Repopulating Abandoned Neighborhoods by Rehousing Homeless Families
Karen L. Miller M. Arch Final Creative Project Ball State University Muncie, IN Spring 2012 Advisors: Janice Shimizu and Wes Janz
From Neglected to Respected:
Repopulating Abandoned Neighborhoods by Rehousing Homeless Families Karen L. Miller M. Arch Final Creative Project Ball State University Muncie, IN Spring 2012 Advisors: Janice Shimizu and Wes Janz
-To my advisors, Janice and Wes, for encouraging me throughout the process, pushing me through the struggles, presenting me with new ideas, and challenging me to to create a new way of thinking -To my roommates and classmates for a memorable year of comraderie, support, and watching musicals in studio -To Olon Dotson, Duncan Campbell, Karen Keddy, and Josh Coggeshall for informal advice through the year, opening my eyes, pushing me, and helping me develop my project via explorations in their courses -To my amazing family for such incredible support this year and my whole life - I would not be here without you -To those who met with me in Baltimore: The Zeiglers for providing me a place to stay and means to get to all of my interviews; Edward Sabatino, Klaus Philipsen, Michael Seipp, Jennifer Leonard, Dennis Miller, Stephen Campbell, Lynette Boswell, Sandra Thomas, and Linda Moorhead for taking time out of their busy schedules to help me better understand the challenges they face and try to improve every day -To Carl Cleary for providing a wealth of invaluable information regarding Reservoir Hill -To my non-architecture friends that have always been understanding and willing to provide a reprieve from work
From Neglected to Respected
Abstract..................................................................................1 Literature Review.................................................................2 Interviews.............................................................................20 Case Studies........................................................................26 Site Documentation...........................................................52 Developing Criteria...........................................................62 Design Proposal.................................................................74 Credits and References.....................................................91
Table of Contents iii
From Neglected to Respected
Since 1950, the City of Baltimore has lost 35% of its population due to a loss of industrial jobs, white flight, and a massive exodus to the suburbs. When the citizens fled from the city, they left behind an estimated 15,000-40,000 abandoned buildings within the city limits. Though many people have left Baltimore, at least 24,000 of the remaining residents are homeless each year. Cities have been addressing the issues of abandoned buildings and homeless populations separately, when a combined solution could help ameliorate both problems. Abandonment can begin to degrade a communityâ€™s sense of stewardship and stimulate further blight and illicit activity. This project is set in a neighborhood that has suffered from decades of disinvestment and has ten percent vacancy: it is on the tipping point of becoming more abandoned or becoming repopulated into strong community. The neighborhood would benefit from the addition of the formerly homeless population and additional supportive services for both the individuals and the community. It has been proven that solely providing emergency shelters results in a cycle of homelessness and does not solve the problem. Additionally, many people do not seek out services due to general dehumanizing process the lack of choices and security. The sheer amount of available rowhouses in Baltimore provides the opportunity for designers to begin housing the homeless in a more personal and thoughtfully designed manner: rather than fitting as many beds as possible into a lifeless space, individuals and families have their own rooms and live on their own schedule. A variety of community-oriented spaces allow the users to decide their own appropriate level of participation. Providing communal kitchens, dining, and living spaces adjacent to an urban garden offers the residents a chance to gain a sense of community from the first day in the shelter system. The historic fabric will be maintained and rebuilt by reinvesting in the neglected abandoned buildings and homeless population. Community involvement will grow and begin to enrich and link the overall neighborhoodâ€™s services and residents together.
From Neglected to Respected
"The central city was becoming a place to leave... Perceptions of rising crime, failing schools, and racial divisions all helped to push people out. White flight occurred as middle-class whites in particular made the move out to the suburbs. The move to the suburbs was not only made easy but also for many made inevitable." - John Rennie Short
Many postindustrial American cities are suffering from a loss of jobs and population due to various contributing factors. Since 1950, cities such as Baltimore, Pittsburgh, Cleveland, and Detroit have lost between 35% and 61% of their populations; since 2000, the same cities have lost 5-25% of their residents. For a look at the population change in Baltimore from 1950-2010, refer to Figure 1. Though some cities saw population loss and vacancy in the overall metropolitan area, Baltimore’s metropolitan population is continually increasing while the city faces a steady decrease. In August 2011, the average unemployment rate for the United States was 9.1%, with some cities reaching up to 30% (United States Department of Labor, 2011). Baltimore’s unemployment rate for August 2011 was higher than the national average, at 11.1% (Maryland Department of Labor, Licensing, and Regulation, 2011). This rise in unemployment and increase in foreclosures has resulted in further abandonment of the city and a rising rate of homelessness. Cities are now facing extreme peril, as there are less federal, state, and city funds to support efforts for aiding the homeless or helping eliminate abandoned buildings. Baltimore provides an appropriate setting for these issues, as it epitomizes a shrinking city with excess vacant building stock. The city has also tried to implement some innovative strategies to try to ameliorate the problem of rising abandonment and rising chronic homelessness. Abandoned structures can quickly act as a catalyst for blight in the immediate region, causing property values to diminish significantly, as well as contribute to increased crime and danger. Jakle and Wilson described these abandoned sections of cities as “derelict landscapes,” and they explain how dereliction is, like beauty, a state of mind that varies with the eye of beholder (1992, p.9). The derelict zones were explained
Population Metro Population
949,708 Metro Population 1,337,373
% change ‘00 - ’10 % change ‘50 - ’10
Figure 1: Baltimore Population 1950-2010 (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011) as areas where the social context provides more of an explanation for the disinvestment, vacancy, and degradation, than individual actions such as graffiti or broken windows (Jakle & Wilson, 1992). The disorder and feeling of stagnation were explained by Jakle and Wilson: “Dereliction comes at the end of a cycle of birth and decline. It more than symbolizes transition. It symbolizes failure. Dereliction communicates that a place is less than it once was (1992, p. 9).” Literature Review 3
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"Dereliction comes at the end of a cycle of birth and decline. It more than symbolizes transition. It symbolizes failure. Dereliction communicates that a place is less than it once was." - Jakle and Wilson
These abandoned neighborhoods of the inner city degenerated due to a myriad of problems. White flight of the suburbs and the increasing proportions of minorities in the inner city led to more interest and investment outside of the central city. Banks also contributed to the disinvestment of the inner city by red lining certain districts around which mortgage loans were prohibited or extremely discouraged. Rather than granting aid to neighborhoods that would have benefitted from upkeep, home sales, and renovations, red lining prohibited funding these actions. As an additional tactic, “In Baltimore in the mid-1970s, lenders would not loan money on houses less than 18 feet wide (most of the city’s row houses being less than 14 feet in width) or valued below $15,000 (three-quarters of the city’s houses being valued at less than that amount) (Jakle & Wilson, 1992, p.160; Cassidy, 1980)”. Governments also contributed to the separation of economic diversity by using block grants to fund politically opportunistic middle-income projects rather than the lower classes in the inner cities (Jakle & Wilson, 1992). Though the Community Development Block Grant Program was initiated to benefit urban renewal projects, it soon became a tactic for furthering local leaders’ political positions. Baltimore had $4.825 million of urban renewal grants between 1949 and 1958, the highest percentage in the country for its population (Short, 2006). With this money, Baltimore destroyed both substandard and sound housing and functioning neighborhoods, with little regard for the fate of the neighborhoods or families who inhabited them (Short, 2006). The disinvestment and blight spread further once these neighborhoods obtained reputations of being places full of distress and abandonment. Once less people were in the neighborhoods, residents felt less of a sense of responsibility and more crime happened. Jane Jacobs described how there need to be eyes on the street and users on the street to ensure safety and positive interaction (Jacobs, 1961).
Beyond the distress of the neighborhood and the loss of social institutions lies the feeling of apathy and the sense that nothing can be done to change the inevitable negative outcome. The decay unravels any sense of order, causing a diminished quality of life and a feeling that “decay is [so] etched into the everyday fabric that it dominates thinking” (Jakle & Wilson, 1992, p.9). The areas of distress have lost their former charm to many. Jakle and Wilson eloquently explained how the buildings “Stand as metaphors for poverty and grit. They symbolize the social characteristics that propelled generations of inner-city people to leave downtown. To many, abandoned buildings are a sign of irreversible deterioration… it evokes images of poverty, hardship, and despair” (Jakle & Wilson, 1992, p. 175). Due to the nature of capitalism and the fact that products are engineered to fail, Americans adopted a mindset that replacement is usually easier and cheaper than repair (Jakle & Wilson, 1992). Alternatively, however, are the individuals that recognized the importance of keeping the fabric and economic makeup of the city alive and ever-evolving. Jane Jacobs featured an entire chapter on “the need for aged buildings,” describing that this means not only expensively rehabilitated public buildings but “also a lot of plain, ordinary, low-value old buildings, including some rundown old buildings” (1961, p.187). She reasoned that it is harmful if everything in a neighborhood is an old building – this would signify how the failure of an area resulted in only old buildings because businesses and residents who became successful enough to create new buildings moved elsewhere (Jacobs, 1961). Jacobs also discussed the problems associated with neighborhoods that were built all at once, like many of the blighted areas of Baltimore. Without economic and social diversity as a key component from a generation over time, these neighborhoods became stuck in a state of physical stagnation. The physical fabric has not changed, so neither
Abandoned buildings "Stand as metaphors for poverty and grit. They symbolize the social characteristics that propelled generations of inner-city people to leave downtown. To many, abandoned buildings are a sign of irreversible deterioration... it evokes images of poverty, hardship, and despair." - Jakle and Wilson
Literature Review 5
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City, State Population in 1995 Percentage Change in Population, 1980-1995 City Area (acres) Percentage Change in City Land Area 1980-1995 Vacant Land (acres) Ratio of Vacant Land to Total Land Area (%) No. of Abandoned Structures No. of Abandoned Structures per 1,000 inhabitants
Philadelphia, PA 1,478,002
Baltimore, MD 675,000
Kansas City, MO 442,300
Detroit, MI 1,027,000
Mobile, AL 206,685
Figure 2. Cities with Highest Estimates of Vacant Land and Abandoned Buildings (Bowman & Pagano, 2004)* Study
1978 Burchell & 1998 Pagano & Bowman survey Listokin (structures) (dwelling units) 6,815
2000 Census (Low)
2000 Census (High)
2001 Estimate 2003 estimate by by state consultant for official BCDA (units) (properties) 26-40,000
2010 Baltimore Housing estimate
Figure 3: Estimates of Abandoned Buildings in Baltimore (Mallach, 2006; Braverman, 2010) Person Interviewed
Dennis Miller & Stephen Campbell
East Baltimore Development Inc.
City of Baltimore
Center for Community Progress
Historic East Baltimore Community Action Coalition, Inc.
Estimate of Abandoned Structures
16,000 (residential structures)
Over 6,000 (cityowned structures)
16,000 structures (+14,000 lots)
15,000 (rowhouses only)
Figure 4: Estimates of Abandoned Buildings in Baltimore (Personal Interviews, 2011)
Baltimore's High Vacancy Baltimore amount of abandoned buildings rank among the highest cities in the United States. A study
by Bowman and Pagano in 1998 established Baltimore as second only to Philadelphia in regards to the number of abandoned buildings per inhabitants:
Baltimore had 22.22 abandoned structures per 1,000 inhabitants
(2004, see Figure 2). Though the exact numbers are uncertain, in Baltimore City there are 15,000
- 40,000 abandoned buildings. Figure 3 shows
the scholarly estimates of the number of vacant structures, and Figure 4 shows more recent estimates heard in personal interviews.
Figure 5: Abandoned Buildings in Baltimore (City of Baltimore)
*Note, Figure 2 was based on the information the cities provided to the researchers in 1998. Only cities with populations over 100,000 were considered, and notable weak market cities including Pittsburgh, PA, St. Louis, MO, and Cleveland, OH did not provide data. **Considering the Baltimore population of 620, 961 and the factor of 16,000 abandoned structures (The City of Baltimoreâ€™s official estimate in 2010), this percentage would raise to 25.76 abandoned buildings per 1,000 inhabitants.
Literature Review 7
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Baltimore Initiatives: Project 5000: An initiative for the city
to acquire 5,000 vacant properties. Once acquired, a number of houses were rehabilitated and dangerous buildings were demolished. The city acquired and sold thousands of buildings, yet many people who bought the vacant buildings were unable or unwilling to repair them to the necessary level. The acquisition process was not fully planned, so buildings were acquired that were scattered around the city. If a building was fully restored, it often could be the only inhabited building on a block. This resulted in people leaving those areas even after rehabilitations.
Vacants to Values: This vacant-property program focuses on neighborhood-scale acquisition so that whole neighborhoods in distress can be revitalized. The program encourages pubic and private sector partnerships to take on a variety of neighborhoods throughout the city. Vacants to Values focuses on transitional blocks that need house by house rehabilitation and distressed blocks near emerging markets. The program also attempts to hold neglectful owners of properties accountable by threatening them and charging fees (see Figure 6).
has the neighborhood. This is strongly emphasized by the statement that “The neighborhood shows a strange inability to update itself, enliven itself, repair itself, or to be sought after, out of choice, by a new generation. It is dead. Actually it was dead from birth, but nobody noticed this much until the corpse began to smell” (Jacobs, 1961, p. 198). This is the case for much of Baltimore, as blocks of rowhouses were constructed to be workers’ housing in the 1800s. Once this living style seemed outdated, many fled the city and the inconvenient residences that did not alter with a new lifestyle. Cities that now have an eroded tax base must pay to keep thousands of buildings boarded up and to maintain services to these regions, thus further depleting the shrinking city’s resources. Baltimore has recognized the epidemic of massive abandonment and has taken measures to try to ameliorate the bleak conditions. Because Baltimore is no longer a strong market city, it has acknowledged the fact that its population will not be significantly increasing. The city was built to accommodate one million people, but now it holds just over 620,000 residents. In 2000, Mayor O’Malley created Project 5000, an initiative for the city to acquire 5,000 vacant properties in two years. As a result, the city acquired many properties, demolished dangerous ones, and rehabilitated some of them. The city also set a number of initiatives in place to seek private development in distressed areas. Examples of Baltimore’s practices include: the authorization of spot blight eminent domain, the creation of LiveBaltimore Home Center to promote living downtown, the use of slogans such as “Believe” and “I <3 City Life” to encourage citizens’ belief in the city’s resurgence, and the creation of CitiStat as a database to keep track of the status of the abandoned building stock (Mallach, 2004). The Project 5000 plan also allowed many people to acquire buildings who later re-abandoned them due to malicious intent or inability to repair them to the necessary extent.
Sent certified mail, regular mail, and posted on the property
LiveBaltimore: The City’s campaigning
To reach reasonable resolution with owner
has caused a resurgence of interest in living downtown. They use the slogan of “Believe” for the city and create marketing through bumper stickers and other paraphernalia that says “I <3 City Life.” A website allows interested people to look at all of the neighborhoods of the city and determine what might be the best fit for their desires.
Legal Action Warning Letter:
Owner has 10 days to show cause why enforcement action should not be taken
To reach reasonable resolution with owner
Baltimore Main Streets: In 2000,
Prepayable ticket becomes lien against the property if unpaid
To reach reasonable resolution with owner
Second $900 Citation:
Prepayable ticket becomes lien against the property if unpaid
To reach reasonable resolution with owner
Housing Court Litigation:
Highly trained attorney reviews file and selects course of action best suited to the facts
Figure 6: Baltimore’s New Code Enforcement Timeline (Braverman, 2010, p. 8)
the City of Baltimore partnered with the National Trust’s Main Street Center to designate seven Main Street neighborhoods throughout the city. These districts across the city had been blighted and overtaken by crime, and the Main Street implementation has regenerated interest in the small business community. The districts receive a dollar-for-dollar reimbursement for renovations to the facades. Local businesses, residents, and volunteers have banded together to bring millions of dollars of investment and local support back to the city limits of Baltimore.
Literature Review 9
From Neglected to Respected
Under Project 5000, Baltimore’s overall redevelopment was spread thinly throughout the city, so the new government under Mayor Rawlings-Blake created a new initiative called Vacants to Value in 2010. This new project aims at incentivizing development for responsible, private developers for the revitalization of whole neighborhoods (Leonard & Mallach, 2010). By focusing on acquisition at a neighborhood scale, whole developments can be tailored to meet the needs of every specific zone of the city depending on the scale of distress and abandonment (Braverman, 2010). This program will also hold owners of neglected properties more accountable by threatening them with court dates and charging them $900 citations while it stays vacant and unmaintained. The Vacants to Value program will make the process of acquiring an abandoned property and bringing a neglectful owner to justice faster and more effective (Braverman, 2010). A chart of how Baltimore’s new system functions can be seen in Figure 6. Some of the people that remain in the metropolitan area are left unemployed and become homeless. Wilson described how distress in the inner city poverty is now most closely related to the disappearance of work: “Many of today’s problems in the inner-city ghetto neighborhoods-crime, family dissolution, welfare, low levels of social organization, and so on-are fundamentally a consequence of the disappearance of work” (Wilson, 1996, xiii). The unprecedented unemployment rates greatly increased the amount of homelessness. The United States government defines a homeless person as an individual who “lacks a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence” or whose primary night-time residence is a supervised shelter, an institution that provides temporary residence, or a place not designed for a regular sleeping accommodations for humans (Akers, 2009, p.1). Over 1 in 100 Americans are homeless at some point in a given year: the National Law Center on Homelessness and Poverty reported that over 840,000 people seek shelter on a given night, with an estimated 2.5 – 3.5 million Americans who experience homelessness annually (National Law Center on Homelessness & Poverty, 2004). The City of Baltimore’s rate of homelessness is significantly higher than the national average, with almost 4 in 100 Baltimoreans (23,902) receiving services for homelessness (Tildon, 2011). This shockingly does not include people that might not have sought services from Baltimore, might be living doubled-up with someone else, in jail, or in a hospital or treatment center. The exact number of people who spend a night homeless is unsure, as the city listed 3,002 and 4,094 people sleeping on the streets in two different sources from two different years (Rawlings-Blake, 2008; Tildon, 2011). Though a majority of the overall population is only temporarily homeless, 9% (2,155) meet the definition of a chronically homeless person (Tildon, 2011).
Who is Homeless?
6% Other/ More than two
2.5-3.5 million Americans in a year. > 1 in 100 Americans in a given year. > 840,000 Americans on a given night.
24,000 Baltimoreans in a year. 4 in 100 Baltimoreans in a given year. 3-4,000 Baltimoreans on a given night.
39% White Figure 7: Racial Makeup of American Homeless Population
Of that population:
42% are African-American (39% white; 13% Hispanic) 2% Unaccompanied Minors 4% Part of Family
94% Single Adults Figure 8: Demographics of American Homeless Population
94% are single adults (70% in shelters) 13% are veterans 26% are mentally ill 13% are physically disabled 19% are victims of domestic violence (National Coalition for the Homeless, 2009; Rawlings-Blake, 2008; Tildon, 2011; National Alliance to End Homelessness, 2010, Chronic; National Alliance to End Homelessness. 2010, Fact Sheet)
Literature Review 11
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2% Other/ More than two 13% White
Figure 9: Racial Makeup of Baltimore’s Sheltered Population 23% Children
77% Adults Figure 11: Age Distribution of Baltimore’s Sheltered Population
29% Part of Family
1% Unaccompanied Minors
70% Single Adults
Figure 10: Demographics of Baltimore’s Sheltered Population 41% Women
77% Men Figure 12: Gender Distribution of Baltimore’s Sheltered Population
Chronically homeless is defined by the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development as “an unaccompanied homeless individual with a disabling condition who has either been continuously homeless for a year or more, or has had at least four episodes of homelessness in the past three years” (Adams, 2009, p.13). These individuals cycle in and out of shelters, hospitals, jails, treatment programs, and often have additional debilitating factors such as mental illness, drug abuse, physical or mental disability, medical complications, or being a war veteran that make emergency shelters ineffective for full recovery. Though “chronically homeless individuals account for approximately 10 percent of shelter users, [they] consume over 50 percent of shelter resources (National Alliance to End Homelessness, 2010, p.1). In addition to consuming
resources in shelters, they also spend more time in emergency room visits and police stays, costing cities and taxpayers an average estimated $40,000 a year per person in public resources (Rawlings-Blake, 2008). Assuming this figure, the chronically homeless population of Baltimore is costing taxpayers an astounding 8.62 million dollars annually. This money can be significantly reduced and better utilized if aimed at creating supportive housing for the chronically homeless. Supportive housing for the chronically homeless has proven in several cities to be a successful strategy to significantly eliminate the problem. The Housing First Initiative recognizes that providing stable housing for these people is of key importance, yet in order to be effective, the new residents need to be able to stay in their homes and receive additional issues while they are in housing. The Housing First methodology is being adapted and recognized by organizations in cities across the United States via Beyond Shelter and the National Alliance to End Homelessness. In order to help this happen, supportive services are provided in clustered neighborhoods of people in similar situations. As outlined by the Abt Associates Inc. for the National Alliance to End Homelessness, the typically included services are: â€œinitial emergency services, housing and resource assessment and planning, housing placement, and case management to stabilize participants in housing and ensure community supports for maintaining housing are in placeâ€? (Zvetina, 2009, p.7). The aims of the program allow agencies or cities to gauge the success of the program by assigning desired percentages and timelines. The Housing First Initiative has proven to reduce the length of time that households spend homeless, increase the number of households who obtain permanent housing, increase the number of households who obtain needed supports to maintain their housing, and increase the number of families stabilized in permanent housing over time (Zvetina, 2009, p.7).
Who is Chronically Homeless? 20% of homeless population 9% enters the system 5 times a year and stay nearly 2 months each time in shelters The 9% uses 18% of system's resources 10% enters the system over twice a year and stay an average of 280 days each time entering the shelters
The 10% uses 50% of system's resources 79-86% are men 60% are between age 35 and 54 Often have serious problems with mental illness, addiction, or a medical condition In Baltimore:
9% (2,155) chronically homeless (31% of sheltered population)
76% are single men 23% are single women 1% are women with children (Tildon, 2011; National Alliance to End Homelessness, 2010, Chronic; National Alliance to End Homelessness. 2010, Fact Sheet) Literature Review 13 From Neglected to Respected
What Causes Homelessness? Lack of Sufficient Emergency Housing for Homeless - People were refused shelter in Baltimore City 20,085 times in the Fiscal Year of 2009 due to a lack of space or funds (Tildon, 2011).
Lack of Affordable Housing - The rate of rental housing
has exponentially increased in the past few years, which has affected many low-income families. The state of Maryland has the third most expensive housing costs in the country, behind only Hawaii and California (National Low Income Housing Coalition, 2011). Between 2000 and 2011, the cost of two-bedroom lodging increased by 67.9% in Maryland; the Baltimore metropolitan area saw the tenth highest rate of increase, at 76.2% (National Low Income Housing Coalition, 2011). The current FairMarket Rent for a 2-bedroom apartment in Baltimore is $1263/month: assuming rent to be 30% of income, a worker would need to make $24.76/hour to afford this housing (National Low Income Housing Coalition, 2011).
Unemployment or Low Incomes -
The hourly wage required to pay for a market rate apartment is $24.76/ hour, while the minimum wage in Baltimore is $7.25/hour (National Low Income Housing Coalition, 2011). Almost two-thirds of Baltimore City residents earn less than 80% of the Area Median Income (Rawlings-Blake, 2008).
Lack of Affordable Health Care -
Rising costs of insurance have resulted in a number of people becoming homeless due to an illness. In 2007, 41% of the homeless surveyed struggled with substance abuse and 16% reported mental illness (Rawlings-Blake, 2008).
Lack of Comprehensive Services-
The City of Baltimore recognizes the disorganized system available for homeless people seeking services. People must seek out and find a number of different services in different areas of the city to access appropriate shelter and services.
Mental Illness and Addiction - â€œAt least one-half of the chronically homeless population experience both drug addictions and mental illness and 75% have unresolved chronic medical conditions including HIV, diabetes, and hypertension (Rawlings-Blake, 2008, p.8)." Life expectancy for homeless people that live on the streets is between 42 and 52 years, compared to 78 for the average American (Rawlings-Blake, 2008). Over 60% of chronically homeless people have lifetime mental health problems; over 80% of the chronically homeless have experienced lifetime alcohol and/or drug problems (Caton, et. al., 2007).
How much money is spent on each chronically homeless person? $40-50,000 per year per chronically homeless person - taxpayer dollars through public resources, emergency department visits, and police time (Rawlings-Blake, 2008).
Hospital Visits - The top 20 ER users
accounted for 2,000 emergency room visits in one calendar year at a total cost of $1 million. 18 of the top 20 users were homeless at some point in the year (Tildon, 2011). The most frequent user in the study visited emergency rooms 185 times a year, almost every other day. (Tildon, 2011) -The average nightly cost of an inpatient hospital bed in Baltimore City in 2006 was $2,692 (Rawlings-Blake, 2008, p.26).
Prison Time - The typical cost of a
prison bed in a state or federal prison is $20,000 per year (National Alliance to End Homelessness, 2011). Figure 13: Reasons for Homelessness, as recorded in a one-night survey in Baltimore in 2009 (Akers, 2009, p. 15)
Baltimore City spends an estimated $8.62 million/year to manage and continue the cycle of homelessness. Literature Review 15
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Baltimore's Current Spending: Total City Budget Allocated to Ameliorating Homelessness and Abandoned Buildings:
$102, 895,487 (4.6% of total) Total City Budget for 2011 Fiscal Year:
Homeless Services: $64,888,135 = 63%
Affordable Housing: $10,643,776 = 10% Abandoned Buildings: $27,363,576 = 27%
Figure 14: Baltimore Spending for Fiscal Year 2011 (Rawlings-Blake, 2009)
Literature Review 17
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A New Model:
AB ORD LE HO FF
DONED BUIL AN DI B A
Figure 15. Theoretical Proportional Overlap of Current Spending
By combining the money the city is currently spending to ameliorate homelessness and abandoned buildings, everyone in the city would benefit. The sheer amount of available rowhouses in Baltimore provides an opportunity for designers to begin housing the homeless in a more personal manner. Families or individuals could have their own space, and supportive programming could be incorporated into the community. As they grow more comfortable in a neighborhood, they would have the opportunity to become more involved. This would provide the vacant buildings with an inhabitant to ensure its maintenance and safety, as well as provide much-needed shelter for the individuals.
Figure 16. Theoretical Overlap of Spending and What Could Be Eliminated Once the Homeless Are Housed
FAMILY IN Subsidized Apartment + Supportive Services (Baltimore) (Davis, 2004) FAMILY IN Subsidized Apartment + Supportive Services (NYC) (Davis, 2004)
Family in Shelter (Baltimore) (Davis, 2004)
Family in Shelter (NYC) (Davis, 2004) SINGLE MAN IN REHAB PROGRAM The Baltimore Station (The Baltimore Station, 2010)
Incarceration (The Baltimore Station, 2010) Drug Stealing (The Baltimore Station, 2010)
Emergency Room (Dept. of Health)
Figure 17. Annual Cost of Different Housing Options in Baltimore*
*Note: Some numbers were adjusted from daily or monthly rates given in the specified sources. The Baltimore Station described how their program was proportionally less expensive than what the inhabitants had been stealing in drug money or cost while in jail. Sam Davis gave a comparison of a family living in subsidized housing versus a shelter in New York City, so these numbers were adjusted to the cost of living of Baltimore (35% less expensive than New York City).
ON THE STREET a homeless person might resort to expensive emergency room or jail visits to have a place to stay. IN A SHELTER a person costs up to 97% less to feed, shelter, and provide services than when in an emergency room. IN SUBSIDIZED HOUSING a family costs 99% less than in emergency rooms; 75% less than housing a family in a shelter. Literature Review 19
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Edward Sabatino, Executive
Director of Historic East Baltimore Community Action Coalition
While primary and secondary sources provided a scholarly background to the project, personal experiences added an insight into the problems and possible solutions. During field trip week, I spent time in Baltimore to get a firsthand understanding of the city. I arranged meetings with seven different institutions involved in similar initiatives. Each meeting taught me a different aspect about the city of Baltimore and the problems of housing stock abandonment and homelessness. I also had some correspondence with people I was not able to meet with during my time in Baltimore. i. Edward Sabatino, Executive Director of Historic East Baltimore Community Action Coalition Inc.: I hoped to get a better understanding of the following: how they acquired vacant properties; how they chose sites and programs for redevelopment; what the first step was in phasing; if commercial projects were included; how they prioritize and select which types of neighborhoods to renovate; who funds them and makes final decisions. From my discussion, I obtained answers to most of these questions. Mr. Sabatino explained the background of Baltimore and how the excess of rowhouses from the 1800s did not necessarily meet the needs of present day families. They are a Community Development Corporation run by a board of directions who live in the neighborhood, and they receive funds from public and private donations. They choose activity where it makes sense from a neighborhood perspective and for the specific program they have in mind. Especially after the recent housing crisis, they have been focusing on commercial buildings and allowing them to become an anchor for the community. Once that activity is in place, the residential can build off of that. They do not do any speculative development, because that is not a feasible market in the severely distressed East Baltimore. The acquisition process goes as follows: the owner walks away from the building; the city
forecloses on the building; the city sells the building to HEBCAC; HEBCAC waits to get a clump of buildings where it makes sense to do a larger scale development. In their housing developments, they try to mix incomes so the neighborhood does not become desolate: there is a combination of subsidized and workforce housing. HEBCAC also deals with the social aspect of community engagement by providing direct social service programming for community members. He also understood the goals of my project and told me some options for renovating the rowhouses, as well as explained a potential site (E. Sabatino, personal communication, October 3, 2011). ii. Klaus Philipsen, Citizen Architect and owner of ArchPlan Inc.: I hoped to get an architect’s perspective on the initiatives happening in Baltimore, the challenges and opportunities present when reusing buildings, and where the architect fits into the greater issues. He began with an overview of adaptive reuse and adaptive reuse in the city and how architects interact with the given landscape. We need to ask why the buildings were abandoned in the first place, how we can create a new demand or different type of use for them, and if adaptive reuse can be a viable solution. He explained how the rowhouse typology differs greatly throughout the city: certain areas are grand, and certain are quite small, yet no matter the type, they could be in blighted areas or in successful neighborhoods. He explained the city’s “Vacants to Values” as an initiative to make it seem like they are actively doing things, when often the city ends up with these buildings by default. Often people who have been buying the properties end up abandoning the projects. If individual buildings get renovated, people realize they are still surrounded by vacant buildings so the buildings become vacant again. Like sandcastles getting swept away by the waves, it is difficult to create a market where there is not a current market or one an interested population. By investing in reused buildings in the cities, the project is more economical because the infrastructure and city resources are already in place. There are also
Klaus Philipsen, Owner of ArchPlan Inc.
From Neglected to Respected
Michael Seipp, Executive Director of the Baltimore Station; former Director of Historic East Baltimore Community Action Coalition
Jennifer Leonard, Vice President and Director of Advocacy and Outreach, Center for Community Progress
a number of historic and low-income housing tax credits available to incentivize reuse that could cover up to 40% of the rehabilitation cost (K. Philipsen, personal communication, October 3, 2011). iii. Michael Seipp, Executive Director of The Baltimore Station: I wanted to get a tour of the Baltimore Station to see how it utilized a former firehouse as a homeless shelter. Additionally, I hoped to get a better understanding of how the program worked, how the facility has changed over time to meet their needs, what architectural features they appreciate or wish they had, and if they faced challenges from the neighborhood. Mr. Seipp did an excellent job of explaining the progression of the shelter and how it grew according to the traits and needs of the users. He explained the importance of forming peer relationships and mentoring, and how having 91 beds (when they used to have 40) is almost too many for one facility. He explained that by using a historic building, the Historical Trust imposed restrictions on their addition. His only complaint about the architecture was that they wished for more space for small meetings and counseling areas, but the height limitations were set by the historical trust. Their program is therapeutic, so the users have to complete a set of requirements to graduate. As a result of the program that holds each person accountable, the neighborhood enjoys their presence and the positive interactions the users have with the community (M. Seipp, personal communication, October 3, 2011). iv. Jennifer Leonard, Vice President and Director of Advocacy and Outreach, Center for Community Progress: From the Center for Community Progress, I hoped to get a better grasp of how they â€œturn vacant places into vibrant places,â€? the concepts of land banking, and the acquisition and distribution process of abandoned buildings. I was pleasantly surprised to learn that Ms. Leonard had previously worked at a CDC in Baltimore for years, so she was able to give me additional insight into the city. She explained that Baltimoreâ€™s Project 5000 helped to
streamline the building acquisition process, but that land banks are able to give projects more weight. They help implement tax foreclosure systems that prohibit people from buying tax liens and walking away, as well as create codes that encourage smart growth zoning. Without land banks, the highest bid wins the properties: this hurts the potential for CDCs to develop for the benefit of a neighborhood, as private landowners who have more money might flip the buildings to try to get a profit from them (J. Leonard, personal communication, October 4, 2011).
v. Lynette Boswell, PhD candidate and Chief of the Department of Strategic Research & Planning, City of Baltimore: I hoped to get her insight on Baltimore
and how feasible the idea was for the city. She was extremely helpful giving a background and insight into Baltimoreâ€™s condition and history. She also suggested a number of valuable resources that I can use to access city documents, housing plans, and zoning. Ms. Boswell was supportive of my thesis and how the challenges of homelessness and abandonment are big issues that the city is currently actively trying to combat (L. Boswell, personal communication, October 4, 2011). vi. Sandra Thomas, Shelter Director of Harry & Jeannette Weinberg Homeless Shelter: This new shelter is a part of the cityâ€™s 10-year plan to end homelessness. I was interested in seeing how the shelter was organized, its security, and population. This shelter serves 275 clients a day: each person has a case a manager to assist them in future placements and services they might need. The shelter separates men and women in their day rooms and by floor for their sleeping quarters. Each floor has a security person on guard 24 hours a day. They also offer a shower for people that come in just to get clean. The building also lets other nonprofits work in the facility to get some rent money and tie the nonprofits together (S. Thomas, personal communication, October 4, 2011).
Lynette Boswell, PhD candidate
and Chief of the Department of Strategic Research & Planning, City of Baltimore
Sandra Thomas, Shelter Director of Harry & Jeannette Weinberg Homeless Shelter
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vii. Dennis Miller, Senior Vice President of Real Estate, and Stephen Campbell, Vice President of Engineering, East Baltimore Development, Inc.: I wanted to learn
Dennis Miller, Senior Vice
President of Real Estate at East Baltimore Development, Inc.
Stephen Campbell, Vice
President of Engineering at East Baltimore Development, Inc.
Linda Moorhead, Teacher in Baltimore City Public Schools through Teach for America
how they acquired properties, their phasing of redevelopment, ideologies behind their project, how their tactics strengthened communities, and how reusing buildings was a part of the renewal. I learned that EBDI was created as an effort on behalf of the city and Johns Hopkins Hospital to renew the neighborhood next to the hospital. The neighborhood had 70% vacancy, so the initial plans featured major demolition and the removal of the remaining residents. EBDI claimed that they wanted to improve the wealth of the people who stayed in the community, but by forcing them to relocate for seven years until new homes were constructed, their lives were uprooted and they became established somewhere else. Though EBDI gave residents more than the market value for their homes, the wave of intervention left neighbors feeling like they had no say in the upheaval of their neighborhood. In the first phase, EBDI forced out 700 people and only 100 former residents returned to the neighborhood (they are not hopeful for many more). The plan called for commercial buildings first, and then residential buildings that are 1/3 affordable, 1/3 workforce, and 1/3 market rate (D. Miller, & S. Campbell, personal communication, October 5, 2011). viii. Linda Moorhead, Teacher through Teach for America at Baltimore City's Northwestern High School: I hoped to gain an insight into the problems faced by inner city families in Baltimore by talking with a teacher in a public high school located in Park Heights, a community divided between a Jewish Orthodox community and impoverished African American community in Northwest Baltimore. Ms. Moorhead was very helpful in offering suggestions of needs that her students and their families have. They need clean drinking water and cannot drink water out of the tap because of the lead in the pipes in the poor neighborhoods. It is important for them to gather as a community
on the streets, so porches might be significant in helping the community grow closer. Many people do not have a secure way to lock their homes’ doors and windows. Many families are multi-generational and have several relatives living under one roof. Her high school students are frequently exhausted from living at home with ten other people and having to care for younger siblings; thus, community day cares, after school programs, or some similar program that relieves adolescents of the pressure to care Carl Cleary, Housing Coordinator, for their younger relatives would be beneficial (L. Moorhead, personal Reservoir Hill Improvement Council communication, November 13, 2011). ix. Carl Cleary, Housing Coordinator, Reservoir Hill Improvement Council: Through e-mail correspondence, I was able to get information on the specific site I chose in Reservoir Hill. He provided a wealth of helpful information and insights about my project. He gave me the history of the targeted blocks, as well as the area’s involvement with the city and developers. He expanded on the reasons of why these particular buildings were vacant: economic turmoil, and a struggle to understand how to make very large houses marketable in that specific neighborhood. Additionally, homeowners need to be retained and provide income to the city and neighborhood. He discussed the most recent idea of having Live in Landlord Units that produce income for the owners, where “owners age in place, instead of moving out to downsize, they move down to the smaller unit... [which] help[s] families accrue intergenerational wealth and add value to the neighborhood through reduction of turnowner ownership” (C. Cleary, personal communication, January 17, 2012). He also mentioned the importance of making sure my ideas meshed with what is already happening on the ground, how my plan brings resolution to problems and creates long term neighborhood stability without creating new problems. Mr. Cleary provided me with documents regarding the programs in Reservoir Hill, architectural drawings to better understand the dimensions and plans of the rowhouses, and a clear designation of the vacant buildings within the neighborhood. Interviews 25 From Neglected to Respected
Homeless Shelters with Supportive Services in Reused Building: -NSO Bell Building: Detroit, MI
This building was designed by Smith, Hinchman and Grylls in 1930 to host the Michigan Bell company, but it has been vacant since 1997. Though the project is due to be completed in fall of 2012, there are plans to convert the 255,000 square-foot building into apartments and supportive services for formerly homeless adults. The Neighborhood Services Organization has raised at least $42 million of the $50 million project so far through a number of public- and private-sector donations. The project calls for 155 one-bedroom apartments; â€œaddiction treatment; mental-health counseling and case management services; life skills training; a library; computer, art and music rooms; a gym and fitness center; chapel; laundry; walk-out roof gardens; and a small sundry shop.â€? They estimate that the project will save the city approximately $5 million a year in paying for chronically homeless individuals. NSO believes the key to ending homelessness is housing them. The project will also be a part of a greater revitalization effort to help stabilize the surrounding neighborhood.
"I was managing homelessness. I don't want to manage homelessness. I want to end it. The only way you end homelessness is they live someplace. They have a home. I can't make it real easy for you just to sit here and do nothing. I've got to give you hope." - Sheilah Clay, President of NSO (New life for Detroit landmark, 2010)
Floorplan axon of the rooms
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-Harry & Jeannette Weinberg Homeless Shelter: Baltimore, MD
This is the cityâ€™s newest homeless shelter, thus it is an example of the cityâ€™s current shelter model. The shelter serves 275 clients each day on a first come, first serve basis. Men and womenâ€™s sleeping quarters are located on separate floors: each floor has communal restrooms, showers, laundry facilities, and a security guard on duty 24 hours a day. The building also contains a dining room, male and female day rooms, a computer for updating resumes, and a shower for users that just want to get clean. Each person has a case manager, and the building also lets other nonprofits work in the facility to get some rent money and tie the nonprofits together. There is no storage for the users, and access is highly restricted.
+ Indicates I have visited this site
Case Studies 29
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Co-Location of Homeless Shelter, Supportive Services, and Transitional Housing in a Reused Building: -Deborah's Place II: Chicago, IL - Manske, Dieckmann, Thompson Architects
This home is an adaptive reuse of a former church, goods store, and manufacturing facility. This structure provides shelter in three ways: overnight shelter, transitional shelter, and permanent housing to women that have been homeless. There are also a number of community spaces, a group kitchen and dining room, and a learning center. By co-locating multiple types of housing programs under one roof, the long-term residents can be housed and maintain their sense of community through shared dinners and weekly community nights. The building can also adapt to the womenâ€™s needs that move into the shelter and allows flexibility for women to change between programs within the shelter. The flexibility is also featured in the furniture, as beds also feature storage, can be folded and easily manipulated for the desired room layout.
Case Studies 31
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-The Baltimore Station: Baltimore, MD
Set in a former firehouse, The Baltimore Station is a supportive center for male veterans with substance abuse problems. The program was begun in the late 1980s by women who felt a calling to support the homeless men in South Baltimore. They used church basements to take care of 20-30 homeless men, but the program expanded and the city offered to lease them the abandoned firehouse. Their therapeutic center helps them transition from the cycle of poverty, substance abuse, and homelessness to self-sufficiency (The Baltimore Station, 2010). Their program incorporates a 28-day program, a halfway-house, and transitional housing underneath one roof. As part of the program, the men are involved with the community via service projects, meetings, and attending events. Each person gets their own case study manager to assist them along their way by offering information about housing assistance, job training, and other ways to get back into society. The facility features the part in the original fire station, and the contemporary addition once their needs grew. There are dorm-style rooms and shared apartment spaces for the different stages: a main gathering space allows spaces for the cafeteria, supportive meetings, and social interaction between the users.
"I've learned how to be responsible, cooperative, learned how to live in a community, handle conflicts, communicate effectively with the other residents and counselors, and have learned tolerance. Basically, I have acquired a whole new set of survival skills." - Jimi Fardon, a graduate of the program (The Baltimore Station, 2010)
Case Studies 33 From Neglected to Respected
Transitional Housing with Supportive Services: -Skid Row Housing Rainbow Apartments: Los Angeles, CA - Michael Maltzan Architecture
Located in Skid Row, an area with one of the largest homeless populations in the country, this apartment complex features 88 transitional housing units. Because the project is directed towards people who were chronically homeless, it attempts to change the ideology of the users. The homeless have concerns of safety and security and therefore tend to be very isolated and hermetic. Though the primary function of the building is to house the homeless, it also is an effort to help reintegrate them into the public sector. The apartments are centered around a partially open U-shaped courtyard. Additionally, communal spaces such as dining area, communal kitchens, meeting rooms, outdoor gathering spaces, and laundry rooms encourage interaction. The ground floor features offices and conference rooms where social programs can come to offer services for the residents. Public spaces and outdoor gathering spaces appear in different locations throughout the upper floors of the building.
"What we started to learn is how the design can help people get stabilized as a community. For us the building became part of the recovery." - Michael Maltzan (Kudler, 2010)
Case Studies 35
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-New Carver Apartments: Los Angeles, CA - Michael Maltzan Architecture
Developed by the Skid Row Housing Trust, this project has 97 units of permanent housing for the formerly homeless. Located adjacent to an interstate, the project allows residents to have access to amenities and acts as a statement that â€œaffordable housing is not a blight that needs to be hidden awayâ€? (Zeiger, 2010). The building was an attempt at making affordable housing attractive and interesting. Though the 304-square foot units are modest, this encourages residents to use the numerous community spaces. The shared kitchens and dining facilities, lounges, laundry facilities, and gardens teach responsibility and help residents learn from others in a similar situation. The housing units are located above a medical and social service support floor, with counseling rooms, tenant support services, and staff offices. The splayed units are set around a central courtyard to allow light to come into the central gathering space and the rooms. The circular shape maximizes visibility, light, openness, and community, and minimizes dark areas and blind corners.
"When we first showed [Maltzan's design] to the investors, they wondered why we were making such a dramatic building. We had to convince them that it doesn't need to be bland. Affordable housing improves the neighborhood and creates an anchor in the community. It's not about blending in, but about having an impact." - Molly Rysan, Skid Row Housing Trust's director of special projects and external affairs (Zeiger, 2010)
Ground Floorplan Typical Floorplan
Case Studies 37
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Women's/Family Shelter: -Passageway: Muncie, IN
These transitional housing apartments are connected to an emergency shelter for victims of domestic abuse. The two-year program is for women who have children or are pregnant. While staying at Passageway, women are not required to have any source of income so they can focus on healing and getting an education to better their life after their stay. On the ground floor, there is a communal kitchen and dining room, mailboxes and an information center, case manager offices, living room, and outdoor patio. The second and third floors have five apartments per floor. The apartments each have two or three bedrooms, living room, kitchen, bathroom, and closets. The program is funded by its case management, so the social workers have to verify that the women are making progress on an appropriate schedule. The women are required to go to a support group once a week and meet with case managers, and mental health counseling is available. A case worker shared many powerful stories with me when I visited. She said that often it will take months for the children to sleep in separate rooms from the mother: they will sleep on the couches to be close to each other, then sleep with their door open, then finally sleep in their own rooms once they feel safe. Similarly, they are encouraged to decorate the apartment, but since these women are used to living out of a bag it can take a while to become comfortable with having their own space.
Case Studies 39
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-YWCA Family Center: Columbus, OH
This center was started to respond to the growing needs of homeless families. The shelter aims to rapidly rehouse families: the goal is to have people back in housing within three weeks, and more than seventy percent of their families find housing within twenty-five days of entering the program. The YWCA offer meals, beds, basic need items, transportation assistance, childcare, and child programming. Additionally, each family is assigned an advocate who assists with housing, job counseling, and obtaining government benefits. The building was made to house 50 families, and it currently holds 100 families. The shelter does not define what a family is: each family was supposed to have their own room, with shared living areas. Due to the expanded population, many families sleep on cots in the public spaces and do not receive their own space, as was intended. Families must abide by a curfew and other restrictions, as well as show steps toward progressing back into housing.
"The hardest thing about being homeless is explaining it to my daughter. Try to make her believe that it's ok even when you don't. I can't let her know that anything is wrong... If it wasn't for my kids I think I would have been gave up on this program, I would have... didn't care. But they give me reasons to smile, even though they're smiling. You just have to take their innocence and smile with them." - Keishauna Mateen, unemployed, divorced, stayed with friend for a few weeks before seeking out the shelter (YWCA Columbus, 2011)
Case Studies 41
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-Homes for the Homeless: American Family Inns: New York, NY
Homes for the Homeless runs four “Family Inns” around the city as an approach for how to “comprehensively serve homeless families within the context of the existing shelter infrastructure. The American Family Inns combine the basic services of traditional shelters within a full range of programs designed to meet the specific needs of homeless children and their parents” (Homes for the Homeless, 2012). The buildings reuse former executive suites, a hospital, a hotel, and a nursing home. The inns provide families with their own living units, but the emphasis is on the additional amenities. The self-contained communities feature daycares, after-school tutoring sessions, literacy workshops, classrooms, libraries, computer labs, adult education and job training centers, health clinics, playgrounds, and counseling centers. Their mission focuses on trying to stop intergenerational homelessness and providing a safe and nurturing environment for the children.
"The standard is if you can help one person, it equates to helping the whole world. Just because there's a problem you can't solve, doesn't give you the right not to try to help a little bit. I have no illusions that we're going to cure homeless families' problems in my lifetime, but I do know that we've been able to make a difference." Leonard Stern, Founder and Chair, Homes for the Homeless (Page & Mol, 2006)
Case Studies 43
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Space Making in Abandoned Buildings -The work of Gordon-Matta Clark
Matta-Clark was an artist who used a chainsaw as his principle tool to craft voided spaces out of vacant buildings. The houses become sculptural elements, loaded with political and economic memories of what was once someoneâ€™s home. Matta-Clark was not afraid of cutting into floors, ceilings, and walls in different shapes to create voided spaces and skylights that changed the character of the space.
Case Studies 45
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Teaching Sustainability Community Building: -Hayes Valley Farm; San Francisco, CA
The Hayes Valley Farm transformed a former freeway ramp into a flourishing garden. The urban farming experiment explores strategies for maintaining sustainable, organic agriculture, upcycling waste, and fostering community interaction and education. The founders wanted to educate the urban population on the rural activities of planting and growing food, teach them skills, and give people firsthand experiences growing food and plants. The farm thrives on community involvement by offering educational classes, workshops, work days, camps, nature hikes, yoga classes, familyoriented events, and internships for people to learn more and get invested in the project. They offer classes with a work-trade agreement, where people can attend a three hour class for free if they perform three hours of service to help maintain the gardens. The farm features 45,000 square feet of gardens, 150 fruit trees, a nursery, a seed-sharing library, a greenhouse, and honeyproducing bees. Hayes Valley also has a SolarPump Charging Station, which offers a bus-stop-sized station covered in photovoltaic panels to give users free solar power to recharge their devices (electric bicycles, cellphones, laptops, etc.) (Hayes Valley Farm, 2011). The farm is constantly growing and expanding its operations and adding innovative strategies for urban sustainability.
Case Studies 47
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-Interventions by Marjectica Potrc: -Rainwater Harvesting on a Farm in the Venice Lagoon; Venice, Italy
Potrcâ€™s approach is to live in the place where she works. She decides what would benefit them and what they need after her interactions with them. In Venice, she found that while water is everywhere, the water tables are being depleted at an alarming rate. The lack of fresh water could affect the agricultural islands that feed the city. She created a rainwater harvesting system as an opportunity to teach residents of the agricultural island how to collect water for irrigation and further implement this into their daily lives and future harvesting methods.
-A Rooftop Rice Field at Byuri School; Anyang, South Korea
The city of Anyang is focused on expansion and has not given much regard to sustainability or how citizens of the city will grow their own food. This rooftop project contains a water collection tank for irrigation of a rooftop rice field. Rainwater is reused for irrigation and greywater in the bathrooms on the top floor of the buildings. In addition, the rice field is maintained by the students at the school, and then served as student meals. This project teaches students about sustainable water use, agriculture, and self-sufficiency by providing what will contribute to eventual free food for all students in the city.
-The Cook, the Farmer, His Wife, and Their Neighbor; Amsterdam, Netherlands
The residents of this western borough of Amsterdam were concerned with the city's expansion into the garden city. Potrc's project features a garden, shaded structures, places for farming, cooking, community educational events, and cultural gatherings. This allows the residents to have a cultural renewal and rebirth as a celebration of local food production and the opportunity to share the past with future generations. This interdisciplinary garden includes fruit trees, gardens, recycling workshops, cooking demonstrations, laboratories, and community events.
-A School in Sharjah: Solar-Powered Desalination Device; Sharjah, UAE
The United Arab Emirates is heavily dependent on their fossil fuels, and an intervention allowed for an alternative source of energy. Fresh drinking water is also a concern of this city, as some parts of the city receive salt water out of the tap. Potrc combined the solution for these needs into a solar-powered desalination device. Located atop a school rooftop, it provides much-needed fresh drinking water to students and does not require dependence on fossil fuels.
Case Studies 49
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Community Building through Social Interaction: -Urban Guide for Alternate Use
Scott Burnham posted several small moves in cities across the world that offer innovative solutions for interaction:
-Trash Bin Games; Lucerne, Switzerland
The city of Lucerne decided to fight its battle against littering by encouraging residents to play games as they went to dispose of their trash or recycling.
-Spontaneous Urban Games; Strasbourg, France
The French artist Florian Rivière has created a series of “Spontaneous Games” with the existing structures found in the streets.
(counterclockwise, bottom left-top right)
-Manholes Reused for Football Golf Game; Linz, Austria
Austrians created a new game using the existing manhole covers. This game mixes soccer and golf, as people try to kick the balls into the holes. Once the game is over, users close the manhole and return the street to its main use.
-Fire Hydrant Food Distribution System; Washington, D.C.
Located in the Dupont Circle neighborhood of Washington, D.C., this fire hydrant is located next to a bakery. Because there are many people in need in the area, customers at the bakery will often buy an extra pastry and place it on this fire hydrant as an unofficial food distribution
-Hydrantables and Lunch Ledges; New York, NY
These removable tables for lunches were created by Pratt Institute graduate student Ali Pulver. The tables allow users to place their lunches on a table by attaching them to existing street signs and fire hydrants.
-Spontaneous Urban Games; Strasbourg, France
Case Studies 51
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Figure 18: Middle East: Extremely Distressed Neighborhood
Figure 19: Reservoir Hill: Neighborhood at the Tipping Point
Baltimore City has many neighborhoods that are struggling with vacancy on varied scales. Initially, I looked at the Middle East neighborhood next to Johns Hopkins Hospital. I learned of many revitalization efforts in the area, as the city is looking for a way to combat the 70 percent abandonment in the neighborhood. I decided that I did not want my intervention to have to completely overhaul and change the character of a neighborhood, thus I opted for a neighborhood that had somewhere between 10 and 20 percent vacancy. Reservoir Hill is mostly inhabited, but it still has spot vacancy and a few blocks of concentrated abandonment. Therefore, it is a neighborhood that is at the tipping point: abandonment could grow and take over the community, or the problem could be addressed on a large scale to maintain the viability of the neighborhood. See Figure 19 for the vacant buildings in Reservoir Hill and the surrounding areas. As of April 2002, there were 1,208 residential structures, 4,065 housing units, 191 abandoned buildings, 57 unoccupied buildings, 15 buildings for sale, and 87 vacant lots (Reservoir Hill Improvement Council, 2002).
History of Reservoir Hill:
-1680: The area was first occupied. -1850-1900: It was mainly an upper class community,
home to merchants and industrialists. -World War I: A streetcar line allowed more working class families to access and populate the neighborhood. -1930s: It was a middle-class Jewish neighborhood filled with homes, synagogues, delis and shops. -1960s: Most of the Jewish middle class and working class whites fled the inner city for the suburbs. -1960s: Neglectful landlords purchased blocks of buildings that were left to deteriorate. -1970s: It was an urban renewal area where the “Urban Pioneer” program brought in new residents. A conglomerate of adjacent neighborhoods were combined to form Reservoir Hill. This further resulted in decades of disinvestment and further segregation of the neighborhood. -Though it has a desirable location, “the neighborhood has struggled with its identity and the challenges of many urban neighborhoods – unemployment, drugs, vacant houses, and trash.” -2012: There is currently a 10-20% vacancy rate: it is on the tipping point of becoming more abandoned or becoming repopulated into strong community. The residents’ goal is to have a “vibrant, mixed-income community where empowered residents work together to solve problems common to the community.” (LiveBaltimore, 2011) Site Documentation 53 From Neglected to Respected
Reservoir Hill Demographics: (Reservoir Hill H.O.P.E., 2002) 9% 65+ 30% 45-64
0.3% Asian 2.7% Other/2 Or More Races 6% White 35% SINGLE PARENTS 1% Hispanic
90% African American
Reservoir Hill is located by Druid Hill Park, the interstate system, the city’s train station, and Bolton Hill, a wealthier area that features the Maryland Institute College of Art. Though these qualities should make it a desirable neighborhood, “the neighborhood has struggled with its identity and the challenges of many urban neighborhoods – unemployment, drugs, vacant houses, and trash (Reservoir Hill Improvement Council, 2002, p.2).” Reservoir Hill has long been considered as a neighborhood on the brink of redevelopment, yet the past attempts at urban renewal have only further segregated the diversity found in the neighborhood. Reservoir Hill has shown interest in creating a mixed-income neighborhood, creating more low-income housing, and creating programs to assist those in need. A partnership between Madison Avenue Presbyterian Church, Reservoir Hill H.O.P.E. Inc., and Baltimoreans United in Leadership Development (B.U.I.L.D.) intended to create a worker center that would help residents transitioning from incarceration or substance abuse treatment programs to gain job training, financial literacy, and temporary employment. “After Worker Center clients stabilize their lives, it is hoped that they will integrate themselves fully into the civic life of the communities in which they choose to live. Reservoir Hill welcomes them (Reservoir Hill Improvement Council, 2002, p.19).”
35% SINGLE PARENTS 15% > $75,000 9% $60-74,999 16% $40-59,999 19% $25-39,999 41% < $25,000
MEDIAN HOUSEHOLD INCOME: $30,597
University: Maryland Institute College of Art; University of MD at Baltimore;
Johns Hopkins University; Institute of Notre Dame; Coppin State University
Park: Druid Hill Park; Clifton Park; Federal Hill Park; Patterson Park; Caroll Park Recreation: Baltimore Zoo; M&T Bank Stadium (Ravens); National Aquarium; Maryland Science Center; Camden Yards (Orioles); Inner Harbor
Hospital: Johns Hopkins Hospital; UM Medical Center Central Business District
16.5% BELOW POVERTY RATE
Site Documentation 55 From Neglected to Respected
Reservoir Hill H.O.P.E. described these 11 different areas in the neighborhood to demonstrate the varying character of the community (2002).
Day care Food Bank
Commercial Corner Store
Playground Basketball Camp/Court
Key: Reservoir Hill H.O.P.E. also gave the housing sales by street between 1996 and 2001 (2002). The higher the amount of vacant houses in the vicinity, the less the houses tend to be worth.
Median Market Values (sales 1996-2001) < $25,000 $25,000 - $35,000 $35,000 - $50,000 $50,000 - $61,000 $61,000 - $80,000 > $100,000
Site Documentation 57 From Neglected to Respected
N Site Documentation 59 From Neglected to Respected
BACK OF SITE A specific area area in in Reservoir ReservoirHill Hillisisunder underthe themost mostdistress distressand andblight. blight.The The concentrated concentrated 2200 2200 and and 2300 2300 blocks blocks of of Callow Callow Avenue Avenue have have noticeable noticeable high high vacancy, vacancy, especially especially compared compared to to the the rest rest ofof the thegreater neighborhood. neighborhood. If these If blocksblocks these continue continue to go uninhabited, to go uninhabited, the property the property valuesvalues will diminish will diminish and blight and will blight spread will spread to surrounding to surrounding areas. These two areas. These blocks two blocks provideprovide an opportunity an opportunity to make toamake significant a significant improvement improvement in this neighborhood in this neighborhood at the tipping at the point ofpoint tipping vacancy. of vacancy. There There are some are some residents residents that that remain remain in these in these blocks, blocks, but but the theexact exactnumber numberisis uncertain. Many of the buildings have been purchased within the past 10 years and remodeling has been stalled or halted FRONT OF SITE
(Copes & Colvin, 2008). The Reservoir Hill Housing, LLC has recently acquired many of the vacant buildings, as an effort to eventually rehabilitate the buildings (Copes & Colvin, 2008). The specific design will focus on the four adjacent buildings located at 2317, 2319, 2321, and 2323 Callow Avenue, as well as an abandoned park to the north of the site. This site is located adjacent to an existing food pantry and community center, and is located within proximity of a number of features. (See Figure 20.) There is a lot of potential for the immediate surrounding area to become more populated and less abandoned.
Site Documentation 61 From Neglected to Respected
SCALES OF INTERVENTION: To begin
the design process, I created criteria and methods of working. I knew my design would need to consider different scales of intervention: the neighborhood as a whole, within a few block radius, adjacent buildings or individual building modules, and the actual living spaces. By establishing these levels early on in the design process, I could keep in mind how my intervention would work for both the individual and the collective.
DESIGN DECISIONS: The ultimate design
decisions were based on three criteria. First, it must be appropriate and be able to work within what is already working in the community. Second, because vacant rowhouses are being reused, I needed to consider how the building modules could be manipulated. Lastly, the intervention had to consider the needs of the intended user: the homeless population. An appropriate design must consider all of these aspects in order to make the best impact on the neighborhood, make vacant buildings useful, and create the type of space that is needed for the users.
SCALES OF INTERVENTION: NEIGHBORHOOD BLOCK ADJACENT BUILDINGS LIVING SPACES â€œThe present-day city calls for a profound reorientation in the manner in which we study it: we believe in working at the intersections of the individual and the collective, the real and the virtual in a multiplicity of parallel engagements.â€? Nishat Awan
63 From Neglected to Respected
community environment vacancy housing food health safety job training empowerment education
R.H. Improvement Council Beth Am Synagogue R.H. Improvement Council Beth Am Synagogue R.H. Improvement Council Beth Am Synagogue R.H. Improvement Council Beth Am Synagogue R.H. Improvement Council Beth Am Synagogue R.H. Improvement Council Beth Am Synagogue
St. Francis Cmty. Center St. Francis Cmty. Center St. Francis Cmty. Center St. Francis Cmty. Center St. Francis Cmty. Center
Reservoir Hill Community Partners:
Whitelock Cmty. Farm Howard Elementary Bolton Park Neighbors Whitelock Cmty. Farm Howard Elementary Bolton Park Neighbors Lennox St. Cmty. Garden Whitelock Cmty. Farm Howard Elementary Bolton Park Neighbors Lennox St. Cmty. Garden City Of Baltimore City Of Baltimore Whitelock Cmty. Farm Lennox St. Cmty. Garden City Of Baltimore City Of Baltimore - He Bolton Park Neighbors City Of Baltimore He Whitelock Cmty. Farm Lennox St. Cmty. Garden He Whitelock Cmty. Farm Howard Elementary Lennox St. Cmty Garden City Of Baltimore - He
Existing players in the community each have their own areas of concern and focus that they are addressing in the neighborhood. This analysis helped to create program based on community input, as well as identify potential partners for the different elements of the design over time. I acknowledge that there are also informal players and activities working within this formal network, but these are not included in the analysis.
Kids On The Hill - Metro Delta Headstart - Pratt Library - Midtown Academy Saturday Basketball Camp Cloverdale Acbba Up Football Camp Maryland Corpus Christi Cmty. Center Union Temple Baptist Church eal, Inc. Healthy Teens/Young Adults Center Mobile Police Unit Eutaw Walkin Medical Clinic eal, Inc. Metro Delta Headstart - Pratt Library Maryland Saturday Basketball Camp eal, Inc. Kids On The Hill Cloverdale Acbba eal, Inc. - Corpus Christi Cmty. Center Kids On The Hill - Metro Delta Headstart - Pratt Library - Midtown Academy - Union Temple Baptist Church - Maryland Up Football Camp
N Developing Criteria
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NSO BELL BLDG MICHAEL MALTZAN SAM DAVIS ST. FRANCIS CENTER HEBCAC HAYES VALLEY FARM WEINBERG SHELTER BALTIMORE STATION TEACH FOR AMERICA RHIC MARJECTICA POTRC WHITELOCK FARM
NSO BELL BLDG MICHAEL MALTZAN HAYES VALLEY FARM BALTIMORE STATION RHIC MARJECTICA POTRC WHITELOCK FARM NSO BELL BLDG MICHAEL MALTZAN SAM DAVIS ST. FRANCIS CENTER HEBCAC WEINBERG SHELTER BALTIMORE STATION NSO BELL BLDG MICHAEL MALTZAN ST. FRANCIS CENTER HEBCAC TEACH FOR AMERICA RHIC NSO BELL BLDG MICHAEL MALTZAN HAYES VALLEY FARM BALTIMORE STATION TEACH FOR AMERICA NSO BELL BLDG MICHAEL MALTZAN ST. FRANCIS CENTER HEBCAC WEINBERG SHELTER NSO BELL BLDG MICHAEL MALTZAN SAM DAVIS HEBCAC HAYES VALLEY FARM HAYES VALLEY FARM TEACH FOR AMERICA MARJECTICA POTRC WHITELOCK FARM NSO BELL BLDG MICHAEL MALTZAN SAM DAVIS WEINBERG SHELTER ST. FRANCIS CENTER HEBCAC
TEACH FOR AMERICA
NSO BELL BLDG SAM DAVIS ST. FRANCIS CENTER MICHAEL MALTZAN SAM DAVIS NSO BELL BLDG SAM DAVIS NSO BELL BLDG SAM DAVIS ST. FRANCIS CENTER SAM DAVIS SAM DAVIS NSO BELL BLDG
Many community players identified additional programming they would like to see available in Reservoir Hill. Several programs were added to this list based on case studies and discussions with Baltimore City teachers and homeless shelter administrators during field trip week. The programming was analyzed to see which components were considered to be the most important to the most people. Each program was assigned an appropriate location within the neighborhood according to the users would need access to the amenity. Some amenities might only serve an emergency shelter, while others would be spread across the community for the whole neighborhood to access.
Developing Criteria 67 From Neglected to Respected
-7 BUS STOPS -5 CHURCHES:
-First Emmanuel Baptist Church -Becher Eugene
-FOOD PANTRY: -Corpus Christi Community Center
-COMMUNITY GARDENS: -Whitelock Community Farm -Lennox Street Community Garden
-SCHOOL: -J.E. Howard Elementary
-PARKS: -Newington Avenue Park -Bolton Hill Historic District
-Reservoir Hill Improvement Council -Bolton Park Neighbors
-BASKETBALL COURT: -Whitelock & Linden
-St. Francis Neighborhood Center
-PLAYGROUNDS: -Whitelock & Linden -J.E. Howard Elementary
-TENNIS COURTS: -J.E. Howard Elementary
-53 VACANT PARCELS
-89 VACANT BUILDINGS
Figure 20. Amenities Within a Five Minute Walk from Site
-Christ Apostolic -Bible Revival Deliverance -Bethel United Apostolic Church
Once the program was established and the sites were analyzed, the different programs were distributed to the different lengths of stay in the shelter system. Initially, the shelter system was established into four levels: emergency shelter, transitional shelter, supportive housing, and independent living. As the project progressed, the lines between these types of shelter became more blurred someone might enter the system in a transitional stage, or go from the emergency shelter to long-term. Others might only need one night of shelter. Rather than forcing something upon the users, providing different options that lead up to living independently allows users to be as mobile in the system as they desire.
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Existing Rowhouse Module: Space Planning: Initially, the four
different steps in the process were implemented into the different vacant building options. This was an exploration to see the many possibilities that the rowhouse module presents for several different programs. Depending on what exact program is inside, it might be appropriate to use just one floor of one building, use a whole building, or begin to connect adjacent buildings. The images shown are some of the many possible and appropriate configurations that could be considered.
Alteration Strategies: A series of study models were completed to explore some of the strategies of how these spaces might be configured. The models showed different methods of attaching to, projecting from, and creating voids within the existing structure. Ideas about circulation, voids for space and light, and creation of space were developed and explored. These ideas were combined with the space planning exercises to see the wide realm of possibilities that could be appropriate.
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The Homeless User:
A variety of sources, interviews, movies, videos, and articles were used to research how people respond to the current shelter system. Many people choose to live on the streets rather than stay in the provided shelters. The most common issues in emergency shelters were discovered and organized in Figure 21. Though the design solution will not be able to respond to all of the needs, the design can consider and try to address the issues when possible. Families are the targeted user for the first shelter, as they are often separated from each other. Children are especially vulnerable to the transient lifestyle, thus I will provide housing that can house people for an open-ended amount of time and encourage empowerment and re-housing by choice.
Figure 21. (Mobile Homemaker, 2004; Kylyssa; C, 2008; YWCA Columbus, 2011; Glaser & Ohayon, 1992)
“The hardest thing about being homeless is explaining it to my daughter. Try to make her believe that it’s ok even when you don’t... I can’t let her know that anything is wrong.” - Keishauna Mateen - Divorced, recently unemployed, stayed with friends for a few weeks before seeking out the shelter system. (YWCA Columbus, 2011)
“[The hardest part about being homeless is] having to do this with my two kids. My little one doesn’t know any different, but my oldest remembers the way things used to be. She wants everything to go back to the way it was.” - Carey Fuller (da Costa Nunez, 2011) “[The hardest part about being homeless is] the fear. You are afraid all the time, scared no one is going to help you. People look down on you. No one would choose to be homeless, especially for their children.” - Nikki Johnson-Huston; homeless and therefore separated from her family as a child (da Costa Nunez, 2011) “[If there was a service I wanted to have when homeless] I wish we could have stayed together.” - Nikki Johnson-Huston (da Costa Nunez, 2011) “If it wasn’t for my kids I think I would have been gave up on this program, I would have been.... didn’t care... but they gave me reasons to smile.” - Keishauna Mateen (YWCA Columbus, 2011)
Figure 21. Homeless Userâ€™s Problems with Emergency Shelters Developing Criteria
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Community Garden as a joint venture between Homeless Shelter + Food Bank to respond to the need for fresh produce. -Gardens provide a daytime opportunity for people in the shelter rather than being held indoors or forced outside. -They also provide an opportunity for community. -As architects, we can begin designing outside of the building to tie into the community.
-The front and rear entries have lockable storage compartments for users to utilize if they have items that cannot come inside the shelter. -The entries also feature wheelchair lifts to be fully accessible for all visitors.
-Roof Gardens and Rain Barrels
encouraged for individual buildings -In a shared facility, planting, harvesting, and consuming can become a communal activity. -If users relocate to another building in the neighborhood, they can continue to feed their families.
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PROGRAM DISTRIBUTION in the
building utilizes the potential of the module
EXISTING CONDITIONS: Walls
restrict views; stairwells are very narrow and redundant in the four buildings; the narrow building let little light into the central spaces.
RENOVATION: Opening up a light
well and openings between walls allows for more light gain and views for safety.
December 21: 9 AM
December 21: 12 PM
December 21: 3 PM
March/September 20: 9 AM
March/September: 12 PM
March/September: 3 PM
June 21: 9 AM
June 21: 12 PM
June 21: 3 PM
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Improved security at entry/ circulation public spaces
-Openings cut out of existing structure to open up space -Walls kept or added to restrict view and control access into the building
Addition of color, materials, and openings for light gain at entry
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First Floor Plan: Mostly Public Space
-Openings cut out of existing walls and floors to open up space -Walls kept and translucent channel glass railings to restrict view and control access into the building
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COMMUNAL KITCHEN AND DINING ROOM: -Choice between cooking and dining with others in the facility; eating a provided meal from the adjacent food bank, or staying in your own room. -Addition of windows to the adjacent porch and gardens to emphasize the connection to the outside
Second Floor Plan: Mostly private rooms with public atrium space
Third Floor Plan: Private rooms and public space (laundry, living room, roof gardens and patio)
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Overlapping Second and Third Floor Cutouts
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Individual Living Units:
Movable walls allow for flexibility in the number of sleeping rooms and how the room can be opened and closed. The typical unit has folding partitions ending in closets - each family unit has a kitchenette, small dining, and living facility. The number of beds and walls would be flexible and best fit for each family situation. This room provides privacy that is usually lacking in shelters. Users are invited to stay as long as they need, and if they desire, they could move into more supportive and permanent housing within the neighborhood.
-Different spaces within unit
-One room could be closed off for a child to sleep while a parent stayed awake
-Multiple sleeping rooms available depending on the family size
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“Production is a shared enterprise. Of course, professionals are involved in the process, but social space is dynamic space; its production continues over time and is not fixed to a single moment of completion… The dynamic, and hence temporal, nature of space means that spatial production must be understood as part of an evolving sequence, with no fixed start or finish, and that multiple actors contribute at various stages.” - Nishat Awan (2011)
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-Connect to the community: My building
site is merely a piece of the puzzle of what would be a larger masterplan that evolves over time according to the needs of the community. The aforementioned additional programs would be implemented in the abandoned structures around the neighborhood near appropriate community anchors. Varying levels of permanence of housing would be scattered around the site, so if they choose to do so, families would come to the emergency shelter, move into a supportive unit, and then live independently.
Cover. Google Earth Cover. Baltimore 1905. In (1917). The New Encyclopedic Atlas and Gazetteer of the World New York: P.F. Collier & Son. Retrieved from http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/baltimore_md_1905.jpg Page ii. Baltimore 1905. In (1917). The New Encyclopedic Atlas and Gazetteer of the World New York: P.F. Collier & Son. Retrieved from http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/baltimore_md_1905.jpg Page 7. City of Baltimore. Baltimore cityview. Retrieved from http://cityview.baltimorecity.gov/CityView/ Page 20. Retrieved from http://www.hebcac.org/about_hebcac/staff Page 21. Retrieved from http://www.blogger.com/profile/01615851444265308506; Page 22. Karen Jackson. Retrieved from http://www.baltimoresun.com/explore/baltimorecounty/news/community/ ph-ppc-ph-ms-art-auction-1113b.jpg-20111115,0,1419978.photo Page 22. Retrieved from http://www.communityprogress.net/jennifer-r--leonard-pages-106.php Page 23. Retrieved from http://www.arch.umd.edu/doctoral/people/students/LynetteBoswell%20.cfm Page 23. Retrieved from http://catholiccharities.wordpress.com/event-sponsors/about-jobs-housing-recovery/ Page 24. Retrieved from http://www.ebdi.org/ Page 24. Edward Moorhead. Retrieved from http://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10100321602932070&set=a. 855042296350.2466672.12928907&type=1&theater Page 25. Retrieved from http://www.reservoirhill.net/about/pic/Staff_2009.jpg Page 26-27. Michael Wayland. Retrieved from http://photos.mlive.com/5628/gallery/tour_detroits_former_michigan_ bell_telephone_co_building_that_is_receiving_a_50_million_renovation/index.html Page 26-27. Neighborhood Service Organization. Retrieved from http://www.nso-mi.org/bell-building.php Page 30-31. Deborahâ€™s Place. Retrieved from http://wall.aa.uic.edu:62730/ahc/catalog/idc_htx_files/project_page. idc?projectID=131 Page 34-35. Michael Maltzan. Retrieved from http://www.arcspace.com/architects/maltzan/skidrow/rainbow.html Page 34-35. Michael Maltzan. Retrieved from http://www.worldarchitecturenews.com/index. php?fuseaction=wanappln.projectview&upload_id=876 Page 36-37. Michael Maltzan. Retrieved from http://www.arcspace.com/architects/maltzan/carver/carver.html Page 36-37. Iwan Baan. Retrieved from http://www.architectmagazine.com/multifamily/new-carver-apartments.aspx Page 40. Retrieved from http://www.publicserviceconsulting.com/ywcacols-case.shtml Photo Credits
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Page 40. The Columbus Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.columbusunderground.com/philanthropy-fridaystabilizing-families Page 40-41. Retrieved from http://www.ywcacolumbus.org/site/PageServer?pagename=services_familycenter Page 42-43. Homes for the Homeless. Retrieved from http://hfhnyc.org/programs/americanfamilyinns.asp Page 44-45. Pamela Lee. Object to be Destroyed. Page 43. Google Earth. Page 46-47. Retrieved from http://www.hayesvalleyfarm.com/ Page 47. Beth Ferguson. Retrieved from http://www.livingprinciples.org/solarpump-charging-station/ Page 48-49. Marjetica Potrc. Retrieved from http://www.potrc.org/project2.htm Page 49. Lucia Babina. Retrieved from http://stedelijkindestad.nl/projects/in_west/posts/stedelijk_goes_west_the_ cook_the_farmer_his_wife_and_their_neighbour_ Page 50. Clockworx. Retrieved from http://www.altuseguide.com/ Page 50. Florian RiviĂ¨re. Retrieved from http://www.altuseguide.com/ Page 51. Hans Lerperger. Retrieved from http://www.altuseguide.com/ Page 51. Scott Burnham. Retrieved from http://www.altuseguide.com/ Page 51. Zach Brooks. Retrieved from http://midtownlunch.com/2009/11/06/hydrantables-lunch-shelves-areamazing-new-achievements-in-street-food-technology/ Page 52. City of Baltimore. Baltimore cityview. Retrieved from http://cityview.baltimorecity.gov/CityView/ Page 53. Retrieved from http://www.reservoirhill.net/ Page 54, 55, 57, 62, 65, 68, 90. (GIS file translated into AutoCAD file) Retrieved from https://data.baltimorecity.gov/ Page 58-59. Retrieved from http://bing.com 60-61. Google Earth. 63, 75. Mary Ellen Hayward and Charles Belfoure. The Baltimore Rowhouse.
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