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44 Cards:short a.qxd 31/01/2013 02:13 PM Page 1

The ‘b’ sound /b/ as in bun Sound Formation: To make the /b/ sound, lightly press the lips together; then with the vocal cords vibrating, open the mouth to release a puff of air. Spellings: Other spellings of the /b/ sound include: ‘bb’ (rabbit), ‘bh’ (Bhutan) and ‘pb’ (cupboard). Instructional Sentence

Words to teach the /b/ sound.

Betty Bayer bought buns, but begged a beef bone.

Word List big box bun because beach table rubber bucket believe beware scrabble

© Ministry of Education, 2012.


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The ‘d’ sound /d/ as in dog Sound Formation: To make the /d/ sound, place the tip of the tongue in the front section of the roof of the mouth. Push the tongue forward and vibrate the vocal cords. Spellings: Other spellings of the /d/ sound include: ‘dd’ (add), ‘ed’ (called) and ‘ld’ (should). Instructional Sentence

Words to teach the /d/ sound.

Dwayne’s daring dog decided to dive deep in the dark, dense dam.

Word List dog add door friend food tired dinner powder paddle shoulder round

© Ministry of Education, 2012.


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The ‘f’ sound /f/ as in fish Sound Formation: To make the /f/ sound, put the front teeth on the bottom lip, then gently push air through the teeth. Spellings: Other spellings of the /f/ sound include: ‘ph’ (phone) and ‘gh’ cough. Instructional Sentence

Words to teach the /f/ sound.

Fiona fried fish and festival for Fred.

Word List fan from father found fish lift factory beef favourite safe coffee

© Ministry of Education, 2012.


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The hard ‘g’ sound /g/ as in goat Sound Formation: To make the /g/ sound, raise the back part of the tongue to touch the soft palate (back upper section of the mouth). This closes the opening of the throat. Push the tongue forward and release air. Other Spellings: Other spellings of the /g/ sound include: ‘gg’ (egg), ‘gh’ (ghost) and ‘gue’ (plague). Instructional Sentence

Words to teach the /g/ sound.

Gavin’s goat gobbled green grass from Gabbie’s garden.

Word List girl good going bigger game goat sugar guard wiggle reggae government

© Ministry of Education, 2012.


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The ‘h’ sound /h/ as in hat Sound Formation: To make the /h/ sound, take a breath, then quickly release it through the mouth. Other Spellings: The /h/ sound has no other spelling. Instructional Sentence

Words to teach the /h/ sound.

Henry has huge hats in his hamper.

Word List hill hop house heavy hot hurt behind holds behave inhale rehearse

© Ministry of Education, 2012.


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The ‘j’ sound /j/ as in jar Sound Formation: To make the /j/ sound, round the lips slightly, then place the tip of the tongue against the upper front teeth and gum. Vibrate the vocal cords. Spellings: Other spellings of the /j/ sound include: ‘ch’ (Greenwich), ‘dg’ (edge), and ‘g’ (gentle). Instructional Sentence

Words to teach the /j/ sound.

Jolly Jimmy joyfully juggled jam jars with jingling jellies.

Word List jump jet just Jamaica enjoy jaw jeep job reject rejoice injury

© Ministry of Education, 2012.


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The ‘k’ sound /k/ as in kangaroo Sound Formation: To make the /k/ sound, raise the back part of the tongue to touch the back upper roof of the mouth. Force air from the mouth. Other Spellings: Other spellings of the /k/ sound include: ch (chemistry), c (cup), ck (bucket), cc (accord), que (cheque) and q (Iraq). Instructional Sentence

Words to teach the /k/ sound.

Kim’s kangaroo kept kissing Kyle’s kitten.

Word List look black think milk keep Kingston bucket wicket pocket shock keyboard

© Ministry of Education, 2012.


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The ‘l’ sound /l/ as in lollipop Sound Formation: To make the /l/ sound, place the tip of the tongue against the gum (ridge) behind the top front teeth. Vibrate the vocal cords and then quickly release the tongue. Other Spellings: Other spellings of /l/ sound include: tle (castle), ll (wall), and cle (muscle). Instructional Sentence

Words to teach the /l/ sound.

Lola loves to lick long lollipops.

Word List bell like old live pull lunch light goal island pilot seldom © Ministry of Education, 2012.


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The ‘m’ sound /m/ as in map Sound Formation: To make the /m/ sound, fold and press the lips together and vibrate the vocal cords. Release air through the nostrils. Other Spellings: Other spellings of the /m/ sound include: mm (hammer) and mb (comb). Instructional Sentence

Words to teach the /m/ sound.

Magic Mike mailed many mangled maps.

Word List man woman yam mother made many warm money mould camera tomb

© Ministry of Education, 2012.


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The ‘n’ sound /n/ as in nest Sound Formation: To make the /n/ sound, place the tip of the tongue against the gum behind the top front teeth; then raise the centre of the tongue and vibrate the vocal cords. Release air through the nostrils. Other Spellings: Other spellings of the /n/ sound include: ‘nn’ (runner), ‘kn’ (knife), ‘gn’ (gnat) and ‘pn’ (pneumonia). Instructional Sentence

Words to teach the /n/ sound.

Nancy’s nightingale never needed a new nest.

Word List in pen nose runner sentence lion noticed owner panic govern neighbour

© Ministry of Education, 2012.


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The ‘p’ sound /p/ as in patty Sound Formation: To make the /p/ sound, fold and press the lips together. Release quickly with a puff of air. Other Spellings: Another spelling of the /p/ sound is ‘pp’ (apple). Instructional Sentence

Words to teach the /p/ sound.

Pat packed pumpkin pie and patties for Peter’s party.

Word List play help pencil hopping sleep patty promise sheep rapid crop support

© Ministry of Education, 2012.


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The ‘r’ sound /r/ as in rat Sound Formation: To make the /r/ sound, open the mouth slightly, then raise the middle and back of the tongue towards the roof of the mouth, without touching it. Vibrate the vocal cords. Other Spellings: Other spellings of the /r/ sound include: rr (merry) and wr (write). Instructional Sentence

Words to teach the ‘r’ sound.

Right around the rugged, road, the rat ran.

Word List rat run rain other radio letter finger rough north visitor hurricane

© Ministry of Education, 2012.


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The ‘s’ sound /s/ as in snake Sound Formation: To make the /s/ sound, put the tip of the tongue behind the front teeth. Raise the rest of the tongue almost to touch the roof of the mouth. Let air hiss through the narrow opening. Other Spellings: Other spellings of the /s/ sound include: ss (pass) and c (ceiling). Instructional Sentence

Words to teach the /s/ sound.

“Ssssssss,” said the sneaking snake as it slid across the sand.

Word List us school class sofa basket sing biscuit sight slave stage posture

© Ministry of Education, 2012.


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The ‘t’ sound /t/ as in table Sound Formation: To make the /t/ sound, place the tip of the tongue behind the top front teeth. Push air quickly between the teeth and tongue, then release. Other Spellings: Other spellings of the /t/ sound include: ‘ed’ (walked), ‘th’ (Thomas), ‘bt’ (doubt), ‘tt’ (kitten) and ‘pt’ (receipt). Instructional Sentence

Words to teach the /t/ sound.

Tony taught Tanya table tennis.

Word List hot want tell time boat water teen insect poster battle territory

© Ministry of Education, 2012.


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The ‘v’ sound /v/ as in van Sound Formation: To make the /v/ sound, put the top front teeth on the bottom lip, then vibrate the vocal cords, while releasing a little air. Other Spellings: Other spellings of the /v/ sound include: ‘ph’ (Stephen) and ‘lv’ (halve) Instructional Sentence

Words to teach the /v/ sound.

Vivian visited his valentine Vera in his vintage van.

Word List van vest very stove river move volley leave vegetable invent vein vote

© Ministry of Education, 2012.


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The ‘w’ sound /w/ as in worm Sound Formation: To make the /w/ sound, round the lips and vibrate the vocal cords. Other Spellings: Other spellings of the /w/ sound include: ‘ju’ (marijuana), ‘ou’ (Ouija). Instructional Sentence

Words to teach the /w/ sound.

Walter’s worm wiggled and wobbled in the winter wind.

Word List well was walk were week work twin glow tower wagon unwind welcome

© Ministry of Education, 2012.


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The ‘y’ sound. /y/ as in yam. Sound Formation: To make the /y/ sound, open the mouth slightly, with the teeth close together. Raise the middle of the tongue to the roof of the mouth. Vibrate the vocal cords. Other Spellings: Other spellings of the /y/ sound include: ‘j’ (hallelujah), ‘i’ (hi) and ‘ll’ (tortilla). Instructional Sentence

Words to teach the /y/ sound.

Yendi yearned for yellow yam.

Word List yes yellow yam year your player yawn yard young mayor

© Ministry of Education, 2011.


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The ‘z’ sound /z/ as in zipper Sound Formation: To make the /z/ sound, open the mouth slightly with the teeth close together. Push air through the mouth while vibrating the vocal cords. Other Spellings: Other spellings of the /z/ sound include: ‘zz’ (buzz), ‘s’ (close), ‘x’ (xylophone) and ‘si’ (business), ‘sth’ (asthma) and ‘thes’ (clothes). Instructional Sentence

Words to teach the /z/ sound.

Zara zapped Zachary’s zipper.

Word List zoo zipper buzz dozen zero prize lizard zinc razor whiz memorize © Ministry of Education, 2012.


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The ‘ch’ sound /ch/ as in cheese Sound Formation: To make the /ch/ sound, slightly round the lips. Place the teeth together and put the tongue behind the upper front teeth. Force air out quickly while releasing the teeth. Spellings: Other spellings of /ch/ include: ‘tch’ (match), and ‘c’ (cello). Instructional Sentence

Words to teach the /ch/ sound.

Cheerful children chew cheddar cheese in church.

Word List March teacher children cheese church kitchen branch coach chocolate sandwich chapter

© Ministry of Education, 2012.


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The ‘sh’ sound /sh/ as in sheep Sound Formation: To make the /sh/ sound, round the lips, relax the tongue and clench the teeth. Push air through the teeth. Other Spellings: Other spellings of the /sh/ sound include: ‘ss’ (mission), ‘ch’ (machine), ‘ti’ (nation) and ‘ci’ (special). Instructional Sentence

Words to teach the /sh/ sound.

Shepherd Shawn shaved Shelly’s shaggy sheep.

Word List she shape shop dish fresh share wash show shiny friendship shower cashier

© Ministry of Education, 2012.


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The ‘zh’ sound /zh/ as in treasure Sound Formation: The /zh/ sound, is never represented by the letters ‘z’ and ‘h’. Its sound is similar to the ‘j’ and soft ‘g’ sounds. To make the /zh/ sound open the mouth slightly and press the top and bottom teeth together and vibrate the vocal cords. Other Spellings: The /zh/ sound is spelt: ‘s’ (treasure), ‘si’ (vision),‘g’ (rouge), and ‘ti’ (equation). Words to teach the /zh/ sound. Instructional Sentence Jerome’s pleasure is to measure the treasure at his leisure.

Word List television pleasure measure usual occasion vision seizure treasure casual exposure decision

© Ministry of Education, 2012.


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The unvoiced ‘th’ sound /th/ as in thermometer Sound Formation: The unvoiced ‘th’ sound is similar to the ‘t’ sound (as in tent). To make the unvoiced /th/ sound, place the tip of the tongue behind the front teeth. Force air quickly through the front teeth without vibrating the vocal cords. Other Spellings: Another spelling of the /th/ sound is ‘t’ (tank). Instructional Sentence Beth thanked thermometers.

Ruth

with

three

thick

Words to teach the unvoiced /th/ sound. Word List three with thank birthday whether thought teeth thief thread fifth wreath

© Ministry of Education, 2012.


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The voiced ‘th’ sound. /th/ as in feather. Sound Formation: To make the voiced /th/ sound, place the tip of the tongue behind the front teeth. Force air quickly through the front teeth while vibrating the vocal cords. Other Spellings: There are no other spellings of this sound. Instructional Sentence

Words to teach the voiced /th/ sound.

They gathered together smooth feathers.

Word List the this them then their those together bath smooth gather Mathematics

© Ministry of Education, 2012.


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The ‘wh’ sound /hw/ as in whale Sound Formation: To make the /hw/ sound, open the mouth slightly and take a breath of air. Round the lips and vibrate the vocal cords. Spellings: The /hw/ sound is disappearing from the English Language as many dialects do not distinguish between the /hw/ sound as in ‘whether’ and the /w/ sound in ‘weather’. Instructional Sentence

Words to teach the /hw/ sound.

White whales whined and whisked in the whirlpool.

Word List where what white when which why while whale wherever whistle wheelchair wheat

© Ministry of Education, 2012.


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The ‘ng’ sound /ng/ as in ring Sound Formation: To make the /ng/ sound, press the back of the tongue against the top of the mouth. Open the mouth slightly with the tip of the tongue touching the bottom front teeth. Vibrate the vocal cords, while allowing air to flow through the nostrils. Spellings: Another spelling of the ‘ng’ sound is ‘n’ (sink) Instructional Sentence

Words to teach the /ng/ sound.

King Ming gave Queen Ying a new ring.

Word List ring king thing morning sing string finger tongue angry young strange

© Ministry of Education, 2012.


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The short ‘a’ sound /ă/ as in ackee Sound Formation: To make the /ă/ sound, the front part of the tongue is lowered in the mouth. The mouth is opened slightly wide and air gently forced from the throat. Spellings: Another spelling of the short ‘a’ sound is ‘ai’ (plaid). Instructional Sentence

Words to teach the /ă/ sound

Ackees and apples abound in Albion.

Word List bag am apple Jamaica add ackee about against appear attractive achieve

© Ministry of Education, 2012.


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The short ‘e’ sound /ĕ/ as in elephant Sound Formation: To make the /ĕ/ sound, open the mouth, then lower the front part of the tongue. Force the sound from the back of the throat. Spellings: Other spellings of the short /e/ sound include: ‘ea’ (head), ‘eg’ phlegm, ‘u’ (bury) and ‘a’ (any). Instructional Sentence

Words to teach the /ĕ/ sound.

Eric Ellington endangered elderly elephants.

Word List egg bed web bread enter bench cell fence instead health educate

© Ministry of Education, 2012.


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The short ‘i’ sound / ĭ / as in iguana Sound Formation: To make the /ĭ/ sound, raise the middle part of the tongue towards the roof of the mouth, while the tip remains down. The tip of the tongue should touch the bottom front teeth. Vibrate the vocal cords. Spellings: Other spellings of the /ĭ/ sound include: ‘y’ (gym), ‘e’ (pretty), ‘ee’ (been) and ‘u’ (busy). Instructional Sentence

Words to teach the /ĭ/ sound.

Ishara’s iguana is in Indira’s igloo.

Word List it lip thing animal gift trip quick inhale macaroni illustrate iguana

© Ministry of Education, 2012.


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The short ‘o’ sound /ŏ/ as in orange Sound Formation: To make the /ŏ/ sound, round the lips and lower the tongue. Force air from the throat. Spellings: Other spellings of the short ‘o’ sound include: ‘ho’ (honour), ‘oh’ (John) and ‘ow’(knowledge). Instructional Sentence

Words to teach the /ŏ/ sound.

Orane obtained oranges, olives and onions for Oneka’s ostrich.

Word List pot top of stop orange clock done long knock obey oxygen

© Ministry of Education, 2012.


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The short ‘u’ sound /ŭ/ as in umbrella Sound Formation: To make the /ŭ/ sound, open the mouth slightly wide and place the tongue mid-height. Round the lips and force the sound from the throat. Spellings: Other spellings of the short ‘u’ sound include: ‘o’ (son), ‘ou’ double, ‘oe’ (does) and ‘oo’ blood. Instructional Sentence

Words to teach the /u/ sound.

Uncle’s unfashionable upholstery upset the umbrella-birds.

Word List up under nut truck upon uncle cut brush understand upstairs umpire

© Ministry of Education, 2012.


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The long ‘a’ sound /ā/ as in angel Sound Formation: To make the /ā/ sound, open the mouth wide and place the tip of the tongue behind the bottom front teeth. Pull back the corners of the mouth and vibrate the vocal cords. Spellings: Other spellings of the long ‘a’ sound include: ‘ay’ (lay), ‘ai’ (straight), ‘eigh’ (eight), and ‘ey’ (obey). Instructional Sentence

Words to teach the /ā/ sound.

Angels aid Amy’s ailing ape.

Word List day came rain age game date angel trade spray aim cable © Ministry of Education, 2012.


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The long ‘e’ sound /ē/ as in eagle Sound Formation: To make the /ē/ sound, open the mouth slightly wide, then raise the middle part of the tongue, while the tip remains behind the bottom front teeth. Vibrate the vocal cords. Spellings: Other spellings of the long ‘e’ sound are: ‘e’ (we), ‘ee’ (feet) and ‘ie’ (field) Instructional Sentence

Words to teach the /ē/ sound.

Egypt’s eagles eat eels easily.

Word List me eat need clean green knee easy bean eagle team jeans © Ministry of Education, 2012.


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The long ‘i’ sound / ī / as in ice-cream Sound Formation: To make the /ī/ sound, open the mouth wide and lower the tongue. Move the tongue forward and vibrate the vocal cords. The sound is pitched high and pushed from the back of the throat. Spellings: Other spellings of the long ‘i’ sound /ī/ include ‘y’ (my), ‘is’ (island), ‘ie’ (tie) and ‘igh’ (high). Instructional Sentence

Words to teach the /ī/ sound.

Irene identified Ivan’s icicle ideas on Isaac’s ipad.

Word List I like bike time ice hide lie ripe island mind stride

© Ministry of Education, 2012.


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The long ‘o’ sound /ō/ as in oven Sound Formation: To make the /ō/ sound, open the mouth and round the lips. The back of the tongue is placed mid-height in the mouth. Vibrate the vocal cords. Spellings: Other spellings of the sound include: ‘oa’ (boat), ‘ow’ (bow) and ‘oe’ (toe). Instructional Sentence

Words to teach the /ō/ sound.

Only Otis could open Opal’s old oven.

Word List go so oven open hello old own cone oatmeal globe bolt scroll

© Ministry of Education, 2012.


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The long ‘u’ sound /ū/ as in utensil Sound Formation: To make the /ū/ sound, round the lips and push them slightly forward. Raise the tongue mid-height and vibrate the vocal cords. Spellings: Other spellings of the long ‘u’ sound include: ‘ew’ (few) and ‘eu’ (feud). Instructional Sentence

Words to teach the /ū/ sound.

Una usually uses unique utensils.

Word List you January use student community music huge beauty human uniform unity humid

© Ministry of Education, 2012.


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The ‘Ə’ sound /Ə/ as in /ladder/ Sound Formation: This is the schwa sound. It is a weak unstressed sound. To make the /Ə/ sound, the central part of the tongue is mid-height in the mouth. The lips are rounded and the facial muscles relatively tense. Spellings: The most common spellings of the /Ə’/ sound include: ‘a’ (dollar), ‘i’ (pupil), ‘o’ (protect), and ‘e’ (level) and ‘u’ circus. Words to teach the /Ə/ sound. Word List above alone ladder centre ticket alarm honour gallop chauffeur cut identify © Ministry of Education, 2012.


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The /a(r)/ sound /a(r)/ as in chair Sound Formation: The /a(r)/ sound (as in air) is an ‘r’ controlled vowel. To make the /a(r)/, sound open the mouth wide, then press the tip of the tongue behind the bottom front teeth. Start vibrating the vocal cords, while slowly closing the mouth and raising the tongue. Spellings: Other spellings of the /a(r)/ sound include ‘are’ (fare) and ‘ear’ (near). Instructional Sentence

Words to teach the /a(r)/ sound.

Mr. Mair threw the chair in the air.

Word List chair hair air repair fair flair airport airline staircase affair dairy

© Ministry of Education, 2012.


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The /i(r)/ sound /i(r)/ as in girl Sound Formation: The /i(r)/ sound is an ‘r’ controlled vowel sound. To make the /i(r)/ sound, round the lips and raise the tongue towards the roof of the mouth; allowing it to touch either sides of the jaws. The tip of the tongue should be lowered behind the lower front teeth. Vibrate the vocal cords. Spellings: Other spellings of the /i(r)/ sound include: ‘er’ (fern), ‘ear’ (early), ‘ur’ (burn), and ‘or’ (work) . Instructional Sentence

Words to teach the /i(r)/ sound.

The girl’s twirl and swirl caused a stir.

Word List bird first circle skirt dirty chirp stir thirst swirl third circus squirt

© Ministry of Education, 2012.


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The /a(r)/ sound /a(r)/ as in car Sound Formation: The /a(r)/ sound is an r-controlled vowel sound. To make the /a(r)/ sound open the mouth wide, then pull the tongue back, with the tip pointing down. Start vibrating the vocal cords, while slowly closing the mouth and raising the tongue. Spellings: Other spellings of /a(r)/ include: ‘aa’ (bazaar), ‘oi’ (reservoir),

‘e’ (sergeant).

Instructional Sentence

Words to teach the /a(r)/ sound.

The tar in the jar will mar the car.

Word List car are farm hard party chart garden start smart army Arctic © Ministry of Education, 2012.


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The ‘Ô’ sound /Ô/ as in saw Sound Formation: To make the /Ô/ sound, open the mouth wide, then raise the back of the tongue mid-high. With the tip of the tongue lowered, vibrate the vocal cords. Spellings: Other spellings of the /Ô/ sound include: ‘a[l]’ (fall), ‘oa’ (broad), ‘ou’ (cough) and ‘au’ (haul). Instructional Sentence

Words to teach the /aw/ sound

The macaw’s claw got caught in the saw.

Word List saw paw law claw drawn hawk awful awesome awning lawyer strawberry

© Ministry of Education, 2012.


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The ‘oi’ sound /oi/ as in foil Sound Formation: To make the /oi/ sound, open the mouth slightly wide and round the lips. Pull the tongue backwards and start vibrating the vocal cords as the jaws are lowered. Spellings: Another spelling of /oi/ is ‘oy’ (toy). Instructional Sentence

Words to teach the /oi/ sound.

The coil and foil fell in the oil.

Word List oil join coin point noise coil choice soil toil rejoice moisture © Ministry of Education, 2012.


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The ‘ou’ sound /ou/ as in house Sound Formation: To make the /ou/ sound, open the mouth wide and lower the tongue. Round the lips while raising the tongue to a mid-height position. Vibrate the vocal cords. Spellings: Another spelling of the /ou/ sound is ‘ow’ (town). Instructional Sentence

Words to teach the /ou/ sound.

The mouse in the house has a grouse.

Word List our out mouse house round found proud sound south doubt

© Ministry of Education, 2012.


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The long ‘oo’ sound /oo/ as in moon Sound Formation: To make the /oo/ sound, round the lips slightly, then push them forward. With the back of the tongue raised high, vibrate the vocal cords. The facial muscles are tense when producing this sound. Other Spellings: Other spellings of /oo/ include: ‘u’ (use), ‘ew’, (chew), ‘ui’ (suit), ‘eu’ (manuevre), and ‘ou’ (through). Instructional Sentence

Words to teach the /oo/ sound.

The maroon drew a cartoon of the moon one afternoon.

Word List too soon spoon broom balloon igloo root loose proof shampoo ooze

© Ministry of Education, 2012.


44 Cards:short a.qxd 31/01/2013 02:14 PM Page 44

The short ‘oo’ sound /oo/ as in book Sound formation: To make the /oo/ sound, round the lips and push them forward. With the back of the tongue raised high in the mouth, vibrate the vocal cords. Other Spellings: Another spelling of the short ‘oo’ sound is ‘u’ (put). Instructional Sentence

Words to teach the /oo/ sound.

Rook took the book from the cook.

Word List look book foot took cookie stood brook shook wood notebook wooden

© Ministry of Education, 2012.

Phonics flash cards  

Phonics cards representing the 44 sounds of English and key words to learn the sounds

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