a new and complete agenda based on the Kyoto Protocol. In addition to making progress in defining strategies for mitigation and adaptation to climate change, the priorities are focused on the new challenges of biodiversity, coordinating environmental quality policies and supporting the improvement of legislation on waste and sustainability of the coasts and seas. With regard to fishing, the importance of the Reform of the Common Fishing Policy has also been singled out. Commitment to development. The European Union is the leading world donor of Official Development Assistance.

Spain is the fourth most generous of the member states, surpassed only by Germany, France and the United Kingdom. Furthermore, guided by the desire for the European Union to lead the fight for equal opportunities and in compliance with its foreign policy of solidarity, our country will, for the first time, place development cooperation among the priorities for the European presidency. The reality is that for Spain, meeting international commitments in the fight against hunger and poverty is an essential and unavoidable undertaking in the current climate of crisis and in the search for global solutions. Against the backdrop of 2010 as the European Year for Combating Poverty and Social Exclusion, the commitment to the effectiveness and quality of aid is one of the fundamental pillars of the Spanish Presidency with regard to cooperation. Therefore, Spain will bring its concern for the impact of the crisis on the developing world to all the forums in which the reform of the international economic and financial framework is under discussion. The guiding principles. Spain's action in the way of achieving these great objectives will be inspired by two overriding guiding principles: equality and innovation. Innovation. Spain wants to look to the future and, as a result, the development of innovation in all its aspects is one of the two guiding principles that serve as the inspiration for the program of the Spanish Presidency. To put this commitment into practice, we have a well-prepared science, technology and business community and a broad social and po-


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The challenge of coordination Alfonso Dastis

deputy general director of the maec for institutional affairs of the european union

While presiding over the Council of the European Union has always been a challenge, especially with the increasing number of members, doing so over a six-month period of transition between two treaties and during a radical change in the international system is a real test. In fact, in its attempt to mitigate the lack of continuity that the sixmonth presidency system brings to the leadership of the Council of the European Union, the Lisbon Treaty, after successive commitments which are still evident in the approval phase of its applicable rules, has designed (if that is the right word to use) a complex presidential system in which continuity is achieved at the cost of the loss of the unity in the chain of command. Where previously there has been a single presidency, hereafter there will be at least three: that of the European Council; a permanent presidency for the Council of Foreign Affairs; and a third six-month presidency for the rest of the groups (not to mention the additional complications that the Eurogroup and the Trio Presidency can bring). This situation is further complicated by the interaction with the Commission and, in particular its President. All of this leads to the conclusion that the biggest challenge for the new presidential system of the Council of the EU is coordination.

Along these lines, the reasons behind the change of system for the Council's Presidency and the general features of the system established in Lisbon are examined very briefly. The tasks that fall upon the Spanish Presidency are diverse and complex. These involve, in a transition phase, trying to provide a minimum level of coherence to a system that is inherently susceptible to lack of coordination and rivalries. The principal criticism that is made of the six-month Presidency of the Council of the European Union is its lack of continuity, which in turn creates a lack of visibility abroad that makes it difficult to develop the potential locked within the EU as a global player in international society. The diversity of the interests of the member states that successively assume the presidency and a similar disparity in their conditions (size, influence, foreign policy, etc.) make its impossible to achieve a basic level of coherence and continuity in the Union's foreign action. This criticism is joined by the conviction, shared by the successive presidents of the European Council, that it was impossible to adequately carry out that role while at the same time functioning as a head of state or government, especially from the viewpoint of an enlarged Union. The Lisbon system aims to remedy the shortfalls of the six-month presidency. The new system

In a highly complex institutional framework, the coordination requirements are multiplied

insists that the presidency must be provided with continuity and visibility, but this logic is taken fully to its ultimate consequences. Leadership is guaranteed at the top with the permanent President of the European Council, and in terms of foreign affairs with the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy (HRUFASP). Nevertheless, in terms of inner workings the six-month presidency is preserved, although it does try to alleviate the lack of continuity through the three-member state joint presidency mechanism; the Trio Presidency. As a result, an enormous amount of work is awaiting the Spanish Presidency in the institutional sphere: ensuring an orderly transition from a system that guaranteed coherence but not continuity, to another that favors continuity but in which the internal coherence is not guaranteed and where coordination between players is going to be the keystone and the biggest challenge. Spain must approach its work with a long-term vision and pro-European conviction, with the aim of putting some lasting mechanisms in place, although the repercussion will be a certain loss of personal and national influence during the Presidency. The judgment of history will compensate by granting its work with the permanence that goes with a job well done.

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litical consensus about the need to make knowledge the central focus for the country's social and economic development. Based on that maxim, the Europe that Spain seeks and will claim during its presidency is an advanced and innovative Europe, prepared to face up to the challenges of the future. The challenge: to overcome the moment of crisis, avoid future recessions and consolidate a viable and sustainable social model for all the citizens of the Union. In this belief, Spain is backing a future based on research, enterprise, science and technology. A future that allows for the transition towards a more intensive knowledgebased economy, which is more diverse and innovative in all sectors. Specifically, Spain will promote the European Research Area (ERA) to make progress towards a more cohesive, committed and competitive Europe founded on knowledge. In the words of the Minister for Science and Innovation, Cristina Garmendia, “there will be a particular focus on ensuring that the ERA incorporates regional and national research policies into its design in order to thus build a genuine common area for research”.

María Jesús Alonso ambassador on special mission to promote equality policies

Priorities of the Spanish Presidency in gender equality

Equality. Equality and, in particular, equality between men and women is a fundamental right, a common value for the European Union, and a necessary condition for achieving the goals of growth, employment, and social cohesion. Consequently, it is another of the main guiding and over-arching principals on which Spain seeks to base its action during its presidency. Inequality still exists, but over recent decades the Union has made considerable progress in this area, above all as a result of equal treatment legislation, the integration of equality into policies and concrete measures in support of women. The presidency will make further progress in this regard by combating gender-based violence, female unemployment and discrimination against women in the workplace, as well as continuing to push forward policies supporting young people. With the aim of continuing to broaden the space for the freedom and equality of all Europeans, equality and the fight against gender-based violence will be promoted by means of a European Observatory and the approval of a European

Spain is currently an international benchmark in terms of gender equality policies. Therefore, over the six-month term of the Spanish EU Presidency, it will promote respect for women's rights by giving priority to equality between men and women and the fight against gender-based violence. With regard to EU policies, Spain will work to introduce the principle of universal gender equality in the Post-2010 Lisbon Strategy and will contribute to drawing up a new 2011-2015 Commission Road Map for Equality between Men and Women. The implementation of

Protection Order. Work will also be done on implementing the Charter of Fundamental Rights which, with the Lisbon Treaty in force, will become binding. With these great objectives on the horizon, Spain is now working hard and with high hopes to conduct a presidency of which all European citizens can feel proud. ______________________________________ ___ Strict coordination of the rotating and permanent presidency. The Spanish Prime Minister, José Luís Rodríguez Zapatero, and the recently elected permanent President of the European Council, Herman van Rompuy, have agreed to create a coordination task force during this six-month term with the aim of designing an economic recovery strategy for Europe. In one of Van Rompuy's first meetings since he was elected, the President of the European Council and the head of the Spanish government met in the Moncloa Palace to ensure that there will be the greatest possible cooperation between the rotating and permanent presidency throughout the entire sixmonth period.

the objectives in the European Pact for Gender Equality and the full implementation of the Beijing Platform, 15 years after it was approved, will also be key focuses of our Presidency. The Spanish Presidency will give priority to the fight against gender-based violence, promoting the adoption of measures on raising awareness, prevention, and victim protection and support, as well as supporting the creation of an EU Gender-Based Violence Observatory. It will continue the work of the Czech and Swedish presidencies in implementing the EU

Guidelines on Violence against Women and the fight against all forms of discrimination against women, along with the monitoring of UN Security Council Resolutions 1820, 1888 and 1889 on sexual violence in armed conflicts and Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security. Spain's commitment to equality between men and women will be clear to see in all of its actions during our Presidency, because we are firmly convinced that, without the active involvement of women, no society is politically and socially or economically sustainable.


A PACKED FOREIGN AGENDA. The promotion of the EU as a global player is one of the major priorities of the Spanish EU Presidency. To achieve this, Spain will become the setting for a series of bilateral summits and meetings which will underscore the importance of the European Union as a favorable partner for many countries, as well as Spain's role in fostering relations with countries with which we hold traditional historic ties.

America EU-CANADA The key issues: ● Global affairs: climate change and G8/G20 ● EU-Canada relations EU-MEXICO The key issues: ● The promotion of Mexico as a strategic partner for the Union. EU-Latin America and Caribbean EU-UNITED STATES The key issues: ● The global economic and financial situation. ● The fight against climate change ● Economic and trade affairs ● Innovation ● Development cooperation ● Energy

Europe EU-RUSSIA The key issues: ● Crossborder cooperation ● Energy ● Mobility ● Crisis management ● Trade affairs ● Political dialogue ● Security framework

Mediterranean 2nd SUMMIT OF THE UNION FOR THE MEDITERRANEAN HEADS OF STATE AND GOVERNMENT The key issues: ● Consolidating the impetus of the Union for the Mediterranean project 1st SUMMIT WITH MOROCCO The key issues: ● Implementation of the Advanced Statute signed last year ● Renewal of the Partnership Agreement and the Neighboring Countries Action Plan EU-EGYPT

Asia EU-JAPAN The key issues: ● EU-Japan relations EU-PAKISTAN (still to be confirmed)

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Spain suggests three immediate actions for the Presidency Going beyond the main objectives and priorities of the Spanish Presidency, our country is already working on three concrete initiatives that it wants to promote during its six-month term. Greater protection for the victims of violence. Spain will place a priority focus on the victims of crime; in particular of terrorism and gender-based violence. This legislative initiative aims to guarantee the effective protection of people under threat and victims of violent crime throughout the entire EU territory. This “European Protection Order” will place the focus on the victim with the aim that the measures issued in their favor in the country where they reside are also adopted in any other member state where they decide to spend time or take up residence. Promotion of the Europe Senior Tourism project. The Europe Senior Tourism project is a Spanish initiative set up to combat seasonal unemployment and encourage the creation and maintenance

Cristina Barrios ambassador on special mission for climate change

The fight against climate change

of employment during the low season, as well as contributing to forming the concept of European citizenship. Taking advantage of the inclusion of tourism as a new sphere in which the EU will have the authority to support, coordinate or complement the policies of the member states. one of the priorities of the Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Commerce is to promote tourism for the elderly in the European Union. Backing the electric car. The Presidency will also get behind a European strategy on the electric car, because it thinks that the introduction of such vehicles into our transportation systems represents an industrial, technological and environmental opportunity for the Union. As a result it will push for a Europe-wide debate to study the measures that will allow these cars to be produced by the automotive industry and the initiatives to support their demand and use. This will be a central issue at the Informal Competitiveness Council to be held in February in San Sebastián.

Climate change is one of the priorities of the Spanish Presidency and, as a result, it will work particularly hard to strengthen the synergy between climate change and energy. With regard to these two issues, everything that entails a transformation of the current system of economic and energy development towards a sustainable model must be implemented. It is an opportunity to plan an exit route from the current economic and financial crisis. This is related to a fossil fuel-based growth

ministerial meetings to be held in Spain January 14-17 Energy and Environment (Seville) 20-22 Justice and Interior (Toledo) 27-29 Employment (Barcelona) February 1-2 EC meeting (Madrid) 7-9 Competitiveness (San Sebastián) 12-13 Transportation (A Coruña) 23-24 European Affairs (La Granja, Segovia) 24-25 Defense (Palma de Mallorca) March 5-6 Foreign Affairs (Cordoba) 11-12 Monitoring Committee (El Escorial, Madrid) 16-18 Territorial Cooperation (Malaga) 25-26 Equality (Valencia) 30-31 Culture (Barcelona) April 13-14 Education (Madrid) 15-17 Economy (Madrid) 18-20 Telecommunications (Granada) 20-21 Sport (Madrid) 22-23 Health (Madrid) 22-25 Ambassadors to the EU (Granada) May 4-5 Fisheries (Vigo) 18-19 Disabilities (Zaragoza) 20-23 Ambassadors (Tenerife) 30-1 Agriculture (Mérida, Badajoz) June 21-22 Housing (Toledo)

model and therefore requires a transition towards a low carbon economy.

leakage and auction procedures, which will be set out in regulations.

On the one hand, during the Spanish Presidency the fight against climate change will be based on the implementation of the “Energy and Climate” Package approved in the European Council in December 2008. Over the six months, political debates will be held on the adoption of important aspects of this “Package”, which will include discussions on the Commission's report on sectors exposed to carbon

On the other hand, the Spanish Presidency will be responsible for implementing the agreements reached during the Conference of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which will be held from December 7 through 18 in Copenhagen. The Spanish Presidency will take on the commitment to the future climate change system and will strive to do everything possible to maintain the EU's leadership role.


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With the aim of improving coordination and creating more direct communication channels, foreign affairs ministers from Spain, Belgium and Hungary have agreed to exchange diplomats during the 18 months of the Trio Presidency. Two diplomats from the Spanish Secretary of State Department for the EU have traveled to Brussels and Budapest, and one Belgian and one Hungarian diplomat have joined the MAEC in Madrid. Speaking from their new posts, they tell us about their experience with this new system

Exchange of diplomats for the Trio Presidency ◗ Antonio Rodríguez de Liévana (Spanish diplomat posted at the Belgian Ministry of Foreign Affairs). “Our presidency will have to face up to the huge challenge of implementing the institutional changes arising from the Lisbon Treaty. In general we are moving towards a “larger Europe” and in this sense, the role of the countries in the Trio cannot be emphasized enough insofar as it requires EU members to come to an agreement and draw up a common program that will govern their action over the 18 months of their mandate. The post that I hold falls within this framework, and it is an extraordinarily interesting experience, since aside from having the opportunity to learn about how a different administration operates from within, with its own working culture, it enables me to do something that contributes to defending Spain's interests insofar as it involves the responsibility of being aware of the monitoring of the fulfillment of objectives set out in the Trio Program”. ◗ Juan Pablo García Andujar (Spanish diplomat posted to Hungary) “My experience has been a truly positive one. Working in an environment where alternative working methods and solutions are adopted in the face of similar problems is a highly enriching experience, with the added feature of working in an extremely dynamic unit that is

looking towards its first Council Presidency with high hopes, in which many of its members were working until very recently in preparation for their country joining the EU. As a liaison, my main role is to participate in the daily work and the mutual exchange of information, while being at the full service of the designated “focal point” of contact in the Hungarian Ministry. One fundamental aspect is that the Trio system ensures continuity of action in the main directives set out by the three countries and creates an immensely useful working dynamic of partnership and exchange. Furthermore, the will to overcome the shortcomings inherited from the past in Hungary can be felt both in the spheres of administration and civil society, as well as in the business community. Even in an economic climate as difficult as that of today, the aspiration of Hungarian citizens to build a future within the Union is admirable and will undoubtedly pay off”. ◗ Christian de Lannoy (Belgian diplomat posted to the MAEC) “Spain, Belgium and Hungary will successively assume the Presidency of the Council of the Union, and they have agreed to work in close partnership for its preparation and implementation. In order to help maintain cohesion throughout the entire period and to ensure daily coordination between members, it has been

decided that the high-level official responsible for European coordination at the foreign affairs ministries of each of the three countries would benefit from the help of a diplomat posted by each of the other two members. I have been sent by the Belgian government and my experience of working here has been particularly interesting. My colleagues at the MAEC have given us a fantastic welcome”. ◗ József Vegh (Hungarian diplomat posted to the MAEC) “Hungary will assume its first EU Presidency during the first six months of 2011; a great challenge and opportunity to put ourselves on the map as a country with vision, new ideas, responsibility and commitment to push forward the Union's integration. Since this is our first presidency, it is incredibly important that we are in the Trio with Spain and Belgium, two countries with a great deal of experience in this role. The three members have been working closely together since the start of 2009 and the cooperation has been excellent at all levels. The outcome of this cooperation is the Strategic and Operational Program, the basic working document that has already been qualified in Brussels as a good example of collaboration. Following the Spanish Presidency, the close cooperation will continue, as Hungary will continue with the Spanish initiatives in various different areas. Being able to work at the MAEC, a highly skilled institution with a long tradition, is a great experience. Previously, as an advisor of our Embassy in Madrid, I witnessed the work it produced in many areas, and now this position gives me the opportunity to see how it works up close and to find out about the internal coordination mechanisms. I'm also really enjoying Spain's varied cultural richness”.

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In an ever-increasingly globalized world, energy policy continues to grow in importance among traditional foreign policy issues to such an extent that it has reached new strategic level. In just one example, Europe has undergone a series of gas crises in recent years as a result of disruptions in the supply of Russian gas which is transported through Ukraine. This situation has highlighted the vulnerabilities in many of our EU partners' energy needs, and has created an unprecedented social panic as reflected in the public perception of these countries, which tend to view energy supplies as seriously imperiled when such supply is most necessary, for example during the cold winter months. by Rafael Matos Gonzรกlez de Careaga Ambassador-at-Large for Energy Policy

Diplomacy and Energy in the 21st Century

As we have witnessed during the past decade, energy policy has gone from an issue of relative stability to one of crucial strategic importance for the future of every country. Similarly, during the past five years a growing trend to politicize energy issues has emerged, in such way that they are no longer presented as an economic issue, but as one which is more closely linked to the idea of security. As a result, energy security has become a fundamental part of any country's foreign policy, be it energy-producing or -consuming countries, or transit countries.

a The concept of "energy lastly, environmental risks, security" has evolved over Energy security especially the pernicious the years as our understand- has come to be effects of climate change ing adapts to changes on the a fundamental and human-induced global international stage. The con- part of every warming through the uncept no longer deals solely country's abated emission of greenwith the security of energy foreign policy, house gases. supplies, understood as the be it an energyIn order to mitigate availability of an adequate consuming these risks, an energy policy supply of energy at reason- country or a is needed which is directed able prices, but has come to transit country. primarily at the diversificaincorporate other elements tion of supply sources and now seen as very relevant. transport routes, the proSuch elements include risks that are motion of renewable energy sources, political in nature (i.e. energy as a and energy efficiency and savings. It is means of "leverage" for producing especially important to highlight the countries in supporting their global need to promote a framework for diainterests and, more specifically, their logue and cooperation between energy political and strategic interests); producing and consuming countries, risks that are economic in nature as well as transit countries. Trans(decreases in hydrocarbon reserves, parency and effective operations on economic nationalism in producing a global scale in energy markets both countries, along with their increas- represent important objectives that ingly burdensome demands, integra- are necessary in order to progress in tion among producing countries in terms of energy security. order to raise prices, etc); risks to inGiven the set of problems that unfrastructure (vulnerability to natural derlie the concept of energy security, disasters and terrorist attacks); and, the obvious question would be, how

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can diplomacy contribute to the resolution of this problem. Is there a specific role for diplomacy? Foreign policy and diplomatic actions on the part of a modern state, such as Spain, do in fact have an essential role to play in this matter as states meet their responsibilities, which in turn contributes to the success of the energy policy designed by the Government. To this effect, actions are performed on a bilateral level, that is, through Spain's relations with other countries, as well as on a multilateral level, through Spain's active participation in different energy forums already in existence in the International Community (European Union, International Energy Agency, IRENA, International Energy Forum), just to name a few of the most important institutions. Through an orchestrated bilateral approach, Spain, which is heavily dependent on foreign energy sources (80% of the energy consumed in Spain is imported, as well as all fossil fuel energy), has achieved a very healthy di-

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Miguel Ángel Moratinos greets the President of the Administrative Council of Iberdola Ingeniería y Construcción (Iberdola Engineering and Construction), Ramón de Miguel, with Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez and the Director of Energy Development at Elencor, Germán Junquera, following the signing of various energy agreements in Caracas in July of this year. PHOTO efe

versification in its many sources of energy. For example, Spain's gas imports come from eight different sources, a fact which, together with the promotion of new technologies and alternative supply sources, affords us a high level of security in our energy supplies, as has been recognized and lauded outside our borders. On the multilateral level, diplomatic action is fundamental in assuring energy security, especially as Spain has just assumed the Presidency of the Council of the European Union. In response to prior "gas crises," certain "early warning" mechanisms have

the maec's agenda on energy interests Energy issues are a fundamental part of contemporary international relations due to the importance of supply security as well as environmental concerns. Likewise, it is a recur-

been established between the European Commission and Russia in order to prevents future crises in the energy supply from Russia to the European Union, which includes gas, oil and electricity. This mechanism not only provides for advance warning of potential future crises, but also requires that in the event a crisis does occur, guidelines be prepared regarding actions to be taken in providing a quick solution. Likewise, given its importance, it bears mentioning the recently established European Union-United States Energy Council, which is to meet un-

ring and unifying theme at the meetings of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation with its counterparts, and takes on special importance during official visits to hydrocarbon-exporting countries. These visits tend to drive the activities of Spanish businesses with energy

der the Spanish EU Presidency. The Energy Council provides a framework for reinforcing dialogue at the highest levels, and cooperation between the European Union and the United States on energy policy; energy security and cooperation are the primary objectives of this new Council. Lastly, we must highlight the creation of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) which is just beginning operations from its recently inaugurated headquarters in Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates). Spain has been one of the main supporters of this new Agency (its Final Preparatory Conference was held in Madrid), which has as its core mission the promotion of the sustainable use and global development of all renewable energy sources. Additionally, IRENA seeks to collaborate in the fight against climate change through a restructuring of the current energy model towards a low-carbon economy, with an important place for renewable energy. As you can see, energy and diplomacy are indeed closely linked. Control over energy sources has been the cause of no small number of conflicts throughout the course of history. Given this realization, renewable energy constitutes a more "peaceful" energy: the sun, the wind and the tides are not owned by anyone. Learning how to utilize them for the benefit of humanity and to meet our energy demands is our 21st century challenge.

interests, as was the case during the MAEC's recent trip to Venezuela, where various companies signed important exploitation agreements. In the past year, the Ministry has also visited Equatorial Guinea, Brazil, Libya, Trinidad and Tobago, the Middle East, the Ukraine and Algeria,

all key energy partners with which Spain shares an important relationship. In addition, within the framework of the Spanish EU Presidency, greater importance has been given to energy supply security in the context of the foreign relations the Union maintains.


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Spanish energy policy stands out as a example for other countries Pedro L. MarĂ­n Uribe

secretary of state for energy policy of the Spanish government

Diversification of the sources of Spain's energy supply is perhaps one of the greatest virtues of our energy system, a result of a policy which favors the coexistence of new technologies and alternative supply sources, with the goal of preventing the risk of interruptions in the energy supply, especially important in a country with such a high level of foreign energy dependency. As such, we use hydrocarbons, nuclear power plants, coal and renewable technologies, and all this diversity contributes to the security of the supply, which is the primary obligation of any government. This is not the case in every country. Here I refer to the what happened in Europe, and could not have happened in Spain, during the trade dispute which occurred in January 2009 between Russia and the Ukraine and which culminated in a total stop in the supply of Russian gas to the EU through the Ukraine for 15 days. In Spain, diversification goes beyond the global energy basket, as it applies also to specific sources, such as natural gas. For example, Spain imports gas from eight different sources,

and as a result it would be nearly impossible for all points of supply to fail at the same time. The cut in Russian gas supplies would not have had such negative consequences for receiving countries if their energy policy had taken greater care in diversifying their supplies, or if European cross-border energy connections had been developed further (something for which the Spanish government has long been a proponent), which would have allowed gas to continue to be exported to Europe during that period, thus lessening the impact of the crisis.

Spanish energy policy also offers an excellent example in its strong support for renewable energy.

development of renewable energy facilities from a variety of sources: hydro power, wind power, solar power, etc. Important technological advances in the form of increased introduction of renewable energies will also benefit the transportation sector during the coming decade, thanks to abundant technological diversification as electric vehicles and biofuels make advances in the market.

Spanish energy policy, then, offers a good example for other countries, which recognize not only our strategy for diversification of energy sources, but also our determined support for renewable technologies, both of which receive greater recognition outside our borders than within our own country.

As a result, Spain finds itself in a strong position in terms of energy policy as we assume the EU Presidency, during which we will have to tackle many important challenges. These include carrying out the recently approved domestic market third package; adoption of the new Energy Action Plan, which will define the key priorities for EU energy policy through 2014; development of a policy for supply security; improvements in networks and interconnections, and the funding of innovation and development of new energy technologies.

These policies have heavily favored the electricity sector during the past decade, and will continue to do so during this decade, thanks to the

Additionally, in the business sphere, we will take on two outstanding projects: the Mediterranean Solar Plan and the electric vehicle.

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The resumption of economic relations between the Ibero-American Community and the European Union, the effectiveness of the Water Fund and the implementation of the IberoAmerican Social Security Agreement were among the topics under discussion at the 24th Ibero-American Summit held in Estoril (Portugal). Also under discussion were the situation in Honduras and the Copenhagen Summit on climate change. The next event will be held in Mar del Plata. by Arturo Carrascosa

Ibero-America backs innovation to emerge from the crisis “Innovation and Knowledge� was the main theme of the 24th Ibero-American Summit held on November 29-30 and December 1 in the Portuguese city of Estoril. The event was also of unique significance for Spain both because of its role as a bridge between the European Union and Latin America and the priority interest of Spain's foreign policy in promoting the Ibero-American world: over the coming months, as part of its EU Presidency Spain will host summits between the European

Juan Pablo de Laiglesia Secretary of State for Ibero-America

A reflection on the summit

Union and both Latin America and Central America. Innovation and development. The general consensus regarding the role that innovation plays as the driving force behind development, due not only to its capacity to create employment and financial well-being but also to stimulate long-term growth cycles, becomes more evident every day. Furthermore, innovation is not exclusively linked to technology-intensive sectors, but rather

A frequent criticism is that the Ibero-American summits should focus on specific objectives. After nineteen editions of the summit, the Ibero-American Community has taken that claim into consideration and since 2006 it has chosen a central theme for each summit around which to focus the message and the policy declaration, together with the adoption and approval of instruments to enable it to be put into practice: migration in Montevideo, social cohesion in Santiago de Chile and youth and development in

affects all productive sectors. In this sense, the promotion and stimulation of technological innovation includes all countries from the Ibero-American region regardless of the differences in their relative levels of technological development. In Estoril, the heads of state and government of the Ibero-American Community member countries made a commitment to give priority to innovation within the framework of their government programs. Thus, innovation is

El Salvador. This year the 2009 Estoril Summit focused on "Innovation and Knowledge". This issue is crucial to the debates that are currently ongoing over how to bring about the emergence from economic crisis and has commanded particular importance because of the confirmation of the need for a economic paradigm shift as a consequence of an international crisis, which started off as a financial issue but ended up affecting all economic sectors. We are therefore moving ever more cautiously towards the establish-

ment of a new economy, where excellence and knowledge figure as structural elements that enable sustainable and lasting economic growth. However, the Ibero-American Summit is also a space for dialogue and top-level political agreement, bringing together no less than 22 heads of state and government from Latin America and the Iberian Peninsula. For this reason, and despite the fact that the central theme has been of undeniable significance, resulting in


General overview of the meeting of the Ibero-American Summit and the Spanish Prime Minister, José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, His Majesty the King Juan Carlos I, and the First Deputy Prime Minister, María Teresa Fernández de la Vega during the event. photo efe.

a tangible outcome in the form of the approval of the Iberoamérica Innova Program (to which Spain will contribute 3 million euros over three years), the summit has never distanced itself from the current political reality, which right now is so unstable for Latin America. The 24th Ibero-American Summit has included a great del of discussion about the crisis in Honduras, on which there have been some lively debates. This was inevitable since the Honduran elections were held on the day prior to the start of the summit. The Ibero-American

Community of Nations has announced its agreement on two fundamental issues: unreserved condemnation of the military coup of June 28 that ousted President Zelaya from power and support for the return to constitutional order as a pathway towards resolving the crisis created by the coup and the subsequent de facto government. Discrepancies have arisen, obviously, in the assessment and the approach that each country wants to take towards the elections held on November 29 and how these should be interpreted.

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considered to be an essential tool for enabling Ibero-American countries to escape from the economic crisis and an impetus for development and social cohesion. In the joint declaration signed at the end of the summit - the Estoril Declaration- Ibero-American leaders recognized the importance of innovation in the fight against climate change and highlighted the need to give priority to innovation within the framework of national development strategies, thereby committing themselves to strengthening national institutions for innovation, promoting programs that ensure the transfer of technology to developing countries and encouraging greater cooperation between the academic world, research centers and public and private enterprises. Within the scope of Ibero-American cooperation, this statement of intentions has resulted in the firm commitment to create a new program aimed fundamentally at business firms. This will be known as "Iberoamérica Innova" and will include innovative R+D+I projects designed to encourage applied research and technological innovation. The program, to which Spain has pledged a contribution of 3 million Euros over three years, is designed to be inclusive and will supple-

The IberoAmerican Community has announced its agreement on two fundamental issues: condemnation of the military coup in Honduras and support for the return to constitutional order

We cannot hide the fact that these differences of opinion have existed and still exist, but we value these as a sign of the vitality of the summits which, rather than distancing themselves from the current situation and the problems that are arising in the heart of the Iberian Community of Nations, have been able, through dialogue, to bring together opposing stances, offer a sounding board for opinions, and establish a space for dialogue that allows the shoring up of the present situation and the setting out of future strategy.

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Miguel Ángel Moratinos speaking to the media during a press conference at the Estoril Summit. photo efe.

ment existing programs and be open to all countries. Further commitments. The texts approved in Estoril include other noteworthy agreements. Perhaps one of the most important is the consensus reached on the implementation of the Multilateral Ibero-American Social Security Agreement, with a plan to become fully effective in 2010. This agreement will have a direct impact on the lives and rights of emigrants, enabling them to collect their pensions and other social security benefits in countries other than those in which they made their contributions. The debate surrounding the problems associated with climate change and the need for a global response was of particular importance. The Spanish contribution involved providing information on the results of the Water and Sanitation Fund to which Spain has pledged 1.5 billion dollars over five years. To date, there are already 46 projects underway across the whole of Ibero-America, which represent a total investment of 900 million dollars, and which are going to transform the lives of around 15 million people. The presence of observers to the Ibero-American Conference was also of note. These included Belgium and Italy

as Associate Observers, and the FAO, OECD, SELA, FLACSO, Latin Union and OECS as Consultative Observers. Their presence is a illustration of the interest that the Ibero-American Conference creates across all spheres. In addition, special press releases were issued during the summit on topics as diverse as the fight against terrorism, the Alliance of Civilizations, SouthSouth Cooperation and the reform of the International Development Bank (IDB). The Presidency of the summit also issued a press release about the situation in Honduras which illustrated the common stance of the Ibero-American countries in condemning the military coup, the violations of rights and freedoms, and the reinstitution of President Zelaya as a vital step towards the return to constitutional normality. High-level meetings As is the tradition in Ibero-American summits, the event was an ideal setting in which to hold high-level meetings between the heads of state and government. The King of Spain and Prime Minister Rodríguez Zapatero met with the presidents of the Central American countries, as well as those of Mexico, Columbia, Brazil, Panama and Chile, among others.

At the end of the summit, the Spanish Prime Minister told the press that these summits were an intrinsic part of the Spanish and Portuguese foreign policies, stressing the importance of updating the Ibero-American sphere, to strengthen “our voice” in the world and to “promote the development of our societies”. José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero stressed that the 24th Summit's central theme -“Innovation and knowledge”- is the third “key” focus, behind education and research, in the Ibero-American Sphere of Knowledge, which was created four years ago at the Salamanca Summit. Regarding the situation in Honduras, the Prime Minister gave assurances that a broad consensus had been reached to include, within the declaration of the Portuguese Presidency, a set of principles that the whole IberoAmerican community agrees upon and shares: condemning the military coup, the need to restore democratic institutions, ensuring that an electoral process has taken place and supporting an international agreement for consolidation and a democratic outcome in Honduras. These four principles, he added, were “wholeheartedly” shared, irrespective of the fact that there were differences of opinion between the various governments regarding the immediate future of Honduras. On the Copenhagen Climate Change Summit, Rodríguez Zapatero said that all Ibero-American countries had been in agreement on the meeting's historical transcendence and emphasized the “massive role” that countries such as Mexico and Brazil had to play in this debate, whose commitment to reach an agreement setting out a “clear” route towards a reduction in emissions is unwavering. Lastly, the Prime Minster defended the positive value of the Ibero-American summits and said that the following year in Mar del Plata would be their twentieth anniversary and therefore a good opportunity for an overall evaluation.


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Spain and the Ibero-American Sphere of Knowledge Juan TomĂĄs Hernani

general secretary for innovation

The 24th Ibero-American Summit, which was held in Estoril under the Portuguese presidency and dedicated to analyzing and defining policy actions related to "Innovation and Knowledge", has been a clear indication of the importance that these issues have for our countries as essential tools for getting growth and job creation back on track. The fact is that Ibero-American countries have understood that innovation is vital for achieving a productive model that enables us to ensure sustainability and tackle the challenges that stand before us with the best guarantees of success. With this in mind, the declaration of the 24th Ibero-American Summit sets out, as one of its fundamental objectives, the prioritization of innovation within the framework of our countries' national development strategies. Spain, through the Ministry of Science and Innovation, has been performing a key role in this regard, since for the first time in the government's history a General Secretariat of Innovation has been created to promote and encourage innovation, as well as to work on a National Innovation Strategy. Furthermore, aware of the importance of an Ibero-American sphere of knowledge, this summit has agreed to support the

creation of a new and ambitious program for applied research and technological innovation, which is inclusive and open to all countries, in addition to and closely linked to the already existing programs. The program will also aim to contribute to a more balanced model of economic and social appropriation of knowledge in Ibero-American societies. In this regard, it is important to highlight the AECID's involvement, whose contribution has been decisive in getting this program underway. The future of the Ibero-American region includes creating R+D+I skills in our productive systems, and we must do this while encouraging the creation of new knowledge, creatively combining the knowledge that we have already accumulated, transferring this knowledge between the various players in the system -within and between our national and subnational systems- and applying it to products, services and value-generating processes. At the General Secretariat of Innovation of the Ministry of Science and Innovation we have set out an objective: to build a more robust and internationally competitive Ibero-American world, focused on meeting the needs of our region, in other words, our citizens, our scientific

Latin American countries have understood that innovation is vital for achieving a productive model that enables us to ensure its sustainability

and academic institutions and our businesses. Therefore, we are in need of a greater presence of business firms in the Ibero-American Sphere of Knowledge, as essential contributors to the systematic development of R+D activities. We also must define a suitable public-private collaboration framework and provide our businesses with the tools necessary to encourage the adoption of a culture of innovation and entrepreneurship. We find ourselves at a point in history in which all countries understand that innovation, in its many forms and applications, is an unavoidable dimension within our political agendas in order to keep making process, because “the time for innovation� has arrived. As a result, this summit has been an event for the future, a meeting where the importance of scientific knowledge has been recognized as the template for economic growth and development. With this in mind, we need to work to lay down the foundations for the future prosperity of our respective countries and for the Ibero-American region as a whole. We know that this won't be easy, but that is the challenge for everyone, and also our opportunity.

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DISCOVER YOUR EMBASSY Ancient traditions intermingle in Japan with modernity and an notable interest in foreign culture by Pilar Cuadra

Japan: East Meets West An older woman dressed in a kimono talks on her cell phone, standing before an enormous video screen reminiscent of a scene from the film "Blade Runner." A bullet train crosses centuriesold rice fields while Mount Fuji looms in the background. Traditional gardens emerge as islands of tranquility and meditation amidst the constant buzz of a sprawling metropolis. All these images represent the essence of modern Japan, seeking a balance between carefully preserved and deeply-rooted traditions and the latest technologies and a dazzling array of electronic gadgets; between a respect and admiration for nature and an urban sprawl at times overwhelming; between the essence of the East and ideas imported from the West. Though economic and industrial modernization began following the Meiji Revolution of 1868, which returned the emperor to power after two and a half centuries of isolation under the Shogunate, political reforms did not take root until after the Second World War, during the American occupation. Since then, Japan has set a clear example of how democracy and human rights can be adapted perfectly to non-Western societies, and Tokyo has served as an invaluable ally in defending the values of a modern Western

japan in figures Population: 127,8 million inhabitants Population density: 338 people per km2 Illiteracy rate: 0.1% Life expectancy at birth: 82 years GDP: $5,121,900,000,000 USD (2008) GDP % annual growth: 1.1% (2008) Inflation: 0.7% (2007) Unemployment rate: 3.8% (2007) Public deficit: -3.4% (2007) Main export partner: United States Main import partner: China Source: Min. of Foreign Aff. & Coop.

state. The only noticeable divergence with Europe is with regard to the death penalty, still in use in the Japan. However, from a political, economic and social perspective, the main point of reference for the Japanese has not been Europe, but the United States. It is a strange urban landscape for a Westerner (indecipherable signs which render illiterate the most erudite among us; cables and wires hung about in a way that recalls the streets of Spain from decades past; houses and apartments of dubious quality which seem oddly mismatched with the cars parked out front and, even more striking for what is still the second largest economy in the world; loudspeakers

The bright streets of 21st century Japan intermingle with symbols of its culture, such as the Himeji Castle (14th-17th century) and the 'kouyou,' a traditional and ephemeral admiration of autumnal colors, and the 'hanami,' a thoughtful contemplation of the cherry blossoms in bloom in the Spring.


installed by local businesses along the sidewalks on vehicles, in contrast with the discretion of passers-by and public transit passengers). However, to one's surprise, something recognizable will come up from time to time. And we're not just talking about the usual cafes and hamburger stands, but also (at least in the suburbs) a lifestyle which a European would see as very American, in which the car is indispensable, and where shops and restaurants feature vast parking lots to facilitate access for their patrons. Although the Japanese associate Western culture with the United States, it is equally true that, in a country as socially and ethnically homogeneous as Japan, any country or culture

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can evoke interest. Not only quite polar opposites, are in is Spain no exception to this From a political, fact very close to it. And derule, but it happens to be es- economic spite that, common ground pecially attractive on its own and social abounds, although perhaps perspective, merits. not as much in economic From Spain, one cannot the main point terms. Indeed, Spain has a travel any further East than of reference for timid economic presence Japan. Indeed, there's a rea- the Japanese in Japan and Japanese ecoson they call it the "Land of has been the nomic activity in Spain could the Rising Sun." Likewise, United States. definitely be improved. Spain, located at the western What is perhaps the oldextreme of the Eurasian landest remnant of contact bemass, is the geographic "far west" for tween Spain and Japan is found in these the Japanese, given that the American respective countries' culinary tradicontinent is actually closer to the East. tions. It is believed that the monks who Thus the Japanese, when referring to accompanied San Francisco Javier on anything related to our country, use the his trip to Japan during the sixteenth ideogram which means "west." These century (shortly before the country are two countries which, although not was to close itself off completely to the

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outside world for centuries, women have been born in the until the Meiji Revolution), The Instituto royal family since the 1960's, gave the locals a recipe for a Cervantes in people began suggesting that Castilian sweet, or castella- Tokyo, in its legal reforms be enacted so no, which in Japanese would third year of that that the eldest daughter translate as "de castella" (of operations, is of the crown prince could or from a castle, in English). currently the serve as his successor. The From there, the production largest in the debate came to an end howof this sweet, called "castela," world at some ever, when in 2006 Prince spread throughout the coun- 50,000 square Hisahito was born, the nephtry, and today it can be found feet. ew of the current heir. in many souvenir shops in The interest that Spain the main Japanese tourist spots. evokes in Japan manifests itself in Another point of encounter relates many ways. Perhaps the most striking to the monarchy and its adaptation to is Spain-mura, a theme park dedicated the 21st century. The Spanish Royal to Spain, and the only one of its kind. Family traditionally maintains strong Another excellent example is in music relations with other royal families. Co- and dance. It's well known that flaincidentally, two very similar debates menco is especially popular (Japan has emerged in both countries. In recent been called the "second native land of years, the question of women taking the flamenco"), but this is not the only the royal throne has come up both in branch of Spanish folklore that is presJapan and in Spain. While here the ent in modern Japan; a Spaniard living question revolved around the order of in Japan even managed to put together succession, in Japan, where only men a Minorcan jota group (a traditional can hold the title of emperor, and only Spanish dance, in this case a local vari-

A SPANIARD IN JAPAN Manuel Sánchez Bosch spaniard living in japan for 37 years

What opinion do the Japanese have of Spain and the Spanish people? In general, the Japanese associate Spain with positive, pleasant and attractive images, from the flamenco, to paella, to Iberico ham, good weather, and artists like Goya, Picasso, Dalí, Miró, and especially Gaudí. Lately, Spanish soccer is also among those associations. Spain is, for them, a country with charm and charisma. The Japanese tend to see Spaniards as easy to deal with, reliable and generous. Spaniards have a special heritage in Japan: San Francisco Javier, who introduced Western culture to Japan, along with Christianity. Javier was a true lover of Japan, whose letters and reports were copied and propagated throughout Europe. The Japanese recognize

ety from the small island of Minorca). Language also serves as a means of cultural encounter. The Tokyo Instituto Cervantes, in its third year of operation, is currently the largest such institute in the world, with some 50,000 square feet, and which, in addition to Spanish classes, organizes culture courses, film series, conferences and presentations that focus on life not only in Spain, but also in Latin American countries. Without a doubt, part of the attraction of our language for the Japanese is due to the Hispanic community that lives among them, primarily Peruvians, which is made up largely of the "nikkei" people, descendants of Japanese immigrants in Latin America who have returned to the land of their ancestors, but preserve their Hispanic identity. These details serve as examples of the growing cultural exchange, which allow both groups to overcome certain stereotypes, thus opening the door to broader relations in the economic and political spheres.

Javier as their first ambassador, an ambassador of luxury and prestige, to the greater West. How integrated into the local community are Spaniards in Japan? The Spanish presence is, numerically, insignificant. The few of us who are here are very naturally integrated. If we are here, it is because we like it here and it meets our needs and aspirations. How would you rate SpanishJapanese relations? Overall they are good, though in economic terms they could be better. Our entrepreneurs would return better results if they studied how businesses from other countries operate in Japan, with a mentality to invest in order to sell, think in the long term, and above all, develop their brand. Give us a few reasons to choose

Japan as a vacation or business destination. As a tourist destination, besides the sights and culture, Japan is an attractive option for those who are able to observe the Japanese people's unique approach in resolving problems and dilemmas that we also have in our own society and for which we have not quite found an elegant solution. There is a lot to learn. As far as Japan as a professional destination, it's somewhat limited, though I want to point out that for Spanish businesses with a genuine interest in Japan, they must get used to the idea that in order to sell in Japan, they must be in Japan and work in Japan, and likewise, they must seek or train people who are prepared and conditioned for this market.


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Japan: land of contrast mutual interest Miguel テ]gel Carriedo spaNish ambassador to japan

Japan stands out in Asia both for its singularity and its influence in the broader Asian context. Its economic power, cultural interest and strong presence in the rest of the world are also apparent. As a new era of self-examination begins in Japan regarding its political and social realities, the fascination evoked in those of us who experience its day-to-day realities continues to grow. In the middle of the 19th century, Japan was still closed off from the outside world, but in little more than one hundred years it emerged at the forefront of innovation and now offers an example to be followed in many areas. Spain has for some time been aware of the importance of maintaining strong ties with this country, and I believe I can affirm that in Japan the interest is entirely mutual and particularly evident in the cultural sphere.

Economic Community led to Japanese investment in our country. Since the 1990's, these relations have had an important effect. Fortunately, there are no real contentious issues between the two countries and we share a similar point of view on most of the issues that make up the socalled global agenda (problems and challenges faced by the international community).

Our first contacts date back to the middle of the 16th century, though the Shogunate's opposition to foreign relations meant Spain, as well as every other country, had to wait until the important shift brought about by the Meiji Revolution (1868) allowed for the development of proper bilateral relations with Japan.

This concord has been important in setting out a series of actions which attest to these countries' mutual interest in advancing this bilateral relation, as they involve a considerable level of effort and commitment. A few exemplary events include Japan's excellent pavilion at the World Exposition in Seville (1992), the major Spanish presence at the World Exposition in Aichi (2005) and, quite recently, Japan's interesting exhibit at the Expo Zaragoza (2008). Many official visits have taken place between members of the respective royal families, whose friendship was again evident during the official state visit of their Majesties, the King and Queen, to Japan in November of the past year, a real privilege of which we, as Spaniards, can be proud.

Spain's entry into the European

Spanish relations with Japan are

Japan and Spain share a similar point of view on most issues on the global agenda Spain is widely perceived in Japan as a modern country of great cultural richness

at present better and closer than at any other time in history. The application of a Social Security Agreement, signed last year, is under negotiation. This agreement is of great importance for companies and displaced workers alike. We have come to some important agreements in the area of science and technology; Japanese tourism in Spain is considerable (241,000 Japanese tourists visited Spain in 2008); and we have made great strides in the area of culture and cultural industries, something which is of great importance for economic and social development; both governments understand it as such and have therefore opened branches of the Instituto Cervantes and the Japan Foundation in their respective capitals. And we cannot forget the many possibilities created via academic exchanges in all sectors (universities, scientific and athletic institutions, etc.), as Spain is widely perceived in Spain as a modern country of great cultural richness. This is the general framework for relations which, in my opinion, will continue develop naturally, in keeping with the times and our countries' mutual interests, thus making way for stronger relations in the future.

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— When was Casa África opened and what are its main activities and objectives? — Casa África was founded in 2006, although its current facilities were not opened until a year later, when on June 12, 2007 they were inaugurated by their Majesties the King and Queen, accompanied by the President of Senegal and the Prime Minister of Cape Verde, together with the members of its Governing Board. Upon the creation of Casa África, Spain became the first country to open a public institution dedicated exclusively to Africa, thus meeting its commitment to develop and consolidate a contemporary African policy, one of commitment and solidarity, following guidelines already in effect on an international scale and outlined by the Africa Plan. In this sense, its activities follow two main objectives: to bring Africa closer to Spain and to serve as an advocate for all Africans. In order to bring Africa closer to Spain, we must recognize the diverse, rich and varied reality of this immense continent. To this effect, we employ all instruments at our disposal, whether through culture, by means of a direct contact between an African artist or creator and the Spanish public, or through seminars, workshops, meetings and publications. Likewise, this institution works daily in strengthening ties with Africa, with its institutions and its people, by developing its own analysis of the problems and realities of African life, their priorities, concerns, and opinions, and by acting as an advocate for the African people. We wish to improve Spain's image abroad and help in strengthening Spanish-African relations in all spheres. In doing so, our most important allies are the Spanish Embassies, to which we offer our service and support, as well as Spain's African partners, with whom we seek to develop a climate of collaboration on a regional scale. — How do you see the future of Casa África?

Public Diplomacy at Casa África. The General Director of Casa África sums up the work performed by this public institution since its creation in 2006, indicates its short-term objectives, and invites all those who are interested in the African continent to visit its offices in Las Palmas, Gran Canaria.

Ricardo Martínez general director of casa áfrica

"We wish to bring Spain closer to the diverse and varied African reality" profile. Ricardo Martínez Vázquez was born in Seville in 1958. He studied Law, is a specialist in International Humanitarian Law and an expert in Development Cooperation. A career diplomat since 1986, he has been stationed in Bonn, Geneva and Panama. He served as Assistant General Director of Cooperation with Asia (2000), Cooperation with the Mediterranean and Eastern Europe (2001 to 2004), and General Director of Cooperation with Africa, Asia and Eastern Europe (2004-2008). He assumed the post of General Director of Casa África on July 1, 2008.

— Without a doubt it will continue to link to the Africa Plan and to the development of our foreign policy in Africa. In other words, Casa África will increase our support of processes for regional and subregional integration, good governance, democracy and the consolidation of States capable of leading their countries in their own development. Relations with Western Africa, as a neighboring region, will continue to take priority, as is already the case with the Maghreb and Central America. Another fundamental part of our work will be to consolidate African leadership on a regional scale, within international and multilateral institutions, and on a subregional scale, in supporting those States that are able to serve as an example for their neighbors in democratic, economic and social development. — What activities does Casa África carry out in the area of public diplomacy?

— All of the "Casas" support the actions of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation. We jointly plan sponsored activities in different areas, tackling issues such as terrorism, food security, the fight against poverty, and climate change, and contributing to the objectives of the National Plan for the Alliance of Civilizations. We organize meetings, bringing together experts from different continents to discuss problems that affect us all, and in the case of culture, we develop initiatives such as "Ramadan Nights" at Casa Árabe, in which Casa África also participates, or our festival called "Africa Lives," at which we hope to receive many of the other Casas for our celebration of Africa Day. — What role do the Casas play as an instrument of Spanish foreign policy, or in other areas, such as development cooperation? — The creation of the last four Casas completes a very promising network,


given that this type of shared and coordinated effort can generate many ideas and proposals, and help us to study sectoral, multilateral and regional policies in greater depth. Topics such as appropriation, policy coherence and the interaction between business and development can be debated, discussed and even resolved with the help of flexible and informal instruments which strengthen ties between the different parties. We bring together experts from the government, institutions, private business and academia from around the world, so that they can share their experiences. We speak, we listen and we offer our proposals and ideas to important decision-makers. There are some recent examples of joint activities with Casa África and Casa Asia, as well as the European Institute of the Mediterranean and the new Casa del Mediterráneo. The agenda is open and flexible,

and allows these institutions to propose topics openly. — What is the significance of Casa África being located in the Canary Islands? — The decision to open Casa África in the Canary Islands was a bold and somewhat risky political gamble that follows the traditional view of the Canary Islands as a "platform" for Africa and Europe (Latin America as well). Casa África was created in the Canary Islands with a clear mandate to make good use of the islands' privileged geostrategic location in working on specific topics and proposals with the Spanish Government and the Canary Islands Government. Their objective is to develop foreign policy ideas and proposals based on the Africa Plan, taking full advantage of the extremely valuable experience many of the islands' sectors have with Africa, such as the tourism industry, fishing industry, or as relates to mi-

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grant policy and illegal trafficking. The Canary Islands Government and the Islands' Cabildos (local governments) have come to be very effective and useful partners in bringing the strategic definitions of the Africa Plan to reality, which is to be extended with an Africa Plan specific to the Canary Islands. — Are new Casa África facilities being planned? — The offices of Casa África for the entirety of Spain and Africa are found in the Canary Islands, a point of contact between continents and oceans. At present, additional facilities are not needed, although the Charter does allow for this possibility and African ambassadors in Spain, the majority of whom are in Madrid, have requested a greater visibility in the capital city. We are making an effort to meet this request, though without increasing costs, especially in these times of crisis. From the offices in the Canary Islands, the Casa is performing actions throughout Africa and through the entire Spanish territory. We are working with all those who have an interest in Africa and, despite the Casa being relatively new, I think we ought to congratulate this ambitious young team, which has achieved quite a lot through their hard work. And, of course, I must recognize the magnificent work of its first General Director, Ambassador Juan Alfonso Ortiz, who was the one who initiated this most ambitious commitment. Perhaps in the medium term we might think about the need to develop a large African reference library to complement our virtual media library, like the Islamic and Ibero-American libraries already in place at the Spanish Agency for International Cooperation and Development (AECID) in Madrid. But this would be a medium-term project and would not involve the creation of another office in Spain. The Canary Islands are the perfect option really, and we encourage anyone who can to come to the islands and visit our Casa, where all are welcome.

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Catherine Asthon Visits Spain, Days After her Nomination


 Miguel Ángel Moratinos met at the Viana Palace with the High Representative for Foreign Policy from the European Union, Catherine Ashton. During the meeting they discussed topics relating to the Spanish Presidency of the European Union, as well as issues regarding the enactment of the Lisbon Treaty. Ashton also met with the President at the Moncola Palace.

Public diplomacy opens its sixth Casa. A new space is opened to strengthen ties between the two Mediterranean coasts. The Casa Mediterráneo, an institution under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, is up and running in Alicante since this past November.

Casa Mediterráneo Opens in Alicante With the "International South-North Dialogue Conference on the Mediterranean: Education and Migration," this past November, the Casa Mediterráneo began operations as the sixth Casa created by the Spanish Government to support public diplomacy as a tool in establishing relations of mutual trust through the use of dialogue and a focus on personal, institutional and governmental relations. Under the direction of Yolanda Parrado, this institution was founded with the objective of serving as a place for meeting and dialogue for the Mediterranean region, a region which connects more than 450 million people from 22 different countries. "This is the most important way for the Mediterranean

region to take center stage," Miguel Ángel Moratinos pointed out during the opening ceremony of the congress, organized in collaboration with the University of Alicante, and bringing together representatives from these coastal countries. The varied program of the new

Detail of the Casa Mediterráneo facade at Benalúa Station in Alicante . photo mde

Casa highlights the dynamic nature of a shared European space along the Mediterranean coast. Events thus far have included the Euro-Mediterranean Meeting of Young Architects and Urban Planners in Jávea, which emphasized the importance of environmental preservation and sustainability in the Mediterranean region. In addition, Casa Mediterráneo and the Algerian musician Khaled organized a concert in Benidorm in December attracting more than 2,000 people to a performance which served, as the artist indicated, "to bring the two coasts of this marvelous sea a bit closer together." In addition, a competition was organized for the youngest attendees. The competitors were instructed to imagine and draw "the House in which the Mediterranean lives," an educational activity which sought to promote the values of diversity, tolerance and respect, signs of identity in the region. The winning contestant was awarded a Mediterranean-themed library.


Moratinos Meets with his Vietnamese Counterpart  In mid-December the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, Miguel Ángel Moratinos, met at the Viana Palace with the Vice-Primer Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs from Vietnam, Pham Gia Khiêm, who was in Spain on an official visit. During their meeting, both ministers signed a Memorandum of Understanding for Dialogue and Political Cooperation, as well as an agreement to abolish visa requirements for diplomatic passports.

Ten Years Defending Spanish Brands  This past December 15th the Leading Brands of Spain Forum (FMRE) celebrated its tenth anniversary. The FMRE is made up of 97 Spanish companies with leading brands in their respective sectors. This group's objectives include offering a system of support and a forum for reflection and awareness of its brands and their increasing value as an important asset in Spain's economic competitiveness. The FMRE together with government administrations are the driving force for the Spanish Brand, helping to associate a higher value with Spanish businesses and institutions abroad.

Climate Change and Renewable Energy Symposiums  On November 26th, the Vice president inaugurated the 'Climate Change and Renewable Energy International Symposiums in Asia and Africa,' at the Madrid headquarters of Caixa Forum, organized by Casa Asia, Casa África and the Spanish Agency for International Cooperation and Development (AECID). In her speech, she highlighted the Government's decisive support for environmental sustainability and the fight against climate change, which is evident through a sizable investment in renewable energy. In fact, during the past three years, Spain has increased its investment in research and new technologies by 110%, and in 2010 the Government will double that investment.

The Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation Visits Cuba  Miguel Ángel Moratinos traveled to Cuba in October where he met with President Raúl Castro and the minister's Cuban counterpart, Bruno Rodríguez. This visit was arranged as per the institutional political dialogue initiated between both governments in 2007, which provided for annual meetings between heads of state. During his stay, the Minister inaugurated the Technical Cooperation Office, a gesture which highlights the scope of cooperation between both countries in sectors such as food security, health and education, clean water, and recovery of cultural heritage.

Agreement Signed with Senegal Abolishing Diplomatic Visas  The Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, Miguel Ángel Moratinos, met in December with the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Senegal, Madické Niang, who was on an official visit in Madrid. The meeting was preceded by the signing of an agreement to abolishing diplomatic visas. Following the meeting, Minister Moratinos invited his Senegalese counterpart to dine at the Viana Palace.

NATO Ministerial Meeting in Brussels  Miguel Ángel Moratinos attended the meeting of Foreign Ministers of allied countries held in Brussels on December 3rd and 4th. During the summit, the ministers discussed a wide range of issues on the NATO agenda, including the situation in Afghanistan, relations with Russia, the Ukraine and Georgia, as well as new strategic concepts and ideas.

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Mérida Hosts Forum

First PortugueseExtremaduran Business Forum Held In November, the city of Mérida hosted the first Portuguese-Extremaduran Meeting for business cooperation, meant to promote a dialogue between both parties and establish common guidelines for economic development. Inaugurated jointly by the President of the Extremaduran Government and the President of the Portuguese Agency for Investment and Commerce, these meetings seek to strengthen relations between both countries and bring together entrepreneurs from both countries, with innovative products, to continue in developing the Iberian market as one of international standing. Spain is an important market for Portuguese economic internationalization, and border regions have a special significance in this process.

The President in Attendance

International Colloquium on Death Penalty Abolition On December 9th and 10th, the Reina Sofía Museum of Art in Madrid was host to a colloquium on the abolition of the death penalty, organized by varying Spanish and foreign institutions. During the opening ceremony, President Rodríguez Zapatero indicated that universal abolition of the death penalty will be a priority during the Spanish presidency, and announced that during the second half of 2010 an International Commission against the Death Penalty will be created. The President predicted that a universal moratorium will have been passed by 2015, given that in that year they will review the Union's level of compliance with the Millennium Goals against poverty.

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Joint Initiative. Spain and Germany have presented the Second Resolution on Human Rights Obligations relating to Access to Clean Water and sanitation before the Human Rights Council, so that it might be presented at the Twelfth General Session of the United Nations.

Recognition of the Human Right to Water, Ever Closer With the goal of meeting the main objective of this Spanish-German initiative, the recognition of the right to access to clean water and sanitation as a human right, and in agreement with the first resolution 7/22 adopted in March of 2008 during the Seventh General Session of the Human Rights Council, the present challenge is in defining the specific content of this right. This second resolution makes progress in this area, as it implements the main recommendations of the Report presented previously by the Independent Expert, during the same session of the Human Rights Council regard-

ing Access to Sanitation. This issue had not been covered before, given that in many countries its considered something of a taboo subject. Said recommendations are directed primarily at the States. The important role of the private sector in this matter is also acknowledged, as with UN specialized Agencies and other donor agencies. The resolution was adopted by consensus with the cosponsorship of 60 countries. This represents the first time that the 27 EU countries cosponsor a resolution on this matter, as well as the first time they do so with the support of the United States.

Caffarel Inaugurates the First Cervantes Hall in South Korea  The director of the Cervantes Institute, Carmen Caffarel, signed an agreement to open a Cervantes Hall in South Korea with the Kyunghee University in Seoul. "This represents a long-awaited dream which truly fills us with contentment: finally, and for the first time, the Cervantes Institute has a direct presence in this marvelous country," stated Caffarel, who considers the inauguration a first step towards opening a future Institute in this East Asian country.

Ángel Lossada Attends Karzai's Inauguration  On November 19th, the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, Angel Lossada, attended the inauguration of Hamid Karzai as the president of Afghanistan, following his being declared the winner in the presidential elections held in August. His presence reflects Spain's commitment to Afghanistan as well as Spain's desire to work with President Karzai and his new administration towards stability and reconstruction in Afghanistan, a key country for regional and international stability and security.

UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Visits Spain

Image of the Airbus 400M during its inaugural takeoff in Seville. photo mde

The Airbus 400M, a Gem of European Aeronautics, Takes off for the First Time in Seville His Majesty King Juan Carlos, together with the Minister of Defense, Carme Chacón, and the head of Industry, Miguel Sebastián, were present for the A400M's first flight. The aircraft is the result of a project developed by Airbus Military, part of the European consortium EADS. The aircraft's as-

sembly was performed in the San Pablo Airport in Seville. Following the four-hour flight, the King highlighted the importance of collaboration between European governments and industries, and encouraged the participating countries to "continue with this great success."

 As per the framework for bilateral consultations between Spain and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Mrs. Navanethem Pillay met on November 4th with the Minister of Foreign Affairs. During their meeting, various topics were discussed, including the priorities of the Spanish Presidency on human rights, Spanish initiatives regarding the death penalty and the right to water, the future reform of the Council for Human Rights, and follow-up on contributions made to the UNHCHR, which in 2009 reached 8 million Euros.


Casa Sefarad-Israel to be Opened in the Cañete Palace  In mid-November the Mayor of Madrid and the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation signed a cessation protocol on behalf of the Palace of the Marquee of Cañete, which will thus be home to the Casa Sefarad-Israel. The new facilities will occupy 15,000 square feet distributed between two floors of the building and are scheduled to open next year.

Tenth Anniversary of the School for a Culture of Peace  The School for a Culture of Peace, part of the Autonomous University of Barcelona, entered its 11th year of research, teaching and sensitization in human rights and peace building. This research center focuses on the cause, evolution and effect of armed conflicts and the dynamics of the peace process. It also practices acts of public diplomacy which have turned this School into an innovative example internationally.

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Shanghai 2010. With an area of 76,220 square feet, the Pavilion will remain after the Expo ends as a center for Spanish organizations.

A Wicker Basket will House the Spanish Pavilion The structure of the Spain Pavilion, a curvilinear building covered in wicker, a project designed by architect Benedetta Tagliabue, is already being erected at the site of the 2010 International Exposition, which is to be held in the city of Shanghai beginning in May. To carry out this project, Miss Tagliabue, an Italian architect, began with an icon well engrained in Spanish and Chinese culture: the wicker basket. In line with the philosophy of the 2010 Shanghai

Expo 'Better City, Better life,' the structure rises around a plaza, which is for the city what the yard is for a house: a place of relaxation, celebration and, at the same time, a shared space. The facade of the Pavilion will use mainly wicker, playing with its many technical possibilities, and will be sustained by a system of supports and tubular steel beams, which allows the light to penetrate to the interior, filtered through the steel and wicker structure.

A Push towards Stability in the Balkans  On December 14th the International Conference of the Alliance of Civilizations to develop a Regional Strategy for intercultural dialogue in southeastern Europe took place is Sarajevo. During the meeting, the Secretary of State for the European Union, Diego López Garrido, highlighted "the value of this strategy in strengthening relations between governments and civil societies of the countries that make up this region."

Agreement with the International Organization for Migration  During the meeting between the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, Miguel Ángel Moratinos, and the General Director of the International Organization for Migration (IOM), Mr. William Lacy Swing in December, a Cooperation Agreement was signed by both the MAEC and the IOM.

Virtual recreation of the Spain Pavilion, designed by Italian architect Benedetta Tagliabue. photo seei

The Club of Madrid Conference, Seeking Solutions to the Crisis More than 70 former heads of state from fifty countries discussed the political actions necessary to end the global economic crisis during the Annual Conference of the Club of Madrid. The Club of Madrid is an independent organization founded in 2002 that is dedicated to the strengthening of democracy. At the meeting's opening ceremony, His Majesty King Juan Carlos affirmed that "the proper functioning of the democratic system is fundamental in tack-

ling and overcoming these difficulties." He continued, "to this effect, solid and effective institutions and international regulations are required." The meeting, held in Madrid during mid-November, brought together such world leaders as Mary Robinson (Ireland), Vicente Fox (Mexico), Alejandro Toledo (Peru), Felipe González and Kofi Annan. Upon the closing of the Conference, Wim Kok was named as the new Club of Madrid President.

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United Nations. The Alliance of Civilizations and the current Spanish government's efforts towards an effective multilateralism received important political support on November 10th at the United Nations.

The Alliance of Civilizations Advances with Confidence The 192 countries that make up the General Assembly adopted by consensus on November 10th, the first resolution dedicated expressly to the Alliance of Civilizations. Some one hundred countries expressed their support in cosponsoring the resolution. Undoubtedly, this represents an important recognition of the initiative first proposed by the President in the United Nations General Assembly in September of 2004. The promotion of the Alliance of Civilization is one of Spain's most important, innovative and constructive contributions to the multilateral system and to the United Nations since its incorporation a half century ago. The support received serves as an incentive to continue in the efforts which up until now, the General Secretary, together with Spain and Turkey, as the main cosponsors, have been making. In its five years of operation, the Alliance has identified problems that

affect our coexistence, and it has become a platform for action to promote our shared objectives (respect, tolerance, dialogue, understanding and peace) among individuals and peoples of diverse cultures and religions. The Alliance offers an innovative, agile and dynamic focus in meeting new challenges. In a short time, it has earned the respect and support of the international community and its respective societies. They key to its success and its added value rest in this combined cultural and political approach, together with its ability to produce concrete results. As the President said in the opening session of the Alliance of Civilizations Forum held in January 2008 in Madrid, the Alliance seeks to "mobilize the great majorities in peace" and "help in counteracting the political use of diversity." Likewise, the Alliance of Civilizations represents a new paradigm, following the framework of "soft power" as opposed to that of "hard power."

NOTE BY ✍ Juan Antonio Yañez-Barnuevo

Permanent Representative to the United Nations in New York

The adoption of this resolution by the General Assembly is great news. Not only because it assumes the consolidation of the Alliance of Civilizations as a United Nations initiative, but also because with the

resolution, the concept of effective multilateralism is strengthened as an instrument to confront the increasingly complex international reality. This represents an important success, one with which we can be very pleased.

Beyond party divisions, we must join forces in promoting the Alliance of Civilizations; this is an initiative that demonstrates the best of our diverse heritage and one which which will persist and bear fruit.

Spain and Luxembourg, United Against Tax Fraud  In November Spain, together with Luxembourgian Finance Minister Luc Frieden, signed an amendment to the bilateral agreement on double taxation. With this measure the Spanish Tax Agency will make available all information relating to the effective control of Spanish taxpayers in Luxembourg beginning in 2010.

Meeting with the US Secretary of State  Miguel Ángel Moratinos traveled to Washington in December to meet with his US counterpart Hillary Clinton. During the trip, which was part of a series of contacts arranged prior to the start of the EU Presidency, many topics were discussed, including Afghanistan, Honduras, the Climate Change Conference, as well as the main issues of interest relating to the development of a transatlantic agenda, a key priority of the Presidency. During his stay, this Minister met with other important officials from the State Department and other US authorities.

20th Anniversary Campaign of the Convention of the Rights of Children.  Iker Casillas, soccer player for Real Madrid, together with Vice president Maria Teresa Fernández de la Vega, presented the campaign "I cannot vote, but I have a voice," in honor of the 20th Anniversary of the Convention on the Rights of a Child. Others can participate through the website


The Spanish Constitution Celebrates its 31st Anniversary

The President of the Congress of Deputies, José Bono, during the commemorative act. photo EFE

 On December 6th, in commemorating the Spanish Constitution's 31st anniversary, Spain reaffirmed the document's value and vigor in a resolution passed by the Congress of Deputies. The President, José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, recalled that "the figure of the Constitution must serve in regaining the most important values that have paved the way for Spain's progress during these last 31 years. We have attained peace, liberty, stability and progress, and we have recovered to a large extent Spain's role as a global leader. This is a day to feel proud."

Meeting with the Foreign Minister of Benin  During his meeting with the Minister of Foreign Affairs from the Republic of Benin, Jean-Marie Ehouzou, Miguel Ángel Moratinos congratulated his counterpart for having initiated the legislative process to abolish the death penalty in Benin. He also demonstrated his gratitude for President Boni's presence during the inauguration of the International Colloquium for the Abolishment of the Death Penalty held in Madrid. The Minister highlighted Spain's profound commitment to this issue, and indicated that "the steps taken by countries such as Togo and Benin serve as important examples in progressing the abolition of the death penalty in the African sphere."

Ramón Iribarren, New Spokesman for the Royal Family

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In November

International Press Center Opened The Vice president inaugurated the new International Press Center in Madrid, in which journalists will be working during the Spanish EU Presidency. Fernández de la Vega expressed her wish that Europe "communicated more and communicate better" in order to bring EU citizens closer together during a 6-month term which she predicts will be "historic." Likewise, she confirmed that the Government's objective is to increase during this period protection of intellectual property rights with particular attention for the respect of these rights on the Internet, a topic already being worked on by the European Commission. The Vice president hopes that the center will be "a window to the world," as it will also be the place where the website of the Presidency is maintained.

 Ramón María Iribarren is to be the new spokesman for the Royal Family, thus replacing diplomat Juan González Cebrián. Born in Pamplona in 1947, he studied Journalism at the Madrid School of Journalism (1975) as well as Political Science at the Compultense University in Madrid (1972). Previously he served as Director of Coordination and Institutional Relations for Navantia, a Spanish company in the naval military construction sector.

Algeciras-Gibraltar Sea Route Reopened  After forty years of halted service, as per the agreements of the Gibraltar Dialogue Forum, the sea transport route connecting Algeciras and Gibraltar has been reopened. This route was serviced by the Spanish ship "Punta Europa" until service was suspended in 1969.

Asturian Princes Inaugurate the New Cervantes in Chicago  The Asturian Princes inaugurated the new facilities of the Cervantes Institute in Chicago, which relocated their headquarters from Ohio Street to the famous Michigan Avenue. The new center occupies some 20,000 square feet and can accommodate more than 1500 pupils.

Casa Asia Hosts Vietnam Seminar in Barcelona  In recognition of the Vietnamese President's visit to Barcelona, Nguyen Minh Triet, a delegation of 100 high level companies, the Barcelona Chamber of Commerce, the Barcelona City Council, Casa Asia and ACC10 have organized the seminar "Vietnam: Current Situation and Business Opportunities," to explain the current economic situation and business opportunities in Vietnam.

Maria Teresa Fernández de la Vega visits the facilities during the opening. photo EFE

2009 Latinobarómetro Survey

Zapatero and the King Among most Popular Leaders In early December the results of Latinobarómetro were published, a survey performed in 18 Latin American countries. Among various other data, the positive image of Spain held by 57% of the participants stands out, as well as the fact that the King and President Zapatero are among the four most popular leaders.

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Meeting in Madrid. Vice President De la Vega inaugurated a new African and Spanish Parliamentarian Forum in the Congress of Deputies, in seeking the advancement of women and their level of access to decision-making bodies.

A picture of the group from the Spanish and African Parliamentary Forum at the Congress of Deputies.

Meeting of African Women Parliamentarians in Madrid This forum signifies the fulfillment of one of the commitments from the Third Spain-Africa Meeting, Women for a Better World, held in Niamey in May of 2008. In these meetings, which started in Maputo in 2006 and which in 2010, during the Spanish EU Presidency, are to be held in Valencia, Spanish and African women leaders have

shared their thoughts and proposals for setting a common policy agenda on gender and negotiating concrete commitments in support of African women. MarĂ­a Teresa FernĂĄndez de la Vega encouraged Spanish and African women parliamentarians to lead out in realizing social change "so that women

might enjoy liberty, rights and equality, in all corners of our globe." "There is no better example of democracy in action," she added, "than a meeting in this very chamber of parliamentarians representing different countries and ideological positions, in which we state, in defense of equality and justice, that we speak with one voice, with a shared conscience and action." De la Vega invited the participants to "seek a means of mutual support to form legislation to advance the gender agenda in the Parliaments of Spain and Africa," legislation that guarantees equality in access to education, that addresses the sexual health of women "and that ends the gap of economic inequality, ever wider through globalization and exacerbated by the current economic crisis." The conclusions reached during the Parliamentarian Forum include an urgent call to parliamentarians to push legislation on equality and against gender violence, and to repeal any discriminatory legislation, as well as to create a national legislative framework in favor of women's rights. Likewise, the participating parliamentarians agreed that "the policy agenda on women is strengthened through dialogue, and gender legislation will be successful thanks to the will of women in forcing legislative change." "We have no doubt that a strong and more just economic model will come to fruition thanks to the actions of women," reads the document signed by the participants at the close of the meeting.

This commitment is intended for infant nutrition programs

Spain Allocates more than 300 Million to the Fight Against Hunger While the world commemorates World Food Day, we must not forget that hunger is no longer a result of food shortages; rather, extreme poverty is a condition resulting from discrimination and marginalization. For this reason, this struggle must become

a daily priority; Spain's cooperation efforts are fully behind this struggle. To this effect, the Government allocated 305 million Euros for the fight against hunger in 2009, and in the next five years will dedicate 500 million to support infant nutrition programs in the

least developed countries. In addition, during the Spanish EU Presidency, Spanish cooperation will work to keep agricultural concerns and food security at the center of the policy debate, both within the international agenda and among national public policies.

ccooperation 39 Council of Ministers

Development Aid Fund Reform Approved Miguel Ángel Moratinos greets the staff of the AECID headquarters in Havana.

Miguel Ángel Moratinos inaugurates the new headquarters of the Spanish Agency for International Cooperation and Development (AECID) in Cuba.  During his official visit to Cuba, the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, Miguel Ángel Moratinos, inaugurated the new headquarters of the Technical Cooperation Office of the Spanish Agency for International Cooperation and Development (AECID) in Havana, located in the Commerce Guild building in the heart of Old Havana. Eleven professionals from Cuba and Spain will work in these offices. In 2009, official development aid from Spain to Cuba will surpass 34 million Euros. Cuba is currently home to 16 permanent Spanish NGDOs.

Network of Hispanic-Arab Legal Training Centers  At the Center for Legal Studies (CEJ), a Collaboration Agreement was signed by the Center, the Law School of the Judiciary's General Council and the Higher Institutes of the College of Justices of Morocco, Algeria, Libya and Kuwait. This agreement paves the way for the creation of a Network of Hispanic-Arab Training Centers whose objective is to foster collaboration, and encourage an exchange of ideas and good legal practices. Other countries will also be able to join the Network, in particular those that have participated in the creation of said network, as is the case with Mauritania.

AECID Recognized in Valencia for Solidarity in Music  The Valencian Federation of Musical Societies has awarded the Spanish Agency for International Cooperation and Development with a prize presented annually, for its dedicated support of cooperation in the areas of music and culture. The award was given during a gala event held at the Valencia Oceanogràfic on November 7th. The Secretary of State for International Cooperation was on hand to receive the prize, and expressed his gratitude to Valencian musicians, and highlighted the Agency's efforts to foster cultural development.

Seville Hosts an International Development Forum  Towards the latter part of November, Seville hosted the First International Forum "ART: 4 Years, 10 Results," which presented the results of this United Nations Development Program (UNDP) initiative four years after having been implemented in various countries. The ART Initiative is the expression of a new active multilateralism, characterized by a global network of alliances and exchanges, whose main objective is to encourage the various actors in the area of development to work in a more coordinated and collaborative way. The Forum's conclusions are to be included in the Spanish EU Presidency Agenda and the 2010 Civil Society Platform.

Reform of the Development Aid Fund takes a historic step forward, as it will create new possibilities for Spanish cooperation in State to State donations, microfinance programs, credit concessions and other financial instruments. This reform promotes greater vigor and effectiveness in current cooperation policy by eliminating any profitbased lending from the Development Aid Fund and by ensuring a quick response, especially during times of humanitarian crisis. The Fund's reform complies with the Government's campaign platform and considers feedback received from all sectors of the development issue. This step brings to fruition a six-year goal of Spanish cooperation. The Fund is the oldest instrument of Spanish cooperation and was founded some three decades ago with two objectives: international expansion of Spanish businesses and international development. In recent years, Spanish Official Development Aid surpassed 1.7 billion Euros in 2003 and 4.76 billion in 2008.


Peace Building Courses An advanced course in demining was recently held in Luanda under the tutelage of Spanish soldiers and financed with Spanish cooperation funds. In the classroom more than 1500 pounds of explosive equipment were destroyed, and at the end of the course, latest generation demining equipment was donated, valued at more than 115,000 Euros.

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photo aecid/miguel lizana

Interview. Zoila Carina Argüello participated in the International Meeting on Gender Violence, organized in Madrid by International Solidarity. Representatives from the Americas, Africa, Asia and Spain exchanged ideas and advanced new methods for ending gender violence.


"We must prevent a return to victimization which could result from the State’s failure to ensure equality”” Zoila Carina Argüello has worked for three years in organizing and strengthening gender policies in the current Ecuadorian Administration. This Administration has made a serious commitment to the struggle for equal rights for women in Ecuador, where one in every four women has been a victim of gender violence. Zoila Carina's career in the fight against violence towards women began in the criminal courts as an attorney specialized in domestic violence and sexual crimes. Later, she worked in the Ministry of Economic and Social Inclusion, with the support of public participation organizations, in the post of National Director of Gender Issues under the Ec-

uadorian Ministry of Government and Police. Rafael Correa, President of the Republic of Ecuador, declared in September 2007 that eradicating gender violence against children, adolescents and women was an official State policy. That historic statement was put to action with the passing of the National Plan for the Eradication of Gender Violence, which has come to entail government action in five key areas: the transformation of cultural patterns that normalize violence; access to justice; complete and quality care for victims of gender violence; the creation of a registry of information; and the strengthening of all state institutions

to make this progressive policy one that is accepted and understood by the public. — Have Ecuadorians taken note of these changes? — The people who are receiving care and attention at the shelters, in the Women and Family Police Stations, or in the new health centers, are of course noticing a change in their everyday lives. Providing total care in a shelter or adapting a police station does not merely imply more space, but more respect for the people who make use of these spaces. It's about generating spaces of privacy so that these individuals are fully free and feel that their concerns and complaints are respected. In this sense it is felt by the public, but when we speak of generating a positive gender-aware coexistence in Ecuador, that is something we will see in the long term. — What is the real effect of the National Plan for the Eradication of Gender Violence? — With just two years since its establishment, the Ecuadorian Plan is making steady progress, together with special budget considerations in each ministry for things like awareness campaigns, specialized training for public officials and victim protection, all in order to make this Plan as strong and effective as possible. However, we must prevent a return to victimization that could result from a failure of the State to ensure equality, by pursuing a decentralization of this policy, so that it is not exclusively a policy of the federal government. A policy exists when it is felt by every one of the citizens in a real and profound way. Otherwise, it would be pointless. The NGDO International Solidarity indicates, based on data collected by UNIFEM, that violence against women and girls is not a problem limited to developing countries and in fact, constitutes the current most common violation of human rights. It is estimated that 70 percent of women in the world are victims of physical or sexual violence inflicted by a man at some point during their lives. ◆ Laura Losada

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What is the view of Europeans regarding Development Aid?

Helen Clark's Visit

 Around 90% of Europeans see development as important, and 72% are in favor of the existing aid commitments to developing countries and are in favor of increasing those commitments. A significant majority of Europeans (61%) think that Europe can contribute to the debate on global development in a positive way. Interestingly, the global economic crisis is not considered as a significant risk to developing countries.

Humanitarian Aid in El Salvador after Hurricane 'Ida'  The AECID has contributed, through Salvadoran Civil Protection, the Spanish Red Cross and other Spanish NGDOs, some 150 tons of food and 24 tons of hygiene, cooking and clothing kits, to help alleviate the effects of Hurricane Ida in El Salvador. In total, 300,000 Euros were allocated, including aid to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), for medicines, psychological care and repairs to the water supply.

Education for Development in 21 Paraguayan Libraries  A total of 21 libraries located all across Paraguay have received shipments of some two thousand books each, as part of the "Book Solidarity 2009. Send your book to Paraguay," project, organized by the Community of Madrid. The AECID orchestrated delivery of more than 98,000 volumes. The Book Solidarity campaign is a project that focuses on assisting libraries in many Latin American countries.

Towards a New 21st Century Journalism  The media plays an important role in development, and the public's perception of most social issues is heavily affected by the information we receive from the press, radio, television and the Internet. As such, journalists and their daily labors are what bring us closer to the rest of the world and its problems. With this in mind, a variety of institutions organized a university Congress under the heading "More information to change the world."

Water and Sanitation at the Ibero-American Summit in Estoril  Soraya Rodríguez presented the results of an initiative proposed by Spain two years ago at the Summit in Chile, the objective of which is to solidify the human right to water and advance towards achieving Aim 3 of the 7th Millennium Goal. The Secretary of State recalled that 48 percent of homes in rural areas of Latin America still do not have access to clean water.

Against Gender Violence  The Ministry of Equality, the AECID and other institutions have implemented the MaltratoZero initiative, which seeks to combat gender-based violence. This movement encourages young people to join together against gender-based violence, through a campaign which since its beginnings has attracted the support of many public figures, placing their image together with lesser-known faces. Such personalities include Colombian actress Angie Cepeda (in image), Uruguayan soccer player Diego Forlán and Spanish singers Chenoa and Dani Martín.

Secretary of State Soraya Rodríguez together with the UNDP Administrator during the signing of the agreement in the Viana Palace. photo efe

Spain-UNDP Agreement to Reduce Poverty and Tackle Climate Change Spanish Secretary of State for International Cooperation, Soraya Rodríguez, and the United Nations Development Program's (UNDP) Administrator, Helen Clark, signed a multi-year plan as part of a Strategic Association Agreement involving nearly 400 million Euros. Spain's new financial commitment will be directed at UNDP projects to reduce poverty and tackle climate change. Other important objectives include the Millennium Development Goals, promoting democratic governance, conflict prevention and resolution, peace building, as well as support for United Nations reforms. Soraya Rodríguez highlighted the importance of the UNDP and Spain's commitment to their shared objectives. She also announced that "the impact of the projects will be measured in each country as well as their effectiveness towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals." Helen Clark stated that the agreement "shows us that Spain is not just any donor; it is a partner country in every sense, one that participates actively in the debate around the direction of international development and that adds a tremendous amount of value to our organization."

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culture and society

With the Treaty of Lisbon now in effect, it is highly likely that Don Salvador, a convinced Europeanist and a Spaniard “right down to the blood and bones”, would have felt quite proud for two reasons. First of all, for the satisfaction of seeing how the neverending project of European construction, embodied in the European Union (EU), after a stormy hiatus, has finally initiated one of the most ambitious institutional reforms in its entire history. And secondly, for the familial pride of knowing that one of his own nephews, Javier Solana Madariaga, dedicated internationalist and tireless traveler, in his position as EU High Representative, has been one of the great architects behind the promotion of European ideals in the world. WRITER DIPLOMATS (1st Installment)

by José Carlos Pacheco

The Quixotic Universality of Salvador de Madariaga To attempt to sketch a life as rich, complex and eventful as that of Salvador de Madariaga in a little over a thousand words is a task which, at best, seems almost impossible. A prominent figure in what came to be known as the "third Spain", which emerged from the tragic civil conflict that tore Spain apart in the 1930s, Madariaga was, first and foremost, a man of his times, a faithful representative of one of the most extraordinary intellectual and political generations to have illuminated this country. It was the same generation which, taking up the aspirations of Europeization of the "men of '98", would have its equivalent continuation in José Ortega y Gasset and the novecentistas. It should come as no surprise then that much of the vast and varied work of this distinguished Gallician would be marked by

the question of the national character, as are his books 'Semblanzas literarias contemporáneas' (1923), and 'Ingleses, franceses, españoles' (1929). But added to Madariaga's genuine interest in the study of collective psychologies were his exceptional gifts as a poet and orator, playwright and essayist, journalist and historian, novelist and philosopher. Of this lucid thinker and persistent opponent of any form of dictatorship, Albert Camus would remark on the occasion of his seventieth birthday, quoting the note that Turgenev wrote Tolstoy on his deathbed: “I am happy to have been your contemporary.” Professsor, ambassador and minister. His work as a professor, ambassador and government minister should not be forgotten either. Thanks to his knowl-

edge of languages, he was once head of the Department of Disarmament of the League of Nations (LoN), a post he held until 1927, before accepting the King Alfonso XIII professorship of Spanish studies at Oxford University. With the establishment of the Second Spanish Republic, he was appointed Spanish ambassador in Washington, where he lasted only seven weeks. In 1932, he was appointed Ambassador in Paris and Delegate at the LoN. Two years later, back in Spain, he held the portfolios of Public Education and Justice. With the end of the Spanish Civil War (during which he was the victim of the rage and lack of understanding of both sides), he went into exile, first in Geneva and then London. There in the British capital during World War II, Madariaga dedicated himself actively to defending both the allied cause and the reestablishment of democracy in Spain. To this end, he worked for years on a weekly program on the BBC, through which he fought tirelessly to keep alive the notion of a civilized, humanitarian and democratic Spain. In the same vein, he also contributed to the organization of the 4th Congress of the European Movement, held in Munich in June, 1962, which brought together representatives of the democratic opposition against Franco from both within and outside Spain, in a precursor to the model of negotiated transition that would take place in Spain after Franco's death. Awarded the Charlemagne Prize


culture and society 43

Main picture: portrait of Salvador de Madariaga, dated 1935. Right, from top to bottom: Madariaga, with the President of the Spanish Republic, Niceto AlcaláZamora, during a public event in Madrid in the 1930s; the diplomat returning from exile to Madrid in April 1976; Madariaga at his admission to the Royal Academy on May 2, 1976, together Dámaso Alonso and José María Pemán. photos efe

(1973) and the Goethe Prize (1972), Madariaga had previously been a candidate for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1937 and 1952, and was subsequently proposed for the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1975. He also received honorary doctorates from the Universities of Arequipa, Lima, Lieja, Lille, Oxford and Princeton, and a gold medal from Yale University. He was also a member of many prestigious Spanish and international academies. In an interesting aside, for his acceptance speech to the Royal Academy of the Spanish Language under the expressive title "From the Beauty of Science" on May 3, 1976, forty years after having been nominated, Madariaga admitted frankly: “Of course I was tempted to begin this speech with a resounding 'As we were saying yesterday'... But I didn't give in to that temp-

tation, nor could I, because the other people who formed part of that 'we' are no longer with us today.” One of the most moving moments of the event was the embrace shared by Madariaga and Sánchez Albornoz, the other distinguished elder of the Spanish exile generation. Born in A Coruña in 1886, Madariaga died suddenly on December 14, 1978 in the Swiss town of Locarno, where he had spent the last years of his life together with his wife, the unforgettable Mimí. At the express wish of his widow, the first to receive news of his death was King Juan Carlos, who, together with Queen Sofía, lamented his passing. “This is an irreparable loss for Spanish and world culture. His wit and his extraordinary literary work gave expression to his love for Spain and were the constants of his life."

Using the words of Cervantes. In keeping with the title of this brief biographical note on Madariaga, there is no more fitting recognition of his character to conclude with than one offered by the man himself, using the words of Cervantes in his masterly 'Reader's Guide to 'Don Quixote'' (1926), which clearly illustrate the passion for truth and freedom that inspired all of the personal and intellectual activities of the universal Spaniard that was Madariaga. “Liberty” Don Quixote tells Sancho, “is one of the most precious gifts that Heaven has bestowed on mankind; not all the treasures the earth contains within its bosom, or the ocean within its depths, can be compared with it. For liberty as well as honor, man ought to risk even his life.” “Don Quixote,” concludes Madariaga, “a famous Spaniard, and a great European.”

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culture and society

Symposiums in Honor of Foreign Service Officials from Spain's Second Republic were held on December 2nd, under the mantra 'In Service of the Republic.' The Cervantes Institute hosted the event, in which several speakers offered a detailed portrait of the role of diplomacy in the Republican government during the Civil War. A commemorative ceremony at the Palacio de Santa Cruz, featuring the unveiling of a dedicatory plaque and portraits of the Ministers of State from the Second Republic, was the finishing touch for this grand tribute to one of the most well-known episodes from this period of our country's history. by Javier Hernรกndez

Tribute to the Foreign Service of the Second Republic From the start of the Civil War on July 18, 1936 until the end of armed conflict, the Government of the Second Republic was forced to face a global reality that was entirely unfavorable to their cause. A lack of support from international players, an international consensus against intervention, and the fact that Franco did, in fact, enjoy the political and logistic support

of certain other countries, all worked to the detriment of the legitimate Republican government. The effective propaganda of international players associated with Franco, together with the fear that open assistance to the Second Spanish Republic could contribute to the resurgence of historic tensions in Europe, encouraged many countries to apply a double standard.

Gradually, diplomatic relations grew between the majority of countries and Franco's government, isolating the Republican government and its diplomatic service. Despite this strategy, the start of World War II proved to be inevitable shortly after the end of the Spanish Civil War, and the world once again plunged into a violent and terrible chaos as armed conflict spread to a global scale. Paradoxically, the two powers that most emphatically supported Franco's armies were also those that would be responsible for unleashing the Second World War. The work of Foreign Service diplomats. The majority of international support for Franco's government contributed to the destabilization of the military aspect of the Civil War in Spain. Additionally, it required a greater effort on the part of diplomats loyal to the Republican government, already greatly


culture and society 45 Portraits of the seven Ministers of State of the Second Republic, placed in the gallery at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation at the Palacio de Santa Cruz. A commemorative plaque unveiled during the tribute. The Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation greets a family member of one of the honored officials. PHOTO jorge fernテ]odes

diminished in power, as 90% of their colleagues had abandoned their posts when the conflict began. During the three years this conflict lasted, members of the Foreign Service had to fight against their own internal restructuring and against other countries' open and growing hostility towards Spain's legitimate government. As a result, diplomatic relations with the most important Western powers, such as London, Washington and Paris, were especially difficult to maintain. Francisco Ayala outlines in his Memoirs the problems he came up against during his diplomatic mission in 1937 to the Spanish Embassy in Prague. His testament is a clear example of the arduous labors carried out by Foreign Service officials in defending the interests of the Republic. Ayala, who passed away this past November 3rd, was the last-surviving, and perhaps one of the most wellknown, of that group of 400 men who worked outside our borders in service to the Republican government during the difficult years during the Civil War. The principles that inspired these Foreign Service officials to maintain their fidelity to their legitimate government were none other than those which continue to govern the actions of any public official: loyalty to constitutional legality, and the defense

of this concept against any attempt sanctioned, punished or expelled to damage or destroy it. The collo- by the Dictatorship. This initiative quiums organized by the Ministry is linked to the Law of Historical of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation Memory, passed by the Parliament in were, in the words of Miguel テ]gel 2007. This law recognized the overMoratinos in his closing speech at all unjust and illegal nature of all the the seminar held in the Cervantes measures, sanctions, sentencings and Institute in Madrid, a way of demon- other punishments decreed for politistrating their "respect for the exam- cal or ideological reasons both during ple they gave, and sincere gratitude the Civil War and after, until the resfor their defense of the rule of law toration of democracy. and constitutional legality." In the historic headThe Ministry of Foreign quarters of the Ministry of Affairs and Cooperation Francisco Ayala State, currently occupied wanted these Commemora- was the last by the Ministry of Foreign tive Colloquiums to recall to survive of Affairs and Cooperation, a the memory of these diplo- that group of commemorative plaque has mats and of all the members 400 men, who stood since December 2nd, of the foreign service that worked outside recalling the Foreign Serremained loyal to the legiti- our borders in vice officials of the Republimate Government during the service to the can Government. "In tribute Spanish Civil War, and who, Republican to the members of the Foronce the war ended, were government eign Service who remained subjected to sanctions and during the Civil loyal to constitutional legalretaliation from the Franco War. ity and the rule of law." Also dictatorship. Most of these receiving special tribute are men lived in exile and were the seven Ministers of State never able to return to Spain. from the Second Republic, A lucky few were able to return after portraits of whom are on display at the Franco's death in 1975. the Ministry's gallery, which houses This past December 2nd, the Min- portraits of all the ministers who have ster of Foreign Affairs and Coopera- led this Department. This represents tion also signed and passed a Ministe- an important honor and a solemn rial Order recognizing the honor and tribute to these public officials who dignity of all Foreign Service workers honorably served and defended their from the Second Republic who were country.

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culture and society

a product with a history of advertising Ever since the poster contests of the last century with the participation of artists of the stature of Miguel Utrillo and Julio Tublilla, cava has made use of advertising to make its excellent qualities known to the world. Architects such as Gaudí and Domènech i Montaner have even designed its wine cellars. The arrival of television created the perfect forum for its promotion. Today, the biggest brands spend a fortune on the promotion of their exquisite advertising productions, which feature the participation of some of the world's most prominent film artists. These commercials, whose premieres constitute major events on the social calendar, are advertising jewels that have won important awards in the most renowned advertising festivals, bringing recognized prestige to Spanish creators.

Sant Sadurní d’Anoia is considered the capital of the Cava Region, which extends beyond Catalonia into the provinces of Valencia, La Rioja, Zaragoza, Álava, Navarra and even Badajoz. A total of 32,000 hectares spread over 159 municipalities are dedicated to the production of this wine with its own 'Denomination of Origin', controlled since 1972 by the Cava Regulatory Council, a mark of protection aimed at ensuring the quality and personality of this unique product both inside and outside Spain. Cava is a wine with a personality all of its own. A direct competitor with French champagne, with which it originally shared a similar production method, the Spanish sparkling wine soon found its own identity, derived basically from the three native varieties of black grapes used in its production: the macabeo, the xarel-lo and the parellada. Champagne, on the other hand, is produced mainly using red grapes. History. But to understand cava, it is necessary to go back to the 18th Centu-


culture and society 47

Although traditionally associated with celebrations, cava is an excellent sparkling wine that makes the perfect accompaniment to any meal any day of the year. A genuinely Spanish product, more than ninety percent of its production is concentrated in Catalonia, mainly in the Penedés region. This exceptional enclave just 40 kilometers from Barcelona, thanks to its geographical conditions and mild Mediterranean climate, holds the secret to producing a truly unique wine. by Javier Hernández

Cava, a Spanish wine to celebrate ry. It was at that time that the French put the first harvest onto the market, began to produce the first sparkling and some 70 crates were sold in the wines, successors to the first attempts Catalonian capital. of Dom Perignon at his Benedictine The uncertainty of the first years abbey in 1670. Thanks to the research gave way to modest signs of viability of Louis Pasteur and the use of cork for a business in which only a few had stoppers, it was possible to control the faith. The techniques used in the resecond fermentation and aging of the gion were developed, the techniques wines in the same bottle that would employed in the Champagne region be uncorked by the consumer, thereby in France were studied closely, and inallowing the bubbles to be produced novative measures were adopted, such naturally. as the construction of underground In those days, Sant Sadurní d’Anoia wine cellars for aging the wines. By was a region which, while having this stage, the region was undergoing something of a wine-growing tradi- a socioeconomic transformation. In tion, was dedicated to the cultivation Barcelona, the demand grew for sparof cereals supplied to nearby Barcelo- kling wine, and the techniques were na. In the mid-19th century, noting the improved on from harvest to harvest... growing popularity of sparkling wines until the outbreak of the grape phylin France, the local aristocracy and loxera epidemic bourgeoisie began exploring This parasite, which had new techniques for the proalready devastated French duction of their own spar- In 2008, vineyards, hit Catalonia in kling wines with the grapes more than 1887; five years later 90% of of the region. In 1879, after 200 million the vines had been destroyed. years of experiments with bottles of cava Wine-growing, which had varying degrees of success, were exported experienced a significant Joseph Raventós decided to around the boom, was cut down by the world.

epidemic. Although many abandoned wine-growing, the innovative nature of the local bourgeoisie led them to battle against the epidemic until, following extensive research, the decision was made to introduce American vine stock. This decision saved the vine and production returned to the level of previous years. By the mid-20th century, cava had become a household name in Spain, and some fifty years ago it began its expansion into the international market, which continues today. In the year 2008, international exports of cava hit 200 million bottles. Its constantly developing market suggests a promising future within Spain's thriving agrifood sector. A meticulous production process. A cork stopper with four points on its base, a dry, muffled uncorking, abundant foam as the liquid falls into the glass, and hundreds of little threads of bubbles rising quickly and incessantly. With these three signs, it is easy to discern the

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production by type of cava Statistics for 2008 Brut 48%

Extra Brut 48% Dry 10%

Semi-Dry 29%

main export markets

J 9, apa 68 n 4 31 6,

51 Ge ,4 rm 1 a Un 9,0 ny ite 77 30 d K ,5 ing 48 do ,3 m Un 09 ite 14 d ,4 St 77 at e Be ,89 s 6 lg iu 9, m & 91 3, Lux 28 . 4

Statistics for 2008 in number of bottles

growth of exports Statistics in number of bottles

quality of a good cava. For the true aficionados, other factors come into play, such as the type of grape, the use of sugars or the aging time. To produce a cava, in addition to the three preferred varieties of white grape, malvasia and chardonnay grapes may also be used. Although not common, the red grape varieties of red garnacha, monastrell or pinot noir are also a possibility. The trepat variety is used only for rosĂŠ cavas, which are produced in smaller numbers. The aging time determines whether a sparkling wine can be considered a reserve or special reserve. In the case of cava, aging is considered to include the time from the moment the wine is introduced into the bottle for the first time (en tirage), until it is opened again to eliminate yeast sediments (dĂŠgorgement). During this time, the wine is stored in horizontal position in the cellar until its position is changed so that the yeasts can rise to the mouth of the bottle (remuage). For cavas, the minimum aging time is nine months - another difference with champagne, which requires over four years to mature. After 15 months of aging, cava is considered reserve quality, and if it is aged for more than 30 months it reaches the category of special reserve. There are also different types of cava depending on the sugar content. The brut nature variety can contain no added sugar and allows only up to 3 grams per liter. In order of their sugar content, the varieties are (from lowest to highest sugar content) extrabrut, brut, extra-dry, dry, semi-dry and

sweet, which allows up to 50 grams per liter. Although in popular culture they are intimately associated with dessert, cavas are a suitable accompaniment for any dish, from aperitifs to meat, fish, seafood or rice. However, true cava tasting requires the perfect receptacle: a tall, narrow flute glass. Fewer bubbles escape in these glasses, and they allow the crown of foam and the rising string of bubbles to be viewed perfectly. Cavas should always be served at between five and seven degrees Celsius and never chilled in the freezer, as they lose their characteristic flavor and aroma. Given the special nature of its production and its clearly defined organoleptic qualities of texture, color, flavor and aroma, cava is a meticulously prepared wine, both in terms of its production and the instruments that protect and regulate the whole wine-making process. A wine that is a legacy left by a handful of true innovators in their day, who established veritable dynasties such as CodornĂ­u, Freixenet, Raventos i Blanc, Gramona and Mestres families, cava is a gift to the senses, and a national product that we have the obligation to continue promoting and to protecting. The good results in production and sales (both at home in Spain and abroad) assure the future of this wine, a future in which it can stand up against the best of the champagnes. It is a challenge that we can face in the knowledge that we are offering the world a product of unquestionable quality, and flavor that is one hundred percent Spanish.

47 ,5 70 198 ,2 8 79 49 ,9 66 19 ,5 93 29 98 ,6 43 199 ,7 8 77 11 6, 83 2 2, 00 28 3 8 13 8, 92 20 0, 08 16 9

Cava set to overtake champagne Even in the context of economic crisis, people in the sector are relatively optimistic about sales figures at Christmas time, the biggest sales period for cava. What is clear is that the international expansion of cava is closing in on champagne, with very similar sales figures but different trends. In 2008, cava exports grew by 9.6% while the French bubbly dropped by 6.4%. These statistics confirm that while the quality of the two wines is comparable, cava's range of prices makes it more appealing to the consumer.


culture and society 49

The promotion of cava in international markets Joan Amat


Institut del Cava, the employers' organization of cava producers, was established in 1991 as the result of the institutionalization of the cava sector following the delimitation of the Cava Region in 1986 and the ratification of cava as a Quality Sparkling Wine Produced in a Specific Region (QSWPSR) in 1989 by the EEC Council of Ministers. However, the corporatist tradition of the cava sector actually dates back more than 60 years, with the existence of its predecessor, the UCEVE (Association of Sparkling Wine Growers and Producers). It is fair to say that it was not until the 1970s that cava really began to enjoy a presence on international markets. Since then, cava has entered the market in more than 120 countries, and its high international profile and appeal is now indisputable. One of the main objectives of our organization is to contribute to the development of the cava industry by promoting its image, tradition and prestige. This is in fact the framework that defines one of the main pillars of our

policy of action: the promotion of cava at both national and international levels. In terms of international promotion, at the Institut del Cava we have two spheres of action. On the one hand, we focus our efforts on consolidating and developing those markets that we consider "strong" for cava. To this end, we have developed communications campaigns in Germany - cava's biggest market, with 37% of total exports - and in the United Kingdom, the second biggest market. We are also planning actions for 2010 in Belgium - where cava is experiencing a major "boom" with a 59% increase in sales in 2008 over the previous year, ousting Japan as cava's fourth biggest market. We are also implementing initiatives in Switzerland, Norway and Sweden. At the same time, we are working on emerging markets such as Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic. Beyond the European continent, we have begun working on initiatives in Brazil, and have plans to carry out targeted campaigns in the United States and Japan.

Cava is now available in more than 120 countries, making its high international profile and appeal indisputable

We carry out a highly diverse range of activities, depending on the specific market and the objectives defined, whether for promotion and communications, for commercial purposes or for both at the same time. The initiatives we implement are aimed at various different groups: mass media, professionals or consumers, organizing presentations, tastings, wine and food matchings, direct promotions at points of sale, etc. We are also placing a strong emphasis on the training of future professionals. To this end, we have programmed specialized courses in cava wines at hotel and restaurant management schools in Switzerland and Sweden and, in the near future, in Belgium. The high international profile that cava has already achieved encourages our association to continue identifying new challenges each day with the objective of helping our companies to open new markets and promote and elevate the image of cava around the world.

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This small settlement, nestled picturesquely amid a stunning natural landscape, in the shadow of two monasteries declared World Heritage Sites in December 1997, is renowned not only for the historical and artistic importance of its monastery complex, but as the cradle of the Spanish language.

Panorama of the Monasterio de Yuso in the locality of San Millán de la Cogolla in La Rioja.

by José Carlos Pacheco

San Millán de la Cogolla: A Journey to the Cradle of the Spanish Language Strategically situated in the leafy valley It all began, they say, when a shepof the Cárdenas River, the municipality herd named Emiliano or Millán, back in of San Millán de la Cogolla, which owes the sixth century, in order to get away its name to the eponymous St. Emilian from the bustle of ordinary life, decided 'of the Cowl,' shelters one of the most to retire to a cave to live as a hermit. This artistically outstanding complexes in was the origin of a tenth-century herSpain's monastic tradition. It was pre- mitage that would give way to the Moncisely the enormous cultural and reli- asterio de Suso (the 'Upper Monastery,' gious significance acquired by the mo- since 'suso' means 'above' in old Castilnastic community established in these ian), and years later, in 1053, to the Monpeaceful surroundings that caused it to asterio de Yuso (the 'Lower Monastery,' become, ever since the Middle since 'yuso' means 'below'), Ages, an inevitable focus of atwhich would become the nutraction for pilgrims following The cleus around which the small the Way of St James. All this, architectural town would develop. Today, together with the locals' deep- complex was San Millán is a small village rooted tradition of hospitality, declared a dedicated to livestock raising, has contributed to making this World Heritage with no more than three hunregion a true intersection of Site in 1997 dred residents. roads and cultures. In addition, this munici-

pality of La Rioja is famous as the cradle of the Spanish language. It was precisely here, in these monastic centers, where the first texts in this language were collected: the Glosas Emilianenses, which preserve the first words recorded in Spanish. It was also here, specifically in the Monasterio de Suso, that Gonzalo de Berceo lived and was educated, a medieval author and poet whose cultured poems, the first in Spanish, would elevate it to the rank of a literary language. World Heritage Site. The architectural complex, a faithful reflection of the extraordinarily rich cultural tradition developed by the monks and continued to the present, fully justifies the award of the title of World Heritage Site granted by UNESCO in 1997. The monastery, in


perfect harmony with the surrounding eleventh century. Also deserving of adforests and mountains, forms part of miration are the seven sarcophagi of the so-called Route of the Monasteries, the Infantes of Lara and that of their which passes through the center of La tutor, as well as those of three queens Rioja's forested zone. The two buildings of Navarre. From the atrium the visithat make up the actual monastery are, tor can continue to the church, at the respectively, San Millán de Suso and rear of which the famous caves can be San Millán de Yuso. glimpsed, and above all, the carved covIn the Monasterio de Suso, er of St Emilian's sepulchre, a embedded into the side of the Romanesque piece from the mountain, it is still possible to twelfth century, with the review the cave that served as The oldest cumbent effigy of the saint. a hermitage and place of re- texts in what In order to reach the treat for the group of ascetics is now the lower monastery, there is no begun by St Emilian. With its Spanish, or better option than to make multiple levels of rock struc- Castilian the descent on foot, which afture, this singular architec- language were fords incomparable vistas of ture simultaneously combines collected in San the Cárdenas valley and the the Mozarabic style and the Millán de la river of the same name, with later Romanesque style of the Cogolla their oak forests and, most

culture and society 51

the foundation. The San Millán de la Cogolla Foundation, constituted on 8 October 1998 in a ceremony presided over by His Royal Highness the Prince of Asturias, has among its functions the promotion of the care and preservation of the natural and artistic heritage of San Millán and its surrounding area. The Foundation is equally committed to the study and protection of the Spanish language, for which purpose it has created the International Center for Research on the Spanish Language. It also maintains ties with the Instituto Cervantes in order to disseminate the use of Spanish.

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Architectural detail of the Monasterio de Yuso.

an obligatory stop on the way of st. james. An obligatory stop on the Way of St. James. Since the beginnings of the route, when the Apostle's tomb was discovered in the ninth century, La Rioja's geographical importance as a center of attraction for pilgrims has resided in its location, where the French Way, which comes from the Pyrenees by way of Navarre and Aragon, meets the Jacobean Route of the Ebro, which follows the Roman road between Tarragona and Astorga.

Father Juan Ángel Nieto prior of the monastery of san millán de la cogolla

The Monasterio de Yuso and Its Restoration

of all, the pervasive sense of ed into a hotel with comfortpeace that permeates the en- The library able and spacious rooms from tire route before entering the houses whose balconies guests can Monasterio de Yuso. In this extremely gaze upon dream-like vistas. monastery, the object of major valuable Another option is the Hosreconstruction between the incunabula and pedería La Calera, the former sixteenth and eighteenth cen- parchments, Parador de San Lorenzo, with turies, noteworthy elements as well as a elegantly rustic rooms. include the Hall of the Kings, facsimile copy For those who enjoy rural decorated with royal portraits; of the Glosas tourism, an alternative can the refectory, constructed Emilianenses be found in the neighborfrom walnut timber; and fiing locality of Berceo, where nally, the Canons' Cloister and guests can stay in one of its the Cloister of St. Emilian. The library rural houses. All the houses are in good houses extremely valuable incunabula locations and have three rooms and a and parchments, as well as a facsimile bathroom. copy of the previously mentioned GloTurning now to culinary pleasures, sas Emilianenses, the original of which there are a pair of restaurants where visiis kept at the Royal Academy of History tors can enjoy the typical cuisine of this in Madrid. The church, in Gothic style, part of La Rioja. In one of them, a homedelights the visitor with its collection of style inn located in a seventeenth-centupaintings by Juan Rizzi, who was heav- ry stone house, the specialties are potaily influenced by El Greco; in the sac- toes with chorizo sausage; spotted bean risty, the silver coffers that contain the stew; sweet red peppers; La Rioja-style remains of St. Emilian and St. Felix of cod with garlic, tomatoes, onions, and Bilibio are exhibited. peppers; leeks with vinegar; and fried truffles with ham. In another, guests can Enjoying the local hospitality and cui- also enjoy red bean stew; the traditional sine. Worthy of mention is the Hostería potatoes with chorizo; and an appetizing del Monasterio de San Millán, convert- assortment of small plates to share.

The nineteenth century was disastrous for the history of Spain, for the Church, and in a very particular way, for religious communities. France introduced into Spain its political system, its republican ideals, and the anti-religious spirit of the French Revolution. The decrees of French king, Joseph Bonaparte, which suppressed the religious orders, culminated in Mendizábal's desamortization laws, which led to the disappearance of the majority of the religious communities: obliged to leave their convents, they watched as the government confiscated both the convents

and the property they contained, only to abandon them, in the majority of cases, to the vagaries of fortune. The two monasteries of San Millán and the Benedictine communities that had peacefully occupied them for almost eight hundred years suffered the same fate. The uselessness of these expropriative measures and the historical disaster represented by the abandonment of monasteries of the highest cultural and artistic value would soon become evident. Once the stormy seas of politics and of society in general had begun to grow calm, attempts were made to give new

life to some of the abandoned convents. With the arrival of the first Augustinian Recollects in San Millán on 25 May 1878, the necessary steps were taken to preserve the complex's rich legacy. From those first days in 1878 until today, 130 years laden with history have now gone by. Among the merits of the successive communities that have lived in this monastery has been the preservation and renewal, with the passage of the years, of a complex that, due to its historical significance and the riches it houses, has been declared a World Heritage Site.


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Cilengua: A Center for the Spanish Almudena Martínez

general coordinator of the san millán de la cogolla foundation

With ever-greater frequency and at the highest institutional, political, and cultural levels, there is an increasing emphasis on the importance and even the economic significance of the Spanish language and Spanishlanguage culture. Spanish and everything related to it are growth investments today. Spanish is acquiring a dominant role in international affairs. Not only is it the vehicle of communication for more than 400 million people around the world; interest in learning Spanish is also rising to levels undreamed of until a few years ago. This means that any activity related to the study, dissemination, and preservation of this common heritage is of special interest and tremendous importance at this time. La Rioja, both because of its transcendent historical role in the initial formation of the Spanish language and because it has become an authentic symbolic reference point for the language today, is particularly committed to its study and promotion. In order to contribute to this end, and in harmony with a task that was historically pursued with special rigor in the San Millán scriptorium, a task that the San Millán de la Cogolla Foundation has taken on and pursued as its own since 1998, the foundation has created the International Center for Research on the Spanish Language (Cilengua). The center strengthens the Foun-

dation's cultural component, constituted to preserve and manage the San Millán complex and the cultural aspects related to it, on the basis of the two monasteries' designation as World Heritage Sites. The Foundation, which carries out a variety of activities in the area of La Rioja's cultural heritage, has thereby acquired a center for research and development in which to institutionalize the study of one of the oldest and most representative cultural heritages in the Iberian Peninsula. The Center's goals and activities are directed toward continuing to make San Millán a point of reference in the area of philological study and activity. These goals and activities are: a) research in the fields of philology and history, especially in all areas concerned with the history of texts, the history of the book, the history of the Spanish language, critical editing, lexicography, and other auxiliary and historical disciplines and fields; b) the training of researchers in these areas; c) the development of the Center's own specific programs or research projects in all of these areas; d) the publication of results in connection with the Center, both as part of its own publishing program and in conjunction with other public or private bodies with which it has agreed on publication in any format; and e) the organization of national and international congresses, scholarly conferences, colloquia, workshops, and all other types

The Foundation's activities are carried out by means of three institutes, the Institute for the Origins of Spanish, the Institute for the History of the Spanish Language, and the Hispanic Library Institute.

of meeting with specialists in the subjects studied in connection with the Center. The Center's activities are carried out by means of three institutes that have been part of it since its foundation: the Institute for the Origins of Spanish, the Institute for the History of the Spanish Language, and the Hispanic Library Institute. These three institutes have been joined by the Institute for the History of the Book and of Reading, which extends their activities in relation to the transmission of texts, written culture, and other disciplines related to its subject. The high-level research projects that these institutes have undertaken in the brief period they have been functioning are numerous. To mention a few: the Hispanic Bibles Project, which is composed in its turn of two major lines of research: a) the edition and critical, interdisciplinary study of the biblical texts, and b) the presence and influence of the Bible in Hispanic language, literature, and culture, within the European and Western historical and cultural framework. The New Historical Dictionary of the Spanish Language, a government-sponsored project that will fill one of the most pressing gaps in the study of the Spanish language, which despite the flourishing of philological studies, still lacks a historical dictionary. The systematic publication of a Hispanic Library, with priority attention to editing the texts of Spanish literature and to their historical and critical interpretation.

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From the rustic but well-kept portable toilets included among household furniture in bygone days, to the cutting-edge designs of today, bathrooms have been indispensable in every culture and region of the world. Today, many of them are designed in Spain. With a presence in more than 135 countries, the Spanish firm Roca is a benchmark for design, technology and sustainable design that, in recent years, has experienced extraordinary international expansion. by Beatriz Beeckmans

Roca, a world leader in the definition of bathroom spaces From the Neolithic age to modern times, the history of the bathroom has been intimately tied to that of civilization itself, with differing connotations that vary with the customs, structure, and needs of each era. For example, the Palace of Knossos in Crete has the oldest known bathtub and toilet with a tank. In Egypt, a basin with holes in it, found at an excavation site in Akhenaten, seems to be the precursor of the first shower, and the Greek baths, associated traditionally with athletes, have existed in Athens since the fifth century B.C. It was there also that the urinal was invented. Later, in Rome, public baths and thermal waters would come onto

the scene. It was about 1775 when the British mathematician and watchmaker Alexander Cummings created the invention that would set the course of personal hygiene until our times: a toilet equipped with a cistern and siphon to isolate unpleasant odors. Thus was established the concept that would lead to the modern bathroom. A year later, William Feetham was granted the first patent for a shower, and around the beginning of the eighteenth century the modern bidet was invented, disguised as a night-table in the bedroom. The rapid urban growth brought about by the Industrial Revolution caused over-

A global company Roca has more than 65 production centers throughout the world, 15 of which are located in Spain. It employs more than 20,000 people on four continents.

crowding and outbreaks of cholera, and so London initiated a campaign for the installation of sanitary facilities in homes, workplaces, and parks. The modern bathroom: Roca's contribution. The expansion of the use of sanitary porcelain, introduced in Spain principally by Roca, together with the advantages of the water


culture and society 55

Simulations of the most recent bathroom designs proposed by the Spanish firm.

heater, quickly rendered obsolete the massive cast-iron tubs and heavy bathroom fixtures of the past. The modern, functional bathroom was born, and it has undergone constant development since then, thanks to technology and the efforts of companies such as Roca of Spain. At the same time, new personal hygiene habits were adopted on an international scale, and bathrooms became a standard part of every home. It was at this time that Roca Corporación Empresarial entered the scene, as the parent firm of a series of companies dedicated to the design, production and marketing of products for the bathroom. Founded in Spain in 1917 by the Roca brothers, it

now has more than 65 procast-iron radiators for home duction facilities on four The company's heating at its factory in Gavà continents, and directly current strategy (Barcelona), but the rapid employs more than 20,000 is to establish penetration of new products people around the world. a firm presence in the marketplace and a A wholly Spanish-owned in the BRIC clear bias towards expansion company, in recent years it countries led it to expand its business has undergone remarkable (Brazil, Russia, areas, with an eye to diversiinternational expansion India and fication. As a result, in 1925 based on the acquisition of China). it began to manufacture its companies in the sanitary first cast-iron boilers, and in industry in many countries of the 1929 it undertook the production of world. In 2008, the corporation's to- cast-iron bathtubs. In 1936, Roca ental sales were 1.708 billion Euros. tered the sanitary porcelain sector, and years later added faucets to its Almost a century of history. The product line. group began its activities as the Roca It was in 1963, with the opening of Radiadores S.A. company, dedicated a factory dedicated to the production exclusively to the manufacture of of air conditioning equipment, that

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a firm that backs innovation

Roca became one of the first Spanish firms to enter the emerging climate control market, leading later to its entry into the ceramics market in the 1980's. The establishment of Cer谩micas el Foix, a subsidiary, was the start of the current Ceramics business unit. During the 1980's and 90's, in line with the firm's established expansion strategy, business subsidiaries were opened and agreements were signed with leading companies in their respective markets, and several acquisitions were made. Roca Corporaci贸n Empresarial -the new parent company- was incorporated in 2005, and the heating and air conditioning businesses were sold off for the purpose of focusing the company's efforts on the bathroom market, where it gained international leadership status in early 2006. Ceramics and the bathroom. Roca manufactures and markets a wide range of bathroom fixtures: sanitary porcelain, bathtubs, whirlpool baths, shower trays, hydromassage booths and columns, faucets, bathroom furniture, accessories, and dividers and stalls. In addition to their excellent design, the company's products evidence a clear commitment to the environment, which has led the company to develop new technologies for minimizing water and energy use. Ceramics. With factories in Spain and Brazil, Roca also has a business unit dedicated to the production and marketing of ceramic flooring and coverings. A high-precision production process guarantees the quality of the products, which are designed for maximum wear resistance, durability and persistence of enamels and colors, as well as the most rigorous precision in the dimensioning of each piece. Design and innovation. The Spanish company has also been at the cutting edge of design, and is a benchmark for innovation. In 2005 the Roca Design

An international benchmark in the field of research and innovation, the Innovation Lab, headquartered in Barcelona, is staffed by an interdisciplinary team that researches and advances innovative concepts for the bathroom space. Based on an analysis of the needs of users from the anthropological, ergonomic, and social standpoint, its principal task is to identify future needs by analyzing user behavior and market changes. This is a process that requires an ideal combination of creativity and technical know-how to find practical solutions.

The new W+W system invented by Roc saves water by re-using water from the sink for the toilet, as shown above.

The Roca Barcelona Gallery, shown above, stands out due its bold architectural design. Below, some of the brand's products that highlight its firm support for innovative design.

Center underwent a makeover, focusing on research into evolving trends, in collaboration with top-level technology suppliers. Some of the most renowned architectural firms, such as Chipperfield, Herzog & de Meuron, and Moneo, have also worked closely with the brand. This attention to design has been rewarded with numerous national and international recognitions and prizes. The most recent of these was the DME'08, which recognizes the best design management for large European firms.

commitment to water conservation Roca supports the responsible use of water and energy by continually developing mechanisms that minimize their consumption. On of its most ambitious initiatives is the Zero Waste Program, initiated in its production centers in Brazil and Argentina and now being applied in all of the production facilities. The purpose of the initiative is the sustainable management of energy and the reutilization of wastes generated in processes such as water cleanup, the manufacture of plaster molds and the recycling of unusable parts, with an aim to eliminating 100% of waste by the year 2010.


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Roca Barcelona Gallery, a new reference center for Roca Xavier Torras

director or communications and marketing for Roca

One of the keys that has led Roca to a global leadership role in bathroom spaces, with a presence in 135 countries and 65 factories in 17 countries, has been its commitment to innovation and the development of visionary ideas. In harmony with this concept, during 2009 the company created the Roca Barcelona Gallery, a 22,000 square-foot, three-floor facility located in Barcelona, intended to be the first in a series of centers created for carrying out the company's social, cultural, and exhibition activities, as well as being a place where citizens can get to know the company. Roca Barcelona Gallery is a social space open to the city, where one can see, hear, experience, and feel. Through this building Roca seeks to strengthen its ties of unity with the society that surrounds it, and to transmit its defining values: design, innovation, technology and sustainability. The company's commitment to design is reflected in its day-today product development activities, carried out in collaboration with the most prestigious architectural and design firms. For the creation of the Roca Barcelona Gallery, Roca turned once again to an internationally recognized architectural firm, OAB (Office of Architecture in Barcelona),

headed by Carlos Ferrater and his children Borja and LucĂ­a. The construction of the Roca Barcelona Gallery has made it possible to interpret and further develop the values that Roca is most identified with. Thus, for example, design and innovation are reflected in the glass facade, created by means of a series of multiple sheets of glass arranged vertically along the axis of the facade, creating novel effects from the diffraction, reflection and refraction of light, creating distortion, displacement, and overlapping of images throughout the facade. And light is the star of the show both during the day and at night, thanks to the hundreds of LED's embedded in the structure to illuminate the facade. Innovation and technology in the Roca Barcelona Gallery have been present since the initial conception of the building, which was designed to allow the visitor to interact with it. A variety of techniques have been used to this end, such as modern audio-visual, sound, and lighting equipment that transports the visitor into Roca's universe and allow him or her to experience entirely new things. Sustainability is also present, both in the exhibition of the company's products, which are equipped with a variety of

The company's commitment to design is reflected in our day-to-day efforts in the development of numerous products Our commitment to the environment goes back several decades, to a time when we began not only to design water- and energy-saving products, but also to improve our production processes.

water-saving devices, and in the extensive information that can be seen and read in the facility promoting water conservation and explaining the importance of this key resource for society. One must never forget that out commitment to the environment goes back several decades to a time when, aware of the importance of sustainable development, we began to design products and devices that saved water and energy, as well as to improve our production processes to achieve greater energy efficiency. In addition, the Roca Barcelona Gallery has been designed to function as a cultural center, capable of hosting different social and cultural activities such as events, presentations, and temporary exhibitions. Currently, a temporary exhibition is being held which outlines the history of the bathroom, under the title of "The bathroom. A historical view," and which brings together some highly valuable pieces such as the bidet-vanity of the Empress Sissi. We at Roca hope that the Roca Barcelona Gallery will be a first step and a model that can be implemented in other parts of the world, allowing us to continue strengthening our unity with the societies where we do business.

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In the Congress of Deputies. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation and the Ministry of Culture sealed a collaboration accord in November with the objective of "furthering a coordinated strategy" for promoting Spanish culture abroad. Both ministries committed themselves to "improving coordination" between the two bodies.

Accord for the Promotion of Spanish Culture Abroad Following the signing of the accord, Miguel Ángel Moratinos stated that "Spain has many areas of potential abroad, especially in language and culture." The Minister of Foreign Affairs made reference during his remarks to the co-official languages, as well as to Spanish, and indicated that this area of potential "permits us to have an ever-increasing presence all over the world." In his opinion, demand for all things Spanish is constantly increasing abroad, for which reason this accord will contribute to "uniting our capacities to act and improving coordination at all levels," so

that the various state institutions and agencies can "work more effectively in defense of our cultural interests." For her part, Ángeles González-Sinde affirmed that "this is a significant day" for Spanish culture with the signing of an agreement "that multiplies our forces and gives us a framework for developing this joint strategy and coordinating our actions effectively." In her opinion, the presence and dynamism of Spanish language and culture abroad have changed a great deal in recent years. The demand for centers of the Instituto Cervantes around the world is constantly increas-

ing, for which reason "it was important," she said, "to find an effective and more up-to-date way to unite our efforts." "This is a huge task that our embassies carry out; the Ministry of Culture has created tools to help in this task," the Minister added. With the implementation of the Reinforced Strategy for the Promotion of Spanish Culture Abroad, the aim is to advance a coordinated cultural strategy that will address, among other things, such aspects as the creation of a joint Working Group that will develop the future National Plan for Cultural Action Abroad, which every two years will determine the priority areas and sectors for the promotion of Spanish culture around the world. Likewise, coordination in the selection process for the Cultural Counselors posted to Spanish embassies will be strengthened, and a scholarship program will be created for specialization in cultural management and promotion.

The exposition, which includes painting, literature, and architecture, will travel to Madrid and Seville

The Generation of 1927 in a Unique Retrospective Through 28 February, the Residencia de Estudiantes in Madrid is hosting an exposition that aims to present "a cross-section" of the painting, literature, and architecture associated with the Generation of 1927. Under the subtitle of 'Are Those Times Already a Legend?,' the exhibit brings together more than 230 items, including paintings, first editions, illustrations, models, and documents relating to Spanish literature between 1927 and 1928. The exposition is structured around 'La Gaceta Literaria' (The literary gazette), which was the central axis of cultural activity during those

two years. Specifically, Ernesto Giménez Caballero's poster, ‘Universo de la literatura española contemporánea’ (Universe of contemporary Spanish literature) (1927), which appeared in 'La Gaceta Literaria' provides the exposition's "general plan." The exhibit recalls two years of intense creative activity during which Spanish artistic production in multiple fields was intimately linked in some way. Thus, while Manuel de Falla was composing his 'Concerto for Harpsichord' and Luis Buñuel was describing film as poetry, illustrators were talking about poetic figuration when they

Photograph, dated in February 1927, of Federico García Lorca and Salvador Dalí during the period when both lived in the Residencia de Estudiantes in Madrid. PHoto efe.

discussed the visual arts, and Salvador Dalí was coining the term 'anti-art.' The exhibit will travel to Seville in March, where it will remain until June.


Spain Transfers Lynxes to Portugal Where They Will be Raised in Captivity  During the month of October Spain turned over to Portugal five Iberian lynxes to be raised in captivity, as part of the joint Action Plan signed by both countries in June. This initiative proposes the transfer, in installments, of up to sixteen lynxes to the neighboring country, with the aim of restoring the population of this threatened feline, characteristic of the Iberian Peninsula. Current estimates are that there is a population of 250 lynxes distributed among various geographical areas in Andalusia and Castile-La Mancha, including 76 lynxes at the Doñana breeding centers.

The Argentine Federico Jeanmaire Wins the 2009 Clarín Novel Prize  Jeanmaire, one of the new exponents of Argentine literature, won the award from among more than 600 entrants. The prize, one of the most important in Latin America, is awarded by a jury composed of José Saramago, Pablo de Santis, Rosa Montero, and Juan Cruz. As it happens, the author received a grant from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation to do research in the manuscript room of the National Library in Madrid in 1990.

Spain Wins the Davis Cup

Feliciano López, David Ferrer, Rafael Nadal, team captain Albert Costa, and Fernando Verdasco pose with the Davis Cup trophy.

 The first three matches were enough for the Spanish team to win the Davis Cup at the Palau Sant Jordi in Barcelona, defeating the squad from the Czech Republic with a final score of 5-0. With this victory Spain takes its place as the best team of recent years, having brought home four "Salad Bowls" since their win in 2000. This year's triumph certifies the excellent shape Spanish tennis is in at the moment, something that might be said of other sports as well.

The Beijing Instituto Cervantes Hosts the Presentation of the First 'History of Spain' Written in Chinese The work, more than 600 pages long, was written by Xu Changcai, a former diplomat who worked at the Chinese Embassy in Madrid and as consul-general in Barcelona. The publication details in its pages the history of Spain from prehistory to the democratic transition and aims, according to the author, to counteract Chinese young people's unfamiliarity with Spain.

The National Gallery in London Turns Its Gaze on the Spanish Baroque  The exhibit titled 'The Sacred Made Real: Spanish Painting and Sculpture 16001700' brings together 32 works (polychrome sculptures and paintings) around the central theme of religious art produced by figures like Velázquez, Zurbarán, and Alonso Cano. The exposition is a landmark opportunity to become acquainted with the best of the Spanish baroque, since many of the works have rarely left the churches that house them. The exhibit will also be on view in Washington in February.

'Albéniz: Myths and Realities' Exposition in Madrid  The Centro Cultural Conde Duque in Madrid is hosting an exhibit on the composer Isaac Albéniz until 30 January, with around a hundred items that recreate the visual and auditory itinerary of this universal Catalan who made a mark on twentieth-century Spanish and European music with masterpieces like 'Iberia'.

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Prince of Asturias Awards

The WHO Received the Cooperation Award On 23 October the award ceremony for the Prince of Asturias Awards was held in the Campoamor Theater in Oviedo. These prizes, given this year for the twenty-ninth time, represent the supreme mark of distinction granted in Spain. The ceremony was presided over by Their Royal Highnesses the Prince and Princess of Asturias. The winners in the various categories were the following: Norman Foster (Arts); World Health Organization (International Cooperation); David Attenborough (Social Sciences); the National Autonomous University of Mexico (Communication and Humanities); the fathers of cellular telephones and email, Martin Cooper and Raymond S. Tomlinson (Scientific and Technical Research); Ismail Kadaré (Letters); Yelena Isinbayeva (Sports); and the city of Berlin, on the twentieth anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall (Concord).


The Number of Foreigners Grew 10.31 % According to the September data released by the Ministry of Employment and Immigration, the foreign population with a valid residence permit has increased by 10.31% to 4,715,757 individuals. The largest group are the Moroccans, followed by Rumanians, Ecuadorians, Colombians, and British nationals. 38.86 % of the foreign residents are nationals of European Community member countries, and 30.71% are from Latin America. Catalonia, Madrid, the Valencian Community, and Andalusia have the largest foreign populations, in that order.

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culture and society

The Prado begins the expansion of its collection with the nineteenth century. From the late works of Goya to Sorolla, the scope of the collection is expanding with 12 new rooms and 176 artworks

Room for a New Century with the Expansion of the Prado Museum The museum has introduced twelve new rooms dedicated to its nineteenthcentury collections, a fundamental step in the collection plan designated as The Collection: The Other Expansion. The opening of these new rooms constitutes one of the most important landmarks in this project, both because it adds almost two hundred artworks to the permanent collection, including some never exhibited before now, and because from now on, for the first time, the itinerary of a visit to the Prado will cover in a complete and uninterrupted manner the historical development of Spanish art from the Romanesque to the modern masters of the nineteenth century. The Prado Museum has introduced a new and fundamental step in the plan to reorganize its collections with the incorporation into its permanent collection of 176 works from its nineteenth-century collections, 152 paintings, 2 watercolors,

21 sculptures, and 1 replica, rounding out its historical coverage and enabling the Prado to present a more complete collection than ever before. Following their recovery in the museum expansion's inaugural exposition, The Nineteenth Century at the Prado, visited by more than a million individuals, the works of the great Spanish masters of the nineteenth century are being permanently incorporated into the museum's historical coverage together with the masters of the past. The generous representation of works from the 1800's, in particular, rounds out the narrative of the history of Spanish art in the Prado, which begins with the Romanesque paintings of San Baudelio de Berlanga in the twelfth century and now extends with Sorolla's work to the beginning of the twentieth century, strictly contemporaneous with the first wave of the avant-garde.

Bicentennials of the Independence of the Latin American Republics

Official Closure of 'The Routes of Liberty' Over the course of fifteen days, 28 highschool students from 7 countries - Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Spain, and Uruguay - traveled to various locations in Paraguay and Spain as part of the 'Routes of Liberty' project organized by the Ministry of Culture and the Organization of Latin American States, in commemoration of the Bicentennials of the Independence of the Latin American Republics. The journey began on 18 October in Asunción (Paraguay) and ended in Madrid (Spain) on 1 November. Dur-

ing these two weeks, the young people participated in events and encounters with the objective of encouraging greater familiarity with Latin American reality among members of the new generation. In Paraguay, the participants in the initiative toured the region of the Northern Chaco, the city of Benjamín Aceval, Aregua, and San Bernardino, among other locations, and visited Lake Ypacarai. In Spain, they traveled to Madrid and Cádiz, visiting some of the most representative monuments and buildings.

The Spanish Film 'Planet 51' Takes US Movie Screens by Storm  With the largest debut ever for a Spanish film, 'Planet 51' opened on more than 4,000 movie screens in the United States and Canada. This animated film aims to carve out a niche in the competitive American audiovisual market. Its production costs, among the most expensive in the history of Spanish cinema, were around 50 million euros.

Spain Reduced Its CO2 According to data released by the Spanish Climate Change Office, an agency of the Ministry of the Environment, Spain reduced its greenhouse-gas emissions by 8% in 2008. With this figure, which marks a significant change in direction, Spain advances toward 2012 committed to fulfilling its obligations under the Kyoto Protocol.

Ángeles Caso, together with finalist Emilio Calderón, at the award ceremony.

Prize for a Book on Integration  Writer and journalist Ángeles Caso has won the Planeta Prize, with 601,000 euros in prize money, for her novel 'Contra el viento' (Against the wind), the story of a young woman from Cape Verde who decides to emigrate to Europe. According to the author, "the novel pays homage to the heroines of the twenty-first century, in this case the Cape Verdean women who come to help us, to take care of us and our children so that we women can go on with our lives."


Cosmopoética Consolidates Its Status as the Premiere Festival of Poetry in Spanish  The National Prize for the Promotion of Reading, granted this year to Cosmopoética, marks the consolidation of the status of this space for poetry, music, narrative, and art as an international benchmark in the literary world. The competition, which has taken place annually for the last seven years in Cordoba, has hosted the principal international figures in the world of poetry as its invited guests.

TVE's Daily News Show Best Information Source in the World  The prize, awarded by Media Tenor, an institute that analyzes the communications media, recognizes TVE's Telediario 2 as the best daily television news show in the world. This award places TD2 ahead of such prestigious sources of information as the BBC and NBC. Lorenzo Milá and Pepa Bueno collected the prize in Zurich.

culture and society 61

Science and the environment. This device, the first of its kind in Europe, will make it possible to detect tsunamis, as well as to monitor a variety of variables for the study of climate change

Spain Installs a Tsunami Detector in the Atlantic The Spanish National Research Council, Spain's principal research body and an agency of the Ministry of Science and Innovation, installed Europe's first undersea laboratory at the beginning of November. The device, christened Geostar, will allow for the advance detection of tsunamis, among other functions. The device, which weighs three tons and is five meters in height, was installed in the Gulf of Cádiz, 60 miles from the Cape of St Vincent, at a depth of 3,300 meters. This region is especially sensitive to seismic activity. The apparatus is the first of its kind in Europe and is a true undersea laboratory, capable, among other tasks, of

analyzing the salinity and the temperature variations of the seawater, matters of vital interest for the study of climate change. Geostar will collect data for one year, the amount of time that lithium batteries usually last. Later on, it will need to be periodically replaced. The project is part of a large-scale European initiative in which more than 20 countries are participating and in which Spain has taken the lead. The objective is to install devices of this type in other locations around the world, such as the English Channel, the Mediterranean, and the Arctic, to prepare for tsunami detection.

The principal Spanish airline

The Spanish Advertising Industry Reaches across Borders  Thanks to support from the Spanish Institute of Foreign Trade and the Instituto Cervantes in New York, U.S. marketing and advertising directors met with representatives of the Spanish advertising sector in November. The event put on display the potential of this industry, whose agencies are recognized internationally.

Ruperto Chapí Centennial  2009 marks the centennial of the death of composer Ruperto Chapí, one of Spain's most significant lyric creators. In his memory, the State Society for Cultural Commemorations has organized the performance of two of his light operas at the Segura Theater in Lima.

Iberia currently operates its routes using more than 120 of its own airplanes.

Iberia and British Airways Closer to Merger The merger between Iberia and British Airways, under negotiation for months, culminated in mid-November with a merger accord between the two airlines. According to the agreement, Spanish investors will control 44% of the resulting company, while 56% will be in British hands. Although weeks of hard work remain to nail down the details of the merger, the accord establishes that the corporate and fiscal headquarters of the

firm will be in Madrid, and the financial and operational headquarters will be in London. The merger aims to cut costs in the complex market of air transport and find synergies that will position the new company as the giant of European civil aviation. The two airlines currently transport more than 60 million passengers a year, and their merger will make them the fifth-largest aviation group worldwide.

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culture and society

The Antarctic campaign begins. On 23 November activity began at Juan Carlos I Antarctic Base, which together with Gabriel de Castilla Antarctic Base consolidates Spain's presence on the continent.

Spain Consolidates Its Presence in Antarctica Although both bases function seasonally (operating only during the southern summer), both centers, inaugurated more than twenty years ago, are true laboratories that generate significant scientific advances for Spain. In fact, Antarctica's official discovery only took place scarcely two hundred years ago, although Spanish Admiral Gabriel de Castilla had already given an account of the continent's snow-covered mountains in 1603. The Juan Carlos I Antarctic Base, located on Hurd Peninsula, was inaugurated in 1988 and is managed by the Ministry of Science and Innovation through the Spanish National Research Council. The Gabriel de Castilla Base, inaugurated a year later, is run by the Army and is located on Deception Island. On this volcanic island, Spanish and Argentine researchers collaborate on a variety of projects. The objectives of both sites on the icy continent are of vital importance for Spain, as centers of operations for ful-

 The work ‘El Rey: Historia de la Monarquía’ by Professor José Antonio Escudero, has been awarded the National History Prize given by the Ministry of Culture. The three volumes analyze the 1,600-year history of monarchy in Spain.

The Instituto Cervantes in New York Opens an Exhibit of Spanish Art of Exile

Exterior image of Juan Carlos I Antarctic Base, which began its work season on 23 November. PHoto efe

filling Antarctic Treaty obligations and as scientific laboratories for research in various areas, such as logistics, communications, and the environment. It would not be possible to carry out these scientific campaigns without the noteworthy logistical and maintenance support provided by two Navy ships, the Hespérides and Las Palmas, adapted for the harsh weather conditions of the Antarctic, with winds of more than 300 km/h and temperatures as low as 90 degrees Celsius below zero.

Award given by the Ministry of Culture

Rafael Sánchez Ferlosio Wins the National Prize for Spanish Letters Rafael Sánchez Ferlosio, one of the greatest exponents of Spanish postwar social realism, has been awarded the National Prize for Spanish Letters. The award comes with 40,000 euros in prize money and is the second most prestigious Spanish literary award, after the Cervantes Prize. The author, born in Rome 82 years ago, was one of the most distinguished writers of his generation, thanks fundamentally to two works, ‘In-

The National History Prize Goes to a History of the Monarchy

dustrias y andanzas de Alfanhui’ (The adventures of ingenious Alfanhui) and 'El Jarama' (The river: El Jarama), that earned him international recognition. Distancing himself from the novel later on, he turned to linguistic studies and to essays, genres in which he has also received marks of distinction. His most recent work, just published, is an essay entitled 'Guapo y sus isótopos' (Handsome and its isotopes).

 The Instituto Cervantes in New York will be hosting ''The Spanish Nexus: Spanish Artists in New York, 1930-1960' until the end of January. The exhibit presents a retrospective of distinguished Spanish painters who lived in exile in New York City, such as Esteban Vicente, Julio de Diego, Miguel Marina, and Luis Quintanilla

Don Felipe Acts as Patron of the New Prince of Girona Foundation  Institutions as diverse as the Girona Chamber of Commerce, the Gala-Salvador Dalí Foundation, Caixa Girona, and La Caixa have started the Prince of Girona Foundation with the objective of promoting activities and initiatives for the good of society throughout Spain, with special attention to youth education and training. Don Felipe de Borbón, in his capacity as Prince of Girona, has accepted the Honorary Presidency of the new Foundation, which will be financed exclusively with private funds.

Casa África Plans a Network of African Virtual Libraries  Casa África plans to exploit the possibilities offered by the Internet by creating a network of African virtual libraries to preserve and increase awareness of Africa's cultural wealth. The plan was announced following a meeting of experts in African library science at Casa África's headquarters with the purpose of strengthening ties between Spain and Africa.


culture and society 63

She was 10 years old when the Spanish Civil War broke out and 50 when Franco died. The time lost could only be recovered by letting reality simmer in a double boiler on top of the stew-pot of fiction. She chose the slow and traditional cuisine of language. by Jacobo GarcĂ­a. JOURNALIST

With thanks to... Josefina Aldecoa

The Bottom of the Bowl While still enrolled in the Division of Philosophy and Letters, she joined a half dozen students who would give a name to an entire literary generation, the one known as the Generation of 1950. Those relentless detectives spent more time studying reality than textbooks, and as a result, we have today a more accurate X-ray of the feeble Spain of the postwar years. That countercultural lifestyle does not rise to the surface of what Josefina wrote, where all her key personal themes, on the other hand, are evident: loved ones, the war, the postwar period, friendship, love, death ... In 1952 she married one of the best writers Spain produced in that period (writers neither so few in number nor so enamored of painstaking descriptions of the smell of cabbage, as has been said). However, Ignacio Aldecoa passed away before the Swedish Academy could award him the Nobel Prize for Literature. It would be many years before Josefina wrote again. The daughter and granddaughter of teach-

ers, she decided to dedicate herself body and soul to the educational project she had begun in 1960: the Colegio Estilo, on the margins of the official system of education. The inexhaustible wellsprings of Spanish literature gave nourishing freshness to the early years of the children who passed through its classrooms, and this alone would be reason enough to pay homage to the woman who made this small miracle possible. In 1981 she published a selection of short stories by the man to whom she had been married for 17 years. From that time forward, mysterious floodgates that had been shut seemed to open of their own accord, and the educator who had not picked up a pen for more than ten years, except to correct exams, began to write once again. Of all that she wrote, nothing is more moving than the trilogy that began with 'Historia de una maestra' (Story of a teacher) (1990).

to the vast majority or readers, her books correspond to patterns of thought, taste, and behavior that are closer to the world of her parents than to that of her children and grandchildren. Products of the extraordinary sense of modesty in which her generation was schooled, they are books that try to pose problems that were burning issues for her contemporaries, especially women. The majority are domestic portrayals of the conflict of opposites that analyze the tensions between professional ambition and family duties, social imperatives and feelings, liberty and oppression, independence and submission, youth and old age, love and solitude, men and women, parents and children, city and countryside, the north and the central plateau, the Peninsula and the islands, without succumbing to stylistic excesses. Their intentions beyond the literary and their tone reveal the educator who never ceased to be behind the writer, whispering in her ear as she wrote.

Crafted with plain workmanship and in such a way as to make them understandable

As a writer, her attitude is that of someone who is constantly searching in the

bottom of a bowl. If we want to know where and when the events that change our lives take place, even before we are able to sense that something is approaching, we should ask ourselves about our own past, because everything is already there. She would be the Medea who, on board the Argonauts' ship, perceives the sirens' songs even before the sailors become aware that they are hearing them, because she sees a smile of happiness take shape on their faces. In Josefina's case, this idea may perhaps be not so much a conscious point of departure as the precipitate of a lived experience, the beginning of which was brutally interrupted by the war. The little girl who read adventure stories lying on her stomach on the apple-covered floor of her grandparents' attic would see that life end abruptly when the first airplanes with their bellies filled with bombs criss-crossed the sky of that pastoral Eden of hills and rivers and forests and meadows and put an end to the age of innocence of an entire generation.

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● Biblioteca de Alejan-

dría. El enigma desvelado (The Great Library of Alexandria: The Mystery Revealed). Pablo de Jevenois. Editorial Esquilo.

● La catástrofe perfecta

(The Perfect Disaster) Ignacio Ramonet. Icaria Editorial.

In the midst of the financial crisis, it’s easy to forget its causes and focus solely on how best to counter its effects: but we must not forget that it is not without precedent, that there are known culprits and specific economic policies which have placed the world in a situation from which it cannot escape unscathed. This new book by the journalist Ignacio Ramonet helps us to not forget. It traces the origins of the system which has now collapsed: from the celebrated, arrogant theoreticians of neoliberalism to the successive crises which culminated in the Crisis of the century, the book also comments on the serious global repercussions. Ramonet provides a birds-eye view of the last thirty years that highlights the negligence and successive failures of an unfair system that is not easily reconciled with democracy, and that is now broken.

It is a genuine tale of mystery. The solution to a centuries-old enigma. A book of intrigues. What became of the Great Library of Alexandria? Why did it disappear without a trace? Who concealed its existence? Through the pages of this book the reader enters a maze which will lead to unexpected recesses of history, and as the plot unfolds

this ancient mystery will be uncovered. It is also an unprecedented history of Alexandria, and of books; a history of the survival of the written word through history's vicissitudes since the Ptolemies first devoted themselves to collecting all the books of the world and invented the first great library, the Great Library of Alexandria. ● Anuario Asia-Pacífico

(Asia-Pacific Yearbook) Casa Asia, CIDOB Foundation and The Elcano Royal Institute.

The fifth edition of the Asia-

Pacific Yearbook, a reference for Asian studies in the Spanish language, aims to provide the reader with a multidisciplinary outline of the major happenings in the region in 2008. Events are reported alongside reflections on their present and future implications. This analysis provides the key for interpreting a vast geographical area that is undergoing a major transformation, not only in terms of the great energy involved, but also the fact that it affects a historically unprecedented number of people. Among the themes explored in this edition of the Yearbook, special attention is given to politics and security, with an emphasis on the expansion of democracy in the region. Relations with the European Union are also touched upon, analyzed from both an institutional and an academic perspective. ● Imaginar África. Los

estereotipos occidentales sobre África y los africanos (Imagining Africa: Western Stereotypes of Africa and the Africans). Edited by Antoni Castel and José Carlos Sendín. Los Libros de la Catarata.

Taking a broad range of viewpoints, nine experts on the region (Ferran Iniesta, Antoni Castel, José Carlos Sendín, Josep M. Català, Lola López, Gustau Nerín, Jean-Bosco Botsho, Gerardo González Calvo and Donato Ndongo-Bidyogo), reflect upon what "African" means in the public imagination, and analyze the role adopted by the media towards Africa: how it is described, how it is viewed, its interactions and how it is represented in daily exchanges. "Imaginar África" deconstructs many of the stereotypes of Africa which persist in the Western consciousness, and shows the real Africa's full richness and complexity. ● América indígena an-

tes del siglo XXI (The Indigenous Peoples of Latin America Before the 21st Century). Julián López García y Manuel Gutiérrez Esteve (Coordinating Editors). Fundación Carolina.

Since the end of the 20th century, one of the most significant collective events in Latin America is what has come to be known as the emergence of the indigenous peoples. Indigenous


publications 65

✱... a must read ● La primera gran crisis financiera del siglo XXI (The First Great Financial Crisis of the 21st

Century). Guillermo de la Dehesa. Alianza Editorial.

The author deals with the subject that most worries economists, politicians, sociologists, journalists and, above all, citizens around the world: the first great financial crisis of the new century. Guillermo de la Dehesa provides a deep and detailed analysis of the current crisis, which is possibly the most systemic and synchronous of all time, and has produced the first global recession. He goes on to explore the macroeconomic, theoretical and political economic origins of the crisis; he deals with the events that sparked the crisis and its devastating effects on families and companies all over the world, and analyzes government's reactions in the form of fiscal and monetary policy. The final chapter focuses on the particular situation in Spain, who the crisis took by surprise after 14 years of robust economic growth. When the crisis struck, it found Spain with a large trade deficit, heavy private sector debts, and a housing market bubble that was disproportionate to the economy. According to the author, these circumstances would make the return to the potential growth rate and GDP slower and more difficult than in other European countries.

organizations across Latin America have became not only visible, but even essential players. Furthermore, the value and significance of indigenous culture can be felt far beyond the local level. This book examines this process of redefinition, taking into account the current context: the new dialog between governments and the NGOs responsible for development, the realignment of political relations, cultural and gender-related changes within the indigenous population and, lastly, social considerations that shed light on the problems and prospects of the

indigenous peoples in Latin America at the beginning of the 21st century.

that the cathedrals' reality is so much more intriguing than their legend.

● Buena crisis (The Posi-

● De la Institución a la

tive Crisis). Jordi Piagem. Editorial Kairos.

The financial crisis is merely the most tangible symptom of a deeper crisis which manifests itself in multiple domains. In reality, we are faced with a systemic crisis which has its roots in our obsolete worldview. This book by Professor Jordi Pigem describes the current situation and how it came about, and offers a bold, intelligent and realistic alternative to guide us towards a society that is healthier, wiser and more environmentally friendly. As Álex Rovira states in the prologue, "this book could mark a change in tone within the collective consciousness". ● Catedrales (Cathe-

drals) Miguel Sobrino. La esfera de los libros.

The great cathedrals of Spanish cities are often seen as pristine and silent

Constitución: Política y cultura en la España del siglo XX. (From Institution to Constitution: Spanish Culture and Politics in the 20th Century) Elías Díaz. Editorial Trotta.

museums, but this image is misleading and far from the original purpose of these magnificent buildings. While the cathedrals were indeed centers dedicated to the worship of God, they were also meeting places, centers of commerce and playgrounds for children: real indoor extensions of the city's streets and plazas. In this book featuring his own unique illustrations, Miguel Sobrino provides an authentic history of 25 of Spain's best-known cathedrals. His tale reintroduces the human value of these cathedrals, which still dominate their cities' skylines, and shows

This publication is a compilation of a series of studies and extracts that deal with a century of contemporary Spanish culture and politics. The aim of the book is to show the clear and complete continuity that links the Institución Libre de Enseñanza of 1876 with the current democratic Constitution of 1978. In the midst of both, drawing on the depth of the Enlightenment's best reasoning, are the literary generation of '98 and the scientific generation of '14, who would both play a key role in the Second Republic of 1931. It is against this backdrop that the book

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focuses on some of the primary contributions of the intellectual opposition to the dictatorial regime which was imposed following the Spanish Civil war, and moving forward to deal with the Transition, then democracy and recognition within Europe.

(Alcalá de Henares Institute of International Studies), the study examines in greater depth the subject matter of the International Conference on Development Funding which took place in Doha in 2008. ● India. Vidas de com-

● Financiación del Desar-

rollo. Viejos recursos, nuevas propuestas (Development Funding: Old Techniques, New Proposals). José Antonio Alonso (Director of Editorial Content). Fundación Carolina.

Almost a decade after their creation, the UN Millenium Development Goals offer, for a large proportion of developing nations, uncertain objectives. The current economic crisis means that to fulfill these goals, devel-

oping nations must run new risks. Hence the importance of examining the opportunities provided by development funds to drive effective social and economic progress in the world's poorest countries. The present study's comprehensive and rigorous approach analyzes the possibilities entailed by both the traditional sources of funding as well as the new proposals that have been put forth on an international level. Carried out by the ICEI

ercio justo (India: Life in Fair Trade). Paca Tomás and Pablo Tosco. Intermon Oxfam.

Every fair trade product on sale in our shops has a story to tell. Men and women from

✱... a must read

● Mitos y realidades

de África Subsahariana (Myths and Reality in Sub-Saharan Africa). Mbuyi Kabunda y Antonio Santamaría. Los Libros de la Catarata.

Are there many Africas or only one? Do the Africans

have the ability to survive in the face of adversity or are they destined to inescapable decline? Does international tutelage give the breath of life to African politics and economy? Or does it stifle them? The authors, Mbuyi Kabunda and Antonio Santamaría, both professors at the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, consider Africa to be one in its vision of the world, plural in its expressions and values, and possessing a strong will to continue its existence in spite of adversity: the fusion and confusion of political and economic struc-

tures, development under the international tutelage of other States, the marginalizing effects of globalization, the low incomes and short life expectancies. Through political and economic analysis, the pages of this book compose a defense of the prevailing necessity to understand Africa's complexity, diversity and unity, and to understand without prejudice or complacency, in the absence of offensive generalizations or oversimplifications, and without unduly optimistic diagnoses nor bleak predictions.

far-flung countries that share a sad common denominator: poverty. People who, in spite of the difficulties, work in unity tilling the earth, bringing in the harvest, praying for rain, and asking a fair price for the fruits of their labor. People who form small cooperatives and design, sew or paint craftwork with their own hands in order to make a dignified living. This book tells some of these stories. ● Paz y seguridad en

África Subsahariana (Peace and Security in sub-Saharan Africa.) Óscar Mateos. Los Libros de la Catarata.

This book brings together some of the most relevant voices from both Africa and Europe and provides an analysis of the principal issues concerning peace and security in sub-Saharan Africa. The analysis departs from three central themes: the impact of the international crisis on Africa, the situation of governance in the region and the "fragile States", as well as the cooperation between Africa and Europe. This book outlines a double thesis: that Africa has become a priority in

c the agenda of international peace and security, and at the same time the African continent's countries and organizations have shed light on a new continental framework in this domain. Abdalla Hamdok, Emile Ognimba, J. G. (Pal) Martins, Antonio Sánchez-Benedito, Paul-Simon Handy, Juan Grande, Ibrahim Manu Yusuf, Iza Lejárraga, John Anyanwu, Juliette Khady Sow, Luisa Barrenechea, Miguel Fernández-Palacios, Ramón Gil-Casares and Vusi Bruce Koloane are the authors that, in this volume, aim to ask new questions and foster new debate around this theme. ● Naufragio (Ship-

wreck). Francisco García Novell. La esfera de los libros.

The Principe de Asturias (the largest, most modern and luxurious transatlantic liner belonging to the Spanish company Pinillos) went down off the coast of Brazil on 5 March 1916 with 600 people on board. The great force with which she struck the reef meant that the huge ship would sink in less than five

minutes. There were only 147 survivors of a tragedy that shocked society. However, over time those who lost their lives at sea and their unfortunate families sank into obscurity. With his solid research and a perfectly paced narrative, Francisco García Novell brings their story back to life and brilliantly conjures up the image of a forgotten era and mode of transport, as well as the mystery surrounding the steamer's last voyage. ● La voz pública de las

mujeres (Women's Public Voice). Maria Dolors Renau. Editorial Icaria.

The lack of women in public life has had serious consequences for human development. Their forced silence, as well as being an injustice, has also led to a one-sided concept of what it is to be human, the nature of humanity's values (including the supposedly "natural" violent streak), culture and humanity's priorities. Following centuries of struggle, women are at last achieving the status of public relevance. Does their presence guarantee a better approach, capable of banishing the culture of violence and "civilizing" the human race? Only if they have an equal footing. But only with the recognition of the prevailing situation in public life, the history of their own subjugation and the development of a different kind of female political subjectivity can they humanize politics and public life, and quash the violence caused by so much suffering. Women's

publications 67

● La herencia del olvido

(Obscurity's Heritage). Manuel Reyes Mate. Editorial Errata Naturae.

Public Voice can, and indeed must, give voice and shape to the experience and history of the silent half of humanity, to its knowledge of the value of life and the care that must be taken as they continue to fight for their rights. ● State of the World

2009: Into a Warming WorldAn Annual Report from The Worldwatch Institute. Editorial Icaria.

2009 will mark a critical moment for the Earth's climate. Scientists have warned that only a few years remain if we are to reverse the accumulation of greenhouse gasses and avert sudden, catastrophic climatic change. The international community has agreed that in late 2009, Copenhagen will provide the venue for a new treaty on climate change. State of the World 2009: Into a Warming World aims to stimulate and revitalize climate negotiations at both the national and international level, highlighting the terrible long-term consequences of the game that we are playing with Earth's atmosphere, and emphasizing the human and ecological cost of this transformation.

The latest book from Manuel reyes Mate, a philosopher from Valladolid and director of the Institute of Philosophy at the CSIC (Higher Council for Scientific Investigation), is an essay about the political role that memory can and must play in modern times. The author reminds us that memory, even if it places the legitimacy of our present at risk, is essential if justice is to take on its true definition. Using as a reference the literature of García Márquez and Kafka, and the political thought of Benjamin and Rosenzweig, Reyes Mate portrays a journey from the streets of Mexico City to the Gaza Strip during which numerous questions arise, including whether or not there is a possible relation between the concepts of "progress", "fascism" and "imperialism". La Herencia del Olvido won Manuel Reyes Mate the Premio Nacional de Ensayo (National Award for Essays awarded by the Spanish Ministry of Culture) in 2009.

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Juan Navarro Baldeweg They have called him a painter who paints buildings and an architect who builds paintings. A man who can't be pigeonholed, he is convinced that it is the simplest, most immediate things that produce the most intense sensations. Juan Navarro Baldeweg, one of the greatest exponents of Spanish architecture, talks to Miradas al Exterior about light, a "source of infinite joy"; his work, "what I enjoy the most"; and his exploration of unknown artistic boundaries. By Beatriz Beeckmans. Photography: Javier Hernández

“The most profound emotions in architecture are very simple. They are found in the way that light travels through a window" Anybody who says that in art, "great ideas always stem from an area that hasn't been adequately explored" must be an interesting person. Curiosity mounts if they also admit that eclipses make them feel uncomfortable as they take us away from the ideal "coordinates" of our existence. Today we are speaking with Juan Navarro Baldeweg at his studio in Madrid, where he often works until 10 at night because, "when

everyone else has gone home, I feel more at ease." —What can you channel through other disciplines such as painting or sculpture that you cannot express in architecture? — The pure arts offer various possibilities and creative spaces that allow deeper exploration and greater freedom. I have been a painter and also worked on artistic installations and a few more

conceptual pieces of sculpture... which I consider to be part of the research process. I have noticed, for example, that the way in which I manage light in my architectural projects is directly influenced by my experience as a painter of landscapes and my observations of the behavior of light, a perennial theme in painting. All of this is also applicable to architecture. Art is an atelier for research and exploration.

e interview 69 Architecture, however, is subject to more concrete conditions and constraints. It is an applied art, but a dynamic art nonetheless. It confers intense experiences that have a distinct effect of on all of our senses as well as our bodies: something that other arts, which operate in a narrower field, are not as well equipped to do. Architecture is something that can be felt all around oneself and that, through sight, incorporates movement. The central experiences in architecture are so intense that it is difficult to leave them behind while knowing that they can be further developed. — As well as paying special attention to light, you place a great importance on other energy flows such as water. Is this conception of architecture the result of personal contemplation or does it stem from the multitude of requests that you have received throughout your career? —My obsession with the handling of energy and our place in the physical world originates from the time I spent in the Center for Advanced Visual Studies at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). It was there that I developed a series of interests and concepts that formed the basis of my installations at the time: interests and concepts founded in very natural, very immediate experiences. I realized that the common problems in architecture stemmed from the "exosomatic": architects were almost solely concerned with traffic, new materials, the effect of industry on architecture, how a city should be envisaged... extensions of the body, if you will, but always focused on the external, on what lies beyond the body. Other arts do not share these preoccupations, especially not modern art. Artists such as Miró or Picasso were intensely focused on the immediate, and the surrealists chose to focus on the psyche, on the endosomatic. This conflict between the internal and the external naturally, and I suppose unknowingly, led me to connect the ideas of what was closest to the body and what was furthest from it, beyond the tips of

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my fingers. With the debate centered on this theme, I managed to define the "coordinates" which we, as human beings, occupy, and to catalogue what forms our most immediate surroundings. Among them we have light (light "as is", without technological manipulation) as a source of satisfaction and infinite joy. What interested me most was the study of what was found to be most immediate without distancing oneself from what is corporal. I made a series of small installations or pieces which stimulated the suggestion of light, and also of gravity which, after all, plays the greatest role in architecture: an expression of the forces and weights which are drawn to the ground through that which has been built. For example, when we look at a capital, it is similar to a whirlpool in that various forces change direction in the vertical plane. This channeling of ideas and reflection upon natural forces and how their contemplation physically affects us was of great interest to me: even given that it produces feelings of which we are not conscious. If we consider a pillar which is rooted to the ground, for example, we can discern, through empathy, the column's message to us: that our body is also rooted to the ground. It was this type of emotion that I found the most interesting. This world that immediately surrounds the body, these basic coordinates, these intrinsically shared experiences that are almost "zen" and ephemeral, were pleasing to me. In a certain way, this "evanescence" interested me precisely because it is closest to us; this type of void that is populated with different energies and natural currents such as gravity, and water: currents that we find ourselves inside of and that produce the most intense experiences; experiences which we would classify as background, but that are not necessarily in the background. It could be the wonder of the light that shines through the window: an

extreme pleasure made from almost nothing. — Is it this search for intimacy and simplicity in your work that leads to your tendency towards integration of your work into the surroundings and the use of traditional materials? I have heard that in your house in Jalón (near Alicante), a rock and some trees that already existed on the site provided the justification for part of the form of the structure? — Exactly. What I deemed to be possible in that location was something more or less traditional. I believe that adapting to the immediate surroundings is of paramount importance. The simple appearance of a house can at times create the most complex emotions. Indeed, the plans were adapted time and again, partly because there was already a house on the site: a very small, humble house; a summer home that I of course transformed into a home more suited to us. Some aspects were retained though, because of course the people who built the house knew where to place it in relation to the wind, the cold, the rain and the ground... they knew how to find the right place to put the various components, they knew how the sun moves across the sky in summer and in winter... all of this wisdom was found in these people and the houses they built here, and we must take advantage of this. A structure was added near the bedrooms which allowed us to keep the rock: I didn't break it in order to join the two structures, and now there's a small bridge which connects the two parts. There was, in fact, a great respect for the site. It is a very adaptable house that does not stand out too much from its surroundings, which is very important. It's quite interesting. I don't believe in forcing things, rather in carrying them out in the most natural way possible. I think this is the right way to go about it. Houses should be natural, without pretension and without distorting their surroundings. — In what way do you think architecture can contribute to improving people's quality of life and well being?

— This is architecture's primary objective. Architecture's deepest emotions are very simple: they are, for example, the way light travels through a window over the course of the day. I view architecture as a means to an end, not as an end in itself. It allows us to feel very deep emotions in the same way that a musical instrument does, which is not an end in itself but rather justifies the creation of a song. What is afforded by a life in architecture, what architecture contains, is what makes sense of the art of architecture. The son of the lady who owns Villa Mairea, a famous structure by Alvar Aalto, told me that the house is like a guitar, and that the inhabitants strum it as if it were one. I understand very clearly what he was trying to say. It is a house to be lived in and to be enjoyed in all contexts: social, individual, in solitude, with the family or with friends. It manages to produce wellbeing without us being aware of it. Many aspects of well-being depend on the imperceptible nature of that which produces it. It is like when you ride in a good car you don't feel the road, nor the potholes, nor the rocks; it is as if these discomforts did not exist. Architecture too aims to mask discomfort. The unseen ideal is that you don't waste any of the time in which you are enjoying this architecture that I sometimes call "precedent", in that it precedes the architect. Whenever I speak of this I see the image of a house that existed before it was built, the house that belongs to the "coordinates" that we spoke of earlier. — Is it in this sense that you meant "when architecture works we feel as if we were in nature"? — Yes. A certain type of nature: an omnipresent and physical nature that doesn't require plants or anything else. The life to which we are adapted, and the conditions in which our body is at ease are relatively narrow. I, for example, feel very uncomfortable during an eclipse: the doubled shadows and other effects make me feel very uncomfortable because I

e interview 71 realize that these are not our natural coordinates, that this is not the way things should be... we can live in extremes, but within limits. When something out of the ordinary happens I feel very worried and don't enjoy myself at all. The same thing happens with illness, when you feel ill at ease because you feel queasy or because strange things happen that take you outside of this relatively narrow strip of stability. — What are these "strips", or ideal conditions, of stability? — They are biological: the field has been narrowed to specific distances, a type of horizon... We live in a preconfigured biological architecture. For example: sight, everything to do with position, the view of things, long, medium and short distances are all closely linked to the biological, to the body, and also to the feelings of gravity and balance. Balance is a major component of architecture, which is after all the search for structural balance. All of this produces immediate emotions, linked to the fact that our perceptions must be within the confines of a definite sphere, even though the coordinates can be changed. The worst case is when you become dislocated from the coordination center, as happens in certain situations, for example, when you have a cold or when you are on board an airplane and you get the feeling that you have left your comfort zone. It is a very unpleasant feeling, because you don't know who to turn to. This is why it is important to instill the importance of emotions produced by the most everyday things. . — Moving on to another subject, what is your opinion about the role of Spanish architecture on the international scene? Do you think it's a question of shared achievement, or are we talking about cases of individual excellence of specific architects and structures? — I think that Spanish architecture is currently extremely noteworthy on the international scene. It is not only a question of outstanding individuals, and we certainly have them, but rather

"In architecture, the professor provides an overwhelming variety of problems and, at the same time, offers reassurance" "It is very important to guide the student through the creative process" "A certain distance is necessary, an ability to think outside the box" the whole. We (Spanish architects) have almost all spent time at major American universities. I have been at Philadelphia, Yale, Harvard and Princeton and many of the professors at the Madrid School of Architecture give classes in major European universities, which tells us that the Spanish school is of a high standard. It's strange that many Spanish students leave to study in these universities when so many of the lecturers are from here, but I understand that the environment in which they study is also important. Spanish architects are greatly valued, and I think that the training that we have received from the great masters is a blessing, even if it was not always evident, since much of it took place during Franco's dictatorship and happenings in Spain were often obscured. There have been some very good architects like Alejandro de la

Sota, Sáenz de Oiza and Corrales and Molezún, who were the talented architects responsible for the Spanish Pavilion in Brussels, for example, which I consider to be a great work. Even before, there were excellent examples of modern Spanish architecture, such as Secundino Zuazo's Frontón Recoletos in Madrid, which due to their quality should really be included in textbooks and merit greater international recognition than they currently receive. We have been fortunate to be blessed with the heritage of these masters, which we have now passed on, and which I believe gives us the right to claim that Spain has a prestigious heritage in architectural training. The architectural schools have also proven to be influential, and have assured a certain stability to the profession and addressed many architectural issues. Architecture has always been a demanding profession in Spain, which has ensured a high level of competence and that students receive a complete and robust training in the profession. — On the subject of training, and given that you have yourself chosen a career in teaching , how is architecture taught and how is it learned? — Much time in class is dedicated to projects, and so it is very hands-on. The professors pose questions and the students begin to give answers whose complexity increases ad infinitum. Eventually, the student sees the complexity inherent in all aspects of architecture without being overwhelmed, whereupon the role of the professor becomes evident: to guide students through a process which can be discouraging, given number of facets that it involves. The professor is a figure who, on the one hand, generates an overwhelming variety of issues, while at the same time reassuring the students by explaining that it is a common problem. This is a very common situation in practical workshops and it is very important to guide the student through the creative process. Then there is also the theoretical aspect, which aims to show how the

72 e interview

profile. The architect, painter and sculptor Juan Navarro Baldeweg was born in Santander in 1939 to a Spanish father and a German mother. he was raised in a creative household, surrounded by sculptors, writers and poets. His parents soon discovered his vocation, which was evident even as a child when he would "spend hour upon hour drawing". In 1959 he moved to Madrid to study engraving at the San Fernando Royal Academy of Fine Arts. He graduated from the Superior Technical School of Architecture, part of the Polytechnic University of Madrid, where he also obtained his PhD and is now a department head. building of what we consider to be great works was a difficult process. Firstly we must consider the genealogy of the architect's own career path: his or her history and those other projects which have, by their proximity, led to an approach that is the result of experience. This analysis of both the historic and current factors that influence the architect, as well as his or her personal history, is of paramount importance: it demonstrates that all great artistic ideas are always the fruit of some area that previously had not been sufficiently explored. A certain distance is necessary, an ability to think outside the box. This specific mindset displayed by architects of note as they approach a given problem must be fostered in the students to develop their own creative abilities and inspire them to think outside the box in search of a solution that goes beyond the conventional. This is aimed at those gifted students who are destined to become the most creative architects. Another concept fundamental to architecture is that projects must be carried out correctly: it is important from a technical standpoint that regular architecture -houses, for example-, should be of the best possible quality, carried out diligently, and be as aesthetically pleasing as the constraints allow. The word "architecture" encompasses all these ideas, while recognizing it can be further divided into artistic and functional types; however, excellence is also possible in functional architecture. I think that Spain

With a scholarship from Fundación March, he moved to the United States to study under Gyorgy Kepes at the Center for Advanced Visual Studies at MIT. The experience he gained there would later be given expression in his essays “La geometría complementaria” (Complementary Geometry) and “Un objeto es una sección” (An Object is a Section). He has been a guest lecturer at the universities of Pennsylvania, Yale, Princeton and Harvard. In the 1980s he opened his architecture studio in Madrid, where he also studied and practiced painting and sculpture. His work has been displayed around the world in both indi-

has fulfilled these criteria well, but in this day and age the media values outstanding individuals no matter what the field, and functional excellence is somewhat marginalized. This is unjust as well as being a public disservice: an outstanding architect is, as in all artistic domains, just one part of the whole. What is really important is that the media develops and adheres to a sense of social responsibility that equally values advancements that benefit the welfare of the whole. We must not lose sight of this idea, and I am not afraid to say that the majority of what we read in the newspapers is rubbish: it is not what should be most important. — Do you think that current architecture maintains the quality of symbolic visual representation of the State as it did in other eras? — Yes, I think so: it does fulfill a role of symbolic representation, but this role is somewhat a double-edged sword, and also entails negative aspects. It is inevitable that architecture would become symbolic of something, not only of the State and various government bodies, but also of private enterprise. This is very dangerous, though, as architecture is a public art and as such symbolism can result in something unpleasant and overbearing. I would call this "the force of the elements", because in the public domain a symbol is always aggressive. This is a very common problem in our society. We see it, for example, in the case of public sculptures (architecture is spared this due to its functional

nature) when they are placed in the street and cause enormous outrage. Why this reaction? Because shared values would be necessary to accept a public symbol, values such as existed in days gone by when a sculpture of the Virgin Mary or of David was not questioned, as everybody understood the story behind it. Modern sculpture struggles for acceptance because there no longer exists any real sense of "community" and it is thus difficult to accurately direct symbolism... but it's a difficult subject and I don't have concrete guidelines to judge it by. Architecture always suffers rejection, as the works in progress are messy, but in the long term this transforms into pride. The aggression of certain emblematic buildings has a negative aspect that will generate criticism. —As you know, one of the great debates in modern society is focused upon climate change, especially now at the time of the Copenhagen Summit. In what way can architects help to lessen the impact of climate change and encourage energy efficiency? — The terms sustainability and energy efficiency are used a lot these days. While it is a technical problem, I believe that the real issue goes much deeper: society as a whole needs to change its attitude. Earlier we spoke of the great joy that light or the sun can give as it shines through the window over the course of a day; it costs nothing - it's completely free. There are many things which give rise to great satisfaction without costing a thing.

e interview 73 Lluvia in Santander, the Hydraulic Museum in Los Molinos del Rio Segura in Murcia, and the Teatro del Canal (Canal Theater)in Madrid. He is a member of the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando. He won the National Award for Plastic Arts in 1990 and was the Heinrich Tessenow Gold Medal winner in 1998. In 2008 he received the Architecture Gold Medal awarded by the Spanish Council of Architects in recognition of his career. Some years before, he won the Meritous Gold Medal of Fine Artsfrom the Spanish Ministry of Culture. He is married and has two sons who have followed in his professional footsteps.

photo by estudio juan navarro

photo by Juan Diego LÓpez-arquillo

photo by duccio malagamba

photo by estudio juan navarro

vidual and collective exhibitions. He retreats to the house that he himself designed in Jalón, a small village in the province of Alicante, to paint and sculpt. It is the Altamira Musem and Research Center which has most marked the career of one of Spain's greatest architects. Plan Altamira remodeled the caves and natural environment of the museum in the vicinity of Santillana del Mar, where he built a replica of the caves and transformed the museum in to a permanent Paleolithic exhibition. More of his best-known works include the Centro Cultural Salvador Allende (Salvador Allende Cultural Center) in Santiago de Chile, the Casa de la

From Left to Right. Altamira Museum and Research Center (2001) Casa de la Lluvia (1979). "Habitación plata con figura" (Silver room and figure) Oil on canvas (2006) Sculpture for the Marlborough Gallery Exhibition (2004). Teatros del Canal (2008) photo by Javier Hernández

We must change our whole attitude. We must not always rely on technology, nor believe that problems are always solved by attacking them headon. Problems are very often solved through a more passive approach. This idea of passivity is very important: it is useless to solve one problem and in the process create another. Almost all new technologies create new problems. One the one hand it's great to feel that we live in a small world and that technology, by providing immediate

contact with anyone in the world, has effectively done away with distances. But at the same time, one sometimes wonders, "why am I traveling so much by plane?". All this traveling is a kind of turmoil and comes at a huge cost in terms of energy. Can we not consider the existence of other comfortable lifestyles and other means of communication without so much movement and such a high cost in energy? It's necessary to put a change of attitude before grand ideas: we must ensure

sustainability. However, I don't believe that this change would entail the use of more technology, rather that it could come about as part of a passive attitude. The world has become essentially man-made, the Earth retains very few unspoiled reaches. We are in a situation where our structures already cause many problems and are highly destructive by nature. We must think of what we are destroying. I'm very fond of the analogy of a sculptor and his work:

74 e interview

when we see someone working with a block of marble, that eventually will include, for example, arms, he has to take into account the marble as a whole and it's resistance, because if not he will break the arm and, not wanting to botch the repairs, be forced to start again from scratch. Consider Michelangelo: he is perfectly aware of the material's resistance, and his every action is carefully calculated. Every strike is with the intention of maintaining the whole. This approach is different from that in which the sculptor adds clumps of mud to form a sculpture, which is an additive act that does not acknowledge the fragility of the whole. It's a very enlightening analogy. The fragility of the whole is something which we must acknowledge in everything that we do. Marble can be broken as can many material structures. It is not a question of adding: I think that an attitude of subtraction is necessary in architectural creation, in the sense that even when building we are subtracting from the whole. It's a subject of which I am very fond. Our attitude must change. We architects always think that we take one brick and put it on top of another, and then another; but today this is not the case. Today, in general, we find ourselves destroying one house to build it anew. These are problems that have always been with us, but which grow constantly more difficult. We are given a city and we have to transform it through a series of interventions, all the while knowing that the whole is already present and that our intervention can create an unbalance. I feel that it is very important to bear in mind the totality of the body in which you are working, and that it is not only a matter of addition, but also of taking away, and this must all be done with care and with respect to the existing whole. To put it simply, in the past architecture was to begin with nothing and construct a whole by adding parts. Now it is a matter of beginning with one whole and creating another through

"It is important to instill the importance of emotions produced by the most everyday things" "Many aspects of wellbeing depend on the imperceptible nature of that which produces it" actions that are simultaneously constructive and destructive. This awareness of the whole must be present, and it also requires a change of attitude. —To continue with this theme, I would like to ask... was the urban development model of the Spanish coasts the only possibility? — No, not at all. It is a case of gross avarice, and is unforgivable. It's a disaster and a exhibits a huge lack of sensitivity towards many ideals and places which should be protected. It is destruction in the negative sense, without respect for the whole. It must be recognized that we have lost a lot as a result of these operations, and that we could have done things differently; but that would have required deliberate policies. It's a huge subject. Obviously, people want to get rich at any cost, without pausing to think that within a few years there would be cities in which you wouldn't even be able to take a stroll because they would be very sad cities. I believe that this attitude in general

has to change. But now we are aware of the situation. Excessive construction with no self-regulation: the tourist cities are, by and large, ghost towns, and you really get a sense of this in winter. It is also true that the Spanish climate attracts northern Europeans who are inevitably going to travel to Spain, but I think that the problem must be considered more completely, and not in the way it has been: not by town councils, but rather at a much higher level. Building is inevitable because the demand is there, but one of Spain's main problems stems from real estate development carried out in a vacuum: development without consideration for where it is heading or where it will finally end up. Furthermore, as we have been lacking in other sources of wealth, Spain is one of the countries that is furthest behind in terms of rehabilitation. I wish that the world could take on different attitudes, that it could find fulfillment in simpler, more direct things, things that create less waste, if you will. It's important to rediscover the "zen" attitude of being satisfied with nothing. — And you, what do you do for enjoyment? — I immensely enjoy what I do, it's really the thing I enjoy most. When I have time, in summer I love to go swimming. What is important to me is the enjoyment that comes from my own work. It is what entertains me the most, because it's a creative job. The professional side of architecture is rather dull, but working alone and realizing that you are achieving something or that you are opening a hitherto undiscovered door, and the sense that you are bound towards unknown limits is very attractive, even though the rewards are small.

Recuerda que en el extranjero

Tu Embajada puede ayudarte Para atender a nuestros compatriotas en el extranjero, España cuenta con una amplia red consular dependiente del Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores y de Cooperación, compuesta en la actualidad por 187 Oficinas Consulares y Secciones Consulares de Embajadas, así como cerca de 375 Consulados y Viceconsulados Honorarios. > La función de los Consulados consiste en prestar determinados servicios administrativos a los ciudadanos españoles, ayudar a quienes hayan sido víctimas de delitos o abusos y asistir a quienes se encuentren en situación de necesidad. > Cuando te encuentres en un país o ciudad donde España no posea Consulado, podrás dirigirte a la Sección Consular de la Embajada de España, oficina que se encontrará únicamente en la capital de dicho país

Los consulados pueden

> Expedir pasaportes o salvoconductos en caso de caducidad, pérdida o robo. > Informar sobre los servicios médicos, educativos y legales del país; > Prestar asistencia a detenidos; > Adelantar, de manera extraordinaria, el dinero imprescindible para eventuales casos de necesidad que pudieran surgir, incluída la repatriación.> Realizar inscripciones en el Registro Civil, expedir poderes y actas notariales, legalizar documentos así como otros trámites administrativos.

Los consulados no pueden > Hacer funciones de agencia de viajes;

> Conseguir un trabajo en el extranjero; > Garantizar en un hospital o en una cárcel un tratamiento mejor que el otorgado a los nacionales de ese país; > Avalar, prestar dinero o pagar multas; > Hacer de intérprete, guía o asistente social.

Registro de viajeros

> El sistema de registro de viajeros, accesibe desde la web del Ministerio permite a quienes viajen al extranjero facilitar todos sus datos personales, los datos de su viaje (país de destino, lugares que va a visitar y en los que se va a alojar) y los de los familiares que tienen previsto acompañarle, así como los de las personas a las que habría que contactar en caso de emergencia. > Ello permitirá a la Unidad de Emergencia Consular, en caso de crisis, disponer en todo momento de listados actualizados de las personas que se encuentran de forma transitoria en el país o región afecta da por la misma, facilitando la puesta en contacto con los viajeros y su asistencia en caso de necesidad. > A partir del 15 de julio próximo entrará en funcionamiento una nueva -).)34%2)/ $%!35.4/3%84%2)/2%3 aplicación informática que permitirá el envío de SMS y correos electrónicos a los viajeros 9$%#//0%2!#)œ. previamente registrados, con objeto de enviarles información y recomendaciones en el caso de que se produzca una crisis o emergencia en el país al que han viajado.

-).)34%2)/ %!35.4/3%84%2)/2%3 9$%#//0%2!#)œ.




An informative diplomatic publication of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation

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