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Site 2 Dvina Bay - White Sea - Russia

Site 1 -

Dvina Bay is found to the southeast of the White Sea, a tributary to the Barents Sea. It receives water from the river named Northern Dvina at the major part of the region called Arkhangelsk. The White Sea is a water filled trough in the block of a continental shelf known as the Baltic Shelf. Its bottom is very hollowed and uneven, containing the Kandalasksha Hollows in the northwest, and the Solovetsky Islands int he south. It is a tidal body of water, but the currants are relatively weak. The river brings fresh water to the sea, with the Northern Dvina River contributing up to 171km cubed in some years. About 40% of the freshwater contributed to the sea body, is through the melting snow during May, with minimal contribution through February - March. This decreases the surface salinity of the sea to around 23%, reaching 10-12% in Dvina Bay, as well as increasing Silicon and Silicates in the water (a characteristic of the White Sea). In winter- from October/November to May/June, the sea freezes over, with temperatures reaching -0.5 to -0.7 in the bays. The general climate varies between polar and moderate continental, with frequent fogs and clouds. Winds are predominantly southwestern in winter, with northern areas staying slightly warmer. Arctic anticyclones, however, change winds to the northeast, bringing much colder weather. Summers are cold, cloudy and relatively humid, with winds and rain. The sea hosts more than 700 species of invertibrates, about 60 species of fish, and 5 species of marine animals.

Gulf of Mexico - Castal Plains The Gulf coastal plains’ sothern boundary is the Gulf of Mexico in the U.S and the Sierra Mandre de Chiapas in Mexico. It’s western boundary is the drop into the Mississippi embayment in the US, and the Sierra Mandre Oriental in Mexico. On the north it extends to the Ouachita Highlands of the interior Low Plateaus and the southern Appalachian Mountains. To the East, there is an arbitrary break with the South Atlantic coastal plain at the Alabama-Georgia boarder and south along the Apalachicola River, through the Florid Panhandle. The flat to rolling topography is broken by many streams, rivers, and marsh wetland. The northern region uplands are dominated by Pine, originally Longleaf and Slash in the south, and Shortleaf mixed hardwoods in the north. These are wildlife-maintained systems that give way to Loblolly Pine and hardwoods in damper areas and bottomland hardwood forrest in extensive lowland drainages. The southern region has tropical and sub-tropical moist broadleaf forests and western gulf coastal grasslands. They include large habitats of freshwater wetlands, salt marshes, and coastal mangrove swamps. Much of the lower region Gulf Coastal Plains supports wintering waterfowl.

Traditional Russian ice bath

Native American Sweat Hut

Traditional Greek Hot Spring Bath

Traditional Japanese Onsen Bath

Site 4 -

Site 3 -

Agean Sea - Greece/Turkey - Malian Gulf

Tsugam Strait - Honshu/Hokkaido - Japan

The Aegean Sea is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Southern Balkans and Anatolian peninsulas (between the midlands of Greece and Turkey.) The main islands that make up the Archipelago are an extension of the mountains on land. The largest of these clusters being the strand called the Peloponnese and from Crete to Rhodes, dividing the Mediterranean from the Aegean. The origin or its name is said to have come from many different sources from Greek history. After the Greek town of Aegae, after Aegea a Queen of the Amazons who drowned in the sea. Aigaion, the “sea goat”, being another name of Briareus, one of the archaic Hecatonchires. Or, among the Athenians, Aegeus, the father of Theseus, who drowned himself in the sea when he thought his son had died. Plato described the Greeks living around the Aegean “like frogs round a pond”. The Gulf itself is in the region of Phthiotis in Eastern Central Greece. The Gulf is named after the ancient Malians who settled on its shores. Due to the accumulation of silt from the many rivers that feed the sea, the Gulf has been shrinking in size over the many centuries and is very shallow, its maximum depth being 27m. The land that was once covered in water, has now become a vast and fertile coastal plain.

The strait connects the Sea of Japan with the Pacific Ocean to the north of Japan. Japan’s territorial waters extend to 3 nautical miles in to the strait either side, instead of the usual 12, to allow for the US armed and nuclear war ships to pass without violating Japan’s prohibition against nuclear weapons in its territory. Thomas Blakiston, an English explorer and naturalist, noticed that animals in the Hokkaido were related to northern Asian species, whereas those on Honshu to the south, were related to those from southern Asia. The Tsuganu Strait was therefore established as a major zoogeographical boundary, and became known as the “Blakiston Line”. Much of the terrain consists of mountains and forests, and the coastal regions are where the majority of it’s people live. Climatically, Japan enjoys a temperate climate, though regional variation is expected from North to South. Despite its breathtaking beauty, Japan’s position on the convergence line of 3 tectonic plates, leaves it prone to natural disasters including earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic activity.


According to the census of 2000, Morgan City has a population of 12,703 people. They are broken down into the following ethnicities: - 71.28% White - 23.90% African American -0.91% American Indian -1.02% Asian -0.01% Pacific Islander -1.18% Other

UPLAND TRANSITIONAL FORREST

The annual rainfall is 40 inches, and in some areas up to 60 inches.

The main species to grow at the north end of the valley are broad leaf deciduous and evergren species.

Vegetable growing is atempted but poor in winter due to rainfall and wash down the valley, causing nutrients to run off.

Low nutrient soils.

The marshland plains nearer the tributaries into the Gulf contain many wet living species of tree, including Black Ash Willow and Water Ash. At the shore line, there is a blurring betwee the land and the sea due to sand flats and coral shelves.

PASTURES

RIVER SWAMP FORREST

The Mississippi lowland valley is a busy thoroughtfare for migratory birds into and out of the area. Sothernly winds bring warm and tropically moist air to the south of the valley, frequently manifesting themselves as hurricanes. Spotted sea trout.

Harbour - Site 1 - Gulf of Mexico Morgan City Morgan City sits on the banks of the Atchafalaya River. Morgan City was originally called Tiger Island by surveyors appointed by U.S. Secretary of War John Calhoun because of a particular type of wild cat seen in the area. It was later called Brashear City after Walter Brashear, a prominent Kentucky physician who purchased large tracts of land and acquired numerous sugar mills. It was incorporated in 1860 as Brashear City. This region, with its rolling topography and extensive areas of forest, provides more than fifty percent of the state’s total wood production. Land use is dominated by the forest industry with timber companies owning large tracts of land, totaling approximately 2.6 million acres in the Coastal Plain alone, with forests occupying seventy percent or more of the land area of most counties within the region. More than 120 wood-related industries employ thousands of people and provide a tremendous boost to this region’s economy, though the economic downturn and housing slump that began in 2007 have taken their toll on the timber industry.


In 2012, the population of this town was rated within the top 5 highest. This is due to the large area Russia has for inhabitations, as well as the fact the town sprawls across the Delta. In 2010 the population was recorded as 348,783 spread across the Delta in the Archangel district.

FORREST

Throughout much of the year, the snow falls on most ground, but especially the higher areas in the hills. Snow only melts in summer, from April to August.

Higher up in the hills of the Dvina river valley, the land is mostly comprised of Pine, Spruce and Larch forrest on hilly ground.

Within the forrests, clearings occur where the hills hive way to pastures and swamps.

Below these forrests there are to be found river flood plains. These have valleys either side where local farmers breed the indiginous Kholmogory Cattle and where the Mezen horses do their work. RIVER FLOOD PLAIN A lot of potato and crop growing occurs here too, but due to the wet soil conditions, this is hard.

At the base of the valley and at the tributary to the Dvina Bay, and beyond, the White Sea, the shore line is swampy and water logged, slowly giving way to the sea.

SHORE LINE

Bee keeping is prevelant within this area of Russia.

There are many species of wetland bird in this area.

Harbour - Site 2 - Dvina Bay Archangel Archangel city (1990 est. 418,000), in NW European Russia, on the Northern Dvina river near its mouth at the White Sea. Although icebound much of the year, it is a leading Russian port and can generally be made usable by icebreakers. Timber and wood products make up the bulk of the exports. The city has factories producing pulp and paper, turpentine, resin, cellulose, building materials, and prefabricated houses. Fishing and shipbuilding are also major industries. It is the terminus of both the Northern Sea Route and the Baltic-White Sea Canal, which was built by slave labor.

Arkhangelsk Oblast is famous for its wooden buildings which include churches, chapels, peasant houses and farms, and city houses. The choice of wood as the construction material is natural for a region almost exclusively covered by taiga and still being one of the biggest timber producers. Some of these buildings date from 17th century. Churches and chapels are considered particularly fine, and almost all of these constructed prior to 1920s have been declared the cultural heritage at the federal or local levels.


In April 2012, the population of this small Japanese port town on Hinshu island had 3,040 residents, sandwiched between the sea in the bay and the Japanese rural landscape behind.

The climate is a cool one, and during the winter months, snow covers much of the town. The summers are mild and short, the winters can be cold and long.

The cool maritime climate is due to the breeze from the north off the Tsugaru Stait.

It is located within the Amori district, nd the town itself is located wihtin the boundaries of the Tsugaru Quasi-National Park.

Animals on Honshu Island are related to those from South Asia, unlike those on Hokkaido which are related to those from Norh Asia. This is called the (Blakiston Line).

There are many underground hot springs in the area, lending it to the creation of traditional Japanese Onsen baths.

The land itself is extremely volcanic, with much activity throughout a typical year. With Mount Fuji, leading into the Japanese Alps, fast flowing rivers to teh deltas into the Tsugaru Strait, its a varied landscape. Fishingis a masive industry both commercial and local. The most common produce are: - Sea Urchin Roe - Roe - Sea Cucumber - Scallops - Abalone - Squid Oil is a big commercial product out in the Japan Sea. A tunnel connects Honshu with south Hokkaido at the point of Imbetsu.

Harbour - Site 3 - Tsugam Strait - Honshu/Hokkaido - Japan Honshu, Imabetsu, Aomori The strait connects the Sea of Japan with the Pacific Ocean to the north of Japan. Japan’s territorial waters extend to 3 nautical miles in to the strait either side, instead of the usual 12, to allow for the US armed and nuclear war ships to pass without violating Japan’s prohibition against nuclear weapons in its territory. Thomas Blakiston, an English explorer and naturalist, noticed that animals in the Hokkaido were related to northern Asian species, whereas those on Honshu to the south, were related to those from southern Asia. The Tsuganu Strait was therefore established as a major zoogeographical boundary, and became known as the “Blakiston Line”. Much of the terrain consists of mountains and forests, and the coastal regions are where the majority of it’s people live. Climatically, Japan enjoys a temperate climate, though regional variation is expected from North to South. Despite its breathtaking beauty, Japan’s position on the convergence line of 3 tectonic plates, leaves it prone to natural disasters including earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic activity.


The population of the small town situated just to teh West of Thermopylae in Greece is so small it is not documented as far as I can see. It is however a popular pilgrimage site for loads of people to the hot sulphorous spas and site of the famous battle between the Spartans and the Persians.

The weather is hot and dry, where ony crops that thrive can survive.

To the West there is the Gulf of Corinth.

There is a horse-shoe configuration of limestone mountains, densely forrested and steep.

The thin valley is now a mile from the sea due to sedimentary deposits, but the shore line used to reach to the foot of the mountains. The Phoenix river runs from these mountains to the mouth of the bay into the Malian Gulf.

The receeded waters have left a large flood plain and dusty hot fertile land. Here, olive trees are planted.

One of the hills at the base of the mountains have famous and healing sulphorous hot springs, where the name ‘hot gates’ was born from. In history, Emperors have utilised these springs, by building bath houses along its length.

A temple remains in ruin situated near the new road, which is considdered one of the most dangerous passes in Greece.

Harbour - Site 4 - Agean Sea, Malian Gulf Thermopylae The Aegean Sea is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Southern Balkans and Anatolian peninsulas (between the midlands of Greece and Turkey.) The main islands that make up the Archipelago are an extension of the mountains on land. The largest of these clusters being the strand called the Peloponnese and from Crete to Rhodes, dividing the Mediterranean from the Aegean. The origin or its name is said to have come from many different sources from Greek history. After the Greek town of Aegae, after Aegea a Queen of the Amazons who drowned in the sea. Aigaion, the “sea goat”, being another name of Briareus, one of the archaic Hecatonchires. Or, among the Athenians, Aegeus, the father of Theseus, who drowned himself in the sea when he thought his son had died. Plato described the Greeks living around the Aegean “like frogs round a pond”. The Gulf itself is in the region of Phthiotis in Eastern Central Greece. The Gulf is named after the ancient Malians who settled on its shores. Due to the accumulation of silt from the many rivers that feed the sea, the Gulf has been shrinking in size over the many centuries and is very shallow, its maximum depth being 27m. The land that was once covered in water, has now become a vast and fertile coastal plain. Thermopylae (“hot gateways”) is a location in Greece where a narrow coastal passage existed in antiquity. It derives its name from its hot sulphur springs. “Hot gates” is also “the place of hot springs and cavernous entrances to Hades”.


Site 2 -

Site 1 -

The Russian Bania

The Sweat Lodge

The Russian Bania in Russia is not just a public bath, it is a way of life and a cultural and social tradition. The space is small but the intructions on how to carry it out, are exacting.

The sweat lodge or sweat house (also called purification ceremony, ceremonial sauna, or simply sweat) is a ceremonial or ritual event in some cultures, particularly among some North American First Nations, Native American, Scandinavian, Baltic and Eastern European cultures. There are several styles of structures used in different cultures; these include a domed or oblong hut similar to a wickiup, a permanent structure made of wood or stone, or even a simple hole dug into the ground and covered with planks or tree trunks. Stones are typically heated and then water poured over them to create steam. In ceremonial usage, these ritual actions are accompanied by traditional prayers and songs.

A Russian banya has a special room, where a large amount of hot steam is created with the help of water and hot air. A classic Russian banya is heated with firewood, but modern versions might use electric heat as well. Inside the banya, which is usually built of wood, there are wide wooden benches along the walls. They are built up one above the other like steps. You can sit or lay on the benches. The higher up the bench the hotter the air is. Once someone has warmed up well enough, he or she leaves the steam room, and dips into a pool of cold water. You can also pour water over yourself from a tub, while in Siberia it’s common to walk right out of the steam room and jump into the snow. Friends go to the banya with a special purpose in mind. It’s considered that the banya atmosphere brings people closer together, and allows them to communicate and interact on a more common level. Russians don’t spend all their time in the parnaya (hot steamy room). During a break they walk out to another room which is called predbannik. Usually, that room has a large long table and a few benches. In the predbannik, people take a break from the hot temperature and relax, drink aroma tea or special herbal tea, have conversations about life and share their ideas or beliefs to each other.

Rituals and traditions vary from region to region and from tribe to tribe. They often include prayers, drumming, and offerings to the spirit world. In some cultures a sweat-lodge ceremony may be a part of another, longer ceremony such as a Sun Dance. Some common practices and key elements associated with sweat lodges include: • Orientation – The door usually faces a sacred fire. The cardinal directions usually have symbolism in Native American cultures. The lodge may be oriented within its environment for a specific purpose. Placement and orientation of the lodge within its environment are often considered to facilitate the ceremony’s connection with the spirit world, as well as practical considerations of usage. • Construction – The lodge is generally built with great care, and with respect for the environment and for the materials being used. Many traditions construct the lodge in complete silence, some have a drum playing while they build, other traditions have the builders fast during construction. • Clothing – In Native American lodges participants usually wear a simple garment such as shorts or a loose dress. • Offerings – Various types of plant medicines are often used to make prayers, give thanks or make offerings. • Support – In many traditions, one or more persons will remain outside the sweat lodge to protect the ceremony, and assist the participants. Sometimes they will tend the fire and place the hot stones, though usually this is done by a designated firekeeper. Darkness - Many traditions consider it important that sweats be done in complete darkness.

Existing Social and Cultural Practices of Bathing

Site 4 Thermae - Greek Baths Most Roman cities had at least one, if not many, such buildings, which were centres not only for bathing, but socializing. Roman bath-houses were also provided for private villas, town houses, and forts. They were supplied with water from an adjacent river or stream, or more normally, by an aqueduct. The water could be heated by a log fire before being channelled into the hot bathing rooms. A public bath was built around three principal rooms: the caldarium (hot bath), the tepidarium (warm bath) and the frigidarium (cold bath). Some thermae also featured steam baths: the sudatorium, a moist steam bath, and the laconicum, a dry steam bath much like a modern sauna. The whole building comprises a double set of baths, one for men and the other for women. It has six different entrances from the street, one of which gives admission to the smaller women’s set only. Five other entrances lead to the men’s department, of which two, communicate directly with the furnaces, and the other three with the bathing apartments. In many ways, baths were the ancient Roman equivalent of community centres. Because the bathing process took so long, conversation was necessary. Many Romans would use the baths as a place to invite their friends to dinner parties, and many politicians would go to the baths to convince fellow Romans to join their causes. The thermae had many attributes in addition to the baths. There were libraries, rooms for poetry readings, and places to buy and eat food. The modern equivalent would be a combination of a library, art gallery, mall, restaurant, gym, and spa.

Site 3 The Onsen Bath An onsen is a term for hot springs in the Japanese language, though the term is often used to describe the bathing facilities and inns around the hot springs. As a volcanically active country, Japan has thousands of onsen scattered along its length and breadth. Onsen were traditionally used as public bathing places and today play a central role in directing Japanese domestic tourism. Onsen by definition use naturally hot water from geothermally heated springs. Onsen should be differentiated from sentō, indoor public bath houses where the baths are filled with heated tap water. The legal definition of an onsen includes that its water must contain at least one of 19 designated chemical elements, including radon and metabolic acid and be 25 °C or warmer before being reheated. Onsen water is believed to have healing powers derived from its mineral content. A particular onsen may feature several different baths, each with water with a different mineral composition. The outdoor bath tubs are most often made from Japanese cypress, marble or granite, while indoor tubs may be made with tile, acrylic glass or stainless steel. Different onsen also boast about their different waters or mineral compositions, plus what healing properties these may contain. Other services like massages may be offered. People often travel to onsen with work colleagues, friends, couples or their families. Sentō is another type of Japanese communal bath house where customers pay for entrance. Traditionally these bath houses have been quite utilitarian. Both baths, though, have a lot of rules and traditions


Pop-Up Book Experimentation with the Concept of Inside-Out Within the brief for the Harbour project, I would like to explore the concept of ecology and of inside out within the design and construction of the bathhouses on each site. By incorporating the local environment and ecology as a main aspect within design, I hope that the normal function of building and enclosure will be questionned and maybe re-defined. Also, I hope, due to the fact that the spaces are meant to provide different and new communal spaces for the local residents, and in some cases linked with private functions, that education of the importance of preservation and intimacy with the local landscpae is key for the continuous harmonious relationship humans have with the smal piece of planet we interract with. I hope that by keeping this notion of inside out, and however that may manifest within my designs, in mind, not only the capture and re-interpretation of nature indoors (as people are doing today for art - for example ‘Rain Room’ - but still moan when it rains naturally), something spectacular will be created, that will draw people to experience the culture of the bathhouse, as well as embrace a new way of socialising in 2013.


Harbour Site 4 Imabetsu - Aomori Prefecture - Tsugaru Strait - Japan


Harbour Site 2 Archangel - Dvina Bay - Rusia


Harbour