Issuu on Google+

S

ustainable Architecture In Hot Desert Climate Of The Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of NewSchool of Architecture + Design In Partial fulfillment of the requirements for The Degree of Master of Architecture By Turki Mansour ALZahrani San Diego, California 2013


STUDENT BIOGRAPHY • Associate member in designing and development of the King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Expansion Project of the Grand Mosque. • Associate member in designing and development of the Supreme Judicial Council of Saudi Arabia. • Associate member in designing and development of the Waqf King Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz to his parents. Central Area in Medina. • Master designer of the General presidency of the promotion of virtue and the prevention of vices. • Associate member in designing and development of the Urban area for the Kinan International Real Estate Development Co. Ltd. (Savola Group). • Master developer of the Cultural Club.Saudi Arabia. • Master designer of the military officers club for the Ministry of Defense and Aviation. Saudi Arabia. • Master designer of the administrative buildings for Saudi Industrial Property Authority.

Turki, ALZahrani


IN THE NAME OF

ALLAH THE BENEFICENT THE MERCIFUL


S ustainable Architecture In Hot Desert Climate Of The Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of NewSchool of Architecture + Design In Partial fulfillment of the requirements for The Degree of Master of Architecture By Turki Mansour ALZahrani San Diego, California 2013


Figure 1: In the name of allah the beneficent the merciful


ABSTRACT Sustainable Architecture in Hot Desert Climate of Saudi Arabia By Turki Mansour ALZahrani NewSchool of Architecture + Design Committee Chairperson : Prof. Mitra Kanaani

Currently, architectural design models in Saudi Arabia and many other countries are not naturally suited for their climatic conditions. This begs the question of how well these modern buildings respond to environmental conditions and fulfill climatic comfort needs. This research investigates ways to use sustainable architecture for a desert climate to achieve better levels of energy efficiency in a building. This thesis contains three parts, each of which utilizes scientific methodology. The thesis begins with the definition of sustainable architecture and applies these principles to countries with a desert climate such as Saudi Arabia. The parts can be summarized as follows: 1- Sustainable Architecture; a world wide movement, an architectural trend that aims for environmental responsibility by limiting use of energy and water in a given building system. Also , It is the act of building that supports the existence of humanity without destroying the environmental and cultural context. 2- Physical Features and Climate of Saudi Arabia; typically referring to that found under the subtropical ridge where sunshine prevails year round due to stable descending air and high pressure. 3- Applications; solutions of sustainable architecture in Saudi Arabia.


Figure 2: Sand Storm in Riyadh


STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

THESIS STATEMENT

With the rise of global warming, the consideration of comfort within a controlled environment is critical, particularly in Saudi Arabia. Currently the concern for designing solely based on aesthetic is dominating the field of architecture within this region, creating a negative impact of the quality of the built environment. Namely, the energy efficiency in Saudi Arabia is not taken into account in building designs the same way it is in other countries. In fact, the numbers of designed buildings for sustainability in Saudi Arabia are still limited compared to the size of traditional buildings and ill buildings, with the high cost in the consumption of the energy, and the solid substances that used in the buildings. This begs the question of how well these modern buildings respond to environmental conditions and fulfill climatic comfort needs.

The objective of this project is to investigate ways of using sustainable architecture for a desert climate to achieve better levels of energy efficiency in a research facility. This project will be a viable solution for extreme climatic issues such as heat. With the incorporation of responsive building materials and data analysis, this research facility becomes a paradigm for architects, encouraging site-specific architecture that addresses the welfare and health of its end users. Therefore, this study aims to detail sustainable design in Saudi Arabian climates.


S ustainable Architecture In Hot Desert Climate Of The Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia Š 2013 By Turki Mansour ALZahrani NewSchool of Architecture + Design ALL RIGHTS RESERVED


S ustainable Architecture In Hot Desert Climate Of The Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of NewSchool of Architecture + Design By Turki Mansour ALZahrani Approved By : Kurt Hunker, Thesis Chair________________________________ Date_________________ Chuck Crawford, Graduate Thesis Coordinator_______________ Date_________________ Mitra Kanaani, Advisor__________________________________ Date_________________


DEDICATION This work is dedicated to my grandmother, who passed away in 2011 during my thesis research. Also, this thesis is dedicated to my parents and my wife who have supported me all the way since the beginning of my studies.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express my gratitude to Allah (God) for providing me the blessings to complete this work. I also would like to express my deepest appreciation to my wife, which provided me the possibility to complete this master thesis. Furthermore, I would like to express my gratitude to my advisor Mitra Kanaani for the useful comments, remarks and engagement through the learning process of this master thesis. Thanks for everyone who helped me in completing this work.


Table of Contents ABSTRACT I STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM II THESIS STATEMENT III DEDICATION IV ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS V CHAPTER ONE – SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE 1.1. INTRODUCTION.................................. 03 1.2. Aim and objectives of research.......... 04 1.3. Theoretical Background..................... 07 1.4. Definitions of Sustainable Architecture 07 1.5. Historical Development of Sustainable Architecture....................................... 08 1.6. The major developments of the concept sustainable architecture..................... 09 1.7. Sustainability in the Saudi Arabian buildings 13 1.8. LITERATURE REVIEW........................... 14 CHAPTER TWO – Physical Features and Climate of Saudi Arabia 2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 2.4. 2.5. 2.6. 2.7. 2.8. 2.9. 2.10.

Location of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Geographical Regions of the Kingdom Exploring the desert climate.............. Exploring the hot desert climate........ Climate of Saudi Arabia...................... Climate of Riyadh City........................ Climate Challenges............................... Definition of Vernacular Architecture Vernacular Architecture of Old Riyadh Lessons learned and Conclusion........

19 20 21 21 22 22 22 25 25 26

CHAPTER THREE – Case Studies CASE STUDY 1- Al Musmak Castle 3.1. DESCRIPTION......................... 32 3.2. CONCEPTS OF IMPORTANCE.. 33 CASE STUDY 2- Tuwaiq Palace 3.3. DESCRIPTION......................... 36 3.4. Description of The Environmental Conditions.............................. 37 CASE STUDY 3- King Abdullah University of Science and Technology 3.5. DESCRIPTION......................... 44 CASE STUDY 4- King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center 3.6. DESCRIPTION......................... 50 CASE STUDY 5- NW Beijing technology and research center 3.7. DESCRIPTION......................... 58 3.8. Lessons learned..................... 63 CHAPTER FOUR – SCHEMATIC DESIGN 4.1. Goals and Objectives of the Research 4.2. SCHEMATIC DESIGN........................... 4.3. SITE SELECTION.................................. 4.4. Site Analysis....................................... 4.5. RTV - Riyadh Technology Valley, King Saud University....................................................... 4.6. External Influences............................ 4.7. Datascape.......................................... 4.8. Project Program.................................

67 74 75 76 78 80 84 85


4.9. 4.10. 4.11. 4.12. 4.13.

PRELIMINARY DESIGN........................ MID - TERM PRESENTATION............... FINAL DESIGN PRESENTATION........... Building Energy Simulation............... Structural Analysis.............................

86 98 106 108 109

CHAPTER FIVE – CONCLUSIONS 5.1.

CONCLUSIONS....................................

136

REFERENCES..................................................

139

LIST OF FIGURES............................................

143


LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 : In the name of Allah the beneficent the

merciful........................................................................ I Figure 2: Sand Storm in Riyadh.................................. 0 Figure 3: Water Dam.................................................. 1 Figure 4: King Abdullah Financial District................... 2 Figure 5: Masmak Fort Wall....................................... 5 Figure 6: Old Water Hole............................................ 6 Figure 7: Components of stability............................... 8 Figure 8: Prim Door.................................................... 11 Figure 9: Janadriyah Festival...................................... 12 Figure 10: Location of Saudi Arabia........................... 13 Figure 11: The concept of sustainable architecture... 13 Figure 12: Saudi Arabia is projected to have highest population growth in the world................................... 14 Figure 13: Madain Saleh............................................. 16 Figure 14: Janadriyah Festival.................................... 18 Figure 15: Location of Saudi Arabia........................... 19 Figure 16: Geographical Regions of Saudi Arabia....... 20 Figure 17: Map of desert climate............................... 21 Figure 18: Sahara Desert............................................ 21 Figure 19: Climate data for Riyadh............................. 22 Figure 20: Riyadh heritage......................................... 23 Figure 21: Meshrefa Mousque................................... 24 Figure 22: Desert Safari.............................................. 27 Figure 23: Atturaif....................................................... 28 Figure 24: Al Musmak Castle...................................... 30 Figure 25-28: Al Musmak Castle................................ 33 Figure 29: Tuwaiq Palace............................................ 34 Figure 30-34: Tuwaiq Palace...................................... 37-41

Figure 35: Breakwater Beacon................................... Figure 36-39: KAUST.................................................. Figure 40-48: KAPSARC.............................................. Figure 49-53: Courtesy of Maxthreads Architectural Design Figure 54: la cuarta ventana...................................... Figure 55: Asir............................................................ Figure 56: Solar Panels.............................................. Figure 57: Atrium courtyard...................................... Figure 58: OFFICE building atrium............................. Figure 59: Kinematic envelopes................................. Figure 60: View of the facade at Masdar Institue..... Figure 61: Arab World Institute................................. Figure 62: The operation mechanism of this modern

42 45-47 48-55 56-61 62 64 66 67 67 68 68 68

wind tower................................................................... Figure 63: Masdar Institute Courtyard...................... Figure 64: The roof canopy water collection strategy Figure 65: Rendering of Masdar Headquarter........... Figure 66: Sectional perspective noting the building’s zoning.......................................................... Figure 67: Bird’s View of Masdar Plaza...................... Figure 68: Round skylights in the domes................... Figure 69: Section at California Academy of Sciences Figure 70: Rainforest interior..................................... Figure 71: Tuwaiq Palace............................................ Figure 72-73: KING FAHAD NATIONAL LIBRARY......... Figure 74: Map of Saudi Arabia................................. Figure 75: Map of Riyadh city.................................... Figure 76: Map of King Saud University..................... Figure 77: Land Use in RTV.........................................

69 69 70 70 70 71 72 72 72 73 73 76 76 77 77


Figure 78: Land Use in RTV........................................... Figure 79: Vehicular circulation pattern...................... Figure 80: Pedestrian circulation pattern.................... Figure 81: Site Dimensions........................................... Figure 82: Sun Path Diagram........................................ Figure 83: Datascape Diagram...................................... Figure 84-85: Concept 1............................................... Figure 86: Concept 2.................................................... Figure 87: Concept 3.................................................... Figure 88: Concept 4, Wind Circulation....................... Figure 89: Ground Floor............................................... Figure 90: Site Plan...................................................... Figure 91: Birds view perspective................................ Figure 92: Initial Visualization...................................... Figure 93: Mid-Term Presentation............................... Figure 94: Birds view perspective................................ Figure 95: Transitional Spaces..................................... Figure 96: Night view of the Transitional Spaces......... Figure 97: West Elevation............................................ Figure 98: Central Courtyard....................................... Figure 99: Laboratories Department............................ Figure 100: Final Design Presentation.......................... Figure 101: Building Energy Simulation Analysis......... Figure 102: Building Structural Analysis....................... Figure 103: Construction Perspective........................... Figure 104: Construction Perspective........................... Figure 105: Section A-A................................................ Figure 106: Section B-B................................................ Figure 107: Ground Floor Plan..................................... Figure 108: First Floor Plan........................................... Figure 109: Second Floor Plan..................................... Figure 110: wall section detail..................................... Figure 111:3D view Cut Section Rendered Perspective

80-81 82 82 83 83 84 86-87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94-95 96-97 99 100 101 102-103 104 105 106-107 108 109 110 111 112-113 114-115 116 117 117 117 118-119

Figure 112: Awareness Zone....................................... Figure 113: Street Perspective.................................... Figure 114: Night View Perspective............................. Figure 115:Courtyard Perspective................................ Figure 116: Birds view perspective............................... Figure 117: Exterior Perspective.................................. Figure 118: Main Lobby Perspective............................ Figure 119: Less Is More................................................

120-121 122-123 124-125 126-127 128-129 130-131 132-133 134-135


Figure 3: Water Dam


ONE SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE

CHAPTER


2

Figure 4: King Abdullah Financial District


1.1.

INTRODUCTION

Because ongoing evidence supports that global warming is the result of human and natural causes, we must take action so as to avoid dangerous repercussions. At the same time, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, a developing country in the Arabian Gulf region, is experiencing population and economic growth; this has resulted in infrastructure expansion. However, when we compared the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to other countries, the issue of energy efficiency is not generally given serious consideration with regard to Saudi building designs. Namely , the energy efficiency in Saudi Arabia is not taken into account in building designs the same way it is in other countries. In fact, the number of designed buildings for sustainability in Saudi Arabia, are still limited compared to the size of traditional buildings and ill buildings, with the high cost in the consumption of the energy, and the solid substances that used in the buildings. On the other hand, Saudi Arabia faces environmental challenges caused by climate. The climate of Saudi Arabia is marked by high temperatures during the day and low temperatures at night.

Most of the country follows the pattern of the desert climate, with the exception of the southwest. That means the climate in Saudi Arabia is generally harsh, dry desert conditions with extreme temperature differences ranging from -11째C to 51.1째C. Therefore, it is important that Saudi Arabian architects and government members collaborate to integrate sustainability into current construction initiatives. In the other words, Saudi architects and government departments should implement the concept of sustainability and enforce laws and regulations. This concept should be actively and urgently pursued in Saudi Arabia.

3


1.2. Aim and objectives of research Saudi architects can work to achieve this goal of minimizing water and energy consumption by including the following applications and solutions in their building systems:

Therefore, this study aims to detail sustainable design in Saudi Arabian climates .

• Climate-responsive designs. • Environmentally friendly renewable energy technologies. • The full use of the site design. • Passive solar design. • Natural light. • Natural ventilation.

The objectives are:

To establish public awareness of Saudi Arabian building that have effectively responded to climate conditions in their area.

To highlight Saudi building efforts in the area of sustainability and display these solutions.

To take advantages of existing buildings in Saudi Arabia in terms of sustainability, and display applications and other solutions suit with the character of the climate and the situation in Saudi Arabia.

• To present new applications and solutions in terms of sustainability and apply these in a desert climate environment such as Saudi Arabia.

4


CHAPTER ONE

SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE

Figure 5: Masmak Fort wall

5


6

Figure 6: Old Water Hole


1.3. Theoretical Background The history of thinking about sustainable development is closely linked to the history of environmental concern and peoples’ attitudes to nature. Both represent responses to changing scientific understanding, changing knowledge about the world and ideas about society. [ 1 ] Sustainable development arose as a response to changing attitudes toward nature and the environment. As societies became more aware of these systems, through scientific discovery and access to this information, people became more preoccupied with sustainability.

1.4. Definitions of Sustainable Architecture The basic definition of the term sustainability is derived from the dictionary word Sustain meaning: • • • • • • •

Bear weight of. hold, keep from falling or sinking. Enable to last out, keep from falling, give strength to, encourage. Endure without giving way, stand. bear up against. Undergo. experience, suffer. Bear out, tend to substantiate or corroborate, confirm. Keep up or represent adequately. Keep going continuously.[ 2 ]

In its adjective form,” sustainable” describes an object to which is given support, relief, nourishment, or supplied with sustenance and thus continuously kept alive or prolonged. The popular interpretation of the words “sustainable architecture” describes an approach to architectural design that minimizes sustenance or resource consumption so as to prolong the availability of natural resources. However, the definition of “sustainable” does not imply a minimization of sustenance. “Sustainable” simply expresses the fact that resources do maintain our environment. Sustainable architecture describes the fact that we receive what we need from the universe. This realization compels us to respond with care or stewardship in the use of those resources. Sustainable architecture, then, is a response to an awareness and not a perspective formula for survival. [ 3 ] “Sustainable,” however, does not express a desire to “minimize sustenance.” Instead, “sustainable architecture” is an awareness of natural resources. This approach to architecture then, is not a “prescription for survival” but approaches architectural design through the “minimizing of sustenance or resource consumption so as to prolong the availability of natural resources.” In this way, both architects and those dwelling in these building structures may be stewards of the environment. 7


In architecture, sustainability is used as a general term to describe technologically, materially, ecologically, and environmentally stable building design. Within the context of sustainable architecture, stability is established via three major components:

Resource sustainability refers to “site conditions and cost effectiveness of the operational and life cycle of the building,” as well as “accessibility and favorable natural forces.” Additionally, environmental sustainability is concerned with creating “healthy, habitable and safe environments” that serves their social or institutional purpose.

•Technological and material sustainability. •Resource sustainability. •Environmental sustainability.

The test, then, is for architects to weigh technological and material considerations, resource availability, and environmental sustainability. Figure 7: Components of stability

A building will be sustainable if these three components work in conjunction. Each not only interact with each other but have targets of their own. For instance, when looking at technology and material used, durability, maintenance, and recyclability, even economic issues related to the construction, profitability, and building stock value are also considered.

8

1.5. Historical Development of Sustainable Architecture The “S” word, though relatively new to popular culture, is rooted in theories of renewable resources in the early 20th century, particularly with the concept of renewable resource management and “sustained yield”; additionally, in the fields of sustainable agriculture and forestry. And though sustainability has been previously studied in economic, ecological, and social systems, it is the integration of these three that make sustainable concepts truly effective.


1.6. The major developments of the concept of sustainable architecture 1950’s Interest in Vernacular Architecture

1970’s Solar Architecture

An interest in vernacular architecture developed as a reaction to “non-human outcome of modern architecture practices,” was spurred from the ideas of several architects, and lasted for roughly 50 years. For instance, Amos Rapoport’s popular “House form and culture” emphasized vernacular architecture and its multidimensional meanings, addressing climatic resources and socio-cultural factors. Paul Oliver 12 too was influential, citing vernacular architecture as a social and cultural phenomenon. Hassan Fathy put these concepts into practice while developing new villages for Egyptian peasants using available resources, employing self-help methods, applying vernacular construction techniques, and recognizing the social and cultural aspects of architecture.

Previous to the use of the term ‘’sustainable architecture,” the term “solar architecture” expressed the architectural concept of the reduction of the consumption of natural resources and fuels. The intent was that we could conserve our fuel resources through the immediate capture of the available solar energy through appropriate building design. [ 4 ] Before “sustainable architecture” was “solar architecture.” In order to reduce consumption of natural resources and fuels, the intent was to capture available solar energy through appropriate building design.

9


1980’s Ecological and Environmental Architecture

1990’s Sustainable Architecture

Ecological and environmental concerns have expanded well beyond the issue of the consumption of non-renewable energy sources. The massive consumption of all natural resources during the economic boom of the 1980’s, both renewable and non-renewable, has placed a severe strain on global supplied and caused irreparable damage to our atmosphere. [ 5 ]

The World Commission on Environment and Development, through the Brundtland Commission, spurred modern sustainability practices with the release of their report “Our Common Future” in 1987. The commission not only provided a new working definition for sustainability (‘’development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”) but attempted to consider both human needs/wants in conjunction with environmental concerns.

The economic boom of the 1980’s and the resulting mass consumption of natural resources, both renewable and non-renewable, placed a severe strain on global supplies and caused irreparable damage to the atmosphere.

10


CHAPTER ONE

Sustainability in Saudi Arabian buildings

Figure 8: Prim Door

11


12 Figure 9: Janadriyah Festival


1.7. Sustainability in the Saudi Arabian buildings As we’ve seen, sustainability blends environmental, economic, and social interests. Due to our worldwide concerns with these three, the push for sustainable architecture is stronger than ever. The main drivers behind promoting sustainable architecture: •Ecological and energy considerations. •Health-related concerns. •Desire to improve residents’ quality of life. Since climate-responsive design is important in achieving sustainable design, achieving comfort through natural energy sources and systems is key.

Figure 10: Location of Saudi Arabia

Saudi buildings generally do not incorporate these principles; instead there is heavy reliance on air conditioning, which results in high energy output. Due to poorly designed buildings in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, including Saudi Arabia, nearly 80% of household electricity is used for air conditioning and refrigeration purposes.

Figure 11: The concept of sustainable architecture

13


1.8. LITERATURE REVIEW Generally speaking, sustainability encompasses a blend of environmental, economic and social responsibilities. Given recent environmental and energy concerns, there has been a considerable interest in recent years with regard to the concept of sustainable architecture. The main drivers behind promoting sustainable architecture are definitely ecological and energy considerations, as well as some other factors such as health-related concerns and the desire to improve residents’ quality of life. In principle, sustainable buildings relate to the notion of climate-responsive design. This places an emphasis upon natural energy sources and systems with the aim of achieving building comfort through interactions between the dynamic conditions of the building’s environment. [ 6 ] Rapid population growth and increased urbanization in the residential areas and other sectors of Saudi Arabia account for more than half of the country’s energy demand. Further, fossil fuels are most utilized and contribute to the pollution of air, climate, water, and land. Additionally, due to the country being oil rich, solar photovoltaic (PV) is rarely used.

14

Figure 12: Saudi Arabia is projected to have highest population growth in the world


Lastly, due to Saudi Arabia’s lack of rivers or lakes, it is one of the driest regions in the world; hence, the country’s reliance on water desalination plants. With 33 desalination plants, making Saudi Arabia the world’s largest producer of desalinated water, Saudi Arabia’s government clearly has been tackling the country’s water demand. But though resources are limited, Saudi Arabia’s water tariffs, set by the government, are at approximately $0.03/m3, compared with over $6/m3 in many wet regions around the world.

The most significant barriers to incorporating sustainable practices are that there appears to be no pressing need to improve energy/water efficiency. This belief is due to the country having: • • • •

Abundant oil reserves. Subsided electricity and water prices. A lack of awareness with regard to environmental concerns. A lack of regulations and policies in terms of sustainable construction implementation.

15


Figure 13: Madain Saleh


TWO Physical Features and Climate of Saudi Arabia

CHAPTER


18 Figure 14: Janadriyah Festival


2.1. Location of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia comprises about four-fifths of the Arabian Peninsula, a land mass constituting a distinct geographical entity, bordered on the west by the Red Sea, on the south by the Indian Ocean and on the east by the Arabian Gulf. The Kingdom itself, which occupies approximately 2,250,000 square kilometers (868,730 square miles) is bounded on the north by Jordan, Iraq and Kuwait; on the east by the Gulf, Bahrain, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates; on the south by the Sultanate of Oman and Yemen; and on the west by the Red Sea. Located between Africa and mainland Asia, with long frontiers on the Red Sea and the Arabian Gulf and with the Suez Canal near to its north-west border, the Kingdom lies in a strategically important position.

Figure 15: Location of Saudi Arabia

[7]

19


2.2. Geographical Regions of the Kingdom The geographic conditions of each region are the factors that affect the climate elements of that region. Latitude, altitude, and distance from sea or ocean are geographic conditions, considered as climatic factors which affect the climatic elements. These elements are the amount of solar radiation, temperature, humidity, precipitation and also wind intensities and directions.[ 8 ] Geographically, Saudi Arabia is divided into four (and if the Rub al-Khali is included, five) major regions. 1. 2. 3. 4.

20

The Central region, a high country in the heart of the Kingdom. The Western region, which lies along the Red Sea coast. The Southern region, in the southern Red Sea-Yemen border area. The Eastern region, the sandy and stormy eastern part of Saudi Arabia.

Figure 16: Geographical Regions of Saudi Arabia


2.3. Exploring the desert climate

2.4. Exploring the hot desert climate

The desert climate:

Hot desert climates are found/located:

• • • • •

Does not meet the criteria to be classified as a polar climate. Precipitation is too low to sustain any vegetation. Formed by high- pressure zones in which cold air descends, becomes warm but, instead of releasing rain, the heat from the ground evaporates the water before it can come down as rain. Maximum temperatures of 40 to 45°C are common, although during colder periods of the year, night- time temperatures can drop to freezing or below due to the exceptional radiation loss under the clear skies at night. Two or three variations of a desert climate: a hot desert climate, a cold desert climate, and a mild desert climate.

Under the subtropical ridge where there is largely unbroken sunshine for the whole year due to the stable descending air and high pressure.

Figure 17: Map of desert climate

• In the Sahara, the Arabian, Syrian and Kalahari Deserts, large parts of Iran, southern and central Pakistan, northwest India, the southwestern United States, Northern Mexico, and much of Australia. •

Between 30 degrees south and 30 north latitude.

Figure 18: Sahara Desert 21


2.5. Climate of Saudi Arabia

2.7. Climate Challenges

The climate of Saudi Arabia is marked by high temperatures during the day and low temperatures at night. Most of the country follows the pattern of the desert climate, with the exception of the southwest. [ 9 ]

Saudi Arabia faces environmental challenges caused by climate. The climate in Saudi Arabia is generally harsh, dry desert conditions with extreme temperature differences ranging from -11째C to 51.1째C. Therefore, Saudi Arabia ranked in the Top 20 most environmentally challenged countries in the world.

2.6. Climate of Riyadh City Summer temperatures are very hot, approaching 50 degrees Celsius. The average high temperature in July is 43.5째C. Winters are mild with cold, windy nights. The overall climate is arid, receiving very little rainfall, but the city receives a fair amount of rain in March and April. It is also known to have many dust storms. The dust is often so thick that visibility is under 10 meters.[10 ]

Figure 19: Climate data for Riyadh

22


CHAPTER TWO

Sustainable Features of TheVernacular Architecture

Figure 20: Riyadh heritage

23


24 Figure 21: Meshrefa Mousque


2.8. Definition of Vernacular Architecture

2.9. Vernacular Architecture of Old Riyadh

Vernacular architecture is a category of architecture based on localized needs and construction materials, and reflecting local traditions. Vernacular architecture tends to evolve over time to reflect the environmental, cultural, technological, and historical context in which it exists. It has often been dismissed as crude and unrefined, but also has proponents who highlight its importance in current design.

The old town of Riyadh within the city Walls did not exceed an area of 1 square km, therefore there are very few significant architectural remnants of the original walled oasis town of Riyadh exist today. The most prominent is the al-Masmak Castle and some parts of the original wall structure with its gate which have been restored and reconstructed. There are also a number of traditional mud-brick houses within these old limits, however they are for the most part dilapidated. There are also a number of traditional mud-brick houses within these old limits, however they are for the most part dilapidated.[ 11 ] The old oasis town of Riyadh within the city walls does not exceed 1 square km, therefore there are very few significant architectural remnants left. The al-Masmak Castle, some parts of the original wall structure (with its gate intact), a number of traditional (though dilapidated) mud-brick houses, however, have been restored and reconstructed.

25


2.10. Lessons learned and Conclusion It would appear that incorporating vernacular architectural principles is the best way to build sustainably. Many recent studies have demonstrated both the value and appropriateness of learning from vernacular architecture for sustainability. Highlights include:   • Naciri (2007) emphasizes that the “weather- oriented structures of vernacular architecture are full of lessons that could inspire the designers interested in passive climate controls.” [ 12 ] •

Sundarraja, et al. (2009) argues that vernacular architecture studies will provide “useful insights for designing contemporary buildings by taking design clues from vernacular buildings.” [ 13 ]

•  

Dayaratne (2003) shows how “indigenous architecture has been inherently sustainable and how some of the modern architects have employed their principles in creating architecture that is appropriate to culture and kinder to the environment.” [ 14 ]

26

 Modern technology, though, has aided in ridding our communities of traditional construction skills and designing environmentally sensitive buildings. Mechanical means of ventilation are present in most buildings, which increases energy cost. Vernacular buildings, however, tend to be climate-responsive in many ways. Traditionally, builders used knowledge passed from generation to generation to ensure that their buildings could modify the impact of a hostile outdoor environment. That is one of the reasons behind the pressing need to move forward with vernacular principles and to truly become more sustainable.


Figure 22: Desert Safari

27


Figure 23: Atturaif


Case Studies

CHAPTER

THREE


30 Figure 24: Al Musmak Castle


CASE STUDY Al Musmak Castle, Riyadh-Saudi Arabia

1 31


3.1. DESCRIPTION TYPOLOGY : Fort, Palace, Museum

CHARACTERISTICS : Urban context

CONCEPTS : Military fort, Storehouse

32

Musmak means the thick, high and fortified was built year 1865 it is a mud brick and clay with four watch towers and thick walls, played as one of notable major part of the Kingdom History which is located at the central district of al-batha, Riyadh old quarter. Not only does the Castle represent the recent culture in the area but also is a focal point in history of Riyadh and that of the nation. The palace is accessed through a gate situated on the west wall. Built of palm tree trunks, this gate is 3.6 meters high and 2.65 meters wide. It leads to an open courtyard preceding the mosque on the north. The prayer space is a hypostyle room lit and ventilated from above. Across the gate, to the east, a door leads to the diwaniyeh, which is lit through triangular apertures on the west and south walls. The walls of the diwaniyeh are still covered with the original plaster. In the center of the fort, a fifth crenellated tower, rectangular in plan, is attached to the mosque and the diwaniyeh. Behind this tower, several rooms are arranged around a colonnaded courtyard. From there, stairs lead to the second floor housing the governor’s residence, the treasury and the guesthouse.[ 15 ]


3.2. CONCEPTS OF IMPORTANCE The architecture is a wonderful display of culture and function. The mud buildings were made in such a way that the adobe (clay mixed with hay or grasses) acted as a natural insulation from the heat during the summer and the cold during the winter. The tall ceilings allowed the hot air flow to rise up to the ceilings where the small windows pulled the air out.[ 16 ] Figure 26: Al Musmak Castle

Figure 27: Al Musmak Castle

Figure 25: Al Musmak Castle

Figure 28: Al Musmak Castle

33


34 Figure 29: Tuwaiq Palace


2

CASE STUDY Tuwaiq Palace, Riyadh-Saudi Arabia

35


3.3. DESCRIPTION TYPOLOGY : Landscape, Public/Pultural, Recreation and Sport

CHARACTERISTICS : 24,000 m.sq, Urban context

CONCEPTS : Light and Heavy, Garden and Desert, Modern and Traditional Technology, Openness and Solidity

36

The Tuwaiq Palace, initially designed as the Diplomatic Club, is a response to the unique opportunities presented by the site in the Diplomatic Quarter, a design worthy of the majestic promontory site overlooking the sweeping Wadi Hanifeh below. At the heart of the concept is the need for physical protection from the environment in contrast to the desire to view the unique panorama available from the site. The concept became one of a series of contrasts: light and heavy, garden and desert, modern and traditional technology, openness and solidity. Statistically, the tuwaiq Palace which was originally designed as a club for the Diplomatic Community contains 24,000 m.sq. of recreational, social, dining, banqueting, conference and accommodation functions. Such diverse functions as a tenpin bowling alley, creche, billiards, library, secretariates and hotel rooms are combined with the usual club facilities of swimming, tennis, squash, sauna, exercise, lounges, social rooms and formal and informal dining. All technical, mechanical and staff-related functions to support such a facility are included within the Palace. Project was awarded after winning a limited design competition.[ 17 ]


3.4. Description of The Environmental Conditions The Tuwaiq Palace hosts government functions, state receptions, and cultural festivals that introduce Saudi arts and customs to the international community, and vice versa. The building is enclosed by inclined curved walls, forming a sinuous curvilinear spine 800 m long, 12 m high, and 7-13 m wide, used for guest services and accommodations. It encloses outdoor sports facilities, gardens, and extensive landscaping laid out in a pattern of complementary spirals, circles, and curves, in harmony with the building’s undulations. Mushrooming from the spine are tents supported by tensile-structure technology. [ 18 ]

The tents enclose the large-scale spaces: main lounges, reception areas, multi-purpose halls, restaurants, and a cafe. The landscape plan provides a dramatic contrast between the lush greenery of the outdoor spaces enclosed by the spine and the arid rocky plateau beyond its walls. Taken as a whole, the design makes reference to two local archetypes - the fortress and the tent - and reproduces the natural phenomenon of oases. Reinforced concrete, and steel masts and cables, comprise the basic structural materials of the building. The white tents are made of Teflon-coated, woven fibre fabric. Those facing the garden are of cable nets coated with custom-made, glazed blue ceramic tiles fastened to timber battens. The tents are enclosed by glass walls

Figure 30: Tuwaiq Palace

37


The landscape plan provides a dramatic contrast between the lush greenery of the outdoor spaces enclosed by the spine and the arid rocky plateau beyond its walls. Figure 31: Tuwaiq Palace 38


Figure 32: Tuwaiq Palace 39


Figure 33: Tuwaiq Palace

40


Figure 34: Tuwaiq Palace

41


42 Figure 35: Breakwater Beacon


3

CASE STUDY King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia

43


3.5. DESCRIPTION TYPOLOGY : Research University, Houses, Laboratories

CHARACTERISTICS : 511,000 sq. m, Urban context

The mission of KAUST’s internationally renowned scientists is to address humanity’s most urgent scientific challenges related to energy and the environment. Interdisciplinary research being conducted at KAUST includes pursuing sustainable solutions for water, energy and food.[ 19 ] The project team had less than 30 months to design and construct 5.5 million square feet of complex space across 27 buildings. The campus features 2 million square feet of laboratory space spread across four interconnected, 500,000-sq.-ft. buildings. Exceptionally flexible building shells and universal floor plates accommodate virtually every lab type.

44


KAUST is the largest LEED Platinum project ever built, and was done so at a rapid pace. The design team was tasked with building a contemporary work of architecture that would resonate with the global scientific community while being firmly rooted in local Saudi culture as well as using minimal energy and being highly sustainable. To combat the hot, desert climate, HOK incorporated a number of modern and traditional architectural techniques. Figure 36: KAUST

Figure 37: KAUST 45


Facts 100% Amount of wastewater that is reused. 42% Reduction in water use. 27.1% Annual energy cost savings. 7.8% Amount of on-site renewable energy. 80% Amount of glazing that is shaded yearround.

Figure 38: KAUST 46


Figure 39: KAUST 47


48 Figure 40: KAPSARC


4

CASE STUDY King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center, Riyadh-Saudi Arabia

49


3.6. DESCRIPTION TYPOLOGY : Laboratories

CHARACTERISTICS : 28,500 sq. m, Urban context

KAPSARC’s iconic Center is set to re-define Riyadh’s architectural landscape with Zaha Hadid Architects as the driving force behind its design. The modular and adaptive nature of the building gives rise to various facilities including an energy library, meeting areas, gardens, terraces and more.[ 20 ] A cellular structure of crystalline forms will soon emerge from the desert landscape—the iconic Center being built for KAPSARC by the world-renowned Zaha Hadid Architects. Composed of a network of three-dimensional, six-sided cells with many junctions and bonds, its design is based on the concept of connection. The modular, adaptive building will be made up of a series of shaded outdoor spaces, courtyards, entrances, meeting areas, indoor gardens, corridors, underground tunnels and roof terraces.

50


The architecture is intended to foster meetings, both planned and serendipitous, and the collision of thoughts, ideas and cultures of people all brought together for a specific purpose. In the hub of the complex, the Research Center, KAPSARC’s multiple research teams will interact in surroundings conceived to accommodate working methods and technologies that may shift over time. Figure 41: KAPSARC

Figure 42: KAPSARC 51


The center emerges from the desert landscape as a cellular structure of crystalline firms, shifting and evolving in response to environmental conditions and functional requirements.

Figure 43: KAPSARC 52

Figure 44: KAPSARC


Figure 45: KAPSARC 53


Figure 46: KAPSARC 54


Figure 47: KAPSARC

Figure 48: KAPSARC 55


56 Figure 49: Courtesy of Maxthreads Architectural Design


CASE STUDY NW Beijing technology and research center, Beijing, China

5 57


3.7. DESCRIPTION TYPOLOGY : Laboratories

Project Components : Laboratories, Energy Research Center, Office buildings IT Center, Open Public Space

58

The urban concept strategy by Maxthreads Architectural Design for the NW Beijing technology and research center pursues the maximization of open public space on the ground level of the site, including a canal walk area, open spaces and car park area. The mass of the new building is therefore raised into the first floor level. This open space is important to activate the site and the new research center. It is also important as an appropriate take off point or point of termination) for the overall site area sustainable mechanics. They are proposing a generous, diagonal underpass that emerges from the site environment and grand connective gesture. More images and project description after the break.[ 21 ]


NW Beijing technology and research center for the applications of computer technology is located at the intersection of a motorway, bordering the facilities of IT company NW tech. It consists of office buildings, laboratories and experimental energy research center. The greatest possible degree of spatial flexibility was specified, in order to be able to incorporate new machinery and technical resources without interfering in day to day center operations. Figure 50: Courtesy of Maxthreads Architectural Design

Figure 51: Courtesy of Maxthreads Architectural Design 59


The primary intention was to create instantly recognizable buildings for the research center that was vivid in its individuality, with flexibility being one of the key objectives. The architectural expression for the research center has been inspired by the well organized computing system.

Figure 52: Courtesy of Maxthreads Architectural Design 60

As an artificial computing threading that run through the main faรงade. It also equip with solar tracking system to minimize the direct sun light penetration.


The urban intentions that are emphasized with the placement of the building volumes are further pursued and complemented with the articulation of this volume. The volume is open up between the center of the two research center, direction to communicate with the open public space as well as direct connection for large volume of personnel access every day.[ 22 ]

This large, inviting opening becomes a strategy which cleared all the way through the building to connect with all site buildings. This opening communicates diagonally in both plan and section and thus accommodates to the typography. By extending the ground opening area allows the eco-system to extend through the site.

Figure 53: Courtesy of Maxthreads Architectural Design 61


62 Figure 54: la cuarta ventana


3.8. Lessons learned • Site design and layout is one of the most important aspects when implementing the concept of sustainability. •

When providing a courtyard one must consider the internal / external environmental conditions of the building.

• Providing shade to the open spaces between the project. • Filtering daylight using trees, plants, and green roofs. •

In terms of external facades of the building one must consider direction, design of the openings and the incorporation of adequate skin.

63


Figure 55: Asir


FOUR SCHEMATIC DESIGN

CHAPTER


66 Figure 56: Solar Panels


4.1. Goals and Objectives of the Research 1.

Creating interactive ( Indoor & Outdoor ) design Solutions.

As much as possible, greens areas should be added inside and outside the buildings.

Figure 57:Atrium courtyard

Figure 58: OFFICE building atrium

67


2.

Creating thermal comfort for the building users, by providing :

• Sensitive cells that control the envelope’s elements. • Kinematic envelopes. • Energy gathering envelops. Figure 60: View of the facade at Masdar Institue

Figure 59: Solar Panels 68

Figure 61: Arab World Institute


3.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Buildings energy requirements should be obtained from alternative and renewable resources (wind, sun, etc).

SENSOR-CONTROLLED MIST JETS WEATHER STATION INNER SOCK

Figure 62: The operation mechanism of this modern wind tower

Figure 63: Masdar Institute Courtyard 69


Figure 65: Rendering of Masdar Headquarter

Figure 64:The roof canopy water collection strategy 70

Figure 66: Sectional perspective noting the building’s zoning


Figure 67: Bird’s View of Masdar Plaza 71


4.

Building Design should allow the free air movement inside and outside, as well as natural light and ventilation provisions for all buildings spaces should be supported.

Figure 68: Round skylights in the domes

Figure 69: Section at California Academy of Sciences 72

Figure 70: Rainforest interior


5.

Use of architectural compositions and expressions that reflects, corresponds to, and inspired by local culture and traditions on Riyadh city.

Figure 71: Tuwaiq Palace

Figure 72: KING FAHAD NATIONAL LIBRARY

Figure 73: KING FAHAD NATIONAL LIBRARY 73


4.2. SCHEMATIC DESIGN CONCEPT This thesis attempts to investigate ways of using sustainable architecture for a desert climate to achieve better levels of energy efficiency in a research facility. Extensive research has proved performative architecture to be a viable solution for extreme climatic issues such as heat. With the incorporation of responsive building materials and data analysis, this research facility becomes a paradigm for architects, encouraging site specific architecture that addresses the welfare and health of its end users.

74


4.3. SITE SELECTION The Riyadh Techno Valley (RTV) is one of the contributions of King Saud University in building partnership with the public and private sectors in the area of knowledge economics. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has adopted a long term economic strategy that shifts its focus to develop a knowledge-based economy. King Saud University (KSU) is seeking to play a full part in this strategy through the development of a substantial science and technology park, “Riyadh Techno Valley King Saud University (RTV-KSU)�, on its Riyadh campus. Through this project, KSU aims to satisfy the demands of the knowledge-based industries, and to commercialize its research outcomes, in addition to enhancing the research environment and encouraging researchers and graduates to participate in the incubation program and to establish spin-off knowledge-based companies.

75


4.4. Site Analysis The Project Details Location : RIYADH CITY, SAUDI ARABIA

Neighborhood : Riyadh Technology Valley, King Saud University

Building Types : Research Center Figure 74: Map of Saudi Arabia

Figure 75: Map of Riyadh city 76


Figure 76: Map of King Saud University 77


4.5. RTV - Riyadh Technology Valley, King Saud University Why King Saud University? Many factors distinguish King Saud University as a unique scientific and educational institution including:

Enjoying infrastructure valued over 70 billion Saudi Riyal, ($ 18.7 billion).

Located uniquely in the capital of the Kingdom.

Having the King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology & Prince Sultan Institute for Advanced Technology on its premises, along with laboratories and research centers in America, China, Germany, Sweden, and the United Kingdom.

Benefiting from a global network of alliances with top universities and research centers in more than 12 developed countries.

Signing service contracts with 14 Nobel Prize winners in various scientific specialties.

Ranking as number one in the Arab world for patents registered.

78


About RTV Riyadh Technology Valley was established to achieve the vision of Kingdom leadership to enter the “knowledge economy” which means “to convert knowledge into economic value” through the conversion of technical inventions to innovations and new products for trading and investing economically in the market.[ 23 ]

VISION Leadership in research, and business development, as well as technology transfer.[ 23 ]

MISSION To establish an eco-System in order to attract R&BD centers towards creating a competitive knowledge based economy to achieve sustainable development.[ 23 ] Figure 77: Land Use in RTV

79


4.6. External Influences

National Diabetes Center

Researchers Housing Towers

Figure 78: Existing Land Use Map 80


Riyadh Techno Valley Building

King Abdullah Institute For Nanotechnology

Prince Sultan Advanced Technology Research Institute

81


External Influences Vehicular circulation pattern

Pedestrian circulation pattern

Figure 79: Vehicular circulation pattern

Figure 80: Pedestrian circulation pattern

82


External Influences Site Dimensions

Sun Path Diagram

Figure 81: Site Dimensions

Figure 82: Sun Path Diagram

83


4.7. Datascape

Figure 83: Datascape Diagram 84


4.8. Project Program

85


4.9. PRELIMINARY DESIGN Concept 1 In the first concept, there was an attempt to recruit some environmental solutions, in order to improve the situation of the building from inside and outside through the use of:

Figure 84: Concept 1 86

• Wind Towers. • Green Roof. • Shading Devices.


Figure 85: Concept 1 87


Concept 2

Figure 86: Concept 2

88


Concept 3

Figure 87: Concept 3

89


Concept 4

Figure 88: Concept 4, Wind Circulation 90


Figure 89: Ground Floor 91


Concept 4

Figure 90: Site Plan 92


Figure 91: Birds view perspective 93


Concept 4

Figure 92: Initial Visualization 94


95


MID - TERM PRESENTATION

96

Figure 93: Mid-Term Presentation


97


4.10. MID - TERM PRESENTATION The project was presented at mid - term to Mitra Kanaani and Gilbert Cooke. The comments were generally related to the actual processing solutions of the building in terms of sustainability. There was a broad discussion about the importance of taking advantage of the interior courtyard to improve the internal environment for all project spaces. Additional comments suggested waterways and trees as viable solution to reduce the temperature of the outside air. The building enveloped served as a shading device for external spaces.

98


Figure 94: Birds view perspective 99


Figure 95: Transitional Spaces 100


Figure 96: Night view of the Transitional Spaces 101


Figure 97: West Elevation 102


103


Figure 98: Central Courtyard 104


Figure 99: Laboratories Department 105


Concept & Masses

Sketches

Research Center for Renewable Energy

4.11. FINAL DESIGN PRESENTATION

106

Figure 100: Final Design Presentation

5+1 MASTER OF ARC


T

URKI ALZAHRANI

Instructor : Kanaani ,

M

TURKI ALZAHRANI

itra

Instructor : Kanaani ,

Mitra

3Rd Floor

Building Energy Simulation

Second Floor

Ground Floor

CHITECTURE

Buildings with the Envelope

Department of Education

Awareness Zone

structural Analysis

Buildings without the Envelope

Your work is going to fill a large part of your life,and the only way to be truly satisfied is to do what you believe is great work. And the only way to do great work is to love what you do. Steve Jobs

Transition Space

Main Lobby

107


4.12. Building Energy Simulation

PHASE ONE : Buildings without the Envelope

Figure 101: Building Energy Simulation Analysis 108

PHASE TWO : Buildings with the Envelope


4.13. Structural Analysis

Figure 102: Building Structural Analysis 109


Figure 103: Construction Perspective 110


Figure 104: Construction Perspective 111


Figure 105: Section A-A 112


113


Figure 106: Section B-B 114


115


Figure 107: Ground Floor Plan 116


Figure 108: First Floor Plan

Figure 109: Second Floor Plan

Figure 110: wall section detail 117


118

Figure 111:3D view Cut Section Rendered Perspective


119


120

Figure 112: Awareness Zone


121


122

Figure 113: Street Perspective


123


124

Figure 114: Night View Perspective


125


126

Figure 115:Courtyard Perspective


127


128

Figure 116: Birds view perspective


129


130

Figure 117: Exterior Perspective


131


132

Figure 118: Main Lobby Perspective


133


Figure 119: less is more


CONCLUSIONS

CHAPTER

less is more FIVE


5.1. CONCLUSIONS This thesis has taken a deep look at the extreme climate problems of Saudi Arabia. The intensity of the heat forces buildings to use incredible amounts of power therefore wasting energy that this country so desperately needs. It goes without saying that not only will this heat cause buildings to waste this precious energy, but also create an environment that is completely unbearable in relation to human comfort. This thesis has proposed an architecture that uses some of the most basic and sophisticated ideas of sustainability. Basic ideas such as atriums to allow for natural ventilation and air flow assist in maximizing building comfort and are a strategy that has been used for years. Even the use of wind tunnels which have been utilized in this thesis are methods of conserving energy and have been around the architectural industry for quite some time. This thesis has also proposed more sophisticated ideas of sustainability such as an advanced building skin system.

136

This skin not only reduces the temperature of the structure by more than 50% but also reveals the culture of its surrounding cultural significance. The water path integrated with this thesis design also acts as a key sustainable feature by improving air quality while simultaneously reducing building temperature. After working with local thermal consultants the project proposed had positive results. The building proved to provide 70% of the energy produced created from natural elements such as sun and wind.


If one were to go back and re-evaluate the studies taken place in this research one would realize that sustainability is such an important factor in today’s architecture. Saudi Arabia is a country that could certainly take advantage of the research and design proposals this thesis offers with its extreme climate factors. Items that could be looked at in further detail would include the mechanical engineering aspects of the design proposal within this thesis. A study of the mechanics is necessary to maximize and utilize the technology proposed within this thesis.

If this thesis is looked at in depth and architects take note, these ideas could provide a prototype for the future of sustainability. Our buildings may have the capacity to live and thrive completely off the environment and transform the way we use energy today.

137


138


REFERENCES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Adams, W. M. Green Development : Environment and Sustainability in the Third World, Routledge, London and New York, 1990. Ehrilich, S. Flexner, G. Carruth, and J. Hawkins, Oxford American Dictionary, Oxford University Press, 1980. Kremers, Jack A., Defining Sustainable Architecture, Architronic, 1995. Kremers, Jack A., Defining Sustainable Architecture, Architronic, 1995. Boake, Terri Meyer, Sustainability & Construction Technology : An Attitude in Support of Quality, Architronic, 1996. Hyde R. Climate responsive design : a study of buildings in moderate and hot humid climates. London: E. & F. N. Spon; 2000. Peel, M. C.; B. L. Finlayson and T. A. McMahon (2007). “Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification” Vincent P. Saudi Arabia : an environmental overview. London: Taylor & Francis; 2008. Climate of Saudi Arabia. http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Climate_of_Saudi_Arabia. Retrieved November 23, 2011. Miller, David,” surface annual climatological report”, 2009.

11. Vernacular architecture of Old Riyadh. http:// www.scta.gov.sa/en/Pages/default.aspx. Retrieved on 22 August 2010. 12. Naciri, N., Sustainable features of the Vernacular Architecture, Available: http:// www.solaripedia.com/files/488.pdf. Accessed on 25th November 2011. 13. Sundarraja, M., Radhakrishnan, S. and Priya, R. Understanding Vernacular Architecture as a tool for Sustainability, 10th National Conference on Technological Trends, Trivanduram, 2009. 14. Dayaratne, R. Earth Architecture for Contemporary Urban Living: Prospects and Potentials in Open House International, 2003. 15. King, Geoffrey., The Traditional Architecture of Saudi Arabia. London, 1998. 16. Fayez, Zuhair H., A Cultural Perspective. Jeddah, 1988. 17. Davidson, Cynthia C., “Tuwaiq Palace.” In Legacies for the Future: Contemporary Architecture in Islamic Societies. London, 1998. 18. Davidson, Cynthia C., “Tuwaiq Palace.” In Legacies for the Future: Contemporary Architecture in Islamic Societies. London, 1998.

139


19. 20. 21. 22. 23.

140

King Abdullah University of Science and Technology. http://www.hok.com/design/type/ science-technology/king-abdullah-university-of- science-and-technology/. Retrieved 2011. Bridgette, Meinhold., Zaha Hadid’s Petroleum Research Center (Ironically) Aims For LEED Platinum. http://inhabitat.com/zaha-hadids- petroleum-research-center-ironically-aims-for- leed-platinum/. Retrieved September 2, 2011. Furuto , Alison., “NW Beijing Inc. Research Center and Offices, Maxthreads Architectural Design” 2011. Furuto , Alison., “NW Beijing Inc. Research Center and Offices, Maxthreads Architectural Design” 2011. Riyadh Technology Valley. http://www.rtv.com.sa/ Default.aspx. 2011.


141


142


LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE TITLE SOURCE PAGE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25-28 29

In the name of allah the beneficent the merciful Abdullah AlButairi I Sand Storm in Riyadh Eissa Al Shamari Water Dam Ianwar horizon 1 Waleed Sherif King Abdullah Financial District 2 Wall of Masmak Fort Lucie Debelkova 5 Old Water Hole Abu Salman 6 Components of stability Turki ALZahrani 8 Prim Door Mishari ALHumaid 11 Janadriyah Festival Mark Caidic 12 Location of Saudi Arabia www.climate-zone.com 13 The concept of sustainable architecture Turki ALZahrani 13 Saudi Arabia is the highest population growth in the world www.smh.com.au 14 Madain Saleh Jimmy Villa 16 Janadriyah Festival Nayef Ben Abdelaziz 18 Location of Saudi Arabia www.climate-zone.com 19 Geographical Regions of Saudi Arabia www.wikipedia.org 20 Map of desert climate www.climate-zone.com

21 Sahara Desert Abdulmalik 21 Climate data for Riyadh www.climate-zone.com 22 Riyadh heritage Eissa Al Shamari 23 Meshrefa Mousque Najla ALKhalifa 24 Al HaNa Al Junaidel Desert Safari 27 Atturaif Dan Henderer 28

Al Musmak Castle ALAMEER, ALI 30 Al Musmak Castle www.urbplandep.alriyadh.gov.sa 33 Dan Henderer 34 Tuwaiq Palace 143


FIGURE TITLE SOURCE PAGE 30-34

35 36-39 40-48 49-53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72-73 74-75 76 144

The Aga Khan Award for Architecture 37-41 Tuwaiq Palace Breakwater Beacon ANDRE VENTER 42 KAUST www.hok.com 45-47 KAPSARC www. inhabitat.com 48-55 Courtesy of Maxthreads Architectural Design www.archdaily.com 56-61 la cuarta ventana Bachmont 62 Asir Charles Fred 64 Solar Panels Tim Phillips 66 Atrium courtyard Ruth Stevens 67 OFFICE building atrium Robert Randall 67 www.archdaily.com 68 Kinematic envelopes View of the facade at Masdar Institue www.masdarcity.ae 68 Arab World Institute www.insightcitiz.com 68 The operation mechanism of this modern wind tower Wissam Yassine 69 Masdar Institute Courtyard Wissam Yassine 69 The roof canopy water collection strategy Karim Elgendy 70 Rendering of Masdar Headquarter Karim Elgendy 70

Sectional perspective noting the building’s zoning Karim Elgendy 70 Bird’s View of Masdar Plaza Simon 71 Round skylights in the domes Tim Griffth 72 Section at California Academy of Sciences Tim Griffth 72 Rainforest interior Tim Griffth 72 Tuwaiq Palace www.freiotto.com 73

KING FAHAD NATIONAL LIBRARY GERBER ARCHITEKTEN 73 Map of Saudi Arabia www.worldatlas.com 76 Map of King Saud University www.ksu.edu.sa 77


FIGURE TITLE SOURCE PAGE 77

78 79 80 81 82 83 84-85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103

www.rtv.com.sa 79 Land Use in RTV Existing Land Use Map Turki ALZahrani 80-81 Vehicular circulation pattern Turki ALZahrani 82 Turki ALZahrani 82 Pedestrian circulation pattern Site Dimensions Turki ALZahrani 83 Sun Path Diagram Turki ALZahrani 83 Datascape Diagram Turki ALZahrani 84 Concept 1 Turki ALZahrani 86-87 Concept 2 Turki ALZahrani 88 Concept 3 Turki ALZahrani 89 Turki ALZahrani Concept 4, Wind Circulation 90 Ground Floor Turki ALZahrani 91 Site Plan Turki ALZahrani 92 Birds view perspective Turki ALZahrani 93 Initial Visualization Turki ALZahrani 94-95 Mid-Term Presentation Turki ALZahrani 96-97 Birds view perspective Turki ALZahrani

99 Transitional Spaces Turki ALZahrani 100 Night view of the Transitional Spaces Turki ALZahrani 101 West Elevation Turki ALZahrani 102-103 Central Courtyard Turki ALZahrani 104 Turki ALZahrani Laboratories Department 105 Final Design Presentation Turki ALZahrani

106-107 Building Energy Simulation Analysis Turki ALZahrani 108 Building Structural Analysis Turki ALZahrani 109 Construction Perspective Turki ALZahrani 110 145


FIGURE TITLE SOURCE PAGE 104

105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119

146

Turki ALZahrani Construction Perspective 111 Section A-A Turki ALZahrani 112-113 Turki ALZahrani Section B-B 114-115 Turki ALZahrani 116 Ground Floor Plan First Floor Plan Turki ALZahrani 117 Second Floor Plan Turki ALZahrani 117 Wall section detail Turki ALZahrani 117 3D view Cut Section Rendered Perspective Turki ALZahrani 118-119 Awareness Zone Turki ALZahrani 120-121 Street Perspective Turki ALZahrani 122-123 Turki ALZahrani Night View Perspective 124-125 Courtyard Perspective Turki ALZahrani 126-127 Birds view perspective Turki ALZahrani 128-129 Exterior Perspective Turki ALZahrani 130-131 Main Lobby Perspective Turki ALZahrani 132-133 less is more Turki ALZahrani 134-135


147



Sustainable architecture in hot desert climate of saudi arabia by turki alzahrani