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THE MICHIGAN REVIEW Volume 7, Number 7

March 1989


Review Forum: PIRGIM;A:! ....'. Just Say No! MSA Under Fire . " Interviews with the Mayoral Candidates .

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The Michigan Review

March 1989



Serpent's Tooth The following correction appeared in a recent issue of the Michigan Daily: "Daily Opinion Page Editor Elizabeth Esch did not defend the use of unsubstantiated facts in editorials. TheDaily misrepresented her statements in a news story yesterday." If the Daily cannot represent its own people correctly, then who can it represent?

In the same spirit of the NOW boycott against Domino's Pizza, whose owner Tom Monaghan made contributions to anti-abortion groups, the Review

encourages all U-M students to stop reading the Daily. It seems that Daily Editor-in-Chief Adam Schrager supports the designated-hitter rule.

about competence, not ideology. Above all else, we need someone who is not going to concern him self wilh international issues. We need Michael Dukakis.

With the MSA election right around the comer, we have been thinking about what kind of president the student body needs. We need someone with political experience. We need someone who can guarantee students good jobs at good wages when they graduate. We need someone who believes this election is

Michael who?

The Review would like to thank the departing duo of Phillips and Overdorf for providing us with countless ideas for this column. You will be sorely missed.

The Campus Affairs Journal of the University of Michigan

Editor-in-Chief Marc Selinger

Publisher Mark Molesky Arts Editor Jennifer Wori,ck 1

Letters to the Ed itor The La La Legacy I understand the disappointment you express in your February 1989 editorial C'Living in La La Land") about how far the Michigan Daily Opinion Page is oul of touch with the everyday University of Michigan student, because it was the same way when I attended the University of Michigan in the mid-1970s. Back then as well, the Daily had no grass- roots support. It was nothing but the expression of an elitist clique of intellectual snobs who felt that the more radical their position was on a given issue, the more intellectual, moral, and beyond reproach that position must necessarily be. In their view, there was no need to explain it to the drifting masses who were neither intelligent nor compassionate enough to comprehend. Possibly the worst example of this attitude was their comparison of then-President Gerald Ford to Adolf Hitler. In addition, I see they still cannot grasp the concept of an issue having more than one side worth considering. Rather, they ascertain which is currently the acceptable I. .

StM-Letters to the Editor to: IThe Michigan Review!

Suite One 911 North Un~verrity nn Arbor, M1481(J9

progressive position; denounce all others, and argue their position to its extreme so as not to be outdone in espousing the virtuous point of view. For example, 12 years ago the campus Palestinian groups were on their own. The so-called progressive students largely considered them pariahs who had the gall to support terrorists. The Daily did not even know how to spell "Palestinians," much less editorialize on their behalf. But now that the Daily has been informed that the Palestinian cause is an acceptable part of the progressive agenda, they can tell us all we need to know about the Palestinian issue with absolute certainty. They have given their full and unqualified support to the struggle, complete with compassion and moral indignation, and the campus Palestinian groups have gone from wallflower to homecoming queen of the "sensitive" elite. Meanwhile, we drifting masses are still pondering the immense, and often perplexing, historical, political, religious, and strategic questions involved in the matter. What makes the Daily's pontifications all the more sickening is the way its members are often intimidated into taking their one-sided position by campus pressure groups. They could not consider another side of some issues if they wanted to, for fear of violating the wrong party's sacred cow. Thus, their opinions are too often arrived at by default-with all other considerations having been censored-instead of by the free and open exercise of thought Ninety-nine years of editorial freedom indeed.

Tom Roelofs Engineering 1978

Assistant Editor Matthew Lund Associate Publishers Vicky Frodel Ryan Schreiber Personnel Manager John Miller Executive Assistant Dana Miller

Is the Review Improving? The Michigan Review is definitely improving. Your February 1989 issue fairly oozed editorial equilibrium. The straight, informational stuff was excellent. Overall, in fact, the only things I reacted violently to were the lame cartoon accompanying the book review ("Storming the Ivory Tower") and the patently stupid "Liberal Arts" representative pictured on the cover in a tacky early-1970s shawl. To be taken seriously, I should not have to tell you, you must take your readers seriously. Your Michigan Daily-bashing is more pointed, and it seems like you really do want to help resolve some campus issues instead of adding fuel to the fires of rhetoric. You have obviously done some of the growing up which you prescribe for the Daily, but not all of it. There are still a few ugly kinks to work out, such as irrelevant name-calling ("neo-hippie," "La La Land") and shamelessly rehashing certain campus fiascoes (President James Duderstadt's inauguration, the 1988 Martin Luther King Day). In other words, your generally admirable views are way ahead of your persuasivewriting,skills. Cut the propaganda and you mighffind,yourselves with a disarmingly lucid anq progressive following (n.b.: that is not a paradox).

Andy Shaver LSA Junior

Production Assistant Rannie O'Halloran Editor Emeritus Seth Klukoff

Stall Ian Beilin, Mark Binelli, Karen Brinkman, Mark Brodson, Judy Cheng, Rick Dyer, Annette Elert, Brian Gambs, Stephen George, Ash Jain, Jeffrey Leiman, Ajay Mehrotra, Peler Miskech, Chris Moore, Carol Nahra, Jim Ouevaere, Belinda Pelt, Lisa Perczak, Brian Portnoy, Dan Shonkwiler, Perry Shorris, John Transue, Elisabeth Weinstein, Bob Wierenga, Chau-Ye Wu The Michigan Review is an independent, non-profit student journal at the University of Michigan. We welcome letters and articles and encourage comments about the journal and issues discussed in it. We are not affiliated with any political party. Our address is: Suite One 911 North University Ann Arbor, Mich. 48109 (313) 662-1909 Copyright 1989




March 1989

The Michigan Review


From the Editor

MSA's Presidential Challenge Two years ago, Seth Klukoff, my predecessor as editor-in-chief of the Michigan Review, ran unsuccessfull y for president of the Michigan Student Assembly. He was seeking, in part, to reform a student govemmentconsidered by many to be ineffective and unrepresentative of the student body. Since that election, not much has improved at MSA. If anything, the situation has deteriorated. In fact, a number of articles that have appeared in this and other publications illustrate that a growing number of students, as well as administrators, have given up on the beleaguered Assembly. However, MSA could still be saved. But to do so, the next president, who will be elected this month, must make some major changes. To begin, the next president must embrace what some past MSA presidents have often rejected: diplomacy. He should throwaway the "Duderstadt Is Illegal" signs and the kangaroo outfits and demon-

strate a willingness to work with, rather than against, the administration. He should also refrain from one of the most divisive antics of the current president: the shouting down of dissenting representatives. Likewise, he should not spend his time labeling students "apathetic leeches" (see the Ann Arbor News, Feb. 24, 1989) because they have shown a lack of interest in MSA. Rather, he should playa positive role and encourage students to become more active in campus politics. The next president should also lead MSA in addressing only those issues that concern and directly affect students. He should convince the Assembly to refrain from addressing national and international issues, except those that are educationrelated' such as federal financial aid programs. Then, MSA could concentrate on issues, such as tuition and the quality of classroom instruction, in which all students share an interest.

Furthermore, the next president should try to make MSA more prudent with its

finances. Instead of feeling obligated, as it does now, to give away extra funds it has at the end of the academic year, MSA should save its money for the following year's budget. MSA could then lower its fee request to the Board of Regents. Although this savings would have a negligible impact on students' pocketbooks, it would improve MSA' s credibility by demonstrating that the Assembly can exercise selfrestraint. MSA representatives would also be in a better position to criticize the administration for not cutting its own costs. In a4dition, the next president should work to increase student awareness of, as well as participation in, student government. Shortly after taking office, he should hold at least one formal Assembly meeting or informal gathering in each dorm. Since dorms are populated mostly by underclassmen, MSA would be able to reach out to

those students whose disenchantment with student government is the least ingrained and who have the most arnount of time left in theircoilegecareers to become involved in campus politics. The next president could also meet periodically with the leaders of various student groups to get feedback and exchange ideas. MSA will only become a credible and effective student government if these or similar steps are taken. Hopefully, students will elect the presidential can~idate who is most willing to accept this challenge.

~~ Marc Selinger is a junior in political science and the editor-in-chier or the

Michigan Review.

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I Serpent's Tooth Letters to the Editor From the Editor From Suite One: Editorials Coyer Story-Electjop '89 Review Forum PIRGIM ... Just Say No!, by Jeff Johnson MSA Under Fire, by Brian Gambs Interviews with the Mayoral Candidates, by Belinda Pelt


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March 1989

The Michigan Review 4

From Suite One: Editorials

The New Segregation In his famous 1963 speech at the Lincoln Memorial, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. said, "I have a dream that one day ... little black boys and little black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and linle white girls as brothers and sisters." Yet, 25 years later, his dream appears in danger of being abandoned. The movement toward integration, which became a dominant force in the 1960s, has been replaced by the voluntary segregation of the 1980s. And nowhere is this new conception of racial relations more evident than on our nation's college campuses, including the University of Michigan. At the U-M, blacks and other minorities have taken advantage of exclusive student groups and services, such as an Afro-American studies program, a black fraternity system, minority counseling offices, minority lounges, minority peer advisers in many of the residence halls, and even a "Diversity Day" dedicated to celebrating the U-M's multicultural atmosphere. While the proponents of these ideas may have good intentions, they are promoting what many perceive as the frightening belief that blacks should not demean themselves by interacting with whites. As Shelby Steele, a well-known black educator, writes in the February edition of Harper's Magazine, "In this formula , black becomes the very color of entitlement, an extra right in itself, and a very dangerous grandiosity is promoted in which blackness amounts to specialness." Nevertheless, the push for self-segregation continues. Several minority groups, including the Black Student Union, are currently demanding the establishment of a black student lounge, an idea which seems reminiscent of an outdated era when segregation was the law, and assimilation was the unrealized ideal. Minority groups are not the only ones promoting this exclusionary agenda. The Michigan Student Assembly recently decided to fund in full a 519,000 national "students of color" conference, which will include many sessions that white students will nocbe allowed to attend. At the same time, MSA ignored the fact that most of the conference's funding comes from white students. This makes MSA look as if it is endorsing the idea of separatism as well as ignoring the interests of the student body a'\ a whole. Moreover, if MSA were to fund a conference that admitted only whites, the Assembly would undoubtedly be viewed as racist, and deservedly so. MSA 's decision to sponsor an event which excludes white.s because of their skin color deserves a similar evaluation. Events which discriminate against any sector of the campus population are also detrimental to the entire civil rights movement. A minority community that wishes to be respected and treated fairly by the majority must agree to live within a macrocosm of varying ideas, values, and cultures, not within a microcosm of unilateral design. Thomas

Shon, in his essay "A 'New' Campus Racism?" eloquently ~escribes the dangers of segregation. He writes, "The dogma of cultural separateness ... will in fact heighten mutual suspicion and hostility among Americans of different races and ethnic backgrounds." The doctrine of voluntary segregation that many minority groups on campus have adopted must be abandoned if they ever hope to effectively combat racism. Equal access, not preferential treatment, should be the vehicle to achieving a society free of mali gnant raciallensions. Only through integration will King's dream oc realized,

The Angela Davis Minority Student Lounge in Mary Markley Dormitory

Trim the Fat The University of Michigan's Provost and Vice President for Academic Affairs, Charles Vest recently announced that he will be setting up a special task force by next fall to examine ways of cuuing unnecessary costs. Considering that the cost of attending the U-M continues to grow at a much faster rate than inflation, this plan is a laudable one. But it should have come sooner. Millions of unrecoverable dollars have already been spent on wasteful projects. For instance, over the past two summers, the U-M spent $1 million renovating the West and South Quadrangle cafeterias. While some new equipment was justified,luxuries such as neon signs were not. Also, an incredible $500,000 was spent last fall renovating the president's house. _. While it is too late to recover the money SpeJlt on these projects, there are still many areas where the task force can help eliminate wasteful expenditures. For example, a great

deal of money is being lost because of heating systems that sometimes work too well. Many dorm rooms become so hot that residents actually leave their windows open during the winter months. Each year, South Quad and Bursley alone account for nearly $275,000 in heating costs. The task force should also consider the enormous expense of removing the multitude ~Uyers that plaster campus sideWalks. The U-M could cut down on some of this cost by constrllcting more kiosks or perhaps installing electronic billboards similar to the ones in the*basement of Angell Hall. Campus organizations would then have an alternative to postering sidewalks, subsequendy saving the U-M thousands of dollars in cleanillg ices. The creation of this task force is undoubtedly a step in the' right direction. Any reduction in costs win be greatly appreciated by students attending the most expensive state-funded school in the country.



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The Michigan Review

March 1989


Cover Story: Review Forum

PIRGIM TIw opllliollsGpmSed ift fhis guest editorial do Dot Dfcessarlly represent those 01 the Miclaipn R .e l'}ew editorial board. by Jeff Johnson Last year, students at the University of Michigan voted down a ballot proposal by PIRGIM (the Public Interest Research Group in Michigan) to assess each student a 7S cent fee per term through a negative refund system. If it had been approved, this system would have obligated each student to pay the fee unless he completed a refusal form. During the election campaign, PIRGIM claimed that without the funds generated by this fee, they would "die" and be forced to leave campus. Well, get out your wallet. Even though PIRGIM did not get its funding scheme passed, the group is amazingly still alive and soliciting student dolJars. However, this year its appetite has grown and it wants to take $2 of your money each term. PIRGIM is Michigan's version of the national public interest groups that were started in the early 1970s by consumer advocate Ralph Nader. The function of these PIRGs is to influence legislation through lobbying and litigation in pursuit of an agenda which , they claim, is in the "public interest." These public interest groups, including PIRGIM, often use the claim that they are "pro-environment" or acting in the "public interest" in an attempt to neutralize any criticism of them or their funding methods. They even use these claims in anempt to justify special treatment or funding systems for their group such as the negative refund system. However, the fact that PIRGIM is an actor in the political arena and is taking positions on issues which have at least two sides makes it quite clear that they are not working in the public interest any more than other politicalJy oriented campus groups. They may be working in what they claim is the "public interest," but to that extent so is every other campus group. Therefore, PIRGIM is no more immune to criticism or entitled to special privileges than any other campus group. Most students' primary quarrel with PIRGIM is not necessarily with the group itself; rather it is with its proposed funding through the negative refund system. The negative refund funding system which PIRGIM wishes to enact would work in the following manner. Each term when you register for classes, you would pay a $2 fee to PIRGIM through your tuition bill.

• • •

Just Say No!

However, if you did not want PIRGIM to get your money, you would have to obtain and complete a refund application. You would still pay the $2 fee, but it would be refunded to you at a later date. The negative refund scheme is similar to a Book of the Month Club membership in which you are sent a book to purchase each month unless you send the club a notice by a certain time. :fhe only difference between this and PIRGIM's system is thal one can choose to join the Book of the Month Club, while U-M students will be forced to comply with PIRGIM's negative refund system if its proposal passes in the

doing something without your consent. Yet that is just what PIRGIM is doing by forcing students to either give them money or spend time filling out their refund application. PIRGIM will argue, as it has in the past, that it will only take a minute of your time to fill out the refund application if you want your money back, and therefore it is no big deal. BUl PIRGIM is wrong. It is a big deal. It does not matter how long it takes to fill out the refund application; it is the principle that matters. A student should not be obligated to expend any resources whatsoever on an organization if he chooses not to. It is

The mission of the university is to educate students and not to act as a collection agency for a state-wide politicaZZobbying organization. March MSA elections. So what reasons do students have for opposing PIRGlM's ballot proposal in the upcoming election? One reason is that the U-M is a state institution funded by taxpayers' dollars. The mission of the universi ty is to educate students and not to act as a collection agency for a state-wide political lobbying organization. The voters of the state of Michigan never requested that the U-M take on this function for PIRGIM. Another reason for opposing the proposal is that PIRGIM is not entitled to any more privileges than other campus groups. Allowing PIR G1M to use a negati ve refund funding system to the exclusion of all other campus groups implies that the U-M in some way favors this group over all others. It lends a credibility and acceptability to PIRGIM which no other campus political group receives. The most important reason to oppose PIRGIM's funding proposal is the very nature of the negative funding system itself. At no time will you be offered the option of refusing to participate in PIRGIM's funding scheme. You have to "play their game" whether you want to or nOL PIRGIM is in effect saying to you, "We are going to take your money unless you take action to prevent us from doing so." Whatever happened to PIRGIM soliciting for donations like any other campus group? Why should students bear the burden of stopping PIRG 1M from taking their money? No student group has the right to take your money or have y~u spend time

apparent that PIRGIM feels that you as a student should not have that right to choose. PIRGIM, as a student group, has access to the same funding mechanisms employed by other campus groups, yet it refuses to use them . Its Ius! for money is so great that it is willing to sacrifice each student's rights in order to gain a few extra dollars. Its proposed negative funding system would exploit those students who accidentally forgot to fill out the refund application, or did not understand the sys-

tem or waste their time trying to figure it out. PIRGIM is preying upon apathy and confusion and sacrificing your rights in the process. It is interesting to note how hypocritically Ralph Nader. the founder of the PIRGs. reacted when he was confronted with the negative refund system which PIRGIM would like to foist upon us. Former Nader associate David Sanford, in his book Me and Ralph : Is Nader Unsafe for America? wrote, .. A young woman assisting Ralph in his auto safety wprk who was bothered that Nader would lli!ver answer any of her memos hatched a negativeoption scheme of her own. She wrote Ralph about some now forgotten malter, 'Unless I hear from you otherwise. I'll assume this is o.k.' Nader replied quickly and angrily with a phone call to her associale, Lowell Dodge, 'I do not and will not run my life on the Book of the Month Club System.'" . Fellow students, send PIRGIM the'message on election day that they should follow the advice of their founder and not try to run our lives by the Book of the Month System. On March 21 and 22, vote against PIRGIM's negative refund proposal.

Jeff Johnson is a senior in electrical engineering and a candidate for MSA on the Conservative Coalition ticket. He is also the director of STAFF (Students Against Forced Fees), a group formed to oppose PIRGIM's negative funding system.

GIVE ME MONEY OR I WILL DIE WHO SAID THIS? a. Oral Roberts b. PIRGIM , c. All of the above h




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March 1989

The Michigan Review 6

Cover Story: Pre-election Analysis

MSA Under Fire by Brian Gambs The Michigan Student Assembly is in the public spotlight more than most other campus organizations. But frequently, the publicity MSA receives reflects students' discontent with the Assembly's performance. And as if on cue, the regents are warning MSA to change its ways, or face defunding or outright abolition. The possibility that MSA will be dissolved presents students at the University of Michigan with the alarming prospect that the student body as a whole will have no voice in campus affairs, because although every school and college at the U-M has its own government, only MSA is designed to represent the entire campus. But many people accuse MSA of being out of control, and out of touch with the student body. Glenn Kotcher, an LSA junior and a vice president of the College RepUblicans, says, "MSA does not represent the wishes of a majority of the students." LSA senior and former MSA Representative Bryan Case says, "MSA is controlled by a self-proclaimed elite cQmpletely convinced of its own righteousness, willing to do anything to retain power." These two students do not appear to be isolated cases. Concern that MSA has chosen an agenda that does not include the interests of a majority of students has frequently resulted in protest by segments of the student body. Last year the Engineering Council circulated a petition calling for secession from MSA. According to Engineering junior Aaron Williams, an MSA representative and a member of the Council, the petition drive occurred partly as a result of the election of LSA senior Mike Phillips to the presidency of MSA. According to Williams, most Engineering students "could not believe" he had been elected, and did not feel he would represent the interests of engineers. The petition was also partly a reaction to a protest sponsored by MSA for the benefit of minorities. According to Williams, who is black, the protest was not supported by minority students on campus and became "a fiasco ." Displeasure with MSA is not limited to engineering students. According to Rob Bell, an LSA junior and an MSA representative, "The Engineering Council is not alone in its disgust with MSA. Other groups are similarly upset. But the engineers are not as apathetic when it comes to taking action." The Board of Regents has also made public its disappointment with MSA's recent performance. Last summer, the

decisions directly affecting students. And, And, if MS A is not heard when it speaks on student issues, it cannot fulfill its purpose of representing students. Many representatives believe that MSA is ineffective in other ways. Bell says, "MSA completely fails to serve student needs on this campus. It is run so poorly that it fails to command any respect from virtually any group on this campus. It has fallen into such disfavor that it cannot perfonn its function. It is g,~nerally ~ waste of money." Over the Pltst year,; many student groups were denied MSA funding because Assembly members did not » believe they had enough money to support :l ,-'<, :l everyone who deserved funding. \--.. ~ n Recently, an audit discovered $83,000 that tTl MSA is now trying to spend before the end ~ .::::. of the year. The money is now essentially ::c being given away "wholesale." According '§"" to Bell, this is a typical example of MSA' s " complete lack of fi scal comPetence. Williams thinks that much of the prohlem is in the way MSA conducts business. He says that "if MSA's function is debating useless things and not gelling to the heart of the maller, then it fulrills its function, I fits function is representing student interests and concerns, it docs not. " Hayes agrees that there arc problems with MSA, but points out that "there arc problems with any large bureaucracy ." The bureaucmtic nature of MSA may well be a large part of the problem. One phenomenon commonly attributed to The Michigan Student Assembly bureaucracies is that people working succeeding in its attempts to communicate fry people." Williams also says that within them lose sight of ovemll goals as with the student body. MSA Assembly members generally do not listen they attempt to advance the priorities of Representative Heidi Hayes, an LSA during Constituents' Time, and many, their own small committces or offices. junior, says that there is "a lack of including Phillips, leave without even Some people feel that MSA is communication between MSA and the making a pretense of listening. experiencing these kinds of problems in its students. MSA receives bad publicity, The ability of MSA to communicate budgetary process. Murray says that the basically through the MichiganDaily. I do with students, and the respect, or lack way money is allocated to student groups is not think that the student body knows what thereof, received by the Assembly as a "inefticient", and adds that "there should MSA is doing." Williams says, "MSA result, has a direct bearing on the influence be more regulation." rarely takes that first step to talk to of MSA and its ability to perform its job. In fact, MSA does not check to see if the students." Julie Murray, an LSA sophomore and money it allocates is being spent as it is This semester, MSA launched a chair of the MSA Student Rights supposed to be. Of MSA's roughly Sl publicity drive in an attempt to Committee, says, "Our number one million annual budget, about 50 percent is communicate directly with the student problem is a lack of respect from students allocated to two organizations. Student body. The campaign included posting and the administration. MSA' s power is in Legal Services and the Ann Arbor Tenants bulletin boards and placing centerpieces in the number of students that support it, and Union. Despite the huge amount of dormitory dining halls, both with the right now, I do not think that students do." funding the two groups receive from MSA, slogan "MSA: Students Working For Howttyer, Murray does feel that an audit has never been performed to check You" printed on them. Williams says that "commun~tion is getting better." if the money they receive from the the drive has been "ineffective." Mean,while the administration and the Assembly is being spent properly. According to MSA Representative James regents do not appear to believe that the Inefficient bureaucracies often have McBain, an LSAjunior, "We are doing as students have respect for their own bloated operating costs, and the Assembly much as we can to improve our outreach, government, and as a result, it is not is no exception. MSA spends about but it is just not enough." surprising that they have become less $156,000 annually on offices, MSA's communication problems are willing to listen to MSA when making cOlltinued 011 page 11

regents increased MSA's fee by the subinflation amount of 3 cents per student, while they doubled the fee students pay to their school and college governments. The regents have recently threatened to defund MSA entirely if it does not take certain steps, including talking with the Student Organization Development Council. Many students, both members and nonmembers of the Assembly, feel that MSA's problems lie in three major areas: communication with students, the ability of the Assembly to perform its function, and MSA's political composition, Few MSA representatives feel that it is



not confined to diag boards and student newspapers; some students who have attended MSA meetings believe that Constituents' Time does not represent a sincere effort by representatives to find out what their constituents are thinking. One Assembly member has referred to Constituents' Time as "MSA's greatest weapon." Many believe that the entire process is slanted against students who bring their concerns to the Assembly because students are unable to question representatives, while representatives are allowed to grill constituents. Williams says that he has seen representatives "just

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The Michigan Review

March 1989 7

- - Cover Story: Interviews with the Mayoral Candidates

Mayor G. Jernigan when I was first on the City Council, and for the last couple of years we have worked real hard together. We hired a new city administrator on a bipartisan basis and we did it in a very open process on television. We have also had racism training. We have done some other fairly significant things. We have begun two very significant housing projects-one is a singleroom occupancy facility downtown on top of the 'Y,' and the other is 240 units of badly needed single-family housing units out on Packard StreeL I have also initiated a series of regular discussions with both the university and the townships that we did not have before. I think I have a very good record to run on, and I am pleased with where we are at. There are a few problems, but I think that we can work them out. On Monday, Feb. 20, Review staffer Belinda Pett, a senior in history and political science, interviewed Republican Mayor Gerald D. Jernigan, who is seeking re-election to a second two-year term. Before becoming mayor, Jernigan represented the 4th Ward on the Ann Arbor City Council (1982-1987). He has also served as a member (1983-1985) and chairman (1984-1985) of the Zoning Board of Appeals and as a member of the Planning Commission (1982-1983). Jernigan currently works as a senior investment analyst at the University of Michigan. REVIEW: What have been your major accomplishments as mayor? JERNIGAN: I think there are several actually. We have worked real hard to get the rate of increase in crime down substantially in town. Two years ago, when I was elected to office, it was up 17 percent. Last year, it was up 2 percent to 3 percent, and this year we expect it to be about the same. So, we are working on those problems, and we are being successful. We have also added police over the course of time. In the area of solid waste, [Councilman] JeffEpton [D-3rd Ward] and I were the two councilmen who started the solid waste task force. That task force has come up with a strategy that says that the city ought to get into recycling, composting, waste reduction, and a waste-as-fuel option. Clearly some sort of recycling program will be needed and we will do that. One of the other major things that I have done is to get rid of a lot of the partisan bickering and complaining that went on

REVIEW: What would be your main priorities if reelected mayor? JERNIGAN: I think the solid wasteproblem has to top the list of things that we have to work on. We simply have to find solutions to where we are going to put the garbage and solid waste material in the city. As I have said, we do have a plan for that and it is just a matter of now moving ahead to implement the plan, getting the financing in place, and establishing the priorities. Crime is also an area that we have to constantly work on and try to deal with as best we can. REVIEW: Why should the people of Ann Arbor reelect you when the city is facing a budget deficit under your administration? And ir reelected, how would you solve the city's budget problems? JERNIGAN: The budget problem is one that was not caused by my administration. It has been caused by the people who were in control. I have been mayor for two years, and for three of the last four years, the other party has actually been in control. They have had a majority on the City Council. We just took over in April. When we did that, we started asking a lot of questions about the budget. [We are now considering] leaving positions vacant, leaving some capital equipment expenditures unfilled, and the other thing that we would like the voters to do is pass a modified H~ley Amendment. Now, my

Continued on page 11

Ray Clevenger


On Monday, Feb. 20, Re~'iew stalTer Belinda Pelt interviewed Raymond F. Clevenger, the Democratic candidate for mayor. Clevenger currently practices law in Ann Arbor and has served as commissioner of the Michigan Corporations and Securities Commission (19611963), U.S. Representative from Michigan's 11th District (1965-1967), and chairman of the Great Lakes Basin Commission (1967-1968). REVIEW: What would be your main priorities if elected mayor? CLEVENGER: The budget crunch, the landfill, and cutting down on crime in the campus area and in the city. REVIEW: If elected, how would you solve the city's budget deficit problems? CLEVENGER: We would raise money by increasing the fees paid for the cost of the city services. We would try to collect, through a moratorium on the parking tickets, a considerable sum of money. We would try to collect the unpaid property taxes, the personal property taxes and debts that are owed to the city. I would not set aside the Hedley Amendment and would not want the property owners to have their taxes increased as is being proposed by the incumbent REVIEW: ijpw would you try to improve Ann A~bor tnvironmental conditions in general,llnd deal with the issue or the landfill in particular? CLEVENGER: The landfill specifically has to be negotiated with the state govern-

ment. I would try to pick up where the Citizens Comminee left off 10 years ago [in developing] a proposal to set upa shredder and some recycling efforts. I think Ann Arbor is one of the most wealthy of cities. It has immense amounts of human resources and knowledge as well as fairly affluent taxpayers. For instance, we have some of the country' 5 outstanding engineers in our midst, and I WOUld, in addition to utilizing city employees themselves, try to use these experts to layout short-, middle-, and long-range plans to tell us where we are at. I think we are going to finally have to recognize that we ~nnot keep ruining our environment. . This landfill question has been coming on for the last 15 years. It has become particularly acute in the last two years, and nothing has been done about it. REVIEW: What would you do to improye housing, especially for students? CLEVENGER: I would suggest that the' university build 2000 to 3000 more units. The university should provide the housing that is necessary for the students. It need not be dormitory housing. The university, presumably, should be working with the private Se{;tof within Ann Arbor to see if the private sector can assist the university. So, that is a university problem. REVIEW: Lately, the $5 fine ror the possession of marijuana has become an issue. Do you consider the fine to be an adequate penalty for possession of mar ijuana? Hnot, what would you suggest as an alternative? CLEVENGER: There is a group in town popularly referred to as the Tom Monaghan-Millie 5chembechler group that has raised the question. The group was said to have conducted a survey showing the relationship between the minimal fine for the possession of marijuana and drug abuse. I would like to see that. I am not convinced that thathas been demonstrated. I just have not seen it. REVIEW: What would you do for the University of Michigan if elected? CLEVENGER: I think the city may already be overextending itself in trying to help the university. The university does not need the direct help of the city as much as the city needs to have the university pay

Continued on page 11


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March 1989

The Michigan Review 8

Campus Affairs: Academics

Is There Grade Inflation? by Ajay Mehrotra

Over the past few decades, colleges and universities around the country have seen a steady rise in grade point averages. Many educators and administrators question whether this grade inflation has resulted from better students or relaxed grading standards. At the University of Michigan, the average student grade point average has increased from 2.61 in 1958 to 3.02 last year. The percentage of class honors awarded has also risen. At the 1958 Honors Convocation, about 5 percent of the eligible students recei ved class honors. Last year, 10 percent earned such distinctions. The trend of rising grades at the U-Mhas been less significant than at other schools such as Dartmouth College and the University of Chicago, where average GPAs have risen close to a full letter-grade in the past 30 years. And even though average grades have risen at the U-M, they are still low compared to other universities. At Stanford

number of Yale seniors graduating with honors to the top 30 percent. Before passage of the resolution, which goes into effect for the 1989 graduating class, close to 50 percent of Yale's seniors were graduating with honors. "The idea of half of the class graduating with honors did not seem like much of a distinction," said Meeske. "It became almost a lack of honor not to get honor." Some professors at the U-M have detected this grade inflation. U-M history Professor Bradford Perkins has noticed that although high school preparation has become less satisfactory over the years, he has been giving bener grades. "Maybe it is a psychological adjustment. Students have been coming less prepared, so we have overcompensated by giving better grades." Perkins adds that grades often vary from department to department. "In history there is inevitably a large subjective factor in grading. Sometimes it is difficult to decide between what qualifies as a 'C+' or 'B-' essay."

At the University of Michigan, the average student's grade point average has increased from 2.61 in 1958 to 3.02 last year. University and Yale University, about 40 percent of the grades received every semester are "A" grades. Both schools acknowledge that their students average around a 3.3 on a 4.0 scale. According to Yale Registrar John Meeske, Yale has not given less than 40 percent "A" grades in any year since 1978. This high proportion of "A" grades has prompted Yale's faculty to pass a resolution last year limiting the

Comparing the present situation with his undergraduate days at Harvard University, Perkins observes that although on Iy a small number of students actually approach him about grades, students today are generally more grade conscious then they used to be. "When I went to school, it was tough to go through four years and not get a 'C' ," he says. "Now students worry that an 'A-' will keep them out of law school."

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Those who argue that the rash of "A" grades has devalued excellence often point to the "gentleman's 'C''' being replaced by the "gentleman's 'B'." Others disagree. "The gentlemanly 'C' is a mythic beast like the unicorn," says Professor H.D. Cameron of the Great Books program. A U-M alumnus and professor for 30 years, Cameron believes that grades have not changed much over the years. He asserts that people fall back on a "good-ole-days mythology" when they compare the past with the present. "It has always been the case," says Cameron, "that the easy-going, amiable student would be safe getting by with just a 'C'." According to Cameron, the rise in average GPAs has come about not because of relaxed grading standards, but because the admission process has become more selective. "If we select 'A' and 'B' students, we can expect them [0 get those grades here. A criterion of selection will yield a GPA that is built into it." While most professors and dean s seem

noticed that while the GPAs of people accepted into this national honor society has increased in the pasl30 years, the GPA required for selection has been the same for several years. . U-M Assistant Registrar Douglas Wooley attributes grade inflation to a number of causes. According to Wooley , GPAs at the U-M went through their great· est rise in the 1960s, but have maintained their present level since the mid-1970s. "There certainly was gr.lde intlation in the late-1960s and early-1970s," says Wooley. "It was ge~erally a more liberal period. People were against grading policies. They questioned the importance of classes and requirements . But since about the end of 1975 , grade inflation has not been a problem ." Wooley adds that what little change may have occurred in the past decade or so could be a result of "better caliber studen ts" and the influence of financial aid. "With financial aid, s tudenL~ can spend more time on their studies" anti w(my less

to agree that average grades have increased since the 1950s, many also believe that this tendency has leveled off in the recent past. Biology Professor Emeritus Norman Kemp suggests that a lenient grading system may have caused the initial risco "There may have been a relaxation in the 'C' category," says Kemp. '''C's may have been pushed up to 'B 's and 'B+' s up to the 'A' level." Kemp, who is also the secretary of the local Phi Beta Kappa chapter, has

about having to work their way through school, says Wooley. Although it appears that grade inflation is no longer the "crisis" it once wa~ at the U-M, a consensus has yetta be reached to explain why average grades arc higher today than they were in the past. Ajay Mehrotra is a sophomore in LSA and a starT writer for the Revjew.

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The Michigan Review

Campus Affairs: Academics

Julius Lester: Rebel with a Cause by John Miller At first glance, Julius Lester appears to be a living contradiction. He is black, and he is Jewish. This unusual combination of race and religion has contributed to his remarkable story, which has recently created an enonnous amount of controversy. and raised many questions concerning race, religion, and scholarship. Lester visited Ann Arbor's B'nai B'rith Hillel Foundation on Feb. 7, and spoke, of his conversion to Judaism and the many dilemmas that arise from being both black and Jewish: Lester is the son of a Methodist minister, and as a youth in the Midwest and South, he was continually saturated with religion. He had a true love for the Old Testament, but secretly doubted much of what he was taught in church. "Christianity did not speak with the chilling truth of reality," he sqid at Hillel. Unknowingl y, Lester had embarked on a spiritual odyssey that was to 'last until 1983, with his ultimate conversion to Judaism. His journey was long and arduous, as he frequently changed religious loyalties from his collegiate atheism to a generalized belief in God, and then to experimentS in Catholic mysticism and Native American faiths. As a leader of the civil rights movement, Lester became a controversial figure in 1968. At the age of 30, he penned Look

Out. Whitey! Black Power's Gon: Gel Your Morna! The same year, Lester was branded an anti-Semite by a large number of Jewish organizations. The conflict arose over a radio call-in program Lester hosted on WBAI-FM in New York City. He encouraged a guest to read a poem written by a 14-year-old black school girl that began, "Hey Jew boy, with that yarmulke on your head/Y ou palefaced Jew boy - I wish you were dead." Lester said his intentions were not belligerent and hoped the segment would simply be an effective lead into a discussion of strained black-Jewish relations. Nevertheless, some members of the Jewish press were outraged. But Lester received enough support from much of the Jewish community at large to salvage his reputation. In 1971. Lester joined the faculty of the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, in the Afro-American Studies Department He has become known as an excellent teacher and acquired a great deal of

condemned New York City for its ethnic composition, Lester accused Baldwin of unintentionally making an anti-Semitic statement, although he pointed out that Baldwin was not an anti-Semite. After the incident, the other 15 faculty members of the U-Mass Afro-American Studies Department endorsed a statement labeling Lester "the anti-Negro Negro" ang calling for his removal from the departmenl, primarily for his "deliberate misrepresentation" of Baldwin, Professor Charles Davis, the department chainnan, told the Amherst Bulletin, "We have nothing against his Judaism .... [Blut when one develops a vicious attitude toward blacks and black organizations, Jackson, Baldwin, and civil rights, there is some question as to the appropriateness of his remaining in the department." Lester was eventually removed from the prestige and accolades. Today, he is the only U-Mass faculty member to have received all three of the university's major awards: the Distinguished Teacher's Award, the Faculty Fellowship Award for Distinguished Research and Scholarship, and the Distinguished Faculty Lecturer's Award. Most recently, U-Mass gave Lester a Chancellor's Medal, its highest honor. But Lester's success in academia did not remove him from the center of controversy. In 1979, members of the black community criticized him for writing "The Uses of Suffering," an essay for the Village Voice, in which he sided against blacks who held Jews responsible for Andrew Young's departure as ambassador to the United Nations. Young. presently mayor of Atlanta, had met with representatives of the Palestine Liberation Organization and was antagonized by much of the Jewish community for doing so. Even today, the controversy surrounding ~ster continues. He has converted to Judaism and has criticized Louis Farrakhan, leader of the Chicago-based Nation ofIslam, for making anti-Semitic remarks. But Lester has received the most trouble of late for the publication of his latest boojc Lovesong: Becoming a Jew. The dispute centers around commet:lts Lester made in his book concerning black author James Baldwin. When referring to Baldwin's criticism of the media for reporting the Rev. Jesse Jackson's infamous "Hymietown" statement, in .whichJackson

Jackson might not be beneficial to blacks. Thomas Neumann, executive vicepresident ofB 'nai B'rith International, in a letter to the New York Times, accused "demagogues" of "blacklisting a thinker." He added, "We are all losers, when rigid party line standards be.come the basis for academic thought and speech, and political loyalty tests are penniaed to stifle free expression in the United States," Lester responded to the charges by his former black colleagues in "W~n Black Unity Works Against Critical Inquiry," an essay in which he indicted black academia, scolded the narrow-mindedness of many of its leaders, and accused it of fostering "an intellC(tual climate that confuses criticism with assault" The entire episode places the sacrosanct ideas of black intelligentsia under a critical spotlight. Disturbing questions regard\ng

Lester's career as a teacher ofAfro-Alnetican studies was destroyed because he had the "audacity" to believe Jackson might not be beneficial to blacks. Afro-American Studies Department, the abilities of blacks to criticize their own though he was given a full-time position in heritage and traditions, without immedithe Judaic and Near-Eastern Studies Proately losing favor with their peers, inevitagram, where he had previously taught blyarise. several courses and still works today. But during a question-and-answer sesThis entire episode sparked widespread sion at Hillel, Lester seemed very comfortoutrage in much of the academic commu~ able in rmding fault with Jackson. nity and among many Jewish leaders. "Even during the civil rights movement, Joseph Duffy, chancellor of the U-Mass, I was never fond of Jesse Jackson. I have called the incident a "dangerous, even never been able to trust him." said Lester. ominous threat," that could potentially Lester also mentioned that Jackson extinguish freedom of thought and exprescould possibly threaten the well-being of sion. blacks. In an essay on Lester in the Clev.eland "He is like a messianic figure, and that is Jewish News, Rabbi Douglas Weber ofvery dangerous," he said. " When a large fered an analogy to explain the situation. group of people wrap all of their hopes up Weber said that if a professor of psycholinto one individual, hopes are easily deogy held the view that homosexuality is the â&#x20AC;˘ stroyed. We saw that happen 20 years ago mark of arrested development or emo[to Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.]." tional illness, his career could possibly be As long as Lester challenges the black ruined, due to the pervasive belief among . community by offering these and other academic ,,,orthodoxy that a variety of controversial ideas, his position in the sexual preferenCes is completely nonna!. limelight will most likely continue. Likewise. Lester's career as a teacher of Afro-American studies was destroyed . John Miller is a sophomore in LSA and beeause he had the "audacity" to believe the personnel manager of the Re~'iew.


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The Michigan Review

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March 1989

Arts: Academic Affairs

At the Movies

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by Mark Blnelll It was voted Best Picture of the Yearby the New York Film Critics' Circle. It has also received several Oscar and Golden Globe nominations. And hey, Siskel and Ebert gave it two thumbs up, so it has to be quite a movie! The film is The Accidental Tourist, but more significantly, the director is Lawrence Kasdan, a University of Michigan alumnus. Kasdan' s impressive list of films also includes Body Heat, The Big Chiil, and Silverado. Although Kasdan, who made his first film as a U-M graduate student in communication. is the most famous U-M alumnus working in Hollywood, many graduates from the U-M have succeeded in all facets of filmmaking, from writing and editing to producing and directing. Some of the bigname films that U-M alumni have been involved in include Top Gun, Trading Places, Spies Like Us, and Michael Jackson's Thriller video. But there have also been many other lesser-known U-M success stories. such as Bob McKee. who runs an international ~eenwriting work.•.. :

shop that is considered one of the best in the world, and Tsipora Trope, whose film Berlin Tel Aviv won the Israeli equivalem of the Oscar for Best Screenplay and Best Picture of 1988. Today, the bulk of the U-M's student fIlmmaking is done in two graduate-level workshops taught by Professor Doug Rideout. The best films are then entered in festivals, and all of them are displayed in a popular showcase in April that is open LO the public. During the fall tenD, students lake Intro- ' duction to 16mm Film Production, where they are divided into teams of about five members. Several short ftlrns are made, with students taking tlDTlS at the different filmmaking roles of director, editor, pr0ducer, and cinematogfapher. These early films, which usually run between four and seven minutes, are shot silently, with a soundtrack dubbed in later. According LO Rideout, flfSt-tenn students are taught "both technical and aesthetic" skills of filmmaking; During the winter term, in a course called Advanced





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idea at the U-M is to teach [film] students to understand what goes into the making offilm and to give them a strong liberal arts education." ~'The

- Professor Frank Beaver 16mm Film Production, . ''Everything Ieamed first tenn is applied with sound," says Rideout This process is much more complex, ~ ~h team makes one 10 to 30 minute fIlm. T~ are solidified by this point, ~h member laking on a sel role. Specific projects are not assigned, and Rideoul believes that students like this best about the course. "Students are given the liberty to express their own ideas and to develop their own projects without interference from the department," says Rideout Students tum to the Department of Theater and Drama to find quality student actors for their films. Professor Frank Beaver, chainnan of the U-M Department of Communication, says that it can create problems· "if you are having to deal with just your roommate because he is available to you." "If you get amateurs, they can behave and do what you tell them to do," says Beaver, "but they do not always add the rich little things that make for better textured, more interesting perfonnances." Raising money can often prove to be more difficult than fmding actors. The costs of these short mms can soar ~ high ~ $15,000 for a half-hour synchronized sound film. Students can often obtain some of the money to produce their films from grants and scholarships, such ~ the Leo Burnett Scholarship. However, David TheueJkorn, a graduate student in communication and a teaching ~istant for Rideout. says that it is "getting harder to gel support at the university. The trend has gone more toward students or their parents spending their own money, which is sad, because some students just cannot afford it" Another way to obtain money is to seek ~ip from non-profit 0rganizations. Students have chosen to make half~ docmnentaries for groups Suc".~ the Humane Society. the Michigan Almus Association, and the Ronald McDonald

, House in return for wonsorship. Student filmmakers are often helpful to these organi1ations because they are able to make a mm for $5,000, whereas a cornrnetcial producer could charge up to $50,000. Also, according to Beaver, 'The sponsors usually very pleased with the project because students put a lot more imagination into them than a commercial pro,. ducer would" For most students, the films are well wonh the time and money they spend on them, and one way that they can be rcwarded is through film festivals. Although there are relatively few films being made on campus, students at the U-M generally do well in major festivals such as the Chicago, Cleveland, and Dalla, Festivals. "If they are good IIIms, the idca is they can recoup their money through festival prizes," says Beaver. Beaver recalls Kasdan' s first fi 1m at the U-M. "IL was a very sophisticated docudrama about an English professor's attitude IOward teaching and the power he holds when he gets a student in his office," he says. "A very eloquent English professor did an almost poetic voice-over narration. The mm was very funny and fined with innuendo. It did very well in festivals." The types of films !,hat one can expect from a today's students varies. Some students choose traditional documentaries or slraigbt nanatives. while others opt to make more bizarre, experimental films. According to Theuerlcom, "Everyone is learning. and people tend to experiment while they are learning so they can express their ideas differently than they see on the


screen." The fIlms are also often used to get a foothold in the business. Professional production houses will want to see your


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The Michigan Review

March 1989


Movies Continued from previous page "reel." Beaver says, "They only watch two or three minutes but they can tell that you know what film continuity is and how to construct ideas." Nevertheless, Theuerkorn feels that the film industry is becoming more and more inaccessible. "As far as feature filmmaking goes, it is starting to seem like you have to know somebody to get in . Nepotism runs wild in Hollywood. People like Steven Spielberg like to go back to their old schools and get people." Whereas the big-name film schools like the University of Southern California and the University of California at Los Angeles concentrate on the technical aspects of filmmaking, Beaver says that "the idea at the U-M is to teach students to understand what goes into the making of film and to give them a strong liberal arts education." Rideout sees another advantage in the UM's system. "Students can synthesize their entire university experience via this medium, as opposed to a film sc hool where one would just learn how to thread cameras

Jernigan continued from page 7 opponent says that we do not need to do that, but that would generate about $600,000 a year, and we need to make up a deficit in the current year of about $1.2 million. REVIEW: What have you done during the past two years to improve housing, especially for students? JERNIGAN: In the past two years, we have redone a housing inspection program to upgrade the quality of housing. So, it is inspected more frequently and a little more rigorously than it had been in the past. Unfortunately, we have not been able to have any new housing constructed in the student area A lot of new apartments have gone up on the edge of town and we have been told by the Apartment Owners Association that the rents are down and the vacancy rates are up, or at least the rate of the increase in the rents is down. Housing does not seem to be as critical this time as it was a couple of years ago because of the number of new units we have in town. REVIEW: Lately the $5 fine for the possession of marijuana has become an issue. Do you consider the fine to be an adequate penalty for possession of marijuana? Unot, what do you suggest as an

and make splices," says Rideout. "Students at other film sc hools learn the basics but what we are really concentrating on are structural ideas, what it is about a film that makes it different from anything else, and what is the students place in the world of film as opposed to everyone else that came before him." One bright spot for student filmmakers is the abundance of independent fi lmmaking going on today. "The business itself is moving towards independent prOduction ," says Theuerkorn. "There is a lot of production going on in Michigan right now." So it seems that despite the lack of funding, the lack of size, and the lack of a name like USC or UCLA, student filmmakers at the U-M are doing quite well. And who knows? Perhaps someday, their films will be in contention for some of the highest awards in the film industry. And maybe, just maybe, they will even receive the much-coveted "two thumbs up." Mark Binelli is a freshman in English and a staff writer for the Review.

alternative? JERNIGAN : The 5S fine has become a symbol across the country of Ann Arbor's liberalism. Maybe we need to put on the ballot a law that increased the amount of the fine from 5S to 510 or SSO, or make it the same as it would be for alcohol. REVIEW: Do you think that raising the line to something like $30, $40, or $50 is going to be a serious deterrent? JERNIGAN: No, I do not think the sizeof the fine, particularly with marijuana, will be a serious deterrent. What it will do is remove the stigma of this $S symbol which leads people to think that we are kind of flaunting things.


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Communication 630 students. L-R: Rob ChaWn (behind camera), Benjamin Fishkin, and Michael Edelstein.

Clevenger Continued from page 7 its fair share of the costs of whatever services the university gets from the city. The university seems to take the position that the city should somehow always be doing things for it, and to raise the question of the university paying its fair share is unfriendly. REVIEW: What could the University of Michigan do to aid the city of Ann Ar-

MSA continued from page 6

REVIEW: What have you done for the University of Michigan, and what would you do for the U-M if reelected? JERNIGAN: I have started to meet with university officials on a regular basis which is something that we have never done before. I have had an opportunity to meet with President James Duderstadt and talk about some of the common problems and goals that we have. REVIEW: What kinds of topics have come up so far? JERNIGAN: Basically, we talked about housing for students, parking, and safety.

phones, supplies, and services. Bell estimates that as much of a third of this sum is pure waste that could be eliminated without impairing the performance of the Assembly. Overall, Bell estimates that if MSA were to allocate its funds in ail efficient manner and see to it that they were used properly, it could triple the percentage of MSA ' s budget that goes directly back to student organizations without impairing theii\bJlity of any MSA-funded group to function as it does now. Bell estimates that o~ly about 7 percent of what MSA receives every year goes directly back to student organizations under the current system of allocations. Williams agrees, "There is a lot of waste, and it is not

bor? CLEVENGER: I think [it could be involved in) the whole area of what I call intergovernmental agreements. For example, Ann Arbor there are three separately owned but publicly owned bus systems: the Ann Arbor Transportation Authority, the University of Michigan, and the public school system. There is a fourth bus system operated by Washtenaw County. 1 wonder why the public has to have four different bus systems? I also think there are other areas that we might look into. going to students." Another source of controversy with MSA is its consideration of non-campus issues. Some criticize MSA for representing only one side of campus views on international politics, and more importantly, wasting an enormous amount of time on non-campus issues. Murray disagrees, saying that "about one in 20" of the items on MSA' s agenda deals with offcampus issues. McBain feels that "MSA no longer is totally one-sided. There are views from all over the political spectrum." On the other hand, Williams says, "Sometimes issues come up, and you have to wonder whose issues they are: the students' or MSA 's?" Brian Gambs is a freshman in LSA and a staff writer for the Review.










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a'-J\jgJlt'd In l'nmmand lht.' L "\ \t'rdK;III(l!l rl11"\l\11L 1(,L,1



}'tJr~ TinlcI

!j(l! Tlc{'J ltl hll)\\




Olthl \fer


An!?-I)!J j!Ced')[;l



I. the \Upr(Jr\ 1m the df1tl'( 'drnmU1l1~1 t'rJ;!t }'HUr elected offici.ah 10

AitlLl J!ld

1 ~




~IUt 11l1\~IUIL f\(\\\ 1Il



lh-c (oulltr "

Gomez is prepared to "tTlIllt" the Communi"t ('uhilln" lind Angolan"i to monitor the withdrawal. :\\l.,j":U1t Sel'll'lill\ 01 Stall'

e"crow three )earo; suppl)' of high-Itch militltn aid for 1'NITA. Ie ''! lhl'lf

elcl tl'I;1I


hi \\\ num ('ub;!!!'. <1ft'

\Vhen t!te~ tt:11 u'- thue ~llr 111' llWIl' It1l')fh, \\1...' \-\:11 kli tltl' t 'olkd "';;i\ldm til;!! tht'~ IJd\l' ,Ill gl\nt'· General

\\'llh ,'""uth /\jrican all.] tv Decemner ::2 (dnd 7.~()O 1 '\ Dl'I\\t'C11



rh ilian rt'prl'~.'ntathl"" an: lx-ing as:~ig'lt'd to proteft S\\ .\1'0\ dertnr.1 fOml'rn, in ""mihia, (HI!> <)0 l" 1"'''''011<'1 arf "''SI~»lsioir ft»· m,"lituring ,Ii<: "'ithdraw"1 uf 50,OOll (ubum frmn .·\ngula "hirh i" i',,-'If. ,,,in' ,I,.. "ilt., uf Te\.I', Indeed, Rr;lllll~ln (icncr:1l I\'rlcin I ('!fl~'Ll (i\111h.':



S\l\llh\\" '-I

itlll',-,",qhlc Illr the


Ih~' ('J \ Xlt'f pi-H1' .lIlt' \.I\lnlhJ lou\ It' P,'1!ll Ilul that "hilt, 6,000 linitt,,(j Nab-nn ... truoop... and

l'.S. aid for Aneola until fr't£' ('Ieetiom h,l\, r,','cn b:1J i1u , h \hlluld \CH\ ,111 fi'\JrI'wd !lIlId!rl1..' III tht:

the '-{Iuth ,\(Lt!lti\.:

~l';n'-I\lIm,tl!: 1.L.\.l<ln.:J S\L\PO

in OiH'ct did It

1',\ J,15

fl('t tkctlllrl\

h(lth Angub ,tnJ


11,.'111;1111 d\ '\'ltlh' 1\"" II)

11 Il'\\.' ;II" lHtll'h ,It


munist puppet re~ime, and har all direr! and indirecl


dl1d h;l" tUtlll"ht..-'J SWAPO \\llh It.'I1''' td



J) 0ppO'>i.' l'.S. recof:niwlIl of the iII('~al AI)~ohlfl (0111'



)QK!) dnd (n;!, 111



1l;tl1IlnJ.! rt'uHh.'llJdll!lll \\1111 Ii

military pt'f\onnc-I ,houill he \\lthdIJ\\t\ Irnm

the k!ll1, ; ! :\ndrcl.J,. ') 19 7 , I " SC·l\i!l1\ \)UJh il KI'''<lluiH'n 4.~5. 1.\ 1l!lh i\ !ranK\\Olk III 1ilL' ('I"l~I_'r \dl~'!lh: \t'!ll'JlIk·J 11.11 \J111!bu I'll '\\!\cmhcl I, ullJn '-l1:h'd \<I(!,\I1\ ;\il\riCl'" B'.'C'HN'

ck'l(m:l ]

l'rge President Bu,>h to in\truc\ hi" t' ".' amb,a\\.ador 10 oppose implementation of t'~ 435 in I\amibia \l!



Without ,-Urpllil lInnl <I 111cndl\ 1..'I'ullll\ rr,I\11l1atc 1n h.l'.C In !lhcLrh,:d "\luthl';t,,tl'rn Angpi;j the dll'l'll\rnl' . . , oj S'i\ll1lhr'.... 1 "\11 '\ tJCrddrn l!ghlcr, may he \h~lIPh CII)zjl'd dnd \,I!11 \1, j1t( .... 'Ull' ,In tIll S{I\lct-aliled !\n~,\ld g(\\l,'IPrnl't1t h' fKlllll! !2l'1l\Jil1\

illl\, lLt\ !1'1lg h":l'n

(\1 "),'uth Alrit'd.


1'\ation<; (){'('upation uf Namibia anJ lht C\' nlt'mllJnl '\ jrcednt11 i'lgillC!\

Cuh;jJ1\ \l,dl




,.;;O,(}{~) ( uh.!!] "dldlt..'h

11(\\\ 111

t(lr 1(, llJll!l:d r'L\\)UllT~ ;tt:d ,-lIcil('-

nOlt,'n! p! \',llllll1dl




3le NJ.O(kl, lathn than Ang\lb.. and \\[)rll~'\ lh:lt

,\~k )'our t ',S. StllliltO .... and COflf:re').sman lu 'ute against U\ine your ta~e" to underwrite the l:nitl'd

In Arq2\)101 hill f,·, a

The goal of IS foreign polio) ,Iwuld be to protect the nation \ geo\tralegk ·tital intert'~t\ and ('nhance liher(\, Thf Crocker plan hurt'-. America h~' encouraging the turn" OHr of '\amihia to S()\iel-allied SW;\I)O h'nori"t". ('\'('n a ... it undermine\ .lona, Sa\imbi\ anti·('ommuni'il t '''\1"1 A ["edom fighte" in Angola.

(.,jJO hl"l




'1nle."el. 1'''1 I A

i,:)],:ltlun 1,1 J()n;1~ S;H'lmh!"" t'~II


\\ ..It

!,)!I(I\\ lil12 \\ Iii

othcr tI\\(\r!cd


tbt_, S'I'


'\!!lCln A1Lw\ ( h('\{,' (


pLlf1" Iz) ~'(\Il\U!1Hndll\)n In lfll

htltH" and Ja~\ tlOn Pn.'\IJCl1!,'kll

th;..' \.'[1111pl:..-tc ¥\i1hJr,I\\:ll "I

S\lulh ,\I:kJ lr illl \~Iillihl:! dlld tht: 11Itl(l(jut.'li()11 III 1 \'

thl' \0\\'m0tf ,"-; rh_ "pI1he dulhtlfll~I!I\~'h j()!



\\,:11 ;j~ lor



\\-d\ ~1U! \Ij \l'\\1\1!i, :tnd Ill, leI 11\\ \\CI(' dch~itt:J h: 0; 1..'\1.'11 c\rll\rd 1<1 '\!1H.'!ICllj peppI! Crocker \; ~tand for pr::lct'" \(t'nar1o 1tU1 ~ pron101(' "'t41bilit~" and th('reh~ ahet prhatt' comrnrrdat and hallk, ing interl'\h. btll il ill "rnt· . . tht, pro ... pt·rl\ of litwrty in either An~ola or :\amihil. ntn a\ it utldenllinr ... Itw prn-


'I ~'nd a contribution loda, [" hdp

111.'\ \.'1

t ',S,. defllocr.Hi( 8iadi, h:'ad('r, in hotn rounlrlr-... ;tnl1 1\'1..1 the peopi" he freer under a \lanj,tI i'flini\t S\y:-\PO gHH'rnnu-'nt - (''Cfl if it j, hrought to pm-'ltr h~ \uppo'.edl y "frer" eledion-.'? \\ ill ,\meriran lntert"t .. be more ,efure? H ['1 1'1'('! (\

IW' Hll\h'\ th ,i\ thl \ helped h} the (i(';


H1l'iudnl llllndi~'d\

1r'\I)r, Jl\llll (-\l1~\)Lt OWlIlh"

,dtn thc



Imricmt:!itil11(Jtl (lj

il m:lkl'~







fhilll1",,-11 III J





I ,!H,

(ollarnrd \\oHlf'n for '\nH'ric;!

J()", ~\\I\IHI


\l.,- J l1hn

l .S. Defen .. £,

~.~~.,~~ ·It-O"';"~]~':J~o":~":~t-4

T I ~f-t..'fL \


Ii { ,"'I

\1.11 I",


H,\~ Bn'> N


' rI~i,!l'r. ,I "'\-R

l' ,S. Council for WHri{j f-'refflom

fHtMI"fllRi flU ' ... IHI. ... -\' RHPWf


r IOk~

-\ \f"j -110"" ('('1\1 11.'


HO'r\ard Phillip"i, Chairman Ok!;"'~ILo\.-nn"',f-·'\FMY1



1'\ \,ill






!Ii,,'\,-, :n





,)\1, .11

dnd i,1l)


\nd at a time of ma\,hl' hud2fl deficit...., \\h) Hlu,t th., ·\f1}crican taxpayer foot..,o l~r2t' a ... harr of tht, bill for l:ll '\ role "",hich is e\.JX'ctt'd to co.,t much mort' than SMl() million": In rurt'j~ politl(ai l.cflll\. do {ICIl!gC Hu . . h dfld ill( (;{)P wjl.,h to farc the 1(}42ciectlCllh txanng rt'\r(lfhlhdlt~ Illf lhr \urrender of ~(luthcrll AI! lI:.l Itl thf S\I~ 1ft t lilPIfl::


·\mfriran SfCutih Council


\11!~ .111,

1 !iI'

"\,1 rnlhi<'i'~



( on'-t'nalh f Victnf'

I ' l l \ I'Rt'IIH\1 Ill!

\\ \,'-

\~ L

r1U\ i..,il)!1 Inl an

American (unwnatiH 1 'nlon I




\\l1~hi , \\1,['


oj :!,\lClllu'd ict

the- \\ !thJI , 1\\ h.\ luI) L 11.)91


11:\\, k!l

\\ ~I !

\\111:,)) Ilc!~


~'('rnplc!rl\ Ilui ,l! '\:1 lHhl,[

1\,11:hl\ f1ldl...hi!ll',



\(1).!1l1;i [,I



11,,\\ \:!\\[nh, ,,; lilt nil ( \f\\::II\_:1



(1 1

!iglitl'1\, hj:hc\ll'lt:r 111:111 1,5011 h:!ttk'



FROM FHlUI:;,1 I"II( O\-U 1-\\ fl\ b


1'1h,J~!,! (

ommiH{'(-' ,,,,II,,

';i\t'''MI (k<


-'tntr ...

k"h."d \

Free tnt' f_a;::lr


I 'nilf'd ( on<,t-natht-\ nf ,\rnUK!J

l!h 1


Nationsl Cungre<. ..ional Ciwb

\-''It n ... Ul:Ifll'no.........,







\,,\l~ l"l""U'f




"".Iional Ikft'nv {'oundl found.tkiofl "IU "'01


nUl} JI\ oo...oat.,,}ott


h1i Pi \t1'I:"f,,,