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МАКЕДОНСКО ГЕОГРАФСКО ДРУШТВО MACEDONIAN GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY

ЗБОРНИК НА ТРУДОВИ МЕЃУНАРОДЕН НАУЧЕН СИМПОЗИУМ

PROCEEDINGS INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM

РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИ ПОДРАЧЈА

- ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ

HILLY MOUNTAIN AREAS - PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES КНИГА 1 / TOME 1 ОХРИД/OHRID 12-15.09.2013


ОРГАНИЗАЦИСКИ ОДБОР

ORGANIZING COMMITTEE

Д-р Благоја Маркоски Д-р Олгица Димитровска Д-р Ивица Милевски Д-р Билјана Апостоловска-Тошевска Д-р Дејан Илиев Д-р Свемир Горин Д-р Иван Радевски

Blagoja Markoski, PhD Olgica Dimitrovska, PhD Ivica Milevski, PhD Biljana Apostolovska-Tosevska, PhD Dejan Iliev, PhD Svemir Gorin, PhD Ivan Radevski, PhD

НАУЧЕН ОДБОР

SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE

Д-р Благоја Маркоски (Македонија) Д-р Драгица Живковиќ (Србија) Д-р Михаило Зиков (Македонија) Д-р Маријана Николова (Бугарија) Д-р Никола Панов (Македонија) Д-р Марко Кревс (Словенија) Д-р Роситса Кендерова (Бугарија) Д-р Славољуб Драгичевиќ (Србија) Д-р Рахман Нурковиќ (Босна и Херцеговина) Д-р Александар Лукиќ (Хрватска) Д-р Радислав Тошиќ (Босна и Херцеговина)

Blagoja Markoski, PhD (Univ. Skopje, Macedonia) Dragica Zivkovic, PhD (Univ. Belgrade, Serbia) Mihailo Zikov, PhD (Univ. Skopje, Macedonia) Mariyana Nikolova, PhD (Univ. Sofia, Bulgaria) Nikola Panov, PhD (Univ. Skopje, Macedonia) Marko Krevs, PhD (Univ. Ljubljana, Slovenia) Rositsa Kenderova, PhD (Univ. Sofia, Bulgaria) Slavoljub Dragicevic, PhD (Univ. Belgrade, Serbia) Rahman Nurkovic, PhD (Univ. Sarajevo, BIH) Aleksandar Lukic, PhD (Univ. Zagreb, Croatia) Radislav Tosic, PhD (Univ. Banja Luka, BIH)

УРЕДУВАЧКИ ОДБОР

EDITORIAL BOARD

Д-р Благоја Маркоски Д-р Ивица Милевски Д-р Свемир Горин Д-р Иван Радевски Д-р Дејан Илиев Владимир Златаноски

Blagoja Markoski, PhD Ivica Milevski, PhD Svemir Gorin, PhD Ivan Radevski, PhD Dejan Iliev, PhD Vladimir Zlatanoski

ТЕХНИЧКО УРЕДУВАЊЕ

TECHNICAL EDITORS

Д-р Благоја Маркоски Владимир Златаноски

Blagoja Markoski, PhD Vladimir Zlatanoski

ДИЗАЈН НА КОРИЦА

COVER DESIGN

Д-р Благоја Маркоски Владимир Златаноски

Blagoja Markoski, PhD Vladimir Zlatanoski

ИЗДАВАЧ

PUBLISHED BY

Македонско географско друштво

Macedonian geographical society


ПОСЕБНО ИЗДАНИЕ

ЗБОРНИК НА ТРУДОВИ ОД МЕЃУНАРОДНИОТ НАУЧЕН СИМПОЗИУМ НА ТЕМА „РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА-ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ“

Издавач МАКЕДОНСКО ГЕОГРАФСКО ДРУШТВО

Уредувачки одбор Д-р Благоја Маркоски Д-р Ивица Милевски Д-р Свемир Горин Д-р Иван Радевски Д-р Дејан Илиев Владимир Златаноски

Организациски одбор Д-р Благоја Маркоски Д-р Олгица Димитровска Д-р Ивица Милевски Д-р Билјана Апостоловска-Тошевска Д-р Дејан Илиев Д-р Свемир Горин Д-р Иван Радевски

Согласно принципите при организација на научниот симпозиум со меѓународно учество „Ридско-планински подрачја –проблеми и перспективи“ трудовите се објавени во авторски облик. Во контекст на тоа целокупната одговорност за научната содржина, лектура, стилски, семантички и други недостатоци паѓа на товар на авторите.


SPECIAL EDITION

PROCEEDINGS PROM INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM ON THE SUBJECT „HILLY MOUNTAIN AREAS -PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES“

Publisher MACEDONIAN GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY

Editorial board Blagoja Markoski, PhD Ivica Milevski, PhD Svemir Gorin, PhD Ivan Radevski, PhD Dejan Iliev, PhD Vladimir Zlatanoski

Organizing committee Blagoja Markoski, PhD Olgica Dimitrovska, PhD Ivica Milevski, PhD Biljana Apostolovska-Tosevska, PhD Dejan Iliev, PhD Svemir Gorin, PhD Ivan Radevski, PhD

According to the organizational principles of the scientific symposium with international participation „Hilly mountain areas -problems and perspectives“, proceedings were published in their authentic form. In that context, full responsibility for the scientifi content, style, semantic form, grammar and other mistakes, falls on the authors themselves.


РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИ ПОДРАЧЈА - ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ, Охрид, 12-15 IX 2013 HILLY- MOUNTAIN - AREAS PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES, Ohrid, 12-15 IX 2013

СОДРЖИНА / CONTENTS КНИГА 1 / TOME 1 ПЛЕНАРНА СЕСИЈА PLENARY SESSION ПРЕДГОВОР ..................................................................................................................................................... XI PREFACE ........................................................................................................................................................... XII ПОЗДРАВЕН ГОВОР Проф. д-р Благоја МАРКОСКИ, Претседател на Македонско географско друштво ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ НА РИДСКО ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА .........................................XIII PRESIDENT WELCOME Blagoja MARKOSKI PhD. President of Macedonian geographic society PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES OF HILLY MOUNTAIN AREAS .......................................................... XV ПОЗДРАВНИ ГОВОРИ / WELCOME SPEECHES ................................................................................. XVII Проф. д-р Никола ПАНОВ Продекан на Природно-математичкиот факултет, Универзитет “Св. Кирил и Методиј“, Скопје ............................................................................................... XVII Prof. Dragica ZIVKOVIC, PhD University of Belgrade, Faculty of Geography, Republic of Serbia ................................................................ XVIII Assistant Professor Dubravka SPEVEC, PhD President of the Croatian Geographical Society................................................................................................. XIX Prof. Georgi LEONIDOV GEORGIEV, PhD South-West University "Neofit Rilski", Blagoevgrad, Republic of Bulgaria....................................................... XX Prof. Milena MOYZEOVA, PhD Institute of Landscape Ecology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovak Republic ........................... XXI Проф. д-р Никола В. ДИМИТРОВ Продекан на Факултет за туризам и бизнис логистика – Гевгелија Универзитет „Гоце Делчев“ – Штип, Република Македонија ................................................................... XXII ЗАВРШЕН ДЕЛ НА НАУЧНИОТ СИМПОЗИУМ, ЗАКЛУЧОЦИ ................................................................................................................................................. XXIII THE FINAL PART OF THE SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM CONCLUSIONS ..............................................................................................................................................XXIV ФОТОГАЛЕРИЈА / PHOTOGALERY ...................................................................................................... XXV ПРИРОДНИ РЕСУРСИ И КОРИСТЕЊЕ НА ЗЕМЈИШТЕТО ВО РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА NATURAL RESOURCES AND LAND USE IN HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS Rossitza KENDEROVA, Ahinora BALTAKOVA (Sofia, Republic of Bulgaria) GLACIER ENDS GEOMORPHOLOGICAL STUDY IN SOUTH BAY AREA, LIVINGSTON ISLAND (SOUTH SHETHLANDS ARCHIPELAGO) ................................................................ 3

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РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИ ПОДРАЧЈА - ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ, Охрид, 12-15 IX 2013 HILLY- MOUNTAIN - AREAS PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES, Ohrid, 12-15 IX 2013

Ivan RADEVSKI, Svemir GORIN, Blagoja MARKOSKI, Olgica DIMITROVSKA, Snezana TODOROVSKA (Skopje, Republic of Macedonia) SPATIAL PRECIPITATION DISTRIBUTION IN PRESPA BASIN (REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA) ............. 9 Aleksandar SARAFOV, Tsveta STANIMIROVA, Ekaterina FILCHEVA (Sofia, Republic of Bulgaria) TOWARDS THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE KHUMBU HIMALAYAS PEDOGENESIS ....................... 15 Marta JOVANIĆ (Vinkovci, Republic of Croatia) DEVELOPMENT OF THE CENTRAL LIKA LANDSCAPE (REPUBLIC OF CROATIA) CAUSED BY THE SOCIO-ECONOMICAL PROCESSES ................................................................................ 23 Sherwet FADL (Damanhour, Egypt) THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GREEK MOUNTAINS IN THE LIGHT OF GREEK SOURCES ............................ 31 Mihailo ZIKOV, Ivan RADEVSKI (Skopje, Republic of Macedonia) WATER SUPPLY ANALYSIS OF RURAL SETTLEMENTS IN KRIVA REKA WATERSHED ................... 39 Dimitar KRENCHEV, Tsvetelina MONEVA (Sofia, Republic of Bulgaria) WEATHERING PROCESSES AND RELATED PRODUCTS IN GRANITE ROCKS IN SOUTH PIRIN, SOUTH-WEST BULGARIA................................................................................................................................ 45 Marjan TEMOVSKI (Prilep, Republic of Macedonia) KARST IN MARIOVO – EXTENSION, CHARACTERISTICS AND IMPORTANCE ................................... 53 Plamen PATARCHANOV (Sofia, Republic of Bulgaria) THE MOUNTAIN AREA IN BULGARIA – THEORY, METHODS AND PRACTICE................................... 63 Georgi ZHELEZOV, Aleksander TODOROV (Sofia, Republic of Bulgaria) PRESENT STATUS OF THE LANDSCAPE DIVERSITY IN KRAISHTE MOUNTAIN REGION ................ 73 Anton IVANOV, Georgi ZHELEZOV (Sofia, Republic of Bulgaria) MOUNTAINS CLIMATE INFLUENCE ON RIVER STREAMFLOWS AND LOCAL MEAN SEA LEVEL 79 Anita TODOROVA, Dragan KOLCAKOVSKI (Skopje, Republic of Macedonia) PROTECTION AND PRESENTATION OF THE KATLANOVO HILL ........................................................... 89 Mladen PAHERNIK, Marta JOVANIĆ (Zagreb/Vinkovci, Republic of Croatia) GEOMORPHOLOGIC DATABASE IN THE FUNCTION OF THE CENTRAL LIKA LANDSCAPE TYPOLOGY (REPUBLIC OF CROATIA)..................................... 97

ДЕМОГРАФСКИ ПРОБЛЕМИ, ПОЛИТИКА НА ЕКОНОМСКИ И РЕГИОНАЛЕН РАЗВОЈ ВО РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА DEMOGRAPHIC PROBLEMS IN HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS, POLICY OF ECONOMIC AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS Sanja KLEMPIĆ BOGADI, Dubravka SPEVEC (Zagreb, Republic of Croatia) DEMOGRAPHIC REALITY, PERSPECTIVE AND CHALLENGES IN CROATIAN HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS– CASE STUDY GORSKI KOTAR ....................................... 109 Risto MIJALOV, Goran KITEVSKI (Skopje, Republic of Macedonia) REVITALIZATION OF HILLY - MOUNTAINOUS AREAS AS A BASIS FOR DEMOGRAPHIC PROGRESS OF MACEDONIA ............................................................ 117 Nikola V. DIMITROV (Shtip, Republic of Macedonia) DEMO-GEOGRAPHIC PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES OF HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS IN REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA ............................................................. 125 Milena MOYZEOVÁ, Július OSZLÁNYI (Bratislava, Slovak Republic) DEMOGRAPHIC ASPECTS IN THE RESEARCH OF HISTORICAL LANDSCAPE STRUCTURES ........ 133 Dušan RANĐELOVIĆ,Hristina KRSTIĆ, Nikola CEKIĆ, Miomir VASOV, Milica IGIĆ (Niš, Republic of Serbia) LIMITATIONS AND ADVANTAGES OF DESIGNING INDIVIDUAL HOUSES OF HILLY MOUNTAIN AREAS ...................................................... 141 Emiliya PATARCHANOVA (Blagoevgrad, Republic of Bulgaria) ECONOMIC PROFILE OF THE VILLAGES IN PODGORIE (BELASITSA) ................................................ 149

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РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИ ПОДРАЧЈА - ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ, Охрид, 12-15 IX 2013 HILLY- MOUNTAIN - AREAS PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES, Ohrid, 12-15 IX 2013

Maria SHISHMANOVA, Rozina POPOVA (Blagoevgrad, Republic of Bulgaria) DEMOGRAPHIC PROBLEMS OF MOUNTAIN AREAS IN BULGARIA .................................................... 159 Zdenko BRAIČIĆ, Jelena LONČAR (Zagreb, Republic of Croatia) SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CONSEQUENCES OF FORCED MIGRATIONS – CASE STUDY OF KOSTAJNICA REGION (ZRINSKA GORA MOUNTAIN, CROATIA) ...................... 169 Marija LJAKOSKA, Dejan ILIEV (Skopje, Republic of Macedonia) DEPOPULATION OF THE VILLAGE SETTLEMENTS IN THE FORMER MUNICIPALITIES VRANESHTICA AND DRUGOVO .................................................................................................................. 177 Milica IGIĆ, DušanRANĐELOVIĆ, Hristina KRSTIĆ, Nikola CEKIĆ, Miomir VASOV (Niš, Republic of Serbia) URBAN PROBLEMS AND PROTECTION OF HILLY MOUNTAIN AREAS IN INDIA ............................ 185 Kole PAVLOV, Gjorgi PAVLOVSKI (Skopje/Shtip, Republic of Macedonia) DEMOGRAPHIC HOUSEHOLD DISCHARGE IN HILLY AND MOUNTAINOUS AREAS OF TIKVEŠ BASIN .................................................................. 195 Boštjan KERBLER (Ljubljana, Republic of Slovenia) DEMOGRAPHIC POTENTIALS OF MOUNTAIN FARMS IN SLOVENIA: ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT SUCCESSION FACTORS ................................................................................ 203 Željka ŠILJKOVIĆ (Zadar, Republic of Croatia) WHAT IS THE FUTURE SCENARIO FOR RURAL MOUNTAIN REGIONS IN THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIA? ................................................................................................................. 221 Nikola CEKIC, Miomir VASOV, Milica IGIC, Dusan RANDJELOVIC, Hristina KRSTIC (Niš, Republic of Serbia) PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES OF URBAN AGGLOMERATIONS IN HILLY AND MOUNTAINOUS REGIONS ................................................................................................. 229 Branko AJ TURNŠEK, Svetlana VREĆIĆ, Ljiljana JEVREMOVIĆ (Niš, Republic of Serbia) ANALYSIS OF POTENTIAL OF VILLAGES IN THE AREA OF NIS - HILLY VILLAGES ....................... 237 Miroslav DODEROVIĆ, Dragomir KIĆOVIĆ, Tatjana L. ĐEKIĆ, Dragica MIJANOVIC (Niksic, Montenegro; Kosovska Mitrovica/Nis, Republic of Serbia) BASIC TRENDS IN DEMOGRAPHIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE RURAL POPULATION OF MONTENEGRO AND SOME PROBLEMS OF ITS REVITALIZATION ................................................ 247 Boštjan KERBLER (Ljubljana, Republic of Slovenia) CARE POTENTIALS FOR THE ELDERLY IN THE PERIPHERAL RURAL AREAS ................................. 255 Milena SPASOVSKI, Danica ŠANTIĆ (Belgrade, Republic of Serbia) POPULATION POTENTIALS OF THE MOUNTAINOUS AREA OF SERBIA – TRENDS AND PERSPECTIVES ................................................................................................................... 267 Biljana APOSTOLOVSKA TOSHEVSKA, Dejan ILIEV (Skopje, Republic of Macedonia) INFRASTRUCTURE AS A FACTOR OF ECONOMIC-GEOGRAPHICAL AND FUNCTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF HILLY, HILLY-MOUNTAINOUS AND MOUNTAINOUS VILLAGE SETTLEMENTS IN THE CATCHMENT AREA OF BABUNA AND TOPOLKA ........................................ 275 Hristina KRSTIĆ, Nikola CEKIĆ, Miomir VASOV, Milica IGIĆ, Dušan RANĐELOVIĆ (Nis, Republic of Serbia) MODERN APPROACHES IN ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN OF HOUSES IN HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS ................................................................................................ 283 Mirjanka MADJEVIKJ (Skopje, Republic of Macedonia) DEMOGRAPHIC PROBLEMS IN SETTLEMENTS OF MUNICIPALITY OF SOPISHTE ......................... 291 Milka BUBALO-ŽIVKOVIĆ, Tamara LUKIĆ, Bojan ĐERČAN, Branko RISTANOVIĆ (Novi Sad, Republic of Serbia) SETTLEMENTS ON FRUŠKA GORA IN THE URBAN AREA OF NOVI SAD........................................... 303 Biljana APOSTOLOVSKA – TOSHEVSKA, Mirjanka MADZEVIC (Skopje, Republic of Macedonia) PROBLEMS WITH THE DEMOGRAPHIC AGEING IN THE HILLY, HILLY – MOUNTAINS AND MOUNTAINOUS VILLAGE SETTLEMENTS IN THE NORTHEAST REGION ......................................... 313 Bojana JANDŽIKOVIĆ (Kosovska Mitrovica, Republic of Serbia) SOCIO-GEOGRAPHIC PROCESSES IN GORAŽDEVAC 1999-2012 ........................................................... 325

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РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИ ПОДРАЧЈА - ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ, Охрид, 12-15 IX 2013 HILLY- MOUNTAIN - AREAS PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES, Ohrid, 12-15 IX 2013

Cane KOTESKI, Zlatko JAKOVLEV, Vladimir KITANOV (Shtip, Republic of Macedonia) DEMOGRAPHIC AND INFRASTRUCTURE PROBLEMS OF VILLAGES IN THE HILLY - MOUNTAINOUS AREAS OF PRILEP .................................................... 335 Tihomir LICHEV (Svishtov, Republic of Bulgaria) DEMOGRAPHIC PROBLEMS OF THE MUNICIPALITIES IN THE CENTRAL PART OF THE PREBALKANS .......................................................................................................................................................... 347 T. MICESKI, R. TEMJANOVSKI (Shtip, Republic of Macedonia) DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF THE DEVELOPMENT TRENDS OF BIRTHS IN RURAL AREAS IN R. MACEDONIA ........................................................................................................ 353

КНИГА 2 / TOME 2 ЕКОНОМСКА ПОЛИТИКА И РЕГИОНАЛЕН РАЗВОЈ НА РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА POLICY OF ECONOMIC AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS Amra ĆATOVIĆ, Edin HRELJA (Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina) VLAŠIĆ MOUNTAIN TOURISM DEVELOPMENT – PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES ...................... 369 Dejan ILIEV, Marija LJAKOSKA (Skopje, Republic of Macedonia) TOURISM AND ITS FUNCTION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF HILLY-MOUNTAINOUS AREAS IN THE MUNICIPALITY RADOVISH............................................. 377 Marija MAKSIN, Saša MILIJIC (Belgrade, Republic of Serbia) PLANNING SUSTAINABLE TERRITORIAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE HILLY-MOUNTAIN REGIONS IN SERBIA ......................................................................................................................................................... 387 Nikola KRUNIĆ, Dragutin TOŠIĆ, Olgica BAKIĆ (Belgrade, Republic of Serbia) CHALLENGES OF SPATIAL PLANNING FOR THE NETWORKS OF SETTLEMENTS IN THE HILLY AND MOUNTAIN AREAS OF SERBIA .......................................................................................................... 397 Nikola PANOV, Milena TALESKA, Hristina DIMESKA (Skopje, Republic of Macedonia) THE RURAL TOURISM IN THE REGION OF MARIOVO-GENERAL REVIEW OF THE POSSIBILITIES AND THE PERSPECTIVES OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL TOURISM ..... 407 Georgi Leonidov GEORGIEV, Ilinka TERZIYSKA (Blagoevgrad, Republic of Bulgaria) SOME PROBLEMS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ALTERNATIVE FORMS OF TOURISM IN PROTECTED AREAS UNDER NATURA 2000 IN BULGARIA.................................................................... 413 Благоја МАРКОСКИ, Ивица МИЛЕВСКИ, Ј. Вртески (Скопје, Република Македонија) ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ НА РАЗВОЈОТ НА ОПШТИНА ПЕХЧЕВО .......................................... 421 Dejan ILIEV (Skopje, Republic of Macedonia) THE IMPORTANCE OF ECONOMIC AND NON-ECONOMIC FUNCTIONS OF ALTERNATIVE FORMS OF TOURISM IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HILLY-MOUNTAINʹS AREAS ..................................... 433 Aleksandra TERZIĆ, Željko BJELJAC, Ana JOVIČIĆ, Radmila JOVANOVIĆ (Belgrade, Republic of Serbia) DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL TOURISM IN HIGH-MOUNTIN AREAS OF SERBIA AS ALTERNATIVE TO DEPOPULATION TREND ......................................................................................... 443 Ilinka TERZIYSKA (Blagoevgrad, Republic of Bulgaria) TRADITIONAL CRAFTS AND TOURISM IN BULGARIA – PROBLEMS AND OPPORTUNITIES ........ 453 Ivan SARJANOVIĆ (Zagreb, Republic of Croatia) WESTERN SLAVONIA: IDENTITY ASPECTS IN THE BORDER PART OF THE TRADITIONAL REGION......................................................................... 459 Maria SHISHMANOVA (Blagoevgrad, Republic of Bulgaria) PROBLEMS OF THE ECONOMIC POLICY AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF MOUNTAIN AREAS IN BULGARIA ........................................................................................................ 469

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РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИ ПОДРАЧЈА - ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ, Охрид, 12-15 IX 2013 HILLY- MOUNTAIN - AREAS PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES, Ohrid, 12-15 IX 2013

Biljana PETREVSKA (Shtip, Republic of Macedonia) EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE OF TOURISM PLANNING IN HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS ............................. 479 Vaska ATANASOVA, Ile CVETANOVSKI, Nikola KRSTANOSKI, Dushica TRPCHEVSKA ANGELKOVIK (Bitola, Republic of Macedonia) PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES IN SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT MODES IN THE NATIONAL PARK OF MAVROVO ................................................................................................... 489 Никола В. ДИМИТРОВ, Нако ТАШКОВ, Дејан МЕТОДИЈЕСКИ (Штип, Република Македонија) РЕГИОНАЛНА РАСПРОСТРАНЕТОСТ НА РУРАЛНИОТ ТУРИЗАМ ВО РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА НА РЕПУБЛИКА МАКЕДОНИЈА ............................................................................................ 497 Miomir VASOV, Milica IGIC, Dusan RANDJELOVIC, Hristina KRSTIC, Nikola CEKIC (Nis, Republic of Serbia) ARCHITECTURE OF THE NATURE PARK STARA PLANINA MT. AS A TOURISM POTENTIAL ...... 503 Saša MILIJIĆ, Nikola KRUNIĆ, Jasmina ĐURĐEVIĆ (Belgrade, Republic of Serbia) POTENTIALS AND LIMITATIONS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF MOUNTAIN REGIONS – EXPERIENCES OF SERBIA AND COUNTRIES IN THE REGION ............ 511 Ile CVETANOVSKI, Verica DANCHEVSKA, Vaska ATANASOVA (Bitola, Republic of Macedonia) IDENTIFICATION OF OBJECTS IN MOUNTAIN RESORTS USING RFID TECHNOLOGY ................... 521 J. BASARIĆ, J. STEVANOVIĆ STOJANOVIĆ, J. PETRIĆ (Belgrade, Republic of Serbia) THE ROLE OF INFRASTRUCTURE IN THE REVITALIZATION OF HILLY-MOUNTAIN VILLAGES . 527 Riste TEMJANOVSKI, Trajko MICESKI (Shtip, Republic of Macedonia) IMPACT OF ROAD NETWORK ON SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF RURAL COMMUNITY AND PROCESS OF DEPOPULATION IN R. MACEDONIA ........................... 537 Nikola PANOV, Milena TALESKA, Hristina DIMESKA (Skopje, Republic of Macedonia) THE IMPORTANCE OF MOUNTAIN REGIONS FOR TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA ..................................................................................................................... 547

КАРТОГРАФИЈА, ГЕОГРАФСКИ ИНФОРМАЦИСКИ СИСТЕМИ, ЖИВОТНА СРЕДИНА ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПОТЕНЦИЈАЛИ, ЕВРОПСКИ ПОЛИТИКИ И ПРОГРАМИ ЗА РАЗВОЈ CARTOGRAPHY, GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM, ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS AND POTENTIALS, EUROPEAN POLICIES AND PROGRAMS FOR DEVELOPMENT Dragica ŽIVKOVIĆ, Aleksandar VALJAREVIĆ (Belgrade, Republic of Serbia) DIGITAL MODELLING OF FRUSKA GORA TOPOGRAPHIC EXPOSITION ............................................ 559 Blagoja MARKOSKI (Skopje, Republic of Macedonia) MAPPING AND CARTOGRAPHING OF THE DEPOPULATED AND ECONOMICALLY INACTIVE LANDS IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA ......................................... 565 Svemir GORIN, Ivan RADEVSKI, Blagoja MARKOSKI, Ivica MILEVSKI (Skopje, Republic of Macedonia) GIS ASSESSMENT OF THE LANDSCAPE CHANGES IN THE GEVGELIJA-VALANDOVO BASIN .... 575 Ivica MILEVSKI, Slavoljub DRAGIĆEVIĆ, Radislav TOŠIĆ (Skopje, Republic of Macedonia; Belgrade, Republic of Sebia; Banja Luka, Republic of Srpska) GIS AND REMOTE SENSING ASSESSMENT OF EROSION RISK AREAS IN PEHCHEVO MUNICIPALITY ................................................................................................................................................ 581 Jasmina M. JOVANOVIC (Belgrade, Republic of Serbia) CARTOGRAPHIC VISUALIZATION OF STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL INDICATORS OF POTENTIAL OF HILLY-MOUNTIAN AREAS OF SERBIA.......................................................................... 591 Vladimir ZLATANOSKI, Blagoja MARKOSKI, Olgica DIMITROVSKA, Svemir GORIN, Ivan RADEVSKI (Skopje, Republic of Macedonia) INVENTORY OF SMALL ARTIFICIAL LAKES IN FUNCTION OF HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS DEVELOPMENT ON THE TERRITORY OF REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA ............................................... 599

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Milena MOYZEOVÁ (Bratislava, Slovak Republic) ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS AND ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY FOR RURAL SETTLEMENTS ......................................................................................................................... 613 Igor PESHEVSKI, Milorad JOVANOVSKI (Skopje, Republic of Macedonia) MORPHOLOGY AND INSTABILITY OF THE TERRAIN AS LIMITING FACTOR IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT ........................................................................................................................... 619 Mila MIHAJILOVIĆ (Kragujevac, Republic of Serbia) THREATS (NATURAL AND DIRECT HUMAN IMPACT) IN MOUNTAINOUS AREAS ......................... 627 Shkëlzim UKAJ, Fatbardh SALLAKU, Albona SHALA, Odeta TOTA, Fadil MILLAKU, Elez KRASNIQI (Prishtina, Republic of Kosovo; Tirana, Republic of Albania) THE DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METALS IN HYPERACCUMULATOR PLANTS IN DRENAS REGION, KOSOVO ..................................................................................................................... 633 Odeta TOTA, Bujar HUQI, Eugen SKURAJ, Edmira OZUNI, Fatbardh SALLAKU (Durres\Tirana, Republic of Albania) HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATION OF SOILS AROUND METALLURGICAL COMPLEX OF ELBASANI, ALBANIA ........................................................................ 637 Shkëlzim UKAJ, Fatbardh SALLAKU, Fadil HASANI, Elez KRASNIQI, Odeta Tota, Albona SHALA (Prishtina, Republic of Kosovo; Durres\Tirana, Republic of Albania) HEAVY METALS OF AGRICULTURAL LANDS IN NORTHWEST PART OF DRENAS, REPUBLIC OF KOSOVO ................................................................................................................................. 643 Hristina ODZAKLIESKA (Skopje, Republic of Macedonia) FUNCTIONALITY OF AGRO-INDUSTRIAL CAPACITIES IN NATIONAL PARKS ON THE EXAMPLE OF NP MAVROVO......................................................................................................... 649 Hristina ODZAKLIESKA, Olgica DIMITROVSKA (Skopje, Republic of Macedonia) EXPLOITATION OF MINERAL RESOURCES AND THEIR IMPLICATION ON HILLY- MOUNTAIN AREA DEVELOPMENT ................................................................................................................................... 655 Kole PAVLOV, Gorgi PAVLOVSKI, Ivan RADEVSKI (Skopje\Shtip, Republic of Macedonia) HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATION OF SOME RIVERS IN THE HILLY AND MOUNTAINOUS AREAS OF TIKVEŠ ....................................................................... 661 Risto MIJALOV, Goran KITEVSKI (Skopje, Republic of Macedonia) DEMO - SPATIAL PERSPECTIVES OF HILLY - MOUNTAINOUS AREAS IN THE COUNTRY WITH EUROPEAN INTEGRATION .............................................................................. 671

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ПРЕДГОВОР Зборникот „Ридско-планински подрачја - проблеми и перспективи“ содржи трудови од научниот симпозиум со меѓународно учество на тема Проблеми и перспективи на ридско-планинските подрачја, одржан во Охрид од 12-15.09 2013 година. На собирот учествуваа околу 120 научни учесници, од кои околу 80 научни работници од Македонија, Албанија, Босна и Херцеговина, Бугарија, Египет, Косово, Словенија, Словачка, Србија, Хрватска, бројни учесници од универзитети и факултети, како и учесници од наставниот кадар од основните и средните училишта од Република Македонија. Редоследот на трудовите во основа е даден според редоследот во работната програма на научниот симпозиум. Содржините се групирани во следните целини:  Природните ресурси и употребата на земјиштето во ридско-планинските подрачја;  Демографските проблеми во ридско-планинските простори;  Политика за економски и регионален развој на ридско-планинските области;  Картографија, географски информациски системи, проблеми на животната средина и нејзина заштина, европски политики и програми за развој. Трудовите се припремени според бараните стандарди од страна на уредувачкиот одбор. Зборникот е публикуван во печатена и електронска форма. Печатената форма е изработена во една боја, така што графичките прилози (карти, дијаграми и друго) кои авторите ги припремија во боја не се репродуцирани со адекватен квалитет. Меѓутоа сите трудови во оригинална колор верзија се публикувани во електронското издание на зборникот. Соодветно на претходно воспоставените организациски поставки би сакале да потенцираме дека одговорноста за изнесените содржини, податоци и ставови паѓа на самите автори. Организациониот одбор на научниот симпозиум и уредувачкиот одбор на зборникот изразуваат искрена благодарност кон сите инволвирани институции и поединци во реализацијата на научниот симпозиум. Особена благодарност изразуваме на Институтот за географија при Природно-математичкиот Факултет во Скопје кој финансиски ја помогна организацијата на научниот симпозиум. Изразуваме голема благодарност и до научните работници кои со својот научен потенцијал со искуства од девет држави дадоа придонес кон разрешување на проблемите кои се почесто се појавуваат во ридско-планинските подрачја. Проф. д-р Благоја Маркоски

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PREFACE The proceedings “Hilly–mountain areas – problems and perspectives” contains papers from the scientific symposium with international appearance with the topic Problems and perspectives of the hilly - mountainous areas, held in Ohrid on 12-15.09.2013. At this meeting participated around 120 scientists, out of which around 80 were from Macedonia, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Egypt, Kosovo, Slovenia, Slovakia, Serbia, Croatia, numerous participants from universities and high schools in The Republic of Macedonia. The order of the papers is basically given according to the schedule in the work program of the scientific symposium. The contents are grouped in the following units:  Natural resources and land use in hilly-mountain areas,  Demographic problems in hilly-mountain areas policy of economic and regional development of hilly-mountain areas,  Policy of economic and regional development of hilly-mountain areas,  Cartography, Geographic Information Systems, environmental problems and protection, european policies and programs for development. The papers are edited according to the required standards from the editing board. The proceedings are published in printed and electronic form. The printed form is made in one color, so that the graphic contributions (carts, diagrams and other) which the authors have prepared in color are not reintroduced with the adequate quality. However, all of the works in the original color version are published in the electronic edition of the proceedings. Accordingly to the previously established organizational settings we would like to emphasize that presented content, data and positions are the authors’ responsibility. The organizational board of the scientific symposium and the editing board of the proceedings, express sincere appreciation to all involved institutions and individuals in the realization of the scientific symposium. Especial appreciation is expressed towards the Institute of Geography at the Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics in Skopje that financially supported the organization of the symposium. We are expressing large appreciation to the scientific workers as well, who with their scientific potential and with experience of nine countries contributed towards resolving the problems that appear more and more often in the hilly – mountainous regions. Prof. Blagoja Markoski, Ph.D

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ПОЗДРАВЕН ГОВОР ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ НА РИДСКО ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА Проф. д-р Благоја Маркоски Претседател на Македонското географско друштво Почитувани колеги, уважени гости, дами и господа, Добредојдовте во Македонија, на брегот на Охридското Езеро. Добредојдовте на научниот симпозиум со меѓународно учество на тема ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ НА РИДСКО ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА! Македонското географско друштво во тесна координација со Институтот за географија при Природно-математичкиот факултет во Скопје меѓудругото во своите програмски активности го има поставено и одржувањето на научни собири. Оваа година како тема на научниот симпозиум (како што е познато) се поставени ПРОБЛЕМИТЕ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИТЕ НА РИДСКО ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА. Повод за расправа на оваа проблематика се сеуште нерешените проблеми во руралната средина во целост, а осбено во ридско-планинските простори. Тие и во најновите општествени услови на живеење и работа се повеќе се продлабочуваат. Низ предходните проучувања и концепции за развој преовладуваа размислувањата за опстанок на населените места по секоја цена, а без притоа да бидат погодени вистинските правци на развој. Формирањето и локацијата на населените места низ вековите наназат се базираат врз концептот да се избере локација каде што ќе има вода, дел од територијата да е погодна за земјоделско стопанисување, да има ридско-планински простор со шумски предели и соодветни површини под пасишта заради развој на сточарството. Значи производните аспекти скоро исклучиво се базираа на примарните дејности. Меѓутоа, модерните текови и култура на живеење согласно општиот техничкотехнолошки разво, процесите на индустријализација и урбанизација претпоставуваат сосема поинакви претпоставки за развој и живот на населението и во ридско планинските територии. Поради процесите на општественото планирање (запоставена рурална средина за сметка на урбаната), просторното планирање (ненавремена реализација на просторните планови), забрзаната индустријализација, забрзаната урбанизација, задоцнетото инфраструктурно опремување и уредување на инфраструк¬турните системи во руралната средина, навлегувањето на моторизацијата и земјоделската механизација, несоодветната аграрна политика, културното и просветното ниво на населението, историско нелогичните фактори за локација и развиток на населбите (населбите формирани врз економски, за одреден период оправдани критериуми, во денешниот начин на организација неможе да опстанат) функционално лошата организација на селските територии кај населбите од разбиен тип и т.н. руралната средина во ридско планинските простори се повеќе се деградира и популациски и економски.

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Состојбата во руралната средина во целост е загришувачка, а особено проблемите се изразени во ридско планинските територии. Енормно голема е депопулацијата, а соодветно на тоа и процесите на деаграризација. Поради тоа интересот за ревитализација и инфраструктурно уредување и опремување на населените места е многу мал. Меѓутоа, ридско-планинските територии во државите на Балканскиот Полуостров се прилично големи и неминовно е искористувањето на природните и антропогените ресурси во нив. Поради тоа перспективите за ревитализација на овие подрачја мора да бидат ориентирани кон преземање на одредени мерки во смисла на: • целосно оформување и квалитетно подобрување на патната инфраструктура до населените места, селишта и важни вкрстувања, локалитети и објекти во ридскопланинските простори. • Дисперзија и дислокација на индустриските капацитети во местата на суровини, односно поблизу до руралната средина; • Мобилност на работната сила од местото на живеење до местото на работа; • Пренасочување на фондовите за развој во руралната средина; • организација, изградба и санација на објектите за снабдување со вода на секое населено место во смисла на довод на вода до секое домаќинство и изградба на модерни хигиенски и санитарни елементи. • организација и изградба на канализациона мрежа во населените места заради подобрување на општите хигиенски услови во населените места. • модернизација на селските населби со асфалтирање или поплочување на уличната мрежа, подобрување на селските огради и јавни објекти. • подобрување на електроенергетската мрежа и во линиска и во квалитативна смисла. • Спроведување на политика за мерки на комасација и арондација на земјиштето, заради поефикасно искористување на истото, • Изградба на водни акумулации со полифункционална намена, а особено со мон офункционалан намена во функција на примарните дејности • експлоатација на метални, неметални минерални и други суровини; Почитувани колеги, Без претензии за целосна елаборација на правците на дејствување убеден сум дека низ вашите трудови кои доаѓаат како искуства од 10-тина земји како што се Албанија, Босна и Херцеговина, Бугарија, Египет, Косово, Македонија, Словачка, Словенија, Србија и Хрватска, ќе дадеме свој придонес во контекстот на значењето на географијата во изнаоѓање решенија за перспективите на развој и ревитализација на ридско-планинските простори. Во таа смисла ви посакувам искрено добредојде и пријатен престој во Република Македонија и плодна и успешна работа на овој симпозиум. Благодарам на вниманието.

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PRESIDENT WELCOME PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES OF THE HILLY MOUNTAIN AREAS Prof. Blagoja Markoski, PhD President of the Macedonian Geography Society

Dear colleagues, distinguished guests, ladies and gentlemen, Welcome to Macedonia, on the coast of the Ohrid Lake. Welcome to the scientific symposium with international participation on the topic PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES OF THE HYLLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS! The Macedonian Geography Society coordinating with the Institute of Geography by the Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics in Skopje, beside the planned activities, it sets the realization of scientific symposiums. At as already known the topic of this year are the PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES OF THE HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS. The unsolved problems in the rural area as a whole, especially in the hilly-mountain areas, stimulates the discussion on this topic. The problems become more prominent even in the modern societal conditions of living and working. During the previous researches as well as concepts for development, the most common were the cogitations of populated areas existence, without enclosing discussion of development. The establishment and location of settlements through the centuries, based on the concept to be chosen a location which are abundant with water, where a part of the territory is suitable for farming, with existence of a hilly-mountain area with forests plants and suitable grass fields due to the development of animal husbandry. Therefore, the aspects of producing are mainly based on primary activity. Тhe modern way of living as well as the culture of living, along with the general development in technology, the processes of industrialization and urbanization assume entirely different aspects for development and life of the population in the hilly-mountain areas. Due to the processes of development planning of the country (the neglected rural areas), the spatial planning (the untimely realization of the spatial plans), the accelerated industrialization, the accelerated urbanization, the delayed infrastructural supply and managing of the infrastructural systems in the rural spatial areas, the usage of motorization and agricultural mechanization, incompatible agricultural policies, the cultural and educational level of the population, the historically illogical factors for settlements localization and development (settlements established upon economically, for a particular time period, justified criteria, with today's way of organization cannot exist), functionally poor organization of the rural district at the dispersed type of settlements and especially rural environment in the hilly-mountain areas becomes more degraded in economical and population aspect. The state of the rural area is entirely worrying, and the problems are mostly pronounced in the mountain areas. The depopulation is enormous that results with processes of deagrarization. Because of this, the interest for revitalization and infrastructural management, as well as supply for the populated areas is very small. However, the hillymountain areas in Balkan Peninsula countries are rather large and the usage of the natural as XV


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well as anthropogenic resources is inevitable. In this way, the perspectives for the revitalization of these areas must be oriented towards taking action in the sense of: • Complete forming and quality improvement of the road infrastructure to the settlements, important crossroads, localities and objects in the mountain areas; • Dispersion and dislocation of the industrial capacities into the areas with raw materials capacities (closer to the rural area); • Mobility of the work force from the place of living to the place of work; • Redirection of the funds for development to the rural areas; • Organization, constructing and sanction of the water supplies objects in each settlement, in sense of, water supply in every household, as well as construction of modern, hygienic and sanitary facilities. • Organization and constructing of sewerage in the settlements due to improvement of the general hygienic conditions in the settlements. • Modernization of the rural areas by asphalting the road network, improvement of the rural fences as well as public objects. • Improvement in the electro-energetic network in quality and qualitative sense. • Implementation of measuring policies of reallocation and land consolidation of the land due to more efficient usage. • Building artificial lakes with a poly-functional usage and especially with a mono-functional usage in terms of the primary deeds development. • exploitation of metallic, non-metallic and other types of raw materials. Dear colleagues, Without pretenses of complete elaboration, I am convinced that in your scientific papers which come as experiences from ten countries, such as Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Egypt, Kosovo, Macedonia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Serbia and Croatia, we will give our own contribution in context of the importance of geography in the process of finding solutions for the perspectives of development and revitalization of the hilly-mountain areas. In this regard, I wish you a sincere welcome and a pleasant stay in Republic of Macedonia, as well as a successful work on this symposium. Thank you for your attention.

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ПОЗДРАВНИ ГОВОРИ / WELCOME SPEECHES

Проф. д-р Никола ПАНОВ Продекан на Природно-математичкиот факултет, Универзитет “Св. Кирил и Методиј“, Скопје

Почитувани географи, почитувани гости, дами и господа Во оваа прилика би сакал да го изразам моето огромно задоволство што, во име на раководството на Природно – математичкиот факултет а како негов продекан, имам чест лично да присуствувам на овој еминентен Меѓународен научен симпозиум и, со својот кус говор, да го поздравам и подддржам одржувањето на истиот. Воедно, одржувањето на овој значаен настан сакам да го поздравам и од името на деканот на Природно-математичкиот факултет, проф. д-р Ицко Ѓоргоски, како и од раководителот на Институтот за Географија, проф.д-р Ристо Мијалов. Во оваа прилика би сакал да го издвојам и потенцирам токму одржувањето на научни манифестации од овој вид кои, покрај другото, само дополнително ја збогатуваат географската научна мисла не само во нашата земја, туку и пошироко. Моето задоволство е уште поголемо кога ќе се земе во предвид дека на овој научен симпозиум со наслов „Ридско – планински подрачја, проблеми и предизвици“, кој се одржува крај брегот на прекрасното Охридско Езеро, ќе земат учество претставници од повеќе земји а ќе бидат претставени повеќе од осумдесет научни трудови. На крајот од овој мој кус воведен говор, би сакал на сите Вие кои сте присутни во древниот Охрид, покрај бистрите води на Охридското Езеро, да Ви посакам пријатен престој во лулката на Христијанството, успешна презентација на Вашите трудови и, покрај другото, успешна работа во текот на овие неколку симпозиумски денови, но и понатамошни учестава на вакви видови меѓународни собири кои се од голема важност не само за иднината на географијата и географската наука, туку и пошироко. Ви благодарам на вниманието.

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Prof. d-r Dragica ZIVKOVIC, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Geografski fakultet Republic of Serbia

Poštovani skupe, uvaženo Predsedništvo, drage kolege, Pozdravljam Vas u ime svih zaposlenih na Geografskom fakultetu Univerziteta u Beogradu, koji ove godine proslavlja 120. godina postojanja institucije i 160. godina nastave geografije. Pozivam Vas da učestvujete na našem skupu, posvećenom ovom jubileju, koji će se održati početkom decembra. Saradnja između Geografskog fakulteta u Beogradu i Instituta za geografiju Prirodnomatematičkog fakulteta u Skoplju i Makedonskog geografskog društva je veoma uspešna i nadamo se da će se tako nastaviti i u budućnosti. Ovo je prilika da i sa ostalim kolegama proširimo saradnju. Želim uspešan rad skupu, da se družimo i bolje upoznamo.

Prof. Dragica ZIVKOVIC, PhD University of Belgrade Faculty of Geography Dear present, distinguished Presidency, dear colleagues, I greet you in the name of all employees of Geography, University of Belgrade, which this year celebrates its 120th institution anniversary and 160 years of teaching geography. I invite you to participate in our conference, dedicated to the anniversary, which will take place in early December. Cooperation between the Faculty of Geography, Belgrade and the Institute of Geography, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics in Skopje and the Macedonian Geographical Society was very successful, and we hope this will continue in the future. This is an opportunity to expand cooperation with other colleagues. I wish you a successful work alltogether, to socialize and to meet better each other.

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Doc. d-r Professor Dubravka SPEVEC Predsjednik Hrvatskog Geografsko Društvo Poštovane kolegice i kolege, dragi gosti i uvaženi domaćini, dame i gospodo, čast mi je i zadovoljstvo pozdraviti vas na početku međunarodnog znanstvenog simpozija „Problemi i perspektive brdsko-planinskih područja“ u ime Hrvatskog geografskog društva i svoje osobno. Hrvatsko geografsko društvo, jedna od najstarijih udruga te vrste u ovom dijelu Europe, osnovano je 1897. godine, i uz povremene prekide djeluje već 116 godina. Društvo organizira znanstvene i stručne skupove, s ciljem razvoja znanstvenog polja i popularizacije znanosti, a poseban trud, kroz brojne projekte, ulažemo u jačanje položaja i ugleda geografije i geografa koji svojim znanstvenim, nastavnim i stručnim kompetencijama pridonose brojnim segmentima suvremenog društva. Znanstveni odbor ovoga Simpozija za izlaganje je prihvatio više od sto radova koji se bave problematikom brdsko-planinskih područja – njihovim prirodnim resursima, korištenjem zemljišta, demografskim i gospodarskim razvojem, zaštitom okoliša. Referenti će svojim referatima i prezentacijama zasigurno dati odgovor na mnoga pitanja o problemima i perspektivama brdsko-planinskih područja, ali i izreći smjernice te ukazati na mogućnosti njihova razvoja u budućnosti. Zahvaljujem Makedonskom geografskom društvu i njegovu predsjedniku prof. dr. sc. Blagoji Markoskom na uloženom trudu u pripremi ovog Simpozija i čestitam na izvrsnoj organizaciji. Zahvaljujem i svim referentima, moderatorima, članovima znanstvenog i organizacijskog odbora, a posebno pokroviteljima koji su prepoznali važnost ovoga skupa.

Assistant Professor Dubravka SPEVEC, PhD President of the Croatian Geographical Society Dear colleagues, distinguished guests and organizers, ladies and gentlemen, it is my pleasure to greet you at the beginning of the International Symposium Problem and perspectives of the hilly-mountain areas on behalf of the Croatian Geographical Society. The Croatian Geographical Society, one of the oldest Associations of this kind in this part of Europe, was founded in 1897. The Society organizes scientific and professional conferences with main aims of science popularization and further development of geography scientific field. The Croatian Geographical Society makes a lot of effort in strengthening the position and status of geography and geographers who with its scientific, professional and teaching competences contribute to many segments of contemporary society. The Scientific Board of this Symposium accepted for presentation over one hundred papers that deal with hilly-mountain areas – its natural resources, land use, demographic and economic development, environmental protection. Many questions concearning the problems and perspetives of the hilly-mountain areas will be answered, and certain guidelines for its future development will be given. That will significantly contribute to the quality and overall scientific value of this Symposium. I would like to thank to the Macedonian Geographical Society and its president Professor Blagoja Markoski for their effort to organize this Symposium. A special thanks to all participants, members of the Scientific and Organizing Committees, and sponsors who recognized the importance of this conference.

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Prof. Georgi LEONIDOV GEORGIEV, PhD South-West University "Neofit Rilski", Blagoevgrad Republic of Bulgaria Dear Prof. Blagoya Markoski, dear colleagues, On behalf of the Bulgarian participants in the Scientific Symposium with International Participation “Problems and Perspectives of the Hilly-Mountain areas" organized by the Macedonian Geographic Society in the pearl of Macedonian Tourism – Ohrid, let me offer you the warmest greetings. Our presence here is confirmation of longtime friendly and creative connections that exist between the geographical communities of both countries. I would also like to express my satisfaction from the fact that in organizing this symposium and choosing the most appropriate themes once again you have shown that your research work has always been associated with the solution of a number of topical problems of modern society. The presence of a number of established professionals among the geographical community from so many countries prove the international prestige enjoyed by the Macedonian geographers. At the same time, I think that such scientific events are also the place where we can discuss the opportunities for expanding the cooperation between geographers of Bulgaria and Macedonia. We firmly believe that there are quite a few opportunities for joint developments including projects, especially in terms of border regions in the two countries. Let me once again congratulate you with the opening of this highly authoritative scientific forum, hoping that it will be held as always in a creative and friendly spirit.

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Prof. Milena MOYZEOVA, PhD Institute of Landscape Ecology Slovak Academy of Sciences Štefánikova 3, P.O.Box 254, 814 99 Bratislava Slovak Republic

Greet Dear professor Markoski, dear colleagues, Herewith I would like on behalf of the Institute of Landscape Ecology of The Slovak Academy of Sciences in Bratislavato greet you at the accession of the opening this Symposium. I feel very honourees to have the possibility to participate, as we have common problems in the mountainous regions and their solution is in our common hands. I wish that the Symposium is fruitful and brings effective solutions for solving the problem in the mountains of West Carpathians and of the Balkans. All the Best.

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Проф. д-р Никола В. ДИМИТРОВ Продекан на Факултет за туризам и бизнис логистика – Гевгелија Универзитет „Гоце Делчев“ – Штип Република Македонија

Почитуван Претседател на Македонското географско друштво, проф. д-р Благоја Маркоски, Почитувано Работно претседателство, почитувани гости учесници на Меѓународниот научен симпозиум „Проблеми и перспективи на ридско – планинските подрачја“ Дозволете да Ве поздравам од името на проф. д-р Саша Митрев, ректор на Универзитет „Гоце Делчев“ – Штип, како и од името на вон. проф. д-р Нако Ташков, декан на Факултет за туризам и бизнис логистика – Гевгелија, од мое име вон проф. д-р Никола В. Димитров, како продекан, и од професорите и соработниците на Факултет за туризам и бизнис логистика, учесници на овој научен симпозиум. Се надевам дека од големиот број реферати што ќе бидат изнесени на Симпозиумот, ќе произлезат корисни идеи кои ќе придонесат во разрешувањето на некои дилеми и проблеми за подобрување на условите за живот и создавање на перспективи на ридско – планинските подрачја. Искуствата од другите држави, за состојбите во нивните ридско – планински подрачја пренесени од истакнати научни работници учесници на Симпозиумот, ќе ни бидат од корист во утврдувањето на натамошните правци за перспективите на ридско – планинските подрачја во Република Македонија. Почитувани учесници, искрено се надевам дека, престојот и дружењето овде меѓу другото, ќе биде искористен и за запознавање на град Охрид и Охридското Езеро, и се разбира, поблиску запознавање од кое ќе произлезе и збогатување на меѓународната научна соработка. На сите Ви посакувам успешна и плодна работа. Ви благодарам.

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ЗАВРШЕН ДЕЛ НА НАУЧНИОТ СИМПОЗИУМ Во изминатите неколку денови од 12-15.09.2013 година, во хотел Силекс Охрид, на научниот симпозиум со меѓународно учество под наслов „Проблеми и перспективи на ридско-планинските подрачја“ учествуваа околу 120 учесници. На симпозиумот беа пријавени околу 100 научни реферати, а на самиот симпозиум беа презентирани 76 научни трудови кои се поместени во содржините на зборникот на трудови. Работата на симпозиумот се одвиваше во следните работни сесии:  Природните ресурси и употребата на земјиштето во ридско-планинските подрачја;  Демографските проблеми во ридско-планинските простори;  Политика за економски и регионален развој на ридско-планинските области;  Картографија, географски информациски системи, проблеми на животната средина и нејзина заштина, европски политики и програми за развој. Во научните презентации земаа активно учество научни работници од Македонија, Албанија, Босна и Херцеговина, Бугарија, Египет, Косово, Словенија, Словачка, Србија, Хрватска. Низ научните содржини беа презентирани голем број податоци и ставови кои претставуваат основа за формирање на голем број заклучоци за перспективите во развојот на ридско-планинските подрачја. Во продолжение се презентирани следните генерални: ЗАКЛУЧОЦИ • Посоодветен третман на ридско-планинските подрачја од страна на државните институции; • Нова административно-територијална организација во ридско-планинските простори; • Спроведување на Попис на населението во Република Македонија; • Изградба на предвидените капитални објекти во ридско-планинските простори; • Мобилност на работната сила од демографски посилните региони кон ридскопланинските подрачја; • Регистрација на родените според местата на живеење на родителите; • Инфраструктурно опремување и уредување на населените места воопошто во руралната и особено во ридско-планинските подрачја; • Изработка на стратегија за развој на ридско-планинските простори; • Заеднички настап на научниот и истражувачки кадар од соседните земји и пошироко во решавањето на проблемите во ридско-планинските подрачја. Наведените заклучоци, организациониот одбор на научниот симпозиум под насолов „Проблеми и перспективи на ридско-планинските подрачја“ ги дистрибуира до поширокиот круг на институции и поединци понепосредно поврзани со овие проблеми. СТРУЧНА ЕКСКУРЗИЈА Работната програма на научниот симпозиум заврши со стручна екскурзија на научните работници (особено гостите од странство) по крајбрежјето на Охридското Езеро на релација Охрид-Св. Наум. Попатно беа презентирани поголем број објекти, а особено внимание беше посветено на Националниот Парк „Галичица“, Заливот на коските, езерото Острово со изворите Свети Наум и манастирскиот комплекс Свети Наум на брегот на Охридското Езеро. Македонско географско друштво Претседател Проф. д-р Благоја Маркоски XXIII


РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИ ПОДРАЧЈА - ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ, Охрид, 12-15 IX 2013 HILLY- MOUNTAIN - AREAS PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES, Ohrid, 12-15 IX 2013

THE FINAL PART OF THE SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM In the past few days from 12-15.09.2013 in hotel „Sileks“ - Ohrid, a scientific symposium with international participation on the topic „Problems and perspectives of hillymountainous areas“ participated about 120 participants. On the symposium were reported about 100 scientific papers, of which 76 were presented and set in the contents of the proceedings. The work of the symposium took place in the following working sessions:  Natural resources and land use in hilly-mountain areas,  Demographic problems in hilly-mountain areas policy of economic and regional development of hilly-mountain areas,  Policy of economic and regional development of hilly-mountain areas,  Cartography, Geographic Information Systems, environmental problems and protection, european policies and programs for development. The scientific workers from Macedonia, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Egypt, Kosovo, Slovenia, Slovakia, Serbia, Croatia took active scientific presentations. Through the scientific content were presented many views and data that are the basis for establishing many conclusions about the perspective in the development of hilly-mountain areas. Below are presented the following general: CONCLUSIONS • More appropriate treatment of the hilly-mountainous areas of the state institutions; • New administrative- territorial organization in hilly-mountainous areas; • Conducting a census of the population in Macedonia; • Construction of planned capital facilities in hilly-mountainous areas; • Mobility of the workforce from demographic stronger regions to hilly-mountainous areas; • Registration of births according to the places of residence of the parents; • Infrastructural equipment and organization of rural settlements at all, especially in hillymountainous areas; • Creating a strategy for hilly-mountain areas development; • Common approach to scientific and research workers from neighboring countries and wider, in solving the problems in hilly-mountain areas. The aforementioned conclusions, were distributed to a wider range of institutions and individuals more directly related to these problems by the scientific organizing committee of Symposium on topic „Problems and Prospects of mountainous areas“. PROFESSIONAL EXCURSION The work program of the scientific symposium ended with an excursion of scient workers (especially foreign visitors) upon the coastal route Ohrid Lake - St. Naum . Along the way were presented larger number of objects , and particular attention was given to the National Park „Galichica“, Museum on water „Bay of the bones“, „Lake Ostrovo“ with springs „St. Naum“ and monastery complex „St. Naum“ on the Ohrid Lake cost.

Macedonian Geographical Society President Professor Blagoja Markoski, PhD XXIV


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ФОТОГАЛЕРИЈА / PHOTOGALERY

Фото 1 Панорама на Охрид и Охридското Езеро Photo 1. Panorama of City of Ohtid and Ohrid Lake

Фото 2. Дел од учесниците на научниот симпозиум Photo 2. Part of participants from scientific symposium

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Фото 3. Во посета на Музеј на вода - Заливот на коските Photo 3. Visit a Museum on water - Bay of the bones

Фото 4. Манастирски комплекс „Св. Наум Охридски“ Photo 4. Monastery complex „St. Naum Ohridski“ XXVI


ПРИРОДНИ РЕСУРСИ И КОРИСТЕЊЕ НА ЗЕМЈИШТЕТО ВО РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА NATURAL RESOURCES AND LAND USE IN HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS


РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИ ПОДРАЧЈА -ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ, Охрид, 12-15 IX 2013 HILLY- MOUNTAIN -AREAS PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES, Ohrid, 12-15 IX 2013

УДК: 551.324(99)

GLACIER ENDS GEOMORPHOLOGICAL STUDY IN SOUTH BAY AREA, LIVINGSTON ISLAND (SOUTH SHETHLANDS ARCHIPELAGO) Rossitza KENDEROVA1, Ahinora BALTAKOVA2 1

Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”, Faculty of Geology and Geography, Department Climotology, Hydrology and Geomorphology, rosica@gea.uni-sofia.bg; 2 Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”, Faculty of Geology and Geography, Department Climotology, Hydrology and Geomorphology, abaltakova@gea.uni-sofia.bg

ABSTRACT Livingston Island is the second largest one of the South Shetlands Archipelago. It is covered by glaciers and only small sections are free of ice during the austral summer. Three main physiographical sectors could be differentiating in the island (Lopez-Martinez et. al., 1992): - The western area with Byers Peninsula, free of ice; - The central area – a platform area with dome and platform glaciers; - The eastern area – mountainous part (Mt. Friesland, 1770 m), covered with mountain glaciers. South Bay is located in the south-east part of the island between Hannah Point and Hurd Peninsula. At the east coast of the South Bay is situated the Bulgarian Antarctic Base (S62º38'31,6"; W60º21'41,2"). Geomorphological studies for 5 seasons in 2005-2010 were part of a project funded by Ministry of Environment and Waters in Bulgaria: “Complex geological, geochemical geophysics and ecosystem researches in the area of Bulgarian Antarctic Base”. Trough this period different aspects of geomorphological environment in the base area had been studied. The aim of the paper is to present study of glacier forms and morainic deposits from two selected areas: between Hannah Point and Ereby Point area, and at Caleta Argentina (Argentina Cove) area from the both sides of South Bay. In these areas we have studied the glaciers fronts with typical forms and sediments complex. In Hannah Point area (S62º38'44,1"; W60º34'55,6") we have observed the end of a platform glacier, situated in the central part of the island. In the second site – Caleta Argentina (S62 40' 10''; W60 24' 8.0'') we have studied one of the tongues of the Hurd dome glacier. In both sites have periglacial accumulative fields between 150 and 250 m in length in front of the glaciers ends with temporary lakes (2-4 years), moraines and debris fans ends. In these territories the forms (lakes, glacial caverns, outlets of fluvioglacial streams etc.) are changing frequently because of the different conditions of glaciers melting in the summer period. In Caleta Argentina area has lateral moraines, which hasn’t been observed in Hannah Point area. After the moraines fields towards the Ocean have low flat outwash plains, which reach the abrasion platforms and the sea stacks of the coast zone. Deposits characteristics have been made using sedimentological methods. Sediments are with bad sorting, coarser and more angular close to the glaciers. Toward the Ocean on the beaches there is mixing of fluvioglacial and marine material. Regarding petrography in the sediments dominate volcano tuffs. The main part of the fine grain material is volcanic ash, which had been descended from the near active volcano Deception Island. The last eruption of the volcano was in 1970. Key words: South Bay, Livingston Island (Antarctica), glacier ends, moraines, fluvioglacial forms

INTRODUCTION Livingston Island is the second largest one of the South Shetlands Archipelago. It is covered by glaciers and only small sections are free of ice during the austral summer (fig. 1). South Bay is located in the south-east part of the island between Hannah Point and Hurd Peninsula. At the east coast of the South Bay is situated the Bulgarian Antarctic Base (S62º38'31,6"; W60º21'41,2") (fig. 1). Geomorphological studies for 5 seasons in 2005-2010 were part of a project funded by Ministry of Environment and Waters in Bulgaria: “Complex geological, geochemical geophysics and ecosystem researches in the area of Bulgarian Antarctic Base”. Trough this period different aspects of geomorphological environment in the base area had been studied.

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ПРИРОДНИ РЕСУРСИ И КОРИСТЕЊЕ НА ЗЕМЈИШТЕТО ВО РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА NATURAL RESOURCES AND LAND USE IN HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS

Fig. 1. Location of studied sites

The aim of the paper is to present study of forms and deposits at glacier ends areas from two selected sites: between Hannah Point and Ereby Point area, and at Caleta Argentina (Argentina Cove) area from the both sides of South Bay. In these areas we have studied the glaciers front complex with typical forms and sediments. Deposits have been characterized by their grain size (Pettijohn et. al., 1987, Серебрянный, 1980). The results were presented in tables and schemes. Studied sites were characterized in the following order: forms description – distribution – deposits. According previous studies (Lopez-Martinez et. al., 1992), Livingston Island is covered with mountain glaciers, platform glaciers and dome glaciers in different areas. Three main physiographical sectors could be differentiating in the island: - The western area with Byers Peninsula, free of ice; - The central area – a platform area with dome and platform glaciers; - The eastern area – mountainous part (Mt. Friesland, 1770 m), covered with mountain glaciers. At the first studied site between Hannah Point and Ereby Point, the cost line is platform glacier calving into South Bay and only in few places could be observed free of ice beaches. There we can observe typical glacier end complex with moraines and outwash plain, which is spreading to and contacting with beach marine materials at the sea shore. Second site - Calleta Argentina area is part of the Hurd Peninsula, which is covered by mountain and dome glaciers. Last ones are sloping towards the Ocean on glacial valleys. The cost is formed by cliffs and above it there is an area with flat morphology at about 130 m a.s.l. The limit of the glacier is at approximately 8-12 m and it’s a ramp, surrounded by moraines and outwash plain, which material is mixed with the raised beach complex. After glacier retreat in Neoglacial stage, multiple crested end moraines remain, and they are closely associated with the raised beaches. Curl (1980) recons that this relationship has provided a means for determining the sequences of more resent glacial fluctuations. The highest raised beach formed within the moraines is about 6.5 m. From this evidence Curl concluded that the

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РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИ ПОДРАЧЈА -ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ, Охрид, 12-15 IX 2013 HILLY- MOUNTAIN -AREAS PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES, Ohrid, 12-15 IX 2013

6.5 m beach was being deposited at about the same time the recession of the late Neoglacial advance began. MATERIALS AND RESULTS Hannah Point Area In Hannah Point area (S62º38'44,1"; W60º34'55,6") we have observed the end of a platform glacier, situated in the central part of the island. Between the glacier’s end and the end moraine crest and between the last one and the Ocean have flat platforms, on which various by size material is spread. There has braided streams, temporary lakes and ice cored fine material. On these flat territories penguin (Pygoscelis papua) colonies are settled.

HP2

HP1

Fig. 2. Profile scheme of the glacier end at Hannah Point area (for sections I-VII – see the text)

I – recessional moraine, subabgular coarse gravel in sand matrix. II – ice-margin lake in fine material (volcanic ash). III – ground moraine with stripes of coarser and finer materials. IV – temporary lakes in fine material (volcanic ash). V – end moraine crest mixed with debris material. VI – outwash plain. VII – marine pebble, well rounded We have analyzed moraine, debris and marine beach material and their relation. They showed significant differences in fractions distribution (Table 1). In Hannah Point area the mixed material is with extremely poor sorting and all the fractions are presented. These deposits were transported by glacier and by water as well. Streams at the other side have short length – to 150-200 m. The beach material is various in petrography type and is more sorted and sandy, which confirms its fluvial origin. Table 1. Results from grain size analysis of Hannah Point profile: >10 mm 10-2 mm 2-0,1 mm <0,1 mm HP1 mixed moraine+debris 33.33 16.40 23.2 27.1 HP2 mixed beach+fluvial 7.47 20.53 71.9 0.1

Caleta Argentina area In the second site – Caleta Argentina (S62 40' 10''; W60 24' 8.0'') we have studied one of the tongues of the Hurd dome glacier. In Fig. 3 has a scheme of profile of Calleta Argentina’s glacier end and forms towards the Ocean.

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ПРИРОДНИ РЕСУРСИ И КОРИСТЕЊЕ НА ЗЕМЈИШТЕТО ВО РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА NATURAL RESOURCES AND LAND USE IN HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS

Fig. 3. Profile scheme of glacier end at Calleta Argentina (for sections I-VI – see the text)

І - mixed material debris and marine, debris with coarser material 12-13 cm on long axis, marine – 7-8 cm on long axis. Below melting snow – black volcanic ash. In the fine material have two streams. ІІ - marine material – approximately 5-10 cm on long axis, in fine grained matrix, few angular granules and fine pebbles. On top of this stripe have lichen. ІІІ - stream channel with 0,7-1 m depth, which course is parallel to the cost line. ІV - penguin nests, which is on slope 10-15o, which is faced to the cliff. At this part of the beach the material is fine well rounded pebble, which penguins prefer for their nests. These pebbles are in sand matrix. Grass moulds 20-65cm in diameter. V - grass stripe. Under it – coarse gravel, well rounded, maximal dimension 44x36x28 cm, mean long axis 9-18 cm. VІ – marine terrace with 3-4 m width with well rounded coarse pebble in sand matrix. In terrace foot – the sand is below the coarser material. There are three steps with flat surfaces, covered with pebble towards the Ocean. We refer this part to the lower raised marine terrace (Lopez-Martinez et. al., 1991). Table 2. Results from grain size analysis of Caleta Argentina profile: >10 mm 10-2 mm 2-0,1 mm R26 volcanic ash from glacier 0.00 3.50 62.0 R28 volcanic ash from ice-margin lake 2.60 8.62 87.2 R23 fluvial 8.20 12.27 70.9 R25 end moraine 27.55 16.25 30.1 R22 debris fan+marine pebble 32.45 6.74 52.1

<0,1 mm 34.5 1.6 8.7 26.2 8.7

Compared samples show that the material from the streams (R23) is well sorted and homogeneous but coarser than the volcanic ash material (R26 and R28), which comes out from the melted glacier. Debris (R22) and moraine (R25) materials are coarse and poorly sorted. In R22 marine pebble is well rounded and debris gravel is angular. CONCLUSION We have observed forms and deposits in the area between melting glacier and the Ocean. In glacier retreatment were formed accumulative fields between 150 and 250 m in length in front of the glaciers ends with temporary lakes (2-4 years), moraines and debris fans ends. In these territories the forms (lakes, glacial caverns, outlets of fluvioglacial streams etc.) are changing frequently because of the different conditions of glaciers melting in the summer period. In Caleta Argentina area has lateral moraines, which hasn’t been observed in Hannah

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РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИ ПОДРАЧЈА -ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ, Охрид, 12-15 IX 2013 HILLY- MOUNTAIN -AREAS PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES, Ohrid, 12-15 IX 2013

Point area. After the moraines fields towards the Ocean have low flat outwash plains, which reach the abrasion platforms and the sea stacks of the coast zone. Regarding deposits coarsest materials belong to debris slopes, on which are developed gellifluction processes – mostly talus. Moraine pebble is very coarse and marine pebble is coarse. Sediments are with bad sorting, coarser and more angular close to the glaciers and debris slope. Toward the Ocean on the beaches there is mixing of fluvioglacial and marine material. Regarding petrography in the sediments dominate volcano tuffs. The main part of the fine grain material is volcanic ash, which had been descended from the near active volcano Deception Island (the last eruption of the volcano was in 1970). This glacier ends are in dynamic environment, which we observed during five austral summers in seasons 2004/2005 to 2009/2010. In Caleta Argentina area glacier ends were changing more than this in Hannah Point area. In Caleta Argentina snow cover was different every year and in season 2009/2010 was most (Fig. 4).

Fig. 4. Difference between snow cover in season 2004/2005 (left) and 2009/2010 (right)

REFERENCES Серебряный, Л. 1980. Лабораторный анализ в геоморфологии. Москва. Curl, J. 1980. A glacial history of the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Institute of Polar Studies Report No. 63, The Ohio State University, 129 p. Lopes-Martines J., J. M. Vilaplana, E. Martines de Pison, J. Calvet, A. Arche. D. Serraty R. Pallas. 1992. Geomorphology of Selected Areas in Livingston Island, South Shetland Island. In: López-Martínez, J. (ed.) Geologia de la Antártida Occidental. Simposios T3, III Congresso Latinoamericano de Geología, Salamanca, p. 271-282. Pettijohn J., P. Potter, R. Siever. Sand and Sandstone. 1972, 1987 by Springer-Verlag, NY Inc., 553 pages.

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РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИ ПОДРАЧЈА -ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ, Охрид, 12-15 IX 2013 HILLY- MOUNTAIN -AREAS PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES, Ohrid, 12-15 IX 2013

УДК: 556.121.04(497.773)

SPATIAL PRECIPITATION DISTRIBUTION IN PRESPA BASIN (REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA) Ivan RADEVSKI1*, Svemir GORIN1, Blagoja MARKOSKI, Olgica DIMITROVSKA & Snezana TODOROVSKA2 1

Institute of Geography, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University in Skopje 2 National Hydrometeorological Service of Republic of Macedonia radevskiivan@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT The main exploring subject of this research article was a spatial precipitation distribution in Prespa Basin in Republic of Macedonia. The chosen area has a hilly and mountainous character, with two high mountains in the east and south, and the central part is partly full with Prespa Lake. The article is made only according to precipitation data from the Republic of Macedonia. The main correlation between altitude and annual precipitation sums in mm results with an automated isohyetal map of Prespa Basin, which clearly presents the spatial distribution of precipitation according to relief structures (hills, Basins and mountains), rising of precipitation with higher altitude and a comparison between the east side of the Prespa Basin (Mountain Baba) and west side (Mountain Galichica). Key words: annual precipitation sums, Prespa Basin, hypsometry, isohyetal map.

INTRODUCTION The Prespa Basin is located in the southwest part of the Republic of Macedonia. The major part of the Basin and Great Prespa Lake depend to Republic of Macedonia, southeastern part with Little Prespa Lake to Republic of Greece and southwestern part of the Great Prespa Lake depends to the Republic of Albania. The research area of the paper is only the major part of Prespa Basin which belongs to the Republic of Macedonia. On the east border are mountains Baba (Pelister, 2601 m.a.s.l.) and Bigla (1990 m.a.s.l.). The west border is framed with high ridges of Galichica Mountain (2262 m.a.s.l.) and Petrinska Mountain (1660 m.a.s.l.). The area is 776 km2. According to physical geographic conditions of the Basin, there’re significant differences between western and eastern parts of Prespa Basin. The Baba Mountain is higher than Galichica on the west, but the western part of the Basin is richer in precipitation because of geographical location, which is closer to the Adriatic and Ionian Seas (west air wet mass, which is the basic source of precipitation). Those two mountains have meridian direction of extension. There’re three significant relief structures: Mountain Galichica, like a natural border with Ohrid-Struga Valley on the west, Prespa Valley in the center, filled with Prespa Lake below 854 meters above the sea level and Mountain Baba, like a natural border with Pelagonija Valley on the east. Climate in the Prespa Basin is moderate continental with Mediterranean influence. The average annual air temperature is 9.7 ºC, which is lower than surrounding Pelagonija and Ohrid-Struga Valleys, which is a consequence of higher altitude. The temperature amplitude is also lower because of the higher basin altitude than surrounding valleys. The major part of the Prespa Basin is filled with the waters of the Great Prespa Lake. According to previous researching in Republic of Greece (Livada, & Asimakopoulos, 2005), where the southern part of the basin is depending, there annual precipitation sums have a range around 900 mm per annum. For analysis of precipitation in spatial mean, the term spatial correlation is usually used (Abaje, S. Ishaya & S. U. Usman, 2010).

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ПРИРОДНИ РЕСУРСИ И КОРИСТЕЊЕ НА ЗЕМЈИШТЕТО ВО РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА NATURAL RESOURCES AND LAND USE IN HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS

Fig. 1 Map of Prespa Basin watershed in Republic of Macedonia

MATHERIALS AND METHODS The basic materials for this article were obtained from National Hydro-meteorological Service of Republic of Macedonia. The greater the number of measuring stations, the result is more accurate. It contains month and annual precipitation data for 8 gauges in Prespa Basin for different time series (it depends from measuring time of the gauge), but not shorter than 20 years. In the methodology more scientific methods were used. Predominantly mathematical and statistical methods, but also cartographic, tabular, graphical, analyze and synthesis methods. For basic climate, especially precipitation lows in the study area; the concrete bibliography from domestic and international publications was consulted.

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РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИ ПОДРАЧЈА -ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ, Охрид, 12-15 IX 2013 HILLY- MOUNTAIN -AREAS PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES, Ohrid, 12-15 IX 2013

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION For better analyze of precipitation, the 8 precipitation gauges were taken (Meteorological Station Resen and Precipitation Stations Izbishte, Pokrvenik, Stenje, Nakolec, Brajchino, Asamati and Carev Dvor). Table 1 List of precipitation gauges in Prespa Basin

Gauge St.

X (mm)

Resen Carev Dvor Stenje Nakolec Asamati Izbishte Pokrvenik Brajchino

703 650 883 700 720 868 900 900

h (m)

Geo. coord.

881 864 885 850 860 940 980 1020

41*05’ 41*03’ 40*57’ 40*54’ 40*59’ 41*08’ 41*02’ 40*54’

21*01’ 21*01’ 20*54’ 21*07’ 21*03’ 21*00’ 20*57’ 21*10’

According to Table 1 and correlation between altitude and precipitation, all 8 gauges have annual precipitation sums between 700 and 900 mm. In generally with altitude rising, the annual precipitation sun is rising. But there’re some differences between stations in the west part of Prespa Basin and east part of Prespa Basin, so the west part is richer with precipitation than east at same altitude. That means Stenje and Pokrvenik have more precipitation than precipitation gauges Nakolec and Brajchino to the east of research area. The previous researching and bibliography (Lazarevski, 1993; Radevski, 2010) indicates that, the highest possible annual precipitation in the watershed is close to 1100 mm, and it’s expecting around the highest peaks on the mountains Galichica and Baba. m 1050 1000 950 900 y = 0,476x + 533,4 R² = 0,650

850 800 600

650

700

750

800

850

900

950

mm Graph 1 Scatter plot between altitude and annual precipitation sums in Prespa Basin

In Graph 1 were calculated regression equation and R-squared value and correlation between altitude and annual precipitation sums. On the abscissa is presented precipitation, and on the ordinate altitude. With those result it could be concluded that there is correlation link between those two variables. The regression equation was used for obtaining isohyetal map of Prespa Basin. The points of the graphs are presenting 8 gauges in the Prespa Basin, and the 11


ПРИРОДНИ РЕСУРСИ И КОРИСТЕЊЕ НА ЗЕМЈИШТЕТО ВО РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА NATURAL RESOURCES AND LAND USE IN HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS

trend line between altitude and annual precipitation sums. The regression equation means the relationship between independent variable (altitude) and depended variable (annual precipitation sums in mm).

Fig. 2 Isohyetal map of Prespa Basin watershed in Republic of Macedonia

The Isohyetal method in climatology is usually used in climatology and hydrology for estimation of average precipitation for concrete watershed. The average annual precipitation sum for Prespa Basin is equal to 914 mm. With those results this is the one of the Basins in Republic of Macedonia, which is rich with precipitation. This is a result of geographical location and relatively high altitude of the basin. The map presents contours with more precipitation (dark blue) and contours with less precipitation (light blue). If we make a comparison between two maps in the article, the rising of altitude and precipitation is evident. But the west part of the basin is rising rapidly and the east part of basin is rising slowly, because of the closest to the west atmospheric wet mass on Mountain Galichica on the west.

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РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИ ПОДРАЧЈА -ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ, Охрид, 12-15 IX 2013 HILLY- MOUNTAIN -AREAS PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES, Ohrid, 12-15 IX 2013

SUMMARY The obtained spatial precipitation results from basic precipitation data, with isohyetal method, clearly presents precipitation distribution in Prespa Basin. The Basin could be divided on two major areas according to annual precipitation sums. The first area is located on the west from the line Izbishte-Asamati. In those area are depending Mountain Galichica and the west part of Prespa Valley and this area is richer with precipitation in comparison with east part of the basin (Mountain Baba and east part of Prespa Valley). In generally the studied area has normal spatial precipitation distribution and with altitude rising, also the precipitation is rising, but the west part has more precipitation than the east part of the basin. The wet atmospheric mass is discharging more precipitation on mountain Galichica than on the Mountain Baba at the same altitude, because it is closer to the Adriatic and Ionian Seas. REFERENCES Precipitation month and annual sums data obtained from Hydrometeorological Service of Republic of Macedonia; E.J., Gumbel (1958). Statistics of Extremes. Columbia University Press, 1- 375; X. Lana, A. Burgueno, D. M. Martinez, C. Sierra, A review of statistical analyses on monthly and daily rainfall in Catalonia, Journal of Weather & Climate of Western Mediterranean, Associacio Catalana de Meteorologia, 15-29, (2009); А. Лазаревски, Климата во Македонија. Култура, 1–253 (1993); D. Srebrenović, Primijenjena hidrologija. Tehnička knjiga, 1-509 (1986); П. Вујевић, Климатолошка статистика. Научна књига, 1-300 (1956); М. Зиков, Влијанието на Средоземното Море врз климата на Република Македонија. Македонска ризница, 1-219 (1997); I. B. Abaje, S. Ishaya and S. U. Usman, An Analysis of Rainfall trends in Kafanchan State, Nigeria, Research journal of Environmental and Earth sciences, Maxwell Scientific Organization, 89-96 (2010). Grušaitė, V. (2011). Spatial Distribution of Precipitation in Lithuania. Science–Future of Lithuania/Mokslas– Lietuvos Ateitis, 1(4), 10-14. Vasileski, D., Radevski, I., Milevski, J., Todorovska, S. (2012): Precipitation regime of water basin Kriva Reka. The Fifth International Scientific Conference BALWOIS 2012, 28 May-2 June 2012, Ohrid. Lana, X., Burgueño, A., Martínez, M. D., & Serra, C. (2009). A review of statistical analyses on monthly and daily rainfall in Catalonia. Tethys–J. Mediterranean Meteorol. Climatol, 6(1). Livada, I., & Asimakopoulos, D. N. (2005). Individual seasonality index of rainfall regimes in Greece. Clim Res, 28, 155-161.

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РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИ ПОДРАЧЈА -ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ, Охрид, 12-15 IX 2013 HILLY- MOUNTAIN -AREAS PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES, Ohrid, 12-15 IX 2013

УДК: 631.48(235.243)

TOWARDS THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE KHUMBU HIMALAYAS PEDOGENESIS Aleksandar SARAFOV1, Tsveta STANIMIROVA2, Ekaterina FILCHEVA3 1

Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”, Faculty of Geology and Geography, Department Landscape Science and Environment Protection, saraffov@gea.uni-sofia.bg 2 Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”, Faculty of Geology and Geography, Department Mineralogy, Petrology and Economic Geology, stanimirova@gea.uni-sofia.bg; 3 Institute of Soil Science, Agrotechnology and Plant Protection „N. Poushkarov”, filcheva@itp.bg

ABSTRACT In this paper are presented results from morphological and laboratory studies of two representative outcrops in soil in the valley of Dudh Kozi River, in the area of Khumbu Himalayas. This study was taken in the autumn of 2008 during tracking route to Kala Patthar peak in the highest in the world national park at 6000 m a.s.l., which covers four climatic zones. The first soil profile is located in the panorama hill above the “Japanese” Hotel at 4000 m a.s.l. – the lower frontier of the Lower Himalayan Range. The second profile is from rhododendron forest above the Tengboche monastry (3860 m). It identifies pedogenesis process in the valley of the biggest left tributary of Dudh Kozi River – Imdzha Khola, which springs from Khumbu Glacier. The location of these sites is presented with photographs and morphologic descriptions. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis was made for definition of chemical elements presence and form. Humus contain is between 1.78% and 5.52%. According to FAO classification these soils could be defined as Umbric Cambisols and Humic Umbrosols. Key words: soils, clayish minerals, powder X-ray diffraction, humus, humic acids, fulvic acids, the Khumbu Himalayas

INTRODUCTION This paper is presenting results from study of part of the foot of Sivalik Hills on the SubHimalayan Range and mainly in the Lower Himalayan Range between 2800 and 5600 m. These teritories are defined as „hills and lower mountains” but in greater heights and they also have past, present and perspectives. The Katmandu Valley has optimal environment with mean July temperatures of 25°С, mean January temperatures of 25°С and mean precipitation value of 1400 mm at height of 1800 m a.s.l. The tree line here is at 3500-3700 m a.s.l. Capital surroundings are totally agriculture which could be observed from the plane illuminators when we have traveled to Lukla town. The area Khumbu Himalayas was populated constantly when the Tibetan Sherpa people immigrate here because of climatic and political changes in Eastern Tibet (according to the Namche bazaar museum chronics). Dudh Kozi valley (Fig. 1) is unique, sacral and protected for these people, because it springs from Lanak, Ngozumba and Khumbu Glaciers. There are signs of people settlements before sherpa. There are pollen analyzed and radiocarbon dating of coals from Tamo village (3800 m), Khumjung village (3935 m), Pangboche village (4030 m) and Lobuche village (5400 m) which indicate that the slopes with south acpect were covered by birch and alder woods before thousands of years. They were sparsed and commonly set on fires. The seeds from frumentaceous in the pollen samples before thousand years show that the landscape was transformed by people and their cattle before Sherpa people. The natural flora was changed most. Shepards enlarged pastured lands by fire and felling and they caused a wide spread of erosion processes. Herbaceous did not changed in the last hundred years which is due to stock-breeding decrease and increasing of tourism. The cattle-sheds are turned into lodges and the people are occupied in taking care of visitors. Besides, nowadays there are potatoes, cabbage and bean gardens at 3400 m, which are planted

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ПРИРОДНИ РЕСУРСИ И КОРИСТЕЊЕ НА ЗЕМЈИШТЕТО ВО РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА NATURAL RESOURCES AND LAND USE IN HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS

in the lower parts and the surrounding hills of the amphiteatre situated Namche bazaar village. Food supplies are limited and sufficient for the twenty thousant visitors per year, like us, which pass by the highest „Sagarmatha” national park. Truely the name „high in Heaven” matches the four climatic zones within 6000 m.

Fig.1. The Khumbu Himalayas

First settlements were founded around the prosent settlement Lukla (2886 m), where our path begins on traditional tracking route along the Dudh Kozi River (White River). Glacier’s retreat caused succession of settle upper and upper – in Khumjung village and in Pangboche village. Naturally adapted to higher places Sherpa people are making them the best highmountain carriers. The first white founder of Jomolungma, the New Zealand mountaineer Edmund Hillary, insitute the foundation Himalaya Trust in 1961 to help these people in development of this area. They built many hospitals, schools and airports here. In Khumjung village we have visited the school for sherpa children, which was computerised in 2007. MATERIALS AND METHODS We have taken few samples for morphological analysis of soils from the park. Out of the way around the famous “Japanese Hotel” (Wiefs of Everest) we have found a professionally made soil profile of other soil scientists (Fig. 2). After that we have made a trekking to the Gokio Lakes and after that to Gokio Ri peak (5463 m) for acclimatization. We passed the retreated glacier Ngozumba and through the saddle Chola La (5420 m) we have reached Khumbu valley. We stayed for a night at Lobuche Lodge at 4930 m and at the other day we reached Kala patar peak (5545 m). It is the finest for unequipped tourists place with view to Everest Peak (Fig. 3) with the base camp and before the ice-fall Khumbu. On our way back – through the Valley of Imdzha Kozi River, in the catchment of Dudh Kozi River – between the second highest constant settlement Pingboche and the Tengboche monastery we have taken our second soil sample (Fig. 4).

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Fig.2. The first soil profile.

Fig.3. Mount Everest

Fig.4. The second soil profile

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ПРИРОДНИ РЕСУРСИ И КОРИСТЕЊЕ НА ЗЕМЈИШТЕТО ВО РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА NATURAL RESOURCES AND LAND USE IN HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS

Soil samples are analyzed for grain size analysis and soil organic matter content and composition. Grain size analysis was performed in Sedimentological laboratory, situated in the University of Mining and Geology “St. Ivan Rilski” in Sofia. Soil organic carbon content was determined by the modified Turin’s method (Kononova, 1966; Filcheva et al, 2002) (dichromate digestion at 125º C, 45 min., in presence of Ag2SO4 and (NH4)2SO4.FeSO4.6H2O titration, phenyl anthranilyc acid as indicator). Soil organic matter composition was determined by the method of Kononova-Belchikova (Kononova, 1966; Filcheva and Tsadilas, 2002). Total humic and fulvic acids (Cextr) were determined after extraction with mixed solution of 0.1M Na4P2O7 and 0.1 M NaOH; “free” and R2O3 bounded humic and fulvic acids (CNaOH) – after extraction with 0.1 M NaOH and the most dynamic, low molecular fraction of organic matter, so called “aggressive” fulvic acids fraction – 1a extracted with 0.05 M H2SO4, ratio soil: solution = 1:20 for the three extractions. Humic and fulvic acids in both Cextr and CNaOH extracts were separated by acidifying thе solution with sulfuric acid (0.5 M). Optical characteristics (E4/E6) show the degree of condensation and aromatization of humic acids, determined the optical density, λ = 465 and 665 nm. Mineral composition in the two layers (0-20 cm and 80-100 cm) was studied by X-Ray diffraction powder analysis in the X-Ray diffraction studies laboratory in the University of Sofia, Faculty of Geology and Geography, Department Mineralogy, Petrology and Economic. The powder XRD patterns were recorded on a TuR M62 diffractometer using filtered Co Kα radiation in the 2Θ range 4 – 80o, step size 0.02o. RESULTS The two soil profiles are typical for soil formation process around the lower line (4000 m) of the Lower Himalayan Range, at Khumbu Himalayas part. From June to September moist monsoon air mass from the Indian Ocean reaches the Himalaya Range and causes intensive precipitation on the south slopes. Because of this the two soil types are well drained. In the first profile with 100 cm depth, the main characteristic is clear difference of alternate gneiss, schist and sandstone. It could be observed in the weathering stage, which is relatively maximal in the lower layer, the middle one is transitional and at the top layer is relatively minimal. The surroundings of this Profile 1 are in the tree line – dominant species are Alopecurus pratensis, Juniperus recurva with height of 4 m and 30% covering and sporadic Cedrus deodara with pyramidal shape and without soil type pretending. The profile is with four layers, developed on slope with slight inclination of 3-5o. Samples were taken from the first crumbly, dusty structured and dark gray colour (acc. to Munsell 5Y4/1) layer and from the fourth one – fresh, thick with massive-prismatic structure and light yellowish brown colour (2.5Y 6/4). Grain size analysis results (Table 1) show minimal percentage of gravel and granules fractions. Sand fraction increases in depth and clay and ash fractions are with similar amount, which decreases in depth. From grain size analysis results we conclude that the mechanical composition (particle size distribution) is sandy-clayish. In the upper layer clay fraction is 34.99% and in the second layer it is slightly sandy-clayish with 27.14% clay. Their eluviation-illuviation profile is result from intensive humid infiltration regime. Acid reaction of both layers is unsuitable for cultures. It was tested by soil Ph reaction with procedure with Ph indicator. Increased acidity reaction was established by Achkov et. al. (1990), which brought us to conclusion, that acid Ph reaction is typical for soils in Bhagirathi River valley – Garhwal Himalaya.

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Table 1. Laboratory results from grain-size analyses and color definition for profiles. 10 – 2 mm, %

Sample No Tengboche monastry

2 – 0.1 mm; %

0.1 – 0.01 mm, %

<0,01 mm %

19.63

44.92

35.45

The “Japanese” Hotel at 4000 m a.s. l. 0-20cm;

0.1

21.97

42.54

34.99

The “Japanese” Hotel at 4000 m a.s. l. 80 -100cm

0.51

37.25

35.1

27.14

Color by Munsell chart 5YR6/4 light reddish brown 5Y 4/1 dark gray 2.5Y 6/4 light yellowish brown

Ph 5 5 5.5

Results from humus content analysis showed low organic matter content along the profile and mostly concentrated in the upper 10-20 cm. In the upper layer organic matter is 4.83 % (Umbric type) and it decreases in depth to 1.78 % (Table 2). The highest humus content is determined in the sample of Tengboche monastery – 5.52 %. Interesting results are obtained concerning organic matter composition. Humic acids prevail over the Fulvicacids in the sample of the upper soil horizon – “Japanese” Hotel at 4000 m a.s.l. 0-20 cm. Optical characteristics show that humic acids have condensed and aromatized structure and high degree of humification (Orlov, 1985). These determine more mature and stable humus system with favourable physical characteristics. Confirmation for that is the humic type (Orlov, 1985) of organic matter for this horizon. The type of humus for the clay horizon “(Japanese” Hotel at 4000 m a.s.l. 80 -100cm) is humic –fulvic, which is confirmed with data of optical density. Fulvic type of humus (fulvic acids prevail humic acids) is found for the sample of Tengboche monastery. The extracted organic substances (mobile, extracted with 0.1 NaOH) are equal to the total humic substance (extracted with sodium pyrophosphate) which is typical for soils with high organic carbon content with litter layers (Filcheva and Yorova, 2000; Filcheva 2004, 2007). Confirmation of the mobility of soil organic matter are features – very low content of unextracted organic matter, and both, the high per cent of “free” and R2O3 bounded humic acids (>88 %) and content (absolute and relatively quantity of aggressive fulvic acids fraction (up to 39 % relatively % for the soil sample of Tengboche monastery, characterized with the high per cent of organic carbon content). Тable 2. Content and composition of soil organic matter (designations: a - % of dry mass; b - % of total carbon. Ch – humic acids; Cf – fulvic acids; optical characteristics (E4/E6))

Profile

The “Japanese” Hotel at 4000 m a.s.l. 0-20cm; The “Japanese” Hotel at 4000 m a.s.l. 80 -100cm Tengboche monastry

Total organic carbon (%)

Organic carbon, (%) ( 0.1M Na4P2O7+0.1M NaOH)

Ch/ Cf

Organic carbon, (%) Humic acids fractions “free” & R2O3 compl.

Ca complexed

Unextrac ted Organic C, (%)

Extracted with 0.1N H2SO4, (%)

Optical charactics Е4/Е6 Soil and

Organic carbon 0.1 N NaOH

pyroph. extract

alkali extract

(%)

0.11 3.93

3.98

4.09

1.54 55.00

0.43 41.75

0.27 26.21

4.47

4.78

0.59 57.28

0.51 15.94

1.27 39.69

4.93

6.09

2.69 84.06

total

HA

FA

2.80

1.54a 55.00b

1.20 42.85

0.34 12.15

3.53

100.00

0.00

1.26 45.00

1.03

0.60 58.25

0.24 23.30

0.36 34.95

0.67

0.21 87.50в

0.03 12.50

3.20

2.69 84.06

0.71 22.19

1.98 61.87

0.36

100.00

0.00

The determined mineral composition of analyzed samples (Figs. 5 and 6) corresponds to the surrounding indigenous rocks – sandstones and gneisses. The registered potassium feldspar on X-ray diffraction patterns can be attributed to the sandstones. This suggests that during soil formation period sandstones were more intensively modified, according to their lower weathering resisting. The presence of montmorillonite shows alteration of plagioclase. The plagioclase and in situ formed mineral illite, indicate cambic horizon at 80-100 cm depth.

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The metamorphic cambic horizon contains higher amount of clay than the surface horizon by definition, which does not lead to texture differentiation. The structure and colour of the two horizons are also different. All these differences came from indigenous rocks, which is non calcareous. Therefore it can be conclude that the the soil layer is developed on felsic and intermediate igneous rock and periglacial sediments.

Fig.5. Representative powder X-ray diffraction pattern of samples from profile “Japanese” Hotel at 4000 m a.s.l. 0-20cm and 80 -100cm.”

Fig.6. Representative powder X-ray diffraction pattern of samples from profile the Tengboche monastry

By our field and laboratory results we define this soil as Umbric Cambisols type (FAO classification), brown mountain forest soil type (Russian classification) or Inceptisols (USDA soil taxonomy). This soil type is widely distributed in temperate humid zone with decidous trees, which takes small areas in the Himalaya Range. This young soils are developed in environment of mechanical weathering and poor clay formation. Second soil profile is located in rhododendron (Rhododendron arboreum) forest closely to the road with picture to Tengboche monastery (3860 m). Rhododendron arboreum is a simbol of Nepal, as well as the Himalayan Monal (Lophophorus impejanus) in the pheasant family, Phasianidae, which we met at Gokyo Lakes. 20


РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИ ПОДРАЧЈА -ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ, Охрид, 12-15 IX 2013 HILLY- MOUNTAIN -AREAS PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES, Ohrid, 12-15 IX 2013

Morphological analysis of the shallow profile identifies soil formation on slope terrace in the valley of the biggest left tributary of Dudh Kozi River – Imdzha River, which springs from the Khumbu Glacier. It is formed on deep surface debris with angular gravel. Snow cover is remaining for more than 200 days and the hydro-thermal regime is humid-cryogenic. In soil profile does not have clear differentiation and there have not “B” horizon. “A” horizon is crumbly with well developed roots structure. “C” horizon is below 40th cm and is product of felsic igneous maternal rock. This characteristic distinguishes it from Inceptisols, Rankers and Entisols. It is also important its organic matter contain of 5.52%. Mineral content of studied sample from the upper layer is of mainly of quartz, plagioclase and a little muscovite. Mineral composition is in accordance to the maternal and gneiss and gneiss-schist rocks. According to these results we defined Humic Umbrosols development. We regard our results to Soil map of Nepal, published on web-site of FAO (Dinesh Pariyar, 2008). the author used american classification (USDA) and order system, with soil order, soil suborder and soil group. The two studied soil types are in Inceptisols order – young not developed soils. First one is in Andepts suborder and Cryandepts main group, as prefix “and” means volcanic maternal rock and prefix “cry” is associating with cold climate and repeating suffix “ept” is according to the order identifying. Second profile is in suborder Umbrepts, as the prefix means shadow, darkness and organic matter content. The main group is Cryumbrepts, as the prefix is again „cry” (cold climate) and the suffix is again „epts”. CONCLUSIONS In summary our impressions and results of soils in 4000 m height are that the main factor for soil formation there is the relief characteristics. Highest location of umbrisols and relatively lower height of cambisols is not typical for traditional zones in Bulgaria and the Balkan Peninsula. Mosaic vegetation and soils connected to it is in relation with micro-relief slope aspect and slope inclination. Climatic factor is not leading in soil formation process at this height. REFERENCES Achkov, N. 1990. Towards soil formation characteristics in the Garhwal Himalaya. In: Soil science and geochemistry, year ХХV, № 4, Sofia. (in Bulgarian) Filcheva E., K. Yorova. 2000. Influence of Fertilization on the Organic Matter Composition in Litter of Brown Forest Soil. In: Proceedings of the First National Conference on Humic Substances and Soil Tillage (BHSSBSTRS Conference’2000), S. Rousseva, E. Filcheva, I. Stefanova (Eds.), 11-12 May, Borovec, Bulgaria, CINTI: ND. II. 17 476, Reg. № ND 249/2000, 55-57. Filcheva E., C. Tsadilas. 2002. Influence of Cliniptilolite and Compost on Soil Properties. - Commun. of Soil Sci. and Plant Analysis , v. 33 (3-4), 595-607. Filcheva E. 2004. Comparative characteristics of soils in Bulgaria in content, composition and stocks of organic matter. Habilitation thesis for the award of Academic title Prof., NCAS, ISS “N. Poushkarov “, Sofia, pp. 263 (Bul) Filcheva, E. 2007. Characteristic of Bulgarian soils in content, composition and stocks of organic matter. Grouping of Bulgarian sols. Project “Sustainable Land Management”, ISBN: 978-954-8702-11-9, Advertising and Publishing House Minerva, pp. 191.(Bul) Kononova M . M. 1966. Soil Organic Matter. 2nd Ed. – Pergammon press, Inc., M. V., p.544. Orlov D . S . 1985. Soil Chemistry. Moscow University, Moscow, 376 pp. (in Russian). www.fao.org, nepal; country profiles; fao, Dinesh Pariyar, 2008

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УДК: 502.5:316.334.5(497.5)

DEVELOPMENT OF THE CENTRAL LIKA LANDSCAPE (REPUBLIC OF CROATIA) CAUSED BY THE SOCIO-ECONOMICAL PROCESSES Marta JOVANIĆ

M. A. Reljkovića 5, 32 100 Vinkovci, Republic of Croatia, marta.jovanic@gmail.com

ABSTRACT This study is concerned with the development of the Central Lika landscape (Republic of Croatia) caused by the socio-economical processes. In order to present and explain the development of the Central Lika landscape caused by the socio-economical processes and indicators, this study combines various data (textual, census, survey, land use and land cover) as well as methods: census data analysis, analysis of the results of the survey conducted on a sample population, application of GIS in the spatial data analysis, as well as the statistical methods and the software (SPSS). Results of this study indicate that most of the study area is affected by depopulation, deruralization, population ageing and deagrarization. The edge parts are particularly affected by the speed and negative intensity of these processes while population growth and more favorable age structure are present in the central part (Gospić and Lički Osik). Correspondingly, the landscape of edge parts is more neglected whereas the landscape of the central part is put to more use. Results of the correlation analysis between the socio-economic indicators and land use and land cover (LULC) of the study area indicate that the strongest correlation is between the proportion of primary sector of total economically active and the proportion of woodland. Analysis of the results of the questionnaire survey indicate that the large proportion of local population has starting to neglect their formerly used land properties. Also, they are aware that processes of extenzification and reforestation have been occurring in the Central Lika landscape. Keywords: landscape development, socio-economical processes, correlation analysis, Central Lika

INTRODUCTION The term landscape refers to an integrated system of environmental and social components. Over time, landscape gets more and more diverse, develops with socio-economic activities and takes the form of a cultural landscape. As a result of socio-economic activities, cultural landscape over time is increasingly upgraded. If socio-economic activities decrease, cultural landscape takes back the form of primary landscape. Lika is one of the mountain and also peripheral region in the Republic of Croatia. The study area of this research, the Central Lika, takes its central part. It is good explored within various geographical topics. According to the work of D. Pejnović from 1985 (Central Lika: socio-geographical transformation, the term Central Lika has been used for the area that we now know as Gospić Town and Perušić Municipality. Nevertheless, in this work that term encompasses a larger area. Namely, after the new administrative-territorial organization of the Republic of Croatia (in year 1993), the inhabitants of the settlements of Lovinac Municipality have begun to gravitate to Gospić Town. Thus, to the area of Central Lika besides Gospić Town and Perušić Municipality, belongs Lovinac Municipality as well. The same author has published numerous papers of the Lika region. For example in 1978 he explored the social restructuring of the agricultural population in Lika and in 2004 he examined demographic trends in condition of periphery. Beside the work of D. Pejnović (1985), the most comprehensive work of Lika is written by V. Rogić (1975). The researchers of the institute of social sciences represent research of the Lika region in two monographs. In the monograph of 1998, as a contribution to revitalization of the Croatian peripheral area, M. Štambuk disclosed her research titled “Lika – case study”. In the monograph of 2009, titled “Lika identity: origins and development”, numerous articles of historical (the first book), as well as social and

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ПРИРОДНИ РЕСУРСИ И КОРИСТЕЊЕ НА ЗЕМЈИШТЕТО ВО РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА NATURAL RESOURCES AND LAND USE IN HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS

economical (the second book) aspects of the Lika identity are represented in two books. M. Sić (2009) discusses changes in the regional development of Lika after the construction of one part of the highway Dalmatina, the highway Zagreb-Split, in 2004. METHODOLOGY Study area The study area of this research is the Central Lika in the Republic of Croatia (Figure 1). It covers an area of Gospić Town, Lovinac Municipality and Perušić Municipality, a total area of approximately 1690 km2. The whole study area is located in Lika-Senj County. 78 settlements are located within the study area. Among them, the only urban center is the town of Gospić that is also the most inhabited settlement (6575 inhabitants in year 2011).

Fig. 1 Study area – Central Lika

Orographic frame of the Velebit Mountain on the west side and the Lika-Krbava mid-range massif on the east side forms the basis for regional isolation of the Central Lika. The largest part of the Central Lika basin takes the Lika field. An elevation range in the study area is between 461 and 1757 m (mean 740 m). On the northern side of the study area is located an artificial Lake of Krušćica (built in sixties). The artificial lake, together with the highway Dalmatina, built in 2004, represents the most significant anthropogenic influence in the study area. The highway is the most important road in the study area. Although it connects the capital City of Zagreb and the coastal area, two very propulsive Croatian regions, it didn’t change the fact that the Central Lika is one of the peripheral and problematic areas. Research aims, used data and methods Various analysis of the census data have been made in this work. In order to explain the socio-economical processes that have been occurring in Central Lika since the end of World War II, all census data are investigated on the level of the settlements. There are some methodological differences between censuses caused by differences of census conceptions. In this work census data of every census year in the period since the end of World War II has been analysed. Censuses in 1948, 1953, 1961, 1971, 1981 and 1991 were conducted by a conception of permanent population (so called de iure population), while censuses in 2001 and 2011 were conducted by a conception place of usual residence. Despite the methodological differences between the censuses, the census results are compared with each other since more reliable data on demographic and economical indicators do not exist.

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РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИ ПОДРАЧЈА - ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ, Охрид, 12-15 IX 2013 HILLY- MOUNTAIN - AREAS PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES, Ohrid, 12-15 IX 2013

Analysis of population trend is conducted for each of the census year in the period from 1948 to 2011. That period is chosen because of the fact that 1948 is the first census year since the end of the World War II in the Republic of Croatia, “when the basic structure and implemented initial industrialization of the region were created” (Pejnović 1985). 2011 is the year of the last census year in the Republic of Croatia. Analysis of age structure is presented as a comparison of data of the census years 1971 and 2011. Since data from population activity for 2011 is still unavailable, analysis of economic structure is presented as a comparison of data of the census years 1971 and 2001. In order to explain connection between socio-economical processes and development of the Central Lika landscape, the correlation analysis between the socio-economic indicators and land use and land cover (LULC) data of the study area is conducted. For that purpose the demographic data of the year 2011, the economical data of the year 2001 and the LULC data of the year 2013 were used. The correlation analysis was conducted using Spearman coefficient (through SPSS.20 program). As a valuable contribution to understanding the integration of social and natural factors of the study area, a questionnaire survey on a sample population was conducted. It was conducted in the period from 4th to 8th of September 2013. Using random sampling procedure, a sample of households within chosen settlements was selected. Chosen settlements are equally distributed in the study area. Total number of 86 households was selected. RESULTS Analysis of the census data Population trend In the period 1948-2011 in each population census, a decrease of total population number of the Central Lika is recorded (Figure 2, Table 1). In this period of 63 years, the population of Central Lika is three times reduced (from 45344 inhabitants is year 1948 to 16390 in year 2011). Thus, in that period the population number has been reduced by 28954 inhabitants, or by 63.8%. In average, that is a reduction of 460 inhabitants per year! “As addition to the low, and since the mid-seventies a negative rate of natural increase, the basic element of such depopulation is emigration, which is increasingly taking on the character of a real exodus” (Pejnović 1985). The war, which was occurring in the study area in the period 1991-1995, has worsened the existing trends. 50000 45000 40000

Population

35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000

2011

2001

1991

1981

1971

1961

1953

1948

0

Census year

Fig. 2 Population trend of the Central Lika in the period 1948-2011 Source: Naselja I stanovništvo Republike Hrvatske 1857-2001, CD-ROM, DZS RH, Zagreb, 2005; Popis stanovništva, kućanstava i stanova 2011 (www.dzs.hr)

A more detailed analysis of population trends displays the differences between units of local government, as well as among the settlements. In Table 1 it can be seen that in this 25


ПРИРОДНИ РЕСУРСИ И КОРИСТЕЊЕ НА ЗЕМЈИШТЕТО ВО РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА NATURAL RESOURCES AND LAND USE IN HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS

period (1948-2011) all three units of the local government recorded a population decline. The largest population decline had Lovinac Municipality (for 85.1%), followed by Perušić Municipality (for 77.4%) and Gospić Town (for 52.7%). In this period the index of population change on the level of settlements was mainly negative, with different intensity (Figure 3). The highest population increase (from 532 inhabitants in 1948 to 1914 inhabitants in 2011) recorded the settlement Lički Osik. In this period, the increase recorded also the settlement Novoselo Trnovačko (from 42 to 84 inhabitants) and the only urban center in the study area – the town of Gospić (from 4204 to 6575 inhabitants). The process of urbanization in the town of Gospić has been occurring since the end of World War II. Because of the War that was occurring in that area in the period 1991-1995, population increase was interrupted in period between two censuses, in the period 1991-2001. Afterwards, the process of urbanization of the town of Gospić continued, inhabitants from whole area of Lika migrate to Gospić. Nowadays, the process of suburbanization of the town of Gospić is occurring, especially in the settlement Lički Osik direction. As an outcome, this is a continuously built area and Lički Osik records a population increase. On the other hand, according to the last census (2011), the settlements Drenovac Radučki and Kruščica remained without any inhabitants. Tab. 1 Population trends of the units of local government and their seats of Central Lika in the period 1948-2011 TOWN/ MUNICIPALITY/ 1948 1953 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011 2011/1948 Municipial center GOSPIĆ TOWN 26920 26285 27390 26683 23285 22026 12980 12745 47,3 Town of Gospić 4204 5127 6767 8046 8725 9025 6088 6575 156,4 LOVINAC MUNICIPALITY 6750 6450 5911 4929 3721 3054 1096 1007 14,9 Settlement Lovinac 929 954 869 869 640 533 288 257 27,7 PERUŠIĆ MUNICIPALITY 11674 10958 9952 8607 6379 5648 3494 2638 22,6 Settlement Perušić 1003 1159 1290 1343 1218 1316 957 852 85,0 CENTRAL LIKA 45344 43693 43253 40219 33385 30728 17570 16390 36,2 Source: Same as in Figure 2

Fig. 3 Index of population change of Central Lika settlements in the period 1948-2011 Source: Same as in Figure 2

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РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИ ПОДРАЧЈА - ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ, Охрид, 12-15 IX 2013 HILLY- MOUNTAIN - AREAS PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES, Ohrid, 12-15 IX 2013

It can be concluded that in the Central Lika in the period since the end of World War II, the processes of depopulation and deruralization have been occurring. These processes have a stronger intensity in the edge area, while in areas close to the town of Gospić and Lički Osik the intensity of these processes is lower. Age structure Comparing the data of the age structure in 1971 with those in 2011 (Figure 4, Table 2), it is evident that the process of the population ageing has been occurring in the Central Lika. In the study area the proportion of mature population (20-59 years of age) has remained steady. The proportion of the old population (60 years and above) has increased (from 17.0% in 1971 to 29.7% in 2011), whereas the proportion of the young population (20 and below) has declined (from 32.2 % in 1971 to 20.2% in 2011). Since the proportion of the population aged 60 and above, both in 1971 and 2011, is higher than 12 %, it can be concluded that the Central Lika belongs to the group of areas with very old population. This reversal in respect of proportions of old and young population displays very well the indicator index of oldness. It is an indicator that is calculated as the ratio between the number of old population and the number of young population. As is shown in Table 2, in 2011 the index of oldness was higher (on the all observed levels was higher than 100) than in 1971 (on the all observed levels was lower than 100), in all three units of the local government, in their seats, as well as in the Central Lika in general. In 2011 Gospić Town had more favourable age structure (index of oldness 122) than municipalities Lovinac and Perušić (indexes of oldness were higher than 200). Therefore it can be concluded that, since the seventies, in the Central Lika a population ageing has been occurring, which is at a stronger intensity in the edge areas, and at a lower intensity in the area close to the town of Gospić.

Fig. 4 A population pyramid of the Central Lika in year 1971 and in year 2011 Source: Popis stanovništva i stanova 1971, SZS, Beograd 1972; Popis stanovništva, kućanstava i stanova 2011 (www.dzs.hr) Tab. 2 Population of the Central Lika units of government and their seats by the age cohorts and index of oldness in years 1971 and 2011 1971* 2011 TOWN/ MUNICIPALITY/ 0-19 20-59 ≥ 60 0-19 20-59 ≥ 60 Index Index of Municipial center of oldness * * oldness * * % % % % % % GOSPIĆ TOWN 31,8 52,0 15,6 49,3 21,6 52,1 26,4 122,3 Town of Gospić 31,9 57,7 10,1 31,7 22,1 55,2 22,6 102,2 LOVINAC MUNICIPALITY 30,7 47,3 21,6 70,5 15,8 40,6 43,6 276,1 Settlement Lovinac 31,8 49,9 18,0 56,5 14,8 43,2 42,0 284,2 PERUŠIĆ 34,6 46,3 18,7 53,9 15,3 44,0 40,7 266,5

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ПРИРОДНИ РЕСУРСИ И КОРИСТЕЊЕ НА ЗЕМЈИШТЕТО ВО РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА NATURAL RESOURCES AND LAND USE IN HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS

MUNICIPALITY Settlement Perušić CENTRAL LIKA

33,2 51,7 14,6 43,9 23,9 50,8 25,2 105,4 32,2 50,2 17,0 52,8 20,2 50,1 29,7 147,2 *Difference to 100.0% refers to the category ‘unknown’ **Index of oldness is calculated as a ratio between the number of population aged 60 years and above and the number of population aged 0-19 years Source: Same as in Figure 4

Economic structure The age structure of a population is one of the demographic indicators that significantly affects general activity rate (the proportion of an active population in the total population). Previously it was shown that in the period since the end of World War II, in the Central Lika processes of depopulation, deruralization and population ageing have been occurring. Correspondingly, the general activity rate has decreased. In the Table 3 it can be seen that the structure of employees by activity has changed significantly. There has been a restructuring of the activities. Traditional activities of the primary sector have been reduced whereas the tertiary and quaternary sector activities have been increased. Tab. 3 Structure of employees by activity sector of the Central Lika units of government and their seats in years 1971 and 2001 1971* 2001* TOWN/ SECTOR SECTOR Total Total MUNICIPALITY/ econom. I II III and IV econom. I II III and IV Municipial center active active % % % % % % GOSIPIĆ TOWN 12079 44,1 21,2 18,3 4296 11,9 11,2 65,4 Town of Gospić 3004 12,5 27,3 47,8 2233 4,2 11,2 76,1 LOVINAC MUNICIPALITY 2690 62,8 7,1 6,5 217 12,4 10,1 48,4 Settlement Lovinac 487 52,6 4,5 10,1 59 6,8 3,4 62,7 PERUŠIĆ MUNICIPALITY 3956 59,3 13,8 7,3 844 25,5 13,0 49,8 Settlement Perušić 544 29,4 28,9 24,4 253 5,1 8,3 77,9 CENTRAL LIKA 18725 50,0 17,6 14,2 5357 14,0 11,5 62,2 *Difference to 100,0 % refers to others ingaged in unknown activities as well as on those employed abroad Source: Popis stanovništva i stanova 1971, SZS, Beograd 1972; Popis stanovništva, kućanstava i stanova 31. ožujka 2001, CD-ROM, DZS RH, Zagreb, 2002

Correlation analysis between the socio-economic indicators and LULC of the study area Correlation analysis between the socio-economic indicators and land use and land cover (LULC) of the Central Lika was conducted with data of all 3 units of local government and with data of the whole study area (Table 4). The correlation analysis was conducted using the program SPSS.20. As correlation coefficient, the Spearman coefficient was used. The value of +/-1 as correlation indicates the highest correlation, positive or negative, and the value 0 inidicates that there is no correlation. The other correlation coefficients, those between +1 and –1, indicate a degree of the correlation. Values closer to the +/-1 indicate stronger correlation and values closer to the value 0 indicate weaker correlation. Tab. 4 Socio-economical and LULC variables used in the correlation analysis Area Social-economical variables GOSPIĆ LOVINAC PERUŠIĆ CENTRAL TOWN MUNICIPALITY MUNICIPALITY LIKA Social variables (in year 2011) Population density (inh/km2) 13,2 2,9 6,9 9,7 Proportion of young population (0-19) 21,6 15,8 15,3 20,2 Proportion of mature population (20-59) 52,1 40,6 44,0 50,1

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РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИ ПОДРАЧЈА - ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ, Охрид, 12-15 IX 2013 HILLY- MOUNTAIN - AREAS PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES, Ohrid, 12-15 IX 2013

Proportion of older population (≥ 60) 26,4 43,6 40,7 29,7 Economical variables (in year 2001) Proportion of economically active population 39,1 23,6 40,7 29,7 Proportion of persons with personal income 30,1 52,5 41,5 33,8 Proportion of supported population 30,7 23,9 26,7 29,5 Proportion of employed in primary sector of total economically active 11,9 12,4 25,5 14,0 Variables of LULC (in year 2013) Proportion of agricultural land 95,21 96,64 88,76 93,92 Proportion of woodland 0,24 0,67 7,83 2,15 Proportion of natural infertile land 0,00 0,01 0,00 0,00 Average particle-size (in ha) 0,61 0,63 0,61 0,61 Source: Popis stanovništva, kućanstava i stanova 31. ožujka 2001, CD-ROM, DZS RH, Zagreb, 2002; Popis stanovništva, kućanstava i stanova 2011 (www.dzs.hr); Cadastre data of LULC, DGU-Gospić, 2013

Results of the analysis (Table 5) show that between all chosen socio-economical indicators and LULC data a correlation exist. The strongest (or complete) positive correlation exists between proportion of employed in primary sector of total economically active and proportion of woodland. The strong negative correlation exists between proportion of employed in primary sector of total economically active and proportion of agricultural land, as well as between proportion of young population (0-19 years) and proportion of woodland.

Socio-economical variables Social (in year 2011) Population density (inh/km2) Proportion of young population (0-19) Proportion of mature population (20-59) Proportion of older population (≥ 60) Economical (in year 2001) Proportion of economically active population Proportion of persons with personal income Proportion of supported population Proportion of employed in primary sector of total economically active Source: Same as in Table 4

Average particle-size (in ha)

weak

Proportion of natural infertile land

medium strong

Proportion of woodland

strong

Proportion of agricultural land

Tab. 5 Results of the correlation analysis between socio-economic indicators and LULC of the Central Lika Degree of correlation Variables of LULC (in 2013) complete

-0,200 0,400 -0,200 0,200

-0,400 -0,800 -0,400 0,400

-0,775 -0,258 -0,775 0,775

-0,775 -0,258 -0,775 0,775

-0,200 0,200 -0,200

-0,400 0,400 -0,400

-0,775 0,775 -0,775

-0,775 0,775 -0,775

-0,800

1,000

-0,258

-0,258

Analysis of the results of the survey As a valuable contribution to understanding the integration of social and natural factors of the study area, a questionnaire survey on a sample population was conducted. Questions about the Central Lika household land properties usage have been explored, as well as the general perception of the Central Lika landscape. Analysis of the results of the questionnaire survey indicate: 1) large proportion of the local population in the study area has been neglecting their formerly used land properties, 2) large proportion of the local population is aware that processes of extenzification and reforestation have been occurring in the Central Lika landscape. It is interesting to observe the perception: processes of reforestation and

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ПРИРОДНИ РЕСУРСИ И КОРИСТЕЊЕ НА ЗЕМЈИШТЕТО ВО РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА NATURAL RESOURCES AND LAND USE IN HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS

extenzification are occuring less in the Gospić Town than in the other two units of local government. CONCLUSION Development of the Central Lika landscape caused by socio-economical processes is researched for the period since the end of World War II. Results indicate that most of the study area is affected by depopulation, deruralization, population ageing and deagrarization. The edge parts are particularly affected by the speed and negative intensity of these processes while population growth and more favorable age structure are present in the central part (Gospić and Lički Osik). Results of correlation analysis between chosen socio-economical indicators and LULC data as well as analysis of the results of the survey conducted on a sample of local population have further explained influences of these processes on the development of the Central Lika landscape. Results of the correlation analysis show that between all chosen socio-economical indicators and LULC data exists a correlation. The most significant is a correlation between proportion of employed in primary sector of total economically active and proportion of woodland. Analysis of the results of the survey conducted on a sample of local inhabitants has shown the changes of households’ land use. The personal perception of development of Central Lika landscape has also been observed. Results of the questionnaire survey indicate that the ihabitants consciously neglect and leave their land and that processes of extenzification and reforestation have been occurring in the Central Lika landscape. REFERENCES Lika identity: origins and development, (ed. by Holjevac, Ž.), books 1 and 2, Institut društvenih znanosti Ivo Pilar, Zagreb-Gospić, 2009. Nejašmić, I., 2005: Demogeografija, stanovništvo u prostornim odnosima i procesima, Školska knjiga, Zagreb. Pejnović, D., 1978: Socijalno prestrukturiranje poljoprivrednog stanovništva Like kao pokazatelj deagrarizacije, Geografski glasnik 40, 80-109. Pejnović, D., 1985: Srednja Lika: socijalnogeografska transformacija, Centar za kulturu –Muzej Like, Gospić. Pejnović, D., 2004: Lika: Demographic Development under Peripheral Conditions, Hrvatski geografski glasnik 66 (2), 23-46. Rogić, V., 1975: Lika, in: Geografija SR Hrvatske, (ed. by Crkvenčić, I.), book 4, Gorska Hrvatska, Školska knjiga, Zagreb, 7-64. Sić, M., 2009: Utjecaj autoceste Zagreb-Split na regionalni razvoj Like, Hrvatski geografski glasnik 71 (1), 87101. Štambuk, M., 1998: Lika – studija slučaja, in: Duge sjene periferije: prinos revitalizaciji hrvatskog ruba, (ed. by Rogić, I., Štambuk, M.), Institut društvenih znanosti Ivo Pilar, Zagreb, 44-107. Sources Cadastre data of LULC, DGU-Gospić, 2013. Naselja I stanovništvo Republike Hrvatske 1857-2001, CD-ROM, DZS RH, Zagreb, 2005. Popis stanovništva, kućanstava i stanova 31. ožujka 2001, CD-ROM, DZS RH, Zagreb, 2002. Popis stanovništva, kućanstava i stanova 2011 (www.dzs.hr). Popis stanovništva i stanova 1971, SZS, Beograd 1972.

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РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИ ПОДРАЧЈА - ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ, Охрид, 12-15 IX 2013 HILLY- MOUNTAIN - AREAS PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES, Ohrid, 12-15 IX 2013

УДК: 911.2:551.4.035(495)

THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GREEK MOUNTAINS IN THE LIGHT OF GREEK SOURCES Sherwet FADL Lecturer at the faculty of Arts-University of Damanhour-Egypt e-mail: sher_fadl@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT In order to understand the roles of Greek mountains and hills in the ancient Greek civilization, one should study its ancient geological changes that came to Greece over time, and had changed the nature of its surface and rolled its movements, in particular succession of earthquakes and volcanoes. Accordingly, this study deals with the topography of the Greek mountains, and how it was described in the Greek sources, and it also aims to clarify the proliferation of Greek mountains, their natural resources, and economic fundamentals. Furthermore, it discusses the places and complexity of the Greek mountains in the north, central regions of Greece and Peloponnesus Peninsula regions and territories of Asia Minor. Keywords: Pindos – Parnasos – Oeta – Cerata – Kithaeron

INTRODUCTION Geological changes have affected the country of Greece over time in the nature of its coasts and rolled the ground movements of the fall and rise of earth layers. And in particular succession of earthquakes and volcanoes led to the emergence of the Greek mountains, which cut the bonds of communication between different regions of Greece. Greek mountain ranges belong to the Dinaric Alps that extend in most parts of the north-west to south-east. This study will address mountain regions of northern and central Greece in the light of Greek sources. TOPOGRAPHY OF MOUNTAINS IN NORTHERN AND CENTRAL GREECE The cape Athos is located to the far East of the peninsula of Chalkidike is called Acte or Athos. This cape is one of three capes of the peninsula which extends from North Greece to Macedonia and Aegean Sea in 6 and half miles. As for the mount of Athos, it is located in the same cape in 6667 feet above sea level with a pyramid shaped top. A different opinion mentions that it is located in the cape of Chalkidike in a peninsula that carries the same name of the mount. In this respect, Apollonius Rhodius mentions that the mount of Athos belongs to the territory of Thrace and that its top shades on the island of Lemnos. However, Strabo described Athos as follows: “Again, towards the east lies the promontory of Athos, which bounds the Singitic Gulf. Then follow one another the gulfs of the Aegean Sea, towards the north, in this order: the Maliac, the Pagasitic, the Thermaean, the Toronæan, the Singitic, and the Strymonic. The promontories are these: Posidium, situated between the Maliac and Pegasitic Gulfs; next in order, towards the north, Sepias; then Canastrum in Pallene; then Derris; next Nymphaeum in Athos, on the Singitic Gulf; Acrathos, the promontory on the Strymonic Gulf; between them is Athos, to the east of which is Lemnos.” (Strab., VII, Fragments, 32.) Epirus This region limits Greece from the north and the mountain range of Pindos separated it from Thessaly. And Pindos is considered as Epirus’ eastern border. Epirus’ climate differs

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from the rest of the Greek territory due to the high level of its surface comparing with the rest of the regions of Greece. Additionally in Epirus there are two rivers originate from mount Lacmon , which is located in centre of Epirus. Pindos Furthermore Researchers tend to consider Pindos as the backbone of North Greece with many extended mounts. It starts by the Eastern border of Epirus with 8000 feet height. After that it extend to mount Parnes, then moving on the eastern coast of the half-submerged in the sea and becomes the Cyclades islands. Additionally Pindos range forms tops of mount Tymphrestus, Corax, Parnassos, Helicon, Kithaeron, Hills of Attica, and mountain ranges of the Peloponnese. Acarnania Acarnanian region is the far Western border of north Greece in 1571 miles square and it is characterized by its average height. Acarnania is a coast on the Ionian Sea, in front of the island of Leucas. Strabo mentions, from Ephoros, that Acarnania is the Western beginning of North Greece. (Strab., VIII. I. 3) Acarnania is located between Aktion Gulf and Corinthian gulf, and it is a large limestone plain that descends strongly to the river Achelous. Aetolia This region is known for its mountain nature, as it is surrounded by hard mounts from all directions. Mounts in this region represent the South Western extension of Pidos. Strabo mentions the borders of Aetolia and Acarnania saying: “ Aetolians and Acarnanians border on one another, having between them the river Achelous, which flows from the north, and from Pindus towards the south, through the country of the Agraei, an Aetolian tribe, and of the Amphilochians. Acarnanians occupy the western side of the river as far as the Ambracian Gulf, opposite to the Amphilochians, and the temple of Apollo Actius. Aetolians occupy the part towards the east as far as the Locri Ozolae, Parnassus, and the Oetæans.” (Strab., X. II. I) The Western border of this region represented in the River Achelous which separates Aetolia from Acarnania. Strabo depicts the border between the two regions as:” The southern side, as well the Acarnanian as the Aetolian, is washed by the sea, forming the Corinthian Gulf, into which the Achelous empties itself. This river (at its mouth) is the boundary of the Aetolian and the Acarnanian coast.” (Strab., X. II. I) He also mentions that the mount of Corax is the largest one in Aetolia, adding that there are two cities on the mounts of Chalcis and Taphiassus called Chalcis and Macynia. In addition to the mount of Kurion in Aetolia. Lokris This region is situated to the East of Aetolia and its Eastern side extends nearby the mount of Parnassos which is to the North of Lokris. Attica It extends to the far East of North Greece looking at 3 water surfaces: the first is Euboea to the East of Attica, second is the Aegean Sea to the South Western side. Attica has a very distinguished topography; as it has very long coasts and planes. It has the shape of a triangle, it is also divided by mountains into 3 sections: Thria, Pedia and Mesogeia. In another opinion, the plane of Marathon is considered as a forth section of Attica.

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РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИ ПОДРАЧЈА - ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ, Охрид, 12-15 IX 2013 HILLY- MOUNTAIN - AREAS PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES, Ohrid, 12-15 IX 2013

Mounts of Attica Kithaeron It is one of the most important mounts of Attica, and it sepatares Attica from Boeotia. Kithaeron itself divides in south Thabai to mounts Oenian and Parnes, which extends to another mount that is called Aegaleos, which ends in the eastern part of the region and it is called in some of its parts Phoeclion and Korydallos. Cerata It extends in the North Western lands of Attica, which separates it from Megara, it then goes South until it ends West by the 2 topped end in the Eleusis Gulf. Laurion It is located by the Southern end of Attica; it was the source for row silver from the 6th century B.C. until the 2nd century B.C. Pentelikon It is located to the North Eastern Attica and it separates it from Boeotia –with 3638 feet height-. To the West, there is Kithaeron and Parnes mounts and together they form a mountain chain from the Corinthian Gulf until the Aegean Sea. Additionally this mount was called Brilessos before the Time of Pausanias. Hymettos This mountain range is located in Attica to the South of Pentelikon mount. And it reaches 3506 feet height. To its South Western side, there is the plane of Athens. Aegaleos It extends in the region of Attica south of Athens, in 1511 feet above sea level. Lycabettos It extends in the region of Attica north of Athens, in 914 feet above sea level. Aegina Island It is located in the Saronic Gulf, between Attica and Peloponnese peninsula. It is an island of a volcanic nature and it developed commercial importance in the Early Ages because of its geographical location. Boeotia It is situated in the middle of North Greece between Phokis and Attica. It has two seas; one to the West called Corinthian and the other to the East called Euboea strait. Strabo mentions mount Ptoun as: “The Ptoum is situated above the Teneric plain, and the lake Copais, near Acraephium,” (strab. IX. II.34) and in the same paragraph, he mentions that this mount is called the 3 tipped mount. Moreover, the city of Thebai, the major city of this region, that dominated the valley of River Asopus and the peninsula of Peloponnese linked between Attica and Boeotia. Helicon This chain is located in Boeotia, it extends from Copais lake till the Corinthian Gulf. It is the hometown of Hesiod, the poet, who used to shepherd his goats in the valley of that mountain. Smith believes that Strabo was mistaken when he equaled between the height of

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ПРИРОДНИ РЕСУРСИ И КОРИСТЕЊЕ НА ЗЕМЈИШТЕТО ВО РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА NATURAL RESOURCES AND LAND USE IN HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS

the Helicon and the Parnassus. Smith sets the height of the Parnassus as 8200 feet, while the Helicon’s highest top is 868 feet. Oneian Mountains In his talk about Oneian mountains, Strabo says that this range extends from the Sceironian rocks to Beoetia and Kithaeron. (Strab. VIII. VI.22) Geraneia It is situated in the Corinthian gulf and it extends over the land of Megara in 1350 meters (4550 feet) from Saronic Gulf till Corinth. Thessaly This region is located to the East of the Epirus and it is one of the plane regions of North Greece; it includes two valleys separated by the River Pineus, the greatest river in Greece. Lands in this region are almost isolation from all other Greek regions because of the intense presence of mountains there. The mountains of Ossa and Pelion separate this region from the Aegean Sea. And the only way to the sea is called Pagasae who overlooks Thessalia. Strabo divided Thessalia into four sections: Thessaliotis, Hestiaeotis, Phthiotis and Pelasgiotes. (Strab., IX. V. 1-3) Olympus The highest Greek mount is to the North of Greece, between Macedonia and Thessaly. Some believe it is 2917 meters (about 9834 feet) above sea level. Apollonius Rhodius describes this mount as a place where fall a road from heaven, and axes raise mountain peaks where the purple sun rises with its first rays. (Apoll. Rhod., III. 160-163) Ossa It is located to the East of Thessaly, overlooking Magnesia and is separated from the Olympus by the valley of Tempe. It is 6363 feet (about 19 meters). It faces Aegean Sea and Mount Pelion is located in the south of Ossa, from which extends Olympus. Pelion It is located in Thessaly. It is about 5300 feet to the East of Thessaly and the North Western of Greece. Pelion is a chain of mountain that is full of forests. Othrys It is a branch of the chain of Pindus. It extends from the North of the Malis Gulf and it is located to the North Eastern side of Greece generally and to the East of Thessaly in particular. Oeta It is located in Thessaly and according to what Strabo has mention; Oeta is the name of the curve towards the passage of Thermopylae where its highest top is located. This chain is considered to be in the middle of Greece, with 3 centering tops. Aenis This small province is located to the south of Thessaly. Phocis Strabo mentions that this territory extends to the North, alongside with the province of Boeotia from the sea to the sea. It is situated in the middle of Greece and inside the plane of

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РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИ ПОДРАЧЈА - ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ, Охрид, 12-15 IX 2013 HILLY- MOUNTAIN - AREAS PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES, Ohrid, 12-15 IX 2013

River Cephissus. The Southern part of this mount overlooks Corinth and it also surrounds Delphoi and Tithorea. Parnassus It is the highest mountain in middle Greece, it is about 866 feet above sea level. From its top, one can see the Pindos from the North Western side, Athos mount to the North Eastern side and the Olympos to the North. In this context, Strabo mentions: “Parnassus itself is situated on the western boundaries of Phocis.” (Strab., IX. III. 3.) He also compares between the two mounts of Helicon and Parnassus as: “Helicon, not far distant from Parnassus, rivals it in height4 and circumference. Both mountains are covered with snow, and are rocky. They do not occupy a circuit of ground of great extent.” (Strab. IX. II. 25) Malis This territory extends to the East side of Greece, between Phocis and Locris. Though its small size, it has a very special importance because of the River Spercheous and its valley which represents an essential road for transportations, it also overlooks the passage of Thermopylae. Peloponnese The peninsula of Peloponnese is located to the South of Greece. It is about 132 miles from the North to the South and 134 miles from the East to the West. It includes several mountains and chains; such as: Kyllene, Cheloms, Lycaion, Taeygeton and Parnon. This is just a small mention of the Peninsula as the paper is fully dedicated to North Greece. NATURAL RESOURCES AND ECONOMIC FUNDAMENTALS OF GREEK MOUNTAINS Graze and Cattle Breeding Mountains clearly surround the province of Attica; as in the middle plane, where the city of Athens is situated between Hymettos mount, to the South Eastern side, and Pentelikon mount, to the North East. As for mount Aegaleos, it is placed to the North West of the province and the second plane of Attica is close to this mount and the third plane is to the South of Hymettos mount. These surrounding mountains have provided a good pasture for goats, it is also worth mentioning that there were beekeeping. Strabo mentions the following: “ The Hymettus produces also the finest honey.” (Strab. IX. I. 23.) Pausanias also agrees with him; saying: “Hymettus, which grows the most suitable pasture for bees.” (Paus., Attica, XXXII. 1) There were also several pastures in the valleys of mount Parnassus, which resulted in a conflict between the Phocians and the Locrians. Hunting Mountains are an important source for hunting wild pigs and deers. For example, Pausanias talks about pig hunting at Erymanthus and mount of Parnes as follows: “Parnes, where there is hunting of wild boars and of bears.” (Paus., Attica, XXXII. 1) Plants In North Greece, plants and agricultural activities were influenced by calcareous mountains all over the country, which resulted in a general scarcity in crops which were concentrated at valleys and planes down these mountains. The difficult nature of North Greece caused delay in the ranking of agriculture in economy, due to the scarcity of crop production compared to meeting the needs of Greece, a matter that forced them to focus on

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ПРИРОДНИ РЕСУРСИ И КОРИСТЕЊЕ НА ЗЕМЈИШТЕТО ВО РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА NATURAL RESOURCES AND LAND USE IN HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS

commerce to afford the needs of the Greek people. Climate, on the other hand, provided a good chance for dense woods. Chains like the Pindos, as well as other Greek mountains, were covered by woods, which offered row materials for several wooden industries and worming. Theophrastus mentions that North provinces of Greece were full of trees for the cold temperature, such as pine trees and chestnut trees. He assigns that, particularly, Thrace, mounts of Pelion, Parnassus and Ossa have fruit trees also spread on the planes all over, especially the Pelion. (Theophr. Enquiry into Plants, IV. V. 1.2) Oak trees were among the most common kinds in Greek mounts; such as: Helicon mount, Kithaeron and Parnassus. Apollonius Rhodius mentions that the wood of mountains forests was used in ship making. Moreover, the mountain slopes fitted grape growing that needs dry climate to grow well. The importance of the grapes occurred in the wine industry. Additionally crops, grapes, olives, grain spread upon the Mountains Euboea, and grapes and olives on the lower slopes of Mount Lycabettos. Pausanias talks about the fruits of the Helicon saying: “Helicon is one of the mountains of Greece with the most fertile soil and the greatest number of cultivated trees. The wild-strawberry bushes supply to the goats sweeter fruit than that growing anywhere else. The dwellers around Helicon say that all the grasses too and roots growing on the mountain are not at all poisonous to men. Moreover, the food makes the poison of the snakes too less deadly, so that most of those bitten escape with their lives.” Fruits also spread on the valleys of mountains like Ossa and Pelion. Oils Oil had a significant importance in the Ancient World, as it had multiple uses; such as cooking, scent and drug manufacture. Olive oil had a special stature in the Greek society for its various usages. Olive oil was used in food, fuel and soap. Though olive grows in any soil, it was difficult to plant it in the mounts of Arcadia because of its hard nature. Pausanias mentions that olive oil was producing on the top of the Parnassus. (Paus., Phocis, Ozolian Locri, XXXII. 19) Minerals Minerals resources influenced the military situation in the Ancient World. Greece had a poor share of gold and only in limited regions; such as the mount of Pangaeon in North Greece, on the Aegean Sea of Thrace. So as to the mount of Tmolos that was famous for gold mines. The mount of Laurion, which is located to the South Eastern section of Attica, was famous for silver which was a good source of income for Athens in the 5th century B.C. Silver and lead were extracted from the hills the Siphnos islands and the mount of Laurion. Stones Strabo mentions two important sources of stones in mounts of Hymettos and Pentilikon. The stones of Hymettos were characterized for their gray reddish colour. However, in his demonstration of Attica’s mountains, Pausanias mentions the mount of Pentilikon as:” The Attic mountains are Pentelikon, where there are quarries.” (Paus. Attica, XXXII. 1) And Strabo says that the mount of ‫ ﺗﺎوﺟﯿﺘﻮن‬had a huge stone mine. (Strab., VIII. V. 7) Marble Marble is defined as a crystal stone, transformed from its origin of limestone, its types vary according to the variation of impurities that influence its color and shape. Some researchers believe that marble has levels of quality and that the ones that were extracted from Paros and Naxos are the finest, while those from Hymettos and Pentelikon are of less quality. The mount of Mycale is famous for being a source of alabaster and white marble.

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РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИ ПОДРАЧЈА - ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ, Охрид, 12-15 IX 2013 HILLY- MOUNTAIN - AREAS PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES, Ohrid, 12-15 IX 2013

Ancient Greek used the marble of Hymettos in East Athens with gray colour. Also, the mount of Pentilikon of Attica was an important source of granular marble which was widely used in Greek architecture. The rocks of this mount were used as a source for temples marble, especially the Acropolis. Pottery Pottery manufacture was very popular in Attica because of its rich clay soil that suites this industry. The mount of Laurion for example, was an important source of clay which was used in all pottery products. The Cyclades islands were a source of red clay in the manufacture of pottery.

Dianne Hennesy, ed., Studies in Ancient Greece, (Australia: Nelson, 1992)

D. Brendan Nagle & Stanly M. Burstein. Reading in Greek History, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007)

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ПРИРОДНИ РЕСУРСИ И КОРИСТЕЊЕ НА ЗЕМЈИШТЕТО ВО РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА NATURAL RESOURCES AND LAND USE IN HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS

SOURCES: Apollonius Rhodius,1912, Ἀργοναυτικά, edited by T. E. Page and others, translated by R. C. Seton, Loeb Classical Library, Harvard University Press. Pausanias, 1988-1998, Ἑλλαδος περιήγησεως, edited by G. P. Goold, translated by W. H. S. Johnes & H. A. Ormerod, Loeb Classical Library, Harvard University Press. Strabo, Γεωγραφιά, 1966-1996, edited by H. L. Jones, Loeb Classical Library, Harvard University Press. Theophrastus, 1980-1990, περὶ Φυτών Ἱστορίας, Translated by Arthur Hort, Loeb Classical Library, Harvard University Press. REFERENCES: Adkins, L. & Adkins, R., 1997, Handbook to Life in Ancient Greece, Facts on file, New York. Austin, M., 1977, Economic and Social History of Ancient Greece: An Introduction, University of California. Bury, J. B., 1993, A History of Greece to the Death of Alexander the Great, Macmillan, Hampshire. The Cambridge Ancient History: Persia, Greece, and the Western Mediterranean, 2006, Cambridge University Press. Classical Mythology: A Dictionary of the Tales Characters and Traditions of Classical Mythology, by Gresham Publishing Company, 1995, Geddes & Grosset Ltd,, rep. 2002. The Colombia Encyclopedia, 1993, 5th ed., edited by Barbara A. Chernow & others, Columbia University Press. Grant, M., 1986, A Guide to the Ancient World: A Dictionary of Classical Names, USA. Grant, M., 1991, A Short History of Classical Civilization, London. Hammond, N., 1956, A History of Greece to 322 BC, Oxford. Hatzfield, J., 1966, History of Ancient Greece, revised by Andre Aymard, London. Jarde, A., 1996, The Formation of the Greek People, translated by M.R. Dobie, London & New York. Kitto, H., 1951, The Greeks, Penguin books, New York. Der Kleine Pauly, 1969, Lexicon der Antike in fünf Bänden, bearbeitet und Herrausgegeben von Konrat Zeigler und Wahlter Sontheimer, München. Kravitz, D., 1979, Who’s Who in Greek and Roman Mythology, New York. Laistner, M., 1936, A History of the Greek World: from 479 to 323 BC, Methuen, London. Myres, J. L., 1930, Who Were the Greeks? University of California. The Oxford Classical Dictionary, 1999, 3 rd ed., edited by Simon Hornblower & Antony Spawforth, Oxford University Press. The Oxford Dictionary of Classical World, 2005, edited by John Roberts, Oxford. The Oxford Companion of Classical Civilization, 2004, edited by Simon Hornblower & Antony Spawforth, Oxford University Press. Pomeroy, S, & others, 2008, Ancient Greece, Apolitical, Social, and Cultural History, 2nd ed., Oxford University Press, New York. The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites, 1979, edited by Richard Stillwell & others, New Jersy. Ridgeway, W., 1931, The Early Age of Greece, Oxford. Sacks, D., 1995, Encyclopedia of the Ancient Greek World, New York.Smith, W., Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, Facts on File, London. Sage, M., 1996, Warfare in Ancient Greece, Routledge, New York. Sparkes, B. 1998, Greek Civilization, Oxford.

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УДК: 628.1(497.722)

WATER SUPPLY ANALYSIS OF RURAL SETTLEMENTS IN KRIVA REKA WATERSHED 1

Mihailo ZIKOV1, Ivan RADEVSKI1* Institute of Geography, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University in Skopje radevskiivan@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT The main exploring subject of this research article is recent water supply characteristics and problems of villages in Kriva Reka watersheds. In paper analysis there is especially mentioned problems which genesis was made by recent situation. According to the present situation with water supply was necessary to make a thematic map and diagrams, which clearly presents the basic water supply sources. Also with the paper were made some suggestions for the future activities in function of rational water supply resource usage.

Key words: analysis, water supply characteristics, problems, thematic map.

INTRODUCTION The Kriva Reka basin is located in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula, and it covers the north-eastern parts of Macedonia. It’s located between the main ridge of the Osogovski Mountains to the south and mount German. Mount Kozjak and Mount Bilino are situated to the north of the basin and Deve Bair ridge is to the east. The basin continues in the same direction all the way to the river estuary Pchinja near the village of Klechovce to the west. Described in such a way the Kriva Reka basin is in a form of an irregular rectangle, which is very important in hydrologic terms. With this kind of shape the Kriva Reka basin has four natural boundaries. The basin begins where the two rivers Kriva Reka and Pchina join near the village Klechovce at an altitude of 296 m and continues all the way up to the summit Nepci and the location known as Konjski Kladenec at an altitude of 838 m. Then it goes over the summit Goglin (1197 m) and Tabla (1356 m) and continues northeast to the central part of Mount Herman. From this point to the summit Golem Chukar (1491 m) the water shoreline extends eastward, towards the ridge of the mount Bilino to the summit Straza (1527 m). From this point the water share basin continues north to the summit Chupino. At this point the Kriva Reka basin separates from the Pchina basin, which was named after the town of Targovishte in Serbia, and furthers upstream it is known as Tripushnica. From the hill Chupino to the northeast is mount Dukat and the summit Anish (1786 m) which is the ultimate northern point of the Kriva Reka basin. From here the basin extends from northwest to southeast to the summits Goleshki Chukar (1466 m), Kopriva (1292 m), the Deve Bair ridge (1162 m), and the summits Bezhdarnica (1580 m) and Ruen (2252 m) on mount Osogovo, which represents the highest point in the basin and the final eastern point of the basin. From the summit Ruen the basin continues southwest to the summit Sokol (2038 m) up to the summit Carev Vrv (2084 m), then continues northwest to the summit Stanica (1709 m), and then over the mountains Osogovski and the summits Kostadinica (1645 m), Breza (1574 m), Uvo (1472 m), Plavica (1297 m) and Crni Vrv (1115 m) to the place called Gradiste to the southwest which is the most southern point of the basin. Here the two basins Kriva Reka and Bregalnica separate. The Kriva Reka basin continues to the northwest up to the summit Alachuga (837 m) and the location known as Murgashki Chuki when it returns the starting point at the estuary of the river Pchina near the village Klechovce .

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ПРИРОДНИ РЕСУРСИ И КОРИСТЕЊЕ НА ЗЕМЈИШТЕТО ВО РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА NATURAL RESOURCES AND LAND USE IN HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS

Fig. 1 Physical and geographical features of the Kriva Reka basin with its settlements

The northern part of the basin (generally speaking on the mountains Kozjak, German, and Bilino) is longer than the southern part (the ridge of the Osogovski Mountains), while the eastern boundary that separates the Kriva Reka basin from the Struma basin located in Bulgaria is longer than the western basin that separates the river from the Pchina basin.

Крива Паланка

mm 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 I

II

III

IV

V

VI VII месец

VIII

IX

X

XI

XII

Graph. 1 Average monthly rainfall recorded at the main Meteorological Station at Kriva Palanka (1961-2000) 1

1

Precipitation data obtained from National Hydrometeorological Service of Republic of Macedonia

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РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИ ПОДРАЧЈА - ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ, Охрид, 12-15 IX 2013 HILLY- MOUNTAIN - AREAS PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES, Ohrid, 12-15 IX 2013

In terms of precipitation regime in the basin, it prevails the continental character, therefore the highest rainfalls are recorded in spring and autumn, and the least amount of rain falls in summer and winter. This feature contributes to the lack of water in summer when compared to winter where water supplies are lost due to evaporation (Vasileski & all., 2012). MATERIALS AND METHODS The materials used in this paper are data of population movement in the Kriva Reka basin in rural areas, according to the census recorded in 1953 and 2002. Besides these official data, there are also data taken from the municipalities in the watershed (Kriva Palanka, Staro Nagorichane, Rankovce and Kumanovo). In this paper more scientific methods are used in order to display the status of the water supply in the villages of Kriva Reka basin more effectively. The descriptive method is used to describe the area and the objects in the basin. The tabular method is used in the presentation of the population in the watershed and the source of water supply of the rural settlements. The graphical method is used to show the rainfall sequences at the main weather station of Kriva Palanka . A cartogram method is used in order to analyze the quantitative and the qualitative differences between the villages by a graphic map. By using these methods, with the aid of the analytical synthesis method, conclusions have been derived about the current situation and the perspective of water supply to the villages in the Kriva Reka basin. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Several villages have been processed separately about their water supply. Villages in the Kriva Reka basin belong to 5 municipalities as follows – the municipality of Kumanovo, Staro Nagorichane, Kratovo, Rankovce and the municipality of Kriva Palanka. The municipalities of Rankovce and Kriva Palanka fully belong to the Kriva Reka basin, whereas the remaining three municipalities (Kumanovo, Staro Nagoricane and Kratovo) only partially belong to the basin. Table 1. Villages in the Kriva Reka basin with its municipality. The number of inhabitants and the source of water supply Kriva Palanka

Inhabi tants

Type of water supply

Bashtevo

13

spring

Borovo Bs Varovishte Gabar Golema Crcorija Gradec Dlabochica Dubrovnica Drenhe Durachka Reka Zhelilovo Kiselica Konopnica Kostur

87 63 87 67

Kratovo

Inhabi tants

Type of water supply

Rankovce

inhabi tants

Type of water supply

122

well

Baratlija

39

spring

well spring well spring

Vakuf Gorno Kratovo Zhivalevo Zheleznica Ketenovo

27 155 220 216

waterworks waterworks waterworks combination

Vetunica Vrazhogrnci Ginovci Gulinci

57 29 315 19

well well well spring

85 318 144 168 90

spring spring combination pluming spring

Konjuh Krilatica Kuklica Nezhilovo Pendak

150 141 97 23 45

combination pluming pluming combination well

Krivi Kamen Lhubinci Milutince Odreno Opila

23 164 72 131 269

pluming well pluming comb. well

290 302 101 1398 38

pluming pluming spring combination spring

Prikovci Sekulica Stracin Tatomir Topolovik

114 177 185 84 32

pluming combination pluming well combination

Otoshnica Pajklishte Petralica Psacha Radibish

105 30 669 539 157

pluming pluming comb. comb. comb.

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ПРИРОДНИ РЕСУРСИ И КОРИСТЕЊЕ НА ЗЕМЈИШТЕТО ВО РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА NATURAL RESOURCES AND LAND USE IN HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS

Koshari Krkla Krstov Dol Lozanovo Luke Mala Crcorija Martinica

21 227 60 53 338

spring spring spring pluming spring

112 157

spring combination

Mozhdivnjak Osiche Podrzhikonj Stanci Tlminci Uzem Вкупно

770 51 116 203 73 256 5688

combination spring spring pluming combination spring

Talashmance Trnovec Turalevo Filipovci Shlegovo Shopsko Rudare Total Staro Nagorichane Drenok Orah Rughince Total

150 330 326 112 373

combination combination combination combination pluming

143 3222

combination

Rankovce Stancha Total

1192 23 3833

comb. pluming

64 123 573 106 866

comb. comb. comb. comb.

Kumanovo 54 120 75 249

combination well combination

Beljakovce Dovezhance Klechovce Yachince Total

Therefore the Kriva Reka basin has 35.340 inhabitants according to the 2002 census, 21.482 is urban population, while 13.858 residents live in villages. The cities Kriva Palanka and Kratovo have a new water supply system. Residents in higher suburbs apart from tap water also use public springs, whereas the situation of water supply in the villages (Fig. 2) is quite diverse. The inhabitants in the villages get their water supply from springs (green color on the map), pluming (red color on the map), wells (purple color) and combined (yellow color). Six villages in the Kriva Reka basin with 606 inhabitants get water from wells, 29 villages with 8.051 inhabitants get water from water lines, 26 villages with 2368 inhabitants are supplied with water from springs, and 15 villages with 2833 inhabitants have a combination of above mentioned water supply systems. If we compare the population census of 1953 and 2001 in the Kriva Reka basin one can note that only the two cities Kriva Palanka and Kratovo have increased in population, whereas the rural areas have decreased in population. The municipality of Kriva Palanka has a rural population of 5688 residents, the municipality of Kratovo has 3222 rural inhabitants, the municipality of Rankovce has 3833 rural inhabitants, the municipality of Kumanovo has 866 rural inhabitants, and municipality of Staro Nagoricane has 249 rural residents.

Fig. 2. Population number of residents in the Kriva Reka basin according to the two censuses

The above map shows all the inhabited areas in the river basin and the population according to the census in 1953 (red color) and the census in 2001 (blue color). One can 42


РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИ ПОДРАЧЈА - ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ, Охрид, 12-15 IX 2013 HILLY- MOUNTAIN - AREAS PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES, Ohrid, 12-15 IX 2013

conclude from the map that all the villages in the basin have declined in population, except for the village Mozhdivnjak. The population in both urban areas has increased several times. In the past half century there was a tendency of reduction of the demand for water in the rural areas and there is an increase demand of fresh water in urban areas. Rural areas in the basin tend to have a water supply mainly from springs and combined water supply systems. The supply of water from wells is not so common.

Fig. 3 Settlements in the Kriva Reka basin, according to size and source of water supply

In this map two elements are taken into account, i.e. the quantitative element (number of residents in the village) and the qualitative element (the source of water supply label with a different color). According to this, the problem of water supply through piped systems is solved in the municipality of Kratovo, Kriva Palanka and Rankovce where as the other villages have not solved the problem of water supply. They get their water supply from other sources. In the lowland part of the basin, the villages that have combined water supply systems dominate. Villages that are located around the urban areas or along major roads have built water piping systems, whereas the small mountain villages mainly get their water supplies from springs.

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ПРИРОДНИ РЕСУРСИ И КОРИСТЕЊЕ НА ЗЕМЈИШТЕТО ВО РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА NATURAL RESOURCES AND LAND USE IN HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS

CONCLUSION In reference to the supply of drinking water one can conclude that most of the settlements are well supplied, but due to their large displacement additional funds are needed to advance the construction of water supply systems in some suburbs or villages. Due to the small number of residents especially in the rural areas the construction of such water supply systems is unprofitable. Villages that are adjacent to the urban areas of Kriva Palanka and Kratovo have solved their problems with water supply, whereas villages up in the mountains with a small number of residents have the most primitive water supply systems, mainly from springs or public fountains. One expects a further decline in the number of rural population in the basin. At the same time one expects the opening of various production facilities, which will use water in their manufacturing process, therefore the need of water would be greater in the future. It will be necessary for the authorities in the future to secure finances for pluming construction in rural settlements where the problems are not resolved. REFERENCES Гашевски, М. (1972): Водите во СР Македонија. Заедница за издавачка дејност “Нова Македонија”, стр. 1-79, Скопје. Гашевски, М. (1974): Водоснабдувањето на градовите во Република Македонија. Природно-математички Факултет, стр. 47-65, Скопје. Малковски, Ѓ., Михајловски, Ј., Крстевски, Ц., (1996): Крива Паланка и Кривопаланечко низ историјата. Крива Паланка, Собрание на општина, 1996 (Охрид: “Коста Абраш”-Графопак), стр. 1-294, Охрид. Радевски, И. (2013): Хидрологија и водостопански проблеми во сливот на Крива Река. Док. дис. (ракопис), Природно-математички факултет, стр. 1-285, Скопје. Vasileski, D., Radevski, I., Milevski, J., Todorovska, S. (2012): Precipitation regime of water basin Kriva Reka. The Fifth International Scientific Conference BALWOIS 2012, 28 May-2 June 2012; Ohrid. ***Геоеколошки состојби и проблеми на Североисточниот дел на Република Македонија и мерки за заштита. Географски Институт при ПМФ, 1999, Скопје ***Водостопанска основа на Република Македонија. Собрание на Социјалистичка Република Македонија, Скопје, 1976 год. ***Катастар на извори. Завод за водостопанство на СРМ – Скопје, кн. I-VII – 1962/1968 год. ***Податоци за изворот на водоснабдување на селските населби во сливот на Крива Река од општините Куманово, Старо Нагоричане, Ранковце, Крива Паланка и Кратово. ***Топографска карта, R=1:100.000, Војногеографски Институт, 1974, Белград.

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УДК: 552.321(497.2)

WEATHERING PROCESSES AND RELATED PRODUCTS IN GRANITE ROCKS IN SOUTH PIRIN, SOUTH-WEST BULGARIA Dimitar KRENCHEV, Tsvetelina MONEVA Sofia University ”St. Kliment Ohridski”, Sofia, Bulgaria krenchev@abv.bg, tsvetelina.moneva@gmail.com

ABSTRACT The weathering is a main process for destruction of the rocks under the influence of complex of factors which give the start of sedimentogenesis cycle and soil processes. Depending on the prevailing factors different types of weathering products are created. The aim of this article is to summarize and analyze data from field and laboratory investigations of the weathering processes on granite and their corresponding forms and deposits. The study area is located in South Pirin, South-West Bulgaria and cover mountain belt between 600 and 900 m a. s. l. The main factors for weathering processes are weather conditions and type of rocks. The rocks in this area are represented by granitoids of Teshovo pluton, The climatic conditions are typical for low mountain areas of Continental Mediterranean climate. The other important factors for weathering are altitude, exposure and slope inclination etc. For the purpose of the study two key sites were selected - T.211 and T.214. The first one is located east from the village Teshovo about 910 m a. s. l. and its exposition is northeast. The second one is situated west from the village Lucky. Its altitude is about 690 m a. s. l. and with southwest exposure. According to researched areas several methods are used: field work, description of forms and sediments, collection of samples, grain size and mineralogical analysis. The results present that intensive weathering processes have been occurred which form different deposits and weathering crusts. Key words: weathering related forms and products, grain size analysis, mineralogical analysis

INTRODUCTION The weathering is a main process for destruction of the rocks under the influence of complex of factors which give the start of sedimentogenesis cycle and soil processes. The most important conditions for this process are the rocks and their fractures, temperature, precipitation, solar radiation, morphological features of the terrain and etc. Depending on their combination weathering can proceed in different ways to form different types of weathering products. The weathering of granites is known by a certain characteristic peculiarities. Their structure and lithology largely determine the manner of disintegration and the type of their products (Migon, 2006). Often in granites are observed the so-called spherical weathering, which is mostly associated with their micro cracking. The disintegrated material usually does not exceed the fraction of sand and gravel and often on the surface forming crust from grus (Migon, 2006). This is typical of the medium- and coarse-grained granites, while the finegrained granites tend to release larger fragments, several tens of centimetres long, and silt (Migon, 2006). The aim of this article is to summarize and analyze field data and laboratory work of the weathering processes on granite and their corresponding forms and deposits in South Pirin mountain. STUDY AREA South Pirin is located in Southwestern Bulgaria and is a part of the Pirin morphological structure. To the north is separated from the Middle Pirin through the saddle Popovi livadi

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ПРИРОДНИ РЕСУРСИ И КОРИСТЕЊЕ НА ЗЕМЈИШТЕТО ВО РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА NATURAL RESOURCES AND LAND USE IN HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS

(1430 m a. s. l.) and to the south through the saddle Paril (1170 m a. s. l.), from the mountain Slavianka. The western and eastern borders are marked by the valleys of Struma and Mesta rivers. Its area is estimated at about 500 km² and occupies about 19.3% of the total area of the Pirin Mountain.

Figure 1. Study area.

South Pirin is relatively low mountain and ranges low and middle mountain belt. The main ridge is oriented from north to south. In the northern its altitude is 1600 to 1900 m a. s. l. and to the south its height gradually decreases and reaches about 500 to 600 m. In the north part are located the highest peaks - Sveshtnik (1975 m a. s. l.) and Mutorok (1970 m a. s. l.) The average altitude of South Pirin is about 1032 m. The climate in South Pirin is Continental - Mediterranean. Typically for this area is the mild winter and hot summer, the average temperatures are between 11º and 14º C and the annual temperature amplitude do not exceed 22º - 23º C (Rachev, et al., 2009). The average annual amount of actual sunshine is between 2100 and 2500 hours. The annual amount of precipitation is typical for the Continental - Mediterranean climatic zone, characterized by a winter maximum and summer minimum. The average annual precipitation in the area varies between 450 mm to 650 mm in height as their amount rise and can reach 700 to 1000 mm. Frequently during the seasons there are some extremes of climatic elements, which strongly affects weathering processes in the research area. For the purpose of the study two key sites were selected - T.211 and T.214 (Fig. 1). The first one is located east from the village Teshovo about 910 m a. s. l. and exposition of the slope is northeast. The second one is situated west from the village Lucky. Its altitude is about 690 m a. s. l. and with southwest exposure. GEOLOGY The lithology of South Pirin is relatively uniform. The majority of the area is built by granitic plutons and marbles, as they occupy the central and eastern parts. The western parts

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РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИ ПОДРАЧЈА - ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ, Охрид, 12-15 IX 2013 HILLY- MOUNTAIN - AREAS PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES, Ohrid, 12-15 IX 2013

are occupied by gneiss, schist, gneiss and amphibolite gneiss, while the eastern and western slopes to the valleys of Struma and Mesta rivers are made up by neogene sediments, conglomerates and breccia conglomerates (Fig. 2).

Figure 2. Geological map of the study area (after Kozhoukharov at all, 1994).

The granites in South Pirin are widespread. There are several plutonic bodies on that area as they occupy almost half of its territory. These are Teshovo pluton, Goleshevo and Lehovo pluton as well as part of Spanchevo pluton located in northwestern South Pirin. For the purposes of this study we focus on the geological, petrological, structural and texture characteristics of Teshovo pluton because the selected key areas are locaded in that range. The Teshovo pluton is part of South Pirin’s granitoids (Kozhoukharov et al., 1994). It occupies an area of about 130 km², between the villages Dobrotino and Paril, and is implemented entirely in the marbles of Dobrostan Formation (Zagorchev et al., 1974). Along the border with them reveal epidote, garnet and pyroxene grills, and these include granite xenoliths from different metamorphic rocks that are oriented parallel to the contacts (Kozhoukharov at el., 1994). According to Machev and Rashkova (1995) the Teshovo pluton is a homogeneous body with a constant mineral composition but with variations in the relative amounts of the major rock - forming minerals. The granitoids are macroscopic medium- to fine - grained with a massive texture, but schist and arrangement of minerals in parallel strips are observed at some contacts (Machev, et al., 1995). The cracks are well developed and their orientations are transversely, longitudinally and diagonally. The transverse cracks are whit direction 110º - 120º and form sheaves of closely spaced cracks (Machev, et al., 1995). This determines the typical spherical weathering of 47


ПРИРОДНИ РЕСУРСИ И КОРИСТЕЊЕ НА ЗЕМЈИШТЕТО ВО РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА NATURAL RESOURCES AND LAND USE IN HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS

Teshovo granitoids. The major rock - forming minerals are plagioclase, potassium feldspar, biotite, amphibole and quartz (Machev, et al., 1995). In petrochemical regard the rocks of Teshovo plutons belong to the calcium - alkaline series of normal alkalinity (Machev, et al., 1995). They are mainly granodiorites transition to quartz - diorite and normal granites. METHODS To clarify better the processes of weathering on granites and related products we used the following methods: preparation and research, field work, description of the selected key sites, sampling, laboratory work and analysis. The first stage includes an analysis of existing data and morphometric analysis on a topographic map of the study area in connection with the selection of the key sites. During the second stage the field work was carried out, which includes description of the deposits and collection of samples. In the last stage the laboratory work was carried out, first was done the grain size and morphometric analysis of sediments, using the methodology of Serebryanniy (1980). The samples were wet - sieved to remove all silt- and clay - sized sediment and then dried. The sand and gravel were then sieved and each fraction was weighed to calculate weight percent and graphs of cumulative weight percent were plotted. In order to determine the composition of minerals, was made mineralogical analysis by the methodology of Baturin(1947) and Iliev (1974). RESULTS AND DISCUSION Key site T.211 The key site is located east from Teshovo village, at 900 m a. s. l. with coordinates (N 41º28'09.0" and E 23º42'03.5"). Inclination of the slopes is about 20º - 25º and southeast exposition. The rocks are granitoids from Teshovo pluton. In many places the bedrock comes out to the surface and weather in situ leading to the formation of boulders of various size and shapes. The weathered products are accumulated on the surface and form low mobile crusts. Samples were taken from two layers of the weathering crust for grain size and mineralogical analysis (Fig. 3). The results show that both layers in the deposit are poorly sorted and the fraction of the sand and gravel are predominant (Fig. 4). In the layer 0–14 cm, the sand is 57%, while the clay and gravel have the same percentage, about 20–22%. In the layer 14–72 cm sand keeps its quantity, the gravel increases and reaches 31%, while the clay decreases.

Figure 3.

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РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИ ПОДРАЧЈА - ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ, Охрид, 12-15 IX 2013 HILLY- MOUNTAIN - AREAS PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES, Ohrid, 12-15 IX 2013

T.211

100

Weight %

80 60 0-14 cm

40 20 0 10

1 grain size, mm

0,1

0,01

Figure 4. Cumulative curves of sediments of key site T.211.

For mineralogical analysis samples from the two layers of profile T.211 from fractions of 0,12 to 0,25 mm were used. The results of the mineralogical analysis of T.211 show that in the layer between 14 and 72 cm the content of biotite is very high - 81.3% from the heavy fraction (table 1). The minerals are relatively large, multilayer plates with dark brown to resinous black color. The content of amphibole is only 12.4% of the heavy fraction. The amphibole has glassy and clear edges, dark green to black. Kyanite was also reported with the presence of - 5.4% of the heavy fraction, and zircon with 0.9%.

Depth (cm) 0-14 14-72

Table 1. The percentage proportion of minerals in samples of key site T.211. Heavy fraction (%) Light fraction (%) Amphibole Biotite Magnetite Kyanite Zircon Quartz Feldspar Muscovite 12,2 80,0 3,8 1,6 2,4 94,5 4,6 0,9 12,4 81,3 5,4 0,9 96,1 3,4 0,5

The light fraction is represented mainly by quartz - 96.1%. The presence of feldspar and muscovite is minimal respectively 3.4% and 0.5% of the light fraction. The quartz grains are clear, not smoothed, without traces of clay and very clean. The high content of quartz and the surface of the grains indicate dry and warm period, the weathering is predominantly in situ and without transportation - the edges of the grains are not smoothed, pronounced ribbing is fine and the clean surface is evidence of physical weathering without active chemical processes. In the 0–14 cm layer is noteworthy the high content of biotitе - 80% of the heavy fraction. The grains are again plates, but here are smaller and less dense than the lower layer. The amphibolite represents 12.2% of the heavy fraction, again represented by dark green to black beans with glass shine It is noticeable the change of content of the zircon – up to 2.4%, and the appearance of magnetite - 3.8%, which indicates the presence of a second nourishing province, which is probably close and containing other types of rock-forming minerals. The light fraction is again represented by quartz, feldspar and muscovite, but here the content of the quartz reduces to 94.5%. Therefore, the formation of this layer was in climatic conditions with a relatively higher temperatures than those of the layer from 14 to 72 cm. The presence of second nourishing province is observed in the reporting of a diverse range of quartz grains. The quartz is represented by clear to white grains which are relatively small 49


ПРИРОДНИ РЕСУРСИ И КОРИСТЕЊЕ НА ЗЕМЈИШТЕТО ВО РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА NATURAL RESOURCES AND LAND USE IN HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS

and are not smoothed. Their surface is streaked with traces of clay diapers, which is evidence of chemical weathering increase. Key site T.214 This key site is located about 100 m west of the village Lucky with coordinates (N 41º28'04.2" and E 23º42'53.2"). It is situated 686 m a. s. l, with south-west exposure. The site is also within the Teshovo granites. Main processes that develop on the slope are weathering, denudation and erosion. Sediments appear to be distinguished by their color, size and sorting compared with key site T.211.

Figure 5.

For the purpose of the study is made a profile in which are separated three layers (Fig. 5). The grain size analysis shows that in the layer between 0–22 cm the sand and clay have the highest percentages which together account about 70% (fig. 6). The gravel is about 25% while the pebble is only 3, 6 %. The sediments in this layer are mixed and poorly sorted. In the layer 22–40 cm sorting is also bad and all fractions are with more than 10% content of the sample. The pebble increases its quantity at the expense of clay and gravel while the sands retain their percentage – about 34%. This trend continues in the layer above 40 cm. Here significantly reduces the amount of clay and sand but the gravel increases its amount reaching 48%. This distribution of the fractions is typical for weathering crust and terrains where take place weathering processes. In such places the size of the sediments increases from top to the bottom.

T.214 Weight %

100 80 60 40

0-22cm 22-40cm >40 cm

20 0 10

1 0,1 grain size, mm Figure 6. Cumulative curves of sediments of key site T.214.

50

0,01


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Тhe mineralogical analysis shows some differences from key site T.211 (Tab. 2). In depth of 40 cm the heavy fraction is represented by minerals amphibole, biotite, kyanite, zircon, hematite, chlorite and magnetite. The light fraction is represented only by quartz and feldspar as feldspar grains are small and highly smoothed. The biotite content is lower than in T.211 30.1 % while the content of amphibole increases and reaches about 51.3 %. The grains are mostly black and rarely olive green whit glass shine. The content of magnetite increases to 14.2 %. The occurrence of hematite in the layer is observed indicating a process of chemical weathering. The quartz is mostly milky white and rough. There are clay and very fine material which stick on the surface of the mineral grains. The predominant treatment is air with both physical and chemical weathering.

Chlorite

1,0 2,6 14,2

2,6 0,9

2,0 1,8

2,1 1,6 -

0,9 1,7

Feldspar

Zircon

62,5 16,4 30,1

Quartz

Kyanite

31,8 75,9 51,3

Hematite

Magnetite

0-22 22-40 Под 40

Biotite

Depth (cm)

Amphibole

Table 2. The percentage proportion of minerals in samples of key site T.214. Heavy fraction (%) Light fraction (%)

93,0 95,7 91,9

7,0 4,3 8,1

The heavy fraction is represented in layer 22-40 cm mainly by amphibole - 75.9 %. The color is olive green to black with glass glitter. The percentage of biotin is less than in the layer below - 16.4 % and is characterized by whitish brown finer flakes. There is some chloride as well - 1.6 %. The presence of magnetite and chloride is evidence for active processes of chemical weathering as well as the high percentage of quartz in the light fraction - 95.7 %. The quartz is clean, not smoothed, with grooved surface and without clay diapers. The predominant treatment is air and the period is dry. In layer 0–22 cm the type of the mineral grains are similar to the depth of over 40 cm but the percentage by the individual minerals especially in the heavy fraction is different because is observed a second nourishing province. The content of the amphibole reduces to 31.8% of the heavy fraction and the content of biotite increases to 62.5%. There is some quantity of zircon similar to the horizon below 40 cm - 2% but hematite is not observed. This indicates that the period of formation of this layer was colder than the period of formation of layer 22–40 cm. The quartz is 93% of the light fraction. The grains are mostly milky white whit grooved surface, free of clay diapers and relatively smoothed edges. The treatment is primarily air but water treatment can occur periodically as a result of heavy rainfall. SUMMARY The results present that intensive weathering processes have been occurred and form different deposits and weathering crusts. The sediments in both key sites show some differences in their grain size, sorting and way of forming. In key site T.211 sediments are poorly sorting and roundness. They consist of sand and gravel. The mineralogical analysis shows that in their decomposition took place mainly mechanical. The chemical changes in mineral grains and formation of new ones are not observed. In a key site T.214 deposits are also poorly sorted but their sizes are much larger. The sand, gravel and pebble have equal percentage distribution in the middle and lower layer.

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In the layers the formation of new minerals such as hematite and chloride are observed indicating that they were formed with the participation of physical and chemical weathering. These results show that in both sites weathering processes occur in different ways and intensity. This is mainly due to differences in conditions such as altitude, exposure and slope gradient, humidity, etc. ACKNOWLEDMENTS We would like to express our gratitude to our colleagues from the Sofia University ”St. Kliment Ohridski” who supported the fieldwork and gave as their useful suggestions and comments. We are also grateful to Elitsa Dimitrova for the preparation of mineralogical analysis and her valuable support to our work. REFERENCES Baturin, V. P., 1947. Petrographic analysis of the geological past by clastic components. Moscow, Leningrad, USSR Academy of Sciences, 338. Iliev, Z. et al., 1974. Schlich analysis, Sofia University,188. Kozhoukharov, D., Marinova, R., 1994. Explanatory note to the geological map of Bulgaria on scale 1:100 000,Goce Delchev map sheet, Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences Kozhoukharov, D., Marinova, R., 1994, Geology map of Bulgaria, M 1:100 000, Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences Migon, P., 2006. Granite Landscapes of the World, Oxford University press, 50-51. Rachev, G., Nikolova, N., 2009. The Climate of Bulgaria, Annual of Sofia University, FGG, b. 2 – geography, v.101 17-29 (in Bulgarian) Zagorchev, I. et al., 1974. Tectonics of the Pirin horst. Annual of Ministry of heavy industry, „Survey of Geology”, v.20, 227 – 277. (in Bulgarian) Machev, F., Rashkova, G., 1995. Petrology of Teshovo pluton – a comparison with the Central Pirin pluton, Annual of Sofia University, FGG, b.1 – geology, v. 88, 67-96. (in Bulgarian) Serebryanniy, L. R., 1980. Laboratory analysis in geomorphology and Quaternary Palaeogeography, Moscow, Science and Technology (in Russian)

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УДК: 551.435.8(497.775)

KARST IN MARIOVO – EXTENSION, CHARACTERISTICS AND IMPORTANCE Marjan TEMOVSKI Doctorate student, University of Nova Gorica, Slovenia, Vlado Stojanoski 37a, Prilep, Macedonia, temovski_m@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT This paper will present the general characteristics of karst in Mariovo, a hilly mountainous area in the southern part of Republic of Macedonia, its extension, surface morphology as well as speleogenesis and karst waters. Previous results will be combined with new research on surface karst, caves and karst waters in this area. Karst rocks present 16% of Mariovo area, where due to complex geological and geomorphological characteristic some specific karst features developed. Number of caves has been explored in the past few years, most of which have been studied, giving new insight in to the general karst development. Also new karst springs were documented, such as Gugjakovski Izvori (the largest spring along the river course of Crna Reka), which give further insight to the karst hydrogeology of the area. The importance of karst areas in Mariovo is mostly due to a number of specific karst features, mostly connected to thermal speleogenesis, such as Provalata Cave where sulfuric acid was involved in its formation. This cave is also the first dated cave in Macedonia, and only the second 40Ar/39Ar dated sulfuric acid cave in Europe. Mariovo, especially the eastern part (where karst is found) is now mostly depopulated area, leaving karst to have no immediate impact on people today, although some agriculture is still present. Nevertheless, projected future dam Galište is covering karst areas along Crna Reka valley, and proper understanding of karst in this area will be important for future management of this artificial reservoir. Also, given the scarce water resources in Mariovo, large springs such as Gugjakovski Izvori are an important resource. Keywords: Mariovo, karst, caves, karst springs

INTRODUCTION Mariovo is a geographical and historical region in the southern part of Republic of Macedonia (Stojmilov, 1984). It is hilly to mountainous area, with a long and complex geomorphological and geological evolution. Most of the area is part of one large morphological unit – Mariovo Basin, while the eastern border is located further to the east along Blašnica River and along mountain ridges in the eastern part of Dren Mountain. Karst areas in Mariovo occupy 16% of the area mostly located in the central and eastern parts. Previous studies on karst terrains in this area have been very scarce, mostly due to the generally harsh, hardly accessible and depopulated terrains. Small notes on the karst in Mariovo are given by Manakovik & Andonovski (1984) as part of the geomorphology of Mariovo. They only address the extension of carbonate rocks, and describe some karst surface features such as karren and dry valleys. Kolčakovski et al. (2004) published first results about cave Provalata (named Gulabinka in the paper), giving morphometric information and noting the presence of gypsum deposits. Although contributing the presence of gypsum to dissolution of the marble by hydrothermal waters enriched with H2S, they consider the cave as fossil ponor cave. Speleological exploration in this area was also carried by cavers, locating and mapping generally caves which were previously known to the local population. In the western part caving clubs SK Zlatovrv from Prilep and Ursus Speleos from Skopje have explored Pešti Cave and caves Melnička Peštera 1 & 2, while SD Peoni from Skopje has explored Provalata Cave and cave Živovska Propast (Propast Provala). In the eastern part, cavers from PSD Orle from Kavadarci have also documented some caves, mostly in the 1960s and 1970s, describing location, general size and also mapping some of them.

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ПРИРОДНИ РЕСУРСИ И КОРИСТЕЊЕ НА ЗЕМЈИШТЕТО ВО РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА NATURAL RESOURCES AND LAND USE IN HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS

During the last couple of years detailed karst studies were carried out in the area as part of a research on the karst evolution in the lower part of Crna Reka river basin, taking mainly speleogenetic approach to understand karst evolution, considering the scarce karst surface features. Some of the results were already published by Temovski (2013) and Temovski et al. (2013). This paper aims to given an overview of the general characteristics of karst and caves in Mariovo, and stress the importance of karst features.

Figure 1. Map of karst in Mariovo

MATERIALS AND METHODS As was noted, due to lack of surface information, the approach used to understand the evolution of the karst is trough the evolution of the caves in the area. This generally includes morphological analyses based on cave maps and field observations, combined with sediment analyses and in some cases dating of cave sediments. Detailed cave maps of known caves, as well as newly found passages and caves were produced by detailed in-scale field mapping in 1:100 scale. Field data (sketches, measurements) were later processed in Therion cave mapping software (Budaj & Mudrak, 2008), to produce cave maps in plan, profile and 3D projection. Distribution and stratigraphy of cave sediments and deposits were described. Samples from characteristic sediments and deposits were collected for X-ray analysis. Alunite and jarosite from Provalata Cave were dated by 40Ar/39Ar method. Also stable isotope analyses were carried on calcite crust (δ13C, δ18O) and gypsum deposits (δ34S) from Provalata

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РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИ ПОДРАЧЈА - ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ, Охрид, 12-15 IX 2013 HILLY- MOUNTAIN - AREAS PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES, Ohrid, 12-15 IX 2013

Cave. Basic physical and chemical analysis of karst waters was done at the Center for Public Health in Prilep. For detailed descriptions of the analytical methods see Temovski et al. (2013). Morphometric analyses on karst surface were done on Aster GDEM data, version 2 (Meyer et al., 2012) using Spatial Analyst tool in ESRI ArcGIS 10.1. KARST EXTENSION Karst rocks in Mariovo occupy 16% of the total area (Tab.1), which is more than the 12% area that karst rocks cover in Republic of Macedonia (Temovski, 2012. They are located on both sides of the border between the Pelagonian Massif and the Vardar Zone, two major tectonic units in Macedonia, and are generally distributed in two stripes with NNW-SSE direction, one along the eastern edge of the Pelagonian Massif, and the other in the western part of the Vardar Zone. Table 1. Extension of karst rock outcrops in Mariovo (Geological data after Dumurdžanov et al., 1976) % of total Age Rock type Area (km2) karst area Precambrian Dolomitic marble 37.6 22.3 Precambrian Calcitic marble 2.1 1.2 Cambrian Calcitic marble 7.3 4.4 Triassic Marbly limestone and dolomite 71.3 42.4 Cretaceous (Turonian) Limestone 0.3 0.2 Cretaceous (Senonian) Limestone 32.6 19.4 Quaternary (Pleistocene) Travertine + carbonate conglomerates 16.9 10.1 168.2 100.0 TOTAL AREA of karst rocks MARIOVO area (km2) Karst rocks in MARIOVO (%)

1053.4 16.0

Karst rocks include Precambrian dolomitic and calcitic marbles; Cambrian calcitic marbles; Triassic marbly limestones and dolomites; Cretaceous (Turonian and Senonian) limestones; and Pleistocene travertines (Dumurdžanov et al., 1976). Triassic limestones and dolomites have the largest surface extension (42.4%), located in the eastern part on Dren, Kozjak and Kožuf mountains, deeply incised by the valleys of Crna Reka and Blašnica River with its tributaries. Precambrian dolomitic marbles are the second largest karst rock outcrop (22.3%), located in a continuous stripe along the eastern edge of the Pelagonian Massif. To the east they are covered by Precambrian calcitic marbles, then Cambrian calcitic marbles, and are separated from the overlying large Senonian limestone series (19.4%) with clastic rocks (also Senonian). This thick carbonate section (Precambrian, Cambrian and Senonian), generally dipping to the ENE which has some impermeable layers (Cambrian schists; Senonian sandstones, shales and conglomerates) continues further to the south in Greece and to the north in the neighbor Raec Basin. The youngest karst rocks are Pleistocene travertine deposits (10.1%), part of Mariovo Basin deposits (Mariovo Formation; Dumurdžanov et al., 2003, 2004). They are mostly located as a large outcrop between Manastir and Bešište villages, but travertine deposits can also be found along Crna Reka valley between Vrpsko and Gugjakovo villages. The travertine deposits are mostly composed of tufaceous limestones and tufa, at places overlying carbonate breccia-conglomerates composed of marble and limestone fragments. Also small outcrops of Turonian limestones are found as lenses in the clastic Turonian series on Kožuf Mountain. The real extension of karst rocks in the area is larger than the surface extension, with some areas buried by pyroclastic deposits from Kožuf/Kozjak volcanism, and others also covered by older sediments (ex. Turonian clastic deposits overthrusted onto Senonian limestones).

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KARST SURFACE Karst terrains in Mariovo have mainly fluviokarst surface morphology, with deep allogenic through valleys, steep dry valleys on valley sides and lack of dolines or bigger karst depressions as a general characteristic. Ford & Williams (2007) indicate three main factors which prevent doline development: 1) very high vertical conductivity through-out the vadose zone; 2) spatially uniform and dense vertical permeability; and steep (>20°) hillsides. The lack of doline development in Mariovo is a result of a combination of these factors. Morphometric analysis of terrain slope on karst terrains gave average slope value of 22.8°, with most of the small slopes (<20°) and also flat areas (<5°) connected to the Manastir-Bešište travertine Plateau (in the lower elevations) or mountain ridges (in the higher elevations). Most of the karst areas have slopes higher than 20°, characteristic for the valley sides (Fig.3).

Figure 2. Karst surface on low slope terrains: A – View to the north of Trite Stragi-Četiri Buki mountain ridge; B – view to the south of the same ridge on A; C – view to the south of Gola Skrka – Cucul mountain ridge; D – view to Manastir – Bešište Plateau from Pantelejmon. Photos by M. Temovski

While on valley sides steep slopes would prevent development of dolines, on the mountain ridges which have much smaller slope, dolines should develop. Nevertheless this is not the case in Mariovo karst, with dolines generally absent even on larger flat areas. The reason why dolines are not developing here may be the high conductivity in the epikarst due to thick, well developed vadose zone as a result of a long period of vadose development due to the incision of river valleys. In the evolution of the valleys in Mariovo there were two phases of incision: pre-Pliocene incision of valleys (which were partly of completely filled with sediments during Pliocene) and Quaternary incision after the draining of Mariovo Lake. Even if the Pliocene deposition filled the lower part of Crna Reka valley and some of the tributaries, the mountain ridges were not covered by sediments, and maintained continuous vadose development.

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Figure 3. Distribution of slopes in karst terrains

In the large travertine deposits on Manastir-Bešište Plateau, which have the largest flat areas, as small slopes were present since the exposure of the rocks after the draining of the Mariovo Lake (primary - depositional low slopes), development of dolines would be expected. Nevertheless this is not the case, with only (spatially) large and very shallow, hardly detectable, depressions developed on them. Although slopes are favorable for doline development, the reason for the lack of doline development may be the high primary porosity of the travertines. This created high vertical conductivity in the vadose zone (after the incision of Bututica and Crna Reka) preventing development of depressions in the epikarst water table, and with that preventing focused flow and dissolution necessary for development of dolines. CAVES In Mariovo karst 18 caves have been documented (Fig.1; Tab.2), with the longest (Melnička Peštera 1) having more than 600m of explored passages, developed in Pleistocene carbonate conglomerates, and more than half of the caves being longer than 100m. The deepest cave is Živovska Propast (-115m), a complex system of shafts developed along three sets of fractures. From the studied caves, both hypogenic and epigenic speleogenesis were identified. Hypogenic speleogenesis was documented in three areas: Melnica (Buturica River), Podot (Crna Reka) and Kožuf karst areas. Caves were developed by dissolution of carbonate rocks due to cooling effect of rising thermal waters (Dublyansky, 2000). Deeply circulating meteoric waters were heated as a result of increased geothermal gradient likely connected to Kožuf-Kozjak volcanism. This hydrothermal hypogenic speleogenesis, due to lithological or geochemical factors, locally is accompanied with specific processes such as ghost-rock weathering (Quinif, 1999) in the Precambrian dolomitic marbles of Melnica and Podot

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localities, as well as Triassic dolomites in Allchar ore deposit (Kožuf), and sulfuric acid speleogenesis (Egemeier, 1981; Palmer, 2013) as a second phase in Provalata Cave, Melnica. No. 1

Name Melnička Peštera 1

2

Živovska Propast

3 4 5

Provalata Vodna Peš Pešti

6

Karši Podot

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Pešterski Kamen Gališka Peštera Vodena Peštera Podot 2 Melnička Peštera 2 Podot 1 Marina Dupka Boševa Peštera Dupkite 1 Stankova Peštera Radina Dupka Dupkite 2

Table 2. Caves in Mariovo karst Synonym Length Depth Rock age 600+ +17 Pleistocene Propast -115 Senonian Provala Gulabinka 230 -24 Cambrian 226+ -25 Triassic 202 -38 Senonian Precambrian; 199 +12 Pleistocene Trlo 173+ +63 Triassic 120 -20 Triassic 106 -3 Triassic P14 103+ -18 Pleistocene 97 -8 Pleistocene P13 64 -14 Pleistocene 26 -11 Senonian 19 Triassic 14 Senonian 11 Triassic 8 -5 Senonian 4 Senonian

Rock type Carbonate conglomerates Limestone Marble Marbly limestone Limestone dolomitic marble; alluvium, tufaceous limestone Marbly limestone Marbly limestone Marbly limestone Tufaceous limestone Carbonate conglomerates Tufaceous limestone Limestone Marbly limestone Limestone Marbly limestone Limestone Limestone

Provalata Cave is a 230m long, 24m deep cave, located in the superimposed valley of Buturica River in Melnica area. The cave has a ramiform passage pattern, with cupolas and solution pockets as most common morphological features. Based on characteristics and distribution of morphology and deposits, two distinct speleogenetic phases were identified in the cave (Temovski et al., 2013): the first by thermal CO2 rich waters; the second by sulfuric acid dissolution; separated by complete infilling of cave passages with pyroclastic-derived clays. In the first phase (Pliocene-Early Pleistocene?) phreatic morphologies (passages, cupolas) were formed by dissolution of marbles due to cooling of rising thermal carbonated waters; later covered with thick calcite crust after shift to shallower phreatic environment. These passages were then completely filled with clay deposits originating from the pyroclastic sediments of Mariovo Formation (Early Pleistocene). Incision of Buturica River after draining of Mariovo Lake lowered the water table and allowed removal of clay sediments. Introduction of H2S in the thermal waters (likely connected to the nearby coal basin) started the second (sulfuric acid) speleogenetic phase, with rapid dissolution of calcite crust and marble host rock due to condensation corrosion by sulfuric vapors and producing replacement gypsum deposits. At contact with clay deposits, sulfuric acid produced alunite, jarosite and natroalunite, which were dated with 40Ar/39Ar method to 1.6 Ma (alunite) and 1.46 Ma (jarosite). This allowed to fix the timing of the draining of Mariovo Lake, sometime between 1.8 Ma (last layers of tephra found in the travertine layers deposited in lacustrine environment as end part of Mariovo formation; and volcanic activity in Kozjak Mt. dated to 4.0 ± 0.2 to 1.8 ± 0.1 Ma, Kolios et al., 1999), and 1.6 Ma (maximum age of cave alunite formed after draining of Mariovo Lake and incision of Buturica River).

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Figure 3. Speleogenetic phases in Provalata Cave (modified after Temovski et al., 2013)

Karši Podot Cave is 200m long horizontal cave, located in Karši Podot terrace (Podot locality in Crna Reka valley), developed in Precambrian dolomitic marbles and Pleistocene alluvial and travertine deposits. Its development is connected to ghost-rock weathering in the dolomitic marbles by slowly rising thermal waters, with backflooding of Crna Reka providing the necessary high energy waters removing the dolomitic sand alterite, with some redeposition of dolomitic sand with silicate sands and clays also inside the cave (Temovski, 2013). Melnička Peštera 1 is more than 600m long horizontal cave developed in carbonate conglomerates in Pešta Hill, Melnica. It has a branchwork plan pattern, with irregular passage outlines typical of a high porosity host rocks. Its widespread small scale morphology of cupolas and pockets, as wall as calcite (and aragonite) crust covering such morphologies in the upper parts of the cave and having overprinted secondary pockets, combined with the thermal karstification documented in the nearby Gumnište locality, as well as Provalata Cave, suggest possible origin due to hydrothermal speleogenesis accompanied with condensation corrosion. Hydrothermal speleogenesis is documented also in Kožuf area, with two thermal springs discharging at the contact of carbonate rocks with impermeable schist rocks. In the Allchar ore deposit, hydrothermal speleogenesis has played important role in creating porosity in the dolomite and limestone rocks which was later used as host for the deposition of ore minerals. In dolomite rocks this was accompanied with ghost-rock weathering (“sanding decalcification” as described by Percival & Radtke, 1994). Most of the karst terrains in the studied area have “normal” epigenic cave development, receiving allogenic or autogenic recharge from the adjacent surface. Epigenic speleogenesis in Mariovo karst is connected mostly to lowering of base level (per descensum speleogenesis) due to incision of Crna Reka and its tributaries in Pleistocene, following the draining of Mariovo Lake; with epigenic caves also developed due to rise of base level (per ascensum speleogenesis) connected to periods of river aggradation in Pleistocene and/or Pliocene filling of paleo-valleys.

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Figure 6. Maps of some of the largest caves in Mariovo (SK Zlatovrv, 2011, 2013; SD Peoni, 2005)

Some examples include the cave levels in Podot 1 and 2 caves in the Podot terrace, located opposite of Karši Podot Cave in travertine deposits, developed due to base level control by the position of Crna Reka. They indicate the former position of the large springs Gugjakovski Izvori, located now at the contact with alluvial deposits in the riverbed of Crna Reka. Mixing of cold waters with the thermal waters may have also contributed to their development. Pešti Cave is an old cave, located high in the Crna Reka valley, with vadose morphology and paragenetic development due to clay deposition, covered by thick flowstone and dripstone speleothems. Vodna Peš is a fossil outlet (spring) cave located high in Crna Reka valley, with rising phreatic passages and widespread paragenetic morphology, with later vadose development. Its development is connected to base level rise due to aggradation in Crna Reka valley. Considering their (Vodna Peš, Pešti) position high in the valley, their development is likely connected to the Pliocene filling of the paleo Crna Reka valley. Živovska Propast is an interesting example of the continuous vadose development in the higher karst areas which were not covered by Pliocene or Pleistocene deposits. It is a complex system of shafts with total depth of -115m, developed along three sets of fractures with: NNW-SSE, N-S, and WSW-ENE direction. IMPORTANCE Mariovo karst although it is located in a depopulated, not easily accessible, hilly to mountainous area, it still represents a significant part of the area, having a great scientific

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importance, as well as representing a valuable natural heritage and yielding important water resources. Both hypogenic and epigenic karst features have great scientific importance. The close proximity of Provalata Cave to Mariovo coal deposits, which might be the potential source of H2S for the second (sulfuric acid) speleogenetic phase registered in the cave, presents an opportunity for further studies which might contribute to better understanding of the sulfuric acid speleogenesis and the possible various hypogenic speleogenetic environments that can occur. Also, the ghost-rock weathering process identified in the Precambrian dolomitic marbles, as well as in the Triassic dolomitic, here connected to hydrothermal speleogenesis, contributes further to the understanding of the ghost-rock weathering and phantom cave development in hypogenic settings. Especially the dolomitic marbles with the Karši Podot Cave present a possibility for more detail studies of this process and its importance on increasing porosity on otherwise less karstifiable rocks. Caves in the area can also be used for paleogeographic reconstructions of the Macedonian Neogene-Quaternary lake system, as was the case with the evolution of Provalata Cave, used to determine the possible timing of the draining of Mariovo Lake. Specific cave minerals such as alunite, jarosite, natroalunite documented in Provalata cave are first such minerals identified from Macedonian caves. Alunite and jarosite were also used for 40Ar/39Ar dating, the first dating of a cave in Republic of Macedonia, and the second 40 Ar/39Ar dating of sulfuric cave in Europe, after Kraushöhle in Austria (Temovski et al., 2013). Together with the cave fauna, which is still not studied, they represent an important natural heritage. Considering that lack of water resources is one of Mariovo’s major problems, and most of the water resources in the area are connected to karst terrains, karst springs in Mariovo such as Gugjakovski Izvori, the largest spring along the river course of Crna Reka, represent a major water resource. Therefore further studies, protection and proper management of karst areas in Mariovo is necessary, especially connected to future revitalizations of the area, and construction of the artificial reservoir Galište. CONCLUSIONS Karst terrains represent 16% of the total surface area in Mariovo, and are characterized with mostly fluviokarst surface features, with developed karst underground. The fluviokarst surface is generally characterized with deep allogenic through valleys (Crna Reka, Blašnica, Buturica), steep dry valleys on valley sides and lack of dolines or bigger karst depressions. Karst evolution in the area has been strongly influenced by the incision of river valleys PrePliocene, and in Pleistocene, while during the Pliocene and Early Pleistocene the lower areas were covered by lacustrine and fluvial deposits, as well as pyroclastic deposits connected to the Kozjak-Kožuf volcanism to the south. Epigenic cave development has been connected with the changes of base level due to incision or aggradation in the river valleys and Mariovo basin. Hypogenic caves were formed by hydrothermal speleogenesis due to cooling effect of rising deeply circulating meteoric waters, heated due to increased geothermal gradient likely connected to Kožuf-Kozjak volcanism. At places, due to lithological or geochemical factors, hydrothermal hypogenic speleogenesis is accompanied with specific processes, such as ghostrock weathering in the Precambrian dolomitic marbles of Melnica and Podot localities, as well as Triassic dolomites in Allchar ore deposit (Kožuf), and sulfuric acid speleogenesis in Provalata Cave, Melnica. Mariovo karst has great scientific importance due to the specific processes, such as sulfuric acid speleogenesis and ghost-rock weathering, as well as possibilities to study the paleogeography of the Macedonian Neogene-Quaternary lake system, and the per-ascensum model of speleogenesis connected to the aggradations in river

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valleys. Specific minerals, such as alunite, jarosite, natroalunite in Provalata Cave, which is the first dated cave in Republic of Macedonia, as well as cave fauna yet to be studied, are a significant natural heritage, while karst waters represent an important water resource in an area with a general lack of water resources.

REFERENCES BUDAJ M., MUDRAK S. (2008): Therion – Digital Cave Maps. Proceedings of the IV European Speleological Congress, Lans-en-Vercors, France. Spelunca Memoires, 33, 138-141. DUBLYANSKY Y.V. (2000): Dissolution of carbonates by geothermal waters. In: Klimchouk A., Ford D.C., Palmer A.N. & Dreybrodt W. (Eds). Speleogenesis: evolution of karst aquifers. Huntsville: National Speleological Society, 158-159. DUMURDŽANOV N., HRISTOV S., PAVLOVSKI B., IVANOVA V. (1976): Explanatory notes for the General Geological map of Vitolište and Kajmakčalan (1:100 000). Federal Geological Survey, Beograd, 1-61. DUMURDŽANOV N., KRSTIĆ N., MIHAJLOVIĆ D. OGNJANOVA-RUMENOVA N., PETROV G. (2003): New Data on stratigraphy of the Neogene and Pleistocene in Mariovo, Macedonia. Geologica Macedonica, 17, 43-52 DUMURDŽANOV N., SERAFIMOVSKI T., BURCHFIEL B.C. (2004): Evolution of the Neogene-Pleistocene Basins of Macedonia. Geological Society of America, Digital Map and Chart Series, 1, 1-20. EGEMEIER S.J. (1981): Cavern development by thermal waters. NSS Bulletin, 43, 31–51. FORD D., WILLIAMS P. (2007): Karst hydrogeology and geomorphology. Wiley, Chichester, 562 pp. KOLČAKOVSKI D., BOEV B., HRISTOVSKI S., PETRESKA B. (2004): Peštera Gulabinka – Mariovo, preliminarni speleološki proučuvanja (Cave Gulabinka – Mariovo, preliminary speleological exploration). Bilten za fizička geografija, PMF, Skopje, 1, 35-43. MANAKOVIK D., ANDONOVSKI T. (1984): Geomorfologija. In: Mariovo - kopleksni geografski proučuvanja. Geografski fakultet, Skopje, 41-81. MEYER D. J., TACHIKAWA T., ABRAMS M., CRIPPEN R., KRIEGER T., GESCH D., CARABAJAL C. (2012): Summary of the validation of the second version of the ASTER GDEM. International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Volume XXXIX-B4, 291-293 PALMER A.N. (2013): Sulfuric acid caves: morphology and evolution. In: John F. Shroder, (Ed): Treatise on Geomorphology, Volume 6: Karst Geomorphology, Academic Press, San Diego, 241-257. PERCIVAL J.C., RADTKE, A.S. (1994): Sedimentary-rock-hosted disseminated gold mineralization in the Alsar District, Macedonia. Canad. Mineralogist 32, 649-665QUINIF Y. (1999): Fantômisation, cryptoaltération et altération sur roche nue, le triptyque de la karstification, Actes du colloque européen Karst 99, 159-164. SD PEONI (2005): Cave map of Zivovska Propast (not published) SK ZLATOVRV (2011-2013): Cave maps of Melnička Peštera 1 and Vodna Peš (not published) STOJMILOV A. (1984): Geografska položba. In: Mariovo - kopleksni geografski proučuvanja. Geografski fakultet, Skopje, 9-15. TEMOVSKI M. (2012): Površinska rasprostranetost na karstnite karpi vo Republika Makedonija (Extension of karst rock outcrops in Republic of Macedonia). Geografski razgledi, Skopje, 46, 21-35. TEMOVSKI M. (2013): Phantom speleogenesis in a thermal environment, 21st International Karstological School “Hypogene speleogenesis”, 10-14.06.2013, Postojna, Slovenia (poster presentation) TEMOVSKI M., AUDRA P., MIHEVC A., SPANGENBERG J.E., POLYAK V., McINTOSH W., BIGOT J-Y (2013): Hypogenic origin of Provalata Cave, Republic of Macedonia: a distinct case of successive thermal carbonic and sulfuric acid speleogenesis. International Journal of Speleology, 42, 235-246. KOLIOS N., INNOCENTI F., MANETI P., POCCERILO O., GUILIANI O. (1980): The Pliocene Volcanism of the Voras Mts (Central Macedonia, Greece). Bulletin of Volcanology, 43(3), 553-568.

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УДК: 551.4.035(497.2)

THE MOUNTAIN AREA IN BULGARIA – THEORY, METHODS AND PRACTICE Plamen PATARCHANOV Assist. Prof. Plamen Patarchanov, Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”, Faculty of Geology and Geography, Department of Social and Economic Geography, e-mail: p_patarchanov@abv.bg

ABSTRACT The study analyzes the mountain regions in Bulgaria, as a significant part of the national territory, presenting serious scientific, management and public interest. The mountain areas concentrate in themselves significant natural, cultural and socio-economic potential and thereby generate a lot of problems in their development as a result of the characteristics of the geographic environment. It’s presented a brief overview of: the scientific researches of the mountain areas; the changes in the regulations and the strategy planning documentation, related to the delimitation and the development of those territories. Are also outlined some contemporary geographical and managerial challenges and risks faced by the public institutions, the regional and the local communities. In the report are proposed some specific managerial decisions for sustainable integrated development of mountain areas in Bulgaria. Key words: Mountain regions, scientific researches, theory and methodology, managerial practice, sustainable integrated development.

INTRODUCTION In the past decades the state role in the development of these areas has been active but unfortunately not very effective. The more than 20 decrees approved by the Council of Ministers tried to improve the social and economical situation of the mountain areas, predominantly around the Southern and West border. The practical results of this policy were not satisfactory. The biggest achievement of the central government in the first years of the democratic period of the development of the country was the establishment of temporarily parliament commission for developing of mountain regions in the 36 Bulgarian parliaments. Researches were made and problems were defined, concerned with demographic development, migrations and employment, with economic activities and the communications, and mainly with the sphere of the attendance, which were in big parts of this region even below the needed minimum. These studies allowed the delimitation of the territorial scope of the mountainous regions. These include areas with an altitude of 600 m and with such amount of land less than 70%. They occupy at that moment 46.7% of the country territory and are home to about 2.5 million people, which are concentrated in the 2996 settlements (56% of those in the country)and which fall within the scope of 142 municipalities. The territory of mountainous areas covers 72% of the forests of the country, 39% of arable land, 47% of the uncultivated, 83% of the land unfit for processing (НЦТРЖП, 1994). Review of researches on mountain areas in Bulgaria Diverse geographical conditions and in particular relief of the territory of Bulgaria is underlying continued interest of many researchers to the analysis and evaluation of resources in mountain areas, the problems related to the utilization and protection of their potential and those that accompany their development. Attention should be paid to a number of serious studies of different authors published in Bulgarian scientific literature. Among them stands out two-volume monographic publication 63


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of the Institute of Geography of the Academy of Sciences " Natural and economic potential of the mountains in Bulgaria" in two volumes -"Nature and Resources (1989) and "Population and Economics (1990). The edition which features an integrated geographical approach to the studied area and significant methodological contributions examines in detail the natural, social, economic, technical and organizational conditions for the formation of the resource potential of mountain areas. In it a number of authors such as Mishev, Naidenova, Mitchev, Mladenov, Kiradzhiev, Geshev, Donchev, Popov, Ilieva, Kolev, Kopralev, Terziyska perform detailed sectoral geographical analysis of mountain space and its potential. It is created a very broad empirical basis through which to proceed with scientifically justified determination of the objective problems at this stage and priorities of the future development of these areas according to their capabilities and local characteristics. Natural potential and sustainable development of mountain areas focus of researchers, often provoked by conducting of various scientific forums - Vratsa 2001 and Banite 2007. Conceptual aspects in the study of rural mountain areas in the spirit of the concept of sustainable development is the focus of the study of P. Petrov (Petrov, 2001). To the nature and possibilities of sustainable development in the urbanized or underdeveloped mountainous areas, anthropogenic impact and transformations sustainable nature use and integrated resource management are dedicated the publications of Vlaskov (2001), Nam and Ivanov (2001), Dermendjieva (2001), Patarchanova (2008 ), Gachev (2008). Tourism its alternative forms and its role as a factor in the sustainable and integrated development of mountain areas attract numerous researchers - Genov, 2001; Petrov, 2001; Grozeva, 2001; Kisselkov and Petrov, 2001; Shishmanova, 2001, Popova, 2008; Evrev , 2005; Patarchanov, 2011, Patarchanov, 2012. Regional development issues, regional policy and planning and structure in mountainous areas are the subject of researches of Shishmanova (2008), Patarchanov (2008). On agriculture as a main economic activity and the current topic for provinciality as characteristic of mountainous regions is focused the attention of authors such as Boyadzhiev, 2013; Patarchanov, 2010. In the studies of these areas very actively are included some specialized institutes and centers. The edition of НЦТРЖП (1994) of I. Kopralev and team is dedicated to the policy for development of mountain areas in the country as part of the regional policy in the period of transition and reforms. There are represented the intentions of a differentiated regional approach in the implementation of structural reforms in the economic, social policy and territorial development as well as the natural and ecological balance and sustainability of mountain areas. Part of the Bulgarian mountain regions are discussed in the context of crossborder cooperation with the Republic of Greece. There are attached some references to Bulgarian mountains summary of the report of the Temporary Parliamentary Commission for the Development of Mountain Areas (March 1993) and the draft for Law on the development of mountainous areas of Bulgaria. The comprehensive analysis of a team led by Prof. I rank Dr. J. Kapitanski in the draft ИИСС (1997) reveals the socio-economic problems of mountainous and hilly areas, the factors that have caused them, and on this basis to justify the proposals for stabilizing the demographic processes, development of their productive and social infrastructure. A special place is paid to the analysis of agriculture and its main characteristics in mountainous regions as well as the subsequent business activities of the cycle of agribusiness. Attention should be paid to the analysis of social aspects in the development of mountainous areas such as income and service to the population, reproduction and labor mobility. Natural features of all 37 mountains in Bulgaria, architectural, historical and cultural attractions and tourist resources are discussed and described in detail, grouped in mountainous areas in monographic edition of V. Nikolov, M. Jordanova (2002).

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With very serious methodological contribution is distinguished from the project ИАИ (2005) under the leadership of Prof. Dr. Iv. Yanakieva and others, which develops approaches for determining of the underdeveloped areas has outlined their territorial range and are justified the selected criteria. The research is underlying the preparation of Ordinance of the Council to determine the disadvantaged areas. It is justified the analyzed experience of the EU Member States and the Community legal framework. A detailed description of the regions has been made on various indicators and are attached maps of their territorial scope. Different aspects - methodical; nature resourceful, socio-economic, organizational and conservational, the sustainable development of mountain regions in Southeastern Europe is dedicated to a collection of articles (2011), by various authors from the region. Questions related to delimitation of mountain areas and municipalities falling within their scope, as well as their basic characteristics and capabilities for integrated development are dedicated texts in a number of strategic and planning documents - НКРП-2013-2025 (2012), НСРР-2012-2022 (2012) and others. An attempt was made to summarize, not enough critical current achievements and methodological concepts in determining the mountainous areas. The role of the nongovernmental sector in the studyand especially in the development of these important parts of the national territory, focus on various informal structures. Leading role has the Association for development of mountain communities in Bulgaria. In its materials and forums, it directs attention to the experience of several countries in legal base and good social practices as well as outlining the specific policies in the development of mountain areas. The participation in several European projects increase the public role and influence of the organization in support of mountain communities. Inadequate representation of the association caused by the number of members (only 12 municipalities), creates difficulties in synchronizing the actions in the common interest of all mountain municipalities. This requires not only common initiatives with other regional associations of mountain communities, such as the Association of Rhodope Municipalities (21 municipalities), Regional Association of Municipalities "Central Stara Planina" (14 municipalities), Southwestern Association of Municipalities (28 municipalities) and othersand the establishment of a common institutional initiative. This way you will protect much better local interests in the process of creating the legal framework regulating the main socio-economic processes and especially in the formulation of a common integrated policy for development of mountain areas and adjoining areas. Policies for the development of mountain areas On the ground of the conduct analysis and the conclusions for the situation, and of research have the experience of several West European and other countries a project for law for development of the mountain areas in Republic of Bulgaria. The main accents in it were set on the following: - The policy of development of these regions is indivisible element of the national and regional structure policy. As indivisible part of the national area they have its characteristic and problems and they cannot be examined separately and out of touch from the other parts of the country. - Delimitation of the policy for development of the mountain regions into a special law is determines by the need specific approaches to apply, which shall preserve and develop their unique geographical identity. - By the regulation of this policy integrity of all economical, social, ecological and structure elements have to be ensured in order the different interests to be coordinated for a long term use of the local potentials.

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- The complex character of the policy enforce a clear system of mechanisms & regulators to be in use which has to be intend for put into practice the main goals of and targets for the development of these regions. - The institutialising of the policy has to be done by clear demarcation of the rights and compulsories of the different subjects of governance, by carry out active decentralization and simultaneously partnership between the authorities and the institutions in the separate territorial levels. - Direct connection and interaction of the basic parameters of the Law of development of the mountain areas with all rest territorial-structural laws that have direct or indirect attitude for his problematic. The developed on this level project of law were searching for determination of several tasks. Defining of clear criteria’s for determination of the territorial range of the mountain areas. Validity of a system of measures, which calculate all specific conditions and defending the national, regional and local interests. Determination of tangible objects to whom the offered measures of influence are oriented to – the population, local authorities and the business in the main economical directions of the agriculture, tourism, local crafts etc. Discovering of appropriate forms of fulfillment of the planned measures using effective system of finance, economical and social mechanisms. And in the end creating of appropriate conditions, which can motivate in adequate level the local interest and initiative for use and development of all the potentials of the territory (Patarchanov, 2005). Regardless of the comparatively good ideas of developing of the mountain areas, which lays the foundations of this project, he was never released. Important role in the normative basis performs the main criteria’s and the specific quantitative indices for determination of the regions. In the last years several experiments were executed in this direction with application of different altitudes and inclinations in aim possibilities to be found in order their territorial range to be expanded. Besides their range in the alternative inclination and elevation is checked in to be the average for the territory of the municipality or only for the agricultural land. Here we have to mention that the second is much mor easier to be defensible in EU, but he unfortunately determines smaller territorial range of the mountain areas, while the first one ensures bigger range, but the probability to be defend is lower. Regulations and the strategy planning documentation for delimitation and development One of the first normative documents governing the criteria and territorial range of mountains in our country is Ordinance № 14/1 April 2003 (State newspaper. br.35/16.04.2003) Issued MAF and MRRD - To determine the range of settlements in rural and mountainous areas. In it Mountain areas (see Fig. 15) cover territory with altitudes above 600 m and below 600 m, but with depth of indentation of the relief of 200 meters difference between the lowest and highest point of 1 square km, with a density of segmentation of relief over 2 km / sq km and a slope of 12 degrees. In addition, as mountain shall be determined municipalities in which more than half of the lands of the settlements included in them are mountainous areas. In the passed in 1 of April 2005 from XXXIX Bulgarian parliament law for amendment of the law for regional development (State newspaper, issue 14 from 2004) variant was adopt in which, with the decreasing of the lowest thresholds of the basic indicators in order the territorial range of the mountain areas to be increased. The accepted parameters for the municipality territory in the undeveloped mountain regions are as follows:

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-

-

altitude above 500 m or below 500 m but with average for the territory depth of the segmentation of the relief over 150 m difference between the highest and lowest point of one square meter. average for the territory density of the segmentation of the relief above 1,5 km per square meter. average inclination of the relief above 7 degrees.

This geographical logic differs from the approved in the scientific circles concept according to which the mountain belt begins at 600 m altitudes and which was accepted in all past normative documents. With the changes that were made and which have rather subjective character the range was increased and now new territories were included, which have differences regarding their own natural and social-economical conditions and resources, and the possibilities of their using and control. Unfortunately, the additional indicators of demographical, economical and infrastructure character do not contribute for the purposefully defining of the problems of the mountain areas. In the aspect in which they are submitting in the law they now only unify the approach for all regions for purposeful impact. In this way the possibilities for objective appraisal of the state and elaboration of real plans for development and taking of correct management decisions. Currently in force Regional Development Law (State newspaper. Issue 50 of 30 May 2008 and in force since 31.08.2008) goes even further in the process of running a real commitment to the development of these essential parts of the national territory. According to Art.5 of territory of the regions of level 3 can be detached regions for targeted support by the State which covers the territory of one or more neighboring municipalities. Nowhere in the text does not comment on these kinds of areas and which authority determines it, but their territorial range in accordance with the attached demographic, socio-economic and infrastructural criteria established in regional development strategies according to the National Institute of Statistics and Administrative Statistics of the Employment Agency. The lack of sufficient scientific and expert potential at regional level in the delegation of this important function creates a real risk for the development of these areas. In restricting the types and the territorial coverage of the regions considerable areas may be excluded from the action of real instruments for regional development. The opposite process could lead to severe difficulties for resource provisioning and implementation of a targeted integrated policy and discrediting of the opportunities to compensate for the restrictions imposed by the geographical environment. It is extremely important in this process actively to be engaged local, regional and national scientific research - centers, agencies, universities or target created structures to carry out specialized studies upon the basis of which objectively to be defined as the type and scope of territorial areas as well as their main problems and opportunities in their development. It should be specified herein that the whole process of defining the type and territory of the so-called less-favored regions should be made on the basis of the global framework stated in the EU regulations. Thus a common basis is created and equal requirements are set to all member states. As the soil climatic characteristics, and the economic, demographic and ecologic conditions are incomparable, as well as the database that each one of them has, the measurement of these conditions should be made by using different indices. The specific level of every index however shall be defined in compliance with the limit values stated in the Regulation. In this way, every member country of the European Union decides how many groups of less favored regions it should define. Due to the changes occurred in the European Union, the Council Regulation (EC) 1257/99 setting the conditions for defining the less favored regions has been amended and

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supplemented twice. Actually, there is a Memorandum of July 23, 2004 for a new Regulation that shall come into force on January 1st, 2007 and shall revoke the Regulation 1257/99. The mountainous regions are defined in Article 18 of this Regulation as territories characterized by substantial limitations of the possibilities to use the land and significant increase of the production costs, due to: - climatic limitations for cultivation of agricultural crops due to the altitude, that makes shorter their period of vegetation; - low altitude and abrupt sloping impeding the operation of agricultural equipment and making their work very difficult on a large part of the territory, or requiring the use of expensive specialized equipment; - a combination of these two factors when separately they do not create impediments, but jointly do; - regions north the 62 degree of latitude and regions adjacent to this parallel. Part of the current normative base in our country in terms of mountain areas is directly related to the regulation of compensatory financing mechanisms (in accordance with the Law on supporting farmers) and includes special Ordinances to define the criteria for disadvantaged areas and their territorial scope (adopted by Decree № 30 of 15.02.2008, State newspaper, issue 20 from 26.02.2008, in force from 26.02.2008). It establishes the parameters and criteria for identifying disadvantaged areas (1.Mountainous areas, 2.Areas with handicaps, other than mountain) and their territorial scope. According to the ordinance Mountain areas are lands of settlements, which meet at least one of the following criteria and indicators: - An average altitude minimum 700 m; - Average slope of the terrain at least 20%; - An average altitude minimum of 500 m in combination with an average slope at least 15%. In addition, are homogenized group of lands and lands adjacent to the mountains that have at least 90% common border with the mountain lands. This methodological approach which is applied significantly limits the territorial scope of the mountainous regions. As a result, large parts of the Bulgarian mountains or even entire bodies remain outside. This extra strains on the limited local community and totally condemns their future of sustainable decline, not only in terms of agricultural activities but in their complete socio-economic profile. The separation of areas with specific characteristics is a traditional tool for spatial targeting of policies and programs to achieve the desired goals. A review of these various departments shows various signs / criteria by which they are designated and a large overlap. In NKPR 2013- 2025 is perceived as areas with specific characteristics to be treated those parts of the national territory, which is necessary to apply a specific policy of planning and development. Defined as coastal areas (Black Sea and the Danube), mountainous areas, border areas, areas at risk and areas for the protection of the landscape, natural and cultural values. These areas are determined as informal areas. Two of them, the Danube and Black Sea coast are defined and institutionalized and have an international consolidated strategic development documents. Black Sea coast is the subject of a special law. Other areas with specific types can be summarized into a single category "problematic" areas. Determination of areas with specific characteristics and problems allows to focus the regional addresses and sectorial policy priorities and the future operational programs will increase the likelihood of realization of the regional strategies. Thereby will be found ways

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and approaches for identifying and keeping focused and integrated policy to preserve their specificity and overcome the accumulated problems. As territories with specific characteristics and the conditions in the various documents indicating mountain, rural and border areas / communities. For them is typical a high degree of overlapping and very similar problems that warrants to be classified as "problematic" areas. There are currently 3 different delimitation of mountain municipalities through the typology of NORDREGIO (NCSD, 2004) - see Figure 1 on typology in the Ordinance for determining the criteria for less favored areas and area boundaries (State newspaper issue. 20/2008 ) - see Figure 4 and in accordance with the adopted in the National Strategy for regional Development 2012-2022 (МРРБ-НЦТР, 2012). Based on the criteria for determining regions for targeted support Law on Regional Development, mountain regions are divided into two groups depending on the number of indicators that are met - Fig. 3 (МРРБ, 2012). The existing most various options for determining the territorial scope of the mountainous areas and mountain communities (see Figure 2 and Figure 5) using different criteria and indicators which are products of various institutions and research teams, does not actually work in favor of those specific areas. CONCLUSION The great conceptual, legal and technological (software) wandering through the years, often differ from the established geographical parameters for delimitation and is a subject more to foreign models and definitions that often confront our national tradition and local identity in this process. It is clear the need of institutional synchronization: normative base, secondary normative acts, strategic, planning and operational documents that define mountainous areas, organize and manage their development. New requirements that apply after regular membership of Bulgaria in the European Union and the changing conditions for the development of less favored regions, in particular in mountainous ones, require adequate management solutions. In this sense, the role of targeted regional studies for the development of up-to-date planning documents reflect all changes and where the real priorities for future development are taken into account to increase even more. ILLUSTRATIONS

Fig.1. Mountainous areas (in NCSD, 2004).

Fig.2. Mountainous areas (in МРРБ).

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ПРИРОДНИ РЕСУРСИ И КОРИСТЕЊЕ НА ЗЕМЈИШТЕТО ВО РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА NATURAL RESOURCES AND LAND USE IN HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS

Fig.3. Mountainous areas (in МРРБ, НСРР 2012-2022).

Fig.4. Mountainous areas (in МРРБ, НКПР 2013-2025).

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Fig.5. Mountainous areas (in МЗГ и МРРБ, 2003).

Source: АРПОРБ

REFERENCES Власков, Вл. Характер на устойчивото развитие в урбанизирани планински и полупланински райони на България. Сб. докл. Балканска научно-практическа конференция „Природният потенциал и устойчивото развитие на планинските райони”, Враца, 2001. Гачев, Ем. Препоръки за организацията на природоползването в община Смолян на базата на съществуващите природни и антропогенни дадености. Сп. „Проблеми на географията”, бр.1-2, БАН, ГИ, С. 2008. Генов, Р. Предприсъединителните фондове като инструмент за стимулиране на активността за развитие на устойчив туризъм и земеделие. Сб. докл. Балканска научно-практическа конференция „Природният потенциал и устойчивото развитие на планинските райони”, Враца, 2001. Грозева, М. Устойчиво развитие на туризма в планинските и полупланинските територии на България. Сб. докл. Балканска научно-практическа конференция „Природният потенциал и устойчивото развитие на планинските райони”, Враца, 2001. Дерменджиева, К. Принципи на устойчивото водоползване в планинските райони. Сб. докл. Балканска научно-практическа конференция „Природният потенциал и устойчивото развитие на планинските райони”, Враца, 2001. Еврев, П. Урбанистични аспекти на развитието на туризма в планинските райони и курорти. В. „Строителство градът” бр. 42, С., 2005. Закон за регионалното развитие.Обн. ДВ. бр.14/ 2004. Закон за изменение и допълнение на ЗРР(ДВ. бр.14/2004г.). ОБН. ДВ. бр.32/ 7 април2005г. Киселкова, Ал. и П. Петров. Идеята „Български пътеки” и нетрадиционния туризъм в България. Сб. докл. Балканска научно-практическа конференция „Природният потенциал и устойчивото развитие на планинските райони”, Враца, 2001. Нам, К. и Ив. Иванов. Антропогенни трансформации на ландшафтите и устойчиво природоползване в Западна Стара планина. Сб. докл. Балканска научно-практическа конференция „Природният потенциал и устойчивото развитие на планинските райони”, Враца, 2001. Наредба №14/ 1 април 2003г. – За определяне обхвата на населените места в селски и планински райони.МЗГ и МРРБ, Обн.ДВ. бр.35/ 2003 Патарчанов, Пл. Алтернативният туризъм в планинските селища на Западните Родопи. Сб. докл. от науч. конф. “Възможности и проблеми за развитието на алтернативни форми на туризъм в малките селища на страната” , Пловдив, 2011. Патарчанов, Пл. Интегрирано териториално развитие и стимулиране на икономическите дейности от третичния сектор в планинските райони ( методологични аспекти). Сб. докл. от Международна юбилейна научна конференция „Икономиката и управлението в ХХІ век – решения за стабилност и растеж”, Свищов, 2011.

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Патарчанов, Пл. Политики за развитие на планинските райони в Европейския съюз – регионални и локални особености. Сб. докл. юбилейна научно-практическа конференция „Модернизация на икономиката – макроикономически, финансови и социални аспекти”, т.ІІІ , СА, Свищов. 2008. Патарчанова, Ем. Възможности за устойчиво развитие на изостаналите планински райони в Благоевградска област. Сп. „Проблеми на географията”, бр.1-2, БАН, ГИ, С. 2008. Петров, П. Селските планински райони и идеята за устойчивото развитие. Сб. докл. Балканска научно-практическа конференция „Природният потенциал и устойчивото развитие на планинските райони”, Враца, 2001. Планините в България. Николов, В. и Йорданова, М. Акад. изд. „Проф. М. Дринов”, С., 2002. Планинските райони в Република България – обзор, политика, намерения. МТРС, НЦТРЖП, С.,1994. Попова, Н. Ресурсен потенциал за развитие на туризма в Източните Родопи – степен на усвоеност и основни проблеми на използването му. ГСУ, Кн. 2-География, Т. 100, С., 2008. Природният и икономическият потенциал на планините в България. Т.1, „Природа и ресурси”. Колектив под редакцията на К. Мишев, БАН, ГИ, С., 1989. Природният и икономическият потенциал на планините в България. Т.2, „Население и икономика”. Колектив под редакцията на Р. Найденова, БАН, ГИ, С., 1990. Националната стратегия за регионално развитие (НСРР) за периода 2012 – 2022 г. МРРБ, С., 2012. Националната концепция за пространствено развитие на Р. България за периода 2013 – 2025 г. МРРБ - НЦТР, С., 2012. Шишманова, М. Интегрирано развитие на туризма в планинските райони. Сб. докл. Балканска научно-практическа конференция „Природният потенциал и устойчивото развитие на планинските райони”, Враца, 2001. Шишманова, М. Регионално развитие, регионална политика, и устройствено планиране на планинските райони. Сп. „Проблеми на географията”, бр.1-2, БАН, ГИ, С. 2008. Янакиева. Ив. и колектив. Методически подход за определяне на необлагодетелстваните райони и районите с екологични ограничения. НЦАН. ИАИ. С. 2005. COMMISSION REGULATION (EC), N 445/2002, February, 2002, laying down detailed for the application of Council Regulation (EC), N 1257/99, Official Journal of the European Communities. COMMISSION REGULATION (EC), N 1783/2003, September, 2003, Council Regulation (EC), N 1257/99, Official Journal of the European Communities. COMMISSION REGULATION (EC), N 1257/1999, May, 1999, on support for rulal development from the European Community, and in Guarantee Fund (FAGGF) and amending and repealing certain Regulations. Mountain Areas in Europe: Analysis of mountain areas in EU member states, acceding and other European countries. Final report. European Commission contract No 2002.CE.16.0. AT.136. NCSD. 2004. Patarchanov, Pl. The mountain areas in Bulgaria – contemporary challenges in the development policy. Second International Conference “Global changes and new challenges of 21 century”, Sofia, Bulgaria, 2005. Patarchanov, Pl. Agricultural Mountain Areas in Bulgaria - problems, challenges, decisions. Journal of Settlements and Spatial Planning. Volume 1, Issue 2/2010 Print ISSN: 2248-2499. Online ISSN: 20693419. Edited by: Centre for Research on Settlements and Urbanism. Published by: Cluj university press. 2010. Patarchanov, Pl. Mountain regions economy – the sustainable area development challenges it faces. International Scientific Symposium “Geography And Sustainable Development” - Macedonian Geographical Society. Ohrid, Macedonia, 2009. Patarchanov, Pl. Role and Place of Alternative Tourism Development in Mountain Areas. Journal of Settlements and Spatial Planning. Special Issue 1/2012. Print ISSN: 2248-2499. Online ISSN-L: 2069-3419. Edited by: Centre for Research on Settlements and Urbanism.Published by: Cluj university press. 2012. Sustainable Development in Mountain Regions – Southeastern Europe. Springer Science + Business Media B.V., 2011.

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УДК: 502.5(497.2)

PRESENT STATUS OF THE LANDSCAPE DIVERSITY IN KRAISHTE MOUNTAIN REGION Georgi ZHELEZOV1, Aleksander TODOROV2 1

National Institute of Geophysics, Geodesy and Geography, Bulgarian Academy of Sclences 2 NAVTEQ Europe B.V. – branch Bulgaria gzhelezov@abv.bg1 aleksandar.todorov@here.com2

Abstract Mountain regions are one of the most dynamic and changeable areas in the Southeastern Europe. They cover a number of different landscapes, protected areas and protected species. The investigations on these regions are important for differentiation and determination of the landscape diversity, evaluation of the natural potential and present opportunities for development of the regions. Kraishte mountain region is situated in western Bulgaria. The region is characterized by low economical parameters and high level of depopulation. The present research is related with investigation of the landscape diversity and analysis of the potential of the region. This investigation could be integrated in regional development plans and plans for development of the transborder cooperation. The result can be used for optimization of the landuse and all economical activities in the region. Key words: landscape diversity, nature potential, mountain regions

INTRODUCTION Landscape investigations are important part of geographical analysis of the territory. They include researches related to factors for landscape differentiation, landscape differentiation of the landscape diversity, classification of the landscapes, characteristic of landscape diversity, landscape mapping, evaluation of the landscape potential, geophysics and geochemistry of the landscapes, protection and restoration of the landscapes and ecosystem and landscape services. Landscape researches are a key element in evaluation of the regions and must be incorporated in plans and strategies for regional development. The most important results are related to evaluation of the natural potential of the regions. The analysis can be orientated to natural determined areas or administrative and transborder region. These type of researches can be used for improvement of the quality of the life and economical standard of the regions. They are real platform for transboundary integration and optimal use of natural resources. MAIN STRUCTURES AND LOCATION Kraishte mountain region is situated between structures of Zavalsko-Planska mountain ridge on the North and mountains Osogovo and Rila on the South. Kraishte mountain region is a complex mosaic of mountains, kettles and deep river valleies (Fig. 1). The main direction of the basic relief structure is developed in Northwest-Southeast. The kettles Pernishka, Breznishka and Trunska are situated in the Northern part. The historical and ethnographical region Graovo is formed by the kettles Pernishka and Breznishka. The region of Trunska kettle is know as Znepole historical-ethnographical region. On the South of them VeriloRujska mountain ridge is developed, which includes mountains Verila, Golo burdo, Cherna gora, Lubash, Strazhata and Ruj. Divlianska and Radomirska kettles are situated on the South of this ridge. On the South of these two kettles are developed the main structures of Koniavsko-Milevska mountain ridge with mountains Koniavska, Zemenska and Milevska. On

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the North of Milevska mountain is situated mountain Kurvav kamuk with highest peak in Kraishte – Bilo (1737 m). The main direction is changed in the southern part of Kraishte in west-east. This is the development of the morphographic structures of kettles Kamenishka, Kustendilska, Saparevska, Samokovska and Dolnobanska. The highest kettle is Samokovska with height of 950 m. Between Kamenishka and Kustendilska kettles is situated Lisets mountain and between Koiniavska mountain, Struma river and Saparevska kettle – hilly area Razmetanitsa. The region of Kraishte is delineated by Kustensdilska, Kamenishka kettles and valley of river Struma in south direction. There is clear morphostructure border with mountains Osogovo and Rila. Jordan Zahariev (1918) determined the region of Kustendilsko Kraishte in historicogeographical and ethnographical aspect. The other regions are Trusko and Zemensko Kraishte. RELIEF The average elevation of Kraishte mountain region is 962 m. The synclines and anticlines are specific element in the structure of Kraishte. There are rock formations with different age – Palaeozoic metamorphic rocks, Mesozoic limestones and sands, Tertiary and Quaternary sediments. The main rocks of some mountains are limestones, marls and sands – Golo burdo, Lubash, Cherna gora, Zemenska and Koniavska mountains. The other mountains as Milevska, Ruj, Kurvav kamuk and Lisets are dominated by granites and metamorphic rocks. The bottoms of the kettles are covered with accumulation materials as sands, clays and marls. There are formations of coal deposits in Pernishka kettle. Some of the limestones and clays are also utilized as recourses for building industry – regions of Zemen town, Elov dol village etc. The main features of the present relief have been formed at the end of the Tertiary and Quaternary. Kraishte region is one of the basic morphostructures in Bulgaria, which name is Kraishtidi. The most representative relief forms are three denudation levels, several river terraces, beautiful gorges of river Erma to Trun town and gorges of river Struma (Krakra, Chardashki, Pribojski and Zemenski). Karst relief with specific forms is developed in the mountains Koniavska, Zemenska and Lubash. CLIMATE The climate of Kraishte is continental, semihumide. It is characterized by cold winter (-2- -4 ºC – average January temperature) and warm summer (15-25 ºC – average July temperature). The absolute minimal temperature for Bulgaria was measured in Trun kettle - 38,8 ºC. The predominant wind direction is west and northwest, following of east and northeast. The winter is long and snowy. The region is closed for the South atmospheric circulation by the mountain ridges of Osogovo, Doganichka and Dokatsa. The mountains in the North, Northeast and Northwest are not so high and there is opportunity for the moving of north atmospheric circulation. This is the main reason for hard winter conditions in the region. The average quantity of the rainfalls is 750-800 mm with spring-summer maximum and winter minimum. This fact determines the low level of water flows of the river.

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Fig. 1 Structures in Kraishte mountain region

WATERS The main river system of the region is Struma river and it’s catchments area. The bigger rivers in the systems are Dzherman, Erma, Treklenska, Dragovistitsa, Svetlia, Konska etc. All rivers are part of the Aegean basin, except Erma and Iskur rivers. The other rivers systems, which are related with the region are Iskur, crossing Samokovska kettle and Maritsa, crossing Dolnobanska kettle. The regime of the rivers is rain-snowy, but in the lower region – rainy. The maximum of the river flow is during Spring and beginning of Summer. The module of river flow is between 1520 l/s/km² in high region of Kraishte and 0,510 l/s/km² for Radomirska kettle. The main region of karst waters are Golo Burdo and Zemenski gorge. Kraishte region is rich of mineral waters in Sapareva bania, Kustendil, Nevestino, Breznik, Belchin, Dona Bania, Truska Bankia etc. SOILS The basic soil types for the region are Vertisols for the kettles (bottom areas of Pernishka, Brezniska, Radomirska and Trunska kettles). They are characterized by heavy mechanical composition (clay content of 50-75% ), specific physical and mechanical properties of water. Upon wetting of the soil, it swells, its volume increases and becomes 75


ПРИРОДНИ РЕСУРСИ И КОРИСТЕЊЕ НА ЗЕМЈИШТЕТО ВО РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА NATURAL RESOURCES AND LAND USE IN HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS

greater ductility. It shrinks, hardens and forms wide cracks during the dry conditions. Vertisols are distinguished by low water permeability and a large water holding capacity. The other soil types are Chromic Cambisols and Cambisols. They cover regions of mountains and high kettels. Fluvisols are located along the river. Leptosols, especialy Rendzic are typical for mountain Golo burdo. BIODIVERSITY The territory of Kraishte is disforestificated. The present forests have secondary character. The formations are dominated by the broadleaf species as oak species, beech, ash, elm etc. There is an increase of areas with pine-tree (Pinus nigra) during the last years. The highest part of the mountains area is covered with grass formation. There is a number of endemic and relict species. One of the most representative places is the region of reserve “Ostritsa” in mountain Golo burdo with 360 vegetation species. The Fauna of Kraishte mountain region is dominated of Paleoartic faunistic species. The influence and spreading of Mediterranean species is very poor. ANTHROPOGENIC IMPACT Mining industry in the area is the cause of serious disturbance of natural landscapes. Development of economic sectors (energy, metallurgy, etc.). Pernishka kettle has led to pollution of air, soil and water. Natural vegetation in the valley is destroyed due to their dense population and their use for agriculture. Natural resources of the area have been used by the local population during the long hystorical period. Especially decreased forest logging in the past. This led to the development of strong erosion. On the basis of minerals here have developed some industries - energy (heating in Pernik and Bobov Dol), cement production in the past (Batanovtsi) and lime (Zemen). The presence of extensive grasslands favors the development of animal husbandry. In the valleys and the surrounding foothills and hydroclimatic soil conditions are suitable for the cultivation of many crops - vegetables, potatoes, cereals, tobacco, hops, vineyards, orchards, etc. Kustendil kettle is known as the orchard of Bulgaria. Features of the landscape not significantly impede the development of rail and road transport. In Kraishte pass major transportation corridors connecting with the Adriatic (Sofia Skopje - Durres) and Aegean (Sofia - Kulata - Thessaloniki). On the basis of the mineral springs well developed are touristical and recreation activities - Kustendil and Separeva banya. Famous natural tourist sites are the Erma River Gorge near Trun, Zemen Gorge and Waterfalls "Skakavitsa" and others. Human activity has led to significant violations of the natural environment in the region of Pernik, Dupnitsa, Bobov Dol, Radomir, Batanovtsi, Kustendil, Zemen etc. The region is contaminated with toxic substances in air and soil, particularly the waters of the river Struma. Grazing has led to significant changes in vegetation cover. Carry out forestation of manmade artificial hills – tabans and tericons formed by the exploitation of mineral resources with special plant species. In Kraishte there is only one reserve - "Ostritsa" in Golo Bardo Mountain. It hosts more than 360 species of plants and preserves unique endemic and relict species included in the "Red Book" of Bulgaria as urumovo tulip, urumovii mullein etc.

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LANDSCAPE RESEARCHES IN KRAISHTE The first investigations of the region of Kraishte are related with the work of Zahariev (1918) for Kustendilsko Kraishte. These results and primary descriptions have been used as a basis of future geographical researches in the region. Petrov and Velchev (1992) determined ten basic landscape regions in Kraishte province in scale 1:400 000 – Ruiski, Ljubashko-Verilsky, Transky, Breznishko-Pernishky, Radomirsky, Central Kraishte, Divljianski, Zemensky, Konjavsko-Milevsky and Central Dzhermansky. They differentiated the landscape diversity following the general morphostructures of the province – general mountain ridges and kettles in the periphery. The research is based on three principles in process of regionalization – territorial entirety, complexity and the genetic principle. The authors also used the general sketch for regionalization of Bulgaria (Petrov, 1980, 1982) and investigation “Landscapes of South Kraishte” (Velchev, 1980). The other important result of the research is Evaluation landscape map for recreation goals based on the landscape regionalization. There is sixth level of evaluation, which determined the opportunities for development of recreation activities in the region. The main characteristics are relief and quality of forests (percent of afforestation). Konteva (1992) observed the main factors for landscape diversity in the region of Zaburge. The region is located close to Kraishte and compared with it. The author used sixth range classification and determines two classes, five subclasses, five types, forthteen groups and thirty two subgroups landscapes. The basic factors for landscape differentiation are geological, geomorphological and hydroclimatological peculiarities in combination with soil and vegetation specific of the region on the lower level. The basic landscapes of Kraishte can be connected with types Mountain warmtemporate semihumid and Mountain warm-temporate humid based on the landscape classification and differentiation of Velchev et al. (1992). LANSCAPE DIVERSITY The landscape diversity of Kraishte region can be devided in three general groups of lanscapes based on the landscape investigations in the past. Mountain landscapes The moutain landscape are located in several regions. They are the predominant class of lanscapes in Kraishte. They can be grouped in several regions. Region of Zavalsko-Planska mountain ridge Region of Verilo-Rujska mountain ridge, which includes mountains Verila, Golo burdo, Cherna gora, Lubash, Strazhata and Ruj. Region of Koniavsko-Milevska mountain ridge with mountains Koniavska, Zemenska and Milevska. Regions of asymmetric situated mountain structures - Kurvav kamuk and Lisets mountains. Kettle landscapes The other class of landscape is related with kettle structure. They can be divided in three genral regions. Region of the kettles Pernishka, Breznishka and Trunska. Region of Divlianska and Radomirska kettles. Region of kettles Kamenishka, Kustendilska, Saparevska, Samokovska and Dolnobanska.

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Hydromorphic landscapes In the areas with nature and artificial wetland sysstems are formed the hydromorphic lanscapes. They have active interaction with the other two landscape classes. They can be grouped in three general directions – riparian type, lake-marsh type and artificial type. We can divide several regions based on this conception. Region of valley of Erma river. Region of valley of Struma river. Region of valley of Treklianska river. Region of valley of Dzherman river. Regions of Chokliovo marsh Regions with artificial wetlands.

CONCLUSIONS The main factors for development of the landscape diversity in Kraishte mountain region are macrorelief structures and hydroclimatological conditions. The landcapes can be organized in three general groups – mountain, kettle and hydromorphic (related with wetland systems). The most important for agriculture goals are kettles and hydromorphic landscapes, especially along the rivers, followed by the mountain landscapes. The mountain landscapes can be leading in development of the touristical, recreation and sport activities. REFERENCES Konteva, M., 1992, Facrots which form the landscape structure of Zaburge, Years book of Sofia University, Tome 81, S., 163-177. Petrov, P. and A. Velchev, 1992, Landscape regionalization – a basis for territorial plannig of Kraiste province. Years book of Sofia University, Tome 81, S.,151-163. Petrov, P., 1980, Landscape regionalization of Bulgaria, Years book of Sofia University, Tome 71. S. Petrov, P., 1982, Landscape regionalization. In Encyclopedia Bulgaria, T. 3, S., BAS, p. 717. Velchev, A., 1980, Landscapes of South Kraishte – perspective for use and protection. Doctor disertation. Velchev, A., N. Todorov, A. Asenov, N. Berachushvili, 1992, Landscape map of Bulgaria at Scale 1: 500 000. Years book of Sofia University, Tome 84. S., 85-107. Zahariev, J., 1918, Kustendilsko Kraiste. S., p. 400.

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УДК: 551.583(262.5)

MOUNTAINS CLIMATE INFLUENCE ON RIVER STREAMFLOWS AND LOCAL MEAN SEA LEVEL Anton IVANOV1, Georgi ZHELEZOV1 1

National Institute of Geophysics, Geodesy and Geography, Bulgarian Academy of Sclences anton_iv66@abv.bg

ABSTRACT The mountains climate affects various environmental parameters of neighbor areas, including rainflows, snow covers, river streamflows and other hydrological cycles. The Black Sea is almost isolated from direct influence of the global ocean changes and local variations of the Mediterranean Sea, so the Black Sea mean level variations depend mainly on local environmental changes and river streamflows. The interconnection between the mountains climate changes and corresponding river streamflows and Black Sea mean level variations is investigated by means of Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) for the period 1871-2005, mareograph observations of the mean sea level since 1875 from several Black Sea stations – Batumi, Bourgas, Constanza, Poti, Sevastopol, Tuapse, Varna and Sokhumi and discharge of some rivers including Danube and Dnepr. The PDSI values are calculated from the grid data for all rivers basins around the Black Sea and separately for the grid areas over the Alps, Balkans, Carpathians, Caucasus and Turkish mountains. The correlation between the interannual and long-term mountain PDSI variations and local river streamflows and mareograph time series are determined. Key words: climate changes, PDSI, river streamflows, mean sea level

INTRODUCTION The global warming, accelerated after 1980, leads to glaciers melting, sea levels rising, large field areas drying and significant changes in all geosystems. Nowadays it is believed that humans have caused most of the past century's warming by releasing heat-trapping gases. The hypothesis of greenhouse gases explains the major part of the observed increase of the mean air temperature, but many authors point out other natural sources of significant climate variations exist, such as solar cycles and connected with them changes of the total solar irradiance, climate, rainfalls and etc. The mean level variations of isolated seas, such like the Black sea, depend mainly on local environmental changes and river discharges, so common cycles of large rivers and the mean level of Black sea are investigated according the Mountains climate variations, represented by the PDSI data. CLIMATE, RIVER AND MEAN SEA LEVEL DATA Climate data The Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) is involved by Palmer (1965) to represent the severity of dry and wet spells over the U.S. based on monthly temperature and precipitation data as well as the soil-water holding capacity at that location. The global PDSI data (Dai et al., 1998; 2004) consist of the monthly surface air temperature (Jones and Moberg, 2003) and precipitation (Dai et al., 1998; Chen et al., 2002) over global land areas from 1870 to 2006. These data is represented as PDSI values in global grids 2°.5×2°.5. The Palmer classification of drought conditions is in terms of minus numbers: between 0.49 and -0.49 - near normal conditions; -0.5 to -0.99 - incipient dry spell; -1.0 to -1.99 - mild drought; -2.0 to -2.99 moderate drought; -3.0 to -3.99 - severe drought; and -4.0 or less - extreme drought. The positive values are similar about the wet conditions. The time series of the PDSI variations over a certain area are determined by the mean values from all grid data from the selected area. The mean values are computed by means of the robust Danish method (Kubik, 1982; Juhl, 1984; Kegel, 1987). The quality of the Danish method in data processing had been 79


ПРИРОДНИ РЕСУРСИ И КОРИСТЕЊЕ НА ЗЕМЈИШТЕТО ВО РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА NATURAL RESOURCES AND LAND USE IN HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS

proved in many work recently (Chapanov, 2005, 2006, 2008c; Chapanov et al., 2005a,b,c, 2006a,b, 2007a, 2008a, 2009), so the Danish method was widely applied for processing of astrometric and geodetic time series. This method allows to detect and isolate outliers and to obtain accurate and reliable solution for the mean values. The calculated values of the PDSI variations and their errors by the Danish method are shown in Fig.3. It is remarkable the significant decrease of the standard deviations below 0.05-0.1 when the number of used grids is greater than 10. According the classification, the global conditions before 1979 are mostly normal with very slow drought tendency. After 1979 the drought rate increases for some regions by annual value of the PDSI changes -0.035a-1 (Chapanov et al., 2010d). River data The annual time series of river discharge into the Black Sea consist of data from the following river stations (http://www.sage.wisc.edu/riverdata): - River Danube, station Drobeta - Turnu Severin, country Romania, latitude 44.7°N; longtitude 22.42°E, basin area 576232km2; - River Dnepr, country Ukrainian, station Dnepr Hydroelectric Plant, latitude 47.92°N; longtitude 35.15°E, basin area 463000km2; - River Don, country Russia, station Razdorskaya, latitude 47.50°E; longtitude 40.67°N, basin area 378000km2; - River Sava, country Serbia, station Sremska Mitrovica, latitude-44.96°E; longtitude19.61°N, basin area 87996km2. Mean sea level data The sea level data from the global network of tide gauges are collected and analysed by the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) which is international responsible for these activity since 1933. The database of the PSMSL contains monthly and annual mean values of sea level from more than two thousands tide gauge stations. The PSMSL receives monthly and annual data from almost 200 national authorities, distributed around the world, responsible for sea level monitoring in each country or region. The raw data from each station (called “Metric”) are entered directly as received from the authority. In order to construct time series of sea level measurements at each station, the monthly and annual means are reduced to a common datum. The PSMSL performs this reduction by the tide gauge datum history provided by the supplying authority. Now, most of the stations in the PSMSL database have had their data adjusted in this way, forming the “Revised Local Reference” (or “RLR”) dataset. For scientific purposes, the RLR dataset is preferable to the 'Metric', although the latter can also be analyzed taking into account datum continuity considerations. The RLR datum is defined to be 7000mm below mean sea level in order to avoid negative numbers in the resulting RLR monthly and annual mean values. The records without the provision of full benchmark datum history information remain as 'Metric only' in the databank. The PSMSL databank provide long time series of monthly variations of the mean sea level from several Black Sea stations – Batumi, Bourgas, Constanza, Poti, Sevastopol, Tuapse, Varna and Sokhumi, which give possibilities to study gravity, climate and other changes in decadal and century scales. More details about the MSL variations, measured at the Black Sea mareograph stations are given in (Alpar and Yuce, 1998; Altman and Kumish, 1986; Blatov et al., 1984; Boguslavsky et al., 1998; Cazenave et al., 2002; Chapanov, 2008b; Tzenkov et al., 2003; Tsimplis et al., 2004; Yildiz et al., 2008). Some aspects of the MSL variations of the Black Sea and their connections with the river discharges are given in (Banu, 1961; Berembeim, 1960; Bondar et al., 1963, 1973; Bondar, 1986, 1989, 1993, 2007).

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Figure 1. PDSI grid area over drainage basins of the Black Sea, composed by 7 belts covering trapezoid zones: 1) Longtitude 27.5°- 40.0°E Latitude 52.5°- 55.0°N 2) Longtitude 25.0°- 45.0°E Latitude 50.0°- 52.5°N 3) Longtitude 7.5° - 45.0°E Latitude 47.5°- 50.0°N 4) Longtitude 7.5° - 42.5°E Latitude 45.0°- 47.5°N 5) Longtitude 15.0°- 42.5°E Latitude 42.5°- 45.0°N 6) Longtitude 30.0°- 42.5°E Latitude 40.0°- 42.5°N 7) Longtitude 30.0°- 37.5°E Latitude 37.5°- 40.0°N

Figure 2. PDSI grid area over Mountains from the drainage basins of the Black Sea: 1) Longtitude 7.5° - 15.0°E Latitude 45.0°- 50.0°N 2.1) Longtitude 17.5°- 27.5°E Latitude 47.5°- 50.0°N 2.2) Longtitude 22.5°- 27.5°E Latitude 45.0°- 47.5°N 3) Longtitude 15.0°- 30.0°E Latitude 42.5°- 45.0°N 4) Longtitude 37.5°- 42.5°E Latitude 42.5°- 45.0°N 5.1) Longtitude 30.0°- 42.5°E Latitude 40.0°- 42.5°N 5.2) Longtitude 30.0°- 37.5°E Latitude 37.5°- 40.0°N

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РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИ ПОДРАЧЈА - ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ, Охрид, 12-15 IX 2013 HILLY- MOUNTAIN - AREAS PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES, Ohrid, 12-15 IX 2013

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The time series of the PDSI variations in Fig.3 over the Mountains of drainage basin of Black Sea are determined by a method of Data normal points calculation (Chapanov, 2005, 2006, 2008c; Chapanov et al., 2005a,b,c, 2006a,b, 2007a, 2008a, 2009), which is based on robust estimation and yields excellent results of the mean PDSI variations from interval (-5, +5) with mean error level below 0.1 with exception of data over the West Caucasus, which consists of 2 monthly grids only. COMMON LONG-TERM VARIATIONS OF MSL, PDSI AND RIVER DISCHARG

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The long-term variations of the PDSI, MSL and river data (Fig.4) are determined by means of a Method of partial Fourier approximation based on the Least Squares estimation. This method had been proved in many works (Chapanov, 2008a, Chapanov et al., 2007b, 2008a, b, 2010a, b, c) where specific solar, magnetic, Earth rotation, climate and MSL oscillations with frequencies from a given band were extracted and compared. The advantage of this method is easy and flexible choice of the frequency band and accurate Least Squares estimates of the coefficients. The monthly data values of PDSI, MSL and river discharge are separated into two frequency bands – seasonal with periods 0.9a-1.1a and long term band with periods greater than 2 years by the Method of partial Fourier approximation. This separation is illustrated in Fig.4 where the Mountains and combined PDSI long term and seasonal variations are shown. The interannual PDSI variations with mean cycles around 2a have relative small amplitude, while the 5-year cycle amplitudes are greater. The interannual and long-term PDSI variations are expressed by the amplitude modulation of the seasonal cycles, too (Fig.4), where the amplitude modulation consists of periodicities of about 5-10 years. The PDSI over the European mountains have some similarity of the long terms and seasonal modulation, while over the Caucasus and Turkish Mountains the PDSI variations are rather different.

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The long-term variations of Danube discharge (Fig.5) have good agreement with the variations of PDSI indices calculated over Carpathians, Alps and Bavarian Mountains and

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combined area of the European Mountains. It is remarkable that the climate cycles over different Mountains have different effects on river discharge, more visible in the case of 5year cycles and longer. The climate variations over the Turkish Mountains disagree with the local MSL variations measured at the East Black Sea gauge stations - Batumi, Poti, Tuapse, and Sokhumi. The long term PDSI variations over the Turkish Mountains are rather different from the PDSI variations over the European Mountains and only a few 5-year cycles are common for all Mountains, so the Turkish Mountains climate has minor effect on the most observed MSL variations of the Black sea.

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The climate of the Mountains from the Black Sea drainage basin strongly affects the variations of the Black Sea mean level, measured at tide gauge stations. Almost all interannual and long term MSL variations of the Black Sea are affected by the Mountains climate variations, represented by the PDSI index, as it is seen in Fig.6,b, and Fig.6,d, with some shift of the phases after 1980, probably due to the increase of the global warming. The local climate variations influence the MSL of Black Sea by the changes of the major rivers discharge (mainly Danube, Dnepr and Don), which effect is revealing by some short delay of about several months in the MSL measurements at tide gauge stations (Table 1, Fig.6,a and 85


ПРИРОДНИ РЕСУРСИ И КОРИСТЕЊЕ НА ЗЕМЈИШТЕТО ВО РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА NATURAL RESOURCES AND LAND USE IN HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS

Fig.6,c). The rivers discharge from the drainage basin of the Black Sea has good agreement with the observed MSL variations and it is dominating factor of the Black Sea level changes. The correlation coefficients between the time series of PDSI, MSL and river discharge for all data are between +0.6 and +0.7 (Table 1). The direct data dependence of the logical chain PDSI variations – river discharge – MSL variations is broken for a few small time intervals, connected with the data of Caucasus PDSI, Don discharge and MSL at Poti and Tuapse, where the correlation coefficients are computed for two selected time spans (Table 1). This points out that the MSL variations of the Black Sea measured at tide gauge stations are influenced by non-stationary complex mutual effects of the climate changes over the Mountains and large rivers discharge, so a unified model of the observed MSL variations of Black Sea should integrate all possible local and regional environmental factors. Table 1. Correlation coefficients and time lag between the time series for some data intervals. Time series Data interval Correlation Time lag in months Carpatians PDSI - Danube discharge 1870-1990 0,663 5 Alps PDSI - Danube discharge 1870-1990 0,681 7 Mountains PDSI - Danube discharge 1870-1990 0.615 5 Danube discharge – MSL at Sevastopol 1910-1990 0.657 7 West Caucasus PDSI - MSL at Poti 1923-1963 0,527 4 1980-1990 0,546 7 Don discharge - MSL at Tuapse 1930-1957 0.623 0 1977-1983 0.625 4 Dnepr discharge - MSL at Tuapse 1920-1985 0.609 3 Mountains PDSI - MSL at Burgas 1930-1997 0.698 0

CONCLUSIONS The data normal points determination based on the robust Danish method used in calculations of PDSI variations over the Mountains regions of the drainage Black Sea basin aids to obtain accurate PDSI time series with the precision level better then 0.1, while the PDSI values are between -5 and +5. The Method of partial Fourier approximation based on the Least Squares estimation provides flexible and detailed separation of the oscillations with frequencies from given bands of interest. The PDSI, MSL and rivers discharge time series are separated into seasonal (with periods between 0.9 and 1.1a) and long term (with periods greater than 2a) components. The Mountains climate strongly affects long term variations of river discharge, which is the main source of the observed local variations of the mean level of the Black Sea. The PDSI variations over the Alps, Balkans and Carpathians significantly correlate with the oscillations of Danube river discharge with periods 2-5 years. The PDSI variations over the West Caucasus significantly correlate with the oscillations of the MSL oscillations measured at the tide gauge stations located at the East part of Black Sea. The Danube, Dnepr and Don discharge affects the long term oscillations of the mean level of Black Sea with some delay of about 0-7 months. The long term trends and variations of the mean level of Black Sea are driven mainly by the regional climate changes over the drainage Black Sea basin, where the Mountains massive play important role. The climate changes over the drainage Black Sea basin and large rivers discharge expose non-stationary complex mutual effects, so a unified model of the observed MSL variations of Black Sea should integrate all possible local and regional environmental factors. REFERENCES Alpar, B. and H. Yuce, 1998, Sea-level Variations and their Interactions Between the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 46, Issue 5, 609-619. Altman, E.N., Kumish, N.I., 1986. Interannual and seasonal variability of the Black Sea fresh water balance. Tr. Gos. Oceanogr. Inst. 145, 3 – 15

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Banu A. C., 1961, Observaţii şi măsurători asupra oscilaţiilor actuale şi seculare ale apelor Mării Negre la ţărmul românesc. Hidrobiologia, Vol.II, Bucureşti. Berembeim I. D., 1960. Mnogoletnie kolebania urovnia Chernogo Moria i rechinoi stok. Meteorologia i gidrologia, nr. 1, Moskva. Blatov, A.S., Bulgakov, N.P., Ivanov, V.A., Kosarev, A.N., Tujilkin, V.S., 1984. Variability of Hydrophysical Fields in the Black Sea. Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 240 pp. Bondar C., Filip Maria, 1963. Contribuţie la studiul nivelurilor Mării Negre. Studii de hidrologie, Vol. IV, Bucureşti. Bondar C., Roventa V., State I., 1973. Marea Neagra in zona litoralului romanesc. Monografie hidrologică. Bondar C., 1986. Considerations on water balance of the Black Sea.Report on the chemistry of seawater. XXXIII Proceedings „The chemical and Physical Oceanography of the Black Sea“. International meeting in Goteborg, june 2-4, Sweden. Bondar C., 1989. Trends in the evolution of the mean Black Sea level. Meteorology and Hydrology, vol. 19, 2. Bondar C., 1993. Secular evolution of some components of the hydrological Danube regime and of the mean level of the Black Sea. Meet the Coastal Challenges of the 21st Century. Bondar, C., 2007, The Black Sea level variations and the river-sea interactions, GEO-ECO-MARINA, 13, ISSN: 2248–2776, 43-50. Boguslavsky, S. G., A. I. Kubryakov and I. K. Ivashchenko, 1998, Variations of the Black Sea level, Phys. Oceanogr., 9, No.3, 199-208. Cazenave A.1, P. Bonnefond, F. Mercier, K. Dominh, V. Toumazou, 2002, Sea level variations in the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea from satellite altimetry and tide gauges Global and Planetary Change, 34, Number 1, pp. 59-86. Chapanov, Ya., 2005, Correlation Between the Long-Period Variations of the Earth's Gravity and Sunspot Magnetic Field, Proc. Int. Symp. on “Modern technologies, education and professional practice in geodesy and related fields” Sofia, pp. 263-269. Chapanov Ya., J. Vondrak, V. Gorshkov, C. Ron, 2005a, Six-year cycles of the Earth rotation and gravity, Reports on Geodesy, Warsaw University of Technology, No2 (73), ISSN 0867-3179, 221-230. Chapanov, Ya., B. Srebrov, Tz. Darakchiev, 2005b, Relationship Between the Solar Activity and the Oscillations of the Vertical, Proc. Int. Symp. on “Modern technologies, education and professional practice in geodesy and related fields” Sofia, pp. 270-279. Chapanov, Ya., Tz. Darakchiev, 2005c, Variations of the Latitude and Vertical at the Observatory Plana for the Period 1987.5-2005.5, Proc. Int. Symp. on “Modern technologies, education and professional practice in geodesy and related fields” Sofia, pp. 280-289. Chapanov, Ya., 2006, Influence of the solar activity on the Earth rotation and gravity, Proc. Conf. “VSU’2006”, vol. II, VII-98 – VII-103, ISBN-13: 978-954-331-010-4, ISBN-10: 954-331-010-6. Chapanov, Ya., B. Srebrov, 2006a, Variations of the parameters of seasonal oscillation of the gravity at Brussels due to solar activity. Proc. Int. Symp. on “Modern technologies, education and professional practice in geodesy and related fields” Sofia, 169-177. Chapanov, Ya., M. Kaufman , Tzv. Darakchiev, 2006b, Oscillations of the vertical determined by latitude observations from Gosstandart network. Proc. Int. symp. on "Modern technologies, education and professional practice in geodesy and related fields", Sofia, pp. 178-186. Chapanov, Ya., J. Vondrák, C. Ron, 2007a, Decadal oscillations of the verticals determined by latitude data, Proc. Int. Symp. "Modern technologies, education and professional practice in geodesy and related fields", Sofia, ISBN: 978-80-903478-9-2, pp 63-72. Chapanov, Ya., D.Gambis, 2007b, Long-term variations of the sea level at Stockholm, Proc. Int. Symp. "Modern technologies, education and professional practice in geodesy and related fields", Sofia, ISBN: 978-80-903478-92, pp. 141-149. Chapanov, Ya., J. Vondrák, C. Ron, 2008a, Decadal Oscillations of The Earth Rotation, AIP. Conf. Proc. Vol. 1043 “Exploring the Solar system and the Universe”, ISSN 0094-243X, ISBN 978-0-7354-0571-4, Melville, New York, 197-200. Chapanov, Ya., Earth rotation response to ENSO events, 2008a, AIP. Conf. Proc. Vol. 1043 “Exploring the Solar system and the Universe”, ISSN 0094-243X, ISBN 978-0-7354-0571-4, Melville, New York, 216217. Chapanov, Ya., 2008b, Mean level change of Black sea from maregraph data, Proc. Int. Symp. "Modern technologies, education and professional practice in geodesy and related fields", Sofia, ISBN: 978-80-87159-033, pp. 64-69. Chapanov, Ya., 2008c, On the residual oscillations of VLBI data arround the FCN frequency, Proc. Int. Symp. "Modern technologies, education and professional practice in geodesy and related fields", Sofia, ISBN: 978-8087159-03-3, pp. 57-63.

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Chapanov, Ya., J. Vondrák, C. Ron, 2008a, 22-year Oscillations of UT1, Core Angular Momentum and Geomagnetic Field, Journées 2008 "Systèmes de référence spatio-temporels", Dresden, ISBN 978-2901057-63-5, 178-181. Chapanov, Ya., D. Gambis, 2008b, Change of the Earth moment of inertia during the observed UT1 response to the 11-year solar cycles, Journées 2008 "Systèmes de référence spatio-temporels", Dresden, ISBN 978-2-901057-63-5, 131-132. Chapanov, Ya., Tz Darakchiev, 2009, Latitude Variations For The Period 1987.5-2008.3 At Observatory Plana And Their Inerpretation, VI Serbian-Bulgarian Astronomical Conference, Belgrade, ISSN 0506 4295, ISBN 978-86-906631-6-3, pp. 293-300. Chapanov, Ya., D. Gambis 2010a, Solar-terrestrial energy transfer during sunspot cycles and mechanism of Earth rotation excitation, Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union, Vol.5, Symp. S264 (Solar and Stellar Variability: Impact on Earth and Planets), Cambridge University Press, pp 404-406 doi:10.1017/S1743921309992997 Chapanov, Ya., J. Vondrák, C. Ron, 2010b, Common 22-year cycles of Earth rotation and solar activity, Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union, Vol.5, Symp. S264 (Solar and Stellar Variability: Impact on Earth and Planets), Cambridge University Press, pp 407-409 doi:10.1017/S1743921309992997 Chapanov, Ya., P. Popesku, O. Badesku, 2010c, Interconnection between periodical variations of Earth gravity and magnetic field, Proc. The 6-th Orlov’s Conference “The study of the Earth as a planet by methods of Geophysics, Geodesy and Astronomy”, Kiev, Akademperiodyka, ISBN978-966-360-145-8, pp.190-193. Chapanov, Ya., D. Gambis, 2010d, Drought cycles over South-East Europe for the period 1870-2005 and their connection with solar activity, Proc. BALWOIS 2010, Ohrid, http://www.balwois.com/balwois/administration/full_paper/ffp-1509.pdf. Chapanov, Ya., M. Temelkova, 2012, Solar Influences on Local Variations of River Streamflows, Proc. BALWOIS 2012, Ohrid, http://balwois.com/2012/USB/papers/577.pdf Chen, M., P. Xie, J.E. Janowiak, and P.A. Arkin, 2002, Global land precipitation: a 50-yr monthly analysis based on gauge observations. J. Hydrometeorol., 3, 249-266. Dai, A., I. Fung, and A. D. Del Genio, 1997, Surface observed global land precipitation variations during 19001988. J. Climate, 10, 2943-2962. Dai, A., K. E. Trenberth, and T. Karl, 1998, Global variations in droughts and wet spells: 1900-1995. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 3367-3370. Dai, A., K. E. Trenberth, and T. Qian, 2004, A global data set of Palmer Drought Severity Index for 1870-2002: Relationship with soil moisture and effects of surface warming. J. Hydrometeorology, 5, 1117-1130. Jones, P.D., and A. Moberg, 2003, Hemispheric and large-scale surface air temperature variations: An extensive revision and an update to 2001. J. Climate, 16, 206-223. Juhl, J., 1984, The “Danish Method” of weight reduction for gross error detection, XV ISP Congress proc., Comm. III, Rio de Janeiro. Kegel, J., 1987, Zur Lokalizierung grober Datenfehler mit Hilfe robuster Ausgleichungsfervahren, Vermessungstechnik, 35, №10, Berlin. Kubik, K., 1982, An error theory for the Danish method, ISP Symposium, Comm. III, Helsinki. Palmer, W. C, 1965, Meteorological Drought. Res. Paper No.45, U.S. Weather Bureau, Washington, 58pp. Tsenkov, Tz., L. Pashova, 2003, Investigation of the influence of some meteorological factors on the mean sea level variation in the region of Varna and Bourgas tide gauges, Geodesy Vol. 16, Bulgarian Academy of Science, ISSN: 0324-1114, pp. 11-27 Tsimplis, M. N., S. A. Josey, M. Rixen, E. V. Stanev, 2004, On the forcing of sea level in the Black Sea, JGR, 109, C08015, doi:10.1029/2003JC002185. Yildiz, H., O.B. Andersen, A. Kilicoglu, M. Simav, O. Lenk, 2008, Sea level variations in the Black Sea for 1993-2007 period from GRACE, altimetry and tide gauge data, Geophysical Research Abstracts, 10, EGU2008A-08684.

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УДК: 502.52(23):502.13(497.712)

ЗАШТИТА И ПРЕЗЕНТАЦИЈА НА КАТЛАНОВСКИОТ РИД Анита ТОДОРОВА*, Драган Колчаковски

Универзитет Св. Кирил и Методиј, Природно-математички факултет, Институт за географија, Република Македонија e-mail: todorova.anita@yahoo.com ИЗВОД Република Македонија располага со богат природен потенцијал. Тој треба соодветно да се заштити и презентира на одреден начин за да биде што подостапен и поинтересен за љубителите на природата. Интересна природна појава се тектонските пукнатини кои се наоѓаат на Катлановскиот Рид. Оваа природна појава треба да биде соодветно заштитена и презентирана за посетителите и да се вметне во туристичката понуда при посета на Катлановска Бања. Претставува ретка појава во Република Македонија и привлечна за голем број на научници и љубители на „чудата“ што природата ги создава. Клични зборови: заштита, презентација, Катлановски Рид ABSTRACT The Republic of Macedonia disposes of rich natural potential. This potential should be appropriately protected and presented in a certain manner that would be more available and more interesting for the nature lovers. Interesting natural occurrences are the tectonic cracks that can be found on the Katlanovo Hill. This natural occurrence should be appropriately protected and presented to the visitors and should be entwined in the tourist offer while visiting the Katlanovo Spa. This represents a rare occurrence in the Republic of Macedonia and is attractive for numeral scientists and admirers of the “wonders” created by nature. Key words: protection, presentation, Katlanovo Hill

ВОВЕД Природата е составена од жива и нежива природа. Сите појави и облици на живата и неживата природа се разликуваат по својата разновидност, односно по диверзитетот. Уште многу одамна се посветувало внимание на разновидноста на живата природа (биодиверзитетот) како таа да биде заштитена и корисна за идните генерации. Неживата природа многу подоцна станала предмет на интерес за проучување и заштита од страна на научниците. Научниците кои се занимавале со науките за Земјата ја воочиле аналогијата на биолошката разновидност и разновидноста на неживата природа (геодиверзитетот). Потоа, тие подетално го проучувале геодиверзитетот како и на каков начин да се заштити и управува со природните „добра“ за тие да можат да се користат во научните истражувања, едукацијата и обуката на следните генерации. Геодиверзитетот претставува разновидност на неживата природа, односно разновидноста на геолошките и геоморфолошките појави, како и различните типови на земјишта. Геонаследството претставува репрезент на геодиверзитетот. Најпрвин се врши идентификацијата на објектите од геонаследството, а потоа се врши нивна валоризација. По извршената целосна валоризација која ги утврдува вредностите и значењето на објектите на геонаследството се класифицираат во соодветна категорија според IUCN. За да се заштитат природните реткости кои ги поседува објектот на геонеследството потребно е истите да бидат заштитени со закон. Објектите на геонаследството се привлечни за голем број љубители на природата и затоа тие треба да се уредат за да бидат повеќе достапни за посетителите. Различните природни услови придонеле Република Македонија да биде една од ретките држави во Европа што располагаат со разновидна и со специфична природа. На територијата на Република 89


ПРИРОДНИ РЕСУРСИ И КОРИСТЕЊЕ НА ЗЕМЈИШТЕТО ВО РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА NATURAL RESOURCES AND LAND USE IN HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS

Македонија се евидентирани голем број на објекти од геонаследството кои заслужуваат посебно внимание за нивна заштита и презентација, но многу е мал процентот на заштитени објекти од геонаследството со закон и соодветно уредени за посетителите на природната убавина. Една од ретките и специфични појави што ја има Република Македонија е тектонската пукнатина која што се наоѓа во близина на селото Катланово, поточно на Катлановскиот Рид. Овој локалитет е заштитен со закон, но не е соодветно уреден за посетителите. ИДЕНТИФИКАЦИЈА НА КАТЛАНОВСКИ РИД Катлановскиот Рид се наоѓа над Катлановската Бања, која се наоѓа на источниот раб од Скопската Котлина, односно пред преградата со која Скопскиот басен е одвоен од Овчеполскиот басен. Катлановскиот Рид (Бањски Рид) има север-северозападен и југјугоисточен правец на протегање. Тој се наоѓа 41 ̊ 54' 03" с.г.д. и 21 ̊ 41' 26" и.г.ш. на надморска височина од 290 m. Од градот Скопје е оддалечен 27 km, а од селото Катланово и од автопатот Е-75 е оддалечен 2 km.

Слика бр. 1; Географска положба на Катлановски Рид

Геолошкиот состав во пошироката околина на Катлановскиот Рид е доста разновиден. Овде се застапени карпи со палеозојска, мезозојска и кенозојска старост (палеогени, неогени и квартарни седименти). Низ овој предел најмногу се распространети најмладите-квартарни седименти како што е изворскиот бигор или подводниот бигор проучуван од страна на П.С.Јовановиќ (1929), којшто го има на двете страни на пукнатината по Ридот, на отворот на Турската пукнатина и од левата и од десната страна на реката Пчиња во близина на Катлановската Бања. За староста и настанокот на подводниот бигор постоеле различни мислења од голем број на научници. Еден од нив е и Ј.Цвијиќ (1906) кој сметал дека бигорот е со езерско, односно неогено потекло, а материјалот го дале варовниците. Според П.С. Јовановиќ (1929) бигорите биле од делувијално потекло, но потеклото им било двојно, едни формирани во водна средина, а други биле напластени по езерската состојба во месноста. После истражувањата на повеќето научници бигорот бил испитуван од страна на екипа од Геолошкиот Завод од Скопје. Катлановскиот Рид главно е составен

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од изворски бигор, но има и агрилошисти, конгломератски олигоцени наслаги и кварцити. Северно од Ридот геолошкиот состав е претставен со плиоцени песоци, чакал и конгломерати, а спрема запад геолошкиот состав е претставен со глинци, лапорци, песочници и варовници, кои по својата старост се еоценски. Во самата Турска пукнатина бигорот е доста трошлив, шупликав со бела до сивкасто-бела боја на површината, додека пак подлабоко тој е кристализиран. Алувијалните седименти (песоци, суглини, речни наноси и др.) се наоѓаат од североисточната страна. Спротивно од бигорите на левата страна се наоѓаат греди на мермери, а меѓу нив-кварцити и филитични шкрилци. (Манаковиќ, Андоновски, 1976) Во овој простор се карактеристични пукнатините што имаат тектонско потекло. Според Ј.Цвијиќ (1906) овие пукнатини припаѓаат на системот на меридијански раседи што се протегаат на должина од 100 km и почнуваат од Катлановска Бања, каде што тука спаѓаат и базалтните плочи во Младо Нагоричане, па на север продолжува сè до Рупље, источно од Грделичката Клисура. Исто така, тектониката во околината на Катлановски Рид е во тесна врска со тектониката на Скопската Котлина. Најмладите радијални движења се претставени со спуштањето на јужната рамка на Скопската Котлина. Раседот започнува од Катлановската Бања и има западен правец на протегање што продолжува кон селото Таор. Тука се истакнува пукнатината-раседот на Катлановскиот (Бањски) Рид што е во форма на свиткан срт, почнувајќи од клисуратасатеска, која е формирана од засекувањето на реката Пчиња, па сè до стариот пат над село Катланово. Должината на пукнатината изнесува околу 350 m. Нејзиниот отвор е широк до 20 cm, некаде се стеснува до 5 cm, а некаде потполно се затвора. Во западниот дел од Катлановскиот Рид се наоѓа уште една пукнатина наречена Турска пукнатина (по кажувањето на месното население некој Турчин се засолнил во пукнатината и од отровните гасови што доаѓале од внатрешноста на пукнатината се задушил и заради тоа оваа пукнатина е наречена Турска пукнатина). На Турската пукнатина вршени се испитувања во должина од 29 m. Отворот (влезот) на пукнатината се наоѓа под мал отсек од преку 5 m. Влегувањето во Турската пукнатина е отежнато бидејќи веднаш по влезот каналот се стеснува и има широчина од 20 до 30 cm. После тесниот дел постепено се проширува од 1,4 до 1,5 m на лево и се наидува на заезерена вода. Висината во овој дел достигнува од 4,5-5 m, но ако се мери со длабочината на водата висината може да достигне и до 6,5-7 m затоа што длабочината на езерцето изнесува 1,5 m. После тоа, висината се намалува на 1,20 m, широчината достигнува до 0,40 m и поради тоа движењето низ пукнатината било отежнато. (Манаковиќ, Андоновски, 1976)

Слика бр. 2; Тектонската пукнатина на Катлановски Рид (фото А.Тодорова)

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На Катлановскиот Рид се забележуваат карстни релјефни форми меѓу кои се издвојуваат шкрапите, а пак во подножјето на Ридот на неговата североисточна страна се евидентирани неколку поткапини кои се распоредени по иста линија и нивната широчина на влезовите изнесува од 1m до околу 3m.

Слика бр. 3; Шкрапи на Катлановски Рид Слика бр. 4; Поткапина во подножјето на Кат. Рид (фото А.Тодорова)

Од Катлановскиот Рид избиваат речиси сите термоминерални и минерални извори врз кои е изградена Катлановската Бања. Водата од сите извори избива по пат на пулзација што во себе содржи гасови (водород, хлор, сулфур и јаглен) за кои се смета дека се од јувенилно (вулканско) потекло. На основа на тоа катлановските извори претставуваат фумароли. Порано се сметало дека сите извори контактираат меѓусебно, но подоцна биле извршени мерења и испитувања и констатирано е дека изворите од источната страна на ридот се поврзани меѓусебно, а пак водите од западната страна на ридот претставуваат самостојни извори. Климата во околината на Катлановскиот Рид се разликува од климата во Скопје, иако се релативно блиску. Причината за тоа е течението на реката Пчиња и нејзиното влијание врз климатските одлики на околината. Средната годишна температура изнесува 12, 1 ̊С. Средно јулските температури достигнуваат до 22,6 ̊С, а во зимските месеци температурата се спушта и под 0 ̊С. Средната годишна количина на врнежи е 531,8 mm. (Стојмилов, 1969) Во времето на поранешна Југославија биле пошумувани голите ридови околу бањата со багремови стебла каде што сега во голема мера целиот тој простор околу бањата е во шума. Од десната страна на реката Пчиња во најголем дел е багремова шума (Robinia pseudoacacia), а од левата страна има погуста шума, која ја сочинуваат габерот (Carpinus orientalis), леската (Corylus avellana) и дренот (Cornus mas). Во повисоките делови има и дабова шума (Quercus macedonica). ЗАШТИТА НА КАТЛАНОВСКИ РИД Малата, живописна и убава клисура, тектонската пукнатина на Катлановскиот Рид и самата Катлановска Бања располагаат со извонредна природна убавина. Сето тоа претставува мотив за туристите да ги посетат. Интересни за истражување се и за научниците што наоѓаат предизвик да се запознаваат со неоткриените убавини. Посетувани се од голем број ученици и студенти на кои им служеле како типичен пример за поствулкански појави и места каде што се одвивале тектонските процеси. Се користат и како место за спорт и рекреација. Овој локалитет претставува објект на 92


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геонаследството од големо значење бидејќи претставува раритетен примерок на овој тип на појава. Според Националната програма за валоризација овој локалитет припаѓа како објект со регионално значење бидејќи е доста редок во Југоисточна Европа. За да се истакне како локалитет со исклучителна универзална вредност Катлановскиот Рид мора да ги исполнува критериумите што се предложени од Конвенцијата за Светско наследство за истиот да биде вклучен во листата на светско наследство. Тој претставува исклучителен пример на значаен геолошки и геоморфолошки процес во формирањето на Земјината кора. Овој локалитет спаѓа во Катлановскиот предел. Согласно Законот за заштита на природните реткости, Собранието на Град Скопје, на 13 мај 1991 година донесе Одлука со бр. 08-690-1/91 за прогласување на Катлановскиот предел за Споменик на природата. Заштитената површина изнесува 5442,6 ha и во оваа површина спаѓа и Катлановскиот Рид. Одделно овој локалитет не е прогласен како споменик на природата бидејќи е во склоп на Катлановскиот предел. Според законот во негова близина или на самиот Рид е забрането извршување на градежни активности (инфрастуктурни објекти), поставување на енергетски водови, фрлање на отпадоци, поставување на рекламни и други видови табли, загадување на водата, промена на составот на водата (ph вредноста, количиството на органски и неоргански материи) и друго. Од теренските истражувања забележано е дека на самиот Рид има антропогено влијание. Во околината на Катлановскиот Рид забележано е дека има изградено викенд куќи, поставено електрични водови и присуство на дива депонија која најмногу е изразена во поткапините. Ова докажува дека во целост не се почитуваат законските регулативи за заштита на природното наследство. За негово одржување, мониториг и заштита надлежен е Градоначалникот на Општитана Петровец во соработка со надлежните од Министерството за животна средина и просторно планирање.

Слика бр.5; Појава на дива депонија во поткапините на Катланоски Рид (фото А.Тодорова)

ПРЕЗЕНТАЦИЈА НА КАТЛАНОВСКИ РИД Катлановскиот Рид има физичка презентација, односно оваа појава е достапна на самото место на појавување кадешто посетителите можат да ја забележат. Катлановскиот Рид т.е. тектонската пукнатина и деловите од старата римска и турска бања се оставени да се гушат во отпад и нараснати грмушки. Најнапред потребно е да се очисти теренот од отпад, трева и грмушки кои што ги затскриваат тектонската пукнатина, остатоците од римската и турската бања и поткапините. За да се види тектонската пукнатина веќе постои патека која што е продолжение на патеката што води до Катлановска Бања. На самиот почеток има направено видиковец, но нема 93


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поставено дрвени клупи кои се неопходни за потполно да се ужива во глетката на местото каде што реката Пчиња ја изградила својата клисура. Исто така, потребно е да се постават и корпи за отпадоци се со цел да се стопира појавата на дивата депонија. Во близина на видиковецот потребно е да се постави информативна табла на македонски и на англиски јазик од која што ќе се добиваат информации што претставува тектонската пукнатина, нејзините димензии, досегашните истражувања, од каде, каква вода добива Катлановската Бања и истата за што се користи. За поголема информираност, а се со цел да се привлечат поголем број на туристи потребно е да се постави уште една информативна табла од која што илустративно ќе се прикаже состојбата на бањата во римско и во турско време. Интересни за посета би биле и поткапините, но најпрвин потребно е да се уреди патека до нив и да се очистат од грмушките и да се отстрани дивата депонија. Во нивна непосредна близина потребно е да се постават дрвени клупи и маси каде што посетителите можат да уживаат под сенките во летните денови. Овој локалитет може да привлече голем број на туристи и љубители на природата, кои што може да ја видат тектонската пукнатина, а истовремено и да ги забележат остатоците од старите бањи, но затоа потребно е негово соодветно уредување. До овој објект на геонаследство може да се стигне по асфалтиран локален пат, а исто така може да се користи и приградски автобус со број 53. На автопатот Е-75 и на локалниот пат кој што води накај бањата и Катланоскиот Рид има поставено само патоказна ознака за Катлановската Бања. Потребно е да се постави, односно да се додаде ознака и за Катлановскиот Рид. Тектонската пукнатина е истражувана уште многу одамна. За неа еминентни научници имаат напишано многу научно-стручни трудови. Од кои се истакнуваат: Ј.Цвијиќ, П.С.Јовановиќ, Д.Манаковиќ, Т.Андоновски и други. Споменуван е и во школските учебници од кои што учениците и студентите учат за настанокот на тектонската пукнатина која што ја снабдува со вода Катлановската Бања. Промовиран е на интернет страната „Промоција на природно и културно наследство на Скопскиот плански регион“. ЗАКЛУЧОК Република Македонија иако е мала земја по површина (25.713 km2) изобилува со мошне разновидни и специфични природни особености. Богата е со природни реткости од геолошко, геоморфолошко и хидролошко потекло, а исто така изобилува и со голем број ендемски видови на растенија и животни. Од оваа природна убавина која што ја поседува Република Македонија само мал процент (околу 9%) е заштитена со закон и соодветно уредена и презентирана за љубителите на природата, а сета останата природна убавина чека да биде разоткриена и соодветно заштитена. Голем е бројот на предложени објекти од геонаследството и на растенијата и животните кои чекаат да бидат заштитени според соодветните законски регулативи и да биде стопирано нивното уништување и исчезнување. Потребно е надлежните органи од Министерството за животна средина и просторно планирање да превземат мерки за истите да бидат што е можно побргу заштитени. Голем број на природни убавини кои се разликуваат од останатите според својата автентичност, репрезентативност, карактеристичност и пејзажна вредност се гушат во отпад и се затскриени зад грмушки. Потребно е да се превземат мерки за истите да бидат заштитени од уништување и уредени за да можат љубителите на природата да уживаат во изворната убавина што тие ја нудат. Во оваа категорија на уништување е препуштен и Катлановскиот Рид кој е интересен по појавата на пукнатините од тектонко потекло и остатоците од некогашните стари бањи. Со уредувањето на Катлановскиот Рид потребно е да се уреди и Катлановската Бања соодветно според светските стандарди и со тоа ќе се овозможи да се привлечат голем

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број на домашни и странски туристи. Поволната местоположба на Катлановскиот Рид и соодветното уредување и презентирање може да допринесе државата да оствари поголем профит. РЕФЕРЕНЦИ Јовановиђ С. П., 1929, Катлановска Бања; Гласник Скопског Научног Друштва, књ. VI, Скопље, стр.41-67 Манаковиќ Д. Андоновски Т., 1976, Хидро-спелеолошки испитувања на дел од Катлановскиот Рид, Геог. Разгледи, кн. 14, Скопје, стр. 5-16 Стојмилов А., 1969, Катлановска Бања, Геог. Разгледи, кн. 7, Скопје, стр. 75-103 Цвијиђ Ј., 1906, Основе за географију и геологију Македоније и Старе Србије, Српска Краљевска Академија, прва книга, Београд, стр. 120-124 Сопствени теренски истражувања

PROTECTION AND PRESENTATION OF THE KATLANOVO HILL Anita TODOROVA*, Dragan KOLCAKOVSKI University “Ss. Cyril and Methodius”; Faculty of Natural Science and Mathematics; Institute of Geography email:todorova.anita@yahoo.com

SUMMARY Although the Republic of Macedonia is a small country with an area of 25.713 km2, it is rich in diverse and specific natural features. It is rich with natural rareness of geological, geomorphologic and hydrologic origin, and also there are numerous endemic species of animals and plants. Only 9% of the natural beauty that Macedonia owns is protected by law and suitable arranged and presented for the admirers of the nature, and the rest natural beauty waits to be discovered and properly protected. There are a huge number of proposed objects of the geological heritage and plants and animals that wait to be protected according to the adequate legislations so their demolition and extinction would be stopped. It is necessary the authorized organs from the Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning to take measures for the same to be protected as soon as possible. A large number of the natural beauties that are diverse from the rest according to their authenticity, representation, features and landscape value, have a lot of garbage and are hidden with bushes. It is necessary to take measures with which they would be protected from demolition and to be arranged so the admirers of the nature could enjoy in the authentic beauty that they offer. In this category of demolition is included the Katlanovo Hill which is interesting by the crevices of tectonic origin and the remains of old spas. With the organization of Katlanovo Hill it is also necessary to organize the Katlanovo Spa adequately according to world standards and with this more domestic and foreign tourist would be attracted. The advantageous location of Katlanovo Hill and the appropriate organization and presentation can contribute to the larger state income.

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УДК: 551.4(497.5)

GEOMORPHOLOGIC DATABASE IN THE FUNCTION OF THE CENTRAL LIKA LANDSCAPE TYPOLOGY (REPUBLIC OF CROATIA) Mladen PAHERNIK1, Marta JOVANIĆ2

1

Croatian Defence Academy, Ilica 256 b, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia, mladen.pahernik@zg.t-com.hr 2 M. A. Reljkovića 5, 32 100 Vinkovci, Croatia, marta.jovanic@gmail.com

ABSTRACT Landscape typology is based on the analysis of an integrated system of elements of natural geographic basis and socio-geographical modification of the area. The basis of the natural basis is a relief. This paper gives emphasis on the establishment of geomorphologic database as the basis for data collecting of relief forms. Therefore the base model is adapted for the needs of landscape analysis and spatial analysis of observed natural and socio-geographic landscape components within a GIS. Integration of the geomorphological data in spatial databases with the purpose of synthetic display of morphological characteristics of the particular area on the digital geomorphic map has enabled updates in an easier way and to supplement existing knowledge of the genesis and the evolution of relief shapes within the study area – the Central Lika. Clearly defined objects within the set up database enabled an easier correlation of geomorphological database with other geoscientific databases including those that contain other geographical components of the Central Lika. Key words: GIS, geomorphologic database, landscape, Central Lika

INTRODUCTION The application of GIS technology in regional geomorphological surveys as well as the organization of the geomorphological database for the purpose of analysis for needs of landscape typology and display in the thematic maps, include a number of processes. They include the development of infrastructure in the form of specific standards, technologies, methodologies and testing for the purpose of collecting, processing, updating and interpreting geomorphological data. Conducted geomorphological analysis of the Central Lika relief is in all phases of the research based on Geographic Information Systems and methods of data collection, storage and analysis of digital data (the ESRI 's ArcGIS 10.1 software packages have been used). The aim of this research is the development of a geomorphological database of Central Lika in GIS environment, as the basis for the landscape typology and production of digital geomorphologic maps. The study area of this research is the Central Lika in the Republic of Croatia (Figure 1). It takes central part of the Lika region, one of the mountain but also peripheral region in the Republic of Croatia. It covers an area of approximately 1690 km2 with an elevation range between 461 and 1757 m (mean 740 m). The largest part of the Central Lika basin takes the Lika field. The western and south-western rim of Central Lika basin builds steep slopes of the northern, central and southern part of the mountain of Velebit (Vagan Peak 1757 m). On the northern part of the study area an artificial Lake of Krušćica is located. The area of Central Lika encompasses an area of 3 units of local government: Gospić Town, Lovinac Municipality and Perušić Municipality. 78 settlements are located within the study area. Among them, the only urban center is the town of Gospić that is also the most inhabited settlement (6575 inhabitants in year 2011). A large part of the study area is affected by processes of depopulation, deruralization, population ageing and deagrarization. Since the World War II to the last population census in 2011, a decrease of the population number has been recorded in each of population censuses.

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Thus, in this period of 63 years, the population of Central Lika is three times reduced (from 45344 inhabitants in year 1948 to 16390 in year 2011). The most important road that passes through the study area is the Dalmatina highway (built in 2004). Despite the fact that this highway connects the capital City of Zagreb and the coastal area, two very propulsive Croatian regions, the construction of the highway didn’t change the fact that the Central Lika is one of the peripheral and problematic areas.

Fig. 1 Central Lika – study area

The area of the Central Lika is good explored within various geographical topics. Among other works, the most comprehensive are: the work of V. Rogić, Lika, from year 1975 and the work of D. Pejnović from year 1985 (Central Lika: socio-geographical transformation). Landscape analysis using GIS represents a significant step in landscape research. There are numerous works where by using GIS, different tasks in environmental researches have been solved with success. In the book Landscape analysis using GIS (Lang and Blaschke 2010), GIS is introduced as a new method for analyzing the structure, changes and function of landscape. Also, in this paper has been consulted very valuable literature of geomorphologic database: Varga 1994, MacDonald 1999, Zeiler 1999, Arctur and Zeiler 2004, Gustavsson et al. 2008. METHODS Within the conceptual modelling of geomorphological database, the object-oriented analysis methods were used, whereby objects (relief forms) with basic characteristics are defined. This included: the identification of problem areas or units, identification of classes and objects with their structure and identification of individual attributes of objects. In that step, all the data that describe a particular fact are grouped in one place as much as possible 98


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independently to the data of other facts. The relief forms and processes within the study area are grouped on the basis of genetic characteristics in separate geodatasets. Geomorphological relief analysis and correlation of these data with other geodatabases of the study area includes a number of proceedings with precisely determined aims (Haase and Haase 2002). According to the designing phases, they can be grouped into three basic groups. The first group of proceedings includes the setting of algorithms of: morphometric (Giles and Franklin 1998), morphostructural and exogeomorphological methods of relief analysis. In this group the main aim is a creation of the computer programs. Based on the required spatial data, these computer programs will calculate required parameters of these analysis. The main aim of the second group of proceedings is the organization of morphological data obtained in spatial databases. The following aim is the organization rest of the geoscientific data models that include data relevant for the landscape typology analysis. The third group of proceedings includes GIS analysis of all collected data based on the previously set geoscientific data models. The special emphasis here is on the application of mathematical - statistical models in the processing of spatial data, as well as in their comparative analysis. In the analysis of the Central Lika relief, the fundamental method of studying of relief is applied. That method is based on the classic geomorphological analysis of the influence between endogenous forces and exogenous morphological processes, as well as on the landforms of relief created as their result (Bognar et al. 2012). Geomorphological relief analysis of a certain area presents a whole range of individual qualitative and quantitative research methods. Using qualitative geomorphological analysis the characteristics of geomorphological processes and of relief in general (for example the relationship of landforms with the geological structure) have been determined. On the other hand, using the quantitative analysis, based on numerical data, certain aspects of morphological processes and landforms have been determined. The use of geomorphological synthesis, based on the results of geomorphological analysis of spatial physical geographic data, has led to the final conclusions about the characteristics and genesis of the study area relief. During the field research, different geomorphological methods based on methods of geomorphological mapping have been used (Batten 2001). This refers to the direct identification and mapping of geomorphological processes, appearances and forms. Afterwards, the geomorphological methods also include the determination of their characteristics by measuring the dimensions of the appearance, form and intensity of the process, i.e. their spatial and temporal relationships. The method of determining the position by Handheld GPS Receiver has been used during field work. This method has enabled the direct entry of the observed geomorphological relief forms and processes in the geomorphologic database. LANDSCAPE TYPOLOGY Landscape typology is based on its structure and separation of as much as possible homogeneous spatial patterns. Thus, by analyzing the content of the specific landscape, processes that have contributed to a particular appearance of the observed landscape could be explained. Thereby the landscape structure results arise as a combination of physical variables that are most often extracted as landscape factors or geofactors (relief, soil, rocks, water, air and bios) and of factors of human impact on the area through cultural, economic and technological-infrastructural sphere (Löffler 2002). Basically, landscapes show certain functions that are related to the elementary natural processes. Influenced by human development factors, landscape changes are also the more intense ones. This has determined the three main aspects of the methodologically based landscape typology (Lang and Blaschke

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2010, Lausch 1999, Forman and Gordon 1986): 1) structure, 2) function, 3) development and changes. A landscape structure is a specific combination of landscape elements - patches. Function is a combination of landscape elements and their system components based on the exchange and flow of energy, materials and organisms. Development and changes are linked to changes in the structure and function of the landscape within a certain period of time. Since the characteristics of the landscape structure can be clearly observed, described and quantified as spatial components (Blaschke 2000), the GIS is the most suitable tool for the mentioned analysis. Accurate and well organized spatial data are the fundamental basis of high quality GIS analysis. The aim of this study is to define the geomorphological database model for the purpose of landscape typology and, to create a topological and cartographic geomorphological base of the Central Lika with methods of geomorphological mapping. The fundamental task that arises during designing geomorphological base is an existence of a connection of spatial heterogeneity. That means that geomorphological data that is going to be used in the landscape analysis has to make a hierarchical set in which one is related with the other. The basis of that spatial-hierarchical division of relief-analysis represents the scale of spatial analysis. Therefore the methodology proposed by O'Neill et al. (1989), where each phenomenon that is analyzed has to be observed at least in three levels has been applied. Depending on the scale of observation, in the center of attention is the focal level or level of analysis. It is limited by controlled conditions of the level above (level +1), which receives a new function. It is also limited by controlled conditions of the level below (level -1) with elements of connectivity with the focal level. Analysis based on the three levels thereby includes: the term of a class at the focal level, the patch on the level below, and the entire landscape at the level above (Bastian at al. 2006). In the conceptual model of the database, classes are represented by morphogenetic types of relief. They thus become the basis for future analysis of the landscape typology, but also the basic objects of geomorphological mapping. The level below, the patches, are the relief forms created by identical geomorphological processes within an identical genetic type. The landscape level makes a relief of the study area (Figure 2).

Fig 2. Hierarchical organisation of geomorphological database's conceptual model

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ORGANIZATION OF SPATIAL GEOMORPHOLOGICAL DATABASE OF THE CENTRAL LIKA Conceptual modelling of data is the first phase of creating an information system. It starts from the request on the data structure and the requirements for their use, with the aim of setting a complete, consistent and not redundant description of an information system (Varga 1994). Conceptual modelling of data was conducted during the analysis of certain morphological processes and associated relief forms in order to develop a conceptual objectoriented data model (Gustavsson et al. 2008). Thus, data on relief forms are defined as individual objects. According to the object model, everything related to a particular object - a relief form, is described directly within the object and outside of it there is nothing to describe its structure and behaviour. The access to objects i.e. to its data, is defined with methods, functions, services or operations defined for each object. Based on object-oriented design, the logic of software objects (with their attributes and operations) as the basis for the implementation of the logical model into a physical geomorphic database has been set up (Arctur and Zeiler 2004). For the purposes of this study using a UML (Unified Modelling Language - a visual language for modelling of information systems in all phases of development, and it is not based on any particular programming language for developing object-oriented system but contains in itself the general model design) in the object-oriented design, a scheme of geomorphological database has been created. UML model has been created in program MS Visio Professional according to the Visio Drawing templates - ArcInfo UML Model (Pro).vst (Zeiler 1999, MacDonald 1999). Relief at the landscape-level (level +1) is in the database represented with detailed digital terrain model, GRID raster structure of cell sizes 5 x 5 meters (Figure 3).

Fig. 3 GRID raster structure of the Central Lika relief at the landscape-level (level +1)

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Grouping of the data of the same type was carried out within a geodataset with the aim of organizing modeling elements in larger units. Grouped classes of objects-relief forms of same genetic characteristics can be found within them (level 0) (Figure 4, Figure 5).

Fig. 4 Morphogenetic types of the Central Lika relief. 1 Fluvial and denudation accumulation relief, 2 Fluvialdenudation relief, 3 Fluvial-karst relief, 4 Karst, 5 Glacial and periglacial relief.

Fig. 5 Example of the glacial and periglacial relief within the study area

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The label of an individual package – dataset is related to the three-letter acronym that indicates the present genetic type of relief (e.g. FDO – fluvial-denudation forms, KRO - karst relief forms, FKO – fluvial-karst forms, etc.). Within an individual dataset of genetic relief type, the classes of particular relief forms of that genetic type (level -1) are located. They also can be represented cartographically – in a digital geomorphologic map (Figure 6).

Fig. 6 Digital geomorphologic map of the Central Lika

Activities of creating class diagrams have a precondition – a previously defined conceptual model with appropriate interaction diagrams. In the UML, class is described as a set of objects with common attributes, operations, methods, relationships and semantic. The class is an abstraction of an object. It represents the ability to recognize object's common characteristics of a class and the formation of an abstract set of these characteristics. Using UML application scheme, a scheme of geomorphological data model has been created and classes and objects models with fundamental fields attributes, subtypes of classes, attribute domains, links and relations among individual classes, topologies, etc. have been designed. The defined scheme of the geomorphological data model that is created in UML, is being implemented in a corresponding geodatabase using CASE tools within ArcInfo software package. For that purpose Schema Creation Wizard of module ArcCatalog (Figure 7) has been used.

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Fig. 7 Example of class model within geodataset FDS – 'Fluvial-denudation shapes’

CONCLUSION Modernly designed GIS for the purposes of landscape typology, with the displayed development of geomorphic database, has accelerated the determination process of particular quantitative parameters of a relief. It has also enabled the development of methods for obtaining the parameters that could not be determined by a relevant quantitative method. That method was based on analog inputs, i.e. parameters were obtained by generalizing the broader area. Clearly defined objects within the set up database have enabled an easier correlation of geomorphological database with other spatial databases that contain data necessary for analysis of landscape typology. Applied concept of modeling of geomorphological database has been set as the basis for the analysis of complex systems by identifying and recognizing the components and their vertical-hierarchical relation. A simple application of measurements of landscape structure, through spatial analysis of patches (level -1) based on measurements of their shape, heterogeneity, diversity, etc. has also been enabled. REFERENCES Arctur, D., Zeiler, M., 2004: Designing Geodatabases – Case Studies in GIS Modeling, ESRI Press, Redlands. Batten, P., 2001: A new approach for landscape mapping, Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Geocomputation, University of Queensland, Brisbane. Bastian, O., Krönert, R. and Lipský, Z., 2006: Landscape diagnosis on different space and time scales – a challenge for landscape planning. Landscape Ecology 213, 59–374. Blaschke, T., 2000: Die Vernetzung von Landschaftselementen: Die Rolle von GIS in der Landschaftsplanung, GIS –Zeitschrift für Geo-Informationssysteme, 6, 17-26. Bognar, A., Faivre, S., Buzjak, N., Pahernik, M., Bočić, N., 2012: Recent Landform Evolution in the Dinaric and Pannonian Regions of Croatia, Spriger, Heidelberg, London, New York, 313- 344. Forman, R.T.T and Gordon, M., 1986: Landscape ecology, John Wiley & Sons, New York. Giles, P.T., Franklin, S.E., 1998: An automated approach to the classification of the slope units using digital data, Geomorphology 21, 251–264.

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Gustavsson, M. Arie C. Seijmonsbergen, A. C. and Kolstrupa, E., 2008: Structure and contents of a new geomorphological GIS database linked to a geomorphological map — With an example from Liden, central Sweden, Geomorphology 95, 335–349. Haase D. and Haase G., 2002: Approaches and methods of landscape diagnosis. In: Bastian O. and Steinhardt U. (eds), Development and Perspectives of Landscape Ecology. Kluwer Acad. Publ., Dordrecht, 113–122. Lang, S. and Blaschke, T., 2010: Landschaftsanalyse mit GIS, UTB Verlag, Stuttgart. Löffler, J., 2002: Vertical Landscape Structure and Functioning, Development and Perspectives of Landscape Ecology. (ed. by Bastian, O. and Steinhardt, U.), Dordrecht, Kluwer, 44-58. MacDonald, A. 1999: Building a Geodatabase, Redlands, ESRI Press. O'Neill, R. V., Johnson, A. R., King, A. W., 1989: A hierarchical framework for the analysis of scale, Landscape Ecology 3, 193-205. Pejnović, D., 1985: Srednja Lika: socio-geografska transformacija, Centar za kulturu-Muzej Like, Gospić. Rogić, V., 1975: Lika, in: Geografija SR Hrvatske, (ed. by Crkvenčić, I.), book 4, Gorska Hrvatska, Školska knjiga, Zagreb, 7-64. Varga, 1994: Baze podataka – konceptualni, logičko i fizičko modeliranje podataka, DRIP, Zagreb. Zeiler, M., 1999: Modeling Our World, The ESRI Guide to Geodatabase Desing, Redlands, ESRI Press.

Sources Naselja i stanovništvo Republike Hrvatske 1857-2001, CD-ROM, DZS RH, Zagreb, 2005. Popis stanovništva, kućanstava i stanova 2011 Republike Hrvatske (www.dzs.hr)

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РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИ ПОДРАЧЈА -ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ, Охрид, 12-15 IX 2013 HILLY- MOUNTAIN AREAS -PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES, Ohrid, 12-15 IX 2013

УДК: 314.116-022.252(497.561)„2001/2011“

DEMOGRAPHIC REALITY, PERSPECTIVE AND CHALLENGES IN CROATIAN HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS – CASE STUDY GORSKI KOTAR Sanja KLEMPIĆ BOGADI1 Dubravka SPEVEC2 1

2

Institute for Migration and Ethnic Studies, Zagreb, Croatia, sanja.klempic@imin.hr Department of Geography, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Croatia, dspevec@geog.pmf.hr

ABSTRACT For more than a century Gorski kotar, sparsely populated Croatian hilly-mountain and rural region is facing population decrease. Unfavourable physical-geographical features and socio-economic conditions influenced significantly on its demographic development and settlement network. After the Second World War, during the period of the most intensive industrialization and urbanization in Croatia, population and economic development was concentrated predominantly in large cities and with tourism development on the coast. At the same time Gorski kotar remained on the periphery, insufficiently included in economic development, and without any significant larger regional urban centre that could ensure conditions necessary to keep the population in this region. Settlement network is dispersed and characterised by a large number of small settlements which depopulate because of birth deficit and long-term emigration. According to 2011 Census data Gorski kotar had 256 settlements with total of 23,011 inhabitants. At the beginning of the 21st century this region is demographically among the most imperilled areas in Croatia. Its demographic reality represents the limiting factor for its economic and social development and demographic subsistence of communities, as well as push factor for further out-migration. Key words: Gorski kotar, Croatia, depopulation, aging, emigration

INTRODUCTION Many countries with hilly-mountain regions in Europe have established special policies for these areas. The criteria that are applied differ but include an altitude, combined in many cases with slope and, in some cases, other criteria (climate, topography). In 2002, within its regional policy, Croatia introduced an Act on hilly and mountain areas – areas that, due to their natural and geographic characteristics (elevation, inclination and vertical articulation of the terrain, and pedological, climatic and other particular natural features conditional upon them), cause difficulties in their population‟s everyday life and work. The criteria to obtain this status are not clearly defined and are determined on the level of local self-government units. However, some local units in Croatia have this hilly-mountain area status even though they don‟t fulfil entirely any of the criteria. After recent changes in 2012, 45 local administrative units1, with total of 198,982 inhabitants – 4.6 per cent of total population of Croatia (Census 2011), have the status of hilly-mountain areas. One of the main goals of this Act is to promote and stimulate positive demographic processes and population settling. The area of our research is Gorski kotar, a typical hilly-mountain region in Croatia. Its‟ all 9 local self-government units (3 cities/towns and 6 municipalities) have according to the Act

1

According to the Act on hilly and mountain areas hilly-mountain area status have local self-government units: Bistra, Budinšćina, Buzet, Cerovlje, Ĉavle, Ĉabar, Dicmo, Delnice, Đurmanec, Fuţine, Graĉišće, Imotski, Jelenje, Jesenje, Kalnik, Kaptol, Karlobag, Klana, Klis, Lepoglava, Lobor, Lokve, Lovreć, Lupoglav, Ljubešćica, Matulji, Motovun, Mrkopalj, Muć, Novi Golubovec, Ogulin, Orahovica, Podbablje, Primorski Dolac, Radoboj, Ravna Gora, Senj, Sinj,Skrad, Stubiĉke Toplice, Šestanovac,Trilj, Vinodolska općina, Vrbovsko i Vrgorac.

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and objective criteria hilly-mountain area status2. Gorski kotar is situated in western part of Croatia (Fig. 1), in the narrowest part of Dinaridi Mountain and has always had very important role in transport since it represents the shortest route between Middle Europe and Adriatic Sea. The emphasis of the analysis presented in this paper is on contemporary demographic trends, processes and perspective in Gorski kotar region that includes townsĈabar, Delnice and Vrbovsko, and municipalities Brod Moravice, Fuţine, Lokve, Mrkopalj, Ravna Gora and Skrad (Fig. 1).

Figure 1. Administrative organization of Gorski kotar (Census 2011)

DEMOGRAPHIC REALITY OF GORSKI KOTAR The development of primary sector in Croatia‟s hilly-mountain regions was throughout history under the influence of specific physical-geographical features; that had direct influence on demographic processes and inhabitancy in those areas (Pavić, 1975; Nejašmić, 2008). Gorski kotar represents a very good example of mountainous region where many natural handicaps have become prominent and have influenced significantly on population emigration. Throughout history this area has always been lesser inhabited than Croatia in average; up to 1960s the population density was a little over 30 inhabitants per sq km. Today in this region of 1,273.53 sq km lives 23,011 inhabitants (Census 2011) – population density is only 18.1 inhabitants per sq km and according to that Gorski kotar is one of the least populated regions in Croatia. The population development in Croatia since 1950s is occurring in conditions of highly polarized development, where larger urban settlements and coastal area – especially cities on the coast, based on rapid industrialization, a later tourism development have become the most 2

According to Croatian Acts, the areas of special state concern, which include the Gorski kotar municipality of Brod Moravice, cannot obtain the status of hilly-mountain area.

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important areas in demographical and economic sense in Croatia. The inhabitants of Gorski kotar have very frequently moved to Rijeka, Zagreb or other larger urban settlements in the county, but also abroad, in search for employment and city way of living. The centre of inhabitancy and economic development in Croatia has been moved towards coastal area and larger urban centres, while at the same time hilly-mountain areas, islands and Zagora are becoming economical and demographical periphery. Gorski kotar is a region of specific physical-geographical conditions that have along with historical-geographical processes significantly influenced on its inhabitancy and spatial differences in socio-economic development (Lajić & Klempić Bogadi, 2010). Due to limited natural base, emigration in Gorski kotar started at the end of 19th century. Nevertheless, due to still high birth rates this emigration hasn‟t influenced significantly on overall demographic dynamics in this hilly-mountain region; in 1890 Gorski kotar witnessed the largest number of inhabitants in history – 43,518. However, because of lengthiness and intensity of emigration, at the beginning of 20th century total population decrease has started, and with some oscillations continues until today. During that period the strongest migration flows from Gorski kotar where mainly directed to USA and economically more developed parts of Croatia, especially Slavonia. Up until late 1960s depopulation was generated by negative net migration while natural development was still positive and reduced the intensity of depopulation. However, long-term out-migration, due to age selectivity of migrants, influenced on population aging and birth rate decrease which resulted in negative bioreproductive processes so overall depopulation was even more intensified because of natural population decrease. The out-migration continued after Second World War, first of all because of unfavourable settlement network – dispersed inhabitancy and very large number of small settlements and non-existence of any larger urban centre that could provide employment for rural population and retain them in Gorski kotar. The most important urban settlement in this hilly-mountain region is Delnice, which never developed into significant regional centre that could assemble population. The intensity of processes of deagrarization and deruralization has demographically exhausted this region and it has become the area of demographic regression that was limitation factor for any possible economic and social development and at the same time push-factor for its inhabitancy. Nevertheless, the largest population decrease Gorski kotar witnesses in 1960s and 1970s, during intensive industrialization and urbanization that were accompanied with high rates of depopulation due to “hilly-mountain exodus” directed towards larger urban centres in Croatia and West European countries. From 1980s net migration is still negative but somewhat reduced because potential emigration contingent was already exhausted and because of different economic reasons (Lajić, 1999).

Town/Municipality Ĉabar Delnice Vrbovsko Brod Moravice Fuţine Mrkopalj Ravna Gora Skrad Lokve GORSKI KOTAR Town/Municipality

Table 1. Total population change by administrative units (towns/municipalities) 1857-2011 (according to census data) 1857 1869 1880 1890 1900 1910 7,235 7,313 5,971 6,697 6,770 7,467 6,929 7,289 6,797 7,007 7,172 7,651 10,064 10,601 11,391 11,920 11,001 10,230 2,840 2,866 2,848 2,919 2,861 2,823 3,492 3,837 3,651 4,093 4,142 3,539 3,427 3,321 3,607 3,637 3,790 3,583 3,657 3,699 3,190 3,135 3,334 3,258 1,834 1,733 1,763 1,747 1,778 1,962 2,070 2,061 2,278 2,363 2,007 1,972 41,548 42,720 41,496 43,518 42,855 42,485 1948 1953 1961 1971 1981 1991

1921 6,620 7,322 9,663 2,622 3,188 2,931 3,168 1,901 2,152 39,567 2001

1931 7,595 7,337 10,825 2,555 2,966 3,168 3,439 1,962 2,087 41,934 2011

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Ĉabar 6,041 6,360 6,702 6,083 Delnice 6,609 7,592 7,652 7,291 Vrbovsko 8,714 9,077 8,663 8,411 Brod Moravice 2,152 2,220 2,105 1,855 Fuţine 2,521 2,907 2,793 2,443 Mrkopalj 3,007 3,046 2,650 2,352 Ravna Gora 3,412 3,652 3,634 3,507 Skrad 2,002 2,026 2,039 2,021 Lokve 1,762 2,516 1,850 1,522 36,220 39,396 38,088 35,485 GORSKI KOTAR Source: Naselja i stanovništvo RH 1857.–2001., DZS, Zagreb, CD DZS, Zagreb; Popis stanovništva 2011., DZS, Zagreb, www.dzs.hr

5,465 5,169 4,387 3,770 6,817 6,858 6,262 5,952 7,344 7,528 6,047 5,076 1,444 1,196 985 866 2,271 2,000 1,855 1,592 2,002 1,823 1,407 1,214 3,300 3,167 2,724 2,430 1,759 1,549 1,333 1,062 1,290 1,255 1,120 1,049 31,692 30,545 26,120 23,011 ROM, 2005.; Popis stanovništva 2001.,

Table 2. Natural population development 2001-2010 (in ‰) 2001 – 2010 Town/Municipality

BIRTH

DEATH

Ĉabar 265 618 Delnice 509 770 Vrbovsko 404 997 Brod Moravice 50 194 Fuţine 100 295 Lokve 86 159 Mrkopalj 80 228 Ravna Gora 206 381 Skrad 65 230 GORSKI KOTAR 1,765 3,872 Source: Vitalna statistika 1991.-2010., DZS, Zagreb.

NATURAL CHANGE

BIRTH RATE

DEATH RATE

-353 -261 -593 -144 -195 -73 -148 -175 -165 -2,107

6.5 8.3 7.3 5.4 5.8 7.9 6.1 8.0 5.4 7.2

15.2 12.6 17.9 21.0 17.1 14.7 17.4 14.8 19.2 15.8

NATURAL CHANGE RATE -8.7 -4.3 -10.6 -15.6 -11.3 -6.8 -11.3 -6.8 -13.8 -8.6

The contemporary period (2001-2011) indicates continuing of negative demographic trends, characterized by dominant demographic processes depopulation and population aging. During this period the entire Gorski kotar region have witnessed total population decrease of 11.9 per cent. If we analyze the population data on administrative level of towns and municipalities, we can see the difference in demographic trends but only in their dynamics since all units are affected by population regression – from 5 per cent in Delnice to 20.3 per cent in Skrad. The fact that Gorski kotar has in the period of only 20 years (1991-2011) lost 1/4 of its population, gives an impression about the intensity of population regression. In real terms depopulation is even more intensive than the Census data show us because the exact population number in this region is much smaller, like on many Croatian islands. Census included population who have second homes in this hilly-mountain region; they register here, even though they live somewhere else, due to certain benefits that derive from Act on hilly and mountain areas. Although the negative net migration is a very important factor of intensive depopulation in Gorski kotar, the key reason in last inter-census period was negative natural population change in all administrative units and is a result of low birth and high death rates. The negative trend of bio-reproductive processes from 1990s has intensified during the first decade of 21st century; birth rates have further decreased (1991-2000=8.0‰, 20012010=7.2‰), while death rate remained very high even though is lower than in previous period (1991-2000=16.1‰, 2001-2010=15.8‰). These bio-reproductive characteristics are distinctive for aged populations, which is the consequence of long-term emigration of mainly younger population that influenced birth rate decrease and death rate increase due to age structure. The lowest birth rates (5.4‰) have Skrad and Brod Moravice, as well as the highest death rates (21‰ Brod Moravice, 19.2‰ Skrad). The highest birth rate (8.3‰) and the lowest

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death rate (12.6‰) in Gorski kotar have administrative unit Delnice; that can be explained with the fact that within this unit is the largest urban centre in this region Delnice (Tab 2). 90-94

M

Ž

80-84

2011

70-74 60-64 50-54 40-44 30-34 20-24

2001

10-14 0-4 6

5

4

3

2

1

0

%

1

2

3

4

5

Figure 2. Age-sex structure of Gorski kotar (Census 2001 and 2011)

Very unfavourable age structure of Gorski kotar population, where only 11.2 per cent of population is younger than 14 years of age and 22.5 per cent is older than 65 years of age, is the basic determinant of present and future demographic development of researched area and it shows many limitations and problems in both social and economic development of this hilly-mountain region. The constant population aging is clearly visible from age and sex structure (Fig 2), where the bottom of the so-called “pyramid” is narrower while the top of it is wider. This is a stage of very extreme population aging; in Brod Moravice every third inhabitant is older than 65 years of age, similar to Skrad where the average age of inhabitants is 50.2 years. SETTLEMENT NETWORK OF GORSKI KOTAR Gorski kotar has dispersed settlement network, which is characterised by a large number of small settlements and non-existence of any larger regional urban centre (Fig 3). That represents a limitation factor for socio-economic development of Gorski kotar for many decades now. The most of the existing settlements in Gorski kotar date from 17th century and their location correspond to physical-geographical features of this area. The development and significance of many of Gorski kotar settlements was under the influence of road development, mainly during the periods of 18th and 19th century when larger settlements (e.g. Delnice, Mrkopalj and Ravna Gora) developed on the edge of plateaus of then significant agrarian value. Karolina road, built between 1726 and 1728 from Karlovac to Bakar (near Rijeka), had a great importance for population inhabitancy of Gorski kotar. At that time,during the 18th century, Ravna Gora was the most important settlement in Gorski kotar. The second road was Lujzijana, built between 1803 and 1809 from Karlovac to Rijeka; at the time it was built it was one of the most modern roads in Europe and contributed significantly

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Figure 3. Gorski kotar settlement network

to the development of the largest settlement in Gorski kotar today – Delnice (Pavić, 1974; Njegaĉ 2002). Both demographic and economic development was relocated from Karolina along Lujzijana road. The state road D3 was built almost exactly along the Lujzijana route, while the new highway (A6), built in 2006, in larger part goes along Karolina route and some of the Gorski kotar larger settlements today are situated near its exits. The construction of the highway brought new disparities to Gorski kotar. It influenced positively on development of settlements located near the highway exits (e.g. Fuţine) but at the same time increased demographic and economic depression in settlements along D3. The railway construction in this area in 1873 (Karlovac – Rijeka) have also influenced on the development of settlements such as Skrad, Brod Moravice and Donje Vrbovsko (Njegaĉ, 2002). According to the last Census in 2011 there are 256 settlements with total of 23,011 inhabitants – average of 89.9 inhabitants per settlement. The number of settlements with no inhabitants grew in the period from the Census in 2001 – Gorski kotar has 37 such settlements today, which are 9 more than in 2001. The number is expected to grow further since 63 settlements have less than 10 inhabitants. Only 3 settlements have a population over 1,000 (Delnice: 4,379, Ravna Gora: 1,709, Vrbovsko: 1,673), while 182 settlements have less than 100 inhabitants (Census 2011). As mentioned, non-existence of any larger regional urban centre in this area, which could keep present or attract new inhabitants to this area, represents significant limitation factor for socio-economic and demographic development of this area. CONCLUSION At the beginning of 21st century hilly-mountain areas, as Croatia in general, are being characterised by unfavourable demographic trends and processes, first of all depopulation and

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population aging that influence significantly on overall changes in space. Even though all Croatian regions are affected by intensive process of population aging, that is the consequence of long term out-migration and birth rate/fertility decline, the difference between the regions with larger urban centres, who still have somewhat favourable age structure of population, and the ones on the periphery (i.e. islands, hilly-mountain areas), that are in advanced stage of depopulation and aging, are quite visible. All demographic processes indicators in observed period of time unambiguously show that Gorski kotar is a part of demographically most imperilled areas in Croatia. The current demographic state and processes indicate the continuation of unfavourable demographic trends in this region – further total population decrease, negative birth rates, and erosion of all demographic and economic structures are to be expected. In these circumstances there are no elements for any demographic stability or potential renewal in future. The settlement network of Gorski kotar, due to intensification of negative demographic processes, will face further changes; the analysis of depopulation dynamics, age structure and natural development have shown very poor demographic perspective for not only small but also middle-size settlements. A large number of small-size settlements with scarce and old population, without any in-migration flow in the future, will face total depopulation. At the same time middle-size will in demographic sense weaken significantly, regardless of implementation of measures for more equal regional development. The measures introduced in an Act on hilly and mountain areas haven‟t given any results concerning positive population development; this can be seen on the example of Gorski kotar region. No demographic renewal or new settling in this area has been seen; Gorski kotar witnessed further population decline. Even though local self-governments units receive significant financial support to create conditions for positive economic development and improvement of population life standard, it is obviously not enough to change negative demographic trends present in these areas for several decades. A poor economic strength with small number of job positions, especially for the highly educated population, poor infrastructure due to small number of users and stronger centralization of services in larger settlements due to population decrease, are the main factors that contribute to unfavourable life quality of Gorski kotar inhabitants, especially for younger families. REFERENCES Act on Hilly and Mountain Areas, OG 12/02, 32/02, 117/03, 42/05, 90/05 and 80/08. Lajić, I. (1999). Mehaniĉko kretanje stanovništva u demografskom razvitku Gorskog kotara, Migracijske teme, 15 (4), 501-513. Lajić, I., Klempić Bogadi, S. (2010). Demografska budućnost Gorskog kotara, Migracijske i etničke teme, 26 (2), 191-212. Nejašmić, I. (2008). Stanovništvo Hrvatske - demogeografske studije i analize, HGD, Zagreb. Njegaĉ, D. (2002). Gorska Hrvatska, in: Veliki Atlas Hrvatske, Mozaik knjiga, Zagreb, 270-279. Pavić, R. (1975). Gorska Hrvatska, in: Geografija SR Hrvatske, knjiga 4, Školska knjiga, Zagreb, 114-126.

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УДК: 314.116:[332.122.055.2:551.4.035/.036(497.7)

REVITALIZATION OF HILLY - MOUNTAINOUS AREAS AS A BASIS FOR DEMOGRAPHIC PROGRESS OF MACEDONIA Risto MIJALOV *, Goran KITEVSKI Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Institute of geography Arhimedova, 1000, Skopje, e-mail: risto.mijalov@gmail.com

ABSTRACT In this paper, the main demographic problems and trends in the country will be presented. By highlighting the situation of hilly - mountainous areas in the country and their potential for further economic engagement, main criteria and opportunities for revitalization will be created, as a starting point of some form of solution for the negative demographic trend of the state. Key words: demographic problems, potentials, economic engagement

INTRODUCTION Basic demographic framework of the Republic of Macedonia is represented in the figure of 2,022,547 inhabitants (census of 2002); an increase in the number of residents compared to previous census stages. Thus presented, the Republic of Macedonia, on population plan, has seen some progress. However, such basic demographic note avoids the real social and population structure of the state, which creates a negative opinion about demographic republic. Thus, the most important aspect of the demographic situation of the Republic of Macedonia, despite sizable movement and population progress, is the monitoring of the vital demographic statistics, economic and social structure of the population, migration and reallocation. In that case, through the particular analysis and assembly of a wide range of scientific methods of geographic and demographic approach, leads to conclusion about the necessity of taking concrete measures to ensure the progress of demographic progress, especially in view of the vital structure. There are, conditionally labeled, some factors and problems that created the situation that led to interruption in vital demographic progress of Macedonia. In relation to the spatial distribution, migration and resources, such plights show the basis of the hilly and mountainous areas: a problem, but as a kind of solution. Since hilly - mountainous landscapes create territorial framework of the Republic of Macedonia, they are taken as the basis for the declination, but also as a foundation for the possible demographic progress. For this, we need concrete analyzes, proposals and solutions, that covers the possibility of revitalizing these areas. Macedonia covers an area of 25,713 square kilometers and from that total territorial framework, just over 79 percent, goes to hypsometric framework of hilly - mountainous areas. Hill - mountain element, accounting for nearly 80 percent of the total territory of the country, imposes as uniquely area, which offers some prosperity. Thus, hilly - mountainous area is key spatial, functional, and resource element. SOME HISTORICAL ASPECTS Through the past, particularly speaking, to the middle period of the Yugoslav era, there was some space - equilibrium population in Macedonia, ie balanced distribution of population in the area. Complementing on the global trend of urbanization, such a picture in a short a period of time changed. There is the eternal question of whether industrialization,

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which prompted a series of processes and consequently, a number of problems was to such an extent necessary for the economy in our republic. Phase of industrialization in several stages consisted in moving the structure of the young working population from rural to urban areas. Depending on the needs of the workforce of the city, living conditions in the rural area, traffic connection and distance from urban center, as well as general morphological characteristic of the rural environment with all the geographical features, intensity and character of migration was different. On the village – city demographic transition, in the same period of accelerated postwar industrialization, the migration process of the young people overseas was complimentary. Overall, the population migrated from rural areas in the overseas country (emigration regions) but quite often, it was categorized as a family plan (permanent emigration of a complete family). Such rural - urban migration have changed the economic structure and potential of the Republic of Macedonia. Agrarian function was meant as a primary and generally the only strong economic functionality of Macedonia in the context of Yugoslavia, i.e. structural agrarian function of the Republic of Macedonia. The trend of leaving the village hearths conditioned decomposition of economic units or farm households through the grounds until their functional failure, by moving the age structure of a household through sexual disorder and economic structure of the same. The same is supplementing and great backwardness of the villages in terms of urban centers, in the context of urbanization. Analogous to the industrialization and urbanization, urban areas experienced a demographic, and urban implosion, while the same process we have come rural areas, which are preserved the ambience and the old look of the village. Therefore, we can speak for even diametrical civilization differences between Macedonian villages and towns that, for which today there are no conditions to be marginalized. Urbanization and modernization of cities, unlike villages, appears as another factor, and the motive for rural - urban demographic transition. Simply, no matter of the possibility and necessity of employment of the city, young people were seeking a better life and civilization benefits, they chose a city instead of the village, no matter of the, relatively speaking, the larger possibilities of an existential nature. There is a solid basis for discussing why the urbanization of the countryside lagged. Besides the mentioned trend of relocation of population from rural to urban areas and in most industrial-minded countries in the same, analogous to such transformation villages were covered. In our case, it lacking, and the question is whether the non-realization, or late unjustified due to urbanization due to their sudden departure, or leaving late due to urbanization. However, for some villages and rural areas, there is justification for their abandoning and, more precisely, their urban and total neglect. Need to note that a large part of mountain villages existed on heavy orographic conditions, with minimal geo resources and in general, bad living conditions. Such villages, mainly characterized by nonfunctional economic structure (eg farming function) were purpose created in the wake of the Ottoman Empire and the whims that come with it. Thus, the population of the plain and hilly areas, seeking refuge and salvation, the same found in difficult mountainous terrain. Furthermore, with the change of the social conditions, normally consequently, population of these terrains decided to migrate in the plain areas. Complex history i.e. demographic - urban transition with industrialized signature, is the main factor for the creation of spatial – population category of Macedonia today.

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In correlation with the thematic aspect of the subject, from the essential question are exactly rural areas, or villages in the country. The emphasis falls exactly on the villages, because most of the settlements as urban figure are part of the hill - mountain element of Macedonia. RURAL ASPECTS AND CHARACTERISTICS Through lap time sections through the closer history of the Republic of Macedonia there are around 1750 villages. That figure, over time decreased, so today we can talk about a 200 abandoned villages. Much of the existing, over 600, are in phase of displacement. Out of approximately 1575 populated rural areas, 950 are hilly - mountainous. A total of all hills - mountain villages, 648 are hilly, and mountainous are 302. There are various criteria to determine the hilly and mountainous nature of the villages, which often include hypsometric feature, function feature, extension and size of the area, exposure, etc., therefore, the figure in this categorization in common calculations vary. In view of village area, opportunities and potentials of the village, of great importance is the structure and size of the village. The general classification of small, medium, large, it is worth noting that there is some distinction in respect of the same. Thus, in the group to 1000 hectares, which belong to a total of 704 villages (44 percent of all), 43 percent are hilly, and only 7 percent of them are mountain villages. In the category of 1001 to 3000 hectares, there are 757 villages (48 percent of total), of which, 52 percent are hilly, and 19 percent are mountainous. In the third category, from 3001 to 5000 hectares, a total of 73 villages in the country are included. A total of 36 villages are hilly and mountainous are 35.3 The largest group, ie the group of villages that have own area greater than 5000 hectares, match 41 rural settlement, or only 2.6 percent of all villages in Macedonia. Of these, 22 are hilly, and mountainous villages are 18. It concludes that most of the villages have a small or medium-sized surroundings. It is interesting to note that the villages have larger area are mainly mountainous, and that they are vulnerable to displacement and extinction. Complete teritory under village areas is accounted at 15 973 square kilometers. On average, hilly - mountainous villages have the size of 15 hectares.4 In general, the Macedonian villages have balanced agrarian structure, a good division of agricultural land, i.e. no obvious dominance of an agrarian structure (like forest vs. agricultural, etc.).In this context, it is important to note agrarian structure and the mountainous regions in the country. The total agricultural area of hilly - mountainous region accounted 1 485 567 hectares. Of the total agricultural area, arable land accounts for 338 076 ha, under pasture - a total of 456 000 ha, while the forest is 692 000 hectares5 In terms of population and further specific demographic characteristics of hilly mountainous regions in Macedonia, a negative connotation note can be set. During the nineties and onwards, the number of residents in the hilly - mountainous areas is declining, but in a connotation of stagnation, unlike the previous stages of the demographic exodus. Today‟s population in hilly - mountainous areas can be estimated at just over 200 000 inhabitants.6 3

Панов, М (1991): Некои демографски и просторно – популациски карактеристики на населението во Република Македонија според пописот од 1991 година, Македонска Академија на Науките и Уметностите, Прилози XXII 2, Оделение за Општествени науки, Скопје 4 Authors calculations 5 Authors calculations 6 Estimation, because regular census was not conducted in 2012

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This is due to the discharge of terrains, inhabited with people in latter life stage, which are ineffective in the working aspect, and out of the fertile period. Thus, migration from villages to towns from hilly and mountainous areas, are practically completed, but is expected to further reduce the number of population in the these areas, followed by an increase in the average age of the population. Therefore, it can be concluded that, of the 12 percent of the old population (65 years and over) on republic level, the vast majority lives in the hilly - mountainous areas. Thus, we can conclude that the ineffective part of the population of Macedonia lives exactly in the dominant and prominent part of Republic of Macedonia. In terms of households as working units, through the stages of industrialization and leaving the villages, the constantly shredding and destruction of family farms and functional business units occurs. So, unlike the Yugoslav trend in the large household members, today's households in the hilly - mountainous areas are solitary, or two or three members. In the context of the problems of mountainous villages, infrastructure and traffic connection can be mentioned as a generator. In view of the historical development of of roadway, less attention was addressed to connecting villages to major urban анд рурал centers and rural, as well with the major roads with quality paved roads. Such a process was going slowly, so slowly that some villages have been displaced, or already unsustainable before being connected. Similar is the road structure today, in manner of hilly and mountainous villages. Today road infrastructure connects the villages and rural areas, but the state and category of the roads, is generally stated, in poor condition. As for other infrastructure elements, many of the villages already have the basic infrastructure, but for further interventions and investments, it‟s almost impossible, nor economically justified. PROBLEMS, POTENTIALS, MEASURES AND PERSPECTIVES Macedonia is categorized as a country that in the future will face certain social, demographic, economic, and even political issues and processes. Beside the argued, conditional opportunity for revitalization of areas with hilly and mountainous composition in the complex connotation, the same field of discussion could be formulated as a solution to the remaining (conditional) and some chain problems and processes. As a first degree thereof, are classified internal immigrations. Unemployment in Macedonia is one of the largest problems, but from a different perspective, it is a potential. There is a large number of unemployed people. That figure is around 300 000, representing 30 percent of the total working force structure of Macedonia. In terms of demographic distribution, centralization is a specific problem. The gravitational force of the city of Skopje, where about 25 percent of the total population of the republic lives, is a large problem. Precisely to this, generally speaking, Skopje is the only gravitational center, a point where internal migration processes are directed. In terms of migration, the main place in emigration role is formed by the process of brain drain (outflow of skilled and highly educated workforce for external economies). It falls within the category of problems, but also as a potential for resolving it. Positioning and preventing the outflow of labor force would be a major driving force on the possibility of revitalizing the Macedonian society.  Displacement of villages that belong to the group of socially unsustainable, i.e. those under demographic and spatial features that cannot be revitalized and sustained (monofunction, age structure, isolation, etc.). Mainly, villages of mountain type would be displaced, which basically have monofunction and significantly large area.

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 Realignment or merger of villages and their annexation to specific rural center, where they will be regulated in urban manner. It would enable agricultural reorganization, along with the cadastral reorganization and change of the area of the village, according to previously outlined plan for better distribution and functional organization. Reorganized villages would receive polyfunctionality, depending on their natural - geographic and socio - economic characteristics.  In view of the economic transformation of the countryside, it is important to synchronize village or rural area to the urban area, such as establishment of a relation according to the possibilities and potentials (distance, road connectivity, economic opportunities of the city (gravitational core), etc.). Thus, the revitalization of the hilly – mountainous villages and areas would be possible even without the constant physical human presence and mechanical immigrations, i.e., the functionality of the village would be possible with seasonal and daily- periodic migrations on city – village relation, that would create coherence between the urban - rural areas without disruption of the demographic balance.  Villages would be revitalized with specific agricultural involvement, especially in the view of growing crops that do not require attention throughout the year, but require periodic intervention and intensive work (for example: wheat - sowing, harvesting, etc.).  Besides agricultural duty of that principle, bondage without permanent immigration would take place through the creation of specific economic facilities, again with the interdependence of space and conditions in relation to the connection with the urban core. As one of the main forms of revitalization should be tourism or functional categorization of villages with tourist potential. As a basis for such a tourist fictionalization, some major predisposition of village environment like cultural - historical significance (in the case of village Galičnik, it is sufficient criteria for its maintenance and revitalization) can be taken; high quality agricultural land, multifunctional structure (аrea of mixed character), further agriculture and its function in tourism (agroturizam), ecotourism etc.. For the last subtypes, unlike some constants such historical value, reorganization of several villages and joining rural center is possible without any loses.  Furthermore, for the revitalization of hilly - mountainous areas, despite synchronization with the urban environment, of a great importance is the possibility of permanent migration. For them, there are some conditions and some specific problems. Of the problems, the most important is the socio-psychological element, when an individual has an aversion to live in a village, because the perception that would lose contact with civilization and the urban environment.  As the main precondition for the possible return of a particular piece of work age population in Macedonia hilly - mountainous areas to be remediated, lies in the existential reality. That is, in a developing country such as Macedonia, with all specific conditions ( political - economic instability ) with a big portion of the population that is unemployed and persistently searching for jobs, populating the hilly - mountainous areas ( as a strategy of social character ) is practically feasible and economically - socially viable idea. For that to be implemented, it is necessary to meet an array spatial - urban conditions:  After the reorganization of the villages in the hilly - mountainous rural center, and their urban arrangement (infrastructure, water supply, sanitary infrastructure, communications, etc.) is of great necessity of state intervention in the case. Since the demographic revival is a national interest, the state must engage at full force into resuscitation process. Thus, the state is necessary to:  Economic feature (creating - allocation of facilities that will require labor force). Depending on the criteria quoted above, would be created regional economic policy.

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 Lending and subsidizing individual for his permanent settlement in the hilly mountainous areas (irreversible or formal loan interest rate). From a great importance is the housing problem, and a solution on that matter would belonged to the state subsidies.  Guaranteed placement of agricultural / industrial products for greater opportunity for growth and development of the region economic plan, etc. Crop rotation under state monitoring is in option, for better market flows. Such migrations would mean a great labor force resource at rural areas and as a vital foundation for the progress of the same demographic base. There is a crossover on the constant need for migration (the first example), for the part of the population that works in the city at this case, in the wake of revitalization of hilly - mountainous areas, could live in the countryside, while labor tasks could be in the towns. It would be particularly beneficial in the case of the City of Skopje and its demographic overload and its increased gravity power. CONCLUSION The paper presented the main features of the Republic of Macedonia in close connection of the hilly - mountainous composition, correlated with demographic and agricultural characteristics of the specific area. Since the topic includes the opportunity and perspective of the specific hilly - mountainous area through revitalization, ways and aspects of the same theme were elaborated. Historical aspects are inevitable. Stratification of the processes that contributed to the situation for the hilly - mountainous terrain in the country today, which should be taken as basic form, at least in terms of the spatial frame (almost 80 percent of the total territorial buoyancy of Macedonia); and its rural neglect . The characteristics of today's Macedonian society which creates the complete genesis of all social difficulties and problems, in this case, however, can be found as a motive for conversion, in the role of exploitable resource.Through the current situation in Macedonia in terms of agrarian structure, demographic structure and distribution of the population and their social and economic function, through specific moves that will have a public sign, hilly - mountainous area will be exposed as a solution to the major problems, and thus, in turn, vitalization will be executed, which actually is the problem, but also and a solution of the social complexity of our Republic of Macedonia РЕЗИМЕ Во трудот беа претставени главните карактеристики на Република Македонија во тесна врска на ридско – планинската композиција, и во корелација со демографските и земјоделските карактеристики на специфичниот простор. Бидејќи темата опфаќа можност и перспектива на специфичниот ридско – планински простор преку ревитализирање, се зборуваше за начините и аспектите за случување на истото. Неминовни се и историските аспекти, односно стратификација на процесите кои придонеле до ситуација денешниот ридско –планински терен во Република Македонија, кој може да се земе како основен, барем во поглед на просторната рамка (скоро 80 проценти од вкупната територијална расположеност на Република Македонија), и неговата рурална запуштеност. Карактеристиките на денешното македонско општество кои ја создаваат комплетната генеза на сите општествени потешкотии и проблеми, во овој случај, пак, се јавуваат како мотив за реализација, односно во улога на искористлив ресурс. Така, при актуелната ситуација во Македонија, во поглед на аграрна структура, демографска структура и распореденост, преку конкретни потези кои ќе имаат државен предзнак, ридско – планинскиот простор во Македонија се наоѓа како решение на крупните проблеми, а преку тоа, пак, се

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извршува и негова витализација, што всушност, претставува и проблем, но и решение на општествената комплексност на нашата Република Македонија. REFERENCES Маркоски Б. (2006): Руралната средина во Република Македонија, Зборник на трудови од научниот симпозиум со меѓународно учество “Руралниот простор во новите развојни услови”, Охрид 30.03-01.04.2006, ПМФ-Институт за географија, Скопје Маркоски Б., Маџевиќ М. (2001): Момент на трансформација на селското население во градско во Република Македонија, Годишен зборник кн. 35-36, Скопје. Маџевиќ М., Апостоловска-Тошевска Б., (2009): Меѓузависност помеѓу урбанизацијате и индустријализацијата во Република Македонија, Зборник на трудови од научен симпозиум, Охрид Мијалов Р., Илиев Д. (2011): Значењето на морфометриските елементи на релјефот при планирањето и вреднувањето на просторот од туристички аспект, Зборник на трудови од IV Конгрес на МГД, стр. 185-192, Дојран Мијалов Р., Панов Н. (2010): Неравномерни распоред становништва у Републици Македонији, један од главних разлога за политичку нестабилност у држави, Меџународни научни скуп, Територијални аспекти развоја Србије и суседних земаља, Географски факултет, стр. 55-60, Београд Мијалов Р., Илиев Д. (2009); „Некои критериуми за вреднување и определување на површините за земјоделството во Струмичко-радовишката котлина", Гласник за социо економска географија, кн.3, стр 18-28, Скопје Мијалов, Р. (2008): Аграрна Географија, Селектор, Скопје Мијалов Р. (2007): „Некои фактори за развој на тутунот во Радовишкото производно подрачје", Гласник за социо економска географија, кн.1, стр 25-32, Скопје Мијалов Р., Панов Н. (2006): „Селскиот туризам како фактор за развој на руралниот простор во горниот дел од сливното подрачје на реката Бабуна", Зборник на трудови - Руралниот простор во новите развојни услови, книга 1, стр. 111-123 , Природно-математички факултет, Охрид Mijalov R., Panov N. (2004): „Odlike i specifičnosti tla i njihove poljoprivredne vrednosti”, Tematski zbornik „Kapital u poljoprivredi”, Palić Мијалов Р. (2000): Некои последици од депоплулацијата и деаграризацијата во подрачјето на Крива Лакавица, Географски разгледи, бр. 35, стр 131-139, Природно-математички факултет, Скопје Мијалов, Р. (2000): Промени на аграрната структура во Република Македонија, Зборник од вториот конгрес на географите на Република Македонија, Македонско географско друштво, стр 220-227, Скопје Панов, М (1998): Енциклопедија на селата во Република Македонија, Патриа, Скопје Панов, М (1991): Некои демографски и просторно – популациски карактеристики на населението во Република Македонија според пописот од 1991 година, Македонска Академија на Науките и Уметностите, Прилози XXII 2, Оделение за Општествени науки, Скопје Панов, М (1987): Класификација на селата во СР Македонија според големината и структурата на атарите, Географски разгледи, Сојуз на географските здруженија на СР Македонија, Книга 25, Скопје Панов, М (1975): Промени и проблеми во населеноста на планинските подрачја во СР Македонија, Географски Разгледи, Географско друштво на СР Македонија, Книга 13, Скопје Панов, М (1972): Нови промени и одлики на некои демографски структури на населението во СР Македонија, Географски Разгледи, Географско друштво на СР Македонија, Книга 10, Скопје Панов Н., Талеска М. (2007): Географија на Европа, Селектор, Скопје Панов, Н. (2000): Можности за развој на селскиот туризам во Република Македонија, Зборник од вториот конгрес на географите на Република Македонија, Македонско географско друштво, стр 259268, Скопје Панов, Н. (1996): Селскиот туризам како фактор за развој на стопанството во недоволно развиените подрачја, Еколошко друштво "Злетовица" (монографија)

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УДК: 314.116:551.4.035/.036(497.7)

ДЕМОГЕОГРАФСКИ ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ НА РИДСКОПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА ВО РЕПУБЛИКА МАКЕДОНИЈА Никола В. ДИМИТРОВ Вонреден професор на Факултет за туризам и бизнис логистика и на Факултет за природни и технички науки, катедра за географија при Универзитет „Гоце Делчев“ – Штип АПСТРАКТ Во трудот се наведени основни просторно-популациски податоци за ридско-планинските подрачја по просторно плански региони и општини. Издиференцирани се најважните демогеографски проблеми со кои се соочуваат ридско-планинските подрачја: неповолната структура на населението, депопулацијата и деаграризацијата, недоволната стопанска развиеност, слабата инфраструктура и сл. Во оформување на ракописот користен е статистичко-квантитативен метод, од кој произлегуваат извесни резултати и заклучоци. Составен дел на ракописот се неколку табели и тематска карта. Заклучните размислувања се насочени кон утврдување на разновидни перспективни можности и погодности за валоризација и одржлив развој на ридско-планинските подрачја во Република Македонија. Клучни зборови: Демогеографија, ридско-планински подрачја, стратегија, трансформација, Република Македонија. ABSTRACT The paper set out basic spatial population data for mountainous areas in spatial regions and municipalities. Differentiated demo-geographic most important problems facing the mountainous areas: the unfavorable structure of the population, depopulation, lack of economic development, poor infrastructure, etc. In shaping the manuscript used is statistical-quantitative method, which results in some results and conslusions. An integral part of the manuscript are several tables and thematic map. Concluding thoughts are directed towards determining the various promising opportunities and incentives for evaluation and sustainable development of mountainous areas in the country. Keywords: Demo-deography, hilly-mountainous areas, transformation, Republic of Macedonia.

ВОВЕД Најголем дел од просторот на Република Македонија му припаѓа на ридскопланинските подрачја или ридско-планинскиот релјеф, со површина 20.813 км² и со учество во вкупната површина од 81% (Стојмилов, 2003), односно со површина од 19.853 км² со учество од 79,7%. (Маркоски, 1998).7 Врз основа на орографски услови, генерално, населбите во РМ се поделени во три групи, и тоа: рамничарски, ридски и планински. Во Република Македонија се среќаваат бројни населби чиja провршина нма атарот се протега во трите орографски зони или услови (рамничарска, ридска и планинска), како и населби чии простор се протега во една и две орографски зони. При конечното определување на населбите според зоната во која припаѓаат (планинска, ридска или рамничарска) поаѓаме од структурата на атарот нивната процентуална застапеност (обработливо земјиште, пасишта, ливади, шуми и необработливо земјиште), од средната надморска височина на населбата и 7

За големината на ридско-планинскиот релјеф располагаме со следните различни податоци. Имено, според А.Стојмилов (2003), Физичка географија на Република Македонија, стр.53., најголем дел од територијата на РМ им припаѓа на планинското замјиште со 11.044 км² или 43,0 %, ридскиот релјеф или ридските терени зафаќаат површина од 9769 км² или 38%, а рамнинскиот простор опфаќа најмалку, односно 4900 км² или 19%. Според, Б.Маркоски (1998) Хипсометрија на просторот и населеноста во Република Македонија, картографски метод, стр.74-78 и 93-96., планинскиот простор опфаќа 12.254 км² или 49,2%, ридскиот простор 7598 км² или 30,5% и рамничарски простор 5065 или 20,3%.

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катастарските снимања направени во 1980/82 година.8 Меѓутоа, миграционите движења присутни во континуитет децении наназат, предизвикаа голем број рурални населби да останат без или со значително малку население, а напоредно со тоа започнал и процесот на намалување на обработливото земјиште за сметка на проширување на тревната вегетација, ниските дрва, односно проширување на пасиштата и шумите, што предизвика до појава на деаграризација и депопулација. Овие појави најмногу ги зафати ридско-планинските предели и населби, токму затоа, за поточни податоци потребни се повторни снимања, мерења и картографска дигитализација на ридскопланинскиот терен, како и теренски истражувања и сеопфатна картографска софтверско - тематска дигитализација на целиот простор на државата. Само на таков начин ќе имаме поточни и поиздржани податоци за промените и актуелните состојби во наведениот простор. Впрочем, во фокусот на нашето истражување, покрај површината на физичкиот ридско–планински простор, се и населбите во истиот, односно ридско-планинските населби и нивното население. Нашите истражувања го потврдија и следното, дека, има населби чии атар припаѓа на рамничарски, ридски и планински простор, како и населби кои припаѓаат на рамничарски и ридски простори, а според орографските услови се вброени во рамничарски, како и населби чии атари се рамничарски и ридски а се вброени во ридски населби. Па, одтука и отстапување, односно разлика во површините помеѓу хипсометријата на ридско–планинскиот простор со орографските зони или услови (од 19853 км² на 16833,8 км² или разлика од 3019,2 км² или од 12.1% (79,7% 12,1% = 67,6%). Наведените 12,1% од површината на РМ зафаќаат населби (урбани и рурални) чии атари се протегаат во трите зони (рамничарска-ридска-планинска), или две зони (рамничарска-ридска), а припаѓаат на рамничарските населби (па одтука и не се предмет на наша елаборација).9 Различни податоци располагаме и за бројот на населби. Имено, според Панов (1998)10 од вкупно 1590 селски населби, 584 се рамнински (36,7%), 632 ридски (39,8%) и 374 планински села (23,5%), или заедно ридско планински 1006 селски населби (63,3%). Ако ги додадеме и градските населби вкупниот број на населби изнесува 1619 населби (попис 1994 г.). Додека пак, според Стојмилов11 во 2002 година од вкупно 1616 села, од кои 801 села се рамничарски (49,6%), ридски се 533 (33%), а останатите 282 (17,4%) се планински села, или ридско планински 815 селски населби (50,4%).

8

Владо Поповски, Арслан Селмани, Никола Панов, (2006) Општините во Република Македонија, ИДБЦ, Скопје; РГЗ (1982) СР Македонија низ катастарска евиденција, Скопје; Избор: ДЗС (2008) Номенклатура на територијалните единици за статистика на Република Македонија – НТЕЦ (1.8.8.01 Класификација, методологија, номенклатури и стандарди), Скопје, стр. 53; 9 Станува збор за рурални и урабани населби. Пример: селата Покрвеник, Грнчари во ресенско, Иловица, струмичко и многу други, чии атари припаѓаат во трите орографски зони, а се води како рамничарски. Или пак, градовите Тетово, Битола, Прилеп, Гостивар, Куманово, и др., чии атар припаѓа во две орографски зони (рамничарска и ридска) а се водат како рамничарски градови итн. Како и да е, и покрај одредени слабости, цениме, дека, нашите истражувања приближно 90% ја отсликуваат состојбата од теренот. За целосно расветлување на дилемата околу вистинската големина на демогеографското ридскопланинско подрачја во РМ, предлагаме дефинирање на ридско-планинските подрачја врз основа на изработка на дигитализирани демогеографски тематски карти преку кои прецизно би се определила површината на ридско-палнинските подрачја, потоа именување на ридско – планинските простори според своите специфики и нивна посебна намена (пример: за сточарство, шумарство, природен резерват, национален парк и други намени). 10 Митко Панов (1998) Енциклопедија на селата во Република Македонија, Скопје, стр. 330 (стр. 346) 11 Александар Стојмилов (2005) Социоекономска географија на Република Македонија, Скопје, стр. 111 (стр. 390)

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Податоците за вкупниот број населби, според Поповски, Селмани и Панов (2006)12 изнесува 1621 населба, плус 146 раселени или севкупно 1767 населби. Додека пак, според Државниот завод за статистика (2008)13 вкупниот број на населби изнесува 1767 (заедно со 155 раселени населби) а ако кон нив се додадат и десетте скопски населби, тогаш вкупниот број изнесува 1777 населби. Ако кон вкупниот број населби ги одземеме раселените и десетте скопски населби, тогаш вкупниот број изнесува 1612 населби. Консултирајќи ги сите наведени извори, и врз основа на нашите истражувања, доаѓаме до следните податоци: вкупен број на населби 1777 од кои 722 рамничарски (40,6%), 659 ридски (37,1%) и 396 планински населби (22,3%) или заедно ридскопланински 1055 (59,4%). (Види табели) Демогеографски состојби во ридско-планинските населби Во рамките на дозволениот простор, изнесуваме коментарите и анализи за кои сметаме дека се важни, а се поткрепени со неколку табели. Имено, од Табела 1. орографски гледано ридско – планинскиот простор зафаќа површина од 16833,7 км2 (со учество од 67,6% во вкупната површина на РМ) и во истиот се среќаваат 1055 ридско – планински населби (учество од 59,4% во вкупниот број населби) во кои вкупно живеат 434.264 жители (со учество од 21,5% во вкупниот број жители на РМ). Со најголемо учество во ридско – планинскиот простор има Полошкиот статистичко плански регион (79,5%), потоа следат Југозападниот (77,7%), Североисточниот (76,3%), Источниот (75,0%), Скопскиот (70,8%), Вардарскиот (62,3%), Пелагонискиот (61,9%), а со најмало учество е Југоисточниот регион (55,4%). Во вкупниот број населби ридско – планинските населби имаат најголемо учество во Северозападниот регион со 76%, а потоа следат Југозападниот статистичко плански регион со учествуво од 68,5%, Полошкиот со 66,3%, Источниот со 62,4%, Скопскиот со 56,7%, Вардарскиот со 55,1%, Пелагонискиот со 50,5%, а со најмало учество во вкупниот број населби има Југоисточниот статистичко плански регион со 49,2%. Интересно за подвлекување, е тоа дека 76 општини имаат ридско – планински населби, а само 8 општини се без ридско планински населби.14 Резимирано, податоците од Табела 2. за состојбата со населението во ридско – планинските населби ни го покажуваат следното. За период од 40 години (1961 –2002 г.)15 вкупното население во ридско – планинските области се намалил за 101.463 жители или за 18,9%. Најголемо намалување на население од ридско – планинските предели, во апсолутни бројки, забележуваме во Пелагонискиот плански регион од 47.828 жители, со индекс (2002/1961) од 38,5, или намалување од -61,5%, потоа следат Североисточниот статистичко плански регион од -32.689 жители, индекс од 55,7 или намалување од -44,3%, па Југозападниот, Вардарскиот, Југоисточниот и Источниот, а Скопскиот и Полошкиот имаат наголемување на населението за 11 односно 10%. Во истата табела 2. сличен процес на намалување забележуваме и во густината на населеност. Така, во наведениот период, вкупната густина на населеност во ридско – планинските предели се намалила од 31,9 ж/км2 на 25,9 ж/км2 или за 6 ж/км2. Гледано по статистичко плански региони, најголемо намалување на густината на населеност регистрираме во Североисточниот од 18,3 ж/км2, и во Пелагонискиот регион 12

Владо Поповски, Арслан Селмани, Никола Панов, (2006) Општините во Република Македонија, ИДБЦ, Скопје, стр. 407 13 ДЗС (2008) Номенклатура на територијалните единици за статистика на Република Македонија – НТЕЦ (1.8.8.01 Класификација, методологија, номенклатури и стандарди), Скопје, стр. 53; 14 Општини без ридско-планински населби се: Аеродром, Богданци, Илинден, Карпош, Кисела Вода, Центар, Чаир и Шуто Оризари. 15 Статистичките податоци во трудот се за 1961 и 2002 г, бидејќи пописот од 2011 г. не се одржа.

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намалување од 16,5 ж./км2, додека пак кај останатите ригиони намалувањето на густината се движи од Југостиочниот од 5,8 ж/км2, па Југозападниот од 5 ж/км2, Вардарски 4,5 ж/км2, Источен од само 0,2 ж/км2, а наголемување во густината на населеност регистираме кај Скопскиот регион од 4,4 ж/км2 и во полошкиот од 3,7 ж/км2. (Види: Табела 2.). Се разбира, дека сите наведени процеси се резултат на негативни демографски процеси, особено на миграционите текови, ниските стапки на природен прираст и слично. Во табелите 3 и 4 се сумирани сите показатели гледано во поголеми макро региони во Р.Македонија, односно, Повардарие, Источен и Западен дел од РМ. Наведените табели го потврдуваат намалувањето на популацијата, густината на населеност и другите негативни демографски трендови. Во табела 5 и 6 се изнесени податоци за ридско – планинските урбани и рурални населби, нивната површина и население, гледано по статистичко плански региони и по макро региони во Република Македонија. Резимирано, од вкупниот број ридско – планински населби, само 8 се урбани, од кои 5 се ридски (Штип, Велс, Дебар, Крива Палнака и Кратово), а 3 се планински (Крушево, Пехчево и Берово).16 Во ридско – планинскиот простор, урбаните населби зафаќаат површина од само 353,4 км 2 или 2,1% наспроти руралните со 16480,4 км2 со учество од 97,9%. Додека пак, во вкупното население од ридско–планинските населби, урбаните учествуваат со 138980 ж. (32,0%), а руралните со 295284 ж. (68,0%). (Табела 5 и 6) Демогеографски проблеми во ридско-планинските населби Генерално земено, со исклучок на Скопскиот и Полошкиот заради континуираниот механичкиот прилив и позитивниот природен прираст, во останатите региони, со поголем или помал интензитет, намалувањето на населението, населбите и другите демографски структури бележат континуирано негативни процеси.17 Ридско – планинските простори во Република Македонија, покрај со популациски проблеми (голем број на немажени и неженети, стареење на населението и сл.), се соочуваат и со инфраструктурни проблеми, како што се: дотраена, немодернизирана и недоволна патна мрежа, недостаток на водоводна мрежа, канализација, немање на организирано собирање на комуналениот отпад, невработеност, запоставени продавници, училишта, домови, амбулатни, слаба и дотраена електрична инсталација, распаднати и напуштени куќи и други проблеми. Демогеографски перспективи на ридско-планинските населби Сите претходни показатели даваат и надеж, дека, доколку се изработат и имплементираат разновидни Стратегии за инвестирање во развој на руралниот простор, преку модернизирање на земјоделието, шумарството, туризмот, селско стопанство, производство на еколошка храна, чистата енергија, чување и рацинално користење на водните ресурси, осовременување на сообраќајната, водоводната, кумуналната, електричната и друга инфраструктура, обнова на старите и напуштени селски куќи, чување на природните, културните и верските вредности и слично, тогаш, иднината не само на ридско – планинските простори, туку, во целина на Република Македонија е обезбедена. 16

Над десеттина градски населби во РМ (Куманово, Битола, Прилеп, Охрид, Кичево, Тетово, Гостивар, Свети Николе, Скопје, Струмица, Валандово, Пробиштип, и други) иако дел од својата урабана зона има ридски карактер, поголемиот нивни дел припаѓа во рамничарската зона и се вбројуваат во рамничарски градови, и според тоа, не се предмет на наша анализа. 17 Авторот, останатите демографски показатели за ридско – планинските продрачја во Република Македонија планира да ги објави во еден од наредните броеви на Географски разгледи.

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ЗАКЛУЧОК Резимирано, за справување со дел од проблемите во ридско – планинските подрачја потребни се низа системски мерки на истражување, дефинирање, опфат, подготовка, категоризација, како и изработка на концепција, методи и критериуми за имплементација и реализација на Стратегија за просторен, популациски и економски развој на ридско – планинските продрачја во Република Македонија. Сето тоа, мора да биде врз долгогодишна имплементација и практикување на терен на социјална, културна, популациона, земјоделска, инфраструктурана и друга трансформација за економски развој на ридско – планиските подрачја во Република Македонија. ЛИТЕРАТУРА Александар Стојмилов (2003), Физичка географија на Република Македонија, Скопје Благоја Маркоски (1998) Хипсометрија на просторот и населеноста во Република Македонија, картографски метод, Скопје Владо Поповски, Арслан Селмани, Никола Панов, (2006) Општините во Република Македонија, ИДБЦ, Скопје РГЗ (1982) СР Македонија низ катастарска евиденција, Скопје ДЗС (2008) Номенклатура на територијалните единици за статистика на Република Македонија – НТЕЦ (1.8.8.01 Класификација, методологија, номенклатури и стандарди), Скопје Митко Панов (1998) Енциклопедија на селата во Република Македонија, Скопје Александар Стојмилов (2005) Социоекономска географија на Република Македонија, Скопје ДЗС-Државен завод за статитистика, попис 2002 година.

DEMO-GEOGRAPHIC PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES OF HILLYMOUNTAIN AREAS IN REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA Nikola V. DIMITROV Nikola V. Dimitrov, ass.prof. Ph.D, Faculty of tourism and business logistics, University “Goce Delcev” – Stip, nikola.dimitrov@ugd.edu.mk

SUMMARY In summary, to address some of the problems in the hilly -mountainous areas requires array system measures the research, definition, scoping, preparation, categorization, and development of concept, methods and criteria for the implementation and realization of spatial strategy, population and economic development of hilly - mountainous areas in the country. It must be the long-term implementation and practice in the field of social, cultural, population, agriculture, infrastructure and other transformation of economic development of hill mountain areas in the country.

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Карта 1. Релјефна структура на статистичко планските региони во Република Македонија

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УДК: 314.116:502.5(437.6)„2000/2012“

DEMOGRAPHIC ASPECTS IN THE RESEARCH OF HISTORICAL LANDSCAPE STRUCTURES Milena MOYZEOVÁ¹, Július OSZLÁNYI¹ ¹Institute of Landscape Ecology of SAS Štefánikova 3, 814 99 Bratislava, Slovakia e-mail: milena.moyzeova@savba.sk; julius.oszlanyi@savba.sk

ABSTRACT Historical landscape structures are first of all marginal areas making up the typical character of landscape in a particular region. They are of irreplaceable landscape ecological and cultural-historical significance. Verešová, Supuka (2009) refer to these landscape elements and mosaics with traditional ways of management and farming (wine growing, agricultural, mining landscape, those with various settlements forms and buildings, etc.) as important phenomena of cultural landscape valuable not only from the national but also international points of view. They are territories which demonstrate the long-developing mutual relationships between humans and landscape and they also play important role in terms of conservation of landscape diversity and biodiversity of plant and animal species. The submitted contribution analyzes selected demographic indicators as well as actual conditions of development of viniculture in the town Svätý Jur, part of the Malokarpatská Vineyard Area. Proposal of the management strategy to be applied to the viticultural landscape at Svätý Jur will fully exploit results obtained by landscape-ecological research along with the analysis of basic social attributes. Key words: historical landscape structures, demographic indicators, Svätý Jur town, management strategy

INTRODUCTION Different types of natural and socio-economic environment including the viticultural one exhibit specific features which often influence even determine way of live and culture of their inhabitants. Demographic research along with landscape-ecological assessment of these areas provides information necessary in planning and management of their social and regional development. This research concentrated not only on landscape-ecological assessment but also on that of basic demographic indicators. Selected phenomena, processes and laws controlling the development, distribution, dynamics and structure of population were analysed with the intention to be able to predict future development and structure of a settlement in question. Old viticultural town of Svätý Jur was selected for the model area. Administratively speaking Svätý Jur belongs to the Administrative Region of Bratislava and district of Pezinok. The first written mention of Svätý Jur is of 1209. Area of its cadastral territory is 3,987 ha and it stretches on the south-eastern foothills of the Little Carpathians on the edge of the Podunajská Plain. The north-eastern part of its cadastral territory is the Protected Landscape Area of the Little Carpathians, the only large-area viticultural PA in the territory of Slovakia. The viticultural potential of this territory is bound to the south-eastern side of the region where the extensive vineyards form the typical viticultural landscape with field bounds, stone walls, grassed areas amidst vineyards, and balks. The town has preserved not only its viticultural character but also traditional forms of vine growing. Landscapeecological importance of this territory is enhanced by the existence of three small Protected Areas under the 4th and 5th levels of protection: the National Nature Reserve of Šúr, National Reserve of Jurské jazero and Protected Area of Svätojurské hradisko, as well as three NATURA2000 elements: one Protected Bird Territory and two territories of European significance. They are biotopes of high biological value with occurrence of rare vegetation and several protected and rare animal species. Apart from natural assets, Svätý Jur also boasts cultural and historical potential with several cultural monuments such as the ruins of the Biely Kameň Castle from the second half of the 13th century, the parish Church of St. George from 133


ДЕМОГРАФСКИ ПРОБЛЕМИ, ПОЛИТИКА НА ЕКОНОМСКИ И РЕГИОНАЛЕН РАЗВОЈ ВО РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА DEMOGRAPHIC PROBLEMS IN HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS, POLICY OF ECONOMIC AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS

the 2nd half of the 13th century and houses of vine growers from the 17th century. Cultural values of this small town also include burgher houses and yeoman mansions from the 16 th to 18th centuries, the Town Hall built in the Renaissance style from the 16th century, a synagogue from 1790, and the Plague Pillar from 1831 (Source: Encyclopaedia of Towns and Communes in Slovakia, 2005). Svätý Jur has been declared the Town Monument Reserve in 1990. METHODOLOGY Assessment of population concentrated on the analysis of principal phenomena, processes and laws which control the development, distribution, dynamics and structure of population which make it possible to estimate the future development and structure of urban settlement. Spatial aspect of population along with the landscape ecological assessment of the territory provides information necessary for planning and management not only of the social but also regional development of the particular territory while conserving the historical farming landscape structures. The research focused on: Spatial distribution of population, especially assessment of population number and density. Research into population structure based on various indicators (biological: age, sex, economic: vocation, employment, structure of industries, cultural: education, ethnicity, etc.). Research of population dynamics: natural movement of population (birth rate, death rate, etc.) and research of geographical mobility of population (migration, commuting, etc.). The assessment was made for 2000-2012. Selected indicators were represented in graphs. Published statistical data by the Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic were used as the basic material, which was supplemented by records of the Municipal Office in Svätý Jur. RESULTS Population number and concentration in our territory was determined not only by the historical development but also by land use. However, the high population density also represents limited spatial options for further expansion of the settlement. High population density (131 inhabitants per km2) suggests an increased interest in living in this locality especially of Bratislavians. Although Svätý Jur with its population of 5,317 (as of Dec. 31, 2012) is a small urban settlement, its present expansion is attributed not only to its attractiveness given by the geographical position, small distance from the capital but also good accessibility, quality services and cultural and social offer. Assessment of population number for the above-quoted time horizon (2000-2012) showed, with the exception of 2010, an increasing trend (Graph 1). Population of 4,469 that lived in the town in 2000 increased to 5,317 in 2012. It is an increase of 848 inhabitants in 12 years. The most conspicuous annual increase of population was experienced in 2001 (158) and in 2009 (155). On the contrary, the lowest annual population increase (29) was observed in 2003. 2011 was specific for the decrease of population by 29 compared to the preceding year. Numbers of males and females increased in the same rate. Numbers of births and deaths as well as those of in- and out-migration determined the overall population number. Number of births oscillated during the study period. The lowest increase of 34, it means 7.2 per one thousand, was observed in 2002, while in 2012 the increase amounted to 77 of live births (14.5 per thousand).

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Graph 1: Population in 2000-2012 (as of Dec. 31.)

Source: Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic, Demography, Population Change 2000-2012 Graph 2: Selected characteristics of birth rate (births per 1,000 inhabitants)

Source: Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic, Demography, Population Change 2000-2012

In the course of the study period, 713 babies including 358 boys and 355 girls were born. Number of babies born within the wedlock also increased: the absolute number of births within the wedlock is more than 3.8-fold higher than the number of extramarital births. Mean age of mothers giving birth to live babies also increases. Mean age of mothers delivering live babies in 2000 was 26.62. It increased to 32.10 in 2012; it means an increase by 5.48 years. Age increase of mothers reflects the overall social and economic situation in Slovakia. The situation in death rate is similar. Numbers of deaths oscillated. The lowest number of deaths was recorded in 2004, with total of 44 deaths (9.16 dead per 1,000 inhabitants) including 21 males and 23 females. The highest number of deaths was recorded in 2009 (57 i.e. 23 males and 34 females – equalling to 11.03 dead per 1,000). The greatest number of males (31) died in 2005 and in 2010, while the highest female death rate (34) was recorded in 2009. As far as the death rate is considered, 2011 seems favourable, as the number of dead per 1,000 at 8.79 was the lowest.

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Graph 3: Live births in 2000-2012

Source: Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic, Demography, Population Change 2000-2012 Graph 4: Number of dead

Source: Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic, Demography, Population Change 2000-2012

Number of deaths for the whole evaluated period decreased by 652, which was more than 12% of overall town‟s population in 2012. The most frequent death cause both of males and females was diseases of the circulatory system and neoplasia. While neoplasia in females as death cause decreases since 2006, it slightly increases in males. As far as the natural change of population is concerned, 2000-2004 when the numbers of annual death numbers exceeded numbers of births, were the years of natural population decrease; 2003 is one of the years, even at a national scale, characterized by the natural population decrease caused by the socioeconomic transition of the society, which followed the fall of the totalitarian regime in 1989. However, situation changed in 2005 when positive values of natural increase in the town appeared. This favourable situation is attributable to higher number of live births combined with lower death rate. The highest value of natural increase was recorded in 2011 when 69 babies were born and 46 inhabitants died. Positive values of natural population change correspond to the biological, economic, social, cultural and political factors in the society in the period in question. In case of migration, the lowest increase of population by in-migration 136


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in the whole study period was observed in 2003. The score began to improve in 2004, as the number of in-migrants slightly increased. The highest number of in-migrants (201) was in 2009 when 100 males and 101 males moved to the town. In the period in question, population of Svätý Jur increased by 1,741. Apart from Slovakia‟s inhabitants, also foreigners, mostly from Czechia, moved in. Among the most frequent reasons that motivated the migrants to change the place of permanent residence are: family reasons, dwelling, job, studies, health and other reasons. In the sphere of out-migration, the least favourable situation occurred in 2005 when 88 inhabitants left the town; that is 18.3 per 1,000. High numbers of out-migrants were also observed in 2008 and in 2010 when their number reached the total of 172. Years 2001 and 2004, when the number of out-migrants was 43 each year, were more favourable in this sense. By sex, number of female out-migrants (479) was higher than that of male out-migrants (386). The total number of out-migrations for the study period is 865. The highest number of out-migrants heading abroad (6) was recorded in 2011. The above data justify the conclusion that migration values in Svätý Jur for the whole study period are positive. It means that the number of in-migrants exceed the numbers of out-migrants. Graph 5: Characteristics of the developments in population number per 1,000 inhabitants

Source: Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic, Demography, Population Change 2000-2012

It seems that the given territorial unit enjoys a migration increase, which means promising outlooks of further growth. Apparently it attracts not only migrants from the near but also from more distant surroundings and from abroad. The good quality amenities in the settlement, services and options of sport and cultural activities contribute to the attractiveness of the town. The settlement avails itself of a finished sewage system connected to water cleansing station, gas distribution system, grocery shops, supermarkets, hotels, boarding houses, banks, insurance companies, health care centres, playgrounds, gymnasiums and a library. Natural assets, historical monuments and interesting landmarks located outside and in the town also attract in-migrants. Vine-growing and wine-making traditions of Svätý Jur are enrooted in local usage and expression maintained mostly by the elderly locals, the museums, association and other entities, among them Vlastivedné museum (Homeland Museum), Svätojurský vinohradnícky spolok, (Vine-growing Association of Svätý Jur), Svätojurská dychovka (Brass Band of Svätý Jur) founded in 1874, civic association of Ateliér, which actively participate in organisation of folk artistic and cultural events such as discarding of Morena (Slavic goddess of death), amateur theatre Jurta and other. Tradition of modern pottery is also maintained in Svätý Jur. Among the basic characteristics of human potential is

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the population age structure as it determines a number of other characteristics such as natality, death rate, and economic activity. The analysis of age structure of population in Svätý Jur shows that the population group in active productive age dominates. Numbers of population in productive age for the period in question are moderately increasing. While in 2003, there were 3,002 inhabitants in productive age (63.29%); in 2011 it was 3,726 (71.26 %). Percentage of males in productive age exceeds that of females, although 2012 is an exception because the number of females in productive age (72.96%) was then higher than that of males (69.95%). In 2011, the top number of productive population was in the age group of 30-34year old. While in 2003, population in pre-productive age amounted to 16.28 % in 2012 it was 15.98%. A decreasing percentage of population in the pre-productive age was also observable in 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008, when it dropped to the lowest value of approx 14.36%. Percentage of population in the post-productive age slightly increased in the study period. A more pronounced increase of population in the post-productive age was only observed in 2012 when it amounted to 15.34% of population. The ageing index values correspond to the abovedescribed situation. They increased until 2008 culminating at 145.36. Then they started to drop reaching 95.96 in 2012. On the other side, increasing values of the mean population age, which increased in the assessed period to 40.16 (in 2012) are considered positive. Population‟s economic structure is the result of interaction of several agents such as the local job offer, living standard of families, level of self-fulfilment, and the like. It is precisely this sphere that has undergone several changes. Many jobs disappeared, artificial employment disappeared, opportunities for varied businesses emerged. These factors also determined the economic structure of population in Svätý Jur. The overall population number includes 2,678 economically active persons (55%). In 2011, 23 females took their maternal leave and 149 persons took parental leave; 128 economically active persons were employed pensioners, 200 persons studied at the medium level schools and 166 persons studied at universities. In the past, locals were mostly lived-off vine growing and winemaking. Apart from these two principal occupations people of Svätý Jur also pursued handicrafts such as smithery, weaving, boot-making and masonry as supplementing bread-winning activities. No industrial production existed in the past and people commuted to Bratislava or Pezinok. Nowadays, most of population are engaged in wholesale, car and motorcycle repair and as shop assistants. The second biggest employers of a great number of locals are in the sphere of transports, warehousing, and communications followed by the industrial production. Other branches with high proportion of employment are the public administration and defence, social security, realty agencies, services, research and development. Agriculture, hunting and associated services the same as hotels, public catering, and other public social and personal services are the branches that employ the least percentage of active population. Most workers are employed in the state enterprises where the number of females exceeds the number of employed males. Less than 2% of population work in agriculture where males prevail over females; 502 persons are entrepreneurs. The economically active segment of population includes 480 tradesmen and 12 freelances. According to data of the 2011 Census of population, flats and houses, the number of unemployed was 201. Economically active population commuted to several places in Slovakia but mainly to the capital Bratislava, Modra and Trnava. Commuters to Bratislava work in the commercial sphere, catering, but also in industry, public administration, education and health service, construction, transport and communications. Commuters to Modra work in industry, public administration, education and health service. Some of those who commute to Pezinok are employed in shops, hotels, restaurants, transports and communications. Currently Svätý Jur offers jobs in local enterprises and small businesses. The sphere of recreation and tourism will probably bring new jobs in future. The town is a member of the Little Carpathian Wine Route which connects the most noteworthy landmarks of the Little Carpathian region typical for vine

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growing and wine making with a great potential of tourism based on visits to local wine cellars, wine tasting and interesting local gastronomy, visits to museums and vinoteques. Analysis of the educational population structure revealed that the group with specialised complete medium education finished with school-leaving exams is the biggest (1,004), while 547 inhabitants possess vocational certificate without school leaving examinations and 530 inhabitants only concluded the basic education. Groups of 250 and 181 with concluded common medium education and complete vocational education with school leaving examinations respectively follow; 122 and 1,076 inhabitants posses the university education on Bachelor and on Master levels respectively and 81 concluded university studies with PhD. Number of town‟s inhabitants without any education is 845. Another important attribute characterizing the regional specificities including the life values and culture is the ethnic structure of population. Slovak ethnicity is most abundantly represented in Svätý Jur, which according to results of the 2011 Census represented even 94.70%. Shares of other ethnicities: Hungarian, Ruthenian, Ukrainian, Czech, German, Croatian, etc. (Graph 6) were negligible. Nowadays too the Slovak ethnicity is the most abundantly represented one (4,952) in Svätý Jur. It is followed by Hungarians (32) and Czechs (29). Graph 6: Ethnic structure of residents in 2011

Source: Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic (2012): The 2011 Census of Population, Houses and Flats

Religion determines the life value orientation of population. The majority of population in Svätý Jur (64.22%) adhere to the Roman Catholic religion; 5.34% of them are Evangelicals of Augsburg Confession and the rest are members of the Greek Catholic, Orthodox, Apostolic, and Baptist Churches – their percentage of total population is very low though; 18.30% of population are atheists. CONCLUSION Demographic characteristics of population are determined by historical development of the given territory, as well as by economic, political, natural and social factors. Results of analysis of selected demographic indicators in Svätý Jur points to a positive trend in the development of these indicators. They proved that the town avails itself of the human potential useful for its future development. Results of the assessment will be included in the managerial measures focused on awareness, protection and rational use of the traditional values of the agrarian culture. It is necessary to conserve this cultural heritage defined as a set

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of material, social and spiritual results of creative work of past generations (Slavkovský, 2002). Svätý Jur should not be reduced to a mere suburb of Bratislava only serving as place of residence. It should attract people willing to participate in public life and to cultivate a positive relationship with the town. First of all young people should be encouraged to return, to live and work in the town. Forms how to maintain and support to culture and traditions of the town should be sought. Cultural and social associations, regional museums, ethnographic feasts and events are the entities which actively contribute to the type of land use which respects typical representation of landscape elements bound to the specific relief forms in the cadastral territory of Svätý Jur. This paper is one of outputs of the scientific project APVV – 0669-11 Atlas of Slovakia’s Archetypes REFERENCES Encyclopaedia of Towns and Communes in Slovakia (2005): Published by PS-LINE, Ltd. Luĉenec, 960 pp. SLAVKOVSKÝ, P. (2002) Agrarian Culture. Transformations in Time. Published by: THE SCIENSE, Bratislava, ISBN 80-224-0717-8, p. 237. Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic (2012): The 2011 Census of Population, Houses and Flats. Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic, Section of Social Statistics and Demography. Department of Population Statistics, Bratislava. 330 pp. Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic, Demography, Population Change 2000-2012. VEREŠOVÁ, M., SUPUKA, J. (2009): Cultural Landscape Enriched by Vineyards, Environment, vol. 43, No. 1, 2009, pp. 13-17.

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УДК: 728.1.012:551.4.035/.036

LIMITATIONS AND ADVANTAGES OF DESIGNING INDIVIDUAL HOUSES OF HILLY MOUNTAIN AREAS Dušan RANĐELOVIĆ18,Hristina KRSTIĆ19, Nikola CEKIĆ20, Miomir VASOV21, Milica IGIĆ22 University of Niš - The Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture SERBIA -18000 NIŠ, Aleksandra Medvedeva st., 14/111

ABSTRACT In this paper, special attention was paid to the limitations and advantages of designing individual houses of hilly mountain areas. If we look at the historical development of the construction of residential buildings we shall realize that this type of location implied for the construction of individual houses. This trend changed with new technological development. Access to these regions is difficult due to its isolation from urban centers and its poor transport links. Megalomaniac cities with tall buildings and crowded areas replaced individual houses. Large energy consumption, unconscionable pollution of the nature and atmosphere led to the fact that in recent years it is more and more difficult to save and restore nature, not only by using natural materials, but also the principles of passive design, which further improves, reduces costs and facilitates the maintenance of the building. With the help of case studies of analyzed objects which were built on hilly and mountainous areas around the world, the authors present the benefits of this type of building. It preserving traditions of different regions and authenticity of hilly houses that are more topical in the world. Using available materials in the environment, connection with nature, using natural slopes and excellent views, respecting the principles of bioclimatic design and adaptation to the natural environment and keeping its eco system but, rather, operate in accordance with it. Today architects realize return to nature as a great challenge, and the houses built in the natural environment is a major achievement not only for aesthetic but also functional reasons, allowing future generations to enjoy worry-free planet. Key words:hilly-mountainous architecture, materials, tradition, nature, passive design

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF CONSTRUCTION OF RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Houses in hilly mountain regions are specific in many ways. This paper will discuss the specifics of their accessibility, landscaping, drainage, form and environment. If we go back through the history we can notice that the natural factors influenced development of residential architecture a lot. In the past, people have decided to live in hilly mountain areas because of their need to control their animals. Besides these, landscapes also allowed them shelter and protection from natural enemies. This "natural fortress" has marked an entire period of human civilization, and its benefits are still of great importance. Unfortunately the needs of modern man are different from the past. Since the favorable insulation and ground configuration were very important to our ancestors it's easy to conclude that exactly hilly landscapes have always represented a favorable location for housing. In prehistoric times there were no written documents on the basis of which we can confirm the method and techniques used for building the houses. There are only traces of the remains of prehistoric architecture. From the time of ancient Greece only valuable records of construction planning of houses and settlements remained as a whole.

18

Eng. Arch. Dušan RANĐELOVIĆ, student of doctoral studies. Е-mail: randjelovic.dusan.88@gmail.com Eng. Arch. Hristina KRSTIĆ, student of doctoral studies. Е-mail: hristinaa@hotmail.com 20 Academic, prof. PhD Nikola CEKIĆ Eng. Arch. Е-mail: ncekic@yahoo.com 21 Assist. Prof. PhD Miomir VASOV, Eng. Arch. Е-mail: vasov@medianis.net 22 Eng. Arch. Milica IGIĆ, student of doctoral studies.Е-mail: mind1989@yahoo.com 19

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Even in ancient Greece there were some questions about how to build a house for living. This issue was dealt with Socrates, the Greek philosopher who lived in the fifth century BC. We find out about all this on the basis of writings of some of his followers. Model of Socrates house (Figure 1) largely resembles the modern model of bioclimatic house that uses solar energy. It is oriented towards south so it is protected of the influence of cold winds from the north. All this is allowed to us by the hilly terrain configuration.[3]

Fig. 1 - Model of Socrates house, source: http://earthbagbuilding.files.wordpress.com/2012/03/socrates-house.jpg

Escapes in nature represents freedom, relaxation and the opportunity to lead a healthy life, which is currently the most complicated issue that will mark the 21st century. People themselves have decided to build a house in the hilly mountainous areas whether they need to recovery, vacation or desire to escape from fast living of megalomaniacal cities. MEGALOMANIAC TOWNS WITH HIGH BUILDINGS AND OVERCROWDED AREAS Modern cities have become overcrowded(Figure 2) and escape to nature is the only logical solution. If we want tranquility, healthy life, sense of privacy and distance from the fast living then less populated localities should be our first choice.

Fig. 2 - Modern cities have become overcrowded, source: http://2modern.blogs.com/photos/uncategorized/chicagoskyline.gif

With aim to satisfy the need for "ideal house", technological civilization has ignored another important need for so-called protection of the environment, without which man would not exist and cannot live. The house, like an oasis in which we would slow down the speed of life and restore a lost sense of identity, is inseparable part of the environment and if it is not in harmony with it will be neither harmony within it. Man has always been a part of nature rather than just a social being. Such as the need to "foster" social consciousness without having to destroy another being, thus should be developed the awareness that one does not need to be a master of the environment, but also an integral part of it. 142


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Technological revolution has led to the depletion of natural resources, pollution of natural environment, climate change, increased temperature, increased emissions of CO₂ in the atmosphere, the greenhouse effect, hole in the ozone layer of the atmosphere etc. In general we can say that the technological revolution was one global climate experiment with negative consequences for the environment. Selfishness of mankind is directed towards satisfying their needs through their capabilities on account of nature. This has led to a critical level of pollution of the environment and the level of exhaustion of fossil fuels (oil, coal ...). Only when all this has led to a dramatic increase in the cost of energy there was a reaction of mankind drawing attention to solve the same. Because of all this international discussion or even a correction of political views on a global level is taking a part. Traffic connection, availability of materials, the expertise of builders and climatic features greatly limit the freedom of architects but at the same time they pose a major challenge.Nevertheless, despite all those constraints imposed on, the architects succeed in designing the most beautiful projects in their career. LIMITATIONS AND ADVANTAGES OF DESIGNING INDIVIDUAL HOUSES OF HILLY MOUNTAIN AREAS To understand the principles of design hilly mountainous houses we have to return to the past and analyze process of building houses. Houses that were built in the natural environment exactly reflect the traditional style of a construction area. Just because the number of constraints and builders skills they led to very interesting and unsurpassed solutions. So the Falling water house of Frank Lloyd Wright or Villa Savoye of Corbisie (Figure 3) were marked by a certain style in architecture, while neither of these two projects would survive in a different location. This connection with nature, respecting the terrain and usage of available materials make these projects unique and special in every way.

Fig. 3 - Falling water house of Frank Lloyd Wright and Villa Savoye of Corbisie, source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7c/Falling_Water_01.jpg http://aeolus-studio.com/sarah/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/villa-savoye-1024x680.jpg

While the energy conversion and usage are normal and continuous process in all buildings, the actual energy requirements vary considerably between individual residential units. The main factors that influence these requirements are: Urban conditions (characteristics of the location where the facility is built and environmental conditions); Air in areas where the building is located; Shape of the building; Number of users and usage of the facility; Design and construction of the building; Energy used in the facility, type and quality of the equipment. [4]

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Partially submerged buildings can be built by digging into hills, and building part of the house within that excavation. This is becoming popular in desert areas, where heat fluctuations often mean that the building needs a constant supply of energy. Partially burying the structure within the hills limits the extreme changes in temperature. They can also be built to ensure maximum solar heating, which can be stored in a similar way to the earth sheltered buildings. Additional features of hill built houses include earthen insulated walls surrounding them, which helps to limit changes in temperature. This has been likened to the effect of underground earth upon a basement. [7] Landscaping Advantages of living in the hilly mountainous areas are primarily reflected with the pleasant vistas as well as the natural environment and the greater area. If someone have decided to live on the mountain there are less chances of the occurrence of floods and pests (rodents and bugs). Possible disadvantages are exposure to noise - if at the foot of the hill is an industry, that settlement or town can be very disturbing for the residents at a higher altitude. They should be aware of this fact. Whether it comes from dogs barking or a party, celebrations in restaurants or other events, it can greatly affect their comfort. Accessibility - Access to Utilities and Road Slope, viewpoint, the position of an access road are also items that greatly influence the development of the project. Exactly these improvisations, have developed creativity of architects and enable them to make the best possible use of available materials on accessible location. The path of a road should follow the site‟s contours (a). On sloped sites, roads can be constructed on existing flat areas rather than on new ones, which are both costly and environmentally damaging (b). (Figure 4).

Fig. 4 - The path of a road should follow the site‟s contours (a). On sloped sites, roads can be constructed on existing flat areas rather than on new ones, which are both costly and environmentally damaging (b), source: Avi Friedman, Fundamentals of sustainable dwellings, ISBN-13: 978-1-59726-807-3, Island Press, Washington, DC 2009.

Extremely steep terrains can be very difficult to access in winter. It depends on the climate impacts. Young people endure the daily effort of handling the stairs and slopes more easily. It is not recommended for older people because this type of field can lead to great fatigue or even injury. The configuration of the terrain Fitting of the building into the surrounding terrain is one of the most important element of designing hilly mountainous houses. The preferred form is a rectangle with locations across the east side and west side of the narrow north-south direction. Slopes facing south are ideal because they provide a more seamless exposure to sunlight, higher temperature and improve the microclimate and better insulation (Figure 5). 144


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The concept of partially underground and earth covered house were created modeled on Scandinavian and Icelandic forms of rural architecture. Plants on roofs have been known for hundreds of years for thermal insulation, thermal accumulation and noise. The final layer of the roof, among other things, protect from direct sun radiation. The buildings which are protected by the land require less energy for temperature change, because the ground temperature is higher in winter and lower in summer than the air temperature to which the building is exposed on flat ground. Fitting of the building to the terrain and its location on the site are the prerequisites for the successful functioning and operation of buildings.

Fig. 5 - The project‟s orientation facilitates passive solar gains and natural ventilation, source: Avi Friedman, Fundamentals of sustainable dwellings, ISBN-13: 978-1-59726-807-3, Island Press, Washington, DC 2009.

Drainage Dwellings should be designed with the natural topography of the site. Often a hilly terrain is regarded as too challenging to build on and is flattened or cleared instead. Not only is this costly, but it destroys the natural ecosystem and impairs natural drainage. This approach can lead to irreversible and unpredictable ecological challenges and should be avoided whenever possible. As a rule of thumb, any building type at any density can be constructed on a 0 to 5 percent slope. Small detached homes and duplexes are suitable for these slopes. Where the slope exceeds 10 percent, buildings can be custom designed. Slopes significantly exceeding a 10 percent gradient should be avoided since construction becomes too costly and soil erosion a significant concern. Additionally, on slopes greater than 5 percent, roads and walkways need to be located adjacent to the dwelling, to reduce cutting and filling costs. [1] If the hill is very steep funding can be critical. The house has to be well anchored in the ground and if it's not it may occur to the formation of landslides. Natural Disasters Areas with possible earthquakes can make great damage to property. By planting trees and proper positioning of the buildings on it the gap can be controlled. It is recommended position the house on the highest possible level in order to control potential landslide. The dominant winds, light intrusion, security and access to facilities are just some of the items that should be paid attention to when choosing a location for the construction of these types of objects. [5]

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CASE STUDIES OF HOUSES ON HILLY AND MOUNTAINOUS REGIONS WORLDWIDE Traditional hilly mountainous houses with their sloping roofs and solid walls give a sense of security and warmth. For example if a house is located in the middle of a field in Normandy, than a modern version of a traditional agricultural building could be made entirely of wood. One of the house´s many eco features could be orientation. The glazed gable end could be south facing so during the winter, low light penetrates to warm the interior. In summer, the sun is too high to cause overheating. These are just basic principle how we can design houses on different kind of locations if we combine the environment and nature with new buildings. Finrud Cabin, Hemsedal, Norway, Henrik E. Nielsen The Finrud Cabin sits high on a mountainside in the Hemsedal Valley in central Norway. The owners of this house wanted to be close to nature, during winter cabin is accesable only on skis. The entire cabin is highly insulated and clad in timber panels. The concrete floor slab incorporates underfloor heating and is tiled in slate. The house is sited at the age of the treeline and oriented to make the most passive solar gain. Houses in such remote locations are often far from mains servicing. In this case, fresh water comes from a well situated under the cabin. Glazed curtain walls on the south, east and west facades allow light and heat to penetrate into the interior (Figure 6). Openings are minimal on the northern side of the cabin to provide shelter from cold northern winds.Extensive glazing bathes the interior in natural lights. [6]

Fig. 6 - Finrud Cabin - Light and heat to penetrate into the interior, source: http://www.toromagazine.com/lifestyle/real-estate/gallery/3d5c9af0-2787-e074-917d-d1f6884fd1c6/eco-housebook/index.html?galleryPage=6

Weekend house, Smiths lake, New South Wales, Austrlia, Sandbergschoffel architects Eco facts while designing this house are very important. Minimal site disruption due to careful positioning, lightweight steel framework and the use of screw piles for foundations (Figure 7).Cross-ventilation avoids the need for air conditioning. Thermal insulation and sheltered position keeps the pavilions warm during winter, so no supplementary heating or cooling, except for hot water is needed. There is also rainwater collection for garden irrigation and a sprinkler system. Pre-finished cladding avoids the need for paint finishes. [6]

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Fig. 7 - Weekend house - Minimal site disruption due to careful positioning, source: http://st.houzz.com/simgs/dde1c37d00b32a3a_4-2261/contemporary-exterior.jpg

In most of these houses many principles of active and passive solar design have been applied: Glazing of the south facade, which contributes to direct solar gains; An orientation of the southern trombe wall regarding high storage capacity; An orientation towards the south with large windows, allowing sunlight in during the transition periods and in winter allowing penetration deep into the building Consistent implementation of the principle of zoning by correct allocation of space in the northern and southern areas of the house Thermal protection of the primary unit in northern areas that require less heat (garages, workshops) A stable microclimate is ensured with energy balance combination; given a variety of walls, glass surfaces, roofs and swimming pool Use of solar panels on the roof to heat water Modern houses are interpretations of early buildings. The result is transmutation of traditional building values and elements, into which renowned architects later incorporated new technological discoveries, producing structures capable of withstanding all kinds of adverse climatic and geographical conditions without foregoing any of the comfort and convenience that modern society demands.[2] Sustainability may be defined as meeting the needs of the current generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. [1] The form of the house should be simple, without richly detailed dimensions. This is important to ensure a smaller loss of heat. Modern composition could be obtained by the introduction of bay windows and the presence of cube - like structures that ''stand out'' from the compact form. CONCLUSIONS Great progress in construction has made possible that in contrast to former houses that had the function to represent protection from external influences, modern houses represent prestige and pleasure to stay. Large openings, open vistas and good insulating materials have made it possible that contemporary hilly mountainous houses play a significant role in modern architecture. Today, architects commissioned to build in the mountains regard tradition as a very useful source from which to develop their ideas. The finest, most exquisite examples are those where the architect combines imagination with intelligence and adopts an approach that addresses the specific conditions imposed by the environment. The most appealing houses are those adapted to the landscape and lifestyle of the area where they are built. [2]

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Rational use of energy is one of the most important factors in the economic balance of the country, saving resources and protecting the environment. Knowing all these bioclimatic parameters and the proper use of local climate and microclimate conditions, the planning and design can be achieved by improving the convenience of direct users of these facilities, as well as rational use of energy and its exploitation. Successful compliance with the principles of bioclimatic urban design and planning depends on knowing traditional forms of construction in different regions. Architects and city planners are constantly fighting for the preservation of environmental values and continuity in architecture and culture. To get construction and energy saving principles closer to the professional public, big importance has to be made of examples of models of construction, the calculated values of energy consumption and acceptance by the user. The purpose of this short review is to provide the basic principles and conditions to be observed in this type of design. Adequate examples are to design specific project and to apply these principles, which should facilitate a greater understanding of this matter. This paper is a part of the scientific-research project: "Construction of Student hostels in Serbia at the beginning of 21st century", approved by the Ministry of Science and technological development of the Government of the Republic of Serbia, in Belgrade, January 2011. Project manager, prof. Ph D Nikola Cekić, Grad.Eng. of Arch.The Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture of the University of Nis. Project number: TR 36037. REFERENCES Avi Friedman, Fundamentals of sustainable dwellings, ISBN-13: 978-1-59726-807-3, Island Press, Washington, DC 2009. Francisco Asesnsio Cerver, Casas del Mundo. ISBN: 978-3-8331-4639-8, Publisher: Paco Asensio, Arco Editorial, S.A. Barcelona, 2003. Nenad Miloradović, Termiĉki aspekti gradnje kuće. ISBN: 978-86-395-0599-8, GraĊevinska knjiga, Beograd, 2009. Pucar, M., Pajević, M., Jovanović-Popović, M., Bioklimatsko planiranje i projektovanje, Beograd, 1994. Sue Roaf, ECOHOUSE:A DESIGN GUIDE, ISBN: 978-0-7506-6903-0, Published by Elsevier Ltd, Slovenia, 2007. Terence Conran, Eco House Book, ISBN: 978 1 84091 6027, Publisher: Lorraine Dickey, London, 2009. http://www.doityourself.com/stry/advantages-of-partially-submerged-houses#b

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УДК: 332.14(497.23-22)

ECONOMIC PROFILE OF THE VILLAGES IN PODGORIE (BELASITSA) Emiliya PATARCHANOVA South-West University “Neofit Rilski”, Bulgaria, e-mail: epatarchanova@abv.bg

ABSTRACT Regional policy is a very important factor for the development of the territory. It can create favorable conditions for its economic development.Examples are the different types of areas – rural, mountainous areas and the changes taking place in their economy as a result of regional policy.This report is the subject of study in the villages of Podgorie in the mountain Belasitsa. The study is focused on the economic changes that are taking place in the villages of Podgorie and are outlininga new economic profile of the area.Podgorie according to the main characteristics of the territory is a mountainous region, part of the rural area with center Petrich and part of the region for CBC (integrated development) between two countries – members of the EU (Bulgaria and Greece) and a country negotiating for EU membership - Macedonia.The report shows the peculiarities of the territorial development of the villages and are characterized their demographicresources and analyzed their economic development periods. Keywords:mountainous area, economic profile, villages, Podgorie – Belasitsa

INTRODUCTION As a result of the mutual influence of natural conditions and resources, many centuries of human presence, the characteristics of the demographic situation in the country and the current economic and geopolitical factors in Bulgaria were formed three main types of areas (Fig. 1): • natural non-urbanized areas, no settlements; • Peripheral less urbanized areas with small villages far from major urban centers; • highly urbanized central areas of large cities and agglomerations formed to them; Natural areas are without settlements, represent the protected natural areas according to the Law for protected areas. Due to the mountainous nature of the territory they found only a few dispersed settlements and tourist sites without permanent population. Urban surrounding areas are mountainous and hilly areas with villages and small towns, away from the big cities. There is a process of depopulation and closure of the settlements.The population is mostly in working age, economic activity is weak, the state of the economy and infrastructure is characterized by a low level of development and many problems. Highly urbanized areas are the areas close to major cities and the formed around them agglomeration formations [National Strategy for Regional Development …]. Thus it is generally structured national territory. Specifically mountain areas as terminology and criteria for their determination are presented in a number of legislative and strategic documents regulating various aspects of regional development policy in the country over the past two decades.According to many authors engaged in this issue, though in different fields of science, there are significant differences both in the definition of mountain areas,and in the definition of criteria and indicators, and respectively of their borders.They however are not a subject of this report and therefore will not be discussed here.In general it can be assumed that the mountainous areas include natural areas without settlements and much of the urban surrounding areas located in mountainous and hilly parts of the country.

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The purpose of this report is to show the changes that occur in the economy of an organized territory, as are Podgorskite villages - a typical example of a mountainous region. DATA AND METHODS The results are obtained by studying of diverse in content and character references presented in the literature. The realization of this study is secured by official statistics provided by the relevant local structures, as well as its own information obtained by the respondents in the survey area. There have been used classic statistical methods for analysis and synthesis.

Fig. 1. Basic types of areas in Bulgaria [National Strategy for Regional Development …]

RESULTSANDDISCUSSIONS The study area according to the existing and current legislative and strategic documents in Bulgaria are defined as: mountain areas, rural areas and border region (CBC) [National Spatial Development Concept …; An ordinance to define the criteria for …; National Strategic Plan for Rural …; Operational Programme…]. Characteristics and peculiarities of the Podgorskite villages Podgorie (Podgorski villages) are located in the northern foothill of mountain Belasitsa, south of the River Strumeshnitsa. They are part of the municipality of Petrich (LAU 1), which is the most southwestern municipality in Bulgaria and part of Blagoevgrad district (NUTS 3). Podgorie includes 8 villages located southwest of the administrative center of the municipality Petrich: Belasitsa, Kolarovo, Samoilovo, Kamena Yavornitsa, Klyuch, Skrat and Gabrene (Fig. 2). They form the Podgorskata settlement axis (Fig. 3). Almost all villages are located in zones with altitude 600-700 m, except Samoilovo, Skrat and Gabrene (500-600 m). The villages are characterized by large size and with an area of over 150


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0.5 km2 are the villages Kolarovo, Skrat and Klyuch, and the other between 0.2-0.5 km2 (Fig. 2). All eight villages are town halls.

Fig. 2. Geographical position of Podgorskit villages (m) and size of villages (km2)

Before being shaped today's image of the villages of Podgorie as heap villages here have dominated scattered in dozens of locations separate neighborhoods located in the highest part of the foothill of Belasitsa.Evidence of this are the remains of ancient and medieval villages and churches in the surroundings and close terrains to all villages in the area.This feature of the geography remains not only in the Middle Ages, but during the Renaissance. Itis connected on one side with a greater degree of protection and security for the population, and on the other with the use of suitable farming areas. Only in the second half of the XVIII century and XIX century there was a "descent" of the population to the lower part of the foothill and shaping of heap villages. An important role in this process has the population of several waves of refugees who settled in Podgorie. More massive are the migrations after the Liberation (year 1912) when the Turkish population emigrated, and in its place are settled Bulgarian refugees from Demirkhisar and Kukush as well as Bulgarian highlanders of Ograjden; after the Balkan war - Bulgarian refugees from Aegean Macedonia (mainly from the villages of Poroy Upper, Lower Poroy and Lipo, Demirkhisar) and Bulgarians mountain Ograjden are settled. Later are settled Bulgarians from Strumica and Shtipsko and Kukush. In the year 1925 are also settled Bulgarians from the Demirkhisar villages. [Encyclopedia Pirin region, Vol. 2…]

Fig. 3. Podgorskata settlement axis

The contemporary classification (2010) of the villages in Bulgaria, according to the number of inhabitants shows that in Podgorie dominate villages in the higher categories (Fig. 4). There is a relatively good state of their demographic resources, especially in comparison to other areas of the country. In Bulgaria there is a steady trend of depopulation of the population in mountainous and border areas. Whole villages were depopulated, and in many others,

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remained at about 10-50 people and in over working age. Submontane urban axis makes an exception, although it is mountainous and border territory. Kolarovo is in the category of the largest villages in Bulgaria, three of the villages are in the category with a population between 1000-2000 people, while from the other four only one has a population of less than 500 people. (Fig. 4). The main reason for this, according to the results of our studies is the state of their economy.

Fig. 4. Classification of submontane villages in the number of their population

Economic Development Before Liberation (year 1912) The strategic roads that cross the valley and mountains on one hand contribute to the development of the region and on the other are associated with dramatic events and misery for local people. The livelihood of the population in the nineteenth century is agriculture and animal husbandry. The main agricultural crops grown in the village are wheat, oats, corn, rice, sesame, poppy, cotton, flax, tobacco, afyon, vineyards and fruit trees.The animals prevails petits ruminants (sheep and goats), because of the mountainous nature of the territory.There are opportunities for pig and silkworm breeding.The region produces large amounts of sesame oil and wine, as well as cotton and rice, which is traded. Economic contacts are maintained mostly with Gorni Poroy by tradesmen who come and buy part of the agricultural production and provide certain industrial goods (e.g. textiles), as well as the towns of Petrich, Doyran and Strumitsa [Encyclopedia Pirin region, Vol.1…]. However, agricultural production is extensive. In the area are developed and some crafts - blacksmithing, horse cart, etc. The significant economic activity of the population at that time was the carriage of goods with a horse cart. She even gave the name of the largest village in the study area - Kolarevo (by car, cart) today Kolarovo. In the period 1912-1944 After the Liberation the main occupation remains the agriculture and livestock breeding. As the most important process with great public importance during this period appears to be providing land to refugees.At the end of 1921 the implementation of the Agrarian Reform and the Law for resettlement of refugees and ensuring their livelihoods. The distribution of land is regulated, a number of irregularities in the allocating land are eliminated. As the most important crops are shaped corn, tobacco, fiber and cereals. Livestock breeding gradually lost its economic importance. Strong fragmentation of arable land, coupled with the lack of agricultural machinery, predetermined the low productivity and economic efficiency of

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agricultural production. There is a lack of normal road network the old traditional commercial business relationships with villages to the south and west of the study area are broken. They adversely affect the development of villages. The crafts in the villages of Podgorie are poorly developed. As the most important are imposed the carter and the Saddlers crafts, followed by the shoemaking and the tailoring. In the period 1919-1944, the transport is still underdeveloped. Trucks are rare, they are mostly used to carry goods to Sofia and Dupnitza. Roads are paved with gravel. The constructed in 1916, a narrow gauge railway in the valley of the Strumeeshnitsa does not have a significant effect on the economic development of Podgorskite villages because it is distant from them. The villages are not electrified, there is no established water supply and sewerage network. In the period 1944-1989 This is a period of essential political and economic changes in the country. It is changed the model of social development in the country. It is changed also its foreign policy orientation. For the villages of Podgorie these changes are related to: Changes in the nature and functions of the southern border. It turns from border between two countries in the border between the two socio-political and economic systems. Access of the population from the hinterland to Podgorie is strictly limited and it is imposed border regime. This limits the contacts and traveling of the local population and negatively affects its development; Loss of demographic resources. Part of the population of Podgorie in working age migrates to Petrich, Sandanski, Blagoevgrad and other cities in which rapidly is developed the industry and are created jobs. Cities offer more favorable living conditions and more stable incomes of those employed in the industry. In the villages population remains largely in over the working age; Economic development of the area lags behind other parts of the municipality of Petrich and the country. Main economic activity remains agriculture, which undergoes significant changes, both positive and negative. Among the most important are: the nationalization of the land, the creation of cooperatives in the agriculture, the mechanization of many of the activities and construction of irrigation systems etc. They affect the average yields per decare and the total production. Changes occur in the structure of plant and animal production. Vegetable growing is formed as a major sub-branch mastered are new productions (kiwi, peanuts, etc.). In livestock breeding starts cultivation of cattle and poultry. It is built and developed technical (electrical, plumbing, sewerage) and social (health centers, schools, kindergartens, shops) infrastructure in villages. Contemporary Economic Development The transition to a market economy and the establishment of democratic social and political conditions in the country provide opportunities for a better development of mountainous and border areas as Podgorie. In the economy of the villages of the studied area are carried out several significant changes that shape today's economic profile of Podgorie. Data for the villages is collected through survey of local people and town halls and aim to reflect the level of development of the villages in social and economic terms, and to provide guidelinesin which should be handled in the future to improve the quality of life in these villages. Modern economic profile of the villages of Podgorie is formed from agriculture, branches of light industry, tourism and services. Agriculture remains a key sector in the economy of submontane villages. Agro-climatic conditions of the area are favorable for growing different crops. It is preserved the specialization in horticulture (cherries, apples, peaches, kiwi, figs) and viticulture. The areas of plantations over the last 4-5 years has increased. Grown are also early and late vegetables,

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potatoes, cereals, tobacco. Farms are small and still their market orientation is less pronounced. Competition from imported fruits and vegetables from neighboring countries Greece and Macedonia affects them negatively. In the structure of UAA dominates fields and perennial plants. The majority of agricultural land falls within the property of areas between 3 and 10 acres. The fragmentation of agricultural land at this stage is one of the main obstacles to the development of modern agriculture. The industry appears as an economic sector in the economy of rural areas. Part of the working population of Podgorie in the previous period has been employed in the industry, but the operators were primarily located in Petrich. The population working in these enterprises performed daily work trips between the villages in which they live and the city. During this period, the companies are located in rural areas. They produce tailoring and footwear products they are processing wood etc. It is created a sector of SME which develops their activity mainly in light industry and services. In all villages operate workshops in which are produced clothes, shoes, knitwear products etc. They are mainly micro enterprises and small firms (Table 1). Some of the companies are engaged in the manufacture of furniture. Largest number of SME in the service sector, especially in trade and catering. They are directly related to the development of the next important sector in the economy of villages - tourism. Villages Belasitsa Kolarovo Samoilovo Kamena Yavornitsa Klyuch Skrat Gabrene

Light Industry 3 12 3 2 5 2 4 1

Table 1. Distribution of SMEs by Sector (2010) Construction Trade Tourism Health Education Other Services 3 1 1 1 1 17 2 1 3 3 6 1 1 2 1 4 1 1 2 6 2 2 2 1 2 8 1 2 1 5 1 1 2 1 4 1 2 1 Source: Own Research

Tourism appears as a new sector in the economy of rural areas. With the removal of the travel restrictions to Podgorie, Belasitza with its preserved and unique nature attracts tourists from home and abroad. Eco and rural tourism are developed. The creation of the GOP "Belasitsa", the building of a visitor center in the village Kolarovo, the construction of five thematic trails stimulates the development of ecotourism. The preserved old houses from the Ograzhden and Rhodope in conjunction with the local crafts and folklore and rich heritage of Podgorie make it more popular and attractive to tourists. Demographic resources of Podgorie The relationship between the economic development of the area and its demographic resources is a direct and unmistakable. With a stable economy, the population or keeps the number or reserves it and demographic processes have positive characteristics and vice versa. You will be presented a comprehensive analysis of demographic resources of the studied area. Elected are some demographic indicators as indirect indicators for the sustainable economic development of the villages of Podgorie. These include population growth, net migration and population of villages. The natural growth in Bulgaria is negative for two decades. With the large values of this indicator is exactly in the villages. In Podgorie however the condition is not so critical. Here in some villages even have a positive population growth throughout the whole period (Belasitza) in other villages the values are positive for part of the period (Gabrene, Camena, Samuilovo, Yavornitsa). In the remaining three the natural growth is negative (Fig. 5). 154


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Year 2001 Year 2005 Year 2011

Fig. 5.Natural growth (‰) in the villages of Podgorie (2001.-2011.)

The migration balance in the villages of Podgorie is mostly negative. It is typical for all villages except Samuilovo. Migrate mainly young people with an intension for education. There are also migrations of working population to Greece due to seasonal employment in agriculture. However, there are some positive trends. For example, the negative values of migration balance for the research period 2001- 2011. decrease in four of the villages. In three of the villages for part of the period, even has a positive migration balance - Belasitsa, Samuilovo,Scrat. (Fig. 6).

Fig.6. Migration balance of the rural population of Podgorie (2001 - 2011).

The natural growth and migration balance directly affect the population. Tracked are the changes in the population of the villages of Podgorie for a period of 45 years (1965 - 2011). They also observe the typical nationwide negative trends in population decline, but here they are less pronounced (Fig. 7).

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Fig. 7. Dynamics in the population of the villages of Podgorie (1965 - 2011)

Despite some fluctuations generally the villages retain their demographic resources. The population stays in the villages and small part of it migrates, unlike the trends typical for the majority of villages located in the mountainous and border regions of the country. CONCLUSION Properly in the economic profile of the villages of Podgorie as a priority sector remains the agriculture. The favorable climatic conditions in the studied area combined with high fertile farmland can provide even better agriculture and farming with the advantage of such cultures which more difficult or ineffective are grown in other regions of the country. Not without significance are also the traditions and production experience of the local population. Although it is necessary: a targeted policy to attract young people in agriculture (the current measure "Young Farmer" is insufficient), providing preferences in financing activities in agriculture for areas with such high agro-industrial potential as Podgorie; modernization of this sector technically and technologically. It has to be invested also in greenhouse production. The promotion of tourism as a new sector in the economy of villages is an excellent start. For its successful development however are not enough only natural and cultural resources, nor only the desire of the population to develop rural and eco tourism. Tourism development in the area in which this is happening only now requires the construction of roads providing access to places of tourism, including to the mountain Belasitsa the tourist access to which is recent. It is necessary to ensure continuous water supply and construction of sewerage systems in the villages and the areas in which are built tourist sites. The cultural traditions the preserved customs and folklore should be stored.Leading role in this regard have the community centers, reserved in all villages except Kamena. Their material base is in poor condition, heavily depreciated and also needs funding to be renewed and so the community centers can be working cultural centers in the area. It should be considered an enrichment of the offered tourist services - for example trekking-tourism, mountain biking etc. Essential for its establishment is the creation of a complex tourist product and advertisement to promote Podgorie as a tourist destination. The created by the SME sector should be saved. But it will always be of secondary importance in the economy of Podgorie. Future development should be sought outside the light industry and services in order to not occur a conflict of interest with the other economic

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activities. Its socio-economic importance in terms of employment and income for local people in the future will be very important. Based on the analysis and the prospects for economic and social development of the territory of Podgorie can be defined as an attractive for business with relatively preserved demographic resources, unique natural beauty and ancient culture, thriving economy and infrastructure and still not capitalized unique geographical position. The development of the territory is connected with the will and desire of the local population for prosperity, sustainable economic and social development, which is to be achieved through the development of competitive industries. GRATITUDES I owe it to colleagues geographers – V. Dineva and M. Kostadinova, who have completed surveys carried out and mapped part of results. REFERENCES An ordinance to define the criteria for disadvantaged areas and their territorial scope. Encyclopedia Pirin region, Volume 1, Blagoevgrad, 1995. Encyclopedia Pirin region, Volume 2, Blagoevgrad, 1999. National Spatial Development Concept of Bulgaria2014-2025. National Strategic Plan for Rural Development for the period 2007-2013. National Strategy for Regional Development of the Republic of Bulgaria for the period 2005 – 2015, http://www.mrrb.government.bg Operational Programme "European territorial cooperation Bulgaria-Greece 2007-2013.

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УДК: 314.116:551.4.035(497.2)

DEMOGRAPHIC PROBLEMS OF MOUNTAIN AREAS IN BULGARIA Maria SHISHMANOVA*, Rozina POPOVA** *SOUT-WESTUNIVERSITY “NEOFITRILSKI” valkova_chich@abv.bg **SOUT-WESTUNIVERSITY “NEOFITRILSKI” roziruskova @abv.bg

ABSTRACT The aim of the study is to determine the basic demographic problems to be bound by the social and economic processes in mountain areas taking into account their specifics. Methods are demographic analysis and survey of the population in mountain area. The result is a link between demographic processes necessary for conducting socio-economic and regional policies. They are facing serious problems of quality of life caused by different economic development, low probability of finding employment and poor access to services. Infrastructure and public services in mountain areas is the key to the favorable demographic and sustainable territorial development. Mountain regions should be involved gradually to the central areas and start operating as sustainable and balanced. Keywords:demographic problems, processes, quality of life, development

INTRODUCTION The European Commission states that rural (enter and mountainous) areas are diverse and include many important areas. However, some rural areas, in particular those most remote, depopulated or dependent on agriculture face particular challenges as regards growth, jobs and sustainability in the coming years. These include: - lower levels of income; - unfavorable demographic situation; - low employment rates and higher unemployment rates; - slower development of the service sector; - weaknesses in the skills of human capital; - lack of expansion of opportunities for women and young people; - lack of skills in certain parts of the agricultural sector and the food industry. Current global challenges such as climate change, economic development and population growth has exacerbated the difficulties faced by mountain areas. The aim of the study is to determine the basic demographic problems to be bound by the social and economic processes in mountain areastaking into account their specifics. Methods are demographic analysis and survey of the population in mountain area. Some of the problems are specified on the example of a very typical municipality with villages of different demographic categories. The result is a link between demographic processes necessary for conducting socio-economic and regional policies. They are facing serious problems of quality of life caused by different economic development, low probability of finding employment and poor access to services. Infrastructure and public services in mountain areas is the key to the favorable demographic and sustainable territorial development. Mountain regions should be involved gradually to the central areas and start operating as sustainable and balanced. DATA AND METHODS The data used in the present study are from the National Institute of Statistics and formal operational and project documents that analyze mountain areas and problems in them. These documents are described in the literature. Separately, research was conducted by interviewing

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in a specific mountain community with settlements of all demographic categories. Classic analysis of the population and its living environment and quality of life was performed. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS The demographic situation in the country Bulgaria's population is aging mass, fertility decreases and villages are depopulated. At 31 December 2012 the population of Bulgaria is 7,282,041 people. People of 65 and older are 1,395,078, or 19.2% of the population. Compared to 2011, their share increased by 0.4 percentage points, and compared to 2005 increased by 2 percentage points. Regionally, the proportion of persons over 65 is the highest in areas of Vidin (26.4%), Gabrovo (25.1%) and Lovech (24.3%), which are mountain areas. Total fifteen areas this proportion is over 20 % of the population of the area. (http://www.nsi.bg/census2011/pagebg2.php?p2=175&sp2=190) At the end of last year children up to 15 years were 989,786 or 13.6% of the total population. Compared to 2011, their share increased by 2 percentage points. To each child less than 15 years old and adult aged over 65 fall approximately two people of working age. Population aging leads to an increase in its average age, from 40.4 years in 2001 to 41.2 years in 2005 and reaching 42.8 years at the end of 2012. The working age population at the end of last year was 4,503,000 people, or 61.8 % of the total population, men are 2,363,000, and women – 2,140,000. Despite increasing retirement age, working age population is decreased by almost 20,000 people or 0.4% over the previous year, reports Statistics. (http://www.nsi.bg/census2011/pagebg2.php?p2=175&sp2=190). If in 2001, 100 people coming out of the working age were replaced by 124 young people, by the end of last year, 100 coming out of the working age population are replaced by 64 young. At the end of last year 5,306,233 people, or 72.9 %, live in the cities, and in rural areas 1,975,808, or 27.1% of the population. For the first time in the demographic history of the country rural population fell below 2 million. High level of mortality remained also in 2012. The number of deaths was 109,281 people, while the crude death rate - 15.0 ‰. Compared to the previous year, the number of deaths increased by 1,023 cases, or 0.9%. The highest mortality rate in the country is characterized Vidin (23.2 ‰), Montana (21.4 ‰), Vratsa (19.4 ‰) and Kyustendil (19.1 ‰), where the population is the most aging. (http://www.nsi. bg/census2011/pagebg2.php? p2 = 175 & sp2 = 190). Unemployed in Bulgarian villages last year were 125 thousand people, where the unemployment rate exceeds 16%, reported NSI. Summarized Eurostat data for unemployment in rural areas of the EU shows that the highest unemployment rate has been registered in Spain - 17%. For Bulgaria, Eurostat reported decline in the rural population of 10%. Last year, in the migration between settlements in the country were involved 82,250 persons as greater territorial movement was registered under the direction of city-city (46.6%), statement showing the NSI. Considerably smaller in number and share were migration flows in the direction of the village-village – 9.4%. At the end of 2012 settlements in the country, which are "inhabited" only in name (i.e. nonpopulated) have been 172. The largest number of such settlements is in the fields of Gabrovo, Veliko Tarnovo and Kardzhali. During the year, the Council of Ministers decisions are covered 24 settlements, 20 of them were absorbed into other communities. In 1100 Bulgarian villages live from 1 - to 49 people. They are in mountain and hilly areas. Last year, the country had about 815 thousand people aged 15-24 years, 178 thousand were employed, 70 thousand were unemployed and 567 thousand were economically inactive. The large number of inactive people in this age is mainly explained by the fact that many of them still do not actively participate in educational programs or prematurely left school.

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For Bulgaria, the youth unemployment rate of people aged 15-24 was observed at 28 percent. Youth unemployment in the EU – 28 was 23 percent or more than two of the 10 young people in the labor market were unemployed. Demography of mountain communities Assessment of the demographic situation of the full group of mountain communities is slightly higher than the national average score (69.8%) – by 2.6%., that means a more favorable environment demographics. Again, however, the exclusion of Sofia led to a "normalization" of the picture: the assessment done by 5% worse than the average, which means that the majority of this particular area in a much stronger degree is affected by negative processes characterizing the demographic transition of the country. The data for each indicator are radically different - "with" and "without" Sofia. Sofia performance levels are above, and without Sofia – below the national average (Project "Development of a socio-economic analysis of the needs of the Operational Program "Regional Development" 2014-2020). It concerns twice as high mechanical outflow of population from mountain communities. Table 1 Mountain Mountain municipalities municipalities (except Sofia) Natural increase -4.6 -3.7 -6.2 Mechanical growth -3.2 -0.7 -6.5 Age dependency 25.9% 25.3% 28.6% Educational level 10.6 11.0 10.0 Population density 67.6 68.7 41.9 Source: Project "Development of socio-economic analysis as part of the Operational Programme "Regional Development" for 2014-2020 Bulgaria

Picture of changes in the population of mountain communities is diametrically opposed "with" and "without" the capital, which over the past 20 years has become an attractive place to live and work for many Bulgarians. Lower by about 9% rating than the national average for reduced group of 108 mountain communities indicates that their population has evaluated with the departure and/or low fertility the adverse living conditions and implementation, leading to accelerated depopulation of vast part of that specific area. During the period the population of all mountain municipalities decreased by 7.7% (12.2% on average for the country), and without Sofia drop was 16.6 percent. Young people in small towns and mountain areas Age structure in small towns and mountain areas is strongly distorted and cannot provide both current population and reproduction of the labor force. In small towns and mountain areas are concentrated most of the young Roma people (Gypsies)and Turkish ethnic origin. Access to formal and informal education, vocational education and training, information and counseling for young people in small towns and rural – mountainous areas is limited. Attractive opportunities for economic activity and professional development of young people in small towns and mountain areas are reduced (Project "Development of socio-economic analysis of the needs of the Operational Program "Regional Development" 2014-2020). Factors impeding the working life of older people Factors impeding the working life of older people are: Insufficient skills and qualifications; Economic crisis and high unemployment;

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Age discrimination in the workplace; Conflicting relations between generations in the workplace; Bias, negative stereotypes, suspicion and neglect of older labor; Poor health; Inadequate working conditions. Property and income status of the population Extremely strong is the influence of SofiaMunicipality on assessments of the status of this population in the specific area. Higher incomes of people living and working in the capital allow them (especially in the boom years up to 2008) to maintain a higher standard than the average for the country (this is a key reason for migration to the capital city). Exclusion of Sofia led to a drastic decline of an estimated 21% below the national average, which is indicative of the large disparities in wealth and income status of the "metropolitan" population and residents of other mountain communities. This is evident from the data on individual indicators presented in the table. Mountain communities, except Sofia, have significantly worse values for all analyzed parameters. Table 2 Bulgaria

Mountain municipalities

Mountain municipalities (except Sofia) 12.6 13.5

Property tax (lv./1inhabitant) 25.6 30.1 Motor vehicle tax 21.6 27.7 (lv./1inhabitant) Social benefits of 1 inhabitant 13.9 12.2 18.9 Average salary 7777 5905 5862 Source: Project "Development of socio-economic analysis as part of the Operational Programme "Regional Development" for 2014-2020

Economic status Metropolitan economy is the main reason again for the assessment of the economic situation of the specific area as a whole (35.4%) to be very close to the national average – 35.9%. Without MetropolitanMunicipality, however, the assessment falls 13% below the national average, which seems more realistic given the prevailing composition and profile of municipalities in this particular area – small, geographically remote and economically isolated and less competitive. Data characterizing the economic situation showed much lower levels of individual performance compared with the national average. Especially retardation was observed in the gross value added, income tax on transfer of property, which is an indicator of economic activity. Тable 3 Bulgaria

Mountain municipalities

Mountain municipalities (except Sofia) 2659 9.1 11.4% 2.7 1484

Gross value added (lv./1inhabitant)) 4797 6554 Tax transactions (lv./1inhabitant) ) 22.6 25.8 Level of unemployment (%) 9.2% 8.5% UAA (dka/1inhabitant) 4.8 1.7 Tourism (number of nights/1000 2167 1240 inhabitants) Source: Project "Development of socio-economic analysis as part of the Operational Programme "Regional Development" for 2014-2020

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Mountain people are among the poorest and most disadvantaged in the world. They are often subjected to political, social and economic marginalization and lack of access to basic services such as health and education. Each community has unique characteristics according to history, population, geography, size, demographics, economic and social infrastructure of large settlements. Not all rural and remote communities are the same or have the same characteristics (Shishmanova, M. 2008). Public services and geographical isolation Many mountain communities are affected by geographical isolation and distance from services. They also are not spared from the economic downturn. Public infrastructure and closing services, as well as restructuring of the agricultural business have led to further economic uncertainty. This contributes to the population decline, which is difficult to maintain services and business. This creates unemployment and migration, especially among young people. Characteristics dictated by the deteriorating age structure of substantial aging population that has increased morbidityrequire special medical care. The presence of many adults necessitates respite care or residential care for the elderly. Underdeveloped social and health infrastructure creates many difficulties for social workers from local and regional centers of social and health care. They must have extensive training to perform complex services. Social workers need to be highly mobile and visit these villages. For these villages should have a timetable for the work of individual physicians and dentists. It has been providing specialized transport vehicles – ambulances and vehicles for delivery of food from the kitchens mothers. It should be made for quick removal of persons experiencing severe health and social risks from the village to the city center or other places for assistance. Elaboration of targeted social and economic programs is mandatory for the development of land border, mountainous and hilly areas. Sample survey of a particular mountain community Table № 4 presents population by address, age and gender to 2011 – municipality Banite, region Smolyan. Settlement

Total

Male

Female

Below 7

Galabovo Vishnevo Valchan dol Davidkovo Dryanka Zagrazhden Banite М. Аrdа Oryahovets Starnitsa Bosilkovo Glogino Dve topoli Debelyanovo Кrastatitsa М.krushevо

527 306 113 687 265 340 1035 248 665 351 53 91 16 34 70 4

258 153 57 310 118 160 495 106 317 163 25 45 8 21 32 2

269 153 56 377 147 180 540 142 348 188 28 46 8 13 38 2

22 7 1 20 6 5 41 4 21 5 2 2 0 1 3 0

Table 4 From From 18 7 to 59 17 yearsFemale years 34 131 19 80 6 21 40 170 23 83 14 74 88 328 11 55 43 192 18 82 1 9 2 18 0 4 2 8 1 14 0 2

From 18 62 yearsMale

Over 60 yearsFemale

Over 63 yearsMale

178 116 36 184 85 97 337 66 221 99 11 26 4 15 20 2

107 60 31 177 46 99 148 80 131 95 17 27 4 5 22 0

53 24 18 96 22 51 93 32 57 52 13 16 4 3 10 0

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Settlement

Total

Male

Female

Planinskо 2 1 1 Riben dol 21 12 9 Slivka 22 11 11 Trave 40 13 22 Source: NationalStatisticalInstitute

Below 7

0 0 0 0

From 7 to 17 years 0 0 0 0

From 18 59 yearsFemale

From 18 62 yearsMale

Over 60 yearsFemale

Over 63 yearsMale

0 5 1 5

0 7 7 8

1 4 10 17

1 5 4 10

Ten of the settlements are with populations of less than 100 persons. They have absolutely abnormal age structure. Young people in the region are facing a number of challenges: • There are a secondary school and a kindergarten in the area – in the village of Banite, and an elementary school in Davidkovo. Children are transported from neighboring villages with specialized transportation; • The labor market is small and high unemployment is more than 20%; • There are no facilities for cultural events such as theater, cinema and musical performances. For all residents can be summarized that: • Public transport is very scarce and limited to 4-5 weekly routes to larger settlements in the area; • The nearest hospital doctors and specialists are away. In the table for distribution of population in mountain areas municipality Banite, region Smolian, with 20 locations by sex and age was noted that the percentage of pensioners is significantly higher than at regional or national level. Pensioners are concentrated in smaller settlements – in the difficult economic infrastructure where access to public transport, medical services, the supply of products, medicines and medical care if needed is very limited. Proportion of the elderly in terms of income is dependent on the financial support of their children. A limited study of the loneliness of elderly people with scale of loneliness UCLA (Russell, D., Peplau, LA, & Cutrona, CE 1980) in villages with fewer than 100 people in the research area illustrates some aspects of the analysis of the frustration of social contacts when people are in the foreign urban environment. One factor that characterizes the feeling of loneliness is the feeling of isolation that older people describe when they are in a foreign environment for them – "I feel isolated, lonely, abandoned and unhappy. People are around me but not with me ..." Undisputed is the meaning of rapprochement, social links with others and social contacts that older people realize when they are in their natural rural environment. They unanimously supported the questions: "There are people to whom I can turn to, ...who really understand me and with whom I can talk." Sense of group identity, community and association is presented by the issues "I have a lot in common with the people around me, I feel in harmony with them." This substructure is supported by older adults through their feelings for stable friendships and harmony when are in their familiar rural environment. The research showed that in the studied mountain community the private employers, suppliers – localregional consumer cooperatives (RPK), establish initiatives facing the challenge of supply of older people in these remote areas with the necessary products twice a week. Nevertheless these mountain communities have their strengths and opportunities and they are: • Proximity to the social support network for young people; • Good quality of life in a natural environment; • Low levels of crime; 164


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• A strong sense of identity; • More spirituality and fewer opportunities for consumerism, partly because of lower wages and fewer opportunities to offer; • Opportunities for healthy living (clean air, silence) and health food (home cooked meals, fresh own gardens, etc.). In rural conditions easier to get attention and cooperation in organizing projects. Despite the problems local schools, health departments, non-governmental organizations in the municipality work together to help young people who are exposed to difficulties. The municipality is working on current projects: • "Support for dignity" – OperationalProgramme "Human Resources Development" 2007 2013; • "Promotional campaign aimed at enhancing the prestige of fisheries and aquaculture in community Banite" - Operational Programme for "Fisheries", Axis 3 "Measures of common interest"; • "Application for energy efficiency in the networks of HH 400/230 V for street lighting in villages of Banite municipality –"Identification of project funding lines or co funding by KIDSF / 2010-2013; • "Creating a visitor center for the natural and cultural heritage of the municipality Banite" – Programfor rural development for the period 2007 to 2013., Measure 313"Encouragement of tourism activities"; • The program for rural development for the period 2007 to 2013., Measure 321 "Basic services for the population and economy in rural areas". Development of young people in small towns and rural areas Strategic objective: Creating an attractive environment for the development of young people in small towns and rural areas. Operational objective: Ensuring effective access to education, training and information for young people in small towns and rural areas. Task 1. Promote and support the existing cultural organizations "Chitalishta"as centers for information, informal learning, cultural expression and citizenshipin small towns and rural areas. Task 2. E- inclusion of young people in small towns and rural areas. Task 3. Introduction of mobile forms for youth and social work targeted to young people from small towns, remote and inaccessible areas. Operational objective: Mobilizing young people's participation in managing local development. Task 1. Encourage young people and youth organizations to participate in local action groups. Task 2. Promote initiatives of young people and their organizations in small towns and rural areas. Operational objective: Increased economic activity and creating career opportunities for young people in small towns and rural areas. Task 1. Promote micro and small enterprises of young people for employment growth in small towns and rural areas. Expected results: Improve opportunities for professional and social integration of young people in small towns and rural areas. Create youth areas, clubs and youth spaces in the country (National Youth Strategy 2010 2020).

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Key aspects of achieving more favorable conditions of employment for adults are: 1. Detailed advice and assistance to job seekers and active support for mediation in employment (including supported employment, assistance in finding a job, charitable social projects) and where necessary to take measures for long-term integration, and adequate funding for active policies on the labor market and long-term planning in the labor offices. 2. Introduction of socially acceptable incentives for later retirement and, if possible or desire, to develop attractive models for smooth transition from work to retirement in the public pension system (including the expansion of employment opportunities for part-time work for older people). 3. Introduction of measures aimed to prepare physically and mentally workers able to stay longer in active employment, primarily by reducing the pressure of work and adjustment of working conditions (e.g. incentives for better health protection in the workplace, accessible business programs to maintain health, preventive medicine and protection of employees). 4. Encouraging older workers to be more involved in complementary training (training initiatives for people over 40 years of age, incentives for participation in complementary inhouse training, especially for low-skilled, etc.). 5. Introduction of measures to increase awareness of older workers (experience rating and transfer of skills acquired during the working life to younger workers), advice and support for companies, particularly small and medium-sized enterprises, strategic human resource planning and development of forms of work organization favorable to older workers. (The National Concept to promote active life of aging people in Bulgaria, 2012 - 2020). Development of green tourism and creation of green jobs Much of the mountain municipalities have areas included in Nature 2000. These areas need to be properly organized and included friendly in the national business turnover, creating new green jobs. The main measures are: • Analysis of tourism resources and opportunities for the development of alternative forms of tourism in forests; • Prioritization and identification of Nature 2000 sites according to the potential and opportunities for green tourism in order to develop programs for green tourism; • Preparation of specific assessments for reducing the impact of tourism infrastructure and/or activities on the conservation status of the species and habitats; • Create and manage a database of tourist services, natural attractions and sites of cultural heritage in zones of Nature 2000; • Develop/update management plans for sustainable tourism activities in Nature 2000, incl. plans to reduce the impact of harmful tourist and sports practices (e.g. non-road driving licenses, speleo tourism, rock climbing, fishing, etc.); • Develop maps and guides and maintenance of information points for the green tourism in protected zones Nature 2000; • Reducing the negative impact of sports and tourist activities on species and habitats; • Monitoring of visitor flow, study and assessment of the impact of tourism on the state of ecosystems; • Establishment of system and mechanism for the exchange of information between stakeholders in the field of sustainable tourism in zones of Nature 2000; • Building capacity of stakeholders to develop and promote sustainable tourism in Nature 2000 zones; • Identify the impact of tourism services and mapping needs; • Ensuring all tourist resorts connection to WWTPs;

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• Installing security equipment at the entrances of caves and galleries, consistent with the bat fauna of the cave, if applicable; • Infrastructure for public use assisting protection and management of the environment (e.g. infrastructure increasing cultural and entertainment value of sites such as marking, observation platforms and trails or visitor centers); • It can include equipment (necessary for securing the protection and management institutions and activities such as office and computer equipment, monitoring materials, boats, diving equipment, cameras, etc.); • Construction of visitor centers; • Development of ecotourism infrastructure in the area of protected areas; • Development and implementation of applied researches using the landscape approach to restoration of Nature 2000 zones. There are identified following indicative pilot projects in the areas of Nature 2000: • Branding "Nature 2000" for products and services; • Create or link to an existing guarantee fund to boost business in the Nature 2000 zones (including green industries and services); • Establishment of demonstration farms for environmentally sustainable agriculture and management of meadows, pastures and fields; • Implement agroforestrysystems as models for sustainable land use; • Identification, development/production and marketing of specific products and services in agricultural systems with high natural value; • Develop systems for early prediction of the need for watering and determine the optimal parameters of the irrigation system; • Implementation of technical innovation and development and market introduction of new or significantly improved products, new aquaculture species with good market potential, new or improved processes, new or improved management and organization (development activities); • Stimulate the production of bio-production; • Stimulating the cluster approach in the management of Nature 2000 zones; • Exchange of experiences and best practices of business, administration and NGOs through measures "people to people" in cross-border zones of Nature 2000; • Supporting local business to close the cycle of natural product to product with high natural value; • To introduce alternative water supply facilities through own sources of surface water or groundwater when production is not necessarily to use potable water; • Organization and implementation of innovative environmental events; • Support for employment in traditional sectors whose number is increasing because of new products with high natural value or eco-efficientservices (Project National Priority Framework for Action on Nature 2000 in Bulgaria). Agricultural Development On July 22, 2013 the Association for the development of mountain communities in the Republic of Bulgaria requested the development of comprehensive policy on these areas, which had to include both address issues of agriculture, and economic, social and cultural issues. It was requested in the next programming period 2014-2020 the Programme for Rural Development to lay down specific measures to overcome the gap between the mountain and other regions. Particularly serious were placed to resolve the following issues: • Encouraging small farms by providing subsidy for farms and breeders with a cow, and to encourage their cooperation;

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• Develop mountain livestock establishing specialized landfills adapted to the specific conditions of animal breeds; • Provide additional payments to organic farming; • Provide pastures and fields owned by the state for management of mountain communities; • To pay particular attention to the farmers in fire-stricken mountain areas; • To pay attention and to make provision for training and human resource development in mountain areas with additional specialization courses, training and information centers. BIG FOOT project BIG FOOT is a project that deals with two main issues at the European level: the marginalization of mountain areas and the aging generation and it focuses on recovery and support for the elderly, traditional knowledge and culture specific to the region. Europe's mountain areas are centers of traditional cultural and natural diversity. At the same time, far from the big city, they encounter a series of problems such as lack of economic development with a result that young people leave their homes and head to urban centers. This process increases the problems of mountain areas as aging population cannot be integrated in development processes, and this in turn leads to loss of traditional knowledge for decoupling generations. The idea of developing the project BIG FOOT is to bridge the gap and to establish dialogue between generations in the mountain areas allowing to obtain useful knowledge of local aging generation, to combine traditional knowledge with modern means of communication and to find creative solutions for the development of mountain areas (http://www.bulmonte.com). CONCLUSION Demographic problems are serious, but not insurmountable in time. Immediate action is needed to implement also the European documents. At the core of all documents created in our country with their strict implementation should be obtained fairly satisfactory results over time. Mountain regions should be involved gradually to the central areas and start operating sustainably and balanced. There are needed however precisely coordinated actions between central and local authorities as well as with NGOs and with the Association for the development of mountain areas in Bulgaria (ARPORB). REFERENCES Shishmanova, M. (2008). Regional development, regional policy and spatial development of mountain areas, Journal "Problems of geography", Institute of Geography, Academy of Sciences, vol. 1-2, r.53-62 National plan to promote active aging in Bulgaria 2012 - 2020. National priority action framework for Natura 2000 in Bulgaria National Youth Strategy 2010 - 2020. Project "Development of socio-economic analysis of the needs of the Operational Programme "Regional Development" for 2014-2020, Step 2 - Focus of the analysis Leary, M.R. (1999). Making sense of self-esteem. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 8, 32-35 Brewer, M.B., &Gardner, W. (1996). Who is this "we"? Levels of collective identity and self representations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 83-93. Russell, D., Peplau, L.A., & Cutrona, C.E. (1980). The revised UCLA loneliness scale: Concurrent and discriminant validity evidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 472-480. http://www.nsi.bg/census2011/pagebg2.php?p2=175&sp2=190 http://www.bulmonte.com/

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УДК: 314.15.045:314.114(497.5)

SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CONSEQUENCES OF FORCED MIGRATIONS – CASE STUDY OF KOSTAJNICA REGION (ZRINSKA GORA MOUNTAIN, CROATIA) Zdenko BRAIĈIĆ1, Jelena LONĈAR2 1

Faculty of Teacher Education, Department in Petrinja, University of Zagreb, e-mail: zdenko.braicic@ufzg.hr 2 Faculty of Science, Department of Geography, University of Zagreb, e-mail: jloncar@geog.pmf.hr

ABSTRACT According to actual administrative-territorial division, Kostajnica region (Croatia) consists of three administrative units situated in the north-east slopes of Zrinska Gora: Hrvatska Kostajnica, Majur and Donji Kukuruzari. War and occupation of Kostajnica region between 1991 and 1995 as well as the war conflicts in Bosnia and Herzegovina influenced forced migrations of population: emigration and partial return of the Serbs and in-migration of Bosnian Croats. Alongside the decline of population this migrations influenced the decline of native population, also they changed ethnical structure as well as the numerous dynamic-structural consequences. In this paper we will research socio-demographic consequences of forced migrations with the emphasis on the age, educational and economic structure of the population. It is determined that there are differences according to the individual socio-demographic characteristics of the settlements with majority of native population (Croatian or Serbian) and settlements which has high proportion of in-migrants from Bosnia and Herzegovina (mostly Croats refugees during the 1990s). Key words: forced migration, native population, in-migrants from Bosnia and Herzegovina, socio-demographic characteristcs, Kostajnica region (Croatia)

INTRODUCTION Kostajnica region is situated in the area where Zrinska gora with its north-east slopes touches valley of river Una. It is also border area alongside Bosnia and Herzegovina and part of historical Banovina. According to administrative-territorial organization Kostajnica region is a part of Sisak-MoslavinaCounty and it consist of three administrative units: Hrvatska Kostajnica, Majur and Donji Kukuruzari, area of 233.7 km². In the last decade of 20th ct. this region shares the destiny of one third occupied Croatia. Although during the war and occupation (1990-1995) there was significant material damage, demographic disturbances and losses were much more expressed, as well as the forced migrations of population. Writing about forced migrations in the first years of Croatian independence, Ţivić (1999) sort out four migration contingents: displaced persons (Croatian citizens banish from war strike parts of Croatia who found settings in the free parts of Croatia), refugees (mostly from Bosnia and Herzegovina and mostly Croatian citizenship), Croatian refugees in foreign countries (part of Croatian population who found settings out of former Yugoslavia) and refugees from Croatia in Bosnia and Serbia (mostly Serbian). This contingents existed in Kostajnica region too. At the beginning of Homeland war almost all authentic Croatian population abandoned the Kostajnica region. After establishing the Croatian government over this area again, the Croatian population had a chance for coming back, while at the same time emigration of the Serb population occurred in large extent. On the other hand, there was immigration of the Croatian refugees and in-migrants from Bosnia and Herzegovina. At the end, partial return of Serbian population followed. In the absence of data for Kostajnica region we will give some data for Sisak-Moslavina county. At the beginning of 1990s from the territory of this County 30,000 refugees, mostly Croats were banished. They found settings in the free parts of Croatia and in smaller extent in foreign countries. At the beginning of war in Bosnia and Herzegovina (1992) Sisak-

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Moslavina county accepted over 10,000 refugees from that country, mostly Croats (Ţivić, 1999). Although immediately at the beginning of the war, part of Serb population left the County, more massive emigration started in 1995, after freeing occupied areas. In that way number of Serbs who left County during the war years climbed to the number of 70,000 in 1996. Part of refugees from Bosnia and Herzegovina, by regulating their status, settled permanently in Croatia (Ţivić, 1999), where part of these Bosnian Croats moved in abandoned Serbian homes and some Serbian settlements. After 1997 more significant return of Serb population in Croatia is also happened (Mesić, Bagić, 2007). Forced migration movements had negative effect on totally population movements. Although the number of population in Kostajnica region is declining for decades, the most expressed decline was in the last decade of 20th ct. In that period the number of population is bisect. Besides the population decline, forced migrations also influenced decline of native population which influenced change in ethnic structure and other dynamic-structural changes. METHODOLOGICAL NOTES Migration processes caused by the war, lead to the changes in socio-demographic structure of the population (Paţanin, 2006).In this paperwe will research socio-demographic consequences of forced migrations in Kostajnica region with emphasis on the age, economic and educational structure of the population. Analysis is based on the data of 2001 Census which shows socio-demographic circumstances six years after the war. At the same time we will try to establish differences in socio-demographic characteristics of population in the settlements of different degree of indigenousity. According to the share of the in-migrants from Bosnia and Herzegovina (Census 2001) settlements are divided into three/four groups: a) the settlements with the number of in-migrants larger than 60 per cent, b) settlements with the number of in-migrants from 20 to 60 per cent, c) settlements with the number of in-migrants smaller than 20 per cent and d) Hrvatska Kostajnica (the only urban settlement is considered separately).The results will showwhether and to what extent the settlements of these three groups differ in the proportion of young and old population, number of active and supported population, as well as in the number of the employed and unemployed and other socioeconomic indicators. To establish correlation of in-migrants from Bosnia and Herzegovina in the total population of some settlements and socio-demographic characteristics of population, with the help of the program Statistica Version 9, we calculated statistical indicators of correlation strength (coefficient of simple linear correlation). IN-MIGRATION OF POPULATION AND CHANGES IN ETHNIC STRUCTURE By forced migrations relationship between native and in-migrant population as well as ethnic structure of the area is changed. Being traditionally underdeveloped area, Kostajnica region was until the war populated by native population, in much lesser extent by in-migrants (especially from the distant areas) and matrimonial relationships were one of the most important factors of migrations from one settlement to other (table 1). In-migrants from Bosnia and Herzegovina and other Republics of former Yugoslavia made only 8.4 per cent of population in Kostajnica region in 1991. Few years after the war in-migrants from Bosnia and Herzegovina made almost one third of total population in Kostajnica region. In the years after the war biggest number of persons from Bosnia and Herzegovina settled in the municipality of Donji Kukuruzari, in which until the war Serbs were the majority. In the year 1991 Serbs made 90% of population of Donji Kukuruzari. After the war in the majority of settlements of the same municipality in-migrants from Bosnia and Herzegovina become majority (mostly Bosnian Croats). In the villages of Hrvatska Kostajnica and in the Majur municipality before

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the war existed smaller Serbian population, so later number of the in-migrants from Bosnia and Herzegovina was smaller too. Ethnical structure of population is also changed but not so drastically. Bosnian Croats are mostly settled in vacant Serbian villages, while in the native Croatian villages returned refuge Croats who left at the beginning of aggression. The middle strong correlation (r=0.538) confirms the thesis of settling the Bosnian Croats in the abandoned Serb villages in the Kostajnica area, and also the correlation between the share of the Serbs in 1991, and that of the in-migrants from Bosnia and Herzegovina in the year 2001.

Year

1991

Table 1 Population in total and population immigrated in the cities and municipalities in Kostajnica region, 1991 and 2001 City/municipality Kostajnica Donji Majur Hrvatska region Kukuruzari Kostajnica Population in total 3,063 2,555 4,996 10,614 Total 1,119 1,120 2,599 4,838 In-migrants From Yugoslavia 111 143 635 889 Share (%) Total in-migrants in population 3.5 43.8 52.0 45.6

From Yugoslavia in total 3.6 5.6 12.7 8.4 population Population in total 2,047 1,490 2,746 6,283 Total 1,539 740 1,373 3,652 2001 In-migrants From Bosnia and Herzegovina 1,258 229 514 2,001 Share (%) Total in-migrants in population 75.2 49.7 50.0 58.1 From Bosnia and Herzegovina in 61.5 15.4 18.7 31.8 total population Source: Popis stanovništva 1991., Stanovništvo prema migracijskim obiljeţjima, Drţavni zavod za statistiku, Zagreb.; Popis stanovništva, kućanstava i stanova 31. oţujka 2001., Stanovništvo prema migracijskim obiljeţjima, po naseljima, CD ROM, Drţavni zavod za statistiku, Zagreb.

Number of settlements

25 20 15 10 5 0 < 30 %

30- 50 % > 50 % 1991. 2001. Share of in-migrants Picture 1 Settlements of Kostajnica region according to share of in-migrants in 1991 and 2001

Until the end of 20th ct. Serbs were the most numerous ethnic minority in Kostajnica region while the Croats were less numerous. During the period between the Censuses from 1991 to 2001 the number of the Serbs decreased six times, while the number of Croats was almost doubled. At the beginning of the Homeland war there were 24 per cent of the Croats while according to the Census of 2001, there were 77.7 per cent of Croats (table 2). Processes of emigration of the Serbs and immigration of the Bosnian Croats helped the process of Croatization.

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Table 2 Population by ethnicity in the cities and municipalities in Kostajnica region, 1991 and 2001 1991 2001 Municipality/city Populat Croats Serbs Populatio Croats Serbs ion in n in total numbe % numbe % numbe % numb % total r r r er Donji Kukuruzari 3,063 126 4.1 2,858 93.3 2,047 1,576 77.0 431 21.1 Majur 2,555 1,036 40.5 1,381 54.1 1,490 1,176 78.9 283 19.0 Hrv. Kostajnica 4,996 1,401 28.0 2,984 59.7 2,746 2,115 77.0 433 15.8 10,614 2,563 24.1 7,223 68.1 6,283 4,867 77.5 1,147 18.3 Kostajnica region Source: Narodnosni i vjerski sastav stanovništva Hrvatske : 1880-1991 : po naseljima, Drţavni zavod za statistiku Republike Hrvatske, Zagreb; Popis stanovništva, kućanstava i stanova 31. oţujka 2001., Stanovništvo prema narodnosti, po gradovima/općinama, Drţavni zavod za statistiku, Zagreb.

SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CONSEQUENCES OF FORCED MIGRATIONS The war and the forced migrations had for the consequence changes in age, economic and educational structure of population in Kostajnica region. Socio-demographic structure in 2001 in the first line was the reflection of socio-demographic characteristics of return contingent (refuge Croats and Serbs), in-migrants (mostly Bosnian Croats) and in smaller part population which didn‟t left their homes during and after the war. Some earlier researches about refugees and displaced persons imply that older and less educated people, mostly from rural areas, showed the highest intention to return. Considering indicators, Serb refugees have extremely negative selection (Mesić, Bagić, 2007). Decline of the birth rate, increase of death rate and intensively migratory movements as the reflection of forced migrations, influenced the changes in age structure of Croatian refugees and Bosnian in-migrants (Paţanin, 2006). Age structure also reflects little higher birth rate at Bosnian Croats in-migrants, in comparison to native Croatian or Serb population. In that sense, it is interesting to compare settlements of “in-migrant” type with the shares of in-migrants from Bosnia and Herzegovina larger than 60 per cent and settlements with native population in which the share of in-migrants from Bosnia is smaller than 20 per cent (table 3). In the settlements of “in-migrant” type age structure of population is better which confirm youth and older age coefficients. In the group of “in-migrant” settlements these coefficients are almost the same, i.e. number of older population is fairly equal to the number of young population, while in the settlements with small number of in-migrants, older age coefficient is much higher than the youth coefficient. For establishing connection of these two variables, share of young and share of in-migrants from Bosnia and Herzegovina, we calculated correlation, where the value of correlation coefficient is 0.532 which mean positive correlation of middle strength. Ten years later, before migration movements, between two groups of settlements didn‟t exist statistically significant correlation in the age structure of population. Table 3 Population by age in the cities and municipalities in Kostajnica region in 2001 according to the shares of in-migrants from Bosnia and Herzegovina Group of Share of in-migrants Age groups settlement from Bosnia and Population 0Youth Older age 2060 and unknown Herzegovina (2001) in total coefficients coefficients 19 59 more A < 20% 1,578 294 725 556 3 18.6 35.2 B 20-60% 1,276 326 615 330 5 25.5 25.9 C > 60% 1,436 362 696 375 3 24.1 26.1 Hrvatska 18.2% 1,993 488 1,079 424 2 24.5 21.2 Kostajnica Totally 6,283 1,470 3,115 1,685 13 23.4 26.8 Source: Popis stanovništva, kućanstava i stanova 31. oţujka 2001., Stanovništvo prema spolu i starosti, po naseljima, CD ROM, Drţavni zavod za statistiku, Zagreb.

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In the analysis of economic structure of the population we set on from the analysis of population in total, according to the activity to economically active (employed and unemployed) and inactive population (persons with the income and persons supported from others). General rule according which bigger share of young population means lower rate of activity, and higher share of supported persons means lower rate of activity (Ţivić, Pokos, 2005), is confirmed in Kostajnica region too. As table four shows, in the settlements with bigger share of in-migrants from Bosnia and Herzegovina, there is less active persons, less persons with the own income and more supported persons. In the settlements with numerous in-migrant contingents, more than one third of them are supported persons, while in the settlements with little in-migrants, less than one quarter of them. Hypothesis confirm that in the settlements with bigger share of in-migrants from Bosnia and Herzegovina has larger number of supported persons, and it‟s also confirmed by the coefficient of simple linear correlation of 0.598. Number of employed and unemployed persons and especially the unemployment rate are very important indicators of economic development in some region. In the settlements of “inmigrant” types there is very unfavourable relationship of unemployed and employed persons (table 5). In these settlements number of unemployed persons is higher than employed persons, while in the settlements with less than 20 per cent of in-migrants there is about one unemployed per three employed persons. Table 4 Population in the settlements in Kostajnica region by activity in 2001 according to the shares of inmigrants from Bosnia and Herzegovina Group of Share of inPopulation Active Persons with the Support from settlement migrants from in total population income others Bosnia and numbe % number % number % Herzegovina r (2001) A < 20% 1,578 605 38.3 597 37.8 376 23.8 B 20-60% 1,276 426 33.4 363 28.4 487 38.2 C > 60% 1,436 460 32.0 471 32.8 505 35.2 Hrvatska 18.2% 1,993 861 43.2 669 33.6 463 23.2 Kostajnica Totally 6,283 2,352 37.4 2,100 33.4 1,831 29.1 Source: Popis stanovništva, kućanstava i stanova 31. oţujka 2001., Stanovništvo prema aktivnosti i spolu, po naseljima, CD ROM, Drţavni zavod za statistiku, Zagreb.

Unemployment rate was 60.9 per cent in year 2001 in the “in-migrant” settlements, while in the native settlements this rate was “only” 27.1 per cent. Although unemployment is also higher than the state average (20.4 per cent), presented data indicate difficulties in employment of Bosnian Croats in the first years after the war. Correlation between part of the in-migrants from Bosnia and Herzegovina and unemployment rate is positive but relatively weak, which confirms coefficient of simple linear correlation of 0.439. Table 5 Employed and unemployed population in the settlements of Kostajnica region in 2001 according to the shares of in-migrants from Bosnia and Herzegovina Group of settlement Share of in-migrants from Number of Number of Unemployment Bosnia and Herzegovina (2001) employed unemployed rate A < 20% 441 164 27.1 B 20-60% 264 162 38.0 C > 60% 221 239 60.4 Hrvatska Kostajnica 18.2% 578 283 32.9 Totally 1,504 848 36.1 Source: Popis stanovništva, kućanstava i stanova 31. oţujka 2001., Stanovništvo prema aktivnosti i spolu, po naseljima, CD ROM, Drţavni zavod za statistiku, Zagreb.

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Table 6 Secondary education, two-year degree or university education and illiterate population in the settlements of Kostajnica region in 2001. according to the shares of in-migrants from Bosnia and Herzegovina Group of Share of inPopulation Number of Education rate Illiteracy rate settlement migrants (Secondary illiterate from Bosnia education, twoand year degree or Herzegovina university (2001) education) A < 20% 450 97 32.4 6.8 B 20-60% 332 70 32.2 6.3 C > 60% 370 104 32.1 8.5 Hrvatska 18.2% 1,049 52 64.6 2.9 Kostajnica Totally 1,152 323 22.2 5.9 Source: Popis stanovništva, kućanstava i stanova 31. oţujka 2001., Stanovništvo staro 15 i više godina prema završenoj školi, po naseljima, CD ROM, Drţavni zavod za statistiku, Zagreb; Popis stanovništva, kućanstava i stanova 31. oţujka 2001., Stanovništvo staro 10 i više godina prema spolu, a nepismeni i prema starosti, po naseljima, CD ROM, Drţavni zavod za statistiku, Zagreb.

After establishing differences in economic characteristics of population in Kostajnica region, question of difference between in-migrant settlement and native settlement in the matter of education of population is also arise. To get the answer to that question we calculated the education rate (shares of population with the secondary education, two-year degree or university education in the population aged 15 years and over) and illiteracy rate (share of illiterate persons in the population aged 10 years and over) (table 6). When talking about education rate between three groups of (rural) settlements there are no significant differences, while in the illiteracy rate there are only smaller differences. On the other hand, in Hrvatska Kostajnica, only urban settlement in the region, educational structure of population is generally better. These results can be little unexpected if we have in mind the fact that younger generations are more educated than the older ones. In the “in-migrant” settlements there is more young people so it would be to expect lower rates of illiteracy. That means, relatively speaking, taking in consideration age structure, education structure of in-migrant settlements is little unfavourable. CONCLUSION Hrvatska Kostajnica is a good example of the region where the war and the forced migrations in the 1990s brought to the sequence of socio-demographic changes which are still present today. Besides the decline of number of population, forced migrations changed the ratio of native and in-migrant population, ethnical structure of the region and lead to the changes in age, educational and economical structure of population. From Bosnia and Herzegovina when it was in the middle of the war, refuge Croats settled at homes and villages which native Serb population abandoned. They settled in municipality Donji Kukuruzari the most, while municipality Majur and city of Hrvatska Kostajnica were settled less. Socio-demographic structure of this region is a reflection of socio-demographic characteristics of in-migrant from Bosnia and Herzegovina as well as returned native Croats and Serbs. Results of this research showed differences between settlements which settled inmigrants and those where mostly native population live. Principally, in the in-migrant type of settlements there is more favourable age structure of population i.e. there is more young than old population. Economic structure of in-migrant population is less favourable i.e. there is less economically active persons, share of supported persons are high, there is less persons with income and unemployment is very high. Ratio of unemployed and employed is more

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favourable in the settlements with native population. Regarding the educational characteristics of population there are no significant differences between two groups of settlements. Being that only three municipalities/cities is included in this research, similar research would be necessary for the whole part of Croatia which was affected by war and which also experienced forced migrations (for example Banovina). Thereby it should be necessary to take in consideration data form 2011 Census (when this data will be available) and try to determine socio-demographic conditions of this area 15 year after the Homeland war. LITERATURE Narodnosni i vjerski sastav stanovništva Hrvatske : 1880-1991 : po naseljima, Drţavni zavod za statistiku Republike Hrvatske, Zagreb. Mesić, M., Bagić, D., 2007: Održivost manjinskog povratka u Hrvatskoj, Ured Visokog povjerenika Ujedinjenih naroda za izbjeglice (UNHCR), predstavništvo u Republici Hrvatskoj, Zagreb, p. 105. Paţanin, A., 2006: Utjecaj prisilnih migracija na promjene ukupnog kretanja stanovništva ratom zahvaćenih ţupanija Hrvatske, Anali hrvatskog politološkog društva, 3, 459-481. Popis stanovništva 1991., Stanovništvo prema migracijskim obiljeţjima, Drţavni zavod za statistiku, Zagreb. Popis stanovništva, kućanstava i stanova 31. oţujka 2001., Stanovništvo prema aktivnosti i spolu, po naseljima, CD ROM, Drţavni zavod za statistiku, Zagreb. Popis stanovništva, kućanstava i stanova 31. oţujka 2001., Stanovništvo prema migracijskim obiljeţjima, po naseljima, CD ROM, Drţavni zavod za statistiku, Zagreb. Popis stanovništva, kućanstava i stanova 31. oţujka 2001., Stanovništvo prema narodnosti, po gradovima/općinama, Drţavni zavod za statistiku, Zagreb. Popis stanovništva, kućanstava i stanova 31. oţujka 2001., Stanovništvo prema spolu i starosti, po naseljima, CD ROM, Drţavni zavod za statistiku, Zagreb. Popis stanovništva, kućanstava i stanova 31. oţujka 2001., Stanovništvo staro 10 i više godina prema spolu, a nepismeni i prema starosti, po naseljima, CD ROM, Drţavni zavod za statistiku, Zagreb. Popis stanovništva, kućanstava i stanova 31. oţujka 2001., Stanovništvo staro 15 i više godina prema završenoj školi, po naseljima, CD ROM, Drţavni zavod za statistiku, Zagreb. Ţivić, D., 1999: Promjene u dinamici i razmještaju prognaniĉko-izbjegliĉkog kontingenta u Republici Hrvatskoj od sredine 1991. do sredine 1998. godine, Društvena istraživanja, 8(5-6), 767-791. Ţivić, D., Pokos, N., 2005: Odabrani sociodemografski indikatori razvijenosti Hrvatske i ţupanija, Revija za sociologiju, 36(3-4), 207-224.

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УДК: 314.116-022.252(497.781-22)

DEPOPULATION OF THE VILLAGE SETTLEMENTS IN THE FORMER MUNICIPALITIES VRANESHTICA AND DRUGOVO Marija LJAKOSKA, Dejan ILIEV Ss. Cyril and Methodius University,Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Institute of geography, Arhimedova 3, 1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia e-mail: ljakoska.marija@yahoo.com, d.iliev@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT The municipalities Drugovo and Vraneshtica that have recently became part of the municipality Kichevo cover the western, southern and eastern parts of the municipality Kichevo. The two municipalities together count exactly 43 village settlements, of which 28 in the municipality Drugovo and 15 in the municipality Vraneshtica. These village settlements are strongly hit by the process of depopulation, and a part of them are faced with the danger of total displacement. This condition is due mainly to the terrain configuration and the altitude, because 39% of the territory of the municipality Drugovo and 66.6% of the territory of the municipality Vraneshtica are considered as hilly-mountainous areas, but also on the poor infrastructure and the bad economy. Key words: depopulation, displacement, village settlements, hilly-mountainous areas.

INTRODUCTION The process of depopulation that engulfed villages in the Republic of Macedonia, did not circumvent the villages of the former municipalities Drugovo and Vraneshtica. Municipalities of Drugovo and Vraneshtica as independent municipalities existed in the period from 1996 until 2004. Then, with the administrative-territorial division that occurred in 2004, it was decided that they would become a part of one municipality, the municipality of Kichevo. Through a referendum, this has been postponed until the local elections in March 2013, when these two municipalities, along with the municipalities of Zajas and Oslomej were merged into one municipality, the municipality of Kichevo. Placed in between a number of mountains, respectively, Bistra in the north and north-west, Stogovo in the west, Ilinska, Plakenska and Busheva Mountains in the south and Pesjak in the east, and a small part of the territory bordering the plain of Kichevo Valley. These two municipalities аре bordering each other. The geographical position itself and relief features, with about 90% hilly-mountainous territory, as well as new trends in lifestyle caused by the beginning of industrialization and urbanization, conditioned mass emigration of population from rural areas, especially of those at high altitude and their leaving to the city in search of better living conditions. POPULATION OF RURAL AREAS IN THE MUNICIPALITIES OF DRUGOVO AND VRANESHTICA In the territory of these two municipalities, which covers a total of 492.13 km², there are 43 villages and 4.571 living resident. Of the total area, 383 km² or 77.8% belong to the municipality of Drugovo and 109.13 km² or 22.2% belong to the municipality of Vraneshtica. Of the total number of settlements, 28 or 65.1% were located in the municipality of Drugovo and 15 or 34.9% in the municipality of Vraneshtica. The total number of residents that live in the villages of the municipality Drugovo is 3.249or 71.1% of the total population and in the remaining 15 villages live 1.322 residents or 29.9% of the population. After the emergence of the processes of industrialization and urbanization, major changes occurred in the number of the population, as can be seen from the data in Table 1.

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Table 1: Overview of settlements and population in the settlements of the former municipalities of Drugovo and Vranestica, in all years of censuses Number Settlement 1948 1953 1961 1971 1981 1994 2002 MUNICIPALITY DRUGOVO 1 873 878 702 466 248 115 103 Belica 2 366 347 328 285 239 209 162 Brzdani 3 132 134 101 67 45 19 8 Vidrani 4 223 215 97 53 33 10 4 G. Crsko 5 374 457 336 107 46 15 4 G. Dushegubica 6 347 347 277 237 120 71 56 G. Dobrenoec 7 ... ... ... 80 48 15 11 D. Dushegubica 8 206 202 120 92 70 62 44 D. Dobrenoec 9 537 615 606 944 1.291 1.398 1.492 Drugovo 10 458 478 431 172 74 23 20 Ehlovec 11 434 438 388 286 157 57 29 Ivanchishta 12 55 95 163 132 93 52 49 Izvor 13 172 193 139 142 18 7 5 Javorec 14 254 299 239 196 94 46 27 Judovo 15 411 379 273 164 82 25 20 Kladnik 16 220 216 149 56 37 22 21 Klenoec 17 393 394 306 206 132 82 82 Kozica 18 494 513 449 204 70 36 10 Lavchani 19 258 282 290 219 118 43 35 Malkoec 20 292 234 122 40 22 5 1 Malo Crsko 21 234 243 210 188 175 126 109 Man. Dolenci 22 217 198 188 142 90 99 72 Podvis 23 397 395 375 267 123 49 34 Popoec 24 142 166 164 171 152 120 109 Popolzhani 25 509 468 295 175 78 35 31 Prostranje 26 228 243 237 172 125 98 57 Svinjishta 27 526 565 473 496 534 508 495 Srbjani 28 1.072 1.163 945 672 390 208 159 Cer Total 9.824 10.157 8.403 6.431 4.704 3.555 3.249 MUNICILAPITY VRANESHTICA 1 101 100 109 72 55 41 31 Atishta 2 337 317 250 214 189 194 156 Bigor Dolenci 3 792 797 745 750 710 496 438 Vraneshtica 4 208 193 142 93 45 17 8 Dupjani 5 312 285 240 176 113 81 42 Karbunica 6 254 226 188 108 41 22 17 Kozichino 7 138 127 103 63 30 10 5 Krushica 8 215 202 177 137 91 49 36 Miokazi 9 514 474 392 281 151 76 37 Orlanci 10 114 119 100 78 42 10 8 Pateec 11 90 82 72 58 24 6 3 Rabetino 12 142 156 133 113 58 31 22 Rechani-Chelop. 13 152 145 106 69 43 10 6 Svetorache 14 258 303 325 338 281 219 195 Staroec 15 576 620 421 394 414 388 318 Chelopeci Total 4.203 4.146 3.503 2.944 2.287 1.650 1.322 MUNICIPALITY DRUGOVO AND VRANESHTICA - TOTAL Total 14.027 14.303 11.906 9.375 6.991 5.205 4.571 Source: www.makstat.gov.mk

In Table 1 we can see that only in the first period between censuses, from 1948 until 1953, the total number of the population have increased, then the number is constantly decreasing. Thus, from 14.027 residents in 1948, the number decreased to 4.571 in 2002, or reduction of

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3.1 times in 54 years. In the municipalityof Drugovo,the population also decreased by 3 times, while in the municipality of Vraneshtica, the population decreased by 3.2 times in the same time period. Of the total number of population in 2002, which counts 4.571 inhabitants, 3.249 are residing on the territory of the Municipality Drugovo and 1.322 are residents of the Municipality Vranestica. The process of depopulation is not present only in the village Drugovo. This village is placed on a plain terrain, it is almost merged with the city and has good road links. The non-stopping reduction of population occurred mostly because of the migration in relation village-town. Seemingly easy life in the urban area, where working hours were determined apart from agriculture, which in this area was quite limited due to the terrain and altitude in which are most of the settlements, accompanied by harsh living conditions in the countryside, the lack of adequate infrastructure, particularly transportation, were the reasons that drove people to leave the village. To be able to give any estimate in which direction will lead the development of an area, it is necessary to know what are the natural growth features, and to know the share of the working population. We will give the best assessment if we know well the age structure of the population. Table 2: Age structure of the population in the former municipalities of Drugovo and Vraneshtica, according to the 2002 census Village 0-19 20-64 65 years Number Total % % settlement years years and more MUNICIPALITY DRUGOVO 1 103 6 5.8 37 35.9 60 Belica 2 162 27 16.6 92 56.8 43 Brzdani 3 8 0 0 3 37.5 5 Vidrani 4 4 0 0 3 75 1 G.Crsko 5 4 0 0 1 25 3 G. Dushegubica 6 56 4 7.1 23 41 29 G. Dobrenoec 7 11 0 0 3 27.3 8 D. Dushegubica 8 44 9 20.5 21 47.7 14 D. Dobrenoec 9 1.492 453 30.4 875 58.6 164 Drugovo 10 20 0 0 3 15 17 Ehlovec 11 29 0 0 8 27.6 21 Ivanchishta 12 49 8 16.3 21 42.8 20 Izvor 13 5 0 0 1 20 4 Javorec 14 27 0 0 12 44.4 15 Judovo 15 20 0 0 5 25 15 Kladnik 16 21 0 0 10 47.6 11 Klenoec 17 82 9 11 31 37.8 42 Kozica 18 10 0 0 3 30 7 Lavchani 19 35 0 0 13 37.1 22 Malkoec 20 1 0 0 1 100 0 Malo Crsko 21 109 28 25.7 55 50.5 26 Man. Dolenci 22 72 16 22.2 35 48.6 21 Podvis 23 34 0 0 10 29.4 24 Popoec 24 109 29 26.6 59 54.1 21 Popolzhani 25 31 1 3.2 12 38.7 18 Prostranje 26 57 12 21 26 45.6 19 Svinjishta 27 495 133 26.9 301 60.8 61 Srbjani 28 159 10 6.3 63 39.6 86 Cer Total 3.249 745 22.9 1.727 53.2 777 MUNICIPALITY VRANESHTICA 1 31 1 3.2 14 45.2 16 Atishta 2 156 20 12.8 98 62.8 38 Bigor Dolenci 3 438 77 17.6 261 59.6 100 Vraneshtica 4 8 0 0 1 12.5 7 Dupjani 5 42 2 4.8 25 59.5 15 Karbunica

% 58.3 26.6 62.5 25 7 51.9 72.7 31.8 11 85 72.4 40.9 80 55.6 75 52.4 51.2 70 62.9 0 23.8 29.2 70.6 19.3 58.1 33.4 12.3 54.1 23.9 51.6 24.4 22.8 87.5 35.7

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6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

17 0 0 7 41.2 10 58.8 Kozichino 5 0 0 2 40 3 60 Krushica 36 4 11.1 12 33.3 20 55.6 Miokazi 37 0 0 12 32.4 25 67.6 Orlanci 8 0 0 2 25 6 76 Pateec 3 0 0 1 33.3 2 66.7 Rabetino 22 0 0 9 40.9 13 59.1 Rechani-Chelop 6 0 0 4 66.6 2 33.4 Svetorache 195 33 16.9 115 58.9 47 24.2 Staroec 318 98 30.8 167 52.5 53 16.7 Chelopeci Total 1.322 235 17.8 730 55.2 357 27 MUNICIPALITY DRUGOVO AND VRANESHTICA - TOTAL Total 4.571 980 21.4 2.457 53.8 1.134 24.8 Source: www.makstat.gov.mk

In Table 2 we can see that the most frequent is the population that belongs to the group of mature people which accounts 53.8%. A population that belongs to the group of young people participates with 21.4%, but a high percentage of the population belongs to the group of old people, or 24.8%. In each of this both municipalities the mature population dominates, in the мunicipality of Drugovo it accounts 53.2%, while in the municipality of Vraneshtica, 55,2%, which means that the participation of mature population here is higher. The population that belongs to the group of young people, in the municipality of Drugovo accounts 22.9%, and in the municipality of Vraneshtica this percentage is considerably lower, (17.8%). The percentage of older population is 23.9% in the municipality of Drugovo, and even 27% in the municipality of Vraneshtica. In 25 out of 43 villages, which represents 58.1% of the total number of villages in this area, the group of people older than 65 years dominates, and if we consider the fact that 453 out of 980 people representing 45.9%, that belong to the group of young people live in the village Drugovo, we can notice that more than a half of the village are seriously affected by the process of demographic aging. Observed by municipalities, in the municipality of Drugovo, the number of villages where the old population dominates is 16 or 57.1% of the total number of settlements, while in the municipality of Vraneshtica, the situation is worse. The domination of senior citizens is present in 9 out of 15 villages, or in 60% of the settlements. Table 3: Gender structure of population in municipalities Drugovo and Vranestica, according to 2002 census Municipality Total Male % Female % Drugovo 3.249 1.682 51.8 1.567 48.2 Vraneshtica 1.322 677 51.2 645 48.8 Total 4.571 2.359 51.5 2.212 48.5 Source: www.makstat.gov.mk

In Table 3, we can see that the sex structure of the population in both municipalities, as well as in the total number of the population has dominated the male population, but there are no major differences in the share of the male and female population. Male population accounted for 51.5%, while the female population accounted for 48.5% of the total population. Table 4: Population in municipalities Drugovo and Vranestica, by ethnic groups, census 2002 Municipality Total Macedonian Albanian Turks Roma Vlachs Serbs Bosnians Other Drugovo 3.249 2.784 155 252 1 0 8 0 9 Vraneshtica 1.322 1.033 10 276 10 0 2 0 1 Total 4.571 3.817 165 528 11 0 10 0 10 Source: www.makstat.gov.mk

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In Table 4 we can see that the Macedonian population accounts for 83.5% of the total population. Albanian population accounts for 3.6%, 11.5% are Turks, which are second in number ethnic group, then Roma with 0.22%, 0.21% are Serbs, and the population of other ethnic groups also participates in 0.21%. Table 5: Population in municipalities Drugovo and Vranestica, older than 15 years, according to economic activity, census 2002 Total number of Active population Inactive Municipality population older than 15 population Total Employee Unemployed Drugovo 2.718 1.133 611 522 1.585 Vraneshtica 1.159 383 180 203 776 Total 3.877 1.516 791 725 2.361 Source: www.makstat.gov.mk

In Table 5 we can see that out of the total number of inhabitants which is 3.872, that belong to this group, the majority or 2.361 (60.9%) are economically inactive. The total number of active population accounts for 1.516 inhabitants or 39.1%, to 791 employees, and the remaining 725 or 47.8% were unemployed. This situation with a high percentage of unemployed and inactive population it is primarily caused because of the age structure of the population and intensive process of depopulation in which primarily young population participates. Table 6: Number of households and apartments in the former municipalities of Drugovo and Vraneshtica, according to the 2002 census Total number of Members per Municipality Household Apartments population household Drugovo 3.249 1.152 2.8 2.429 Vraneshtica 1.322 478 2.8 1.015 Total 4.571 1.630 2.8 3.444 Source: www.makstat.gov.mk

In Table 6 we can observe that the number of apartments in both municipalities is far greater than the number of households. The total number of households is 1.630, and the number of flats is 3.444, or 2.1 times higher. According to the number of members in each household, which is 2.8, the situation is the same in both municipalities. As for the apartments, on average, 1.3 people live in every apartment. These data show that the number of empty apartments is large, which means that it can be an excellent basis for the development of rural and eco-tourism, taking into account the altitude on which aremost of the villages set, and the absence of major pollutants threatening the quality of the environment. Although infrastructure in these villages is unsatisfactory, there are asphalt roads leading to most of the villages, and with the investment by the state or by private companies, some buildings can be renovated and adapted to the needs of every tourist. SIZE OF VILLAGES ACCORDING TO THE NUMBER OF RESIDENTS AND ACCORDING TO OROGRAPHYCONDITIONS In Table 7 we can see that the most of the rural settlements are located in the hillymountainous area.

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Table 7: Number of villages, according orography conditions in the former municipalities of Drugovo and Vraneshtica Municipality Flat villages Hilly villages Mountain villages Total Drugovo 3 13 12 28 Vraneshtica 3 10 2 15 43 Total 6 23 14 Source: Monography “Kichevo and Kichevo region”, Municipality Kichevo & Gjurgja, Skopje, 1998

Out of the total number of villages in these two municipalities which is 43, only 6 or 14% of the villages are situated inthe hilly-mountainous area. In the municipality of Drugovo, 3 villages (Drugovo, Srbjani and Izvor), or 10.7% of the total number of villages in the municipality is flat, 13 or 46.4% are hilly and 12 or 42.9% are mountainous. In the municipality of Vraneshtica, 3 villages (Celopeci, Staroec and Miokazi) or 20% of the total number of villages is considered flat, 10 or 66.7% are hilly, and 2 or 13.3% are mountain villages. In 6 out of 43 villages that are considered as plain live 2.585 residents, or 56.5% of the total population in both municipalities, and in the other 37 villages located in hilly and mountainous areas live 2.166 residents or 43.5%, which is less than half of the total population. In the three lowland settlements that belong to the municipality of Drugovo live 2.036 residents or 62.7% of the total population living in the municipality, while in the municipality of Vraneshtica, in plain areas lives 41.5% of the population. In the villages settled in the hilly-mountain area of the municipality of Drugovo lives 1.213 residents or 37.3% of the population, while in the hilly-mountain areas of the municipality of Vraneshtica live 58.5% of the population. The best way for us to notice the process of depopulation is to analyze the size of villages according to the number of residents. Table 8: Number of villages in the former municipalities of Drugovo and Vraneshtica according to the number of inhabitants, 2002 census Municipality Total Up to 50 50-100 100-500 More than 1.000 28 17 4 6 1 Drugovo 15 11 0 4 0 Vraneshtica Total 43 28 4 10 1 Source: www.makstat.gov.mk

In Table 8 we can see that the number of villages that have less than 50 residents is high. There are 28 villages, or 65.1% of the total number of villages where 12.4% of the total population live, that belong to this group. Even 11 out of these 28 villages, or 39.3% have less than 10 people. Only one village has over 1.000 inhabitants, and represents 2.3% of the total number of settlements. It is the village Drugovo that belongs to a group of lowland villages. In the village Drugovo are living 1.492 inhabitants or 45.9% of the population in the municipality, and almost one third of the total population. This is another indication that the population does not want to live in villages, especially not in those that are situated at high altitude, that are distanced from the city up to 20 km and where the roads are not appropriate.

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CONCLUSION The process of depopulation that engulfed the villages of the former municipalities of Drugovo and Vraneshtica, which is strongly emphasized in the villages located at higher altitude can be seen by the decrease in the number of people which is 32.6% lower in the past 50 years. The reasons for this phenomenon is largely associated with the urbanization and establishment of infrastructure in these villages which does not meet the needs of the population, and the lack of jobs and poor conditions for agriculture due to lack of arable land in villages with high altitude. The consequences of depopulation largely reflecton the age structure of the population. It is especially concerning the fact that in 58.1% of the total number of villages dominates the older population that is unfortunately,unable to perform any activity. This situation of the village settlements indicates to the need of transforming the system of settlements and encouraging their development through deployment and utilization of natural and human resources, livestock development and rural and eco-tourism. REFERENCES Dimitrov N. V., 2010, Spatial and population characteristics of mountain settlements in order to develop the tourism in the Republic of Macedonia, Proceedings of the IV Congress of geographers of the Republic of Macedonia, Dojran, pp. 259-266 Zikov M., 1990/91, Spatial transformation caused by the migratory movements of the population in Prilep, G. Review, Tome 28/29, Skopje, pp. 41-48 Madzhevikj M., 1998, Spatial and population characteristics of border villages in the north-eastern part of the Republic of Macedonia, G. Review, Tome 32/33, Skopje, pp. 143-156 Madzhevikj M., 2008, Depopulation of mountain villages in Kratovo region and opportunities for its development, G. Review, Tome 41/42, Skopje, 119-140 Mijalov R., 2000, Some consequences of depopulation and deagrarization in the area of Kriva Lakavica, G. Review, Tome 35, Skopje, pp. 131-140 Group of authors, 1998, Monography Kichevo and Kichevo region, Municipality of Kichevo & Gjurgja, Skopje, pp. 141-146; 159-164 http://www.makstat.gov.mk

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УДК:502.52(23):502.13(540) УДК: 711.4:551.4.035/036(540)

URBAN PROBLEMS AND PROTECTION OF HILLY MOUNTAIN AREAS IN INDIA Milica IGIĆ23, DušanRANĐELOVIĆ24,Hristina KRSTIĆ25, Nikola CEKIĆ26, Miomir VASOV27 University of Niš - The Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture SERBIA -18000 NIŠ, Aleksandra Medvedeva st., 14/111

ABSTRACT India is country in South Asia that is located on Indian peninsula and represents one of the most populated countries in the world. Geography of Indian peninsula is variable and it goes from hillsides till deserts. Every day expansion of population increase population density and brings many problems for living environment. Hill areas and mountain ranges are also with high population density and they are confronting many problems with infrastructure and living environment is endangered. This areas have important role in India‟s development because many rivers arise from here and climate conditions are very favorable for life and work. Also, because of topography, architecture is limited and adjusted to the terrain. This paper is about problems of hilly mountain areas in India. Using case study of India, main infrastucture, environmental and architecture problems wil be shown. Analysing strategies that are adopted by Indian government, methods for improving life quality in this areas and methods for areas protection will be highlighted. Many countries in the world are confronting problem with hilly mountain habitation. This mountain ranges often play key role in economical development of one country and their problems need efficient and sustainable solution. No mather if state is in South America, Europe, Asia and Africa, strategies for hilly mountain areas protection are often the same. Presenting problems and strategies for their solution in India and highlighting guidelines can be base for making strategy in other countries there are dealing with the same problem. Because of that, it is imoportant to learn about some implemented expiriences and use best practices for solving own problems. Keywords: hilly mountain areas in India, infrastructure problems, environmental problems, protection of hilly mountain areas, strategies for protection of hilly areas in India

INTRODUCTION In the total world‟s surface, mountains cover about 25 %. Mountains are mainly hardly reachable, but even so they are home to about 12% of total world population. Mostly, people live in the mountain foothills, but in China, India, South America and Australia, people live at high altitude and even entire towns are placed there. There are many well famous towns on the Himalayas, the Andes and The Alps. Climate and topographic conditions are very diverse and they are going from rain forests to permanent ice and snow, and from mild to dangerous slope steepness. These areas, in many cases are high density populated and because of topographic and climatic conditions, mostly with infrastructure difficulties. There are many water towers and systems for water supply, irrigation systems and canalization network. But even in very developed countries, high hilly areas are facing hard life and many problems in normal functioning. Most of the people that live in mountain areas are over 50 years aged. Young people rarely stay in these towns because there are no schools, no industry and they must search opportunity for job. People that are living in these areas are often very poor because main activity is agriculture and animal husbandry. Another problem that people from mountain 23

Eng. Arch. Milica IGIC, student of doctoral studies. Е-mail: mind1989@yahoo.com Eng. Arch. Dusan RANDJELOVIC, student of doctoral studies. Е-mail: randjelovic.dusan.88@gmail.com 25 Eng. Arch. Hristina KRSTIC, student of doctoral studies. Е-mail: hristinaa@hotmail.com 26 Academic, prof. PhD Nikola CEKIC, Eng. Arch. Е-mail: ncekic@yahoo.com 27 Assist. Prof. PhD Miomir VASOV, Eng. Arch. Е-mail: vasov@medianis.net 24

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areasare facing with, is social and economic marginalization. These towns are often located far from big economical centers and they don‟t have influence on decisions in government. Their demands often stay a side and processes of modern urbanization are having great impact on their lives. This paper is about problems of hilly mountain areas in India. India is one of the oldest countries and her culture and way of life are unique and have centuries long tradition. Because of lack of infrastructure and economical development, these areas are very poor and devastated. Analyzing situation and Planning commissions for these areas, main problems will be highlighted. In this paper, architecture, environmental and infrastructure problems will be presented and opportunities and challenges for their protection will be shown. HILLY MOUNTAIN AREAS IN INDIA Hilly mountain areas in India have century long tradition, and it is hard to understand development of these areas without considering earlier forms of cohabitation that goes back to the Paleolithic and Neolithic. Development of these areas was going slow during centuries and their morphology and functionality are results of many factors that were changing during time. Beside natural factors – climate and topography, main impact had society itself and artificial conditions that are result of modern ages. However, until half-century ago, these areas weren‟t considered as areas with problems and there were no strategies for their development and revitalization. Today, ecologists and urbanists have many problems with this areas and there are many strategies that are giving guidelines for improving life in these areas. Settlements in mountain regions are high density populated and number of families that live per acre is higher than number of families that live in urban areas. Because of this, there is serious disturbance in natural environment and soil is devastated and natural productivity is reduced.[1] In many countries, villages and country towns in hilly area are historic constants. According to many researches28, in the 1930. about 90% of population in India lived in rural and high reachable areas. Their life conditions were very hard and they used organic sources of energy, vegetable and animal and they used local supply of drinking water. Main difference between urban settlements and high hilly settlements is that geographic situation enables spreading of populated area and enables proper infrastructure planning. Also, because of terrain, it is hard to organize production and export of goods. Many of settlements are organized in Ancient times around temples that were located on the mountains and they survived until today. Since Ancient times, in India religion takes big role in every day life. Because of that, this monumental buildings are often in center of the settlement and they are built from rare materials to symbolize power. Around temples, forums – squares are covered with tiles of stone and streets in residential area are covered with mud and waste water. Because of many centuries of waiting, situation in these areas is rising critical point. It is necessary to make strategies and to react because in high hilly areas, everyday people are facing with many problems that are directly affecting their life quality and destroying ecosystem. It is important to take into account all the sustainable aspects – water, biodiversity, tourism, infrastructure. Big problem is that many residents awareness is on low level and they are not aware of gravity of problems. Because of that, first must be all residents included and interested in solving serious problems that are concerning their lives. Strategies must show fragility of ecosystem which must remain in balance. Also, because of economical situation of these areas, sometimes it is necessary to include, beside local, also national community. However, main role should have inhabitants and they must be actively and continuously 28

Mumford L.,(1956), „History of urbanization“, Instituto Juan de Herrera. Av. Juan de Herrera 4. 28040 MADRID. ESPAÑA. ISSN: 1578-097X

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involved in the planning and implementation process. Main problem is that local residents hardly accept new technologies and they are used to use traditional techniques. Because of that, it is necessary to organize trainings so that they can learn and share new experiences.[2] Analysis of main environmental conditions of hilly mountain areas in India In 2008., Indian government made strategy for developing high hilly areas in India on case study of Himalayan region.29 Because of the topography of India, there are many areas on high altitude that are populated. These areas are populated since Ancient times and during centuries this settlements are poorly developed. Most critical area is Himalayan region (Fig. 1), which is on the northern part of the country and settlements in this region are located on the hills of the world‟s highest mountain Himalayas. At the same time, this region is region with the slowest development. Slow development of this region is because of climate and topography and it is almost impossible to develop and organize any kind of industry and on the other hand, nature is fragile here and agriculture and husbanrdy are also difficult. People that live in this part of India are belong to the poorest people and oldest people in the country.[9]

Fig. 1- Himalayan region in India

About third surface of Indian mountains is covered with forests that are hosts to many endemic spieces and that are keeping biodiversity in India on really high level. Forests represents eco filters in very polluted and high density populated areas of Indias mountains. Many of the high hilly settlements are located on very step terrain and becuse of constant rains and erosion this land is completely devastated. One of the biggest problems of this areas is wasteland and region of Kashmir, which is one of the famous touristic attraction, is declared as region with highest level of erosion. Because of this problems, there is constant land degradation and during years this land is completely devastated and it‟s exploatation is not possible. Other fact is that about onefifth of land in mountain areas is covered with snow during entire year. On the other side, water is most precious in this area and planning and investments for their ptotection are priority. There are many waterflows on Indian mountains and their power is not used, but because of pollution, there is a lack of fresh water. Fresh 29

Planning Commission, Government of India (2010): „Report of the task force“, Highlanders Design Services Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi

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water is often in lakes from melitng glaciers. Because of undeveloped systems for it‟s filtrating, there are often problems with separating polluted and clean water. Also, in many settlements people are using fresh water for irrigation and in others fresh water is deficit. Because of constant rains, there is possibility to collect rainwater and to use it later but this technology is not yet developed in India. [8] Main sources for „economical growth“ are coming from agriculture, horticulture and animal husbandry. Because of lack of arable land, they are very rational in their use. There are just few corps that are successfully cultivated and their cultivation has centuries long tradition. Lack of mechanization makes problems and because of that production is low and often only satsfy needs of residents. Positive facts is that because of no mechanization, they work with traditional tools and production is organic so that they don‟t have Co2 emission. Also, because of not using fuel and petroleum they cannot destroy soil. They are cultivating plants without using chemicals and that is also positive for goods and for soil. Because of small surface, comparing to needs, they are constantly exploiting land and because of that they have program which defines for how many years they use land and after that for 15 years they plant forest to regenerate land. Their production per year depends mainly on rain because sometimes when it is dry year their corps are destroyed if there is no possibility for irrigation. Not only because of religion, also for surviving, they consider rivers with sanctity. Beside agriculture, horticulture and animal husbandry and fishing are also one of surviving activities. Most famous product from India is certainly tea and plants for all tea sorts are cultivated in India. Also thanks to the geographical location, there are good climate conditions for cultivating fruits like pineapple, nuts, apple, saffron and this fruits, when it is good year, are selling and contributing to economy growth. Many people live like nomads and they are keeping animals like ponies, horses and goats. In many settlements there are farms of goats and sheep and they are producing milk. Rivers are full with different species of fish and fishing is very popular and developed. There are few companies that are buying fish from fishermen in mountains.[5] Because of limited land use in certain areas, it is necessary to make land zones – development zones so that can all parts be treated in the way their condition allows it. According to that, in „Report of task force“ by Indian government there are seven zones that are identified in order to determine appropriate activities for helping devastated areas. First zone is zone of snow and alpine areas and areas with cultural-religious values. This zones have no services and in them main is to enable flow of vital ecosystems and to maintain main services. Second zone are all natural waters (rivers, lakes, glaciers..) and their protection is strictly defined. Water is important for every day life, so these areas are areas with main priority. Third zone are forest zones which must be protected so that they can keep biodiversity and to provide balance in ecosystem. Fourth zone are areas at low altitude that are having river flows and that can be used for agriculture and animal husbandry. This areas can be used for cultivating unique species and to produce energy corps. Fifth zone are rivers that can be used for electrical production. Intention is to use power of mountain rivers to produce electricity for these settlements and to make them sustainable. Sixth zone are residential – habitation areas. These areas are on the slope above 30 degrees and they are dealing with extreme infrastructure problems (waste water, sewage system) and they are sort of hazardous zones. Seventh zone is zone of industry and this zone is located in areas where natural condition allows production. Industry that is located here is non-toxic and it is using local workers and locally available materials.[5] Analysis of infrastructure of hilly mountain areas in India Because of the location of this settlements main problem is undeveloped infrastructure. In these areas there is no road network, transportation is very difficult and because of that there

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is a problem with tourists who often cannot visit this places with natural beauty. Infrastructure is not problem only for residents, it is also a barrier for investors who can‟t even reach this areas and not to mention that they cannot export goods from there. Infrastructure for inhabitants represents flow of energy, goods and raw materials and it represents their main connection with the rest of the country. Because of undeveloped infrastructure, there is hard to help this areas in cases of emergency – fire, flood or other catastrophes. This areas, without infrastructure are isolated from the rest of the world and because of that their normal functioning is every day harder and harder. The only why is taking so long to solve this problem are finances. Costs of roads in mountains are few times higher than in lowlands. Reason for that are construction and maintenance. Because of hard topography and unpredictable climate, it is necessary to protect road from hazards, avalanches, landslides and rockfalls.[1]

Fig. 2- Village Ladkh in Kashmir, India Fig. 3- Himachal Pradesh road on Himalayas Fig. 2 - http://www.letstravelsomewhere.com/asia/india/suman-roychoudhu/ Fig. 3- http://amazingphoto1.blogspot.com/2013/03/worlds-deadliest-road-himachal-pradesh.html

Beside motorways, in India is also developed railway system. There are few long lines that are connecting central India region with mountain regions. The most famous, and also the most importan line is Darjeeling Himalayan Railway that is connecting many settlements on Himalayas. This railway was constructed at the end of XIX century during industrial revolution. This line is not the only line that is in use. Huge area are on UNESCO30 list of heritage protection since 1999. This railways are not only touristic attraction because of natural beauty of landscape, they are also one of the means of transportation in this region. This rail lines are constructed in mountain areas, and thanks to the former construction, it was possible to fix the damage and to make possible reuse. To sam villages in the mountain there is no motorway only railways. One of big problems in India is also electricity. Because of poorly developed network, in same areas that have small settlements there is no electricity. Electricity is also very expensive because, beside all natural resources that India have, they often import electrical energy. River flows have really big power but it is unused. Because of that, in all new strategies possibility for using water potential for making hydropower plants is mentioned. There is a large number of natural lakes that are results of melting of glaciers and they could be also used for making hydropower plants. Also, India is reach with minerals – coals so it is also possible to make termopower plant to produce energy. This way not only that price will me much lower, but all these areas will be more sustainable.[3] Waste management is also challenging issue and it is increasing problem which is treating to pollute fresh water in rivers and lakes and leave people without drinking water. In the 30

UNESCO-United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization www.unesco.org

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statement that give Indian Vice-President Hamid Ansari for newspapers Times of India on 5th March 2013. he said, "Indian cities produce nearly 40,000 million liters of sewage per day, enough to irrigate 9 million hectares and barely 20% of this is treated." He said the untreated waste water was seeping into water sources, "thereby creating a ticking health bomb amongst India‟s people"31. Problem of waste waters is urgent and needs quick solution. Not only that this water pollutes drinking water, also it makes healthy problems because waste water is on streets in villages centers and makes mud and irritating smell. Also dirty water is making hard transport in towns and it is making some parts of settlements are impassable. [7]

Fig. 4- Wastewaters on the streets of New Delhi in India http://cdn.c.photoshelter.com/img-get/I0000y3GJkgkjVNY/s/600/480/sfe-020717-0014.jpg

Problem with sewage system is not only in high hilly areas, it is India‟s national problem. Only four cities in country have sewage system for parts of their urban structure, but not entire city areas are covered. Even big cities Mumbai and New Delhi are having no sewage system (Fig. 4). One of the problems is that in India, drinking water is ground water which is later filtrated. Because of no sewage system, there is enormous risk that waste and fresh water can get in contact and that would mean ecological and health disaster. On the other side, in India‟s policy there are no strategies for collecting and recycling garbage and waste waters and over 80% of inhabitants don‟t have sewage systems. This problem is really important in hilly areas, because waste waters can interflow down the slope and they can devastate entire landscape. This way is not only nature endangered, also people and entire settlements on low altitudes are in trouble. This problems were always subject of government discussions, but solution was never found. Also, there is no hospital in every village, and when people get infected with waste they cannot be healed. This is very big problem, because with spreading infection there is great risk that people can die and it can cause epidemic.[3] Analysis of hilly mountain settlements architecture in India Hilly mountain areasare having limited surface for development, economical growth, they have lack of social, health and educational infrastructure. Because of this, there are constant large scale migration from mountain rural settlements to the more urbanized towns on lower altitude. Unregulated and unequal development of all parts of this country brought many problems in normal functioning everyday lives in high hilly settlements. Unplanned and nonnurbanized settlements are completely without infrastructure, and this settlements are degrading quality of life. Not only that soil is polluted, also is air and beside that, because of climate there are often natural disasters.

31

http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2013-03-05/pollution/37468895_1_untreated-sewage-pollutedwater-million-litres

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Location of mountain settlements is near rivers or around temples. In Ancient times, river was main source for surviving. Not only that people were catching fish from river for food, they also used river water for irrigating their plants. Also, religion has key role in life of people in India, so century long people were populating areas around temples. Temples were often built on „special“ places – on places that were far from towns and that are hard reachable so that priests could have peace. Many temples were built on Himalayas, that after Tibet is one of the most religious mountain. Many of the settlements on Himalayas are populated around temples still from Ancient times and they survived until today.(Fig 5.) Religion also has role in architecture and materialization of the houses and buildings. Today, in India there are many modern buildings that could be compared to the world‟s famous buildings. But still, for tourist, traditional houses are more interested. These houses are often ground level and made from local materials or materials from which is temple built. Houses are often very decorated with colorful textiles and sculptures and very house is unique and different from the others. Materials that they often use are wood from local forests and mud for walls (Fig. 6). These houses, even made from local materials and with no modern construction, are very sustainable and ecological because they have no cancerous materials. Because of using natural materials, this houses are eco-friendly. Their construction is very traditional and even so they are successfully surviving all disasters –floods, earthquakes, snow slides... In some villages, there are cottages that are used for tourists. This cottages are more luxurious, with modern furniture and better look and they are owned by non local people who rent them. Every settlement has it‟s own lookout tower with which they control surrounding in case of emergency or any disaster.[6]

Fig. 5- Settlement around mountain temple in Pushkar, India Fig. 6 – Dodra Village in Himachal Pradesh Fig. 5 -http://axelbluhme.photoshelter.com/image/I0000hntUT.Sugyc Fig. 6 - http://khagta.photoshelter.com/image/I0000axG_0XdtWbY

In settlements on lower altitude, there is higher level of urbanization. These cities are having better connections with the rest of the country because it is easier to make highways on lower altitudes. Climate conditions in these areas are much milder than on higher altitudes and life in this settlements has more advantages. This settlements are having less limitation of surface for construction, and here can people even make changes on landscape for construction. There is more developed industry, and young people migration from here to search for better life are less than in high hilly areas. Also, here is better gender balance because there are enough jobs for both male and female. Educational and health infrastructure is much better and people can work and live without need for everyday going to another town.[6] Even these towns have better condition, architecture is specific and unique. System of construction is the same for all end consists of combination of mud, and last few years they started to use own produced bricks. Roofs are made of wooden construction with reed cover above. Sometimes houses are lifted from the ground because of constant flood. This houses 191


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are small, and have square basis and small openings. Reason for this „easy construction“ is that they can in cases of storm and disaster easily make new houses from surrounding materials. Houses that are on the terrain with a large slope have a little different architecture. Their roofs are steeper and usually have four sides. They often have cellars and they are adjusted to the terrains. There is no grouping of these houses – they are away one from another and they are connected with narrow and winding paths that are following the hill (Fig 7.) Often there are maximum three or four houses one next to other and then few hundred meters later anoter four. This is most common type of settlements and life conditions are really hard.[1]

Fig. 7 - Mountain Village Uttaranchal Pradesh, North India Fig. 8 – Gangtok city on Himalayas on 1650 m Fig. 7 - http://www.fotothing.com/davidb/photo/9dcec9e616dba4522a6b4a4582a46403/ Fig. 8 - http://www.indiamike.com/india-images/pictures/gangtok-0

Architecture in bigger cities on Himalayas is little different. Here, houses are built from more resistant materials – bricks and concrete blocks. All houses are having few levels – 4-5 because in one house live few generations of one family. In India it is rare that children live alone and separated from parents before marriage. These houses are all the same, they are attached one to another and they are making series which form the blocks. There are no blocks like in Europe or everywhere in the world because of the terrain. Slope dictates architecture and blocks are intersected with road network. Every house is painted in another color and without colors it is hard to recognize difference between them. Their religious views are that bright colors bring happiness in life and so they are painting their houses very colorful. Because of surface limitation, their towns are high density populated and constructed so that they barely have parks and green spaces. Main assembly centers are temples whic are located in city centers. All street are going to the temple and entire city is subordinated to that part.[6] PROTECTION OF HILLY MOUNTAIN AREAS IN INDIA Because of huge importance of mountain areas on one side, and because of their difficult situation on the other side, strategies for protection these areas are numerous. Problem is that beside many adopted policies, there are no obvious results in implementation of this strategies. One of the main reasons are finances and accessibility. That is way all the strategies suggest urgent solving of road, rail and rail connectivity. Many of the regions don‟t even have road network and to talk about airports. Thanks to the UNESCO heritage protection, part of railways is reconstructed and in use and people can go to other towns faster. In case of emergency, hospitals cannot send sick people to towns and because of that there should be air lines with helicopters to serve for emergency. Because of poor possibilities for transportation, in some region ropeways are very popular. Ropeways connect villages with

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near towns or even parts of one town that could not be reached easily because of the slopes. This way people often cross the river because when there is no bridge. By dividing mountain region into zones it would be much easier to protect all of them on the adequate way. Because of climate, topography and soil structure, there are very different regions that cannot be protected on the same way. In some parts there is deficit of water and in some there are river flows and lakes. Also, all the settlements are not on the same altitude and slides are not the same. Biodiversity is everywhere very rich and it is necessary to protect endemic species and to treat this regions as national parks. Mountain regions are rich with the minerals but people dig everywhere without investigation and that way they devastate soil. It is necessary to make trainings, to examine mountains and to confirm where can excavations be done. There must be natural resources analyzes also, to stop populating areas where there are some resources or where is endemic species habitation. This problem is not facing only India, problem with high hilly mountain areas is global problem, and because of that they should also use some positive practices from foreign countries. In strategy planning can be included experts from all over the world in order to provide best solution for the problem. Because of state of the country, there should be possible that foreign funds give financial helps to protect areas and population that live in hard conditions. The most important potential represent waterways. Water is very important in India still from the Ancient times. Earlier, they used to call river Ghang holly river. Every waterflow in the mountains has enormous power and can be used for making electrical energy. This flows are main sources for fresh drinking water and they must be protected so that they don‟t get polluted. On the otherside, without sewage systems, there is great risk that wastewater and fresh water can get in contact. Because of that, constructing sewage system and protecting waterflow are connected and adequate protection of spreading the infection cannot be done without solving both problems. It is not rare that people just bury waste under the slopes because there is no waste management. When there is a lot of rain, erosion often takes soil layers and sometimes get even to the burried garbage. Many waste waters get to the settlements on the lower altitude thanks to the rainwater. Because of that, it is important to make good drainage system that can collect water and takes it to the ground. Constant migrations from mountain settlements are also one of the reasons for ruining this areas. Young people, especially females leave this regions becuse there are no jobs for them and they can not earn money for survival. In many villages there are no elementary schools and children must travel hours long to get to the school. Because of that it is important to invest in light industry and to develope educational, social and economical infrastructure. This way, migration will be reduced and when children finish education they can help in protecting their homeland. It is important that all aged residents can live in mountain settlements and to provide them better conditions for life and work. If people can make this region sustainable they can be more financial independent from big cities.[4] CONCLUSION Analyzing existing state of mountain areas and opportunities that it offers, it is obvious that there should be made pattern for development which provides sustainable development and protection of natural treasures. Without protection, landscape is everyday more degradated and there should pass years so that soil can be regenerated. Also, because of frequent snowslides and because of heavy rains, erosion of the soil is very high and without drainage systems there is constant flood in residents houses. Climate changes produce very unexpected weather and many times there are happening disasters that ruin entire areas. This region is also known as earthquake zone and there re no resistent houses in mountain areas.

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It is important to improve living conditions and to create healthy environment. Not only in mountain zones, but in all cities in India should be constructed sewage system, should be provided water supply and should be better solid waste management. There should be more regulations conserning constructing so that adequate materials that are resistent to fire can be used. Also, there must be more regulations that will define population density and that can provide balance between high density popukated central areas and barely populated mountain regions. With providing better living conditions, it is possible to attract people to live and to visit this regions. India is one of the countries that has history centuries long. This country is origin of many religions, and still today there are temples that are representing the holiest buildings for some religions. Unfortunately, because of the climate and topography, all the parts of this country are not developed on the same level. Regions that are populated on mountains as it is Himalayas are very poor and they are facing many problems. This paper shows main problems that residents of this area are confronting every day and gives main guidelines for it‟s protection. This areas have enormus importance because of natural treaures and they shoul be protected and urbanized on adequate level. REFERENCES Food and agriculture organization of the United Nations (2011), „Why invest in sustainable mountain development“, Rome, Italy, p. 3-19, 51-70 Mumford L.,(1956), „History of urbanization“, Instituto Juan de Herrera. Av. Juan de Herrera 4. 28040 MADRID. ESPAÑA. ISSN: 1578-097X Planning Commission, Government of India (2002): „Himachal Pradesh Development report“, New Delhi, Chapter 17. Infrastructure, p. 289-318 Planning Commission, Government of India (2008): „Problems of hilly habitations in areas covered by the hill areas development programme(HADP)/ western ghats development programme(WGDP)“, New Delhi, p. 1-9,56-65 Planning Commission, Government of India (2010): „Report of the task force“, Highlanders Design Services Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, p. 23-30,84-95 http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/944 http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2013-03-05/pollution/37468895_1_untreated-sewage-polluted-watermillion-litres http://www.policymic.com/articles/9194/dirty-water-the-socio-economic-battle-to-better-india-s-drinking-water http://planningcommission.nic.in/sectors/index.php?sectors=env#env

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УДК: 314.116-022.252:551.4.035/.036(497.714)„1921/2011“

ДЕМОГРАФСКО ПРАЗНЕЊЕ НА ДОМАЌИНСТВАТА ВО РИДСКОПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПРЕДЕЛИ НА ТИКВЕШКАТА КОТЛИНА Коле ПАВЛОВ1, Ѓорѓи ПАВЛОВСКИ2 1

СУГС Гимназија Јосип Броз-Тито, Скопје 2 Педагошки факултет, Штип kolepavlov@yahoo.com

ИЗВОД Ридските и планинските превадели на Тиквешката Котлина опфаќаат 13 планини и висорамнината Витачево. Целта на трудот е да се проследи квантитетот на домаќинствата во последите 90 години, како и состојбата со обработливото земјиште, сточниот и шумскиот фонд итн. Од методите кои беа користени за време на истражувањето може да се набројат: анкета, интервју и останати статистички методи. Како главни заклучоци од истражувањето се наметнуваат фактите што во 1921 година во ридските и планинските предели на Тиквеш постеле 47 селски населби. Од нив во 2011 година биле раселени 33 населби при што биле испразнети 2157 домаќинства. Најтешка е состојбата на ридсите и планинските предели на Серта и Кожуф, каде депопулацијата оставила тешки последици врз стопанството во Тиквешката Котлина. Клучни зборови: Тиквешка Котлина, домаќинства, демографско празнење, иселување. ABSTRACT The hilly and mountainous areas of the Tikveš Basin encompass 13 mountains and a plateau of Vitaĉevo. The purpose of this work is to perceive quantity of households in the last 90 years as well as arable land, livestock, forests etc. The methods that were used in the study were: poll, interview, and other statistical methods. Main conclusion of the survey is that 47 settlements existed in the hilly and mountainous areas ofTikveš Basin in 1921. Thus, 33 villages that containing 2157 households have already disappeared in 2011. We found the worst state in the mountains of Serta and Koţuf where depopulation leaves severe consequences on the economy in the Tikveš Basin. Key words: Tikveš Basin; households; demographic discharge; eviction.

ВОВЕД

Тиквешката Kотлина го опфаќа просторот на Средното Повардарие од Мали Коњик, Вршникот, Плоча и Сиврен на север, па се до Демир Капија на југ и македонскогрчката граница, југозападно од Вардар. Расположена во средниот тек на реката Вардар таа го опфаќа и долниот тек на Брегалница и Црна Река, како и целото сливно подрачје на Бошава. Котлината од сите страни е заградена со планински венци, на југ се: Краставец (898), Балија (1213), Флора (1727) и Кожуф (2182); на исток е Конечка Планина (Серта) со Бел Камен (1158); на запад се планините: Козјак (1814), Голема Рудина (1430), Кесендриско- радобилските планини (1557) и Ветерско (1081). Единствено од нив отстапува северната страна која ја затвора котлината со средни и ниски планини како што се: Клепа (1150), Мала Клепа (950), Дворишки Рид (778), Марковица (610) и други. Во овие граници Тиквешката Котлина зафаќа површина од 2060 km2 и спаѓа во групата на планински котлини (Павлов, 2011). Во поглед на релјефот (карта 1) за Тиквешката Котлина карактеристични се четири релјефни целини и тоа: -Рамничарска релјефна целина која зафаќа 8,3 % од вкупната површина на котлината; -ридска целина со 8,6%; -планинска целина со 82%;

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-површта Витачево со 1,1%. Тиквешката Котлина има претежно кружна форма и ги има сите карактеристики на самостојна природна целина која со своите специфични релјефни, климатски, хидрографски, растителни и педолошки особини се разликува од соседните котлини и области. Поради тоа котлината била предизвик за доселување на население од поширок географски простор како што се областите: Мариово и Раец на запад и Лакавица на исток. Тоа се должи првенствено на поволната географска положба, бидејќи во минатото по долината на Вардар постоел стариот "Вардарски пат" кој го поврзувал Солун на југ со Антигонеја, Стоби, Вила Зора (Велес) и Скупи (Скопје) на север, а денес по истата долина минува железничката пруга Скопје-Гевгелија од 1873 година и автопатот Е-75 од 1960 година. Според археолошките наоѓалишта, Тиквешката Котлина била населена пред 2500 години, а како најстари населби од минатото, а денес во рушевини се: Антигонеја (Неготино), Стоби и Просек (Демир Капија). Денес во административно-територијален поглед Тиквешката Котлина е поделена на пет општини: Градско, Демир Капија, Кавадарци, Неготино и Росоман. Од сите нив најголем број на селски домаќинства во ридско-планинските предели има Кавадарци а најмал Росоман. Во поглед на класификацијата на селските населби освен хипсометрискиот метод, неопходно беше да се земе предвид и морфолошкиот метод (Стојмилов, 1981). Така на пример, некои населби кои лежат под 500, односно 400 м.н.в. беа опфатени во истражувањето бидејќи според морфологијата на непосредниот простор потполно припаѓаат во целната група (Г. Дисан, Дабниште, Бегниште, Вешје и други). Со цел да ја согледаме вистинската состојба на демографското празнење на домаќинствата во ридско-планинските предели на Тиквешката Котлина за период од 90 години, освен статистичките податоци користевме наше сопствено истражување во сечија населба кое го спроведовме во периодот од 2009-2011 година. Хронолошките точки на увид беа смислено одбрани, како релевантни моменти во демогеографската динамика и тоа: 1921 година (пред почетокот на големосрпската колонизација); 1961 година (после егејската имиграција и емигрирањето на турското население); 1991 година (осамостојувањето на Р. Македонија); 2011 година (две децении на самостојна Македонија). Од истражувањето во кое вложивме многу време и средства дојдовме до следната фактичка состојба. РЕЗУЛТАТИ И ДИСКУСИЈА Во 1921 година во ридско-планинскиот простор на Тиквешката Котлина постоеле 47 селски населби со вкупно 2412 домаќинства (Радовановиђ, 1924). Со реката Вардар населбите се поделени на источен, ридско-планински простор, источно од Вардар и западен ридско-планински простор, западно од Вардар. Најголем број на селските населби се наоѓале во западниот ридско-планински простор на котлината и тоа: 37 населби со 2180 домаќинства. Во источниот ридско-планински простор биле застапени 10 селски населби со 232 домаќинства (табела 1).

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DVI@EWE NA DOMA]INSTVATA VO ИСТОЧNIOT RIDSKO-PLANINSKI DEL NA TIKVE[ 250 200

232

150 100 50

56

15 0

0 1921

1961

1991

2011

График 1. Приказ на бројот на домаќинствата во источниот ридско-планински предел на Тиквешката Котлина во изминатите 9 децении

Демографското празнење на домаќинствата во источниот ридско-планински простор на Тиквешката Котлина е забележан уште на почетокот на XX век. Како причини се наведуваат екстремно сушните климатски услови, проблемите со водоснабдувањето и супстандардните здравствено-хигиенски услови кои иницирале зголемена стапка на морталитет, кои несомнено од друга страна предизвикале процес на иселување (Цвијиђ, 1906). Масовното демографско празнење на овие простори е евидентирано во периодот од 1953 до 1962 година. Тогаш со меѓународен договор меѓу СФР Југославија и Република Турција беше овозможено непречно иселување на турско население од нашите простори кое се населувало во Турција. Во тој период во сите селски населби во источниот ридско-планински предел домаќинствата биле од турска народност, односно посебна етничка група Јуруци на кои основно занимање им било сточарството. Така за краток период биле напуштени 6 населби со 176 домаќинства. Toa ќе рече дека 76 % од домаќинствата биле евакуирани преку механички одлив на населението. Демографското празнење со послаб интензитет продолжил и во периодот помеѓу 19611991 година прет се на десеткуваните домаќинства од македонска националност кои во мал број се задржале во населбите: Брусник, Липа и Калањево се до нивното потполно депопуларизирање на почетокот на деведесеттите години од XX век, кога на овие простори егзистирале 15 домаќинства во 4 селски населби. Денес во овој ридскопланински простор на Тиквеш не постои ниту една населба. Последна од згаснатите беше населбата Иберли која во 1991 година броела 2 домаќинства од етничката група Јуруци (график 1). Демографското празнење на домаќинствата во западниот ридско-планински простор на Тиквешката Котлина доживеало кулминација во периодот од 1961 до 1980 годнина. Но, тој процес трае и денес. На тоа укажуваат статистичките податоци и некои претходни демографски истражувања, на пример од страна на М. Панов (1981), Т. Арсовски (1989) и други. Ако се компарира периодот 1953-1961 кој беше најкритичен за домаќинствата од источниот ридско-планински дел на Тиквеш, кај западниот дел сликата е дијаметрално спротивна со тоа што овде населението бележи умерен до висок природен прираст, а доминантно место заземале домаќинствата со 8 и повеќе членови. Причината за демографското празнење на домаќинствата во западниот ридскопланински дел на Тиквеш во периодот 1961-1980 лежи во мошне моќното дејство на процесите на индустријализација и урбанизација со која беше опфатена нашата 197


ДЕМОГРАФСКИ ПРОБЛЕМИ, ПОЛИТИКА НА ЕКОНОМСКИ И РЕГИОНАЛЕН РАЗВОЈ ВО РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА DEMOGRAPHIC PROBLEMS IN HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS, POLICY OF ECONOMIC AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS

република, а особено градските населби: Кавадарци, Неготино и Велес кои во наведениот период се истакнувале како силни гравитациски центри за руралното население (график 2). DVI@EWE NA DOMAЌINSTVATA VO ZAPADNIOT RIDSKO-PLANINSKI DEL NA TIKVE[ 2500 2000

2180

1500 1506 1000 500 455 0 1921

1961

1991

255 2011

График 2. Приказ на бројот на домаќинствата во западниот ридско-планински предел на Тиквешката Котлина во изминатите 9 децении

Имено во тој период, брзиот развој на индустријата со стартирање на повеќе преработувачки капацитети доведе до недостиг од работна рака со што се апелираше до селските домаќинства да се вклучат во индустриското производство, а при тоа беа давани одредени овластувања за купување стан или земјиште за изградба на индивидуални живеалишта во урбаните средини. Таквите новонастанати услови се чинеле доволно атрактивни за населението во ридско-планинските предели кои во минатото биле ориентирани кон сточарството и негувањето на некои полјоделски и градинарски култури од екстензивен тип. Дополнителен ефект врз напуштањето на ридско-планинските простори во западниот дел на Тиквеш предизвикувала сообраќајната изолација на оддалечените селски населби од урбаните центри. Така на пример некогашниот општински центар на некогашната жупа Бошавија, селската населба Конопиште, која е оддалечена 36 km од Кавадарци, до почетокот на XXI век беше оставена без современа патна врска со тврда подлога. Споменатите причини довеле до масовно напуштање на селските населби и домаќинства со преселба во урбаните центри. Така во периодот (1961-1991) со ударно дејство помеѓу 1971 и 1981 година, 12 селски населби беа сосема раселени и вкупно 1051 домаќинство заклучно со останатите десеткувани населби ги напуштиле ридскопланинските простори од западниот дел на Тиквеш и се доселиле во градските населби, односно 70 % од домаќинствата биле испразнети. Вкупниот број на домаќинствата се намалил од 1506 во 1961 година, на 455 во 1991 година (график 2). Во периодот 19912011 бројот на домаќинствата од ридско-планинските предели во западниот дел на Тиквеш се намалиле за дополнителни 44 %, односно на апсолутна цифра од 455 во 1991 година, на 255 во 2011 година. Бројот на расселени населби од овие простори во последните две декади се искачил на 12, така што во последните 50 години резигнирано може да се констатира неверојатна цифра од 24 раселени од вкупните 37 населби, само во ридско-планинските предели на Тиквеш и тоа западно од реката Вардар. Од нив најмногу населби нестанале од општината: Кавадарци (14), потоа Демир Капија (4), Градско (4), Росоман (1) и Неготино (1). Карактеристичен е примерот со некои населби

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кои и покрај големиот број домаќинства денес се целосно испразнети, како што е случајот со Страгово кое од 118 домаќинства денес е село на заборавот. Но, има и други села без ниедно домаќинство како: Радња, кое порано имало 75 домаќинства, Мрзен- Ораовец (91), Барово (85), Шешково (59), Стрмашево, Мрежичко, Клиново, Бунарче, Добротино, Грбовец, Драгожел, Двориште, Копришница, Праведник, Свеќани и други (табела 1). Меѓутоа има и села кои пред триесетина години имале голем број домаќинства, а денес бројот на домаќинствата е сведен на неколку. Таков е случајот со Бохула која имала најмногу (102), Куманичево (74) и Конопиште (97), Горниково, Мајден, Бојанчиште и Дабниште. Особено е карактеристично за Конопиште кое на два пати беше општински центар за дванаесет населени места, а денес во него живеат само 14 домаќинства, меѓутоа состојбата и во останатите населби е загрижувачка. Во нив постојат мали домаќинства кои се состојат од еден или два члена. Тоа покажува дека тие се претежно старечки домаќинства. Во прилог на тоа зборува и податокот што во 12 селски населби постоеле основни училишта и едно централно основно училиште во Горна Бошава, кои во 1985 престанаа да постојат. Табела 1. Раселени населби во ридско-планинските предели на Тиквеш (1921-2011). РАСЕЛЕНИ НАСЕЛБИ ОД РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПРЕДЕЛИ ВО ТИКВЕШКИТЕ ОПШТИНИ Кавадарци Неготино Демир Капија Градско Росоман Радња Брусник Иберли Двориште Мрзен-Ораовец Добротино Липа Копришница Горно Чичево Драгожел Калањево Драчевица Скачинци Драдња Пештерница Стрмашево Свеќани Кошани Ортамале Барово Инешоба Праведник Хаџи Реџепли КараСинанли Шешково Чешмедере Бунарче Куманичево Мрежичко Ржаново Грбовец Клиново Дупкарево Σ 14 6 5 7 1

Тенденцијата на опаѓање на домакинствата во западниот простор на Тиквешката котлина и денес е присутен што доведува до големо празнење на просторот. Единствено, на негативната тенденција во изминатите критични периоди во голема мера успеало да одолее населбата Бегниште. Ова празнење носи негативна последица од воено одбранбен аспект особено во пограничниот појас на Кожуф Планина. Тој простор денес претставува "отворена врата" кон соседна Грција, а поради должината постојат отежнати услови за негова целосна контрола (Pavlovski, 1987). Миграционите движења предизвикале демографско празнење на домаќинствата од просторот на ридско-планинските населби, а од друга страна предизвикале натрупување на бројните проблеми во урбаните средини од социо-економски карактер.

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HI PSOMETRI SKI POJASI VO TI KVE[ POSTOE^KI RI DSKO-PL ANI NSKI NASEL BI NA RABOT NA RASEL UVAWE

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Карта 1. Хипсометрија и распоред на постојните селски населби во ридско-планинските предели на Тиквешката Котлина

Карактеристично е што со овие движења е опфатена најработоспособната старосна група на домаќинствата од 21 до 50 години со учество од 54,2 %. Како последица на овие движења се појави процесот на депопулација која создаде старечки домаќинства. Притоа од ридско-планинсите предели на Тиквешката Котлина во петте општини за последните педесет години исчезнале 33 од некогашните 47 рурални населби што е намалување за 70 %, со тенденција на влошување на состојбата. Кај апсолутниот број домаќинства кои станувале во ридско-планинските предели на Тиквешката Котлина во последните 90 години бележиме намалување за 89,4 % од 2412 на 255. Со

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демографското празнење на домаќинствата во руралните населби на ридскопланинскиот простор настанале и структурни промени во земјишниот фонд. Така денес во овој простор постојат над 7000 хектари необработено земјишти од кое 52 % лежи на надморска височина од 700 метри. Освен тоа намалени се ораниците и бавчите за 1122 хектари, ливадите за 1025 хектари, а пасиштата за 5492 хектари. Како последица од демографското празнење на домаќинствата значително е опаднат бројот на грла на ситен и крупен добиток. Во 1924 година во ридско-планинскиот простор на Тиквешката Котлина имало околу 200 000 грла добиток. Денес таа бројка е намалена на 5000 грла. Во ридско-планинскиот простор во Тиквешката Котлина шумските плодови како: боровинки, лешници, дренки, капини, шипинки, печурки и други, се во изобилство застапени и од нив се остварувале дополнителни приходи. Во 1989 година откупени се 35 тони шумски плодови или 25% од можните количества. Во 2001 откупени се само 10 тони. Освен шумските плодови домаќинствата остварувале приходи и од лековити растенија како: планински чај, нане, камилица, слез, рен, кантарион и други. Во 1990 година откупени се околу 20 тони лековити растенија што е 10% од вкупното количество со кое располага ридско планинскиот простор (Павловски, 1993). ЗАКЛУЧОК

Прегледот на населеноста преку бројното движење на домаќинствата во ридскопланинските предели на Тиквешката Котлина во периодот (1921-2011) наведе на сосема индикативен став дека се случувал буквален егзодус како на домаќинствата, така и на руралните населби од испитуваната територија. Имено, во последните 90 години од ридско-планинските предели на Тиквеш биле испразнети 2157 домаќинства од постојните 2412, што е трајна загуба за 89,4 %. Истовремено биле тотално раселени дури 33 од постојните 47 рурални ридско-планински населби, што е трајно намалување за 70 % (карта 1). Процентуално е најголема депопулацијата во источниот дел на Тиквеш, каде бележиме целосно (100 %) празнење на некогашните 232 домаќинства, како и сите 10 населби од ридско-планинските предели со најкритичен период од 19531961 година. Во западниот дел на Тиквеш, депопулацијата е изразена со испразнување на 88,3 % од домаќинствата и 65 % од руралните населби од ридско-планинските предели со најкритичен период од 1961-1981 година. Целиот процес истовремено е проследен со намалување на бројот на членови во домаќинствата, но и драстичното зголемување на уделот на стари лица кај членовите на домаќинствата. Утврдените демогеографски проблеми во испитуваниот простор се реперкуираат со завидна деаграризација и напуштање на некои вносливи примарни дејности кои антиципирано на долгорочен план би можеле да значат солидно освежување на стопанството во областа и пошироко во републиката. ЛИТЕРАТУРА Арсовски Т. (1989): Процес на рурален ексодус на селата во општината Кавадарци, Географски разгледи кн. 27, Скопје, Сојуз на географските здруженија на СР Македонија. Јовановски В., Андонов К. (1987): Населби, Кавадарци, Дом на култура-Неготино. Павлов К. (2011): Влијание на природните и антропогените фактори врз загадувањето на водите во Тиквешката Котлина (докторска дисертација), Скопје, ПМФ. Павловски Ѓ. (1993): Социо-географски и аграрно-географски трансформации во Тиквешката област (докторска дисертација), Скопје, ПМФ. Pavlovski G. (1987):Društveno-geografski problemi pograniĉnih prostora na podruĉju Tikveša, Zbornik radova sa nauĉnog simpozijuma "geografski problem pograniĉnih regija naše zemlje", Vranje, PMF u Beogradu i Narodni muzej u Vranju. Панов М. (1981): Промени во населеноста на ридските и планинските подрачја во СР Македонија во периодот 1961-1978 година, Скопје, Зборник на трудови од републичкиот симпозиум "природни и социо-

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географски проблеми на ридско-планинските подрчја", Сојуз на географските здруженија на СР Македонија. Поповски В., Панов М. (1996): Општините во Република Македонија, Скопје, А.Д. Мисла. Радовановиђ В.С. (1924): Тиквеш и Рајец, Српски етнографски зборник, Београд, Српска краљевска академија. РЗС на Република Македонија: Статистички податоци од пописни години. Стојмилов А. (1981): Дефинирање и диференцирање на ридско-планинските подрачја во СР Македонија, Скопје, Зборник на трудови од републичкиот симпозиум "природни и социо-географски проблеми на ридско-планинските подрчја", Сојуз на географските здруженија на СР Македонија. Цвијиђ Ј. (1906): Основе за географију и геологију Македоније и Старе Србије књига I, Београд. Извршени се: теренски истражувања со анкетирање на населението во Тиквеш.

DEMOGRAPHIC HOUSEHOLD DISCHARGE IN HILLY AND MOUNTAINOUS AREAS OF TIKVEŠ BASIN Kole PAVLOV1, Gjorgi PAVLOVSKI2 1

Josip Broz-Tito High School, 1000 Skopje, Macedonia 2 Faculty of Pedagogy, Štip, Macedonia kolepavlov@yahoo.com

SUMMARY A review of population and households in mountainous areas in the valley Tikvesh period (1921-2011) stated the position quite indicative that occurred a literal exodus of households in the rural areas of the examined territory. The last 90 years 2157 from existing 2412 households were discharged. It was a permanent loss of 89.4%. Simultaneously 33 of the existing 47 settlements have been totally displaced from rural mountainous areas. The highest depopulation occurred in eastern Tikveš, where the former 232 households, and all 10 settlementswere totally discharged of mountainous areas. The most critical period was through a period of 1953-1961. In the western part of the Tikveš, depopulation refers on 88.3% of households and 65% of rural settlements in the mountainous areas with the most critical period between 1961-1981. The entire process is also accompanied by a reduction in the number of members in the household, but also a dramatic increase in the proportion of elderly in the household members. The identified demographic problems in the examined territory initiated decreasing and leaving some gainful primary activities that were considered as a substantial refresh of the economy in the area and elsewhere in the country.

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УДК: 631.22:631.16(497.4)

DEMOGRAPHIC POTENTIALS OF MOUNTAIN FARMS IN SLOVENIA: ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT SUCCESSION FACTORS Boštjan KERBLER Urban Planning Institute of the Republic of Slovenia, Trnovski pristan 2, SI – 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia E-mail: bostjan.kerbler@uirs.si

ABSTRACT Like other developed countries, Slovenia is characterized by the fact that the number of farm takeovers is decreasing and farms are not being transferred to successors in a timely manner. As a member state of European Union, Slovenia is entitled to financial incentives intended to halt or at least ameliorate this trend, but the situation is nonetheless not improving. This article proceeds from the hypothesis that economic factors are important for succession on Slovenian farms, but at the same time also other factors affect succession. The hypothesis was confirmed in a study limited to mountain farms. The study showed that in Slovenia economic factors have a significant effect on farm succession, but, however, the factors that could strengthen the takeover and timely transfer of Slovenian farms are not only economic ones. Among economic factors, the factors that stand out the most are those through which tradition or traditional thought and behavioural patterns are expressed, as well as factors that express the standpoints, perceptions, and opinions of farm owners. Financial assistance for young successors and for owners‟ early retirement is, therefore, only the “last resort” among possible incentives for increasing the number of takeovers and transfers of Slovenian farms. Sustained farm succession planning must be undertaken in order to understand the functioning and effect of specific factors; to avoid fears, taboos, and obsolete traditional ways of thinking, which lead to numerous risks that can reduce the likelihood of succession; to enhance mutual trust among farm family members and positive thinking by owners; and to ensure the (successful and smooth) intergenerational transfer of the family farm. Key words: mountain areas, demography, intergenerational transfer, farm succession planning, Slovenia

INTRODUCTION Farms are most often under family ownership (as family farms) and are therefore the only part of society that must ensure its own social and professional reproduction. On family farms, supervision over farm management and ownership is transferred within the family between generations (Gasson & Errington 1993). Succession on a farm is therefore the basis for a farm‟s existence and development. According to Laband and Lantz (1983), succession on family farms is five times more frequent than in other professions and represents the best example of intergenerational transfer of physical and human capital. During the socialization process, a potential successor on a farm receives detailed insight into the work of the farm owner and the farming lifestyle, direct experience, and intergenerational transfer of knowledge, and at the same time develops respect for all of this, especially for the land as a primary resource for making a living on the farm. Therefore, according to Laband and Lentz (1983), the transfer of human capital between generations in the same family also represents its enrichment, and at the same time this increases the value of physical capital – both its actual value as well as awareness of its value. In order for this to happen, basic conditions must be fulfilled; specifically, that the takeover of the farm and continuation of farming actually take place, and that the transfer of the farm to the successor take place in a timely manner. One of the major problems in agriculture in developed countries is a reduction in the number of farm takeovers or the transfer of farms to successors. The European Union is trying to stop these negative trends through certain measures. On the one hand, this involves support for young farmers to take over farms, carried out in the form of one-time, non-repayable financial assistance for easier takeover and structural adaptation of the farm after takeover; on the other

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hand, this involves support for the early retirement of farmers, which is carried out in the form of annual annuities to elderly farmers that stop engaging in profitable agricultural and forestry activities on the farm as a result of transferring the farm to a successor. As a member state of the European Union, Slovenia is entitled to funds under these measures. Promoting the takeover of farms and their timely transfer is especially important in Slovenia because the state of succession and the age structure of owners on Slovenian farms is very worrisome: according to official statistics, only 23% of farms have a chosen successor, the average age of owners is over 56, and the share of owners over 55 is more than 55% and increasing. Nonetheless, the EU measures, which are primarily based on financial incentives, are too little to keep young people farming in Slovenia and to ensure the timely transfer of farms. Farm succession is very complex and it is therefore hypothesized that economic factors are not the only factors that affect farm succession. Based on a study carried out on Slovenian farms, this article seeks to confirm this hypothesis. It seeks to address three issues regarding which factors affect the following and how: Whether a person has already or will be designated or anticipated as the successor on a farm that will entirely take over supervision of managing the farm after the owner and will also become the head and owner of the farm, or whether somebody has at least already been designated or anticipated for this role; Whether this person decided on his own to succeed the owner, and whether he has also decided to continue farming after taking over the farm; When the owner intends to transfer the farm to the designated or anticipated successor, or how old he will be at that time. The first issue applies to designating a successor on a farm, the second to the successor‟s decision regarding taking over the farm, and the third to the timing of farm transfer to the successor. This study defined designating a successor on a farm and his decision regarding taking it over as the state of succession on a farm. The state of succession on a farm and the timing of farm transfer was defined as „farm succession‟. Because this involves planning (anticipated) takeovers and transfers of farms, an ex-ante research approach was used in this study. SELECTION AND DEFINITION OF SUCCESSION FACTORS TO STUDY In identifying the factors believed to affect succession on Slovenian farms, this study focused on factors that are significant for each individual farm or that „arise from them.‟ In comparison with factors such as macroeconomic conditions, conditions on the labor market, and so on, in this study one can speak about the „internal‟ factors of a farm or structural factors of a farm. The analysis included 48 of these and they refer to the location of a farm as well as to the demographic, ownership, production, technical, and developmental structure of a farm. The factors were selected based on an analysis of studies on the effect of factors on farm succession. Below is an overview of these studies and the factors that they included. For Slovenian studies the findings are also described. Factors in studies from non-European countries In a study of Israeli farms, Kimhi and Nachlieli (2001) determined how characteristics of the farm family and the farm affect farm succession. Kimhi (1994) also dedicated attention to how the age and experience of the owner, the successor‟s level of education, socioeconomic characteristics, and characteristics of the farm affect when the owner transfers the farm to his successor. Kimhi and Bollman (1999) examined a 10-year period to determine why the owners of Israeli and Canadian farms decided to stop farming as well as aspects of owners‟ behavior connected with this decision. For each farm, they studied factors connected with its

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location, the personal characteristics of the owner, off-farm employment of the owner, the type of farm production, the size of the farm, and other characteristics of the farm. Kimhi and Lopez (1999) conducted a study of farms in Maryland in which they examined how characteristics of the owner, farm family, and farm affect decisions on farm takeover. Prior to this, Gale (1993) examined the effect of demographic and economic factors and farm location on actual and potential farm takeover by younger successors, and Goetz and Debertin (2001) studied factors believed to affect American farm exit, focusing on the effect of various characteristics of the farm and farm family as well as the effect of regional characteristics. Factors in studies from EU countries Quite a few studies have been conducted in Europe regarding the factors that affect farm succession. In a study of Piedmont farms, Corsi (2004) investigated how the characteristics of the owner, farm, and location affect the likelihood that the farm will have a successor within the family. Succession on Irish farms was the subject of two separate studies by Hennessey, who was primarily interested in the effect of economic and demographic factors, as well as factors of the farm on the career decisions of potential successors (see Hennessey 2002, 2004). Pietola et al. (2003) studied Finnish farms over a 6-year period and determined how the agricultural market and policy, short-term early-retirement programs, and the characteristics of the farm and owner affect older owners‟ decisions on early retirement and how to operate the farm after this. Väre et al. (2005) examined farms in Finland and also determined the effect of characteristics of the farm and farm family on planned (anticipated) and actual succession. The greatest number of studies examining the effect of various factors on farm succession have been carried out in Germany and Austria. The first studies of this type were done in (West) Germany by Wilstacke (1987, 1990), Pfeffer (1989), and Fasterding (1989, 1995, 1999). Recently much attention has been directed to the findings of Tietje, who published the findings of a study on the effect of the structure of the agricultural sector and off-farm factors (2003), and whose doctoral dissertation presents findings for North American farms, for which he studied the connection between special characteristics of the family and the farm as well as certain personal stances by owners toward the succession process with the probability of succession in the specific period observed and up to the time the farm is transferred to a successor (2004). Tietje also published the results of this study in a paper coauthored with Glauben and Weiss (see Glauben et al. 2004), after the same authors published the findings of a study carried out in western Germany and in which they examined the factors thought to affect farm exit (see Glauben at al. 2003). They were interested in the effect of various characteristics of farms and farm families as well as regional characteristics. Glauben, Tietje, and Weiss also examined the connection between succession and various farm-based factors for farms in Upper Austria. They determined whether succession and the time of farm transfer to a successor are connected with special characteristics of the family and farm (see Glauben et al. 2002). Weiss specially examined farm exit and farm survival in Upper Austria in two separate studies. The first study (Weiss 1999a) examined human capital, off-farm employment, characteristics of the owner and farm family, and other characteristics of the farm and how they affect its survival. The second study (Weiss 1999b) examined characteristics of the owner and his family, the farm, and off-farm employment of the owner and his partner and how these affect farm exit. A study of farms in Upper Austria by Weiss and Stiglbauer (2000) describes how the characteristics of the farm family and farm affect actual succession on the farm and farm exit. Factors from studies in Slovenia Before this study was carried out, very few studies in Slovenia had examined factors affecting farm succession. In general, farm succession is poorly researched in the Slovenian literature.

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This issue was addressed by rural sociologists, agrarian economists, and geographers. Geographers treated farm succession as one of the descriptive parameters of farms‟ (geographical) characteristics. In a longitudinal geographical study of mountain farms in Slovenia with guidelines established by Meze (1980), farm succession was the basis for describing the prospects of mountain farms. Potoĉnik (2000) also included farm succession in her sociogeographical typology, although as only one of the indicators of developmental opportunities and characteristics of farms. A similar approach was taken by Kerbler (2003), who defined farms‟ state of succession vitality as one of the developmental indicators for mountain farms. Rural sociologists made an important step in studies in this area. Their studies on farm succession are thematic and specific, but only to a limited extent. From the perspective of studying the effect of various factors on succession, the most important among these are the studies by Barbiĉ (1993) and Hribernik (1994a, 1996). Barbiĉ determined that young people are primarily retained in farming for economic reasons, and Hribernik (1996) states that the reasons why young people exit farming are closely interconnected. They primarily involve the difficulty and economic unprofitability of farming, the chronic shortage of free time, the social and economic dependence of young people on their more or less conservatively fixated parents, very constraining social control, the preservation of the traditional conception of intergenerational transfer of succession (after the death of the owner), the lack of recreation and entertainment opportunities, the impoverishment of the cultural dimension of life in the village, and, finally, the unpromising nature of farming as an economic activity. (Hribernik 1996, 23)

A very important contribution in this area is the work of agrarian economists, especially Matija Kovaĉiĉ. Kovaĉiĉ (1986) was the first to show the need for a problem-based approach in studying farm succession. He analyzed the effect of certain farm-structure factors on the state of their succession (Kovaĉiĉ 1996), and determined that they are influenced by the socioeconomic structure of a farm (the situation for farms run by the elderly was significantly less favorable than for full-time and part-time farms), farm size, and farm family size, although the effect of these last factors was not the most significant. In addition to these findings, he especially emphasized that “other factors also affect the state of succession but were not included in the analysis. It would be useful to study these in a more in-depth manner” (Kovaĉiĉ 1996, 82). Kovaĉiĉ‟s suggestion was the point of departure and motivation for this study. STUDY SAMPLE AND METHODS To ensure that the structure of the farms studied be as homogenous as possible for the comparative value of the findings, this study was limited to a specific segment of Slovenian farms: mountain farms. According to Hribernik (1994a), the process of farm exit in Slovenia is especially characteristic of mountainous areas. This is especially worrisome because mountain farms are the most important element of the mountain cultural landscape; they continually shape and maintain these landscapes (Natek 1989), and the landscape elements that impact changes in the landscape in various ways are concentrated in these farms‟ potential (Markeš 1998). To ensure that these mountain farms were as similar as possible, a target group of mountain farms was created. They were selected based on three criteria: They had to be in the alpine or prealpine area of Slovenia; They had to mainly be engaged in livestock production; The owners had to be at least 45 years old. The last criterion was selected because issues regarding farm succession become more significant for farm owners‟ plans when they approach 45 years of age. At that time the owner‟s anticipated successor, if this is one of his descendents, is old enough to take his own stance regarding the owner‟s plans and expectations regarding farm succession and to make a decision. Potter and Lobley (1992) determined that young owners mostly expect their farms to

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be taken over in the future regardless of whether they have a real basis for this. Potter and Lobley (1996a) also state that the majority of owners under 45 believe that it is too early to discuss farm succession and plans connected with this. As determined by Weiss (1999b), Kimhi and Bollman (1999), and Juvanĉiĉ (2002), the probability of farm exit even decreases as the owner‟s age approaches 43, 44, or 45, but continually increases after this. Weiss (1999b) connects this with the „life cycle effect.‟ These findings confirm the correctness of the decision to include only owners 45 and older in the sample. Because Slovenian statistical services do not offer all of the data that were needed for this study, these were obtained through questionnaires. The inquiry was carried out in summer 2009. The final study sample for investigating the effect of the selected factors included 789 mountain farms or 11.6% of all mountain farms, which were defined as the target group based on the criteria. The fact that the research sample is representative despite this low share is clear from a comparison of the data on certain basic characteristics of the sample with data that apply to all mountain farms in the target group (this involves data obtained through farm censuses). On average the owners of the sample mountain farms were 60.9 years old, whereas all owners in the target group averaged 60.4 years old. In both cases males accounted for three-quarters of owners, and the differences in average farm size were also very small: the farms in the research sample averaged 21.7 ha, and all farms in the target group averaged 20.6 ha. The findings of the study have therefore been generalized to all mountain farms in Slovenia that fit the target group criteria. The effects of factors were determined using special regression models called „discrete choice models.‟ Fox (1997) states that it is characteristic of regression models that they can be used to predict the value of a dependent variable from the values of the explanatory variables based on the model adopted and evaluation of its parameters, whereas discrete choice models (as probability models) make it possible to predict the likelihood of a choice or the probability that an event will occur (Liao 1994, Wooldridge 2002). In this study this involves events that apply to the state of farm succession and to the anticipated time of farm transfer to a successor. Following the empirical analysis, interviews were used to obtain owners‟ opinions and considerations, and these were compared with and connected with the findings of the empirical analysis. In addition to agreement with the findings of the empirical analysis, the interviews also revealed connections between the causes for the state of farm succession and the anticipated time of farm transfer to a successor, which had remained vague when studied with quantitative methods. It was also determined which feelings and behaviors by owners are connected with succession on mountain farms. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Results have shown that among 48 studied factors, 13 of them have a significant effect on farm succession. Among these, three factors express the economic strength of a farm: Farm size Marketability of livestock production Amount of annual income from farm sources The 10 other factors that have a significant effect on farm succession can be divided into two groups: Factors that reflect tradition or traditional thought patterns and behaviors: Number of male children in the owner‟s family Owner‟s age at farm transfer Factors that reflect the owner‟s stance, perceptions, and opinions: Owner‟s opinion of the farm‟s remoteness;

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Owner‟s opinion on whether he would take over the farm and run it if he had the opportunity to decide again; Owner‟s opinion on changes in the volume of work on the farm in the future; Owner‟s opinion on changes in farm size in the future; Owner‟s opinion of the viability of forest potential; Owner‟s opinion on whether future farm income will increase most from farm sources; Owner‟s opinion of the farm‟s financial capacity for investment in further development; Owner‟s opinion of the farm‟s encumbrance for further development due to loans and other financial encumbrances. In terms of the number of factors that affect farm succession, factors through which the stance, perceptions, and opinions of the owner are expressed stand out. The importance of these factors is more clearly shown if the strength of the calculated effect of all factors included in the study is divided into classes and converted into a scale from 1 (no effect) to 5 (high effect) and if the average value for strength of effect is calculated. The average value of the effects of factors expressing the owner‟s understanding and opinions is 4.66, and the average value for the effects of other factors is 3.05. This shows that these factors play a greater role in farm succession than it first seems. They were included in this study only to supplement quantitative data or to substitute for them, whereby the example of certain authors from abroad was followed that (for the same reason) included such factors in their studies. For example, studies by Glauben et al. (2002), Väre and Weiss (2003), and Väre et al. (2005) included a factor that reflected the owner‟s opinion of the farm‟s encumbrance for further development due to loans and other financial encumbrances, and Fasterding (1995, 1999) and Tietje (2004) included the owner‟s opinion of his satisfaction with the profession he was engaged in. The greatest number of such factors were included in a study by Glauben et al. (2004). They examined how the state of farm succession is affected by the owner‟s attachment to the farm, the owner‟s opinion regarding the farm‟s financial capacity to invest in further development, the owner‟s relationship to farming as a profession, and the owner‟s opinion on limitations to the farm‟s further development due to external factors. Effect of factors reflecting a farm’s economic strength The fact that factors reflecting the economic power of a farm and its developmental orientation clearly affect succession is confirmed by findings by Barbiĉ (1993, 265), who determined that “young people that continue farming do so increasingly less for emotional reasons and increasingly more for economic reasons.” According to Kovaĉiĉ (1995), the ever more demanding conditions of running a farm require constant introduction of innovations and adaptation of production structure to market demands. In such an environment, only farms with sufficient economic strength can achieve ongoing development. One of the most important factors reflecting the economic strength of a farm is its size. According to Hennessey (2004), farm size is a more important factor for determining effects on the state of farm succession than is farm income. Specifically, the level of annual income reflects the current and not future economic capacity of a farm. The importance of farm size is also shown by the fact that the majority of researchers included this in their analyses (e.g. Kimhi & Lopez 1999, Stiglbauer & Weiss 2000, Kimhi & Nachlieli 2001, etc.). Glauben et al. (2004) determined that on large German farms, the designated or anticipated successors wish to take them over as soon as possible so that they can use their knowledge and ideas to enrich the farm‟s capital and improve their own standard of living. In Germany in the 1990s farm size was therefore even the main factor in deciding whether to abandon farming (Glauben et al. 2003). These findings agree with those of Fennell (1981) and Gasson et al. (1988), who found that one of the main reasons owners‟ children do not take over farms is because they are too small.

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A farm with a few hectares of land cannot ensure a proper income for the working and dependent members of a farming household (especially if such a farm is in an area where farming is difficult), and it cannot provide a level of social security that will motivate young people to preserve farms as units of production and property. (Hribernik 1996, 16)

If farms are too small, then potential successors, other members of the owner‟s family, and members of other potential families on the farm seek off-farm employment because “only farms that will generate sufficient income should survive, which means looking for income opportunities on significantly larger bases” (Hribernik 1996, 28). Gasson (1986) found that off-farm employment, which usually contributes the most to the share of income from offfarm sources, can lead to greater stability and raising the total income and economic strength of a farm, and with this the profitability and continuation of farming, and at the same time this can represent a first step in giving up and abandoning farming, especially if these sources begin to dominate in the total annual income on the farm. Empirical analyses by previous researchers have not included the marketability of livestock production as a factor that (as anticipated) affects the state of farm succession. In market production, farmers must adapt their agricultural production to market demands and produce quality products for which there is a demand. According to Vrišer (1995), under such circumstances dynamic young people cope best, and so it was concluded that the marketability of production has a motivating effect on potential successors to make a decision to take over farms, and to continue farming. The significance of this factor also lies in the fact that as a rule it is not determined by farm size (e.g. smaller farms can also have completely market-oriented production). The findings of the empirical analysis show that over 81% of farms that produce livestock completely for the market have a designated or anticipated successor that has already decided to take over the farm and continue farming, or the owners of these farms believe that they will surely find and designate such a successor. Nearly threequarters of farms on which there will be no succession or further farming have a subsistence orientation and the share of their production destined for the market is below 50%; of these, nearly half have already designated or anticipated a successor, but the potential successor has not himself decided whether to take over the farm and the owner also believes he will not do so, and on almost one-third of these farms the designated or anticipated successor will not continue farming after taking over the farm. This means that older owners in particular, despite the low marketability of livestock production, will continue farming and that they expect their successors to do so as well. On the farms studied, nearly 60% of owners over age 65 have already designated or anticipated their successor, although these successors will not decide to take over the farm or will not continue farming. Kerbler (2003) described this phenomenon in connection with the owners of farms that were categorized as non-vital regarding successionunder the author‟s typology; he determined that, despite the low level of marketing and the planned low intensity of livestock production, owners were renting uncultivated farmland near their farms – not for economic reasons, but for aesthetic reasons (maintaining the appearance of a cultural landscape) and emotional reasons (respect for their work, the work of previous generations, and traditional values). An elderly owner of one farm added a note at the end of her questionnaire: “On our farm we cultivate these slopes and gullies out of respect for our parents.” Nonetheless, due to the small size of her farm this owner was uncertain about whether it would continue to be farmed because she wrote: Although I hope that my son will keep working it, I‟m not completely convinced he will. If this kind of policy continues, these small farms in these hills will be completely overgrown. It‟s a pity for our pretty country . . .

Effect of factors reflecting tradition or traditional thought and behavioral patterns The number of male children in the owner’s family is a factor that clearly reflects tradition. Specifically, according to tradition an owner‟s sons have precedence over the daughters in

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taking over a farm (Kimhi & Nachlieli 2001). This is also evident from the ratio between the number of male and female owners on the farms studied – the majority (75%) of owners are male – and the ratio between male and female designated and anticipated successors, in which the males represent 80%. Although the significance of traditions and traditionalism (especially patriarchalism and conservatism) has also decreased greatly in many respects in the countryside and among the rural population, it cannot be overlooked that behavioral patterns in the intergenerational transfer of farming have been preserved relatively well. Farms are still overwhelmingly being taken over by men, and by women much more rarely, and moreover only if there is no other option. (Hribernik 1994b, 41)

According to the data from the empirical analysis, the probability that a successor will take over a farm and continue farming is nearly 70% if all of the owner‟s children are sons. If the owner has only daughters, the probability is 55.2%. A more detailed analysis of the data from the study shows that owners usually select a daughter to take over the farm because they have no male descendents; on almost 65% of the farms studied on which an owner‟s daughter was selected as the successor, there were no male descendents. At the same time, daughters are usually only anticipated to take over the farm, and not designated with certainty; this was the case in the study for 84.6% of female successors selected. Considering that nearly all of the anticipated female successors on the farms studied are under 40 years old (the majority are no older than 30), it can be concluded that some owners are still hoping that they may be able to select a male successor from one of their grandsons or that a son-in-law can be designated for this role. In this regard, Tietje (2004) has determined that owners prefer to designate their sons-in-law as successors rather than their daughters. It is interesting that designating a son as a successor seems completely obvious for most. This can also be understood from the thoughts of one of the owners that participated in this study: . . . I have one daughter and only one son, who has just finished high school. He likes to work on the farm, and if I don‟t give the farm to him soon he might lose interest and go. Then I won‟t have anyone else I could give the farm to. There are a lot of cases like this in our hills . . .

According to Stiglbauer and Weiss (2000), societal notions and expectations perceive the main obligation of women (wives and/or mothers) to be caring for the home, which would hinder them in possibly taking care of business matters. Considering the findings of the empirical analysis, it can be concluded that this is especially the case on farms, especially on mountain farms, where the families and the relations in them are much more traditional than elsewhere in the countryside. This is also supported by findings by Ĉerniĉ Isteniĉ (2003), which indicate that Slovenian farms are still very much rooted in a patriarchal ideology, although the farm women that participated in the study did not characterize such relations in their families as problematic. “Farm women are emotionally tied to their families and they are also committed to them because of this” (Ĉerniĉ Isteniĉ 2003, 61). However, the results of her study also show that farm women often compensate for their (unexpressed, suppressed, unrecognized) subordination by not encouraging their daughters to work and live on the farm. According to Hribernik (1996), the fact that young women consciously reject farm life as an unattractive living option is also reflected in the clear limitations in the marriage market. As a rule, only young people that grew up on a farm and are familiar with the pros and cons of farm life marry onto a farm (Barbiĉ 1993). This is reflected in the large number of single men on Slovenian farms: “Many young men remain on farms as the successors, without real opportunities to create a family life and to ensure timely generational continuity” (Ĉerniĉ Isteniĉ 2003, 32). Although tradition is also therefore still an exceptionally strong factor in maintaining farming among the young generation – according to Hribernik (1993), the commitment to tradition, which is greater for the farming population than for other spheres of the population, means that there should be less abandonment of farming than expected given the marginal position of the farming profession in Slovenian society – caution must nonetheless be exercised in interpreting factors such as the „traditional‟ privileging of male heirs. Traditional patterns can 210


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also endanger the existence of farms because they impede the succession process and timely farm transfer to successors. This is also confirmed by the findings of the empirical analysis; there is a marked influence of the number of male children in a farmer‟s family on the timing of succession, but it is a negative one, which is also seen in the findings of studies by Kimhi (1994) and by Kimhi and Nachlieli (2001). According to Kimhi (1994), the reason for this is probably the greater number of potential successors, due to which the owner usually takes more time to decide on a successor. Due to the wait for a male successor and with this owners‟ delay in defining successors and transferring farms, it may happen that succession simply does not take place on these farms. Farm owners should therefore overcome traditional patterns of privileging male successors, and they should also come to the realization that women can also be good and capable farm owners. The second „traditional‟ factor that that may also represent a threat to the existence of farms and that has a great influence on the timing of farm transfer is the age of the owner at farm transfer. Slovenian farms still have very deeply rooted traditional patterns regarding the timing of farm transfer. It turned out that very often owners „traditionally‟ (formally) retain their farms in their own hands until their deaths, or that they transfer them only when their strength is giving out or they become ill and are no longer capable of running the farm. These findings agree with those of Kimhi and Lopez (1999), who believe that, despite the negative consequences, farm owners turn their attention to the question of a successor only when they are elderly, and in many cases they drag this out until their deaths. There appear to be two reasons for this. First, owners have great emotional attachment to their farms. For many Slovenian farm owners, their farms are still a way of life and a reason to live, a lifelong project, and not capital that must continually be enriched (Kerbler 2003). The second reason for delaying farm transfer is the owners‟ fear. According to Pinteriĉ et al. (2006), being in charge of a farm gives the owner power, rights, and prestige, and thereby the obedience of his family and those working on the farm. Farm owners fear that they will lose their rights and prestige by transferring the farm, and with this their sense of purpose. In order to strengthen the positive meaning of succession it is therefore necessary to recognize and move beyond traditional patterns on Slovenian mountain farms that hinder the succession process and thereby threaten the further development and existence of mountain farms. Especially among owners there should be an awareness that farms must be transferred to their successors in a timely fashion, that they can have confidence in their children, and that also need not fear transferring to them what they created with great effort. The empirical analysis showed that farm handover is primarily delayed by the owners of large farms, which is unique by world standards. All other studies that examined how factors affect farm transfer showed exactly the opposite. This is additional confirmation that on Slovenian farms the factors through which tradition is reflected have greater influence on succession than economic factors. The size of a farm and investment in it does motivate potential successors to decide to take over a farm and continue farming, but it is clear that farm owners often delay handover after their successors have begun directing their energy toward working on the farm. It can be concluded that the owners of large farms are closely connected to work and life on the farm, and that their emotional attachment to the farm is also closer. When an owner finally decides to transfer, or when transfer ought to occur because the owner has died, it is often too late because the one that was designated as the successor, and that had once himself also decided to take over the farm and continue working it, has already lost hope and his inner drive because of waiting, and has also himself aged during this time and sought other work in the non-farming sector. He has created his own home, his own family, and new plans for his life. During this time the farm has also lost capital and its financial strength has been reduced because older owners often are not innovative enough and inclined toward market innovations, and they invest too little in farm development. At some point, all of this

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additionally contributes to discouraging a previously certain successor from taking over the farm because he would have had to invest an enormous amount without any guarantee that his idea would be realized and that he would see a return on his effort. This also applies to any of the owner‟s other children that would be potential successors. According to Hribernik (1995, 210), „the idea that a “driven away” descendant would return to the farm after having already set up his own life elsewhere is hardly likely.‟ In connection with the age of the farm owner and the timing of farm transfer, Glauben et al. (2002) spoke about the phenomenon of a „time path for farm transfers.‟ In their opinion, an extended planning time for farm handover also lengthens the actual time of transfer because owners that plan to hand over a farm to a successor in 5 years tend to actually do so, but those that plan to transfer the farm in more than 5 years actually do so later than they have planned. This shows that the older an owner becomes, the more difficult it is to transfer a farm to a successor. A more detailed analysis also revealed that there are differences between younger and older owners with regard to the transfer of farms to successors, which is shown in their relationship to the farms and farming, or in their understanding of the positive and negative consequences offered by traditional thinking and behavioral patterns. It has turned out that younger owners are more familiar with the principles of market economics, especially the mechanisms for more effectively accumulating capital, than are older owners, and therefore they transfer farms to their successors earlier than older owners. According to Kimhi (1994), this commonly takes place before the productivity of the farms starts to fall or shortly thereafter (the author describes such owners as altruists). These findings are also confirmed by the case of a Slovenian mountain farm studied, on which the successor has already been precisely defined and will continue farming. The owner is 52 years old and plans to hand over the farm to his successor in 4 years, when he turns 24. With regard to timing the transfer, the owner emphasized the importance of the owner‟s age at which transfer to a successor takes place: . . . I raised my son, who will follow me, to be an honest and good man. He helps me a lot, already makes decisions about many things, and as soon as he‟s done with the agronomy program at college I‟ll turn the farm over to him. Even though I‟m still young, people like us are already old to our children. They say young people make the world go round. . . . Not like on a lot of Slovenian farms, where the owners hang onto the farms until they die, and by that time the young people have already given up hope . . .

The more detailed analysis also showed that farms on which the owners are between 50 and 55 years old represent the greatest share of farms on which the designated or anticipated successors have also already made a firm decision to take over the farm and continue farming. According to Pfeffer (1989), during this time the farm family is in the „stage of the life cycle‟ called the „stage of generational transition.‟ Owners should make use of this favorable time and transfer their farms to their successors even if they feel that they are still filled with vital energy, enthusiasm, plans, and ideas. As the age of owners increases, there is also an increase in the number of farms on which succession will not take place or which will no longer be farmed after they are taken over. The share of such farms exceeds the share of those that will be taken over and farmed further when the owners are 60 to 64 years old; that is, at the end of their active working lives. Effect of factors reflecting the opinions, perceptions, and attitudes of owners Because educating a potential successor as a future owner takes place entirely on the farm within the family, a very important role in intergenerational continuity on farms is played by the parental orientation. In a traditional and largely still patriarchal society such as that on farms, this applies to owners‟ orientation or their points of view, perceptions, and thinking. The behavior and thought patterns that potential successors receive during the socialization process from the owner (who is a model for the potential successor in his future profession)

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are very well preserved in the intergenerational transfer of farming. In the intergenerational transfer of farming, there is good preservation of behavior and thought patterns that potential successors receive during their socialization process from the farm owner, who serves as a pattern for potential successors in their future profession. Tietje (2004) states that parents‟ orientation is often transferred to their children. It can be concluded that in Slovenia this especially applies to farms in mountainous areas; in comparison to farms in valleys and flatlands, these farms have had several centuries of specific development, primarily based on the economically self-sufficient nature of these farms and the closed nature of farming society. According to Hribernik (1993, 254), “the same social system reproduces itself especially if traditional farming society has poor internal social differentiation and if the patina of the past predominates over the present and future, constantly reproducing itself in the socialization process, and farming culture is directly passed on from generation to generation.” The findings of the empirical analysis showed that the perceptions and opinions of farm owners regarding the structure of farms have greater influence on the decisions of potential successors regarding taking over the farm and continuing to farm than does the actual structure of the farm. According to Treven (1998), perception is a psychological process in which individuals interpret information from the environment and, on this basis, shape their own image of the world. Perceptions substantially differ from objective reality and have a strong influence on people‟s behavior, and therefore behavior is not based on reality itself, but on the perception of what reality truly is. It turned out that, if the owner perceives work on the farm and the farming way of life as generally being a burden, and if he is worried about the further development of the farm or has no confidence in the farm as a primary source of livelihood, the likelihood of the farm being taken over and further farming on it is significantly lower than if the owner has a supportive, positive attitude. Through positive perception, support, satisfaction, and happiness with work and life on the farm, and a good opinion of the farm, its structure (especially economic structure), and its current and future development, owners can therefore have an important influence on potential successors‟ decisions to take over the farm and continue farming, thus preserving intergenerational continuity and thereby enabling the further development and existence of the farm. Among the factors that reflect owners‟ perceptions and opinions, the factor with the clearest influence is the one referred to as the owner’s opinion on whether he would take over the farm and run it if he had the opportunity to decide again. According to Fasterding (1995, 1999) and Tietje (2004), an owner‟s opinion that he would take over the farm and run it if he had the opportunity to decide again reflects his satisfaction with his profession. It also reflects his happiness with working and living on the farm, his respectful relationship to farming, and the preservation of previous generations‟ heritage. All of this has a very important motivational effect on a designated or anticipated successor‟s preparations and decisions to take over the farm, which is also confirmed by the findings of the empirical analysis. The farms whose owners would take over the farm and run it if they had the opportunity to decide again include 77.8% of those that will be taken over by a successor that will continue farming on it, and the farms whose owners would not decide to do this include 66.8% of those that will not be taken over or will be taken over by a successor that will not continue farming. Another interesting finding is that, among the farms where a successor has not yet been precisely defined and nobody is yet anticipated to assume this role, and the owners would not decided again to take over the farm, nearly 84% will not seek a successor to the owner, due to which intergenerational continuity will not be preserved. The significance of satisfaction with farm work is also reflected in the opinion or thoughts of a young owner of a mountain farm. Having taken over the farm, he will continue working it. He is 24 years old and has a secondary school education in agriculture; in the future he is

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planning to increase the number of livestock and he plans to outfit the farm with new equipment and machinery. The previous owner, his father, would decide to take the farm over again and work it without hesitation, if he had the opportunity. During an interview the young farmer stated: . . . I‟ve been happy to keep working hard on this farm for several years. That‟s why I decided when I was still young to keep on farming. We work everything, even the steepest slopes. If conditions don‟t get too bad for farmers, I‟ll be happy to keep going. I don‟t like it if they check up on the farmers too much, and I don‟t plan to become a slave . . .

In contrast, another example shows how an owner‟s dissatisfaction with his profession can also have the opposite effect: . . . I don‟t want any of my children or grandchildren to live such a hard and meager life. Being happy with nature and your animals alone can‟t outweigh the sacrifices and hard work you face by living on a mountain farm like this . . .

On this farm a successor had not been defined yet and nobody was anticipated to be a successor; the owner was also not looking for a successor and will also not find and designate one until he stops farming. If the owner had the opportunity, he would not decide again to take over the farm and work it. The results of the empirical analysis showed that the location of a farm has a significant influence on the state of succession on the farm; however, more important than the physical, actual (temporal/spatial) distance of the farm (e.g. from a municipal center, elementary school, grocery store, doctor, veterinarian, or the nearest main road in the valley) is how the owner understands this remoteness. If owners believe that they are remote and distant from the nearest administrative centers and the main road in the valley, the likelihood that the farm will be taken over by a successor that will continue working it is less; in fact, 40 percentage points less than on farms whose owners have the opposite view regarding their location. On 60.3% of farms whose owners believe they are remote, isolated, and distant from the nearest administrative centers and main road in the valley, there will be no takeover or those that take them over will not continue farming. Conversely, 79.6% of farms whose owners do not consider them remote or isolate will be taken over and continue to be worked. After the Second World War, as people acquired cars and road infrastructure was improved in mountainous regions in Slovenia, the actual temporal/spatial remoteness of farms gradually decreased. However, if an owner (nonetheless) perceives his farm as remote, the reduction in physical distance does not have a significant effect on farms being taken over more frequently. This is also shown by a more detailed analysis of the survey data. Farms were examined that were 5 to 15 kilometers from the municipal center, which is true of two-thirds of the farms studied. Just under half of the owners perceived these as remote, and the other half did not. It turned out that in the majority of cases it was exactly their opinion that also defined the state of succession on farms because the average remoteness of the farms in both groups was the same. Only 41% of farms whose owners consider them remote will experience takeover and further farming, as opposed to 82.2% of farms whose owners do not consider them remote. Based on these findings, this adds to Hribernik‟s (1996) determination that farms that are distant from major traffic and social communication links have a very small probability that the descendants that moved away will return to the farm. It is likely that the probability of takeover would be greater if the owners believed their farms were not distant or isolated. Natek (1992) determined that, in addition to animal husbandry, forestry is the most important economic activity for the continued development of Slovenian mountain farms. In his opinion, “many mountain farms would never have been able to advance so far if they had not also owned forests with rich wood reserves” (Natek 1983, 251). This is also confirmed by Ĉampa (1992), who believes that, since the beginnings of its commercialization (since the nineteenth century), wood on Slovenian mountain farms has been well-invested capital or a

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reserve for economic crises, failures, and farming accidents, and also for paying inheritances and debts. During a general crisis or farming crisis, revenues from wood sales can also replace the revenue deficit from agricultural (livestock) production. Based on this, it was anticipated that forestry has a positive impact on the state of succession on a farm. Nonetheless, as determined by Robiĉ et al. (1988), forests on Slovenian mountain farms have already been extensively cut due to large financial needs. “In the recent past revenues from forestry funded the construction of the road network, which was the basis for intensified farming, and indirectly these revenues supported farms‟ reorientation and modernization” (Robiĉ et al. 1988, 18). It therefore seems that the vitality of forestry potential is a more important indicator for the decision to take over a mountain farm than the size of the wooded area or annual cut. The vitality of forestry potential is a qualitative factor, and therefore involves an estimation or opinion of whether the forest on a farm has already been extensively cut or not. A farm can also have a high annual cut even if the forest has already been extensively cut; however, when this reaches the upper (permitted) limit of deforestation, cutting can fall sharply. A forest is a renewable natural resource, but this renewal is long-term and therefore frequent and unanticipated economic changes can also threaten the existence of mountain farms. The factor vitality of forestry potential was designed for this study and as such was first used in the study of factors affecting farm succession. The results of the empirical analysis confirmed this hypothesis. On farms whose owners believe the forest is already extensively cut, the probability that they will be taken over by a successor that will continue to work them is 38.4 percentage points less than on farms whose owners are convinced that the farm‟s forestry potential is still vital. More than two-thirds of farms without a vital forestry potential have no assured intergenerational continuity, whereas this is certain for nearly three-quarters of farms with vital forestry potential. A more detailed analysis showed that most of the farms studied with extensively cut forests are those on which the owners have already designated or anticipated successors, but these successors have not themselves decided whether to take over the farms, and the owners are also pessimistic in this regard and of the opinion that it surely will not happen. Another interesting finding is that nearly 82% of the farms on which a successor has not yet been designated or anticipated have vital forestry potential, but their owners are optimistic and believe that their farms will certainly preserve continuity of succession and that the successors will also continue farming after taking over the farm. The factor reflecting the owner’s opinion about the farm’s capacity for investment in further development and the factor reflecting his opinion about the encumbrance for further development due to loans and other financial encumbrances are very important in potential successors‟ decision on whether to take over the farm. The findings regarding the influence of the first factor are in line with the results of studies by Glauben et al. (2004), and regarding the influence of the second factor with the findings of Glauben et al. (2002), Väre and Weiss (2003), and Väre et al. (2005). If the owner believes that the farm is financially capable of investing in further development, the likelihood that there will be a successor that continues farming is 38.6 percentage points greater than if the owner believes the farm is not financially able. The likelihood of preserving intergenerational continuity is also lower if the owner believes that the debts due to loans and other financial encumbrances are too great a burden for the farm‟s further development. Particularly important is the finding that farms whose owners believe they have sufficient capital power for further development include nearly three-quarters of those for whom a successor has not only been defined, but has also himself already decided to take over the farm and continue farming. On the other had, 45% of farms whose owners believe that the financial encumbrance threatens the further development of the farm still do not have a defined or anticipated successor, and the owners also do not see any possibility of acquiring a

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successor. Twenty percent of owners of farms with financial encumbrances have defined or anticipated their successors, but these successors have decided that they will not take over the farms or that they will not continue farming after taking them over. Therefore, if an owner is uncertain regarding the economic strength of the farm and, consequently, its future development, if he fears for the future development of the farm due to its financial encumbrances, his doubt is important information for a potential successor when deciding on a profession. If children receive information from their parents that the farm is financially incapable of investing in its future development, then, as shown by the findings of the empirical analysis, they ordinarily do not decide to take over such farms. Owner’s opinion of changes in the volume of work performed on a farm and its size in the future, and of increasing income from farm sources in the future – the influence of these factors must be interpreted with caution. Anticipated change in the volume of work performed on the farm, and the size and increase in income from farm sources can be a cause of the state of succession on a farm and also a consequence of this. Potter and Lobley (1992), for example, interpret the use of farmland as a consequence of the state of succession on farms, not as a cause of it. In their opinion, the state of succession on a farm has a significant longterm influence on the farm‟s developmental direction and on the behavior and decisions of the owners (Potter & Lobley 1996b). In articles from 1992 and 1996 (see Potter & Lobley 1992, 1996a, 1996b), the authors discuss the action of three factors: The succession effect; The successor effect; The retirement effect. The first two factors are involved if a successor is defined or anticipated on a farm, and the third factor if a successor is not yet defined and if none is anticipated. The succession effect should be seen in that the expectation of takeover motivates owners to systematically invest in the farm‟s development. The succession effect is greatest on farms on which succession is carefully planned and ordinarily begins with the birth of the owner‟s first child, strengthening when the successor himself decides that he will take over the farm. When a designated or anticipated successor has already taken over part of the management on the farm, it is possible to speak about the successor effect or the new blood effect. For young successors it is characteristic that they are very innovative at the beginning of their professional careers, and so according to Blanc and Perrier-Cornet (1993) they are the driving force in modernizing agricultural structures. The retirement effect is connected with the owner‟s retirement. On farms without successors, most often retirement is followed by a gradual reduction of working hours, a reduction in the area of farmland being used and volume of agricultural production, and there is increasingly less maintenance of equipment and machinery as well as structures, which are often empty. Weiss (1999b) and Stiglbauer and Weiss (2000) state that this phenomenon is characteristic of „doomed firms,‟ for which this manner of operation shows an awareness of the impending end. Although Potter and Lobley (1992) also showed statistically that the owner‟s retirement as well as the expectation of a takeover and the presence of a successor on the farm have an effect on its structure, they emphasized several times in their study that the distinction between cause and effect is not clear. Stiglbauer and Weiss (2000), Kimhi and Nachlieli (2001), and Glauben et al. (2004) encountered similar problems regarding cause and effect relationships. To help understand the causes and effects, the authors recommended a broader timeframe of observation, and they believed that research should focus on recognizing each farm‟s lifecycle separately. Because such a study would have completely different goals, this would also demand other research methods and techniques and, if there were an attempt to

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confirm whether it was justified to define each factor studied as a cause for the state of succession on a farm, this would far exceed the scope of the study. This study therefore followed the majority of studies examining the probability of succession and it defined the state of succession on farms as a consequence of the influence of various factors; in this case, owners‟ opinions on changes in the amount of work performed on the farm, its size, and sources of income on the farm in the future. Regardless of which explanatory variable was included in the empirical analysis in this study (opinion regarding the amount of work performed, farm size, or opinion regarding income from farm resources), it turned out that its anticipated reduction had a clearly negative effect on the state of succession on mountain farms, whereas their increase had a clearly positive effect. The probability of farm takeover decreased the most if owners believed that the size of the farm would decrease in the future (by 58.3% if size was expressed in terms of farmland in use, and 62% if expressed in number of livestock). Farms whose owners anticipated an increase in livestock production included only 12.6% of those where takeover will not occur. CONCLUSIONS This study showed that in Slovenia economic factors have a significant effect on farm succession, whereby European Union measures to promote farm takeover and timely handover are justified. However, the factors that could strengthen the takeover and timely transfer of Slovenian farms are not only economic ones, showing the hypothesis of this study to be correct. Financial assistance for young successors and for owners‟ early retirement is only the „last resort‟ among possible incentives for increasing the number of takeovers and transfers of Slovenian farms. This assistance is important only when a successor is assured on a farm and also precisely defined, and when this successor has decided for certain to take over the farm and to then continue farming, or when the owner decides to transfer the farm to his successor in a timely manner. However, such decisions must first actually be made! In order to encourage this, crucial steps must be taken much earlier. Sustained farm succession planning must be undertaken in order to understand the functioning and effect of specific factors; to avoid fears, taboos, and obsolete traditional ways of thinking, which lead to numerous risks that can reduce the likelihood of succession; to enhance mutual trust among farm family members and positive thinking by owners; and to ensure the (successful and smooth) intergenerational transfer of the family farm. A farm succession plan should incorporate the following: A description of personal and business goals, as well as family members‟ expectations; A retirement plan, and a training and development plan for the successor(s); A farm business action plan (e.g. future direction, etc.); An operating plan (e.g. roles and responsibilities); A plan for the transfer of management, control, and labor; A plan for ownership transfer; A communication plan; A contingency plan; An implementation timetable. Because farm succession is not an event that happens at some particular point in time, but a process occurring over time, affected by various factors and circumstances, sound succession planning should also be ongoing, commencing when family members are learning farming practices and becoming involved in the family farm. Starting out as an informal process, it should be consciously discussed over an extended period of time. The family farm (and therefore the succession plan) involves interaction within the strong bonds of the family of the people that make decisions affecting the farm. Good plans provide:

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ДЕМОГРАФСКИ ПРОБЛЕМИ, ПОЛИТИКА НА ЕКОНОМСКИ И РЕГИОНАЛЕН РАЗВОЈ ВО РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА DEMOGRAPHIC PROBLEMS IN HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS, POLICY OF ECONOMIC AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS

Sufficient time to generate income for those leaving the business to retire; Sufficient time to develop the farm to support the incoming generation; Plans that can help see the farm continue as a viable business; Strong motivation for the younger generation to contribute thought and energy to the farm, with an eye to the future; and Incentives to explore and develop non-farm alternatives for children that will pursue an alternative career off the farm. Because each farm is unique and no single approach works for everyone, factors that affect farm succession should be recognized and farm succession plans should be made for each farm separately. Due to the complexity of this issue, plans must be prepared and guided by professional advisers (i.e. facilitators; ideally, a facilitator should have knowledge and skills in all three major components of the family farm: family, ownership, and business), who cooperate and coordinate work with the farm family on the one hand, and with numerous various experts and services on the other; that is, experts in farm taxation, lawyers, credit advisers, (farm) business advisers, financial planners, insurance experts (social, pension, life, etc.), and other experts according to the needs of each farm. Together they are associated in the farm succession planning network. In some countries (e.g. Canada, Australia, and the United States) such networks of partnering organizations and professional advisors are developing in order to help farms implement appropriate tools for their intergenerational transfer. They help families by preparing farm succession plans and by continually updating these plans to address new situations, as well as by guiding families in implementing these plans. Slovenia should follow the example of these countries and establish farm succession planning networks and specialized centers (with services) for coordinating these networks. This would reduce the exit of young people from farming and accelerate farm transfer over time. It would also provide satisfaction for all generations in farm families and increase the quality of their lives and work, as well as the cohabitation of generations on family farms. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Thanks are expressed to the Slovenian Ministry of Higher Education, Science, and Technology, which financially supported this research. Thanks are also owed to Professor Marijan M. Klemenĉiĉ from the University of Ljubljana‟s Department of Geography for much useful advice.

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УДК: 314.116:[332.122:551.4.035(497.5)

WHAT IS THE FUTURE SCENARIO FOR RURAL MOUNTAIN REGIONS IN THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIA? Ţeljka ŠILJKOVIĆ University of Zadar, Franje TuĊmana 24i, Zadar zeljka.siljkovic@gmail.com

ABSTRACT Today mountain regions are one of the few regions that have preserved their ecosystems, especially abundant flora and fauna and a specific local rural cultural tradition. Mountain regions are situated on economic and social developmental margins resulting in continuous emigration, depopulation and economic crisis. Despite of numerous possibilities for development, these regions were classified as undeveloped regions which are barely surviving and depending on social welfare and government help. Today mountain rural regions are confronted with sudden and rapid changes of their natural environment, economy and society. Although there are numerous possibilities of progress in synergy of agriculture, tourism and small family businesses and industry, the basic problems are insufficient motivation as well as absence of planning. The existence of mountain regions depends upon attractive possibilities which are acceptable for younger population. In order for young population to remain in mountain rural regions new jobs need to be opened. Also the existing infrastructure needs to be reconstructed. Opening of new jobs is just one step towards prosperity for mountain rural regions. Also numerous social and cultural activities need to be introduced. Organic livestock management practices offer a range of possibilities to young farmers. There are a number of considerations that need to be addresses to successfully produce certified organic livestock and products in the mountain areas . Triplex of activities: nature, sustainable tourism and organic livestock is one the possible future scenarios for rural mountain regions. Key words: mountain rural areas, depopulation, developmental perspective, organic livestock

INTRODUCTION Mountain areas encompass 35% of land and 20% of world population. Due to bad quality of transport infrastructure or the complete absence of any kind of roads a great share of mountain rural communities have been isolated both in terms of space and time. As a consequence mountain areas today are in threat of depopulation and aging. Already during the 1970-s certain countries have perceived economic, social and ecological importance of mountain regions in order to protect their unique ecosystems simultaneously revitalizing population and economy by the means of various laws and projects which could boost the overall economic development (Switzerland, 1974; Austria 1979; France 1985; Spain 1982). What are mountainous areas? The starting point for defining mountainous area is the criteria of natural geographical featuresand socio-economic limitations. Natural geographical factors include altitude, gradient and the exposition of terrain or their mutual combination. One of the most important natural factors is climate which is defined both by latitude and altitude. When socio-economic features are taken into consideration the basic characteristics of almost all mountainous areas are low population density, transport and economic isolation in relation to urban, economic and political centres. Each country has its own national criteria for determining mountain areas (Table 1). It is based on the minimal altitude that differs from one country to another (Austria – 700 m, Belgium – 300 m, Greece – 800 m) and the criteria of gradient and climate conditions (European Observatory of Mountain Forest, 2000). Most frequently used criteria for determining mountain areas are categorized on the basis of altitude and gradient (Kapos et. al., 2000, UNEP - WCMC, 2002):

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• Altitude from 300 to 1000 m, with the elevation difference of more than 300 meters • Altitude from 1000 to 1500 m and gradient of >5e, or the elevation difference of more than 300 meters • Altitude from 1500 to 2500 m and gradient of >2e • Altitude from 2500 to 3500 m • Altitude from 3500 to 4500 m • Altitude over 4500 m According to one of the typologies mountain areas are those where altitude affects climate conditions, the areas at lower altitudes with the gradient over 20% where it is not possible to use heavy machinery and some kinds of sophisticated equipment, and northern regions starting from the 62nd parallel north (EU). In 2004 the European Commission determined mountain areas typology based on statistical data taking into consideration both social and economic indicators. Typology includes five categories based on population density, standard and the market accessibility: • Areas with best developmental preconditions • Areas with high potentials for development but with negative demographic trends • Areas with low population density in the vicinity of densely populated areas • Remote areas with low population density • Remote areas with high population density In accordance with accessibility criteria, the following has been taken into consideration: transport infrastructure, national and regional accessibility, services (high education, health institutions – clinical centers). In line with that four categories have been determined: very good, good, fair, bad. GIS technology is used for analyzing data on the ratio of specific classes of arable and forest land, climate features and land use (European Commission, 2004). PROBLEMS OF RURAL COMMUNITIES IN RURAL MOUNTAIN AREAS Mountain areas are the centers of ecosystem providing natural resources for the needs of urban areas (potable water sources, river sources, hydro energy potentials, irrigation). Mountains are the regions of altered landscape designed for vacation and recreation of urban population. Forests can be regarded as the economic potential firstly as the resource of wood for industrial manufacturing and secondly as a renewable energy resource. Also forests are natural habitats for numerous animal species; they protect the land from erosion and are the factor in maintaining the level of underground waters. Nowadays, mountain areas are exposed to transformation and degradation of natural but also anthropogenic landscape. Process was initiated by several reasons, namely, deforestation, land erosion, pollution and soil acidity. On the other hand, cultural landscape has been altered due to the constant emigration process. Abandoned dwelling facilities dilapidate and fields are being overgrown with weeds and bushes. Throughout the history the stability of mountain regions has been the reflection of synergy between farmers and the nature. In many mountain regions like for instance the Alps, Dinarides and Pyrenees, cattle-breeding used to be the pillar of existence for the entire rural community. Industrial development in lowlands was a push factor for abandoning pasture and transhumant cattle-breeding and the emigration of breeders and farmers from mountain areas (Khanel, Watanàbe, 2002). Migrations have caused negative social result. Population exodus has affected most of active workforce as well as young population ( Picture 1). Remaining elderly population has not been able to continue the agricultural production. Migration of young population has broken the cycle of transferring the traditional knowledge, social and cultural values and ethnological

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heritage. Abandoning of traditional production systems in mountain rural communities has been a direct result of rural-urban migrations (Gran, Aide, 2007).

Picture 1.Age – sex pyramide of Lokve town, 2011.

Mountain rural communities face numerous problems like for instance depopulation and underdeveloped services and transport infrastructure. Therefore numerous rural communities have been isolated both spatially and temporarily. Commercialization of industrial and agricultural activities had an enormous impact on mountain areas. Population living in mountain areas needs new solutions aimed at ensuring sustainable development as well as their personal subsistence. Merging of agriculture and local sustainable development is the key challenge for sustainable development of agriculture in mountain areas. Economic position of every subject firstly depends on the external factors, market demand for certain products, market price rates and initiatives at local and regional level. Activities implemented by government need to be directed towards the improvement of equipment and machinery, development of tourist activities on estates, establishing of eco-farms as well as support of young population stay (Fleury et. al., 2008). Infrastructure, especially road transport, is the imperative for all those living, working and producing in mountains. Good, quality roads can ensure them better position on the market, lower process for their products and cut their overall expenses (Biirli, Aw- Hassan, Rachidi, 2008). However, population living in mountain areas is not considered to be highly influential part of overall state population. Their number is rather small and they live in regions remote from the most influential urban centers. Because of natural limitations, (relief, climate, accessibility) population in mountain areas is distant from centers of political power and does not represent the critical mass important for political parties and government (SARD, 2004). Women in mountain areas have a very distinctive role. Women are involved in agricultural production, take care of household and manage most of natural resources. They are the keepers of traditional knowledge and skills which they transfer to younger generations. However, the isolation of mountain communities retains women in subordinated and marginal position. In almost all mountain areas throughout the world mountain rural communities can be described as patriarchal ones. In these less developed regions women feel less worth and have a lack of self-confidence. Women living in mountain regions of lower altitude with developed transport and service infrastructure, in vicinity of urban centers and schools, very often leave mountain regions and permanently change their place of residence. Their position within the family system therefore changes. Numerous examples of depopulation in mountain regions can be found in the Republic of Croatia. In this case three settlements and municipalities were analyzed: Ĉabar, Delnice and Lokve in Gorski Kotar. All show continuous population decrease ( Picture 2, 3.) which has

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been intensified since 1970-s, i.e. the development of industry in coastal towns (Rijeka, Pula) and in continental part of Croatia (Zagreb). That provoked migrations from rural mountain areas of mentioned municipalities. The settlements located out of main traffic routes (road and railway) also have registered population decrease (Tab. 1). The only settlement that recorded population increase after II World War is Delnice, the Town which has taken the advantage of its position on the main traffic corridors (Zagreb - Rijeka) and aside from industry, has developed tourism. Opposite from Town Delnice, Delnice Municipality recorded population decrease since 1960-s. In spite of the existence of one of main wood – processing industries in the country, the population of Town Ĉabar in continuously decreasing. The very proximity of urban centres is a distinctive factor that contributes to further depopulation. Table 1. Population in mountains municipalities and towns of Gorski Kotar area ( 1857 – 20011) Year Ĉabar Ĉabar town Delnice Delnice Lokve Lokve municipality municipality town municipality town 1857 7 235 293 6 929 2 315 2 070 1 123 1869 7 313 307 7 289 2 453 2 061 1 231 1880 5 971 319 6 797 2 544 2 278 1 430 1890 6 697 351 7 007 2 544 2 363 1 442 1900 6 770 328 7 172 2 840 2 007 1 131 1910 7 467 326 7 651 3 071 1 972 1 022 1921 6 620 277 7 322 3 298 2 152 1 181 1931 7 595 349 7 337 3 123 2 087 1 050 1948 6 041 298 6 609 3 149 1 762 989 1953 6 360 427 7 592 3 840 2 516 1 106 1961 6 702 431 7 652 4 042 1 850 906 1971 6 083 572 7 291 4 308 1 522 848 1981 5 465 628 6 817 4 351 1 290 741 1991 5 169 597 6 858 4 696 1 255 748 2001 4 387 511 6 262 4 451 1 120 659 2011 3 770 412 5 952 4 379 1 049 584 Izvor : Korenĉić , 1976, DZZS,Popis stanovništva, kućanstava i stanova, 31. oţujka 2001 2001. ,Popis stanovništva, kućanstava i stanova 2011. godine, 2013.

Picture 2. Number of inhabitants of Lokve and Ĉabar from 1857 to 2011, by municipality

Picture 3. Number of inhabitants of Lokve and Ĉabar, from 1857 to 2011, by settlement

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Tourism as the stimulator of changes Although even in the 19th century mountains used to be the places for recreation, expansion of an organized tourism, winter ski tourism, started during the second half of the 20th century. Recreation and tourism became dominant features triggering landscape changes in rural areas (Kianicka at. al., 2006). In some regions, tourism became monopolistic branch of economy provoking huge pressure on sensitive mountainous ecosystem. Deforestation, barren land, construction of ski paths, hotels, apartments and roads have transformed existing natural and cultural environment. At present mountains are the centers of countless tourist activities, from winter to religious, hunting, summer, weekend, resort and spa to eco and alternative tourism (Breiling, 1994, Abegg - Elsasser, 1996, Nepal, 2002). Compared to summer tourism in the coastal regions, mountain tourism still is facing certain difficulties, like underdeveloped infrastructure, deficiency of quality hotels, high prices of services, lack of well trained personnel, etc. Main role in the organization of tourism does not belong to domicile, local tourist agencies but to big corporations of international tour operators. Mountain communities face the risk of excessive number of vehicles, increased level of noise, constant danger from fire, etc. At the same time, many rural communities are nowadays involved in tourist activities, either indirectly by selling their own agriculture products to hotels, or directly by rebuilding their dwelling units into apartments for renting. Tourist destinations became locations with new weekend settlements and apartments. Unfortunately sometimes this process is developing at such a pace that it is negatively affecting mountain regions and causing sudden increase or decrease of land and dwelling facilities prices. Many mountain rural communities with developed tourism have commenced a series of activities and initiatives aimed at better quality and more responsible managing, including: • Improvement of the accommodation quality, • Modernization of ski infrastructure, • Longer tourist season, • Alternative tourism, walking tourism, • Renewal of traditional villages, • Development of traffic infrastructure, • Railways, • Development of ICT and education of domicile population, • Ban of cargo vehicles passing and • Coordination with local communities. All economic and demographic trends (tourism, exploiting of natural resources, emigration) do not advance in all areas at the same intensity. Due to more days with snow, mountain regions on higher altitudes are more often inclined towards development of ski tourism while regions on lower altitudes should diverse their tourist offer. POTENTIALS OF MOUNTAINS AND HOW TO PROCEED One of the best scenarios for small farmers in mountain areas is if they combine organic production and tourism. Important precondition is an informed, educated and trained farmer. Along with organic agriculture, farmers in mountainous areas can develop production of various fruit and vegetable products, organic cattle-breeding and production of organic milk products. Special emphasis should be given to cattle-breeding. Introduction of organic farming needs to be the vital part of all government national strategies for rural areas. The development of organic agriculture should be connected with the processes of preserving and promoting cultural heritage, including traditional knowledge, artisans, handy crafts, reconstruction and renewal of original villages and cattle-breading.

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Because of poor transport infrastructure local products from mountain regions (cheese, meat products, fruits, honey and medical herbs) are not available on city markets. In order to achieve higher level of market promotion, rural communities should act together both at national and also cross-border level. In many parts of the world, mountain ranges are situated within the territories of several counties so problems of rural communities are the same regardless state borders. One of possible solutions for economic development in mountain rural communities is the creation of “cheese roads”. Positive examples of such practice can be seen in coastal regions where “vine roads” and “olive roads” attract numerous tourist visits. An example of successful project is “La Strada Formaggi delle Dolomiti,” in the region of Beluno (Reolon, Pellegrini, 2006). The project has included vertical structures, from mountainous grassland and cattle pasturing to producers on village estates (small milk factories, cheese factories) to market like restaurants and facilities of rural tourism. Implementation of such and similar projects is also possible in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia (at national level but also through cross-border cooperation: - Kupres –Livno – Dalmatian zagora / Lika).The present project : Cheese road of Karlovacka county is limited only to visits of family farms and tasting the variety of cheeses on nine location.However, one day excursions and visits in spring – summer period do not suffice for the revival of rural areas. Ecotourism in mountain areas is directed towards protection of population, preservation of traditional ways of living and therefore demands a responsible and conscious tourist (UNEP, 2005). Ecotourism must not become either mass tourism or just deciduous trend. By implementing ecotourism young population can get involved and start new successful business. To achieve it, the development and modernization of infrastructure, especially of ICT, plays a very important role (Nepal, 2002). Government and non-government organizations, academic community, local communities should get involved in ecotourism development aimed at supporting the development of certain rural areas, education of domicile population and creation of market campaign. Ecotourism can be related to production of energy from renewable resources, like wind power plants or usage of bio-fuels. This way new and clean energy is created and it can be used for various purposes. Future of rural communities Majority of mountain rural communities are peripheral regions, scarcely populated and poorly accessible. By cooperation of local and regional authorities it is possible to act in favor of economic development of mountain areas. In the past agriculture used to be the pillar of almost all rural mountain communities and today its significance is rising once more. Migrations of young population from rural mountain areas can be stopped only if definite steps are to be taken immediately. Firstly new types of tourism need to be developed (ecotourism), cultural heritage and natural beauties need to be protected and preserved for future generations, forests and related economic activities need to be renewed (example of Sogne Fiord in Norway, Bartnes, 2006). In order to achieve all this government needs to provide funding for building of quality roads and other transport infrastructure, all children need to have access to education, each community needs to have a doctor or they need to be able to reach one as soon as possible, etc. Future and sustainable development of rural communities depends on the role of women in transferring traditional knowledge as well as on culture, education, communication possibilities with remote areas and possibilities for gaining profit. This makes women to be the factor in preservation of mountain rural areas. Is the rural ecotourism a solution for the revival of the country? Or is it just a momentary fashion of urban population? Because for all rural environment, the guest does not resign from

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the conveniences of modern technology, like TV, air conditioner, electricity, warm water,refrigerator, etc. What's there left from the rurality? CONCLUSION The complexity of rural area requires complex solution, too. But, who can decide what the best solution for rural areas is : people from the cities, scientists, politicians or local people. Why is it so that all decisions, plan and projects for the county have always been brought by the “ city”? Rural population is only seldom asked what they want; it is generally acknowledged view that the country cannot be discussed on the country, but in the cities, in public institutions where the officers, employers and politicians, not even familiar with the country, are bringing the key decisions on the future of rural population. The city have better knowledge of the country, than the country itself?! After all, the benefits of different projects are more taken by the entrepreneurs, weekend farmers than the rural population itself. Are we to let the country find solution itself, or to impose the solution from the city or just to let the country die-out? It is for sure that not all the villages can be preserved, the majority of distant traffic isolated villages are going to be lost, but those, with higher ratio of young and mature population should find the most suitable, long- term solution for themselves.

Picture 4.Areas of Special State Concern (source: Ministry of Regional Development and EU Funds)

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REFERENCES Bartnes, I. 2006: Vision 2020 of the European Mountain Regions, Cohesion for Growth, 5th European Mountain Convention, 14- 15. 9. 2006., Chaves, Portugal. Bürli, M., Aw- Hassan, A., Rachidi, Y. L. 2008: The Importance in Mountainous Regions for Accessing Markets ( An Example from the Moroccean High Atlas), Mountain Research and Development, Vol.28., No.3/4, August / November 2008., p. 233 – 239. European Commision, 2004: Mountain Areas in Europe, Analysis of mountain areas in EU, member states, aceeding and other European countries, Final report, january 2004. Fleury, P., Petit, S., Dobremez, L., Scherman, M., Kirchrngast, C., De Ros, G., Magnani, N., Struffi, L., Mieville- Ott, V., Rogue, O. 2008: Implementing Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development in the European Alps, Mountain Research and Development,, Vol.28., No.3 – 4, august – November 2008., p.226 – 232.. Gran, R., Aide,T.M. 2007: Are Rural- Urban Migration are Sustainable Development Compatible in Mountain Systems ? Mountain Research and Development, Vol.27., No.2., May 2007., str. 119 – 123. Kapos, V. J. Rhind, M., Edwards,M.,F.Price and Ravilious,C. 2000: Developing a map of the world mountain forest, in Forests in Sustainable Mountain Development: A State – of – Knowledge Report for 2000, Price and Butt eds. CAB International., p. 4 – 9. Kianicka, S., Bucheeker, M., Hunziker, M., Müller – Böker, U., 2006: Locals and Tourist Sesnse of Place, Mountain Research and Development,, Vol.26., No.1, February 2006., p. 53 – 63. Khanal,N.R., Watanabe,T., 2006: Abandonment of Agricultural Land and Its Consequences, Mountain Researchand Development, Vol. 26., No.1., february 2006., p. 32 – 40. Korenĉić, M., 1976.: Naselja i stanovništva SRHrvatske, 1857 – 1971, HAZU, Zagreb, 1976.,p.900. Ministry of Regional Development and EU Funds, Zagreb, 2013. Nepal, K. S., 2000: Mountain Ecotourism and Sustainable Development, Mountain Research and Development, Vol. 22., No.2., May 2002., p. 104 – 109. Popis stanovništva, kućanstava i stanova, 31. III 2001, DZZS, Zagreb, 2001. Reolon, S., Pellegrini, 2006: La Strada dei Formaggi delle Dolomiti Bellunesi, 5th European MountainConvention Cohesion for Growth 14 – 15. 9. 2006., Chaves, Portugal. SARD, 2004: Project for Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development in Mountain Regions, SARD, 2004. UNEP –WCMC, 2002: Mountain Watch: environmental change & sustainable development in mountain, Cambridge, UK. UNEP, 2005: Statesman on Protection and Sustainable Development of Mountain Regions in South Eastern Europe, Bolzano, 13. XII 2005.

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УДК: 711.4:551.4.035/.036

PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES OF URBAN AGGLOMERATIONS IN HILLY AND MOUNTAINOUS REGIONS Nikola CEKIC32, Miomir VASOV33, Milica IGIC34, Dusan RANDJELOVIC35, Hristina KRSTIC36 University of Niš - The Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture SERBIA -18000 NIŠ, Aleksandra Medvedeva st., 14/111

ABSTRACT In this paper, through indicative examples from the world, are raised the questions of further development of urban agglomerations in hilly and mountainous regions, created in different environmental and cultural-historical circumstances. The volume of built-up urban structure is limited by the land configuration, and its flexures which do not support logical structural linking of the image of ecourbarchitectonic matrix and its framework where compromises are always sought for future. The life in such communities is conditioned by the spatial characteristics of terrain which is a starting ground for future city-building interventions and specific changes in macro-ambiance dynamic space. Communication links, in one or several levels in such physical structures have a primary, systemic function in planning and formation of boundary lines and geometry of rurban volume and its vertical composition. We would like to point out an important issue of complex recognition of the problem in the local ecourbarchitectonic situations as well as homogenization – densification of urbarchitectonic fabric by daily interpolations, by addition of new physical forms and artifact materials. In ecorubarchitectonic matrices, especially in peripheral parts, we may observe large changes of identity, which have globalistic and haphazard character, than in structures in flat areas, and we also observe the esthetic non-artistic mixtures which ruin the potential of future perspective development. Key words:hilly-mountainous urbarchitecture, volume, specific changes, spatial limitation, complexity

INTRODUCTION Formation of urbarhitectonic space in hilly-mountainous areas necessitates specific conceptualization and specific method of strategic formation of functional zones and areas in them. Uneven terrains, geometrically irregular volumes, large differences in height elevations all call for new complex planning and designing approaches in understanding of spatial identity and balance between artefact and natural structures. It is a new ideology of urbarchitectonic design, new philosophy of city building where different cultures are at work. Traditional cultures slowly disappear under the pressure of new forms and newly conceived aesthetic interpolations. The planning, designing sensitivity in recognition of cultural specifics is growing rare as is understanding for their survival. The new situation offers the disrupted image of the city, with hybrid physical urbarchitectonic forms grotesquely opposed, and with chaotic compositions most often brought about by the failed urban interventions.

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Academic, prof. PhD Nikola CEKIC, Eng. Arch.The Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture of the University of Nis.SERBIA – 18000 NIS, Aleksandra Medvedeva st. 14/111.Е-mail: ncekic@yahoo.com 33 Assist. Prof. PhD Miomir VASOV, Eng. Arch, The Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture of the University of Nis. SERBIA – 18000 NIS, Aleksandra Medvedeva st. 14/112. Е-mail: vasov@medianis.net 34 Eng. Arch. Milica IGIC, student of doctoral studies, The Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture of the University of Nis. SERBIA – 18000 NIS, Aleksandra Medvedeva st. 14/112.Е-mail: mind1989@yahoo.com 35 Eng. Arch. Dusan RANDJELOVIC, student of doctoral studies, The Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture of the University of Nis. SERBIA – 18000 NIS, Aleksandra Medvedeva st. 14/112. Е-mail: randjelovic.dusan.88@gmail.com 36 Eng. Arch. Hristina KRSTIC, student of doctoral studies, The Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture of the University of Nis. SERBIA – 18000 NIS, Aleksandra Medvedeva st. 14/111. Е-mail: hristinaa@hotmail.com

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WORK In this paper, we present ten indicative ecourbarchitectonic cultural-historical and conceptually diverse entities from all corners of the earth, different climatic, hilly mountainous zones and altitudes above sea level: Casas Dogon and Tellem village (Teli) in the Bandiagara Escarpment, Mali Ourika, Berber village, Morocco Chuxi Tulou cluster, Yongding County, Longyan, Fujian province, China Banaue town-hill, top views Ifugao-Province, Philippines Rio de Janeiro, Rocinha favela, Brazil La Paz, Bolivia Castellfollit de la Roca, Catalonia Castelmezzano, ChuckWolfe, Italy Hong Kong,buildings skyline Mountain City in the future

Fig. 1. Casas Dogon37 and Tellem village (Teli)38 in the Bandiagara Escarpment, Mali

The ethnic groups of Dogons as well as Tellem, which have 400.000-800.000 people, from the central area of the state of Mali in Africa, in the immediate proximity of the city of Bandiagar and the river Neil - region Mopti, built their habitats on the extremely steep rock faces, or at their bottom, as early as in 14th century. The reason was the water which had to be collected for everyday needs. In the horizontal part of the terrain, the Dogons and Tellems39 kept livestock and crop structures. The cliffs were the key conditioning organizational urbanologic factor for development and construction of small dimensions structures in a primitive way, from the autochthonous material, mud and wattle. This area is a world famous tourist attraction.

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http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-media/54/5354-050-16065303.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2d/Casas_dogon.jpg 38 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6e/TeliVillage4.JPG http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ae/Landscape_Dogon_Mali.png http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6e/Tellem_Dwelling_Bandiagara_Escarpment_Mali.jpg 39 Tellem su Pigmeji ili "mali crvene ljudi"

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Fig. 2. Ourika, Berber village 40 and Imlil village41, Morocco

There is a similar limiting situation faced by the nomadic ethno group – the Berber people, in the villages of the Atlas Mountains area, in the north part of Africa, in the Kingdom of Morocco, at 1700 meters above sea level. They built settlements with small volume houses on steep, terraced and limited farming terrains. They strictly imposed urbarchitectonic-formal concept, development directions and size of urban agglomerations. There is an indicative example of the Imlil village, thirty miles out from the city of Marrakech, where the agricultural areas are in the immediate zone of the settlement, and where the inhabitants constantly had to adapt the artifact structure to the morphology of the terrain and the actual living necessities. In the valley of this impressive mountainous area ran the icy water originating from the melting snow from the mountaintops. The local population used the water for farming irrigation. Rurbarchitectonic strategy of formation was in the function of developmental potentials and character of the urban resources of the region. It was in essence static and correlated to the hilly mountainous environment.

Fig. 3. Chuxi Tulou cluster, Yongding County, Longyan, Fujian province 42, China

Urbarchitecture of the structures in the Chinese region Fujian Tulou shows a unique characteristic model of the community for multi-family housing, at the foothill of a hilly environment, with strong vegetation structures. The buildings are cylindrical, with circular floor plan, unique roofs, built of earthen material and wattle with identical, private housing units and common public functions in the central part. The surround land is communalfarming by the river which is crucial for irrigation of fragmentized farming land.

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Fig. 4. Banaue43 town-hill, top views Ifugao-Province, Philippines

In the Philippines, in the Ifugao region mountains, at 1500 meters above sea level there are Banaue Rice terraces (Tagalog: Hagdan-hagdang Palayan ng Banawe) around 2000 years old. The Philippines call them the “eighth wonder of the world”. It is considered that the terraces were constructed with minimum equipment, mostly by menial labor. They cover 10.360 square kilometers. They are irrigated by the rain forest water from above the rice terraces. The local population on the terraced areas, even nowadays employs special skills for irrigation in order to cultivate rice and vegetables. Because of the very narrow space, the densely packed structures, on the steep mountainous slopes, have a dominant vertical character.

Fig. 5. Rio de Janeiro, Rocinha favela 44, Brazil

As opposed to the examples from Mali, Morocco, China and the Philippines, the contemporary Rio de Janeiro has great problems with illegal building of structures and expansion of the city territory. The territory is limited by the prominently hilly terrain. Rocinha is a community of approximately 70.000 people. It is the largest favela in Brazil, and it is located in Rio de Janeiro, in the southern zone, between the districts São Conrado and Gávea. This slum district is constructed on the hillock above Rio de Janeiro, and it is at a distance of one kilometer from the nearest beach. A large number of buildings in the favela was constructed from concrete and brick, on a very steep hill, with thick vegetation surrounding it. All the structures have the infrastructural fittings: water supply, sewer system and electricity grid. Some of the buildings have ground level + 4 stories, which is a consequence of very narrow land lots which resulted in vertical direction where the structural volumes expanded.

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http://www.asisbiz.com/Philippines/Banaue/images/Banaue-town-hill-top-views-Ifugao-Province-PhilippinesAug-2011-03.jpg http://www.asisbiz.com/Philippines/Banaue/images/Banaue-town-hill-top-views-Ifugao-Province-PhilippinesAug-2011-14.jpg 44 http://thebucketlust.files.wordpress.com/2012/07/sam_2274.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7e/1_rocinha_favela_closeup.JPG http://travellingtoothbrushes.files.wordpress.com/2011/02/dsc00206.jpg

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Fig. 6. La Paz, Bolivia45

The capital of Bolivia, La Paz, in the seismic valleys of the Andes, is built in the canyon of Choqueyapu river, extending northwest-southeast. The river has a large number of small mountain tributaries. The backbone of the urban matrix composition is the Choqueyapu riverbed as well as the central traffic artery following the river. The city has an unusual topography which conditioned the division of the city in seven zones. The geographic characteristics of the terrain dictated such a development of the city directed towards the elevated zones which are dominated by improvised buildings housing the poor population. In the central part are the multi storey structure, residential-public with contemporary architecture which stands in contrast with the existing Spanish colonial style.

Fig. 7. Castellfollit de la Roca46, Catalonia

The small town Castellfollit de la Roca, with slightly more than 1.000 inhabitants is located in the region of Girona in Catalonia – Spain. The urban territory is limited by the confluence of the rivers Fluvià and Toronell - 0.73km2. Between them rises a basalt cliff over above which is a linear city, covering the area of less than a square kilometer. This is one of the smallest towns in Spain. It is very attractive for its characteristic topography and disposition of urbarchitectonic structures in two extended tracts that have residential and business characters.

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http://www.travelspecs.com/images/stories/uploads/img_4331.jpg http://www.robertbone.com/BONEPAGE/stockphotos/lapaz2.jpg 46 http://tech-lifestyle.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/original-10.jpg

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Fig. 8. Castelmezzano47, ChuckWolfe, Italy

The Italian city Castelmezzano in the south region of Basilicata, was founded by the Greek

colonists between the 5th and 6th century. Because of the frequent incursions of Saracen warriors in the 10th century the town changed the location on the rocky ground, so that it could be defended by rolling the stones down the hill. The urbarchitectonic physiognomy of compacted structures is even, as well as the roof structures. Due to the low level of economic activities, most of the inhabitants moved out, so this are became unpromising for life.

Fig. 9. Hong Kong, buildings skyline 48

One of the leading world international financial centers, the seven million big Hong Kong, with the territory of 1.104 km2, is doubly limited city in terms of development of urbarchitectonic matrix. On one side is the water, and on the other, in the hinterland is the powerful mountain massif and very problematical, steep cliffs with strong vegetation. As a result of such situation with the lacking space, the created structures are physically concentrated and vertically oriented. This is one of the most densely populated cities of the world. The statistics show that 112 buildings are higher than 180 meters and that there are 6 office buildings with the highest ever heights reached. With such building characteristics Hong Kong has a very recognizable vertical identity. It is the center of modern world urbarchitecture.

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http://www.myurbanist.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/Castelmezzano_ChuckWolfe.jpg http://cdn.theatlanticcities.com/img/upload/2011/12/12/Pietrapertosa_ChuckWolfe.jpg 48 http://i.jootix.com/o/Hong-Kong-skyline-hong-kong-buildings-skyline.jpg http://www.neverendingfootsteps.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/IMG_6685.jpg

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Fig. 10. Mountain City in the future 49

In the lack of urban space, in the world close future will most likely deal with planning of artifact physical urbarchitectonic – environmental symbiotic structures conceived in close correlation with natural forms. In the hilly and mountainous regions, the newly designed forms observing the configuration and flexures of terrain will be insisted upon. This comprises a new way of thinking in planning with the most straightforward correlation of geometry and structural designs to the natural ones. This is the key message. Anything short of that will be a misunderstanding! CONCLUSION It can be concluded that conceptual, analytical and creative frameworks where new urbarchitectonic values of hilly and mountainous places are created are limited: in material, spatial and physical terms. It can be stated that certain properties of flexing terrain in nature directly affect formation of characteristic compositions and comprehension of their complex spatial identity. We cannot deny their influential importance in creative propositions for directing of ecourbarchitectonic development for definition of innovative contextual strategic decisions, even if those are very small territories of agglomerations. In the process of future planning, designing and creation of agglomerations in hilly and mountainous regions, essential, conceptual issues are raised about the decreasing potential of physical expansion of structures in the horizontal plane. As a result of a large pressure of builders on the fringing areas of urban matrices, and occupation of less recognizable ecorurbarchitectonic areas, there is a reaction of stimulation of ecorurbarhcitectonic forms with largely vertical compositions in central, gravitating parts. Globalization influences brought about chaotic intensification of construction in peripheral parts and environment. They disrupted the long standing systems and relationship to the planned space. They brought about risky physical patterns for organization of space, of low quality and limiting functions. In essence, there were construction activities with the standards in which there is abuse of expansion of space and illogical distribution of structures. We recognize communications which are not in accord with the isohypses of the terrain nor with infrastructural directions. 49

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ДЕМОГРАФСКИ ПРОБЛЕМИ, ПОЛИТИКА НА ЕКОНОМСКИ И РЕГИОНАЛЕН РАЗВОЈ ВО РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА DEMOGRAPHIC PROBLEMS IN HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS, POLICY OF ECONOMIC AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS

There are sharp clashes of values, and lack of understanding of strategic spatial and city building directions. Thus slums, suburbia and favelas occur, as inexcusable articulations in the construction process where the identity of the locality is not adequately recognized, nor the necessary orientation towards correlation of artifact and natural forms. It is an old repeated case, when what really matters is to have a built up space according to the current needs of individual and multiple users. The users occupied very steep, even risky hilly-mountainous locations, motivated by their own interests and not acting in the best interest of their communities and their plural culture. Eventually, we conclude that the appearance, quality and construction of rurbarchitectonic communities in hilly mountainous regions have imperatively metabolical, organically narrow links with environmental structures, and that their conceptual development and expansion will be primarily conditioned by natural form and conditions of the concrete configuration of the area. The decisions about the desired directions of continuous development and high quality strategic visions, in such framework, include limited volumes of structures in order to set a spatial order. If the defined planning directions of building activities are relinquished and the stakeholders continue imposing their unarticulated ideas and creating of pauperized and uniform, globalist, fake – modernist images of rurbanely occupied hilly mountainous areas, without understanding the value of local potential, the communities in such space will be left without perspectives, with many conflicts and “rotten” compromises. It is our impression that the world is about to obtain less and less tolerable rurbarchitectonic agglomerations. This paper is a part of the scientific-research project: "Construction of Student hostels in Serbia at the beginning of 21st century", approved by the Ministry of Science and technological development of the Government of the Republic of Serbia, in Belgrade, January 2011. Project manager, prof. Ph D Nikola Cekić, Grad. Eng. of Arch. The Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture of the University of Nis. Project number: TR 36037. REFERENCES Birkerts Gunnar, Process and Expression in Architectural Form (The Bruce Alonzo Goff Series in Creative Architecture, Vol 1).ISBN-10: 0806126426, ISBN-13: 978-0806126425. University of Oklahoma Press; First Edition edition (August 15, 1994). Christopher Alexander, Notes on the Synthesis of Form. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachussetts, 1973. Gropius Walter, Sinteza u arhitekturi. “Tehniĉka knjiga”, Zagreb, 1961. Ian L. McHarg, Design with Nature (Wiley Series in Sustainable Design). ISBN-10: 047111460X, ISBN-13: 978-0471114604. Publisher:John Wiley & Sons, Inc. or related companies; 1 edition (February 6, 1995), London. Jodidio Philip, Architecture: Nature. ISBN-10: 3791335278 ISBN-13: 978-3791335278, Publisher: Prestel Publishing, New York and London (October 1, 2006). John Brotchie, Peter Newton, Peter Hall, Peter Nijkamp, The Future of Urban Form: The Impact of New Technology.ISBN-10: 0893972134 , ISBN-13: 978-0893972134 (May 1985), Publisher: Nichols Pub Co (May 1985), New York. Koen Steemers, Architecture City Environment: Proceedings of PLEA 2000.ISBN-10: 1902916166, ISBN-13: 978-1902916163. Publisher: Routledge, Cambridge, UK 2-5 July 2000. Richard T. T. Forman, Michel Godron, Landscape Ecology. ISBN-10: 0471870374, ISBN-13: 978-0471870371. Publisher:John Wiley & Sons, Inc. or related companies; 1 edition (February 10, 1986), London. Robert A. Francis, Michael A. Chadwick, Urban Ecosystems: Understanding the Human Environment, ISBN-10: 0415697956, ISBN-13: 978-0415697958. Publisher: Routledge (April 23, 2013), New York.

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УДК: 332.12(497.11)

ANALYSIS OF POTENTIAL OF VILLAGES IN THE AREA OF NIS HILLY VILLAGES Branko AJ TURNŠEK, Svetlana VREĆIĆ, Ljiljana JEVREMOVIĆ Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture-University of Niš, Aleksandra Medvedeva 14, 18000 Niš, Serbia, e-mail: ajbranko@gaf.ni.ac.rs, vrecic.svetlana@gmail.com, jevremovicljiljana@gmail.com

ABSTRACT This paper analyzes the potential of hilly villages in the rural areas of the administrative area of the city of Nis. Rural areas of the city covers 26 hilly villages, which is 40% of the total, and it is the most common group. The analysis is seen in 100% sample. Matrix statistics and the results of research conducted in the field gave a complex picture of the development opportunities. Physical capacities, human and natural resources, the economic potential of the area, the representation of traditional production and trade, infrastructural and institutional facilities, character of production, substantive, organizational and functional scheme of villages and yards and quality of life are the basic elements of the aforementioned matrix. The results are not uniformed because they are affected by individual parameters and the specifics of an individual villages and relationship with the surrounding area, but they generally indicate the main directions of movement and total capacity. This research has provided a relatively clear picture of the current state, defining it as a loaded with big problems. Basic characteristics of rural areas are lack of a real development strategy, production without a clear conception, undefined structure, organization and operation, low and uncontrolled investment, impoverishment and marginalization, unregulated space and plots, outflow of the working age population from the countryside, large, uncultivated arable lands, and systematic devaluation of everything else that makes the reproductive chain of production. Resources are significant, but the limitations are significant also. Consideration of rural areas, as an integral part of the city, is particularly important, for potentials to be used, and impact of restrictions reduced. Keywords: hilly villages, characteristics, rural areas, potential

THE OBSERVED SAMPLE City covers 71 settlement, administratively divided into five municipalities, 69 settlements belonging to rural and suburban areas (suburbs), city of Nis as urban area, and Niska Banja as spa resort. One has already been completely extinguished (Koritnjak), one on the verge of extinction (Monastery), and four have a population of houndred inhabitants or less.

Berbatovo Berĉinac Brenica Ĉukljenik Donja Studena

Table 1. Hilly villages in the rural area of the City of Niš hilly villages Donji Matejevac Hum Malĉa Paljina Gornja Studena Jelašnica Manastir Prosek Gornja Trnava Kamenica Miljkovac Prva Kutina Gornja Vreţina Knez Selo Ostrovica Seĉanica Gornji Matejevac Kravlje Paligrace Supovac

Vele Polje Vukmanovo

The area covered by the city of Nis includes approximately 40% of Nis and Aleksinac valley, while 60% is mountainous and sub-mountainous area, and are therefore, in relation to altitude, present representatives of all three categories of the settlement (terrains up to 200m are considered as lowland, from 200-500m hill and over that mountain - Spatial Plan of Serbia). The applied categorization has been done with small deviations in relation to the defined values in borderline cases (mainly mountainous and hilly), as to take into concideration not only the altitude, but also the position of the village in relation to the terrain, the environment and relation to the city (although was largely met this criterion). (Map 1 and Table 1).

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ДЕМОГРАФСКИ ПРОБЛЕМИ, ПОЛИТИКА НА ЕКОНОМСКИ И РЕГИОНАЛЕН РАЗВОЈ ВО РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА DEMOGRAPHIC PROBLEMS IN HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS, POLICY OF ECONOMIC AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS

Map 1. Map of rural areas of the City (with the adopted categorization)

THE AIM OF THE ELEMENTS OF ANALYSIS The aim of this study is to perceive villages in the area included by the city of Nis in the context of the more relevant parameters, current, and future development. Included elements are relevant to spatial and economic development, functional, content and organizational structure of villages and households. Parameters such as: historical conditions at the time of origin, but also the development and transformation of the settlement, economical, that were and are present today, the demographic processes that have led to the current situation, the human, physical and natural resources, availability of infrastructural facilities and systems, essential for quality of life, working conditions and housing, institutional, transportation and territorial cohesion and familiarity, the representation of cultural, social, and sporting events, professional orientation, quality of roads, the entertainment, meetings, employment, education, economic status, traditions and customs... create an ambience, space frame and identify the basic causes that directly or indirectly affect household organization and create conditions for the revitalization and development of the village. Sample covers one hundred percent of the villages, and is perceived as a whole area through the current situation, resources and potentials in the function of projection and definition of possible directions of development. Analysis of specific data obtained in the field along with statistical data, indicates the state, but also provides a framework for the future. The applied methodology includes: data collection site survey (targeted survey directed at specific individuals and structures), the systematization of data according to a predetermined classification, usage and systematization of statistical data, comparative review and comparative analysis of the result with the projected growth. The data are systematized in several groups: data on the natural, physical and land resources and occupancy to certain crops, data on population, age structure, the number of employees in the city, a production orientation of households, migration, etc., the value of land and soil, data on the current state of the economy (industry, small business, trades, agriculture, service industries), problems faced, the representation of infrastructural facilities, systems, institutional, spiritual, cultural and recreational facilities, the condition of buildings and their arrangement and equipment.

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ANALYSIS OF RESULTS The essential problems of the villages in this area are: the uncontrolled formation and development of the settlement, depopulation, the migrations towards the outside, very unequal degree of intensity of use of space, its equipment and the degree of urbanization, a large dependence on the city and lack of strategies for spatial and economic development. The essential problems of the households in rural areas in this region are: family disintegration and departure of young people from rural areas to the city, the weak economic power, a great orientation to the city, a professional indifference of most households, a heritage of poor organization of space, the size of yards and over construction, yard disorder, low utility infrastructure, small land holdings, the more fragmented parcels usually very distant to each other, their common catchall production and lack of specialization in agricultural oriented households. Regarding human resources, two groups of settlements can be distinguished (Malĉa, Knez selo, Kamenica, Jelašnica, Hum, Seĉanica, Gornji and Donji Matejevac, Gornja Vreţina and Prva Kutina) with about over 1000 people and the other 16 (60%), which belong to the medium-sized settlements in the range of 250 to 500 people. The distance from the city (7-15km, which is a medium), is not major feature of the villages, that are good transport links with the city. Index of population growth in more than 80% of the village is negative, which clearly points to the decades-long migration flow to certain areas, resulting in inequalities of the development of certain areas. In support of this one-way migration flow is the fact that in 23 villages (88%) number of indigenous varies from 65-85% of the total population. Population structure by settlements varies considerably, but the pattern is unique: farthest villages and villages with lowest population, poor infrastructure and connections, the least developed, where natural resources are generally not significant, have a significantly higher percentage of the population over 50 years, and the minimum number of working-age population and youth. The fact that the population of the rural area steadily decreases, and the number of households has stagnant or slowly growing trend reflects the aging of the family and reduces the limit of biological reproduction. Number of children throughout the area decreases, and the family is reduced to one or two children, which family in the rural area equates with his family in urban areas. There are more and more elderly households, the number of families with one or two members is high (40-65%), and the households with no children (30-50%). If something does not change significantly, these villages will soon face the problem of depopulation and survival. Population density is an important indicator of the degree of rurality. The pattern is a distinctive, settlements that are close or well-connected to the city, have a higher population density, about 150 residents/km2, while in the case of remote villages, or weakly connected, the density falls to 25 residents/km2. It is not uncommon that despite the small population, by the surface of the corresponding territory these are not the small villages, indicating a distinct rural character. The percentage of rural population is steadily declining, from 80% at the beginning of the last century, up to 29% today. The structure of the properties is dominated by smaller property which is divided into several parcels. Such a fragmented, scattered in several locations with difficult access effectively define the extensive character of production. Most households are engaged in "different activities“, producing little of everything, mostly for their own purposes, while production for the market is minor. The consequences are evident in the organization of the yard, which must accommodate a range of different facilities, which require adequate space, which is often not present.

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ДЕМОГРАФСКИ ПРОБЛЕМИ, ПОЛИТИКА НА ЕКОНОМСКИ И РЕГИОНАЛЕН РАЗВОЈ ВО РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА DEMOGRAPHIC PROBLEMS IN HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS, POLICY OF ECONOMIC AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS EU

Serbia

over 10ha

from 5-10ha

City of Niš

less than 5ha

Diagram 1. Property size in the EU and Serbia

Farm size is substantially limiting and defining parameter of character and ways of agricultural production. Size of cultivated land per farm is very small, on average ranging from 0.90 ha (Niska Banja) to 1.15ha of Nis. The diagrams (1 and 2) show the average of the percentage representation in the European Union, Serbia and the city of Nis.

Diagram 2. Size of farms in rural areas of the City

Traditional crafts are usually shut down or adjusted to a lesser extent, following the development of technology in order to survive, sporadically, mostly in private and within the family. Villages that are further from the city have fewer stores, while those that are closer to the city stores are more pervasive and interesting. The interest of private capital is focused on villages with larger population, suburban and lowland villages (private and public stores ratio is 10:1), in the most remote and smallest villages (mountain and some hilly) is only 2:1, while in some of the villages there are no shops. Natural resources, are defined by the coefficients K1-9 and K1-9. For all the settlements around the city (suburban) and lowland, coefficient values are in the range 0.8-1.3, which means they have great potential. When it comes to mountain villages, characterized by two groups, one whose coefficient values correspond to those above, for villages located on the rim of the valley, deployed in the area between the city and the Morava river flow, with a developed agriculture, viticulture and fruit growing, and second, deployed on the slopes of the hills, whose coefficient values were within the limits (1.3-2.0). An exception is the farthest village of Donja and Gornja Studena and Vukmanovo, whose coefficients are about 3, which is very unfavorable. According to the actual size of the area, according to the Spatial Plan of Serbia, in this area can be distinguished three categories of area: small up to 500ha (1 village), medium of size of 5001000ha (13 settlements, 50%) and large, over 1,000 ha (12 settlements, 46%). Reduced size of the area gives a more realistic value when it comes to the potential and the character of the land and the type of agricultural production. According to the reduced size of the area, in relation to the Convention adopted the Serbian area, 11 villages (40%) have areas smaller than 500ha, 10 villages (40%) have areas between 500-1000ha and 5 settlements (20%) whose areas are larger

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than 1,000 ha. Small and medium areas are dominant, which means that their production potential in agriculture is relatively small, given the large areas covered by forests and meadows: the southeastern part of Sicevo gorge and on northwest along the edge of Morava basin. Largest areas are mainly covered with vineyards (Kamenica, Sićevo, Matejevac, Malĉa). Medium-sized areas are in general around the perimeter of the Morava valley, and in the hilly part of Jelašnica and Knez Selo. Compactness of area figure can be defined by coefficient of form advantages, as the ratio of the volume and root of surface of the area: Kkfa ═ Okm/

Pkm2

(1)

From the formula it follows that the optimal shape is square of side size of 6 km, with a coefficient, Kkfa ═ 4. In 24 villages this value exceeds 4, and is in the range of 10% at two only (Kravlje and Paligrace), which indicates a highly adverse forms. It is also an indication that the areas are old, emerged spontaneously, not planned. Border distance from center of the village is also an important indicator. All values up to 3km, for our conditions can be considered as a positive, in the sense of good links with farms in the area and cost efficiency. Eighteen of them have values above 3 km, which is 70% of the total. Significant fact is that the minimum distance of the village center to the boundary of districts in 21 villages (80%) is below or equal to 1.0km. This speaks of the very elongated area, often peripheral location of the village (in 18 villages, or 70%). With relatively unsuccessfully introduced consolidation, and fragmentation and plot randomisation, it is evident there is a low production viability. City area is characterized by greater density of settlements network (12-14N/km2), while the rural area can be characterized as an area with a moderate density of the network of settlements (though it is near the limit value, 11.7 N/km2). The average territorial size of the settlement is approximately 8km2, which categorizes them as very small settlements (7-10km2) and is unfavorable and limiting development parameter. Utility infrastructure is inadequate. The biggest problem is the lack of sewerage and solid waste disposal solution. Inadequate solution greatly affect the environmental pollution, which reduces its value and reduces essential element of space sustainability. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS Economy, a financial base, is limiting or developmental element which defines opportunities for existence and development of the settlement. The total urban development, planning and organization of the settlement depends largely on the development of the economy. Some of the consequences that can be clearly and unambiguously seen from the research are: lack of a real development strategy, clear concepts, organization and functioning, insufficient and uncontrolled investments, identification of food production, impoverishment and marginalization, lack of active participation in the development process, the outflow of labor force from rural areas and their existence in the city, while farms remain fallow, all increasing number of elderly households, extensive orientation to the manufacture and various activities, the systematic devaluation of everything else that makes the reproductive chain of production. From this it is clear that the conditions and surroundings-environment have to be created primarily. It should reorganize, build the necessary mechanisms and institutions, and thus enable the creation of a competitive and stable agriculture. Generally, the rural area was and it will depend some time on the economy and industry of the city of Nis, but it is already clear that the city will not be able to absorb new workers, and the current number of workers in the public sector will have to move to the private sector or find a new profession. In this way, the "surplus" will either turn a small business and create handicraft

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ДЕМОГРАФСКИ ПРОБЛЕМИ, ПОЛИТИКА НА ЕКОНОМСКИ И РЕГИОНАЛЕН РАЗВОЈ ВО РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА DEMOGRAPHIC PROBLEMS IN HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS, POLICY OF ECONOMIC AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS

and service facilities, or considering the fact that many still have farms in the countryside, back to agriculture. It should be used to provide adequate projects and programs, which will be attractive enough and economically acceptable to be recognized in their perspectives. There is potential in processing of food produced in this region, and the development of the manufacturing industry.

Hilly villages

Berbatovo Berĉinac Brenica Donja Studena Donji Matejevac Gornja Studena Gornja Trnava Gornja Vreţina Gornji Matejevac Hum Jelašnica Kamenica Knez Selo Kravlje Malĉa Miljkovac Ostrovica Paligrace Paljina Prva Kutina Prosek Seĉanica Supovac Ĉukljenik Vele Polje Vukmanovo

☼ ▲ ☼ ☼

▲ ▲ ▲

☼ ▲ ▲ ▲ ☼ ▲ ▲

▲ ▲

▲ ▲ ▲

▲ ▲ ☼ ☼

▲ ▲ ▲ ☼

▲ ☼ ☼ ☼

▲ ▲

▲ ☼ ☼ ☼ ☼ ☼ ☼ ☼ ☼ ☼ ▲ ▲ ☼ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲

▲ ☼ ☼ ☼ ▲ ☼ ▲ ☼ ▲ ▲ ☼ ☼ ▲ ☼ ☼ ▲ ▲

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☼ ☼

▲ ▲ ☼

☼ ▲ ♣

▲ ▲ ☼ ▲ ▲ ☼

▲ ▲ ☼ ▲ ▲ ☼ ▲ ☼

▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ☼ ☼ ☼ ▲ ☼ ☼

▲ ▲ ☼ ▲ ☼

intensive preoccupation less intensive preoccupation spa and health resort tourism

☼ ▲

▲ ☼ ♣ ♣

☼ ☼ ☼ ☼

▲ ▲

problems of depopulation

orientation to the city

processing capacity of the agricultural products

forage plants, industrial plants and tobacco small economy, industry, services and crafts

tourism (spa, wellness tourism, excursion) forest fruits, herbs and mushrooms beekeeping

viticulture

☼ ▲ ▲ ☼ ☼

☼ ☼ ☼ ▲

▲ ☼ ▲

fruit growing

cereals truck farming

village

intensive cattle breeding on pastures

intensive cattle breeding in facilities

Table 2. Possible development of villages in the rural area of the city (according to the type of activity)

▲ ☼ ▲ ▲

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☼ ☼ ☼ ▲ ☼

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▲ ☼ ® © ☻

▲ ▲

▲ ☼

hunting, fishing production flower extinguished village

It is evident that the village should and must undergo numerous structural, organizational, economic, social, urban, and other significant changes in order to survive and adapt to the changed conditions. These processes will affect the change of the content, organizational and functional structure of the household or yard, transforming it according to the directions of development. The dominance of the impact will vary and depend on the specifics of each settlement or it would be characteristic of a group of villages. Table 2 presents the projections of rural villages from the region, grouped by type of activity, according to the available resources. The table shows the expected grouping in terms of resources (natural, demographic, economic), both in terms of development perspective and expressed problems (depopulation, aging), in terms of focus and professional orientation (orientation and relationship with the city).

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PROJECTION The most visible element of the transformation of the household is changing its economic structure (from agriculture, through mixed to non-agricultural). Today, mixed households are most characteristic, their development and number is a response to the current state of agriculture. This group will represent in the future the dominant category in the socio-economic structure of the village. The production process is mostly incomplete, it all starts and ends with primary production without the possibility and desire to finalize production and higher levels of processing, in order to achieve higher prices and progression on the market. Often, the owner's desire for increased production are just wishes, because many do not have space and human resources, financial resources, or the property is unsuitable for the start of production of such organization or small business, and more importantly many have no idea what and how. They don't rely on market researches (if there are any) and the needs, they don't plan in advance, and only a few of the hundreds of examinees would start to produce for the market. As a necessary condition for stopping the migration processes in the area of the village, or the transformation of rural to urban, there is the improvement of living and working in: utility and infrastructure equipment, buildings for residence and work, economic facilities, the physical organization of space, villages, household and courtyard, organizational and functional connectivity etc. Needs for lowering of part of institutional contents and facilities to the local community are very strong. Their representation is uneven, for the most part concentrated in areas closer to the city, and almost completely omitted or minimally present in remote areas. Thus, the village community centers are concentrated in the immediate urban environment, as there is no single center of the entire region of Aleksinac valley and its edge, in the south and north of the city, as well as a considerable part of Sićevo gorge. Uneven distribution suggests that a substantial number of households in the substantiation of its institutional and other rights and needs for appropriate content, is referred to the city. Size of the courtyard is different, it depends mainly on the position of the village, the terrain and the area where it is located. Orientation is adequate for almost 50% of hilly villages, which also means that at least half have problems with the organization in relation to the orientation.The arrangement of the courtyard is unsatisfactory, functions are often mixed, green areas are rare, communications are often vague and spatially undefined, with no marked differences in relation to the size of the courtyard or orientation. With a substantial portion of the courtyard there is a difference in the arrangement of residential and economic parts: the economic part is neglected and poorly structured from the residential, which had more investments. The problem of energy is complex. Energy production should be as close to customers and sources of energy, use of renewable energy sources should enable local consumers greater energy independence and autonomy of the regional system, increase the safety and efficiency of supply and have positive impact on environmental protection. In this sense, small energetics and local energy production should become matters of strategic importance. There are conditions for the construction of small hydro power plants, the use of solar energy and wind. In the valley of the Morava there are excellent conditions for growing cereals, industrial and forage plants. The whole area has groundwater at relatively shallow depth, which opens the possibility for irrigation currently little used. Vegetable production of early vegetables and flowers have their chance thanks to water resources and thermal springs, in combination with other contemporary experiences, using greenhouses, drip irrigation, etc. The slopes of the hills are traditionally committed to the intensive development of fruit growing and viticulture. Hilly and mountainous areas are rich in pastures where it is possible to grow a large number of various animals. Growing animals in a more natural conditions is one of the important features of current

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ДЕМОГРАФСКИ ПРОБЛЕМИ, ПОЛИТИКА НА ЕКОНОМСКИ И РЕГИОНАЛЕН РАЗВОЈ ВО РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА DEMOGRAPHIC PROBLEMS IN HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS, POLICY OF ECONOMIC AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS

EU agenda in animal husbandry. The land and buildings (the majority of them need to redecorate and modernize in order to meet modern requirements and standards) have the potential for small farms (10-15 animals). Divided and small parcels can serve small farms. Great potential for animal husbandry development would be renewed by revitalization of these facilities. When it comes to food, the strategy has to go in two directions: toward the mass, quality, and healthy foods. This means reorientation to organic food, the higher levels of food processing, which achieves better resource utilization and greater competitiveness. Facilities of small manufacturing based on the production of organic food and other agricultural products, clean technologies, low processing systems with environmentally friendly packaging and raising domestic brands will mean economic development, and will have an impact on the organizational and functional scheme of the village. More workers, residents would be employed encouraging the development of small family businesses in the villages, with a specific protected production. This production will be at the edge of the village or in the nearby area, it is very rare in the existing land for housing in the center of the village. That would mean the construction of the necessary infrastructure, facilities and systems, roads, transforming the yard, so part of the function will be transferred to the nearby area, freeing up space for the remaining events. There is no major improvement without adequate level of specialization of production. Dealing with a variety of activities that currently prevail is unacceptable in modern conditions. In fact it is possible, but then it comes down to survival rather than development. This is especially important for small and medium-sized farms, which need to be modernized and turn to intensive production (specialized, small farms and small businesses). State, city and local governments should play an important role. They would affect the stabilization of the economic conditions with the application of incentives, investments, institutional and legislative measures, grants and loans with grace periods, and other assistance aimed at rural areas. Great attention is paid to European farmers' education, because according to the statistics it is the most expensive work. In this region, this is not the case. Therefore it is necessary constantly insisting on: further education, the development of models of custom development interests and goals of quality transformation of rural areas, specialized education programs for young people who will continue their professional work in agriculture, retraining programs for other alternative occupations in the village, scholarship programs and the exchange of information, market research and promotion of marketing research methods for teaching, contemporary experiences, housing, etc. There is a potential for tourism development, for excursions, spa treatment (thermal and radioactive water Niska Banja, spa Topilo, Knez Selo), hunting and fishing, sports and recreation (various contests, hiking, skiing), tourist and cultural events (ethnic and educational programs, traditional fairs, artistic and literary colony, specific natural, cultural and historical buildings). Nis is an important transit destination, which could make use of their potential for the development of habitual and vacation tourism just in the rural areas. Facilities and accommodation facilities don't satisfy the number and quality. Tourism development could significantly improve all activities ranging from agriculture, food processing, handicrafts, revitalization of traditional crafts, services and other activities, revitalization of old, abandoned buildings, and new construction. Inclusion and recognition of local resources would lead to recognition and identity of rural areas.Reactivation of viticulture (which is a tradition in these parts) and opening the "wine cellar" for visitors could raise the quality of the offer of the area and pull investments in other sectors that would accompany such production.

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CONCLUSION The majority of the villages belongs to the group of mountain villages - twenty-six. There are two subgroups in terms of size. They are quite similar in terms of urban, mostly halfcompact and compact type. The other, spatial, organizational and architectural problems are similar to the whole group. There are differences in the development, orientation, attachment to the city and the representation of rural non-farm and farm occupations. The key parameter is the distance, and good transport city connections. Number of employees in the city is directly related to the distance and quality of transport communications. Specificities, traditions, natural and other resources play a significant role in defining the future development. Given the considerable potential, the prospect of development can be found in the further development of agriculture, small industry and handicrafts, tourism and service industries, growing and gathering of medicinal and aromatic plants and berries, manufacturing, production of healthy food. This practically means that in the village area there will be located households whose backyards have different content and organization, which will result in the need for transformation of rural matrix and organization of village. Significant agricultural and manufacturing production will migrate to peripheral parts of the village or on pasture (livestock), while the central part of the village will take on the urban form and content. The second group consists of villages with a small population, most commonly distant and less traffic associated with the city. Main problems in addition to developmental delay were more pronounced depopulation, aging and approaching the physical limits of sustainability and delays in infrastructure compared to other villages. The development of agricultural production, which is dominant depends on the soil and its configuration: fruit growing, animal husbandry, vegetable growing and viticulture. There is a space for development of tourism and traditional crafts. Potential exists, in some villages significantly, but the aforementioned problems have to be overcome. Their perspective is primarily seen in the further development of agriculture (60%), but in 40% of villages identified with the job in the city. The abundance and diversity of natural resources, areas with clean and unique nature, forests, meadows, considerable arable land, water potentials, thermal and radioactive water sources, biodiversity (medicinal and aromatic plants, endemic species, forest fruits, a variety of wild animals), may represent important factor for sustainable rural development with adequate measures to preserve and protect the environment. Cultural and historical heritage of the area in which Empires encountered and clashed with each other (historical and cultural spaces and buildings, archaeological sites), many natural sites (Sićevo gorge, spas, caves), tourist, cultural and sporting events, further promote this space as a potentially attractive. Originality of space, identity of culture and customs, the specificity and diversity are characteristics of the area. The specificity of the urban form of settlements, rural architecture, environmental features and aesthetic values, with the preservation and restoration of traditions and customs, is a valuable resource, and importance of maintaining is multiple: historical, cultural, ethnological, architectural, educational, environmental, and economic. For the potential in this sphere to be activated on the principle of sustainability programs, projects and investments are required, but also the proper use to save it. REFERENCES -Bajić-Brković,M., Lazarević, N. (1990): Spatial aspects of development of undeveloped areas, Faculty of Architecture, University of Belgrade, Belgrade -Bjelica Petar (2002): Village of Serbia and its perspectives, reflection on past development and state, scientific Meeting “Village in the new development conditions’02 “, Serbian Town Planners Association, Mataruška Banja, pg. 3-12

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-Ćirić Jovan (2003): Village in the new development conditions, scientific Meeting: «Village in the new development conditions», Proceedings, Serbian Town Planners Association, Belgrade, Baĉ, pg. 19-22 -Kojić B.Branislav (1973): The rural architecture and ruralism, Measurement book, Belgrade, pg. 360 -Malobabić Radomir (2002): Spatial physical conditions for sustainable development in rural and underdeveloped areas of the Republic of Serbia, scientific Meeting: «Village in the new development conditions ’02», Serbian Town Planners Association, Mataruška Spa, pg. 63-70 -Mitković Petar, Vasilevska Ljiljana (2002): Rural and urban development, scientific Meeting: «Village in the new development conditions ’02», Serbian Town Planners Association, Mataruška Banja, pg. 44-56 -Data obtained from the study (2004) of the scientific project of Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture-University of Niš, under the direction of dr Mirjane AnĊelković, presented in the publication: “Directions for sustainable rural development in the administrative area of the city of Nis”, which was funded by the Ministry of Science, Technology and Development and The Municipality of Nis, Niš, pg. 245 -Ribar Milorad, Videnović Aleksandar (2002): Aspects of the revitalization of villages in the hilly-mountainous areas of Serbia, scientific Meeting: «Village in the new development conditions ’02», Serbian Town Planners Association, Mataruška Spa, pg. 248-253 -Ribar Milorad (1988): Modern ruralism, Center for Multidisciplinary Studies, University of Belgrade, Belgrade -Simonović ĐorĊe, Ribar Milorad (1993): Arrangement of rural territories and settlements, Belgrade, pg. 354 -Simonović ĐorĊe (1977): Spatial transformation of rural backyard - housing as a result of social and economic changes, reports no.5, IAUS, Institute of Architecture and Urban & Spatial Planning of Serbia, Belgrade -Simonović ĐorĊe (1982): Rural settlement in Serbia: Past, Present, and Future, reports no.12, IAUS, Institute of Architecture and Urban & Spatial Planning of Serbia, Belgrade, pg. 19-22 -Simonović ĐorĊe (1986): Legislative acts and government intervention in the past and their relationship to the current state of the village in Serbia, reports no.16, IAUS, Institute of Architecture and Urban & Spatial Planning of Serbia, Belgrade, pg. 7-17 Stanković Milenko (2003): The planned development of villages on new principles - the path to European integration, scientific Meeting: «Village in the new development conditions», Proceedings, Serbian Town Planners Association, Belgrade, Baĉ, pg. 11-18 Statistical Yearbook of the City of Nis 2001 (2002), The Republic of Serbia, Nis City Administration, Secretariat for Development and Information Systems, Niš, pg. 184 -Turnšek AJ Branko, Keković Đ Aleksandar (2002): Village on the way to Europe, scientific Meeting: «Village in the new development conditions ’02», Serbian Town Planners Association, Mataruška Spa, pg. 57-62 -Turnšek AJ Branko, Mirjana AnĊelković (1997): Industry in the country, as employment opportunity for young, Third International Symposium “Vlasinski meetings’97 “ -Turnšek AJ Branko, independent research in the period 2002 – 2006. and 2011-2013. in the area of Nis -Turnšek AJ Branko,AnĊelković Mirjana, Krasić Sonja (2002): Possible development of the economy of the village of Nis region, scientific Meeting: «Village in the new development conditions ’02», Serbian Town Planners Association, Mataruška Spa, pg. 441-448 -Turnšek AJ Branko (2003): Sustainable development of the village in the administrative area of the city of Nis, scientific Meeting: «Village in the new development conditions ’02», Proceedings, Serbian Town Planners Association, Belgrade, Baĉ, pg. 330-344 -Turnšek AJ Branko (2006): The Village of Kunovica in the Sustainable Development Context, Facta Universitatis series: Architecture and Civil Engineering, vol4., No.1, University of Nis, pg.25-39 -Turnšek AJ Branko (2007): The transformation of rural households in villages in the town of Nis in the context of sustainable development, PhD thesis, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture-University of Niš, Niš, pg. 897 -Vasilevska Ljiljana, Mitković Petar (2002): The village restoration program as an instrument of balanced regional development, scientific Meeting: «Village in the new development conditions ’02», Serbian Town Planners Association, Mataruška Spa, pg. 128-133 -Vasilevska Ljiljana, Ribar Milorad (2004): The European model of rural development, Proceedings, Serbian Town Planners Association, spa Vrujci -Vasilevska Ljiljana (2005): Rural development planning as an instrument of balanced regional development, PhD thesis, Faculty of Architecture, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, pg.197 -Vujošević, M. (2002): Recent changes in the theory and practice of planning in the west, and their lessons for planning in Serbia / Yugoslavia, Institute for Architecture and Urban Planning of Serbia, Belgrade -Proceedings (2003): Village in the new development conditions, Serbian Town Planners Association, Baĉ, pg. 404 -Zorić Zorka (2003): Transition and village: rural development a priority harmonization with the European Union, Symposium: "A village in terms of new development," Proceedings, Serbian Town Planners Association, Belgrade, Baĉ, pg. 3-10

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УДК: 314.116:332.12.055.2(497.16)

BASIC TRENDS IN DEMOGRAPHIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE RURAL POPULATION OF MONTENEGRO AND SOME PROBLEMS OF ITS REVITALIZATION Miroslav DODEROVIĆ¹, Dragomir KIĆOVIĆ², Tatjana L. ĐEKIĆ³, Dragica MIJANOVIC¹ University of Montenegro, Faculty of Philosophy, Niksic Crne Gore (dodemir@t-com.me) ²Faculty of Sciences, Kosovska Mitrovica ³Faculty of Science,Nis ¹University of Montenegro, Faculty of Philosophy, Niksic Crne Gore

ABSTRACT During the period after the Second World War the village and agriculture carried out complex and contradictory processes whose end result manifested population ravaged village and persistent crisis in agriculture. The massive redeployment of people and activities in the rural-urban and agricultural-non-agricultural activities has had a series of negative demographic, social, cultural, economic and even political consequences. Broken down by region, population density is very different. On an area of 13,812 km2 live 625 266 inhabitants, the average population density per square kilometer is 44.8 inhabitants. The northern area accounts for 52.9% of the territory of Montenegro and has the lowest population density - 26.6 inhabitants per km ². Population density is highest in the central and southern region. Thus, the population density is 56.8 inhabitants of Central and 91.8 inhabitants of the coastal region. This is largely a result of the urbanization process and the mechanical movement of the population (according to the North Central and Southern region). All the basic trends of the rural population of Montenegro are unfavorable, and as such have weakened the overall demographic development, and given the nature of their conditioning reasonable assumptions about their future adverse effect. Moreover caused by relocation of the rural population have imposed serious demographic problem, that is aggravated by many years of insufficient birth and open depopulation. Therefore, the beginning of the XXI century, a negative growth in natural and migration components of a time of demographic disturbances with potentially destructive consequences in question and the future of our entire community. Inherited regional-development problems of Montenegro, with the emergence of a new regional "transition poverty" reached the proportions that necessitate a new approach to defining the concept of rural and regional development. In this paper, a comparative analytical analyze some aspects of demographic trends and changes in the function of investigating the possibilities of rural development. Keywords: population, future, depopulation, rural, urban

INTRODUCTION Through the division of the population in agricultural and nonagricultural we come to information how much of the population lives from agricultural, and how much of the nonagricultural occupations. The relations between them are also quite reliable indicator of economic development of the analyzed geographical areas.Where the share of rural population in total is more pronounced, the general level of economic development is lower according to the rule, and vice versa. For the geographic areas where the share of the agricultural population is larger than 50% we can, in principle, claim that they are economically underdeveloped. Most scholars agree in the opinion that the greater share of rural population indicates the underdevelopment and everywhere where the share of the agricultural population is over 15%, in agriculture there is hidden or latent unemployment or redundancy that burdens it. Deagrarization is one of the social developmental processes. The term deagrarization refers to the totality of forms of the abandonment of agriculture by the rural population, which up to that moment had represented the only activity for the population and was the only source of their income.In all countries that are rapidly developing deagrarization comes as a logical consequence, because in them there is a decline in the number of agricultural population, first relatively and then

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absolutely. Deagrarization is directly related to the concept of industrialization. The industrialization is the process of changing of socio - economic structure and mentality under the influence of industry. Industrialization in agrarian societies make different changes such as: the spread of industrial methods, various innovations and inventions, the development of the division of labor and so on. Phase of industrialization of every country is followed by the transformation of the agricultural population and non-agricultural activities. This transformation is reflected through the process of leaving the village and agriculture, and going to developmental centers and it also can be reflected through employment in secondary and tertiary activities.In the first phase, it can be felt through relative decrease of the share of the agricultural population with its further absolute increase, and then through the absolute and relative decrease in the later stage, which leads to a more intensive deagrarisation and the liberation of agriculture, as well as to surplus of the labor force and population. GEOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF MONTENEGRO Montenegro covers, the area between 4139and 4333 of northern geographic latitude and between 1826 i 2021of eastern geographical longitude. So, according to latitude, Montenegro belongs to the southernmost part of Europe - the Mediterranean, one of the most beautiful parts of Europe and the world. Land area of Montenegro covers 13 812 km², while the sea area covers 4 800 km² (internal sea). Number of inhabitants according to the latest census in 2011 was 625 266. The average population density was 48 inhabitants on 1 km ² of land, and Montenegro is one of the least populated parts of Europe. The geographical position of Montenegro is more important than the size of its territory and number of population. Montenegro is situated on the crossroads of two major geographical units - Dinarides and the middle Mediterranean.Length of the Montenegrin coastline is 316.5 km, including the coast of the islands and a part of the Bojana's river coast. Length of the coastline is 339.2 km. In Montenegro, there are about 3,500 of speleological objects, which, according to its area make Montenegro the richest country in the world. Montenegro, and particularly its central part and mountain range near the coast, is among the richest hydrological areas in the world. Zones of ores and minerals are numerous and are spread over large areas. The previous spatial plans did not contain the overall balances of the areas which are to be reserved for exploitation. It is emphasized that appearance and reservoir of white and red bauxite is registered on almost 1/3 of the area of Montenegro. Area under peat covers 1400 ha, and open pit mines near Pljevlja are spread on over several hundred of acres. Montenegro has only 741 km² of quality agricultural land (5.4% of the territory), what indicates that for Montenegro it has a special significance. Forests and forest land in Montenegro cover an area of about 738,000 hectares, or about 53.4% of the total area. Out of these, covered with forest vegetation are 622,000 hectares, which makes the forested area of 45%. Montenegro has a very rich biodiversity: over 2,700 species of algae, more than 3,200 species of vascular plants, 2,000 species of fungi, more than 700 species of vertebrates and more than 26,000 species of invertebrates. In terms of diversity of flora, Montenegro is in the first place in Europe. In Montenegro there are 40 urban and 1216 rural settlements. In September 1991, at the solemn session of the National Assembly, Montenegro was proclaimed an ecological state. Montenegro is still at the stage of extensive development, i.e. development guided by conventional development factors (labour, capital). This is still the economy with a low level of technology and sophistication of business, closed economy, the economy where knowledge

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is not sufficiently respected, institutionally insufficiently developed economy, with a very small number of professionals in all fields. Also, Montenegro is still a highly politicized society, which leads to the dominance of the rule of political parties.The growth rate in Montenegro now depends primarily on investment, especially foreign ones, their height and structure, as well as the state of the global capital markets, which affects its oscillations from year to year. The debt of the Montenegrin economy, as measured by both public and private debt, has reached the limit of sustainable development, and particularly unfavourable is the structure of investment that is based on debt (primarily in the nontradable goods which do not reject or reject a lower yield).Structure of GDP in Montenegro shows a small share of all forms of production (about 33%) and a high share of services (67%). In Montenegro, the differences in regional development are pronounced. In the undeveloped area in the north, where about 33% of the population lives, and in which the index of social exclusion (5.9) is almost two times higher than in the central region (3.2) and nearly six times higher than in the southern region (1.9). Metropolization in Montenegro is expressed Podgorica as the centre grows faster than other parts of Montenegro, it employs about 40% of Montenegro's population and generates over 50% of GDP.According to EU criteria Montenegro is unique region on which logic is to be applied, as well as criteria and measures of the European Union. However, it is necessary to keep "internal" regional policies based on the principles of sustainable market economy and to encourage the project approach to development of the northern region and also underdeveloped parts of the other two regions. In this way, the state should pursue a policy of balanced use of its area. THE EXPERIENCE OF URBANIZATION IN MONTENEGRO Urbanization is the expansion of the urban way of life at the expense of rural and urban population growth in the total population. The achieved level of urbanization, in terms of demographic criteria, is very different, but it has shown improvement everywhere. In the Montenegro it is increased from 23.8% in 1953 to 61.9% in 2003, and has a tendency of further growth.The highest level was recorded in the central region (from 32.4% in 1953 to 78.9% in 2003), then in the coastal area (from 34.0% in 1953 to 59.8% in the same period), and the lowest in the northern region (from 13.5% in 1953 to 39.0% in 2003). The urbanization level above Montenegro's average in 2003 (61.9%) experienced the municipalities of Budva (85.4%), Cetinje (83.1%), Podgorica (82.9), Niksic (77.3%) and Herceg Novi (65.6%). The lowest level of urbanization, from this aspect, had experienced the municipality of Andrijevica (18.5%), Šavnik (19.3%), Kolasin (30.0%), Bijelo Polje (31.6%) and Berane (33.6 %), while other municipalities have achieved the level between 35.0% (Pluzine) and 60.7% (Piva).The relationship of agriculture with other sectors of the economy has been observed extensively in the theory of the three sectors of the economy. The primary includes: agriculture, forestry, and fishing, the secondary: industry and mining, and tertiary includes transport and services. The main factor by which the population is distributed across the certain sectors is consumption of products of the certain sectors and labour productivity in the sectors. Thus the transition from agricultural to non-agricultural depends on the growth of consumption of agricultural products and on labour productivity in agriculture. When productivity would rose equally in all three sectors, the production, with the continuous distribution of the population, would also increase proportionally, so the relationship between the sectors would remain unchanged. The reality is different, because as income grows the demand for industrial goods at the expense of food goods increase. Thus it comes to the shift of needs of the population from the primary sector to the secondary and tertiary.

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There are three variables that determine the extent of deagrarization: the natural movement of agricultural population; actual changes in the number of agricultural population and agricultural population migration balance between the treated and other areas. The hardest thing is to establish the migration balance, and it is easier to determine it for smaller areas. Adjustment of the production structure to the consumption structure of household causes the reduction of the number of farmers and it is one of the main factors of deagrarization, however, there is a whole range of other factors. There are various divisions of factors affecting the deagrarization, but the one is the widest, and that one is the division on the initial: they are the ones who are forcing the people to leave agriculture and attractive who attract farmers into non-agricultural activities. The first include relations in agriculture, the instability of agricultural production, difficult working conditions, and the second include high income in non-agricultural activities, favourable working conditions, the possibility of work choice and more free time.The experience of the former SFRY shows that there were several factors that influenced the deagrarization and they ware: small farms that were characteristic for the country at that time and which did not allow life by modern standards. According to data from 1931 on the holdings of 2 ha in Montenegro 45.6% of all farms was accounted. Agricultural production in the Montenegrin village was without technical equipment.Agricultural tools were typically limited to wooden plow, scythe and sickle. Mineral fertilizers and precious varieties of seeds were unknown. Montenegrin peasant was the most indebted in the country. Indebtedness of Montenegro amounted to 7.1% of the total debt of agriculture in Yugoslavia, although its share of crop production was 0.3%, and of livestock it was 1:44% at the federal level. Namely, according to census from 1961 the average size of the agricultural holding was 3.89 ha, and it consisted of 6.5 pitches. This conditioned low employment on the small farms and labour surpluses. Redundancy is also increased by the implementation of mechanized farming. The next factor that influences deagrarization is low farmers' income compared to people from other economic branches. It is characteristic of the whole world, but in Yugoslavia it was much expressed. The next factor is the unfavorable social status that farmers have in relation to the rest of the population. In addition to increased income, nonagricultural activity provides greater social security through health insurance and pension. This was particularly felt when the deagrarization was so strong so that the village did not provide any security for the future, so people were forced to leave the village. Also the prevalence of urban values among the rural population especially encourages young people to move from village to city. The industrialization and urbanization break indigenous, rural horizons and open new horizons which are very easy recognized by young people and according to those young people, by doing so, they gain their social maturity. There are some factors that hinder deagrarization and which are mostly present among the older population which is illiterate and cannot change their occupation. Then there are the costs of moving from rural to urban areas, as well as costs that the farmer suffers when crossing into another profession. There are also various psychological moments that prevent deagrarization (commitment to village, fatherland, grandfather‟s land, a successful family life). In farmers we may encounter a sense of moral superiority, because they perform the most important job in the world, and that is food production. To the turn of relations of rural population towards the city comes mainly when they are grown up to be the bearers of progress and freedom and centres of better living conditions, which generally coincides to the beginning of the twentieth century, especially with its other half, when the city is transformed into industrial and overall economic development centres, centres of education, health, culture, banking services, when such centres promote the people's government and other agencies and institutions.These processes, followed by periods of calm development, cause the strong migration flows from rural to urban areas, what leads to a demographic emptying

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and to the emptying of population in villages, making the participation of the rural population from 78.7% in 1948 decreased to 41.7% in 1991 and to 38.7% in 2003, while the share of urban population rose from 21.6% in 1948 to 61.9% in 2003, of the total population of Montenegro. However, these processes were not of the same intensity in all parts of Montenegro and they are distinguished between its regions, municipalities, villages and micro units. Villages of Montenegro have experienced true demographic population erosion. It is interesting to note that it was most expressed in the central and coastal, and lowest in the northern region. Montenegro had only one village with no permanent residents in 1961 (Sveti Stefan) and in 2003 28 villages; in a group of 1-10 people in 1961 there were no villages, and in 2003 there were 100 villages; from 11-25 inhabitants in 1961 there were 2, and in 2003 127, in a group of 26-50 people in 1961 there were 48; and in 2003 140; respectively from 050 inhabitants in 1961 the village of 51 (4.2%), and 395 in 2003 (32.5%), or approximately every third village (Table 1). Table 1 The villages of Montenegro divided by regions in groups of up to 50 people in 1961 and 2003 Broj Bez staln. 1-10 11-25 26-50 0-50 Regioni naselja Godine stanovnika broj % broj % broj % broj % broj % 566 1961 10 1,8 10 1,8 Sjeverni 566 2003 4 0,7 8 1,4 45 8,0 46 8,1 103 18,2 420 1961 1 0,2 21 5,0 22 5,2 Srednji 420 2003 10 2,4 53 12,6 64 15,2 70 16,7 197 46,9 230 1961 1 0,4 1 0,4 17 7,5 19 8,3 Primorski 230 2003 14 6,1 39 17,0 18 7,8 24 10,4 95 41,3 C. Gora 1.216 1961 1 0,1 2 0,2 48 3,9 51 4,2 1.216 2003 28 2,3 100 8,2 127 10,5 140 11,5 395 32,5

In the central region, in 1961 up to 50 residents had 22 villages only, and in 2003 197 or 46.9% of the villages in the central region (there were no villages that had up to 10 residents in 1961, and in 2003 there were 10 villages that had not permanent residents, there were 53 villages that had of 1-10 residents; 64 villages that had 11-25 residents and 70 villages that had 26 to 50 residents). In the coastal area in 1961 there were 19 villages that had up to 50 people (only 2 that had up to 25), and in 2003 95 villages, or 41.3%. These are mainly the villages in further inland (Krivosije, Upper Zeta, Pobori, Maine, Paštrovići, Spic, Crmnica). The lowest demographic erosion of population had northern villages. According to the census in 1961 up to 50 residents had 10 villages (all in the group of 26-50), and in 2003 103 villages (18.2%), of which no permanent residents had 4 of them; from 1 - 10 residents 8 villages, from 11 to 25 residents 45 villages and from 26 to 50 residents had 46 villages. FORMS OF DEAGRARIZATION AND EFFECTS IN THE GEOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENT The process of migration from rural villages and the abandonment of agricultural occupations took place in the last two centuries continuously in all countries of the world, just the beginning and intensity were different. The intensity was not the same for the category of village and peasantry. By far the greater is proportion of the population that moved from the category of agricultural to some other structure of the population than the number of population that left the village. Such movements can be considered as the quality of spatial changes. When discussing the trend at a global level, at the level of the world, Europe and the countries, it is not so negative, but it is far worse in the regional scales, that is in lower spatial units.

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Village and peasantry have recently lost primacy in comparison with urban areas and nonagricultural occupations. Under the influence of contemporary and historical social and natural factors, the population of Montenegro has been deploying and is deployed on its territory with varying density and with variety of tendencies of development, a variety of economic opportunities and a high degree of cultural and civilizational characteristics. Historical reasons have led to great ethnic, confessional and national diversities. This led to the formation of real socio-demographic mosaic, which is reflected in the country's policy and in domestic economic issues. Deagrarization is one of the factors that influenced the existing social reality. The forms of deagrarization are different and are divided according to: the way of the abandonment of agriculture and the degree of separation from agriculture. According to the first criterion, we have two types of deagrarization, namely: direct and indirect. GEOGRAPHIC CONSEQUENCES OF DEAGRARIZATION The effects of of deagrarization are: demographic, social, economic and spatial. Demographic consequences are reflected in the fact that certain age groups of population are more covered with deagrarization than the others. This refers to young people, particularly in the period after education, early regulation of military service and getting into marriage. This has resulted in increase in the share of the elderly in the total population. Labor force deficit is particularly felt in the most economically active population who have from 25 - 34 years, and surplus in age groups of people over 50 years. This process is characteristic for the development of the area. The average age of the agricultural population at the level of Yugoslavia in 1971 was 35.2 years; Croatia 36.3; central Serbia 35.7; Montenegro 29.1 and Kosovo 24.0 years. In all the Montenegrin towns there have been significant changes in the relationship between indigenous and immigrant population in favor of immigrants; these changes were the most intensive in 1981 year (from 1961 to 1971 Podgorica was increased for 31,100; from 1971 to 1981 for new 34,100 and from 1981 tol 1991 for new 22,000 of residents, that is, for the three decades for 87.200 residents altogether); in the cities predominant were male population migrations (these relations moved even to 1: 16), the single individuals were the most settled; structure of the settlers was mostly made of Montenegrins, etc..Social condition of the agricultural population is reflected in the birth rate that is lower than that of non-agricultural population so that in 1991 it was 2.7%. Among the agricultural population there are more women and it is said to be the feminization of agriculture. As an example of the former Yugoslavia we can indicate that the maximum participation of women in 1971 was in Slovenia that is of 55%, and minimal participation was in Kosovo, 48.8%. This is a consequence of traditionalism and conservatism, because for the females it was difficult to be employed and to go to town. The social consequences are reflected in the fact that deagrarization destroys traditional ways of life that is characterized by the economic and demographic characteristics and socio - cultural heterogeneity.Departure of young generations in many villages causes socio - cultural gap that leads to gradual decay of the village. Entertainment centers are transferred from the villages and hamlets in the municipal centers and thus the village sinks into a broader and larger entity that defines it. In the village it comes to the reduction in the number of family members as well, where the prevailing families are those of two-generation and three-generation, but there is also a large number of single-person and two-person households.Rural families are not what they used to be, since the authority of the head of household is gradual weakening and the family loses its role of training of its younger members. At the dawn of the second half of the twentieth century in the villages lived 78.7% out of the total population of Montenegro (in absolute numbers 296.796 of residents). The village was the epitome of a healthy demographic tree, the source of demographic renewal of the population, spring of young

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workforce, it was of the significant population size (an average of 247.3 inhabitants) and a large potential for demographic renewal of the population and strengthening of the urban areas. After five and a half decades (in 2003), this picture of Montenegrin village has been fundamentally changed. In that year 38.7% of the population of Montenegro lived in the villages (in absolute numbers 240 337), or 56,459 fewer than in 1948 year, which means that in this period from the villages emigrated their overall population growth plus 56,459 of residents. The average population size of the village dropped to 200 people, demographic tree is flimsy (the share of the older population is between 25 and 30%, and in many villages it is over 30%), 15 villages were without permanent inhabitants and in 2003 that number increased to 29 villages. There were only 7 (0.6%) villages in 1948 in Montenegro, that had up to 25 residents, and in 2003 there were 260 such villages (21.4%); there were 31 villages (2.6) in 1948 that had from 26 to 50 inhabitants, and in 2003 there were 165 (13.6%) such villages, in 1948 there were 174 (14.5%) villages which had from 51-100 inhabitants, and in 2003 there were 234(19.3% ), which indicates that there were 212 (17.7%) villages that had up to 100 residents in Montenegro in 1948, and in 2003 659 villages (54.3%), which means for 447 more than in 1948, or more than half of the villages from 2003. So, in the period from 1948 to 2003 there was an erosion of the village population, to fragmentation of their total population and to the loss of their population and labor vitality. The economic consequences are numerous and the most important is that the property becomes a secondary source of income for many households. Only about 10-15% of household products as much as is sufficient to feed its owners. Another economic consequence is dying of individual households due to migration of the young population, thus many households remain in the hands of the elderly, after whose death the households usually decay. After World War II we started with the economic recovery of Montenegro and Yugoslavia. According to party and state project, industrialization of all republics was to be executed including Montenegro. Such an orientation has negatively affected the agriculture that in Montenegro was the most developed branch of economy.The formation of prominent, state, and later social properties will have an impact on increasing the quality of production in agriculture. In Montenegro, the share of rural population in 1948 was 75.4% and in 1953. it was 61.5%. This information shows that a part of the population have lost interest in practicing agriculture. According to statistics, in the period between 1948 and 1953 there was a significant reduction in livestock from 1146827 heads (in 1948) to 871 841 heads (in 1958). In 1981 there were 13.0% of the agricultural population. In the period from 1961 to 1981 the rate ofdomestic product growth of agriculture was 1.8%, which was below the Yugoslav average growth. In agriculture of the Republic dominated the individual sector of economy that achieves 84% of GDP. The rate of this production was 4.0% in 1991, and in 1996 3.0%. The biggest negative side is the departure of a large number of people from rural to developed industrial centers, which had rapidly grown when it is up to population. Spatial effects are reflected in the fact that the country loses its former importance that it had. There is a movement of population from marginal smaller to larger settlements mainly in the cities occupied by the social structures of the economy and various other cultural and public institutions. Deagrarization has led to ruralisation of cities, topographical coalescence of suburban villages with urban organisms and to the changed physiognomy of cities in one hand and changes in social structures, on the other hand. This process has influenced the heterogenization of the urban areas and homogenization of the rural areas.In rural areas remained inactive, elderly and feminine population, powerless to continue to work in agriculture and the younger population inhabits cities. Thus, in the cities are created two types of families: industrial and mixed. First has been developed in the central parts of the city, and

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the other on the outer ring of the city, without the formation of urban standards, which is why, in most of our cities we can recognize the potential urbanity entangled with rural mentality. They conducted various attempts to revive the village with different measures, which were supposed to encourage people to stay in rural areas, and those who have left agriculture to return to it. This is especially achieved through the electrification of the villages and asphalting of the roads that are connecting villages with municipal or regional centre, by which the lives of people in the countryside is largely facilitated. An understanding of these global developments is of the crucial importance for defining the basic state strategy according to the development of village and rural area. It has to face the following complexes: -strengthening of the economic power and the affirmation of goods production in the countryside, -populational and demographic rejuvenation of the village, and -improving the quality of urban living conditions in the villages of Montenegro. All three complexes necessarily make mutual unity, because only their integrity ensures the realization of these objectives and their objectivity. This global assessment of spatial consequences of industrialization, uncontrolled urbanization and deagrarization is an additional argument in the belief that the process of dying villages in Montenegro must be stopped. INSTEAD OF THE CONCLUSION Deagrarization is one of the developing social processes. The term deagrarization refers to the totality of the forms of abandonment of agriculture by the rural population to whom agriculture was the only activity and the only source of income. In all countries that are rapidly developing deagrarization comes as a logical consequence, because in them there is a decline in the number of agricultural population, first relatively and then absolutely. Ramifications and profound link between ecological, economic and social life have determined the distributional systems of the population including both the production and settlement complexes and their relationship with the natural living conditions and resources. During the organization of the system and shape of distribution of population and activities it is necessary to respect the principles of the real choice of the territory by the basic criteria of natural selection, in order to improve the conditions for the construction, medical-geographic and sanitary-hygienic living conditions, recreational resources, housing grounds, aesthetic features of the landscape. This determened as the regional level of development planning, because the basic planning unit is a region and population and problems of deagrarization have become key issues. RESOURCES AND REFERENCES Bakić Radovan: Demografski razvitak Sjeverne Crne Gore, “Unireks”, Nikšić, 1994. S. Kasalica.: Sjeverna Crna Gora - Turistiĉko - geografska studija, NIO "Univerzitetska rijeĉ", Nikšić, 1988. god. Ivanović Zdravko: Prirodni resursi kao znaĉajan faktor ekonomske stabilizacije u Crnoj Gori, Godišnjak Ekonomskog fakulteta (povodom 25 godina), br.8, Titograd 1985. Vasović Milorad: Geografske odlike Crne Gore, monografija – Crna Gora, “Knjiţevne novine”, Beograd 1976.

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УДК: 314.117.-053.9:316.334.55(4-67ЕУ)

CARE POTENTIALS FOR THE ELDERLY IN THE PERIPHERAL RURAL AREAS Boštjan KERBLER Urban Planning Institute of the Republic of Slovenia, Trnovski pristan 2, SI – 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia E-mail: bostjan.kerbler@uirs.si

ABSTRACT The number of elderly persons increased by half in all European Union member states between 1960 and 1990, and currently this segment represents nearly one-fifth of the population. Projections indicate that this trend will continue if the birth-rate continues to fall and if there is no inflow of younger people through migration. According to information from the United Nations, by 2050 the share of elderly people will represent almost one-third of the European population, of whom one-fifth will be over the age of 80. The age structure of the population is especially unfavourable in peripheral rural areas and is becoming worse. The exodus of young people from these regions is accompanied by a rapidly increasing number of elderly people, so caring for them is becoming a great problem, especially because these areas are difficult to access and are far from care centres in terms of distance and time; furthermore, because of their emotional attachment to their home environment and traditional ties, the elderly do not wish to be institutionalized. Therefore, developed countries are increasingly orienting themselves toward extending the lives of the elderly in their living environment. The most basic method whereby this goal can be achieved is the physical (re)design of the built living environment according to the principles of design for all/universal design, which means user-friendly planning and provides smart and functional solutions that can serve the broadest circle of users with the least difficulty. Another method is assistive technologies, which involves the concept of ambient intelligence or a smart living environment and allows remote home care. The review article discusses especially about the last. Key words: demography, ageing population, remote rural areas, elderly care, assistive technologies, living environment

INTRODUCTION Europe and the rest of the developed world is increasingly dealing with population ageing. According to the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (2013), the share of people over sixty-five increased from 8.2 to 16.2% between 1950 and 2010, and the ageing rate is expected to increase further in the future. If the natural birth rate continues to decrease and there is no constant (or major) influx of younger people through migration, according to Eurostat‟s predictions (2011) by 2060 the share of people over sixty-five will represent 29.3% of the total population in the EU member states, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland. Because people will live longer, the demographic structure of the elderly will also change: the number of those over eighty will increase significantly; it is expected to double in the next thirty years, and to almost triple by 2060. Due to population ageing, and especially due to the rapid increase in the number of elderly and sickly people that usually require a great deal of care, and because families have increasingly more difficulties taking care of their elderly members at home due to the modern tempo and lifestyle, there is increasing pressure to accommodate them in social and healthcare institutions, where they obtain appropriate services. This is creating growing costs for healthcare and social-care systems. This is especially problematic in countries that have largely developed only the institutional form of eldercare, which is the most expensive among all forms of residential eldercare. The financial sustainability of elderly services is already causing concern, but the European Commission (2007) estimates that in the future the expenditure for pensions, healthcare and long-term care alone will increase by 4 to 8% of GDP, and the total costs of healthcare and social-care services are expected to triple by 2050. In 2050, the social-care costs alone are 255


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expected to amount to approximately 35% of GDP in the EU member states (Jespen and Leschke, 2008). Therefore, in the following decades the effect of the post-war baby-boom generation can be expected to show in the provision of eldercare services because this generation will become an increasing user of these services. In terms of the dynamics and especially in terms of the influences on social-healthcare expenditure or the maintenance of use, the future fluctuation of the dependency ratio, which shows how many elderly are dependent on the working population, is very important. The conditions indicate that there may not be enough working people in the future to support the healthcare and social-care system. By 2060 the ratio between the number of workers (fifteen to sixty-four years old) and the number of retirees (over sixty-five) will have fallen from approximately 5:1 in 2000 to 1.9:1 (Eurostat, 2013). In the event of an unchanged rate of growth in the ranks of the older population, an unaltered level of rights in relation to productivity, and unaltered employment rate, the increase in the GDP share of public expenditure connected with ageing is thus the same as the old-age dependency ratio (Dimovski and Ţnidaršiĉ, 2007). Because the financial capacities of countries to maintain the current level and scope of services and institutional care for the elderly are decreasing, there are increasing demands to rationalize the services and residential care of the elderly as much as possible. These demands are feasible, considering that the main idea is to enable the elderly to stay in their homes as long as possible, and to move healthcare and social-care services to the homes of the elderly. This involves the concept of ageing in place. The advocates of this idea proceed from elderly people‟s preferences. Studies show that the elderly wish to stay in their homes and in the same, familiar environment for as long as possible, and to preserve their independence for as long as possible (see, e.g., Rojo Perez et al., 2001; Sabia, 2008; Costa-Font et al., 2009; Wilesa et al., 2009). Even though the preferences of the elderly depend on cultural differences, in most places the elderly see institutionalisation as a very traumatic experience and mostly have a negative attitude towards it. It is often the last resort, and many times they consider it to be their final refuge before death. Such a mentality is more deeply rooted in societies where there is no diversity in institutions and group housing for the elderly; for example, in Slovenia, especially in the rural areas, where emotional attachment to home environment and traditional ties is still very strong. Avoiding institutional care as long as possible is therefore in the interest of the elderly and it is also in the public interest because it tends to limit the demand for institutional care only to people that really need this form of social assistance. The idea of moving healthcare and social-care services into the homes of the elderly can be carried out by appropriately adapting the infrastructure and the built environment. A good basis for this is offered by modern technologies that can be used to convert an elderly person‟s home into a smart living environment. This article presents such an environment offering support to the elderly, and discusses its importance and functioning, the efforts and achievements made to date in developing this living environment, and the premises for implementing it in practice based on elderly people‟s opinions about living in these advanced living environments. The article is based on an analysis of relevant scholarly literature and studies on the topic as well as on our own research results and offers new findings, syntheses, ideas and (critical) views, while also raising questions for further consideration and providing premises for future research and applied work in this area. SMART LIVING ENVIRONMENT: A CARE POTENTIAL FOR THE ELDERLY The development of modern technologies and population ageing are parallel and interconnected processes in developed countries; modern diagnostics and treatment methods are used to prolong life, and modern technologies offer life and residential assistance to the

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elderly. Due to this interconnection, new interdisciplinary areas such as gerontechnology and domotics have even developed. The former is a combination of “gerontology”, the science of ageing and age, and “technology”; it studies and develops technologies that are based on scholarly findings about the ageing process, and its goal is to improve health and facilitate the everyday lives of the elderly, and to enable them to live independently and participate in society (Harrington and Harrington, 2000; Bouma et al., 2007). Domotics is derived from the Latin word domus “home” and the English word “informatics”. It studies the application of information technologies that can be built into the living environment (Demiris and Hensel, 2008). In terms of the development of technology for the elderly, one can roughly define two directions (Rudel et al., 1993): improving and developing assistive technologies that make elderly persons‟ daily lives in their living environment easier, and developing and spreading information technology that exceeds the limitations of physical space through telecommunications. The term “assistive technologies” denotes any device, equipment, product or tool that enhances, preserves or improves the functional abilities of the disabled, who can use it to more easily and safely perform a specific task that they otherwise could not perform (see, e.g., Cowan and Turner-Smith, 1999; Cavanaugh, 2002; Edyburn, 2004). According to Barlow and Venables (2004), assistive technologies make it possible for the user to more effectively control the environment with as little physical effort as possible, in which, as highlighted by Heywood (2004), planning assistive technologies and integrating them into the living environment should take into account not only general standards, but also individuals‟ specific needs. Assistive technologies thus reduce the differences between an individual‟s abilities and the environment, which enables independent life in the living environment (McCreadie and Tinker, 2005). A distinction is made between low-, mid-, and high-level assistive technologies (Kaye et al., 2008). The first include minor mechanical changes or adjustments in a specific type of product (e.g., furniture), the second include simple aids that, in contrast to the first, require a source of energy to work (e.g., automatic alerts) and the third involve programmed devices with built-in electronics (Cavanaugh, 2002). The development of modern information and communications technology (ICT) opens new opportunities and solutions for assistive technologies. Together with computer hardware and software, ICT makes it possible to control and manage assistive technologies in the home. This reduces physical distance and expands the social dimension of space (Hojnik-Zupanc, 1999). The concept is known as an ambient intelligence or a smart environment. According to Remagnino and Shapio (2007), these terms are used to identify methodologies and technologies that provide an environment that responds effectively to a user‟s needs. Such an environment combines computer and advanced network and assistive technologies (smart and innovative devices), and special interfaces (sensors) that perceive and interact with users in a discrete manner. The hardware must be integrated into the environment in a non-intrusive manner and in minimal dimensions, with the smallest possible use of space and energy, which is made possible by smart materials, various nano-technologies and so on. The complex heterogeneous network (i.e., the telecommunications infrastructure) operates discretely in such environments. These environments recognize the presence of persons in a room based on physiological characteristics (e.g., voice and gestures) and are always ready to respond to a request for ambient assisted living. This enables the system to control what is going on in the environment and monitor the user‟s biological functions as well as his or her safety. The operation of the ambient intelligence is supervised, which ensures safety in terms of technologies and ethics (e.g., safety of the user‟s biometric and other personal data; Rodriguez et al., 2005; Zupan et al., 2007). A smart home is an ambient intelligence application that is an example of a smart living environment.

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A smart home is a system that responds to people‟s needs and activities, and is adapted to their cognitive and physical abilities (Pecora and Cesta, 2007). Such homes are outfitted with state-of-the-art equipment, tools and technology, which are functionally interconnected. The electronic systems in smart homes monitor the living environment and can even perform certain tasks (opening and closing doors, raising blinds, and turning the heating on and off) with minimum physical force using various methods (remote control, voice command, a control panel on a wheelchair and even by moving the eyes). These homes have built-in communications technology that enables electronic access to and inclusion in various environments: the built environment in the form of buildings and social infrastructure, the social environment (interaction with the family, neighbours and service providers), and the secondary environment (culture, politics, business, ecology and so on; Zupan et al. 2007). Emiliani and Stephanidis (2005) believe that these systems define the vision of the information society and that in the future they will provide support to a wide range of electronically transmitted human activities and access to a number of services and applications, especially because technologies are becoming increasingly cheaper and the availability of various telecommunications types is also increasing. However, even with the best technical and technological support, smart homes cannot serve their purpose on their own if the living environment is not physically adapted from the very start: it must be without any architectural barriers and adapted to elderly people‟s needs, abilities and demands. In adapting the physical living space in a smart home, one needs to follow the principles of inclusive design (see Imrie and Hall, 2001)or design for all (see Goodall and Pottinger, 2010), also referred to as universal design(seeMace et al., 1991). These principles emphasize the accessibility of the built living environment, in which its layout must be as functional as possible, the passages between the rooms must be without thresholds, the floor must be level and not slippery, the doors and halls must be wide, the furniture, electrical installations and windows must be at an appropriate height, bathrooms must have handles, seats, backrests and adapted furniture, and the rooms must have adequate lighting, a proper contrast between bright and dark colours, and so on. Smart homes are thus a combination of the living environment without architectural barriers and the assistive information communications technologies built into this environment. DEVELOPMENT OF SMART LIVING ENVIRONMENTS FOR THE ELDERLY In Europe (e.g., in Scandinavia, the Netherlands, the UK, Germany, Italy, and France) and elsewhere (e.g., the U.S., Japan, South Korea, and Singapore), numerous test projects and applied projects are taking place in smart living environments for the elderly. The majority of research refers to the idea of moving healthcare and social-care services to the home environments of the elderly, and to the issue of how to most effectively link the smart-home environments of the elderly to a “remote control” network, which provides remote access to care and other healthcare services. The first, simpler versions of these systems were developed in some western European countries more than twenty years ago. These were safety alarm systems that consisted of a simple telephone-based device. Users had a special telephone with a wireless remote activator that they carried on themselves (such as a bracelet or a pendant). This control/communications platform enabled users to trigger a wireless activator at anytime and anywhere in the apartment or house (even when they could not reach the phone) to call a caretaker (a relative, neighbour or friend) or control centre for assistance and discuss possible ways to receive help (Miskelly, 2001). The service could also include a reminder function that sent reminders to the user at a specific time to perform a specific task. The reminders were sent to one or several addresses at the same time, including to the user‟s caretaker. The users had to confirm that they received the reminder. If they did not confirm it,

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the reminder was sent again and the caretaker was notified (Cimerman et al., 2010). These simple versions of the safety alarm system are intended for elderly people with various health problems such as forgetfulness and various forms of disability (Ocepek and Zupan, 2008). The extent of usage differs and varies from one country to another. The ICT & Ageing – European Study on Users, Markets and Technologies (see Kubitschke and Cullen, 2010) showed that the share of users over 65 is the highest in the UK and Ireland (14–16%), followed by Sweden, Finland and Denmark (6–10%), and the U.S., Spain, Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands, Italy, France and Japan (1–3%). There are several providers of advanced ICT-systems in the U.S. that collect information on vital functions in the home and send it to special healthcare and other assistance centres though home networks and broadband communication paths. Currently, the UK is at the forefront in implementing these forms of ambient intelligence. The British government defined such implementation into society as one of the most important national strategic development priorities. According to Barlow and Hendy (2009), £175 million was allocated between 2006 and 2011 to carrying out pilot projects in England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland in order to obtain as much practical experience and evidence as possible based on which smart homes could be implemented successfully and with a higher certainty. The results are very encouraging. For example, in Scotland six pounds was saved for each pound invested in establishing, developing and implementing the system (£8 million was invested and £48.4 million saved; see Joint Improvement Team, 2010). Specifically, this included 47.5% thanks to reducing the number of admissions to care institutions, 42% by reducing the number of unnecessary hospital stays (due to faster discharge), 9.1% by reducing unexpected hospital admissions (due to the system‟s fast responsiveness to injuries in the home) and reducing the number of night shifts and home calls. Telecare is used with these kinds of advanced smart-home systems for the elderly. Advanced systems of the smart living environment operate such that sensors discretely built into the user‟s home (smart) environment (e.g., on doorknobs, handles and watches) monitor the user‟s life cycle: a) they measure the user‟s physiological functions (heartbeat, blood pressure, skin moisture, blood sugar levels, body weight, temperature, percentage of carbon dioxide in exhaled air, body noises, urine and stool, and so on); b) they monitor the user‟s activity (e.g., slow and permanent changes in his or her lifestyle, and they evaluate the behaviour patterns of those monitored based on the number of times they go through the door, open the refrigerator, and step on the rug by the bed, and based on when they eat and how many meals they have); and c) they remind and warn users with cognitive or sensory deficiencies (e.g., when to take medications, and they give voice instructions on how to do things in a room). In addition to these devices, which monitor the user‟s condition, a smart home also contains built-in devices that identify any unusual state or conditions in the living environment and thus ensure safety and supervision; these include movement detectors (for detecting falls, automatically turning the lights on and off, and opening the door), and fire, smoke, gas and water detectors. All of the information is transferred to and recorded in a remote information (control) system. If this system detects any changes that deviate from the user‟s normal parameters or the condition of his or her living environment, it sets off an automatic alarm that is transferred to the call (alarm) centre (the remote caretaker), which takes the necessary steps in the user‟s home. Barlow et al. (2006) thus define this system as a “response mode” or“r-mode.”The telecommunications alarm centre can serve as an information-coordination centre and play the role of a mediator between users and assistance providers (like the protection-alarm system). It can also perform a combined role of an information-coordination centre and a service-provider mediator, and also include assistance providers in its operations; for example, community nurses, social workers, emergency medical service, fire-fighters, relatives, neighbours and so on. Based on the type and gravity

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of the problem(s), the person in charge at the call centre provides suitable instructions (recommendations) to the user (e.g., to take medications or visit a doctor) or informs a public service or service provider of the user‟s needs (Rudel, 2007). The call centre‟s operation is also supported by a medical team that has occasional remote access to the data stored in the clinical information database. The detection of various biophysical patterns provides important information for the early detection of a deteriorated health status in an individual and can contribute to suitable adjustment of the treatment program or help alleviate any chronic conditions. In addition, this information not only makes it possible to automate routines, but also provides better and more informed insight into the condition and understanding of the patients‟ needs. Users that wish to monitor the results of their health efforts can access their aggregated data outfitted with appropriate recommendations and advice any time through the ICT. In this way they can actively and effectively participate in promoting health, care, and remote protection (Jelenc, 2007). Barlow et al. (2006) define this type of system as a “preventive mode” or “p-mode.” Recently, an even more innovative form of built living environment has been developed that focuses on the quality of users‟ lives rather than on their independence and safety. With these systems, users can access virtual media and the Internet to participate in the wider social environment (video connections to maintain contact with relatives and friends, and to virtually participate in group activities). This type of smart-home system is called a “virtual neighbourhood” because users can use it to perform services and socialize with other people without having to leave their homes (Brownsell et al., 2008, 2011); this prevents them from feeling alone and isolated. INTRODUCING SMART LIVING ENVIRONMENTS FOR THE ELDERLY Despite successful pilot and test projects, advanced forms of a smart living environment for the elderly are not yet widely implemented. Their main purpose is often overly unilateral because they largely study the effects of smart homes on people‟s health and the operation of the technologies used; this is confirmed by the analysis of research publications from 2005 to 2013 that was conducted for this purpose. By entering the search string “smart home” in international bibliographical databases such as Ebscohost, ProQuest, ScienceDirect, Springerlink, and Thomson Reuters ISI Web of Knowledge, 924 research articles were found, among which 81% presented and evaluated clinical results or presented studies in which smart-home devices were tested. A more detailed analysis shows that these studies largely tested and analyzed those parts of the smart living environment systems and their devices that provide safety and control, detect users‟ activities, measure their physiological functions and transmit reminders; only 17% of the studies examined the devices that enable and record users‟ social interactions. Based on this it can be concluded that the studies of smart-home concepts largely focus on ways to promote health and to a much lesser degree on ensuring quality living, even though the social importance of smart homes has already been emphasized by Moran (1993): “Introducing advanced technologies to homes can change the quality aspects of living, and relations between the household members, as well as the social role and function of the home and its connection with the wider environment … These technologies have important consequences not only for our health, but also and especially on our quality of life.” (Moran, 1993, 15)

Twenty years later, the process of developing and implementing smart living environments takes place more or less because of the need to rationalize healthcare and social-care services, but far too little attention is paid to users and their wishes and needs. The author believes this is wrong. Technologies form the basis for the operation of smart-home systems, but any innovation can only be successfully implemented if the abilities offered by the new technology match users‟ needs, demands and capabilities. According to Rogers (1962) and a number of authors after

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him (e.g., Smixmith and Smixmith, 2000; Levy et al., 2003; Demiris et al., 2004; Hanson and Percival, 2006), not paying attention to user needs in particular turned out to be one of the major factors hindering the implementation of innovations. Users are not interested in the technological aspects of the innovation, but primarily in its applicability, and therefore successfully implementing innovative living environments for the elderly also depends on how this concept is accepted by users. Thus the service or the “service experience” is what they are interested in rather than the devices and systems in and of themselves. The main question is thus what users like and what “works” for them (Saranummi et al., 2006). Research on the smart living environment and its implementation in society should therefore focus more on users. Users should evaluate the features and effects of living in such an environment based on how they perceive and understand it (as a desired or undesired form of living). Based on a sufficiently large number of these types of studies (and subsequent user experiences), the user perceptions could be generalized and this could be of great help to technology and smart-environment developers, which would likely increases the success rate of putting smart living environments into practice. However, in order for users to realistically evaluate the technologies, the main goal of the implementation process should be assigning meaning to and understanding the concept of a smart living environment. User perceptions can be distorted for various reasons, which is especially relevant for innovations based on the most advanced forms of ICT and intended for the elderly. Studies (see Hanson 2001; Marquié et al., 2002; Richardson et al., 2005; Lee and Phippen, 2006; Richardson, 2006) show that elderly people generally do not trust ICT. Tetley et al. (2001) report that one of the most common dissuading beliefs among the elderly is that living in an intelligent environment is overly automated or that they perceive technology as a substitute for a personal form of care, protection and communication, which could result in reduced social interaction and isolation or, as Wyde and Valins (1996) point out, in creating a society of “high-tech hermits.” According to Sponselee et al. (2008), this means that the elderly suffer from “technophobia”; they are afraid of innovation and new technologies. Peĉjak (1998) believes this is because they do not know how to use these technologies, and Czaja et al. (2006) believe this is because they do not have confidence in and doubt their own abilities due to sensory and cognitive deficiencies. Cheverst et al. (2003) justify this by the fact that the elderly are more conservative and do not want their lives and life habits to change too much, especially not due to external, less known or alien factors that may interfere with their privacy. Fisk (2003) and Percival and Hanson (2006) believe that especially with regard to advanced systems of smart living environments the elderly are afraid of losing their privacy because they have the unpleasant feeling of being constantly watched (Big Brother syndrome), which is also confirmed by studies conducted by Redford and Whitten (1997), Glueckauf and Ketterson (2004) and Bertera et al. (2007). The results of our research conducted in 2012 show the importance of (correctly) informing potential users and raising their awareness and understanding of the operation and usefulness of a smart living environment for the elderly. The data were collected using face-to-face interviews and the research sample included people over sixty. They were divided into two groups. Before the interviews, the smart home, its operation and how one can live in it were briefly presented to the first group. The concept of a smart living environment was explained more thoroughly to the second group before the interviews, but still in a simple and understandable way. Five short “scenarios” were prepared in advance to show how the system works, how it can be used and what the role of users in relation to technologies is like in such a living environment, using everyday events from the life of the elderly. In this way the respondents were able to imagine what it was like to live in this environment and they could ask the researchers further questions after the presentation. Based on how the respondents had been informed, the difference in the opinions of the first and second groups was quite

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obvious. In the first group, the respondents had a notably negative attitude towards smart homes and living in them, whereas in the second group they had a positive opinion of it: a full 78.4% of them replied they would be willing to live in a home living environment that would provide telecare using modern technologies. The importance of assigning meaning to and understanding the concept of a smart living environment for successful implementation is also confirmed by the results of attempts to implement these environments in Scotland. From 2007 to 2010, 25% of new users there (compared to the initial state) decided to integrate smart technologies into their home environment and integrate their homes into the remote control network and thus connect them with care and other service providers. This confirms that they were well informed because the Scottish government dedicated special attention to this project (see Joint Improvement Team, 2010). In this it turned out that user experience had an important effect on raising awareness and understanding, and the subsequent acceptance of this innovation. As reported by Beale et al. (2010), the data on user satisfaction, which were made available to potential users in Scotland, were obviously sufficiently persuasive to motivate a wide circle of addressees: 60.5% of users believed that their quality of life improved through the reorganization of their homes into a smart environment and their inclusion in the remote care and protection system; 93.3% of users believed this made them safer, 69.7% thought they were more independent and 87.2% reported that other family members had less work with them. Such positive experiences are extremely useful for promoting innovations and increasing trust in the concept of smart living environments in society, and thus also for their successful implementation. However, disseminating information and raising people‟s awareness should not be limited only to the elderly as the users, but it should also include formal and informal caretakers – that is, the target audience that ultimately makes up the market for smart living environments. According to the results of Seniorwatch (see European Commission, 2008), more than 80% of the elderly are assisted in their daily activities and tasks by one of their family members as informal caretakers and care providers. The statements of relatives reported by Beale et al. (2010) also confirm that these new technologies can also help caretakers: 74.3% of relatives felt less burdened thanks to their use. In the future it would thus make sense to also include relatives in this study because their views also have an important effect on how telecare is accepted, supported and used in society. However, in order to realistically evaluate it, the remote home care system should also be appropriately presented to them and assigned proper meaning because, as the results of other studies show, the views of caretakers can also often be distorted due to various reasons. Perceptions connected with telecare that may be present among the caretakers include fear or resistance to the service and excessive excitement over it. They primarily resist the service because ICT-assisted care of the elderly seems impersonal to them and also because, as Raappana et al. (2007) report, they are afraid they would have to (partially or fully) give up their role of caretakers, which formal caretakers in particular feel called to do. According to researchers, this fear often results from the fact that caretakers have insufficient knowledge of the use of these technologies and regard training as an additional, unnecessary and stressful obligation. Thus, if caretakers understood how these technologies work, got to know their advantages and benefits and learned how to use them, the fear would be gone and they would therefore also accept them as part of their lives and work. In addition to resisting these technologies, caretakers can also be overly excited about them, which also prevents objective evaluation of the concept of a smart home and keeps it from being successfully implemented. Raappana et al. (2007) report that these perceptions of smart living environments can most often be ascribed to informal caretakers (i.e., relatives). The modern tempo and way of life increasingly limits the opportunities for family home care of elderly family members. “It seems that in Europe in recent years the main provider of eldercare to date (i.e., the family) has been failing to perform this role.” (Ministry of Labour, Family and Social Affairs, 2007, 9)

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Therefore, family caretakers expect innovative ICT to replace or completely disburden them, which is a utopia and dangerous both to the elderly, who might actually become socially isolated, and to successfully implementing the concept of smart homes because the disappointment following the realization that ultimately technology cannot replace people might lead to resistance and spreading negative views of this innovation. Therefore home caretakers should be informed in detail what the actual capabilities of technologies in smart living environments are and have realistic expectations about them. CONCLUSIONS Smart living environments provide a way of realizing the idea of moving social-care and healthcare services to the homes of the elderly and thus rationalizing the increasing public expenditure due to population ageing. This is especially true for rural municipalities that are peripheral, remote, and difficult to access. In the future it is therefore necessary to systematically improve this network and develop it into a telecare system and, together with informal caretakers (relatives, neighbours, acquaintances, etc.), create a network of care providers or services that will cover various needs of the elderly throughout Slovenia, especially in greatly underprivileged peripheral rural areas. It can be expected that these living environments will gradually become part of elderly people‟s daily lives in the future; this will be greatly influenced by society itself because it is increasingly turning into an information society, in which assistive technologies and ICT are increasingly being accepted as part of people‟s daily lives. However, due to population ageing and the subsequent increasing cost pressure on the healthcare and social-care systems, an overly time-consuming and spontaneous implementation of smart living environments would be detrimental to society. Equally detrimental would be inadequately planned, overly unilateral and overly fast implementation arising only from the need to achieve financial sustainability and due to technological development, and not taking place in line with the needs, wishes and concepts of society, especially, as it has turned out, those of the future users of smart living environments and related services. Implementation must therefore follow a model that enables users to be active and central participants in this process. The elderly should come to the realization that these living environments make it possible for them to remain in their homes or the same, familiar environments longer and retain their independence. On the other hand, caretakers must realize that these technologies will not replace them or that they cannot be replaced by them, but that they can disburden them. This is a participatory evaluation approach that can help users in their efforts to achieve the goals set, and to develop and empower themselves. Of course the highlighted user aspect of the implementation does not guarantee that the concept of a smart living environment would be automatically accepted and generally established in society. It is an important basis for this, especially for promoting this idea in society, but the entire process of implementing this concept demands a combination of technological and organizational planning, and also includes other stakeholders (i.e., buyers of or payers for the care service such as insurance companies, municipalities and the state, remote control system providers such as telecommunications alarm centres, and developers of technologies and infrastructure) in addition to users. These stakeholders have different risk perceptions and value systems that need to be addressed. Further research in this area should therefore take these findings into account and also evaluate other conditions and demands of various stakeholders, which means that quick changes in implementing the concept of smart living environments in society are not to be expected, especially not in the peripheral rural area, where people are usually not very familiar with the new technologies. A major step would already be made if elderly people‟s homes started to be converted based on the principles of design for all and if

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architectural barriers in them were removed and new homes were built without these barriers. This would make it possible for the elderly to remain in their home environments longer, while also serving as a basis for changing these environments into smart homes by building assistive technologies and ICT into them. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The study this article is based on was financed by the national research agency. I would like to thank my colleagues on the international forum Ambient Assisted Living for all of their valuable advice and assistance.

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УДК: 314.116:551.4.035(497.11)

POPULATION POTENTIALS OF THE MOUNTAINOUS AREA OF SERBIA – TRENDS AND PERSPECTIVES Milena SPASOVSKI¹, Danica ŠANTIĆ² ¹Full Professor, Faculty of Geography, University of Belgrade, spasovskimilena@gmail.com ²Assistant, Faculty of Geography, University of Belgrade, danicam@gef.bg.ac.rs

ABSTRACT Contribution of the natural change and net migration components forming potential of the Serbian population from World War II to present a period on global macro-regional and local level requiresa more detailed analysis due to the fact that all aspects of the demographic transformation in Serbia are regionally based and specifically determined. Different transition experiences for a long historical period and the establishment of modern regional demographic and ethno-demographic polarization and displacement of population and potential spatial and ethnic terms are correlated with the number of elements of the economic, cultural, social, historical, political and other systems. The complexity of biological and total depopulation is shown through a population decrease in number of settlements and increasein number of displaced and small settlements. According to the census of 2011, there are 11 settlements without inhabitants, 23 with less than 3 inhabitants, 85 settlements with less than 10 people and 986settlements withthe population less than 100. Dispersive distribution of small settlements is connected with the historical development of the settlement network in areas of different natural environment in Serbiaanddecades of specific trends in biological depopulation and emigration in rural areas, specially in hillymountainousareasof Serbia which is the main subject analysed in this paper. Key words: population, Serbia, mountain area, depopulation, settlements, polarization, areas.

INTRODUCTION In geographical studies, the spatial aspects of population phenomena are the basis for the analysis of changes in the territorial-demographic structure of the area, as starting pointsofasustainable regional development. In foreign and domestic geographical literature, on national and global level as well, the distribution of the population is shown per the altitude zones, where the basin-valley and hilly-mountainous areas stand out, which boundary is usually at the altitude of 500m. The exact calculations mostly classify municipalities with more than 50% of the territory above the altitude of 500m in hilly-mountainous areas. In demographic studies of the mountainous area,the attention is focused on determining the spatial distribution of population and settlements of different population size, trends in the overall population potential, their determinants, qualitative characteristics of the population, measures of the population and development policy, as abasis for thesustainable future demographic development. Population potentials of the mountain area of Serbia in the second half of the XX century Contemporary geographic distribution of the population in the mountainous area and the areas of plains and hills of the Republic of Serbia, was being developed in the interaction of natural, socio-historical, socio-economic, cultural-civilizational conditions and factors. Overall benefits for the population density development of lower compared to higher altitudes affected, especially in the period of transformation of the agrarian to an industrial society, the trend of increasing concentration of population and associations in which the population lived in the areas of plains and hills.This process is followed by differentiation of the demographic development in these areas, as in terms of natural change and migration, so as by a number of structural features, degree of urbanization, social, cultural and general spatial transformation.

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Due to slower economic transformation, social and cultural transformation, the population of the mountainous areas was later affected by the demographic transition and in a longer historical period hadan emigration character. In order to assess the population potential of the mountainous areas above the altitude of 500m and the areas of plains and hills below the altitude of 500m, it is important to point out that in the Republic of Serbia,according to the territorial range,this ratio is of 40%:60%, in Central Serbia 47%:53%, in Kosovo and Metohija 81%:19% and the territory of Vojvodina as a whole belongs to the area of plains and hills. Regarded by the number of settlements in the Republic of Serbia, 53% is concentrated in the mountainous area, and 47%of the settlements in plains and hills,and the ratio is 50%:50%in Central Serbia and 81%:19% in Kosovo and Metohija. In the mountainous area, on 40% of the territory of the Republic of Serbia,according to the census in 1948, lived 1,913,000 inhabitants, i.e., only 29% of the total population and 22% of the total number of households in Serbia; and in 1981 the population was 2,649,000 or 28% of the total population and 21% of the total number of households in Serbia.In the period 1948-1981,the indices of population growth in the mountainous area (138) and the areas of plains and hills (132) were globally approximated. However, the differences in the population dynamics of these physical systemswere significant at the macro regional level of Serbia.In Central Serbia,the population of the mountainous areaincreased from 1,328,000 to 1,417,000 which made the index value of 107 (in the areas of plains and hills 157), while in Kosovo and Metohija the population in the mountainous area increased from 585,000 to 1,230,000, or the index of 210 (in the areas of plains and hills 238).During the same period, the population of Vojvodina increased from 1,641,000 to 2,035,000, which madethe index of 124. In the period 1948-1981 in Central Serbia and Vojvodina, the number of households was growing faster than the population in both spatial systems, due to transition from the patriarchal to nuclear family, while in Kosovo and Metohija the population growth was faster than the number of households.Changes in movementof the population in the period 1948-1981 at the level of setllementspointed tosignificant differences in the population dynamics of the population in the areas of higher and lower altitudes. The depopulation trends were most pronounced in Central Serbia (74% of the total number of settlements), and in Vojvodina (65%) and the lowest in Kosovo and Metohija (18% of the settlements).Thus, the proportion of depopulated in the total number of settlementsin this period in the mountainous areacompared to the area of plains and hills was in Central Serbia 79%:70%, and in Kosovo and Metohija, 21%:5% (Spasovski M., Janić M., 1990-1991). The above mentioned trends in population dynamics are the result of specific carrying outof the demographic transition on macro-regional levels and ethno-demographic systems (Christian and Muslim). The slower flow of the demographic transition in the mountainous areacaused this area, for several decades after World War II, to preserve the dominance in the total natural reproduction of the population, and with the constant migration to renewthe population in the areas of lower altitudes.However, by the 1980s, in the mountainous areas of Central Serbia,the demographic potential for natural reproduction was weakened. Thus, for example, in 1987 the population of the mountainous areas participated in the overall population growth in Central Serbia with 37%, and the area of plains and hills with 63%. That same year, in Kosovo and Metohija the population of the mountainous area yielded 79% and the areas of plains and hills 21% of the total population growth of this macro entity.The centuries-old migration routes from the areas of higher to the areas of lower altitudes and their current trends, are the factors of forming the total population potential with different structural features in these spatial systems ofSerbia (Spasovski M.,Janić M., 1990-1991). On the basis of the above mentioned components, in the Republic of Serbia since World War II, the strong redistribution of the population has taken place, together with strengthening the density and concentration of the population in plains and hills. In the mountainous area of the

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Republic of Serbia in 1948,the overall population density was 54 inhabitants/km2, and in 1981, 76 inhabitants/km2, while in the area of plains and hills the overall population density grew from 87 to 125 inhabitants/km2. In the observed period, in the mountainous area of Central Serbia, the density was stagnating (51 inhabitants/km2:54 inhabitants/km2), and in Kosovo and Metohija, it was doubled (64 inhabitants/km2:140 inhabitants/km2) (Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia, 2004). In the decades after World War II, also began the fast progress of aging of the population, particularly in some regional entities of the mountainous area. In Central Serbia, in both spatial systems in 1981, the ageing index reached 0.4, and since then in both, the mountains areas and the areas of plains and hills, the rapid aging of the population continued. In Kosovo and Metohija, in both spatial systemsin 1981, the ageingindexwas only 0.1, which is the characteristic of very young population.It can be concluded that in the 1980s,the demographic reservesof new labour were evident only in Kosovo and Metohija, with the percentage of utilization of working age population of 43% in the mountainous and 46% in the areas of plains and hills. In Central Serbia in 1981, the utilization of working age population in the mountainous area was 81%, and in the areas of plains and hills 76%, while in Vojvodina was 66%, which confirmed that the depopulation by then involved the entire population of Central Serbia and Vojvodina.By the 1980s, a redistribution of the population in Central Serbia took place, reaching three times stronger population potential in the areas of plains and hills in comparison with the mountainous area. In general, we conclude that in the decades after World War II, the process of differentiation in demographic trends between the mountainous and the areas of plains and thills was taking place, and even more so at the level of macroregional entities and within the ethno-demographic systems in the Republic of Serbia. This suggests that the demographic processes in Serbia were significantly conditioned by thecomplex of socio-geographic, cultural and civilizational factors in relation to naturalgeographical variables (Spasovski M.,Janić M., 1990-1991). Population potentials of the mountainous areaof Central Serbia at the beginning of the XXI century – present status and perspectives For the purposes of defining the specificity of a sustainable development of the areas ofhigher altitudes in spatial-planning literature and practice in Serbia, the mountainous areas were determined by the boundary above the altitude600m, and that was done on the basis of separating the cadastral municipalities and the total municipal area, which was located by over 50% of its territory above the altitude of 600m. Thus established the mountainous area covers an area of 1522 cadastral municipalities (37% of their total number) on the territory of 67 municipalities in Central Serbia, which is 58% of the total number of municipalities in this macro entity. For the purposes of the project'' Sustainable development of the mountainousareasof Serbia'',in a group of 67 mountainous municipalities, the following three categorieswere selected: completely mountainous municipalities (12), mostly mountainous municipalities (21) and partly mountainous municipalities (34). Municipalities of totally mountainous character are located in the southeastern and southwestern part of Central Serbia, the municipalities of mostlyand partly mountainous character lean on them, making a continuous spatial system of this macro-regional entity (Figure 1, Group of authors, 2003).

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а

b

Figure 1: Mountainous area above the altitude of 600m (а), andmountainous municipalities (b) of Serbia Source: Group of authors, 2003

Population potential of the mountainous municipalities of Central Serbia is 2,7 million in 2002 and 2,5 million in 2011, which is 50% of the population on 73% of the Central Serbia territory. This speaks about the importance of the demographic trends and structural characteristics of this population for the use of resources of this area to ensure the sustainable development of Serbia. On the territory of the mountainous municipalities, thepopulation potentials and the transformation of their qualitative properties have beingdecreased the for decades.And in the last intercensal period (2002-2011), the number of inhabitantshas dropped by about 200,000, which is the dominant influence on the reduction of the total population of Serbia. At the same time, the adverse trends in population aging and reduction in working age and reproduction population in this area are rapidly taking place, which is a limiting factor in their future development.Spatial system of the mountainous municipalities is not homogeneous either in demographic terms or in terms of belonging to a mountainous area. In the scope of the mountainous municipalities, completely mountainous municipalities include 18% of the territory and 12% of the population, mostly mountainous municipalities 31% of the territory and 21% of the population and partly mountainous municipalities 51% of the territory and 67% of the population (Table 1). Tabel 1: Basic demographic indicators for the mountainous municipalities in Central Serbia, 2002-2011 Population density No. of inhabitants Area No. of (inhabitants/km2) Territory (km2) municipalities* 2002 2011 ** 2002 2011 Republic of Serbia 77,494 161 7,479,437 7,186,862 96 93 Central Serbia 55,968 116 5,454,950 5,255,053 97 94 Mountainous municipalities 40,813 67 2,732,616 2,539,782 67 62 Completely mountainous municipalities 7,982 12 317,254 310,496 40 39 Mostly mountainous municipalities 11,696 21 623,624 526,587 53 45 Partly mountainous municipalities 21,135 34 1,791,738 1,702,699 85 80 Source:Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia, 2002, 2011

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*in the census of 2011, the number of municipalities has increased to 168. However, since this increase occurred primarily because of changes in the administrative division of Novi Sad and Niš, and the division of the municipalities of Poţarevac and Vranje on two municipalities each, this analysis, out of the comparability reasons,took the number of municipalities from the previous census **in the municipalities of Preševo, Bujanovac and Medvedja, the census of 2011 did not completely cover the population, which is why the given value is lower.

This suggests that within the spatial system of the mountainous municipalities,the population is more significantly concentrated in partly mountainous municipalities, whilecompletely and mostly mountainous municipalitiesare characterized by total depopulation, emigration, disperse populationof predominantly older people, insufficient economic development, and unfavorable social structure.All this is related to the spatial-functional organization of the settlement, because partly mountainous municipalities have developed central settlements at lower altitudes, which attract people. All three types of the mountainous municipalities are characterized, by the 2002 and 2011census, asmunicipalities of lower population density than the average of Central Serbia, with the declining trend. At the same time, completely and mostly mountainous municipalities have significantly lower population density than partly mountainous municipalities, with the following values in 2011: 39 inhabitants/km2 in completely mountainous municipalities, 45 inhabitants/km2 in mostly and 80 inhabitants/km2 in partly mountainous municipalities (Table 1). Mountainous municipalities of Central Serbia represented on 2/3 of the territory employ a significant population resource, which structural features significantly determine the future demographic trends. They can be viewed through a detailed analysis of the biological, economic and social structure of the population, among which are numerous limiting conditions for the sustainable demographic development of theseareas, which must be redirectedby adequate measures of the population and development policy.On this occasion we are not able to go into a more detailed analysis of the qualitative characteristics of the populationof the mountainous municipalities. Out of this reason, they are shown through a synthesis indicator defined as ''the demographic potential'' which contains a number of structural characteristics of the population. In the category of completely mountainous municipalities the following stand out: demographically very progressive type - Tutin and Novi Pazar, demographically stable type Sjenica and Prijepolje, demographically weakened type – Priboj, demographically endangered and critically endangered type - Nova Varoš, Ivanjica, Ĉajetina in the southwestern and Bosilegrad, Trgovište, Crna Trava and Dimitrovgrad in the southeastern part of Central Serbia.In the category of mostly mountainous municipalities stand out: demographically very progressive type - Preševo, demographically stable type - Bujanovac, Vranje and Uţice, demographically weakened type - Arilje, Bajina Bašta and demographically endangered and critically endangered type- Raška, Kosjerić, Ljubovija, Kuršumlija, Brus, Babušnica, Bela Palanka, Vladiĉin Han, Vlasotince, Gadţin Han, Medvedja, Pirot, Svrljig, Sokobanja, Surdulica.In the category of partly mountainous municipalities, most of them belong to demographically endangered and critically endangered type, which territorial distribution is the same in both, the eastern and southeastern, and the western part of Central Serbia. In this category, only the municipalities with larger regional centers at lower altitudes belong to demographicallystable type -Niš, Kragujevac and demographically weakened type - Ĉaĉak, Kraljevo, Kruševac.The given classification of the mountainous municipalities by type of demographic potential confirms the findings already given about the demographically eroded population potential of the mountainous areas of Central Serbia, because most of its municipalities are in the categoryof demographically endangered and critically endangered type (Figure 2).

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Figure 2: Demographic potential of Serbia (excluding Kosovo and Metohija), 2010 Source:Јotev Ј., 2012

Status and prospects of the population potentials are determined by the development trends in structure, function and size of the settlement, in which the mountainous areas considerably differ in relation to the basin-valley areas. The population of the mountainous municipalities of Serbia is concentrated in 3298 settlements, which makes 78% of the total settlements of this macro-regional entity.Functioning of the settlement systems of certain regional entities is viewed through the settlement structure by size of population potentialsand model of the sizeof central settlements, where,as a rule, the central settlement should have the population potential as all the settlements that gravitationally belong to it. For this purpose, we will point out only the main trends in the change of the number of settlements by population size and their deployment in the mountainous areaof Central Serbia, covering 1665 settlements, i.e.,the settlements which cadastral territories are mostly above the altitude of 600m and in which, at the beginning of the twenty-first century, 720,000 inhabitants wererecorded.According to the population size in the mountainous area of Central Serbia in 1961, 54% of the settlements belonged to the category of 100-500 inhabitants, 30% of the settlements tothe category of 500-1,000 inhabitants, while the settlements with less than 100 inhabitantsrepresented 3%, and the settlements with more than 2,000 inhabitants 2% of their total number.By the beginning of the twenty-first century, the number of settlements in the category of up to 100 inhabitantswas ten times bigger (from 51 to 566), and in all other categories by the size structure, the number of settlements wasreduced. Thus, in 2002,in the mountainous area of Central Serbia, the settlements in the category of 100-500 inhabitantsrepresented 53%, in the category of up to 100 inhabitants 34%, in the category of 500-1,000 inhabitants 9%, in the category of 1,000-2,000 5% and in the category over 2,000 inhabitants 2%.So, in the mountainous areaof Central Serbia in the last decades the number of small settlements was increasing (up to 500 people) and so as their population potential. In the settlements of the size category of 500-1,000 inhabitants,the downward trend is evident in both, the number of settlements and inhabitants, in the category of 1,000-2,000 inhabitants the number of settlements declines, and the number of inhabitants varies slightly in the 272


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mountainous areaof Central Serbia.Settlements with over 2,000 inhabitants are demographically more stable, and although the number of settlements slightly reduces, the number of inhabitants is constantly increasing. We conclude that the major structural changes in the settlement system in Central Serbia in the last five decades correspond with the growing depopulation of these areas, so the habitation system, in terms of population potentials, shifts towardsto increasing the number of small and medium-sized settlements, in particular the settlements of 100 inhabitants. Census of 2011 registered 986 settlements with less than 100 inhabitants in Central Serbia and Vojvodina, of which over 70% is in the mountainous municipalities of Serbia (Figure 3, MalobabićR., Mariĉić T., 2004 Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia, 2013).

Figure 3: Spatial distribution of the settlements with less than 500 inhabitants in Serbia, 1961-2011 Source: Spasovski M., Šantić D., Martinović M., 2013

Instead of a conclusion, we state that solving the demographic issues and problems in the settlements of the mountainousareaof Central Serbia is one of basic conditions for thesustainable development of these areas. It is therefore necessary to define precisely the measuresin the field of population policy and the structural transformation of a settlement system, as well as the instruments for their implementation through the appropriate strategy and policy that will serve the sustainable development of the mountainous areas in Serbia. LITERATURE: Spasovski M., Šantić D., Martinović M. (2013), Population decline in Serbia – contemporary problems of small villages, ICPG, Groningen. Спасовски М., ШантићД. (2012), Трендови у размештају и концентрацији становништва Србије – прворазредни демографски изазов на почетку XXI века, Зборник радова са скупа: Проблеми и изазови савремене географске науке и наставе, Копаоник, 2012 Спасовски М., ШантићД., Радовановић О. (2012) Историјске етапе у транзицији природног обнављања становништва Србије, Гласник СГД, свеска XCII, бр. 2, Београд, стр. 23-60 Јотев Ј. (2010) Демографски потенцијал Србије, Магистарски рад, Економски факултет, Београд. Малобабић Р., Маричић Т. (2004) Структурне промене величине насеља на планинским подручјима Србије, Архитектура и урбанизам, стр. 65-71

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Група аутора (2003) Одрживи развој планинских подручја Србије, Институт за архитектуру и урбанизам Србије, Посебна издања 42, Београд. стр. 3-42 Спасовски М., Јанић М. (1990-1991) Демографски развој и популациони потенцијали планинске области и области низије и побрђа Југославије, Становништво, ¾ 1990 и ´ 1991, Београд. 159-174 Попис становништва, домаћинстава и станова 2002. у Републици Србији, Упоредни преглед броја становника 1948-2002., књига 9, РЗС, 2004 Попис становништва, домаћинстава и станова 2011. у Републици Србији, Старост и пол, књига 1, РЗС, 2012.

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УДК: 332.12.055.2:338.49(497.713-22)

INFRASTRUCTURE AS A FACTOR OF ECONOMIC-GEOGRAPHICAL AND FUNCTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF HILLY, HILLYMOUNTAINOUS AND MOUNTAINOUS VILLAGE SETTLEMENTS IN THE CATCHMENT AREA OF BABUNA AND TOPOLKA Biljana APOSTOLOVSKA TOSHEVSKA, Dejan ILIEV Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Institute of geography, Arhimedova 3, 1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia e-mail: biljana.apostolovska@gmail.com, d.iliev@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT The infrastructure of the settlements in the catchment area of Babuna and Topolka is a type of foundation that reflects the quality of life as standard of living of the population and the general development of the area. The institutional and linear infrastructure of the settlements in the catchment area is directly related to the economicgeographical development of this area and because of that, the primary objective of this research paper is to inventory the existing state of infrastructure, analysis and synthesis of all relevant factors in order to provide a clear picture of the economic-geographical and functional development level and tendencies in which direction would the development of the studied area lead, relying on available infrastructure features. Key words: institutional infrastructure, linear infrastructure, economic-geographical development, functional development.

INTRODUCTION Village settlements have great importance in the scientific research of any particular space, and depending on the subject, goals and objectives of the research, the settlements are studied in several aspects: size, spatial distribution and especially the aspect of their infrastructural and functional characteristics, the main subject and goal research of this paper. In the circle of causal connection, infrastructure is the reason for and the effect of economic-geographical development. The strengthening of the population mass is a prerequisite of infrastructure organization, and vice a versa. Only infrastructure equipment can ensure an undisturbed fluid of the population and provide a comparative advantage in the area of economic activity. The infrastructural equipment and functionality of the village settlements in the territory of the catchment area of Babuna and Topolka is discussed in terms of the presence and development of the linear (traffic, utility and electricity and energy infrastructure) and institutional infrastructure (education, healthcare, culture and other objects).

The results of the research that are elaborated in the following text of this scientific paper represent kind of a base form for further research and development projects, in which the infrastructural problems that hilly, hilly-mountainous and mountainous village settlements in the catchment area of Babuna and Topolka faced in their functional development, are recorded and highlighted. The existing infrastructure is dilapidated and incomplete and the lack of quality infrastructure facilities important for the development of these village settlements is evident. Therefore, it is necessary to take measures through an organized approach (state, local self-government, private sector, etc.), for rehabilitation of the infrastructure system in order to improve the functional development of village settlements. FIELD OF RESEARCH The catchment area of Babuna and Topolka is located in the central part of the Republic of Macedonia, on the right side of the Vardar River flow and southwest of the city of Veles. The 275


ДЕМОГРАФСКИ ПРОБЛЕМИ, ПОЛИТИКА НА ЕКОНОМСКИ И РЕГИОНАЛЕН РАЗВОЈ ВО РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА DEMOGRAPHIC PROBLEMS IN HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS, POLICY OF ECONOMIC AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS

entire area covers 947 km². The catchment area is administratively divided into two municipalities: the Municipality of Chaska and the Municipality of Veles. Neighboring municipalities are: Gradsko and Rosoman on the east, Zelenikovo and Studenicani on the north, Makedonski Brod and Dolneni on the west and Prilep and Kavadarci on the south. There are 42 village settlements existing in the area of Chaska Municipality, but 31 are located in mountainous areas, while in the Veles Municipality, 5 out of 10 village settlements that are present within the catchment area are located in hilly-mountainous area50. DISCUSSION AND RESULTS The traffic infrastructure has an important vital function in the purpose of rational territorial integration of all activities and contents in the area (Stoimenov et. All, 998). It is an important factor in sizing of the spatial framework for all activities in the economic-geographical development. Enables the use of natural resources, exchange of goods between the settlements and wider, territorial mobility of the population and opportunity of information and innovation penetration, enables sustainable economic develop