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Floriculture Today August 2012 

Floriculture Today August 2012

Floriculture Today August 2012 

Floriculture Today August 2012

Floriculture Today August 2012 

Floriculture Today August 2012

Floriculture Today August 2012

Contents 8



Cover Story EU legislation: Organisms harmful to plants and plant products (plant health)

News Editor Anwar Huda General Manager Lalitha V. Rajan Layout & Design Mohd. Iqbal Faiyaz Ahmad


Flower Expos Flower Exhibitions Impact and Importance

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 Floriculture Today August 2012


— R.K.Roy, S. K.Tewari and A.K.Goel

Landscaping Management of Turf grasses for landscape gardening — Dr. M. Kannan, Dr. M. Jawaharlal and P. Ranchana

Gardening Garden Designs Where form and function meld effortlessly — Abhija Dalal


Ornamentals Genetic Conservation of Temperate Ornamental Plants — Y.C. Gupta

36 v

Interview We are trying to become NO.1 in MP: Gokul Barod

v Labour problem is hampering nursery output, says Laxman Kag 42

Environment Mission: Green India-Green Economy 21st Century environment India Monsoon rains,Rainwater harvesting and sustainable agriculture — Kamaljeet Singh


Orchids Orchid smuggling & fear of extinction — Shiva Kumar


Research What happens when 80,000 volts pass through a flower?



Floriculture Today August 2012 

Editorial I

s Indian floriculture industry moving on the right track? The answer is both ‘yes’ and ‘no’.

group of dwindling number of floriculture entrepreneurs who shared with the audience the hardships that they face in flower export.

On the positive side, the domestic market for flowers is booming. In the last 18 years or so, flower consumption in the country has witnessed a dramatic increase of over 300 times. Flower shops dot the road sides, not only in metropolitan cities, but also in smaller cities and towns. Marriage pandals in cities look fabulously beautiful, with floral designs ranging from traditional to European and other exotic styles. ‘Theme’ marriages, as they are called, with multi-hued flowers and designs conforming to a chosen style, have become quite common.

All this would indicate that in qualitative terms, like in infrastructure development, supply chain management and marketing, there has been no significant progress. Promises and plans to give a fillip to domestic floriculture industry have not borne fruit to the desirable levels. As a result, owing to increasing demand at home, India has become a favourite destination for major flower producing countries like Colombia, Holland, Australia, Thailand and China.

In cut flower exports, the progress was rapid from mid-nineties to 200607 when the exports in value terms totaled about Rs. 650 crore, after which there has been a steady decline -- the figure for 2010-11 being Rs 286 crore. Any case, India’s share is miniscule in the global floriculture market, estimated at more than 10 billion U S dollars. A few off-the-cuff comments by experts who participated in a workshop on floriculture held in Pune very recently should act as an eye-opener. The workshop was organized by Maharashtra Chambers of Commerce in association with Indian Institute of Foreign Trade, APEDA, and National Horticulture Board. Such workshops and conferences have been held in Delhi and other places for the last fifteen years. A frank, but informal, appraisal of the outcome of these meetings to take stock of the progress made by the country in these years was indeed revealing. The appraisal showed that the issues focused in all these meets were virtually the same. The points stressed by the speakers in the Pune meet were on having modern auction centres, efficient marketing set-up, supply chain and management problems, vast market opportunities and the like – all of them were almost a carbon copy of the problems and issues discussed passionately in the past meetings. The only noticeable departure at the recent meet was a series of presentations by a select

Many projects prepared with gusto to improve marketing infrastructure have fallen by the wayside. Take the case of Noida Auction Centre – it remains non-functional. The same is the fate of Goregaon Auction Centre in Mumbai. The centre in Bangalore is just managing to survive. The main flower business in cities like Mumbai and Kolkata is being carried on from open spaces or under temporary sheds. A little better off are the wholesale flower markets in Hyderabad, Pune and Bhubaneshwar, which have at least pucca buildings. What about the main flower market in the national capital city? It is a classic example of promise-performance mismatch. Delhi Chief Minister had announced at a Flora Expo, amid deafening cheers, that the city would have a world class flower market, complete with all modern facilities, including cool chambers for storage. When three flourishng flower Mandis in the city were asked to shift to Gazipur, hopes were high for the growers, traders and consumers. After about a year of shifting, however, no improvement worth the name is visible. Growers function under haphazardly-built tin sheds. Only the Mandi Parishad has a pucca building. There is no provision for parking. Who should take the lead to improve matters there – the government, municipal authorities, association of growers and traders, or Mandi Parishad? Each one of them expects others to take the initiative.

Comments are welcome at:

Views expressed by individuals and contributors in the magazine are their own and do not necessarily represent the views of Floriculture Today editorial board. Floriculture Today does not accept any responsibility of any direct, indirect or consequential damage caused to any party due to views expressed by any one or more persons in the trade. All disputes are to be referred to Delhi Jurisdiction only. .....Editor

10 Floriculture Today August 2012

Floriculture Today August 2012 11

Cover Story

In the July 2012 issue of Floriculture Today, we carried part of a report on global floriculture industry prepared by Centre for Promotion of Imports from Developing Countries (Dutch acronym CBI), Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands. In this issue, we are publishing another chapter from the report, dealing elaborately with EU’s phytosanitary (plant health) regime. This should serve as guidelines to exporters of plants and plant products – including fruit and vegetables, and also their wood packaging materials — particularly to those looking for EU market opportunities, since products not complying with the phytosanitary requirements face the danger of rejection.

EU legislation: Organisms harmful to plants and plant products (plant health) Substances



Pests, diseases or any other Plants and plant products, To ensure that certain harmful organisms harmful to plants. defined in Directive 2000/29/EC organisms (pests) will not enter EU territory.


or an overview of the entire import process of plants and plant products in Europe, refer to the step-by-step flow chart on the website. Note that this flowchart relates to the export of plants and plant products that are subject to the EU’s plant health regime as outlined in this document. Please note that the phytosanitary requirements also apply to wood used to package or wedge food or non-food products. So, even if your primary object is to export e.g. fishery products or toys, you have to take into account the phytosanitary requirements if you use wood as materials to packages and ship your products. Processed plant products such as furniture or wooden artefacts do not fall under the scope of the requirements. 12 Floriculture Today August 2012

Alternative Some products have to be accompanied by a phytosanitary certificate when placed on the EU market.

Wood packaging material If you export food or non-food products which are wrapped with or supported by wood packaging material (WPM) during transport, you have to make sure that your WPM complies with the following sets of requirements: v Requirements that apply to all plants and plant products brought into the EU (the phytosanitary requirements); v Requirements that specifically apply to WPM (including dunnage) (e.g. requirements for wood treatment and wood marking). This document discusses only the phytosanitary requirements which apply to all plants and plant products. In order to ensure the EU entry of your products, you also have to check if your WPM complies with the requirements specifically applicable to WPM. EU legislation Directive 2000/29/EC (Plant Health Directive) lays down requirements that prevent the introduction of organisms harmful to plants or plant products (Hereinafter: the products) or their spread in the EU. Harmful organisms are pests of animal or plant origin or pathogens. Examples are: insects, mites, nematodes, bacteria, fungi, viruses, virus-like organisms, and parasitic plants.

Cover Story The Plant Health Directive covers the following products: v Plants: Living plants and specified living parts thereof, including seeds1. This category includes: l fruit, in the botanical sense, other than that preserved by deep freezing; l vegetables, other than those preserved by deep freezing; l tubers, corms, bulbs and rhizomes; l cut flowers; l branches with foliage; l cut trees retaining foliage; l leaves and foliage; l plant tissue cultures; l live pollen; l bud-wood, cuttings and scions; v Plant products: Products of plant origin, unprocessed or having undergone simple preparation in so far as these are not plants.2 CITES If you export wild flora or products thereof, you should also take into account the EU requirements on endangered species (also known as CITES requirements). Some species are prohibited to be imported into the EU, other must be accompanied by specific export and/or import certificates. Steps to be followed by exporters Particularly fresh products may be subject to strict phytosanitary requirements. To increase your chances to enter the EU market, check the following three steps: 1. Check with the relevant National Plant Protection Organisation or your EU importer whether there is an EU restriction applying to your product A national plant protection organisation (NPPO) is usually the national authority that coordinates all procedures on preventing the entry, establishment and spread of regulated plant pests (harmful organisms) in a country. Before exporting your products to the EU, contact the NPPO of the country of destination, your national NPPO or EU importer to check whether for any restrictions that will impact your product. The contact details of each NPPO can be obtained through the IPPC Contact Points portal. (Check website). You can also do your own research and check with the Annexes of the Plant Health Directive whether your product is listed. Depending on the level of protection against harmful organisms, the Plant Health Directive lists the restrictions in several annexes. Refer to the table below for the restrictions. Annex Product/Pest



Banned under any circumstance


II Plants and plant products Banned when containing one of the mentioned pests


Check with the NPPO or your EU importer if the EU Member State you want to export to, has set any additional/ particular requirements

Stricter national requirements It is possible that EU Member States have set stricter requirements than the ones laid down in EU-wide legislation. In such a case, compliance with the EU requirements is not enough. Your products have to comply with the national requirements as well in order to be allowed entry in that country. Less strict national requirements In the case of products that are banned because they come from a particular country or products permitted under certain circumstances (listed in Annex III or VI), an EU Member State has the possibility to derogate from the EU restrictions. An EU Member State is allowed to do this when there is no risk of spread of the pests involved. In such a case, your product may be subject to less severe restrictions than the ones mentioned in the annexes. However, it is likely that you will be asked to submit evidence that there is indeed no risk on spread of the relevant pests. In both cases (stricter or less strict requirements), you can contact the NPPO of the relevant EU Member State to inform yourself with the particular requirements of that country. 3. Check whether a phytosanitary certificate is needed to be allowed EU entry and arrange one with your NPPO or ask your EU importer to arrange one All fruits, cut flowers, branches and trees (with foliage), grains and seeds, leafy vegetables, tubers and soil from the species that are listed in Part B of Annex V of the Plant Health Directive, must be accompanied with a phytosanitary certificate when arriving at an EU entry point. A phytosanitary certificate is supposed to certify that the requirements of the Plant Health Directive are satisfied and has to be issued by the NPPO of the country of origin of the products. This implies that you have to subject your products to phytosanitary inspection. Examples of products listed in Annex V, part B Product




Cut flowers


Almond, apricot, cherry, damson, nectarine, peach and plum (Prunus spp.) l Aubergine (Solanum Melongena) l Citrus fruit (Citrus spp.) • Mangos (Mangifera) l Passion fruit (Passiflora) Dianthus l Gypsophila l Orchidae

Leafy l Basilicum (Ocimum) l Celery vegetables (Apium Graveolens spp.)

III Plants and plant products Banned when originating from one of the mentioned countries.


IV Plants and plant products Permitted under the mentioned circumstances

Triticum (type of wheat) from Afghanistan, India, Iran, Mexico, Nepal, Pakistan, South Africa and the USA l Pepper (Capsicum spp.) • Onion (Allium cepa)

V Plants and plant products A phytosanitary certificate is required



Potatoes (Solanum Tuberosum)



Conifers l Populus l Oak (Quercus spp.)


Seeds in the botanical sense, other than those not intended for planting. 2 Please note that this definition of plant products excludes processed products, such as furniture or artefacts. These products do not fall under the scope of the phytosanitary requirements. 1

Floriculture Today August 2012 13

Cover Story If listed in the Annex, the product is only allowed to enter the EU market, if it is accompanied by a phytosanitary certificate stating that the product involved is free of pests. No phytosanitary certificate, means no EU entry. Therefore, it is important to check if your products are listed in Annex V and to arrange a phytosanitary inspection and certificate with your NPPO before exporting your products to the EU. The EU has further determined detailed requirements regarding the actual certificate, such as language, stamp, signature, botanical names and the date of elaboration in relation to the date of delivery in the EU. A certificate may not have been issued more than 14 days before the date on which the products leave the country where you are exporting from. More information on the certificate can be found in the document ‘EU legislation: Phytosanitary certificate and related issues (case)’ in the CBI database. A model phytosanitary certificate can be found through Annex VII of the Plant Health Directive. Pesticides Pesticides are chemicals that are used to control or protect plants from pests. However, if you export plants and plant products intended to be marketed as food, you have to take into account that the EU has set strict maximum residue levels (MRLs) for pesticides in food. Phytosanitary health control upon arrival in the EU Member State The NPPO of the EU Member State of arrival informs your EU importer if a consignment will be physically inspected upon arrival and where the plants have to be delivered (first point of entry or nearest vicinity). Products for which a phytosanitary certificate is not required are only inspected on a random basis. If not subject to inspection, the consignment will be released from all further phytosanitary restrictions and can freely enter the EU Member State through its usual entry points. Products accompanied by a phytosanitary certificate are always inspected on the included documents, the identity of the products, and their physical plant health. Physical plant health checks are only related to the absence of regulated pests. If the phytosanitary certificate is considered invalid, the products may be treated, quarantined, rejected or destructed at the expense of the exporter. Reduced checks The system of reduced checks is a plant health control system based on an estimation of pest risk. Reduced checks apply if the pest risk is estimated to be low. The combination of plant (product) and country of origin determines the level of risk. Only a certain percentage of imported consignments of plants (that are accompanied by a phytosanitary certificate) must undergo full inspection (documentary check, identity checks, and plant health inspection). For the remaining plant products only documentary checks are performed. The EU has laid down minimum inspection percentages for some cut flowers and fruits originating from specific countries, e.g. Rosa from Uganda and Zambia (25%), Citrus from Honduras (75%) and Pyras from South Africa (10%). For more information on reduced checks, it is recommended to contact the NPPO of the particular EU Member State. Check website for the access to the EU list of products that are recommended for reduced checks. Plant passport If all is in order, the consignment will be approved and the phytosanitary certificate can be replaced by a plant passport or plant health movement 14 Floriculture Today August 2012

document (PHMD). A PHMD allows the consignment to enter and move through the particular EU Member State. If a plant passport is acquired, the consignment can be moved to another EU Member Sate. However the plant passport must accompany the consignment throughout its movement to another Member State. Protected zones Some areas within the EU are designated as ‘protected zone’ regarding a specific pest. If you export to the EU it is important to be aware of those protected zones. Products passing through or destined for a protected zone must meet stricter requirements. For example, you always need a plant passport to introduce or move products into or within that zone. Information about protected zones can be obtained from your NPPO of with the NPPO of the particular EU Member State. A list with all protected zones in the EU can be found in Annex I to Regulation (EC) 690/2008. Example - Spodoptera littoralis in roses The Spodoptera littoralis, also known as the African Cotton Leafworm or Egyptian Cotton Leafworm, is a night moth found widely in Africa and Mediterranean Europe. It is often a pest on vegetables, fruits, flowers and other crops which lead to the rejection and destruction of quite a few consignments of roses from Africa by The Netherlands. What happened? v A minimum amount of checks is recommended regarding the EU import of roses when originating from Colombia (3%), Ecuador, Ethiopia and Kenya (5%), Tanzania (10%), and Uganda and Zambia (25%). v

The NPPO of the country of origin did not detect caterpillars of spodeptera littoralis in the roses upon leave.


The roses arrived at a recognised inspection location in The Netherlands and were hold in quarantine during inspection.


The phytosanitary certificate was checked for correct accreditation by the NPPO of the country of origin, stamps, correct use of botanical names, etc. When information was missing, new accreditation possibilities were occasionally given. If not, the consignment was not allowed to enter The Netherlands.


When the phytosanitary certificate was found to be correct, samples of the roses were sent to the Dutch NPPO’s laboratory which detected traces of the spodoptera littoralis.


After detection, all parties were informed and depending on the threat, consignments were destroyed or sent back.

Please note that if the presence of spodoptera littoralis on roses from a specific country is increasingly detected, the number of physical checks can increase up to and until 100%.

Cover Story Related documents Please find below an overview of other legislative and non-legislative requirements that are of relevance when exporting plants and plant products to the EU. Some of the requirements are shortly highlighted in this document. More details however, can be found in the CBI database under the following document titles: Legislation: v EU legislation: Endangered species (CITES) v EU legislation: Food control v EU legislation: Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) of pesticides in food v EU legislation: Marketing standards for fruit and vegetables v EU legislation: Phytosanitary certificate and related issues (case) v EU legislation: Wood packaging materials used for transport (including dunnage) Non-legislation: v EU buyer’s requirements: Supply chain management v International phytosanitary standards: International Plant Protection Convention

1. Banned imports Check with the NPPO or your EU importer whether there is an EU ban on your products.

6. Inspection? After minimum checks of the copy of the phytosanitary certificate, the NPPO of the EU Member State informs your EU importer whether a consignment must be inspected. If subject to inspection your EU importer is informed at what location the plants can be delivered and will be inspected (first point of entry). If not necessary, the consignment is released from all further phytosanitary restrictions.

7. Arrival Arrival of the consignments at the first point of entry or nearest vicinity.

2. Derogation of ban If your product is banned from the EU marker, check with the NPPO or your EU importer if your product may be imported according to a “derogation” to the EU rules under the authority of a licence in the particular EU Member State (can be requested by your EU importer).

5. Pre-notification The NPPO of the importing EU Member State must be notified on the import of the consignment prior to its arrival. Usually this means that a copy of the phytosanitary certificate must be handed over. Different time schedules apply to transport by air or any other rout. Most national plant protection authorities have developed specific advance.

3. Phytosanitary certificate Check whether a phytosanitary certificate is needed to be allowed to enter the EU. If so, arrange one with your NPPO.

4. Registration EU importers must check whether they are required to be registered with the NPPO of the particular EU Member State to be allowed to import products to its territory.

8. Inspection An inspector of the NPPO of the EU Member State checks the document identity of the original phytosanitary certificate and the physical plant health (only for the absence of regulated pests). Depending on the results of the checks, a consignment is approved or rejected.

9. Plant passport Plant passports are required when the products are to be moved another EU Member State.

11. Free movement After customs clearance the consignment of plant or plant products are free to enter the territory of the EU Member State or move to another EU Member State (depending whether there is a plant passport obtained).

10. Customs clearance Approved consignments are forwarded to customs to obtain customs clearance.

Floriculture Today August 2012 15

Flower Expos

Awareness Prog. PPV FRA CSIR-NBRI Lucknow

CSIR-Technofest-2010, Pragati Maidan, New Delhi

CSIR-Technofest 2010, Pragati Maidan, New Delhi

CSIR-Technofest-2010, Pragati Maidan, New D

Flower Exhibitions

Impact and Importance — R.K.Roy, S. K.Tewari and A.K.Goel


t present, flowers are an integral part of our daily life. Use of flowers has increased manifold since last decade and has become an essential component of all kinds of celebrations and mourning. Beauty of flowers has fascinated mankind since time immemorial. However, their present popularity and demand are the results of planned programme of work undertaken by Govt. of India through different R&D institutes viz. Indian Agricultural 16 Floriculture Today August 2012

Research Institute, New Delhi; CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow; Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore besides Agri-Horticultural Societies of India especially in Kolkata and Chennai. Besides, State Agricultural Universities and other academic horticultural, floricultural and gardening societies have contributed a lot. The role played by Botanical Gardens of India is also commendable. The main objectives are building up germplasm collection, selection, display, multiplication and meeting the needs

of the garden lovers. Research activities by way of developing agro-technology, breeding methods and development of new varieties are also pursued by the research institutions. These initiatives have brought about very fruitful results and Indian floriculture now stands on a strong footing with a bright and prosperous future ahead. The journey of Indian floriculture and the destination so far reached was not so easy. Motivating farmers for diversification of agriculture and partly taking up floriculture


Flower Expos was a huge task. Here comes the role of flower shows and exhibitions which acted as tool for sensitization of farmers, entrepreneurs and popularization of floriculture. Genesis The history of Flower Show is quite old in India and dates back to nineteen century. The first Flower Show-cum-Exhibition was organized in 1830 by the then (Royal) Horticultural Society at Alipore, Calcutta. That was predominantly an exhibition of vegetables and other ornamental plants but good beginning was made. Subsequently, popularization of these exhibitions was increased and became an annual event throughout India. With the advancement of time, Flower Shows / Exhibitions spread from one place to another. The Agri-Horticultural society of India, Calcutta established in 1820 played a pioneering role for popularization of Flower Shows in India. Flower Shows and Exhibitions in India

Media Today Group, New Delhi for their relentless efforts for popularization of Indian floriculture and agriculture by organizing various shows / exhibitions/ expos in different cities of India. These shows / exhibitions perform following functions: • Display of research outputs of the R&D institutes having societal value. •

Display of newly developed crop varieties of ornamental and useful plants.

Encouraging children to take part by way of floral arrangements and motivating them towards importance of flowers, plants and nature.

Exhibiting package of practices of floricultural / useful crops for higher yield and economic benefit of the farmers. Making aware general public, garden

Flower Show at Botanic Garden, CSIR-NBRI, Lucknow

Kisan Mela, CSIR-NBRI, Lucknow

At present, Flower Shows and Science Exhibitions are very popular in India. All most in every capital cities, some kind of shows and exhibitions are organized and draw lot of attraction amongst the local people. These events are generally organized in various names viz., Flower Show, Garden Competition, Floral Art Competition, Science Exhibition, Kishan mela, Flora-Expo, Landscape-Expo, Horti-Trade Fair, Agri-Tech etc. (Fig. 1). Some of these are organized as national event while others are organized on regional basis. Leading R&D institutions, Botanical Gardens and Agri- Horticultural Societies organize these as annual events. Several Govt. departments, both in the state and central, directly or indirectly, are involved in organization and promotion of these important activities. Some of the industrial, corporate houses and private entrepreneurs are also major players in this field. Especial mention is made about the

lovers about the use of flowers and useful plants in various ways in our daily life. •

Creating awareness about the importance of preserving nature and natural resources

Fig.1. Schematic Diagram of various modes of Shows / Exhibitions / Programmes / on Floriculture / Horticulture / Agriculture

Floriculture Today August 2012 17


Lawn Making: Home garden with lawn

Management of Turf grasses for landscape gardening — Dr. M. Kannan, Dr. M. Jawaharlal and P. Ranchana


turf is an important part of the home landscape. Turfs are a standard feature of private and public gardens and landscapes in most parts of the world today. Turfs are created for aesthetic use in gardens and for recreational use, including sports. They are typically planted near homes, corporate offices, shopping complexes, apartments, etc. often as part of gardens and are also used in other ornamental landscapes and gardens. Turfs are frequently a feature of public parks and other spaces. They form the playing surface for many outdoor sports, reducing erosion and dust as well as providing a cushion for players in sports 20 Floriculture Today August 2012

such as football, cricket, baseball, golf, tennis, etc. In sports venues, the word turf is often replaced by pitch, field or green depending on the sport and the location. Turf grasses for landscaping Turf grasses are preferred as ground cover. They have extensive root systems and attractive green color and uniform appearance suited for landscaping purposes. They can tolerate improper maintenance practices and they have a tough and durable surface that provides outstanding ground cover for athletic fields and other recreation facilities. Moreover,

Landscaping Lawn Making

Bermuda grass

Turf grasses are preferred as ground cover. They have extensive root systems and attractive green color and uniform appearance suited for landscaping purposes. They can tolerate improper maintenance practices and they have a tough and durable surface that provides outstanding ground cover for athletic fields and other recreation facilities. Moreover, they release significant amount of oxygen in the air, thus making golf courses the “lungs” of a city

St. Augustine grass

they release significant amount of oxygen in the air, thus making golf courses the “lungs” of a city. They absorb harsh sounds as they act like rug and muffles and have cooling effects on the environment.

Zoysia grass

400 sq.m. area. The site should be divided into suitable small squares or rectangles, the seeds are mixed with double the quantity of finely sieved soil and should be rolled again and watered liberally with rose can. The seeds


Athletic fields

Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon)

All sports

Creeping Bent grasses (Agrostis palustris)

Tennis Courts, Lawn Bowling, and Croquet

Kentucky Bluegrass (Poa pratensis)

Baseball, Football, Soccer

Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinaceae)

Baseball, Football, Soccer

Zoysia grass (Zoysia spp.)


Ryegrasses (Lolium spp.), St. Augustine grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum), Creeping Bent grasses (Agrostis palustris), Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum)

Golf Greens

Conditions for landscaping For landscaping, the turf grasses should fulfil the visual and functional qualities. The visual quality depends on the colour (the greener the better), texture (width of the leaf blades), density (number of shoots in an area), and uniformity (combination of the three indicators). Functional quality depends on the rigidity (resistance of the leaves to compression), elasticity (tendency to spring back), resiliency (capacity to absorb shock), yield (measure of clippings removed), verdure (aerial shoots after mowing), rooting (root growth evident during growing season), and recuperative capacity (capacity to recover from damage). Methods of turf making 1. Seeding The most popular grass suitable for seeding is “Doob” grass (Cynodon dactylon). It has the fast spreading mat forming habit, radially forms roots at the nodes, the foliage is dark green, narrow with parallel veins. About 1 kg of seed is required for broadcasting in

take four weeks for germination. Care should be taken not to flood the site. Lawn mower may be used for easy maintenance and for its spreading. This method is mainly followed during extreme winter seasons, where the greening effect is enhanced by sowing grass species like Festuca and Agrostis. This grass germinates with 10 -15 days of time and will be growing luxuriously throughout the winter. This can also be mowed unlike other grasses. This requires minimum light intensity and low temperature for their growth and development. 2. Dibbling roots This is the cheapest but time consuming method. Small pieces of grass should be dibbled 10 - 15 cm apart in a leveled ground when it is wet after rain. The roots spread and grow underground in the course of six months, make the lawn compact by frequent mowing, rolling and watering. Depending on the monetary status one can decide the size of grass pieces for dibbling method. The smaller pieces took longer time and vise versa. Floriculture Today August 2012 21


Blue grass

Bahia grass


3. Turf plastering The doob grass (Cyanodon dcatylon) can be procured in large quantities free from weeds and chopped properly into small bits of 5-7 cm long. Two baskets of chopped grass pieces should be mixed with garden soil, fresh cow dung one bucket each and a shovel full of wood ash should be mixed well with required quantity of water to form a thick pasty substance. This mixture is then spread uniformly on the surface of a perfectly levelled ground to a thickness of at least 2.5cm and watering should be done with a rose can. The next day, the ground should be rolled and the grass should be allowed to spread. The grass will shoot up in a fortnight. To start with, cut with a scythe and after three months, use the lawn mower. 4. Turfing The turfs are nothing but pieces of earth with compact grasses on them. These turfs should be cut uniformly in squares from a place where the grass is compact and free 22 Floriculture Today August 2012

from weeds. These turfs should be placed on the prepared ground site and beaten down with turf beater. The cavities in between should be filled with fine soil. The entire turfed area should be rolled and watered liberally. This is the most expensive way of lawn making. Following criteria has to be considered while selecting turf pieces. a) Should be free from sod worms b) Free from nutritional deficiency c) Free from weed population d) Sod should be properly cut without any deformations e) Height of the grass should be optimum f) Free from pest and diseases Methods of turf maintenance Levelling Levelling is very essential for a turf. One of the easily practised and recommended methods is to check the level with the help of a wooden plank about 15 cm broad and 60 cm (2 ft.) long with a handle or with rope tied at both the ends and pulled from one side

to another. Eye estimation is the only way of judging in such method. Mowing For making a good lawn and maintaining it, mowing is the most important operation. It keeps the grass trim and checks weed growth. Coarse grasses and weeds do not like to be mowed. They gradually become weaker if frequently mown. It is advisable to be very careful with the first mowing. Grass should be 7- 10 cm(3-4 in.) high and should have established itself well. The first mowing may be done with the mowing machine, keeping the blades high, it should be done gently and with a sharp blade, otherwise it might unsettle some of the tender roots. The second mowing should be done at about the same height in another 3-4 days. Gradually the grass will thicken and spread out. The first year is a crucial period for lawn- making and the lawn should be mowed twice a week. Once the lawn is well made, mowing may be done once a week. A wellkept lawn may not look attractive, if its edges are not trimmed. Scraping and raking Due to constant rolling and mowing the soil sometimes forms a hard crust on the surface and the lower part of the grass becomes matted or woody. The lawn then needs to be scraped and raked. The entire lawn should be scraped with a khurpi followed by raking before the break of monsoons, i.e., in the months of May- June in the northern plains and in March- April in the hills. But in other cases where the condition of turf is good, thorough raking only both ways will be sufficient to take out old runners and aerate soil. Then mow the grass until the old stumps of grass are well trimmed and surface of the lawn cleaned and exposed to the sun. Irrigation To prevent drying of planting material and soil erosion, keep the top half inch of the soil moist. This may require light watering two or three times a day for 15- 20 days. After the third mowing, watering should be done to a depth of 6 to 8 inches about once a week or when needed. Established lawns should be watered to a depth of 6 to 8 inches to encourage deep rooting. Usually, 1 inch of water per week is adequate. Early morning

Landscaping solution to check motha (Cyperus rotundus) which is a problematic weed. It perpetuates by nuts deeply placed underground. Weedicide for dicot weeds can be used e.g. 0.5 % solution of 2,4- Dicholorophenoxy acetic acid. Nutrient management The inorganic and organic nutrients are essential for the growth and development of turf grasses. The role of each essential nutrient in plant growth and development is quite specific and sometimes completely misunderstood. Each essential nutrient is equally important to plant growth, just in different quantities; a deficiency of any one

is the preferred time to water because it reduces the risk of disease, water loss through evaporation and improper water distribution. Delay in watering at first signs of wilt can result in permanent damage unless the turf is being allowed to go dormant. Weeding Regular mowing controls the population of weeds by removal of upper portion of the weeds and starvation of roots. But still there may be large population of weeds which grows fast and needs removal. Hand weeding is possible in small areas and it is the only

Astro turf

Quarterly fertilizer input ratio for turf grass Situation Nitrogen

Phosphorus (g/m2)


Low Maintenance




High Maintenance (e.g. lawns, fairways)




Intensive Maintenance (e.g. sports fields)




Hydro seeding

can seriously impair overall plant growth and development. The sources of fertilizers supplying nitrogen are Urea, Ammonium nitrate, Ammonium chloride; Phosphorous - Single super phosphate and Potassium are Murite of potash and Potassium chloride. Dibbling root


Problems in a lawn Problem




Grass turns yellow with the deficiency of magnesium and iron

Iron: Spray Ferrous sulphate 25 g dissolved in 10 litres of water (2.5%) per 100 sq. metres.

Magnesium: Spray Magnesium sulphate 100 g in 10 litres of water per 100 sq. metres.

Dog urine

Dead grass in the lawn

Re-plant grass in a circular manner

Fertilizer burn

Grass turns to brown especially in hot weather fertilizers deep into the soil.

Drench the lawn in injured areas with water to leach excess

Improper mowing

Lawns cut too close to the ground turn yellowish and often look diseased or dried

Mow enough to remove not more than 1/3rd height of the grass at a time. Keep mower blades sharp.

Improper watering

Light sprinkling encourages shallow roots. Over watering causes diseases

Water the lawn to wet the soil about10 to 15 cm depth.

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Termite problem in lawn

Cut worm problem in lawn

Dog urine problem in lawn

Plant Protection Pest Termite


Cut worms


Form small mounds around the entrance to their nests

Soil drenching with Chlorpyrifos @ 1.5 ml/lit of water

Eat away grass stems near the surface of the soil causing dead spots

Apply Acephate or Chlorpyrifos @ 1 ml/lit of water


Eat away the roots of grasses creating brownish dead patches

Apply Imidacloprid @ 1.5 ml/lit of water or Thiamethoxam @ 0.5 g/lit


Suck the juice from grass blades causing stripped white, then yellow and finally brown leaves

Spray Dimethoate 2ml/l


Affect the roots, lawn takes a bleached out appearance

Synthetic lawn making using Astro Turf A synthetic lawn popularly used in developed countries in roof gardens as well as in play grounds. Constant sprinkling of water is one of the prime requisite to bind the

24 Floriculture Today August 2012

Apply Furadan 40g /sq.m

synthetic fibers to provide a surface. Under certain circumstances plastic and readymade turf mimics are used for in certain paved areas. The life span for this varies between 10-12 years depending up on the wear and

tear effects.


(The authors are from the Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, HC& RI, TNAU, Coimabtore)

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Garden Designs Where form and function meld effortlessly — Abhija Dalal


t is not easy to pin down a design style in a few words, especially as each project will inevitably vary widely depending on its use, personal choices of a client, site conditions and budgets etc. In all my garden designs I try and create a tranquil contemplative atmosphere, where clean lines and angular bard landscaping is contrasted with dense swathes of lush, architectural planting that appears to invade the space. The aim is to create verdant naturalistic landscapes that are made more accessible and relatable by the clear form and structure provided by unashamedly modern, manmade elements. All elements spatial, formal, material and planting combine for create a special garden which flatters the senses and welcomes the soul. Gardens where form and function meld effortlessly, that surprise and delight. I am presenting three projects, in the same neighourhood with similar site condition and architecture, but varied likes and needs. Here, it would be worthwhile to present my own three projects of garden designing to further enlighten the readers: Project 1 Client brief I was asked to create a garden, with spaces to entertain friends and family. The clients wanted a coo, original and creative garden, a reflection of their bold personalities, with plenty of unique feature. Being health conscious, they wanted to incorporate a gymnasium, swimming pool and a walkway. The area creates a focus for active recreation and links the house with the garden. The design is clean and modern in character. The clients also wanted a space where they could relax near the house and entertain at the back of the garden. Design My solution was to maximize usable space and make the garden seem larger than it is. Sitting on the infinity pool, draws the eye out to the garden beyond and bring in reflection of the sky and soothing sounds of water. The successful outcome has a lot to do with the amicable relationship that I share with my clients. The stone paving nudges into the garden in a more contemporary direction which suits the modernity of some aspects of the interiors. This new design embraces the lap-pool 26 Floriculture Today August 2012

to become an integral part of the garden. I was also able to source and commission the sculpture, designing it directly for the garden and not adding as an afterthought. A raised deck beneath the generous roof overhang meant that there was always somewhere to seek either sun or shade.

Active Garden

Natural Garden


All elements spatial, formal, material and planting combine for create a special garden which flatters the senses and welcomes the soul. Gardens where form and function meld effortlessly, that surprise and delight. I am presenting three projects, in the same neighourhood with similar site condition and architecture, but varied likes and needs To address the problem of the tall back wall, which had an oppressive feeling, I screened it with a lot of planting including trees, tall shrubs and climbers. The planting is based around architectural plants like bismarckia nobilis, oil palms, cycus. A minimalist design incorporating a unique blend of features ranging from a custom made pergola to the infinity pool, this well balanced garden leaves a lasting impression everyone. Front Garden The entrance to the property is enhanced by a ‘Mild Stainless Steel Pergola’ that all entrance has to pass through. The pergola overhead frame views through the front garden. The ‘Metalwork and Lighting’ are organic in style, introducing soft edges on hard spaces. ‘Hedges and Plantations’ provide contrast in colour and tone, to the walkway made of forest green stone. A small ‘Courtyard’ near the dining room has a serene ‘Buddha’ with the back drop of arecas. Back Garden The ‘Infinity Lap Pool’ provides a bold, minimalist element and a predominant feature providing the much needed exercise. It is softened with a fairly restricted colour palette in planting. A ‘Shade Pavilion’ is built on the turquoise lap pool to provide seating. The gymnasium is built to be a part of the garden, so as to have a cooling effect, while exercising. ‘Ground Level’ was raised till the height of the ‘Wooden Deck’ creating seamless transition from the house to the garden.

to provide a feeling of calmness, tranquility and relaxation. There was the possibility of introducing curves. The garden was not to be used primarily for entertainment, but as a private space. Design Unusually, my client requested ‘lots of plants’, which itself was a brief made in heaven as far as I’m concerned. ‘Low maintenance’, with good reason, is so often high on the list of requests, so it was a joy to make a garden which could include so many different planted areas, each with its own atmosphere. The planting relies on leaf shape colour and texture. The idea is to integrate paved gravel paths with the lily pond. A curved gravel path wraps around the lawn and leads down the garden to an existing lily pond past areas of long grass filled with spring bulbs and wide traditional mixed borders designed to give interest throughout the year. Front Garden Inviting and winding walkways of ‘Stone Slabs and Gravel’ connect different zones so as to facilitate movement as well as creating sense of mystery and discovery. Planting involves sweeps of shrubbery giving a feeling of unity, rather than the traditional method of placing individual plants. Plants used, are tolerant of the extreme summer of Ahmedabad. Use of taller plants was included, to maintain privacy. Back Garden A lush carpet of green with colours present only as subtle accents, create a serene, naturalistic feeling. Water, here acts as a medium rather than a vacant back drop which is brought to life by plants and the sun, reflecting distinct qualities, from every angle. Project 3 Client brief The client brief for this garden was to provide some retraction from the buildings at each side of the garden and to create flow and interest within the garden, so that all three generations could enjoy and use it, whilst leaving enough room for a large lawn for the couples’ children. They wanted a beautifully designed space to complement the design of their house. Planting was to be soft and natural, designed to encourage birds and insects.

Natural Garden

Project 2 Client brief The task was to create an overall plan for the front and rear garden including the driveway. The essence of the garden was for the plants

Design It is essential that all new gardens respect both, the architecture and the rural landscape. Hence I chose to create a gravel garden that relied predominantly on planting and as the centerpiece. I designed a piece of sculpture of Gautam Buddha. The temple is the hub of design, providing a focal point and uniting the various angles and spaces. Along the rear of the house, smooth black granite is laid flushed with pebbles. This material works well with the interiors and lends itself to barefoot walking. The clients being staunch Jains believe in non-voilence/ahinsa. On certain days, they wouldn’t even walk on the lawn which is a living thing. Floriculture Today August 2012 27

Gardening Front Garden This garden is designed as a space to enjoy, bringing unity of mind, body and spirit. It is conceived as calm, relaxing and an uplifting space with a tropical atmosphere. The Buddha and the white pebbles provide the much needed ‘Zen’ influence and the necessary contrast to the ‘Lawn and Shrubs’. The garden sits incredibly comfortable in its setting, compliments the house and is strong, yet simple in design. Back Garden The temple structure amidst greenery, with black bamboos at the back and trucked in a corner, away from the house provides the necessary peace for daily prayers. Sensitive use of hard landscape materials work appropriately with the style of the garden. I firmly believe that in a small garden everything has to be multifunctional and the design should be thoroughly practical. We see all our gardens in splendid isolation jealously guarding our own private domain, when in reality each one is only a small part of a network of interconnecting open spaces. Spring and renewal are the constant beating heart of any garden. It’s microscopic as well as macroscopic organisms form part of the web of its life and can be present only if we provide them with them suitable conditions. The right conditions make the gardens rich and alive whereas in the wrong conditions they are silent and soulless. Construction can be a very destructive activity and we have the ability to mitigate the negatives and tip the balance in favour of the positives, whatever the style of the garden. If I can convince just one client to restore a tiny part of all those lost fields, put back a pond into what was

28 Floriculture Today August 2012

Meditative Garden

once a wetland or to plant a tree to replace thousands lost each year. I feel I have added a small weight to the right side of the scales. Within the boundaries of even a small garden, it’s possible to achieve so much for the body as well as the soul. Our clients place their trust in our knowledge and ability and through them we have the opportunity to make environmental changes by our work and difference to make the world a better place to live in, for the future generations, even if it’s only one garden at a time. n (The author is from Arianee Landscapes, Ahmedabad, Gujarat)


Genetic Conservation of Temperate Ornamental Plants — Y.C. Gupta

India is endowed with a wide variety of agro-climatic conditions and almost all types ornamental crops can be grown in one region or the other. Indian sub-continent is rich in ornamental trees, shrubs, climbers, herbs and succulents. Ornamental plants are abundant in wild and in rain forest habitats and they are also grown commercially as well as in home gardens. The important ornamentals that are native to India and are under cultivation are orchids, rhododendrons, musk rose, begonias, lily, primulas, lotus, water lily and wild tulip. Horticultural genetic resources are a subset of agro-diversity that is related to horticultural plant species or their wild gene pool having genetic material of actual/potential value which includes improved and absolute varieties, populations, landraces, genetic stocks and breeding material of crop plants and their wild and weedy relatives. The large scale cultivation of such improved cultivars, particularly in widely grown crops, results in genetic vulnerability to biotic and abiotic stresses, which may lead to crop losses. There is a wide diversity in these crops with respect to mode of reproduction, seed storage, behaviour, growth habit, adaptation, uses, agro-technology etc. Keeping in view the enormity and diversity of the task and difficulties involved, a networking approach is essentially required which should share the responsibility of collection, chacterization, evaluation, maintenance and conservation of horticulture genetic resources.

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Ornamentals Management of Genetic Resources 1. Germplasm acquisition It is the first step in a germplasm management programme. Germplasm can be collected indigenously as well as introduced from exotic sources depending on the availability of genetic diversity, collection already made, threat of genetic erosion; economic importance of the crop and the breeder’s requirements. In India, a number of explorations have been conducted and the indigenous germplasm collections include about 500 accessions of ornamental plants. There is an urgent need for intensification of collection and conservation activities in these crops and diversity rich areas needs to be protected. There is a great diversity in medicinal, aromatic and ornamental plants in India. But these plants had received a little attention and a large number of plant species are yet to be identified and documented. 2. Germplasm introduction A large germplasm representing a broad spectrum of genetic diversity has been introduced from other countries which include around 440 accessions of ornamentals and 3800 accessions of medicinal and aromatic

30 Floriculture Today August 2012

plants. There are many popular introduced ornamentals which include rose, gladiolus, cacti, chrysanthemum, carnation, gerbera, orchids, tuberose and snapdragons. Also, the varieties with better lasting quality and resistance to insect-pests and diseases, suited as cut flowers with long vase life in flowers such as rose, gladiolus, jasmine, dahlia and marigold and superior hybrids in petunia, pansy, carnation, China aster are required to be introduced. 3. Establishment and Regeneration Establishment and regeneration are serious impediments in the management of genetic resources, due to a large number and diversity of crops. Special efforts are required in handling and regeneration of gennplasm during collection !Introduction and conservation at various sites and also it is essential to create facilities like propagation chamber, mist chamber, glass house, polyhouse, hot beds, plant quarantine and tissue culture laboratories in important agroecological regions of the country. 4. Germplasm characterization and Evaluation Gennplasm characterization and

evaluation are required to identify the desirable gennplasm for utilization as well as to avoid duplication in management efforts. Due to perennial nature of many horticultural plants, many years are required for flowering and fruiting which render a difficult task for characterization and evaluation. Therefore, efforts have to be made to record many descriptors at the collection site. The characterization is generally done on the basis of morphological markers and agronomic traits. Molecular characterization has gained great importance and needs to be strengthened. The cultivars and promising gennplasm needs to be characterized using molecular markers to establish the identity, analyze the genetic diversity and their utilization in crop improvement programmes. 5. Germplasm conservation Gennplasm conservation of genetic resources is extremely important to meet the present and future needs of various crop improvement programmes. The conservation requires complementary strategies involving both in situ and ex situ conservation. Emphasis needs to be given to the conservation of the endemic wild

Ornamentals relatives and rare and endangered species that are rapidly disappearing from the ecological niches. In situ conservation, plant species are promoted to grow in their natural habitats where evolutionary processes continue to operate, making it a dynamic system. Genetic variability is generated through mutation, pollen and seed dispersal, and recombination within and among populations. Selection operates on this variability leading to the development of new types with improved adaptability. In situ conservation, in addition to natural habitats in protected areas and national reserves, also needs to be carried on farm in the areas where landraces and locally adapted farmer’s varieties are cultivated. The gennplasm is conserved ex situ either in field, seed, in vitro and cryogene banks. In crops that produce seeds, which is amenable to desiccation and can tolerate low temperatures, germplasm conservation through seeds is the most common approach. However, many horticultural plants, being vegetative propagated or having recalcitrant seeds, requires field gene banks facility for their conservation. Further, in vitro and cryopreservation are resource and technologyintensive approaches. The botanical gardens

and private orchards and gardens also have an important role in the conservation of horticultural genetic resource. 6. Germplasm conservation The main goal of conservation of genetic resources is their present and future utilization for the benefit of mankind. The utilization of wild relatives is of special concern as these are rich in genetic diversity and carry genes particularly for resistance/tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Further, the resistance/ tolerance to insect- pests and disease is important to ensure stable performance of improved varieties and to reduce the use of pesticides.

India has vast diversity of ornamental plants in forests, parks and institutional repositories. The management of genetic resources of ornamental plants with an emphasis on genetic improvement started at IARI in 1950’s under Dr. B. P. Pal’s leadership.

7. Documentation and information management Proper management of data is very critical to efficiently handle genetic resources, promote their utilization and develop further strategies. The database on germplasm should include information on explorations undertaken, regions surveyed, accessions collected, germplasm introduced, passport and taxonomic data, indigenous technical knowledge, international directories on insect pests and disease’s and check lists. It should provide an inventory of the material held in the collection, determination of duplicates or gaps in collection, facilitate management of collections conserved, identification of the appropriate material for use in crop improvement and other research programmes and coordination of horticulture genetic resource management activity. Ornamental plants have a very important role in everyday life of human beings. India has vast diversity of ornamental plants in forests, parks and institutional repositories. Several gardens in India have indigenous as well as exotic plants. The management of genetic resources of ornamental plants with an emphasis on their genetic improvement

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32 Floriculture Today August 2012

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Ornamentals Primula obconica

Zonal pelargonium or Ivory Snow


was started at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, during 1950’s under the leadership of late Dr. B.P. Pal. Other institute like National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow; Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore; and Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai also contributed significantly in the genetic improvement of ornamentals. The work was strengthened with the establishment of All India Co-ordinated Floriculture Improvement Project in 1972. The management some important temperate ornamental plants is briefly discussed below: Pelargonium Pelargonium is the botanical name for the group of a plant which includes geraniums or zonal pelargoniums, regal pelargoniums, ivy leaf pelargoniums, scented leaf pelargoniums and miniature pelargoniums. They are most important spring and summer flowering plants suitable for both pot and bedding cultures. Most of the modem hybrids of pelargoniums have the tendency to bloom almost throughout the year especially in frost free areas. The important cultivated pelargoniums fall into four major groups. The most widely cultivated is the zonal or fish geraniums; Pelargoniumx hortorum (Bailey). These cultivars have a characteristic dark band or zone within its leaf. The regal or 34 Floriculture Today August 2012

show geraniums (pelargonium x domesticum Bailey) is grown to a much less extent but is gaining popularity because ofits beautiful and unusual flowers. The ivy leafed pelargoniums are excellent cascading plants, suitably growing in hanging baskets, window sills and wall climbing under sheltered locations. The fourth group (scented) is a series of species (or their derivatives) having pungent or fragrant leaves. The important zonal hybrids pelargonium series are Avanti, Bandet, Carefree, Century, Challenge, Cherrlo, Dynamo, Elite, Flash, Pinto, Ringo, Ripple, Sprinter, Sensation and Maverick series. Primulas There are excellent spring and winter flowering primulas, with a collection of over 400 species, found throughout the temperate regions of Northern hemisphere, both hardy as well as some requiring protection from severe winters and frosts. Their compact dwarf habit of growth and their freedom of flower production make them specially desirable. They are almost indispensible in gardens where a spring display of flowers in formal or informal beds is wanted. Species of primula grown as late autumn and early spring greenhouse flowering plants are Primula obconica, P. malacoides, P. sinensis, P kewensis, and P. acaulis. P. obconica and P. vulgaris remain in flowering in the winter and spring months in temperate areas of India

and have started gaining popularity for their use as excellent flowering and bedding plants. Some of the most famous and promising series of P. obconic’a , and P. vulgaris are Peso, Twilight, Sterling, Lucanto, Joker, Finesse, Finale, Twilly, Juno, Libre Mix, and Ariana etc. Cyclamen Cyclamen belongs to the family Primulaceae. Most cyclamen cultivars originated in Europe. Cyclamen is the most popular and colourful flowering pot plant, suitable for temperate climate. It remains in flowering from late autumn to early summer in cooler areas of the country but in plains, flowering starts from December and lasts till February. They may be pure white, deep red or various shades of pink, salmon, mauve, purple. Some of the wild species are fragrant, but modem cultivated forms are odourless. Cyclamen is native of the Mediterranean region, Central Europe and Asia Minor. Most of the modem cultivars have come from one of the following series: Laser series, Concerto Fl, Rondo FI, Dixie FI, Latinia series FI, Metis series, Diva series and Helios series. Tuberous Begonia Tuberous begonias are excellent summer flowering plants, valued mainly for their giant attractive flowers of various colours.


Tuberous begonia

Zantedeschia elliottiana

Gloriosa Gloriosa, popularly known as Glory Lily is a fascinating and scientifically interesting genus. They belong to the family Liliaceae, comprises about 10 to 15 well known species. They are tall, weak stemmed and tuberous rooted creeping plants supporting themselves by means of leaf tendrils. The showy flowers are borne on long stalks and have reflexed petals with wavy edges and very conspicuous stamens. Glory lily is widely grown for cut flower production in USA and Canada. Some of the important species commonly grown in Indian gardens are Gloriosa superba, G simplex, G rothschildiana and G plantii.

Gloriosa rotschildiana

Narcissus cyclaminius

They are best grown in pots, tubs, troughs, window boxes or hanging baskets in the green houses, conservatories, balconies and window sills protected from direct sun and rain during summer months in places where day temperatures during these periods ranges between 15 and 20째C. A vast range of tuberous begonia hybrids with the large single and double blooms are available nowadays. The singles are brilliantly co loured in red, pink, white, yellow or orange, some with the edges of petals ruffled and crinkled. In addition, the large flowered begonias also comes in various shapes and colours. The important cultivars group are traditional giant flowered begonias, pendula begonias, picotte pendula begonias, picotte lace begonias, multiflora tuberous hybrids Calla lily Zantesdechia belongs to the family Araceae. It is native to South Africa. Though

Hybrid lilies are useful as cut flowers and potted plants. Lilies are native of Northern hemisphere. Lilium belongs to the family Liliaceae. It is herbaceous perennial having scaly bulbs. There are about 80 species under the genus Lilium. The importance of lily as commercial crop has increased due to the development of Asiatic hybrids derived from about eight species. Lilium henryi impart resistance against viruses and Fusarium and Lilium candidum can tolerate low temperature and low light. Year round forcing ability and vigorous growth can be obtained from Lilium longiflorum.

Lilium henryi

there are number of species available the most prominent ones are Z aethiopica (white calla), Z. elliotianna (golden calla) and Z. rehmannii (pink calla). Besides these three species, Z albo-maculata (spotted lily), Z. macrocarpa, Z melanoleuca (black throated calla), Z nelsonii and Z oculata are also attractive. It is grown for its ornamental corolla like spathe and its attractive variegated or spotted foliage. It is a perennial herb and originated in South Africa. Calla, lilies are used for planting along the ponds and lakes as border plants or as potted plants. The spathe of calla lilies are used as cut flowers while the leaves are very elegant and used for flower arrangement. Lilium Lilium is one of the most handsome and popular ornamental bulbous plants. The appearance, colour and beauty of the bloom are very spectacular and attractive.

Daffodils Daffodil is botanically known as Narcissus pseudonarcissus and belongs to the family Amaryllidaceae. Many cultivated forms are closely related to the wild species which were known for hundreds of years although narcissi became an important bulb crop only at the end of nineteenth century. There are many species under the genus narcissus and all the types of narcissi can be grown for cut flowers but the main types for cut flower purpose are known as Daffodils. The species of wild narcissi provide a wider range of shapes and sizes than the garden cultivars. Some of the important wild species having potential to be used in garden are Narcissus calcicola, N. cyclaminius, N. jonquilla, N. minor, N. moschatus, N. obvallaris, N. rupicola and N. scaberulus. n Author is Professor and Head, Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan, HP

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We are trying to become NO.1 in MP: Gokul Barod Garden Temple Nursery has been supplying various kinds of plants to different cities in MP. It has a team of 250 skilled workers and efficient supervisors who look after different varieties of plants in large quantities. Floriculture Today Correspondent Azeem Haider met its owner Gokul Barod to know his views about floriculture scenario in the state, and vital facts and future plans of his own nursery, among other things. Excerpts:

Gokul Barod

When did you start this nursery? The nursery was started in 2006, while the accessory shop, Garden Temple, was established in 1999. In the beginning, we had to struggle a lot, but we prevailed against all odds, as we were determined to become a name in the floriculture map of this region. Our nursery is spread across 3 acres, and situated at Devas. What are the Nursery’s activities? The main goal of the nursery is to popularize floriculture in the state, and to introduce new products. We take immense interest and care in growing plants, nurturing and popularizing them, and working closely with plant experts and buyers. We also do landscaping. What are the varieties that you grow? We grow nearly 120 varieties including ornamental, indoor and outdoor and fruit plants. They include royal palm, roses, 38 Floriculture Today August 2012

plants for terrace garden and vertical garden, and fruit varieties of Mosambi, Mango and Lemon, among others.

Do you export? NO. In future, we will see if we can do it.

Where do you buy your plants and seeds from? We buy our plants mostly from Rajamundri (Kadiam), Bangalore, and seasonal plants from Pune.

What is your future plan? Demands of plants and flowers are increasing in the major cities of the state. Development of Vijay Nagar (New Indore City) has also increased the sale. We are trying to grow further and will try to become No. 1 in our state.

To whom do you supply? We supply all over in MP to local retailers and landscapers. Our major markets are Indore, Devas and Bhopal. Do you get any government support? No. The government should encourage nurseries as it encourages other forms of agriculture through subsidies and other benefits. It would surely help floriculture to grow. In India, if floriculture is growing, it is simply because of the passion, hard work and risk-taking appetite of the entrepreneurs like us.

Tell something about Garden Temple? Garden Temple is an accessory shop that sells our gardening related products such as plastic pots, bio-fertilizers, lawn-movers, lawn-cutters, and other gardening tools. It is one-point centre where customers can get everything related to gardening. It is in the heart of the Indore city. The second shop has now come up in Vijay Nagar (New Indore n City).

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Labour problem is hampering nursery output, says Laxman Kag Laxman Kag

Tirupati Green House Nursery, an ISO certified company, is one of the most admired nurseries in Madhya Pradesh. The company is formed with the aim to supply the best quality of Papaya Plants and Other Plants to farmers. It has grown with time, and now it is a leading producer and supplier of premium quality papaya and other plants. The company aims to supply best quality of papaya and other plants to the agriculture industry. It has succeeded tremendously under the efficient leadership of owner Laxman Kag. Floriculture Today Correspondent Azeem Haider met Kag to know his views about floriculture scenario in the state, and vital facts and future plans of his own nursery, among other things. Excerpts: When did you start this nursery? Tirupati Green House was started in 2000. We had started with 2 acres, and now our nursery is spread across 13 acres. We have 6 units in various parts of the state. Now, we are among the largest producers and suppliers of all varieties of plants. We are the one-stopshop of quality plant in central India. What are nursery’s activities? We are expert in soil management, and know what plants are better for this kind of soil. Our team takes meticulous care to maintain the nursery. We also try in our own way to popularize floriculture among the people. We practice scientific way of farming and use latest technology to achieve the best output. What are the varieties that you grow? We grow nearly 200 varieties including ornamental, indoor and outdoor and fruit plants, including royal palm, roses, terrace garden, vertical garden. Our fruit varieties are Mosambi, Mango and Lemon, pomegranate, guava, and custard apple among others. But our main product is papaya plant. We have dedicated 2 acres for it. Main variety is ‘Papaya Red Leady 786’. We also have a small unit which makes plant tray. Cocopit fertilizer is our product. We also sell medicinal, seedling and forestry plants. Where do you buy your plants and seeds from? We buy our plants mostly from Kadiam, 42 Floriculture Today August 2012

No. I think state government should come up with a policy to help floriculturists. It should have a single window system to address our problems. Certain types of subsidy will also help us to grow, and do floriculture in a big way. What are other problems? Our soil is fertile and plants grow fast. But we are facing acute labour shortage, as youth are drifting towards cities. They are less interested in tilling and farming. I think mechanization will help us. The government should include floriculture in college course materials to inspire youth, and open up new avenues in the sector for employment.

Bangalore, and seasonal plants from Pune. To whom do you supply? We supply all over in MP to local retailers. Our major markets are Indore and Bhopal. Apart from this, we also send our products to other states like Gujarat, Maharashtra and Rajasthan. A team of highly experienced staff manage the entire infrastructure. We produce and supply the highest quality nature plants at reasonable prices. Our experienced staff specializes in assembling whole plant growth technologies in order to grow them in a healthy way. Importantly, we offer step by step guidance to our customers for successfully cultivation of plants. Do you get any government support?

Do you export? NO. The state government should also guide us about export policies, and how to do it. We can do it provided that we get the encouragement from our government. What is your future plan? We are trying to become one of the renowned and best one-stop-shop for nature lovers by providing services professionally and also giving a friendly touch. Our missions also include enhancing the ambience for better productivity, becoming part of solution for any problem in floriculture of the state, dedicating ourselves to nature and nature-lovers. Our endeavour has been recognized, as we have also won awards like Young Nursery Man Award in Delhi. n

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Mission: Green India-Green Economy 21st Century environment India

Monsoon rains,Rainwater harvesting and sustainable agriculture — Kamaljeet Singh Agri, Landscape Horticulturist Ecological Planner


Preview / Key Questions / Actions Proposed * “TOI dated 4th July, 2012 reports again deficient rains to hit govt. growth plans… A repeated worry every year…. One may say “Highlight of worries for ever… “Year after year…. * But some questions remain unanswered …?! Do we really care when it rains…!!! Lot of published material circulating within the country at the cost of trees…’ “Catch it where it rains” and so on…. * But do we have data available: state wise…, district wise …, City wise…, Village wise w.r.t. rainwater harvesting plans for next 60 or 90 days or for rainy days ahead throughout 2012 / 2013??? * Do we have locations earmarked, identified for rainwater harvesting for the purposes stated below: A) Water for drinking for our people-121 crore plus; keeping daily consumption per head as yardstick…!!! B) Water for agri, horticultural crop production in rural – suburban areas… helping our farmer community …!! For strengthening our “Green Mission for Green economy”… For sure. C) Water for industry, other misle. Uses else where — Habitat centres for work, living and leisure zones ..! etc. etc, * Do we care to share our river water flow when it rains…!!! Enormous quantity of rainwater available to us which flows thru city drains, Nalahs to river and to ocean..! * Do we have enough number of lakes, with sufficient capacity close to our cities, towns, villages, National Highways for storing & consuming rain water …??!! * If yes.. the number and capacity of such lakes needs identification and review for capacity enhancement..?! * If yes, do we have plans to add more number of lakes – nearby our cities, towns, villages highways to increase capacity of storage…? * How much budget allocation. Have we identified location-wise for harvesting rain in next 60-90 days or for year 2012/13 …? 44 Floriculture Today August 2012

How much budget we have spent in previous years for rainwater harvesting & result there off…, the benefit…!! To people.. farmers for drinking & farming…. * If answer is no.. or such data is not available … let us do it now and monitor results by Oct. 2012. At least some co-ordinated efforts will form a base to boost our “garden economy” thru July-Sept 2012 monsoon rains. * Ref. again drawn to TOI report on world Environmental Day — 5th June, 2012 this year. The United Nations Environmental Programme gave a call for “Green economy”. * Further to above, Times reported “India’s National action plan on climate change by Dr. H. R. Gautam, Sr. Scientist…. Out of many issues mentioned theirin, I have one in focus for review: “National mission for Green India, sustainable agriculture & strategic knowledge plant form for climate change” * Needless to mention “Climate change” is a complex global phenomenon / feature and is here to stay…, stay for decades to come. Reports also mentions on past industrialisation CO2 levels which rose to 385 ppm from 280 ppm, beginning millennium. The levels as such are not expected to drop down so soon as all UN member countries are busy raising target of growth and development. The activities in terms of industrialisation will continue to contribute to global warming in its own way. Maybe, we can reduce our global funds on war preparedness for biodiversity care and population benefits. Some percentage of same can be put to protect and enhance “greening missions” for “Green Economies”. * We in India may increase our rainwater harvesting locations … this monsoon season to say 1000… 10,000, 50,000 or 1,00,000 locations — By having more lakes close to river flow or catchment areas for our people. Maybe high or very high target but I believe our people — our strength our armed forces as well together can achieve some. May be much more…. *

Census 2011 source Manorma Yearbook.../India Today We have ...35 states../Uts.....640 districts../5924 sub districts..7935..towns..6,40,867 villages...Are we doing Rainwater Harvesting On All These Locations?....Our Population 2011 Census..Same Source..Is 121 Crore Plus... Add. to this 18% growth over decade..we will be.. 142 crore Plus By 2021..By More 18%... We will be 167 Crore Plus By 2031... and so on...What will we do then...!!!!1 We Need Awakening..& More Ground Action Right Now... A Pledge For Next ....Independence Day.

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Orchid smuggling & fear of extinction — N. Shiva Kumar


n the last week of June, an orchid house was set up in Mizoram to preserve 87 species of orchids found in the State’s jungles and also to check their plunder. So far, 54 species have been preserved. It is one of the many baby steps taken by the government to preserve disappearing orchids which exhibit an incredible range of diversity in our country. Orchids are the most bewitching flower species, being the most exotic and quixotic members of the plant kingdom. They come in speckled shades of scarlet, range of yellows; in moody indigos, blues and purples; in pastel pinks and greens; strange shapes and sizes. There are around 25,000 to 30,000 species of orchids across the globe but some of those are on the brink of extinction. In earlier days, fascinated by these beautiful flowers, many wealthy and powerful men spent fortunes to collect and maintain them in their backyard. It is precisely for this reason that orchids are rampantly smuggled as wildlife trophies across international borders in large numbers. A bag full of wild orchids was recently confiscated on the Indo-Nepal border by the local police — a proof that smuggling continues despite a ban. To stop such pillage, an Orchidarium was set up in Shillong in 1956 and at Yercaud near Coimbatore in 1963 by the Botanical Survey of India (BSI). The National Research Centre for Orchids (NRCO) established in 1996 near Gangtok, Sikkim, is also involved in documentation, conservation, development of orchid hybrids and mass multiplication by tissue culture. 46 Floriculture Today August 2012

While some scientists suggest that India is home to over 1,200 species, the NRCO website indicates 1,700 species of orchids, of which 50 per cent are found in the northeastern part of India. The Himalayan belt of the seven sisters is not only rich in orchid species, but many of them rank at the top of the ‘ornamentally important’ list. The Western Ghats also harbour endemic orchids, many of these, once abundant, are threatened or might have already disappeared. “Natural and man-made disasters like landslides, road-making and other anthropological interventions have profoundly contributed to their extermination,” says Dr. D. Burman, principal scientist of NRCO. He adds: “Thanks to modern propagation and production technologies, orchids are accessible to the common man.” Horticulturists worldwide today grow orchids not only because they are mysterious and magical but they are simply beautiful and long-lasting. Cultivation and sale of orchids occupy over 10 per cent of the global floricultural trade and is growing. In 320 B.C., Greek philosopher Theophrastus, who is also known as the father of botany, had meticulously studied diverse plants and gave the name ‘orchids’ to these fascinating group of herbs. Since ancient times, orchids were in huge demand and illegally traded due to the belief that the tubers have aphrodisiac qualities. The evolution of orchid culture from hobby to commercial growing was slow but steady as they needed

a certain controlled moist atmosphere, specific pollination and germinating conditions. With contemporary techniques of propagation, numerous man-made hybrids are being produced. In 1913, the Sun Kee Nursery of Singapore started the first cut flower production of orchid hybrids. Today orchids are grown on assembly-line methodology in expensive and extensive glasshouses. International exhibitions are held exclusively on orchids, with countries competing with each other for bigger and better fusion of petals and colours. This has substantially boosted the sale of orchids into a million dollar global industry. Yet the quest for rare and wild orchids thrives relentlessly. According to Dr. Pankaj Kumar at KFBG Botanic Garden, Hong Kong, the basic reason for interest in orchids is its status symbol. In China, India and many western countries, orchids are the symbol of wealth since traditionally affluent people usually kept orchids for their ornamental value. Orchids also have high medicinal value as they contain several alkaloids which are used against various ailments; hence, they are copiously used in ayurvedic and Chinese medicine. Vanilla, used as a flavouring agent worldwide, is also extracted from a particular species. Being a profitable business, orchid floriculture flourishes in countries like Singapore, Thailand and Malaysia. In India, too, private business of orchids is increasing at a brisk pace in Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil n Nadu and parts of the Northeast. Courtesy: Hindu Business Line

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What happens when 80,000 volts pass through a flower?


enowned plant photographer Robert Buelteman (Montara, California) completed a breathtaking experiment. He sent 80,000 volts through his flowery subjects and then literally painted photographs of the outcome. In three awe-inspiring series, the 55-yearold used roses, petunias, and even cannabis in mind-blowing detail to give an extraordinary view of ordinary plant-life. This picture of Eucalyptus provides an amazing inside into plant life. The process to capture these unique images was so complex that it had taken him 10 years and a gruelling average of 60 hoursper-week to produce just 80 photos. Working in complete darkness, he begins by placing his chosen plant onto a metal board which he then passes the electrical surge through. He can even pinpoint areas where he wants to focus the charge using a wand and a simple car battery. As his subject lit up with the current, and emitted radiation invisible to the naked eye, Buelteman captured the moments by passing a fibre optic cable backand-forth over the plant.

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The cable emits a beam of white light which is just the size of a human hair and whatever the miniscule torch-beam touches, transfers the image onto film. The captivating blue haze that surrounds every leaf, petal and stalk is actually gases ionising around them as the plant is electronically shocked. “You just have to imagine it like a painter creating a picture on canvass,” he said. “The plant is the subject just like the painter’s bowl of fruit or the person they are capturing”. The electrified board I place the plants on is the canvass. The fibre optic cable emitting the light-beam is my paintbrush. Another way to try and understand it is like a normal photograph on a normal camera, except I am manually controlling the exposure by hand. In the same way the image I capture is simply burned onto film. To give the pictures an added dazzling effect, Buelteman uses aluminum canvass actually floats in liquid silicone. The Californian said his unique technique has been around for decades. And to make sure he doesn’t get killed or injured in the process,

he erects a protective frame of wood around his easel. But despite these being the first pictures of their kind in his profession, Buelteman says he has in fact invented nothing and uses a combination of age-old techniques developed decades ago. Semyon Kirlian, developer of Kirlian photography, accidentally found in 1939 that it was possible to photograph electrical discharges at the edges of objects if those were being shocked on an electrified plate. The 55-year-old makes ordinary Chrysanthemums look extraordinary. “When people see my work I want them to feel an awakening. The world is an amazing place and evolution has created some breathtaking things for us to look at. For me, art is about looking at the world and all its wonder in a new way, seeing something differently”, he said. Buelteman has written about the project and the techniques he uses in his book ‘Signs of Life’. His works are being bought for a phenomenal five figures by art collectors.

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Blossoms and Thorns: A documentary on the forgotten nursery “Blossoms and Thorns” is an 18-minute documentary about Japanese Americans in the once-thriving flower nurseries of Richmond and El Cerrito. It was recently premiered at the Rosie the Riveter National Park Visitor Center in Richmond. The remains of the Sakai nursery in Richmond, once one of many JapaneseAmerican-owned flower nurseries in the area, are among the few reminders of the booming cut-flower business in the early and mid-20th century. Japanese-American flower growers during World War II come to life in this new documentary. The 18-minute film, directed by Ken Kokka, features interviews with local residents whose immigrant families built the original flower nurseries in Richmond and El Cerrito and were persecuted in the internment of people of Japanese ancestry during World War II. There were three screenings of the documentary at the Visitor Education Center of the Rosie the Riveter World War II Home Front National Historical Park in Richmond. A panel discussion was also held in which

Kokka, assistant producer Donna Graves, and members of several nursery families discussed the glorious past of the nursery. NBC Bay Area reporter George Kiriyama moderated the discussion. Blossoms and Thorns is the culmination of a community effort that began years ago to document the stories of Japanese-American flower growers, whose nurseries were concentrated in Richmond and El Cerrito’s northwestern corner, just north of Cutting Boulevard. Graves, a social historian who is also interviewed in the film, said the process began in 2006 when members of the Contra Costa Japanese American Citizens League (JACL)

Boerma Instituut to participate in Flora Expo, Russia


nternational floral design school Boerma Instituut from Holland and HPP Exhibitions have agreed on a cooperation between the two flower consumption promoters, by organizing an exciting three day flower design program during the international flower trade exhibition Expo Flora Russia. The trade exhibition will be held in the prestigious exhibition hall Gostiny Dvor located down town near the Red Square. Anybody interested to attend is invited and there is no charge for entering the exhibition, nor for attending the demonstrations inside the exhibition hall. Mrs. Jacqueline Boerma, the company`s CEO of the Dutch based floral institute is delighted to be entering the Russian market and is looking forward to introduce her flower design creations during the 3 day event. Boerma Instituut also demonstrated earlier this year the art of flower designing during the international flower trade show World Floral Expo in New York City, after a 10 year absence of the fair following the 911 attacks on the NY World Trade Center. “New York was a great experience for us as well as the excitement of the American audience while introducing new trends in flower designing”. We hope that Moscow will also bring us such an enthusiastic audience and we hope to attract again a lot of, this time, Russian visitors during our flower demonstrations”, Jacqueline Boerma said during an interview.

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expressed interest in preserving the memories of the local nurseries. Chizu Iiyama, a 90-year-old El Cerrito resident and JACL member, strongly advocated for the making of a documentary, which unlike a temporary exhibit, would be a lasting project that future generations could view. “We thought in terms of a video that could capture more than just the pictures, and that it would be made available to the schools and other historical museums”, Chiru said. A temporary exhibit on the local Japanese nursery community, also titled “Blossoms & Thorns,” was also held at the Richmond Art Center. Most of the photographs featured in Blossoms and Thorns came from the surviving members of local Japanese-American families, who provided them to Graves and the El Cerrito Historical Society. The video footage of the greenhouses was taken at the Sakai and Oishi nurseries, the only remnants of the once booming local flower industry that was later destroyed by foreign imports.

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Cultivating prosperity


t’s not always your day if you are a farmer. No wonder, agriculture isn’t looked at as a lucrative option since rub of the green seldom goes in a farmer’s favour. However, an out-of-the-box thinking can help farmers reap rich harvests and this is what has happened to this group of farmers in Maan, Hinjewadi near Pune. Abhinav Farmers’ Club, dedicated to floriculture and exotic vegetables, has revolutionised traditional agriculture through direct marketing by doing away with middlemen. Dnyaneshwar Bodke, interior decorator-turned-farmer, sowed the seed of this club after he saw a number of farmers mortgaging their farms against loans to manage their households. He started pursuing them not to sell away their land but make the most of it. Focussing on floriculture and exotic vegetables, the group started understanding a thing or two about marketing their products. From a humble beginning, things gradually changed for better. The process hasn’t been a smooth sailing, says Bodke. “It was tough to convince farmers and I had to be very patient. I observed that all of them used to sell their products to agents in market and were totally clueless about prices. Things turned worse when they couldn’t recover even the production cost. This made us realise the need for forming a group.” To understand market logistics, Bodke decided to market agricultural products directly instead of relying on the middlemen. “Many farmers had burnt their fingers in the traditional market set-up. I decided to take the lead. A decade ago, many retail chains were coming up with departmental stores and I started meeting people in the business. They agreed to purchase vegetables and fruits directly from us and pay 30 per cent more than the production cost. However, there were limitations as

their payments would come after three months. After that, we started supplying the stuff to hotels and understood the entire marketing chain. Now, eateries buy vegetables from us in bulk.” Organised farming has helped farmers in not only clearing debts but also earning handsomely, claims Bodke. He says that every farmer in the group earns around Rs 1,000 a day. “There are farmers who earn Rs 8,000 to 10,000 a day. Of course, we work by the sweat of our brows. It’s a tough day from 7 am to 8 pm and still we have no complaints. We are ready to work harder. All we seek is a fair deal.” Emphasising on organic farming, the group focuses 70 per cent on floriculture and the rest on exotic vegetables. “Pune, Bangalore and Delhi are our main markets for flowers. We also tried our hands at floral decorations in IT companies but we didn’t get expected returns. We have handed over packing of vegetables to a female self-help group to help them in their enterprises.’’ Today, Abhinav farmers’ club has 250 members in Pune and 75 groups in Maharashtra, Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh. According to Bodke, farming is a lucrative option. “It is an essential commodity and will never lose its importance. Educated youth should take to farming. Technology should be more efficiently used. From government, we expect better connectivity, transport, power supply and clean administration. Our fundamental aim is to make farmers self-sufficient,” he concludes.

Nabard to support Talegaon floriculture business


he National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (Nabard) has projected its Potential Linked Credit Plan (PLP) for the Pune district at Rs 4,160.63 crore for total agriculture, which is an increase of Rs 704.83 crore (around 20.3 percent) from last year. Pune district comes under the agri export zone for grapes, floriculture, pomegranates, besides items such as cashew nuts. This sector too has received attention in the Nabard PLP. There is also great amount of domestic consumption for sectors such as horticulture, floriculture and others. “The horticulture business in the region is currently booming and has great potential in domestic as well as export market. There is in fact not enough production to cater to the domestic demand at present. We supply to all over the country, and mainly deal in ornamental plants, bigger indigenous tree, plantations as well as a variety of palms. We supply plants from 5 inches to even 50 inches,” said Vinu S Nair, general manager of Om Farms and nurseries, near Mumbai-Pune Highway. He added that nursery supplies 10 lakh plants a year. The shortage of rainfall this year has put in added pressure on farmers. Pune’s geographical as well as climatic conditions are such that much more

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horticulture can happen here, but the government needs to back us with power, irrigation and good infrastructure. “This will help more in the long run rather than just subsidies. Though credit plans are available though nationalised banks, as per the Nabard plan, there is too much red tape involved. Hence we generally avoid going in for credit loans from these banks,” he added, and observed that horticulture industry is largely unorganised, but the Maharashtra market alone can have an estimated Rs 1000 crore or so business happening. Similarly exports are taking place at a huge scale with floriculture products finding a big market. A large part of floriculture business takes place from Talegaon and Maval near the Pimpri Chinchwad area, and around 60 per cent of flowers produced here are exported. “The current European crisis, as well as the lack of rainfall at home has hit us to an extent. But these are basic products and the demand for then may fluctuate, but will continue to be there. The problem with Maharashtra is the lack of infrastructural support, as well as knowledgebased help that is provided to farmers in states such as Gujarat. Their agricultural produce has increased by 30 percent at least because of good government support,” Mhaske said.

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Marriages in Hyderabad help cut-flowers bloom


ut flowers prices have increased by 10-15 per cent in the last two months at the International Flower Auction Bangalore (IFAB). Flower prices are higher in Bangalore due to demand from Hyderabad. Prices of cut-flowers in June-July trade between Rs 2 and Rs 2.50 for a stem. “In Karnataka, Ashada (June-July period) is considered inauspicious to perform marriages or any other ceremonies; this saw poor sales of cut-flowers,” said Dr G. Shankara Murthy, General Manager, IFAB. “Normally, not many weddings take place in the State during Ashada and prices fall by 50-60 per cent,,” he said. Though Ashada is observed in Andhra Pradesh, too, this time there has been an extended marriage period. Some non-resident Indians had performed marriages for their children to meet the visa deadlines. Again from next week, the marriage season begins. IFAB Ltd is a joint venture company, set up by the Karnataka Government with the private exporters, to conduct regular auctions and promote floriculture exports from the State. The marriage and festival season, which begin from July-end in South India are expected to result in increased demand again, the IFAB official said. The demand for flowers such as roses, tulips, gerberas and orchids extends up to November, except during the cyclone season when sales and production fall sharply. Dr Jayaprakash Rao, General Secretary, South India Floriculture Association, said: “The start of the marriage and festival season in South India is expected to push up prices of cut flowers by 15-20 per cent this year due to dry weather in the State.” The flower growing belt of Doddaballapur and Hosur area near

Bangalore has been partially affected due to deficient monsoon. Rao said: “Some floriculture units are facing severe water shortage and are forced to depend on fast depleting ground water to maintain their farms.” Karnataka’s cut flower production is estimated between 9 lakh and 10 lakh stems. Of this, around two lakh enter the IFAB auction platforms and the rest are traded in unorganised markets.

Russian painter’s home in Bangalore to get Garden, Tree Park and an Art Gallery will come up on Rose Garden, Tree Park ARose the 468-acre farm near Bangalore that once belonged to the late

Russian painter Svetoslav Roerich. Briefing reporters after a Cabinet meeting, the State Minister for Primary and Secondary Education, Vishweshwara Hegde Kageri, said 25 acres have been allotted for putting up a rose garden by the State horticulture department. A modern art gallery, including a theatre, will also be built there and will be managed by the Kannada and Culture Department. Kageri said the State government has assured the Russian Consulate that it would take steps to protect the grave and preserve the valuable paintings of Roerich and his wife, the late actress Devika Rani. On the remaining land, a Tree Park on the lines of Lal Bagh would be raised by the forest department. The Minister said the government has scrapped a plan to develop horticultural farms located in different parts of the State under the PPP (public-private partnership) model. Instead, it will now develop them jointly with the private sector. There are 410 farms in the State with a total area of 15,732 acres. To initiate joint ventures, a special purpose vehicle (SPV) will be floated by the Karnataka State Horticulture Development Agency.

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Date of Publishing 25-26 Every Month Date of Posting 3-4 Every Month

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Postal Regn. No. DL (S)- 17/3212/2012-14 R.N.I. Regn. No. 63761/96


India's First & Only monthly Magazine on Floriculture, Nursery, Floristry, Landscape and GreenHouse Technology, widely read by flower grower...


India's First & Only monthly Magazine on Floriculture, Nursery, Floristry, Landscape and GreenHouse Technology, widely read by flower grower...