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FACT FILE

My School Trip to Scotland

The capital city is Edinburgh, considered one of the most beautiful cities in Europe. The official flag of Scotland is the Saltire, a white diagonal cross on a dark blue filed. It represents St. Andrew, Scotland’s patron saint.

The national emblem is the thistle, a hard tenacious plant whose bright purple flower is protected by prickles.

Area:

78,789 sq km

Population:

5,2 million

Major Cities:

Aberdeen, Dundee, Glasgow

Official Language:

English and Scottish Gaelic

Nationality :

Scottish and British

Anthem (song) :

Flower of Scotland

Government:

Constitutional monarchy

Queen (of the UK)

Queen Elizabeth II

Prime Minister (of the UK)

David Cameron MP

First Minister of Scotland Main religions:

Alex Salmond MSP Church of Scotland (Presbyterian)

Currency:

Scottish Episcopal Church, Roman Catholicism Pound Sterling (ÂŁ)

Highest point:

Ben Nevis (1,343 m)

Lowest point: Longest river:

Bed of Loch Morar, Scotland 987 ft (300 m) below sea level Tay 193 kilometres (120 miles ) long

Largest Lake:

Loch Lomond (60 sq km) 40 km (24 miles) long

Official Animal

Unicorn

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My School Trip to Scotland

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Scottish symbols & icons Scotland’s national instrument, the iconic bagpipes, is still hugely popular. From buskers on the street to pipe bands parading through Scottish towns and cities, you are certainly likely to hear the unmistakable sound of the bagpipe in Scotland before you see them! In Gaelic whisky means “the water of life�. It is made from water, barley and yeast. Scotland is the original home of whisky, the famous spirit known as Scotch. Scottish distilleries produce the best whisky in the world. Tartan originated in the Highlands where clans (families) used local plants, mosses and berries to dye wool before spinning and weaving it into tartan. The patterns consist of interwoven vertical and horizontal lines, known as a sett. For anyone of Scottish ancestry, the kilt is a symbol of honour for the clan which they belong. First worn by those who lived in the Scottish Highlands, the kilt was more than just a covering. When the armies of the past were fighting in Scotland, the kilt helped protect the soldiers much like armour would. At night this garment was easily removed and spread out to create a blanket to keep them warm. Lastly, if the army needed to move with a much quicker force, the garment could be easily removed, thus allowing the soldier more freedom of movement. Today the kilt is still worn at special occasions including weddings, Highland games and at traditional Scottish ceilidh dances. Men also frequently choose to wear their clan tartan, giving them a sense of belonging which has passed through generations. Some traditional Scottish dishes: Haggis: Boiled and minced offal from sheep, mixed with beef suet and oatmeal. Black Bun: a dark fruit cake made with raisins, currants, chopped peel and almonds, brown sugar, cinnamon and ginger.


Edinburgh Snapshot

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S co tland ’ s ench antin g capital Edinburgh is a city of striking contrasts, where centuries of history and culture meet a thriving, international festival city and breathtaking landscapes wherever you turn. Perched dramatically on an extinct volcano, the world-famous Edinburgh Castle is visible from almost any point in the city, a constant reminder of Edinburgh’s long and fascinating history. As you explore the city’s striking architecture, tranquil green spaces and exciting attractions, you will soon understand how so many authors and poets have been inspired to create iconic characters like Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, Sherlock Holmes and most recently Harry Potter. The city of Edinburgh lies on the estuary of the River Forth also known as the Firth of Forth . The Forth is currently crossed by the famous rail bridge and, alongside it, the more modern suspension bridge for road traffic. The Forth Rail Bridge was completed in 1890. It is a cantilever bridge, 1.5 miles long. The bridge is painted with a distinctive red paint.

The city is basically split into two main districts — the OLD TOWN and the NEW TOWN — with Princes Street Gardens separating them. The surrounding areas offer a wealth of places to visit.


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THE OLD TOWN

This is the largely medieval heart of Edinburgh in which most of its important historical monuments can be found, including Edinburgh Castle, Holyroodhouse Palace (the Royal Scottish residence) and St Giles’s Cathedral. The Royal Mile is the historical artery of the Old Town, linking together Edinburgh's two royal strongholds: Edinburgh Castle and the Holyroodhouse Palace. PRINCE STREET GARDENS These gardens fill the valley between Old Town and New Town, with Princes Street itself lining the northern side. During the Christmas and New Year period there is an ice-rink setup here under the gaze of a crystallised Edinburgh Castle. The Mound is bang in the middle of Princes Street Gardens. It is called The Mound because it is, quite literally, the mound of earth that was left over from dredging the Loch at the foot of the castle. It's the site of the Royal Scottish Academy and the National Gallery of Scotland. THE NEW TOWN Whilst the Old Town marks the historical part of the city, the New Town is more a celebration of business, order and classical Georgian architecture. This is the terrain of the shops, offices and banks, which are laid out in gridded streets that emanate precision and symmetry. George Street is the centrepiece of the New Town. It is an up-and-coming area and now boasts high quality shops and restaurants. Princes Street, just below George Street, is the main shopping area of Edinburgh and the most famous part of the New Town.


My School Trip to Scotland

A walk down the

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From castle to Holyroodhouse Palace

Royal Mile EDINBURGH CASTLE No place in Scotland is filled with as much history, legend, and lore as Edinburgh Castle, one of the highlights of a visit to Scotland. It is believed the ancient city grew up on the seat of a dead volcano, Castle Rock. ST. MARGARET’S CHAPEL In the 11th century Malcolm III (Canmore) and his Saxon queen, later venerated as St. Margaret, settled their residence on this castle. The only fragment left of their castle is St. Margaret's Chapel (the oldest structure in Edinburgh).

Within the castle walls you see impressive views of most of the New Town, including the Princes Street Gardens, Arthur's Seat and the Salisbury Crags, and more. You can also explore the various rooms, chapels and compartments of the fortress and through interactive displays discover what living and working there might have been like during the medieval era. MONS MEG

Children will enjoy the climb and the adventure of exploring the site. They will also like seeing the cannon. Among the batteries of cannons that protected the castle is Mons Meg, a 15th-century cannon weighing more than 5 tons.


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HONOURS OF SCOTLAND The highlight of any tour of the castle is the Honours of Scotland (the Crown Jewels), on display in the Crown Room of the castle's Royal Palace (built in 1617). These include the ancient crown, sword and sceptre, which date back to the 15th and 16th centuries. Here you can also see Scotland's most prized treasure: The Stone of Destiny, otherwise known as the Coronation Stone. STONE OF SCONE The Stone of Destiny was used as a ceremonial coronation stone by the Scottish monarchs. Later on, King Edward I of England had the stone installed within a grand golden coronation chair. All English monarchs and British sovereigns have since been crowned on the chair.


A walk down the Royal Mile

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ESPLANADE

Leaving from the Castle we cross the Esplanade. This ceremonial parade ground is the venue for the world famous Edinburgh Military Tattoo which takes place in August each year. Given its elevated position it commands some wonderful views over the city. WITCHES WELL At the eastern end of the Esplanade you will see a small plaque and wall fountain which marks the spot close to where, between the late 15th century and the early 18th century, as many as 300 women were burned at the stake for allegedly being witches. Often the witches were strangled first and then their bodies burned. During the 16th century more witches were burnt here than anywhere else in Scotland.

LL HOUSE CASTLE HILL & CANNONBA Cannonball House gets its name from the cannon ball which is embedded in the wall above the first-floor window which faces westwards across the Esplanade towards the castle. Opposite Cannonball House stands the Tartan Weaving Mill. Water was first piped into Edinburgh in 1676. Replacing an older reservoir on the same site, this reservoir was built in 1849 and eventually withdrawn from service in 1992. The Mill now occupies the building which housed the reservoir. A free exhibition within the Mill shows the process of tartan production from shearing sheep, to making a kilt. Visitors can be fitted for and photographed wearing full Highland Dress outfit.

TARTAN WEAVING

MILL


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CAMERA OBSCURA & OUTLOOK TOWER A few yards further down from the Tartan Weaving Mill stands the Camera Obscura, Edinburgh's oldest visitor attraction. In this Victorian rooftop chamber you can see live moving images of Edinburgh projected onto a viewing table through a giant periscope. There are also rooftop views of the city and surrounding areas through telescopes. The “World of Illusions� offers hands on exhibits to do with light and illusions. SCOTCH WHISKY HERITAGE CENTRE Whisky is of course the "water of life" and the Scotch Whisky Heritage Centre interactive visitor attraction tells the story of 300 years of Scotch Whisky making. Visitors are able to enjoy a barrel ride through the history of Scotch Whisky, experiencing the sights, sounds and smells of whisky, and learn how the product is made. WITCHERY Situated next door to the Heritage Centre in a historic 16th century building is the exclusive and atmospheric Witchery restaurant. Synonymous with good food and wine it has catered for many celebrities over the years. TOLBOOTH KIRK (THE HUB) Originally built around 1845 to house the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, and known then as the Victoria Hall, the Tolbooth Kirk has the highest steeple of all Edinburgh's churches (73m). Now known as The Hub, this spectacular building is open all year and has it's own restaurant. It is a popular venue for concerts, meetings, conferences, weddings etc.


A walk down the Royal Mile

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Leaving Castle Hill, our walk now takes us down to the Lawnmarket, which is the oldest part of the Old Town. The original settlement here developed both within the shadow

and protection of the Castle.

ENSIGN EWART

PUB

The Ensign Ewart Pub is the closest pub to the Castle. The pub takes its name from Charles Ewart, who single -handedly captured the standard of the famous French Invincibles at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. The pub forms part of Milne’s Court (1690). MILNE’S COURT This courtyard was built in 1690 by Robert Mylne and refurbished in 1966 to 1970 by the University of Edinburgh as student accommodation. It is a good example of the tall tenements that were necessitated by the limited space available in the Old Town.

LADY STAIR & WRITERS’

MUSEUM

Originally built in 1622 and bought by Lady Stair in 1719, this building currently houses a Writers' Museum dedicated to the work of three of Scotland's most famous writers, Robert Burns, Robert Louis Stevenson and Sir Walter Scott.


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GLADSTONE’S LAND Gladstone's Land is an excellent example of an Old Town tenement. It was bought by Thomas Gladstone, a wealth local merchant, who extended it in 1620. He let out different parts of the six storey building to people from different social classes of the time. The tall building gives a good insight into the cramped conditions of Edinburgh’s Old Town. DEACON WILLIAM BRODIE A real life cabinet-maker, William Brodie was elected a Deacon Councillor of the City of Edinburgh in 1781. By day he was a respectable citizen and pillar of society, but “by night he was a gambler, a thief, dissipated and licentious." To support his lavish lifestyle Brodie would copy the keys of his wealthy clients and return at night to rob them. He escaped to Amsterdam in the Netherlands after being recognised at the scene of one of his crimes only to be caught and returned to Scotland. He was hanged from the city's new gallows at the Tolbooth on 1 October 1788. Such was the public interest in the case that it was said to have been attended by a crowd of over 25,000. DAVID HUME’S STATUE As we move down into the High Street, you will see the statue of one of the world's greatest philosophers, Edinburgh resident, David Hume (1711 to 1776). This is located outside the High Court building. ST GILES St Giles (patron saint of cripples, lepers and nursing mothers) is the patron saint of Edinburgh. This imposing cathedral is situated on the High Street beside Parliament Square. The building has always played an important role in the religious and political development of the nation and retains a central role in state occasions, public celebrations and other special occasions.


A walk down the

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JOHN KNOX

Royal Mile

Often regarded as the mother church for Presbyterianism, St Giles was the scene of many fiery sermons from the great reformation preacher, John Knox, whose statue can be seen within the church and whose grave lies in the former churchyard (now paved and tarmacked over and used as a car park) to the rear of the building. HEART OF MIDLOTHIAN

On the High Street, just next to the west entrance to St Giles, you will notice this heart shaped mosaic on the pavement. This represents the Heart of Midlothian and marks the entrance to the old Tolbooth (built around the beginning of the 1400s and demolished in 1817) which served as Edinburgh's prison, court and municipal offices. Over the years many public executions were held here, including that of William Brodie. Citizens of Edinburgh continue to this day to mark their contempt for the old prison and public authority by spitting into the Heart of Midlothian! MERCAT CROSS

To the east side of St Giles stands the Mercat Cross. The Mercat Cross was the traditional site for formal public proclamations and other announcements in the town. It was also hitherto used as the site for public executions. The site of the original Mercat Cross can be seen marked on the ground a little further down the High Street, as shown on the photograph on the right. COUNCIL CITY CHAMBERS

The City of Edinburgh Council City Chambers are located opposite the Mercat Cross. The City Council moved into the building in the early 1800s following the demolition of the Old Tolbooth. In the courtyard stands a statue of Alexander the Great with his horse Bucephalus.


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MUSEUM OF CHILDHOOD With free admission, a visit to the world famous Museum of Childhood is a great way to pass an hour or two. Learn about childhood through the ages and see toys from different parts of the world. It's a favourite with both kids and adults alike. JOHN KNOX’S HOUSE This 15th century house is reputed to have been the one time home of the leader and founder of the Presbyterian Church, John Knox. It is now incorporated into the Scottish Storytelling Centre. THE NETHERBOW PORT THE WORLD’S END

CLOSE

(’Nether’ meaning furthest and ‘Port’ meaning Gateway )

An eastern defensive gateway known as the Netherbow Port once stood across the Royal Mile, separating the Old Town from the Canongate. (The Canongate itself was a separate Burgh until as recently as 1865 when it was subsumed within Edinburgh.)

It was called so because this literally was the end of most people’s world. Poorer residents within the city couldn’t leave as they couldn’t afford to pay re-enter and so stayed the World’s End Pub

The Netherbow Port from the High Street The Gate had impressive towers and the heads of executed prisoners from the Old Tolbooth were often displayed on the spikes of the Netherbow Gate to deter would-be criminals.

It was demolished in 1764 but is depicted in the sign for the Netherbow Theatre and brass clobbles on the road mark the outline of the old gate perimeter.


A walk down the Royal Mile

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As you proceed down the Canongate, look out for the various interesting buildings and features described in the next sections.

OLD MORAY HOUSE Built in 1625 by Mary, Countess of Home, Old Moray House represented the type of modern accommodation that wealthy families aspired to in the Canongate. CANONGATE TOLBOOTH The Canongate Tolbooth was built in 1591 and over the years served as the municipal building, court and prison for the Burgh of Canongate as well being used for a number of other purposes. The prominent clock was a later addition, in 1820. Today the building houses a great little museum called "The People's Story" which tells the story of the ordinary people of Edinburgh from the late 1700s to the present day. It is a popular attraction with locals and tourists alike and, best of all, admission is free. MUSEUM OF EDINBURGH The Museum of Edinburgh is a series of interconnected 16th and 17th century buildings. It is located in Huntly House, also known as the "Speaking House" on account of the various Latin inscriptions on its exterior. The museum specialises in the history of Edinburgh from the earliest settlement to the present day. Admission is free.


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CANONGATE KIRK & KIRKYARD Designed by James Smith and completed in 1690, the Kirk is a magnificent example of the architecture of its period and well worth a visit. Various remodelling and restorations have been undertaken over the years and it has a variety of interesting features, including a magnificent Frobenius organ.

The Statue of Robert Fergusson

List of famous people interred in the cemetery SCOTTISH PARLIAMENT The New Scottish Parliament Building is situated at the foot of the Canongate (formerly the site of Scottish & Newcastle brewery) opposite Holyrood Palace.

Rear view of Scottish Parliament

Canongate view of the Scottish Parliament


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GIRTH CROSS

These paving stones, which can be seen on the road just up from the roundabout at the foot of the Canongate, mark the site of the Girth Cross. The Girth Cross, like other cross sites, was a place for public proclamations, civic and trading activity, as well as for executions. View down Abbey Strand

Less than 100 metres long, Abbey Strand lies at the bottom of the Royal Mile, running down to the gates of Holyroodhouse . To the right of Abbey Strand is The Queen's Gallery, which was opened in 2002 by HM Queen Elizabeth II as part of her Golden Jubilee celebrations. The Gallery forms part of the Holyroodhouse complex and is used to exhibit works from the Royal Collection.

If you look carefully, you will see running across the road junction at Abbey Strand a number of "S" shapes. These mark the boundary of the religious sanctuary provided from civil law by Holyrood Abbey.


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HOLYROODHOUSE PALACE Founded as a monastery in 1128, the Palace of Holyroodhouse in Edinburgh is The Queen's official residence in Scotland. Situated at the end of the Royal Mile, and next to Holyrood Park and Arthur's Seat, Holyroodhouse has provided the stage for many important historical events in Scotland's past. Mary, Queen of Scots, who lived here between 1561 and 1567. Successive kings and queens have made the Palace of Holyroodhouse the premier royal residence in Scotland. Today, the Palace is the setting for State ceremonies and official entertaining. During The Queen's Holyrood week, which usually runs from the end of June to the beginning of July, Her Majesty carries out a wide range of official engagements in Scotland. King George V and Queen Mary held the first garden party in the grounds of Holyroodhouse and the tradition has been maintained to the present day. Each year, The Queen and The Duke of Edinburgh entertain around 8,000 guests from all walks of Scottish life during Holyrood week. HOLYROOD PARK & ARTHUR’S SEAT This area is just behind the Holyroodhouse Palace. Known as Arthur's Seat this extinct volcano — it hasn't erupted in 350 million years — towers over of Holyrood Park. Originally a hunting ground, one can walk over lava flows to get a great view of the city. A fit walker can take 20 minutes to climb it to the top. There are also many swans and ducks to feed in St. Mary's loch.


My School Trip to Scotland

Other Attractions

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CALTON HILL Calton Hill is one of Edinburgh’s main hills, set right in the city centre. It is unmistakable with its Athenian acropolis poking above the skyline. The acropolis is in fact an unfinished monument— originally called the National Museum. Initiated in 1816, a year after Napolean’s defeat at Waterloo, it was meant to be a replica of the Parthenon in Athens, as a memorial to those who had died in the Napoleonic Wars.

NELSON’S MONUMENT Sitting on top of Calton Hill, the Nelson Monument (the British Admiral who led his fleet to victory at Trafalgar in 1805), which has a famous timeball mechanism by which ships used to set their chronometers. Its design is in fact based on the shape of a naval spyglass. The admission charge to the monument is currently £3.00. Pathway leadin g up the Nelso n Monument GREYFRIARS KIRK Greyfriars Kirk, also known as Greyfriars Tolbooth and Highland Kirk, was the first church built in Edinburgh after the Reformation and opened in 1620. As well as being an operational church it also hosts classical recitals and concerts. The kirk graveyard is perhaps best known as the final resting place of the little Skye terrier Greyfriars Bobby and his master "Old Jock." The story goes that Bobby kept watch over his master’s unmarked graveyard for 14 years, only leaving for food, until his death in 1872. Edinburgh area: Old Town


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NATIONAL MUSEUM OF SCOTLAND The National Museum re-opened on 29th July 2011, following a refurbishment of the Victorian building. The attraction comprises two parts, the Older Royal Museum, with collections covering science and technology, natural history and world cultures, and the Museum of Scotland, with collections relating to Scottish antiquities, culture and history. The two connected buildings stand beside each other on Chambers Street, in Central Edinburgh. Entrance to the museum is free. UNION CANAL The 19th century Union Canal is not a park in the typical sense, but it provides a strip of blue and green through Edinburgh from Lochrin Basin in Fountainbridge (just off Lothian Road) to Edinburgh's outskirts and beyond. Its 32 miles of revitalised waterway, aqueducts, tunnels and bridges offers walkers, joggers, cyclists, and waterborne craft an alternative and at times tranquil route all the way to the Falkirk wheel, a huge engineering marvel that lifts boats into the Forth & Clyde Canal. The start of the Union Canal can be found at Edinburgh Quay behind the pub Cargo. ST. MARY’S CATHEDRAL St Mary's Cathedral or the Cathedral Church of Saint Mary the Virgin is a catedral of the Scottish Episcopal Church. It was built in the late 19th century in the western end of Edinburgh's New Town. Designed in a Gothic style by Sir Gilbert Scott the central spire reaches a height of 270ft. With two further, smaller, spires, St Mary’s distinctive outline dominates distant views of the west side of the city centre. Edinburgh area: New Town


Other Attractions

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SCOTT MONUMENT

The Scott monument is a brooding, 200-foot, Gothic spire which opened in 1846 in honour of the prolific local novelist Walter Scott. When you climb the Monument's 287 steps to the top, via its narrow, spiral staircase you come to a series of viewing decks offering views of Edinburgh City Centre. Edinburgh area: New Town ONE O’CLOCK GUN The One o’clock Gun is fired at 13:00 hours every day except Sunday. The tradition began in 1861 to provide ships in the Firth of Forth with an audible time signal to accompany the visual signal of the time-ball dropping at the top of the Nelson Monument. This helped shipping set the maritime clocks needed to navigate the globe long before satellite navigation was available. PORTOBELLO BEACH Known affectionately as ‘Porty’ by locals— Portobello is a beach resort located three miles (5km) to the east of the city centre of Edinburgh, along the coast of the Firth and Forth. ROYAL YACHT BRITANNIA Launched by HM Queen Elizabeth II on 16 April 1953, Britannia has sailed the seven seas (over 1,000,000 miles) playing host to innumerable state visits and glittering receptions as well as being the getaway for Royal honeymoons (including Charles and Diana's) and family holidays. Following its decommissioning on December 1997, Britannia was moved to Edinburgh's Port of Leith where it is moored next to the Ocean Terminal Shopping Centre. An excellent visitor centre has been developed around the vessel, which itself is the main centre of attraction.


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OUR DYNAMIC EARTH Our Dynamic Earth is a science centre. It is a prominent visitors attraction in the city, and also functions as a conference venue. It sits in the Holyrood area, beside the Scottish Parliament building and at the foot of Arthur’s seat. EDINBURGH INTERNATIONAL FESTIVAL 9 August to 1 September 2013 The festival has been running since 1947 and features top performing artists from around the world. Music, especially classic, theatre, opera, dance, exhibitions, talks and workshops all feature in this International Festival. ROYAL EDINBURGH MILITARY TATTOO

2013 (2-24 August)

The Royal Edinburgh Military Tattoo is one of the world’s most spectacular shows and this year to celebrate the Year of Natural Scotland the Massed Pipes and Drums, the Massed Military Bands, Display Teams, Dancers and the haunting lament of the Lone Piper will highlights Scotland's reputation as a land of outstanding beauty. All set against the iconic backdrop of Edinburgh Castle. EDINBURGH FRINGE FESTIVAL 2013 (2-26 August) Established in 1947 as an alternative to the Edinburgh International Festival, it takes place annually in Scotland's capital, in the month of August. The Fringe is a showcase for the performing arts, particularly theatre and comedy, although dance and music are also represented.


Facts about Edinburgh

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1. Random Fact: Edinburgh's nickname, Auld Reekie (Old Smoky), marks an era when the city's buildings and homes burnt a lot of coal and wood for heat and chimneys would emit columns of smoke into the air. 2. Geological Fact: The rock on which Edinburgh Castle is built is the plug of an extinct volcano. Following glacial erosion it formed a crag and tail formation: The Castle Rock and the Royal Mile respectively. 3. Paranormal Fact: Edinburgh is said to be one of the most haunted places in Europe because it is home to the Mackenzie Poltergeist, the violent spirit of a 17th century murderer and torturer who haunts Greyfriars Kirkyard. 4. Creepy Fact: The 19th century body snatchers Burke and Hare murdered some 15 people in the city to sell their cadavers to the medical college. Burke's death mask and a wallet made from his skin are on display in the Surgeons' Hall Museums. 5. Heartwarming Fact: One of the most photographed monuments in Edinburgh is Greyfriars Bobby, the statue of a 19th century Skye terrier who spent 14 years guarding his master's grave. 6. Embarrassing Fact: Modelled on the Parthenon in Athens, the National Monument on Calton Hill is referred to as Edinburgh's Folly or Edinburgh's Shame because it was never completed due to a lack of funds. 7. Mysterious Fact: In Edinburgh's Old Town lies the Real Mary King's Close, a longforgotten underground series of streets that was built over as the city's population grew. It is now a commercial attraction. 8. Weird Fact: From 1477-1911, the Grassmarket was the site of one of Edinburgh's main horse and cattle markets. It was also the location of public executions. 9. Celebrity Fact: J.K. Rowling penned the first novel in her Harry Potter series at the Elephant House cafe on George IV Bridge. 1O. Festive Fact: Every August thousands of tourists swarm the city for the Edinburgh Festival, which is composed of several different arts and cultural festivals.


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The word Inverness - from the Gaelic meaning “Mouth of the River Ness” Inverness, the UK's northernmost city, became a city in 2001 and is often referred to as the "Capital of the Highlands". It is located on the east coast of Scotland on the shores of the Moray Firth and at the mouth of the River Ness which divides the city in two. It is Scotland's second smallest city with a population of around 71,000 but is growing fast due to increasing inward investment and it's reputation as a wonderful place to live. The River Ness is very much the central feature of the city, a walk along which is one of the loveliest in Scotland. Settlements in this location can be traced back to the 6th century but is only in the past few decades that Inverness has blossomed into the lively place it is today. Inverness boasts many attractions: excellent shopping facilities, pedestrian-only areas, a museum, theatres, cinemas and a Premier League football team—Inverness Caledonian Thistle! A striking feature of the City is Inverness Castle perched on a rock above the River Ness. The present castle was built in 1836 although several fortifications have stood on the site for over a thousand years. Nowadays it houses Inverness Sheriff Court. Although the building is closed to the public the surrounding grounds are open. Nearby in Castle Wynd is the Inverness Museum & Art Gallery housing a number of interesting collections and also the Highland Photographic Archive. Across the River Ness stands Inverness Cathedral The Scottish Episcopalian Cathedral Church of St Andrew.


Loch Ness

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To the south west, and just 15 minutes from the city centre lies Loch Ness, where it's compulsory to keep an eye out for our most famous resident – Nessie – but of course there’s much more to see and do than monster spotting. The surrounding area is filled with historic attractions, natural wonders, cosy places to stay, and superb eateries. The name 'Nessie' comes from the Gaelic 'An Neassidh' meaning 'female of the Ness'. The last sighting of Nessie was 2011, by local Jan Hargreaves and her husband Simon, who believe they caught a glimpse of "Nessie". Mrs Hargreaves said it had a long neck which was too long to be that of a seal and it was black in appearance. "It went under the water and disappeared for probably 30 to 40 seconds and then came back up again," said Mrs Hargreaves. "It was around for a good four to five minutes. It was just so strange." Keen to stress she is not seeking publicity, Mrs Hargreaves does firmly believe what she saw was the Loch Ness Monster. "It was so exciting," she said . Magnificently sited, overlooking Loch Ness. Urquhart is one of the largest castles in Scotland, with a long and colourful history, built in the 1230s, seized by the English in 1296, sacked by the MacDonald Lord of the Isles in 1545 and left to fall into decay after 1689. Most of the existing buildings date from the 14th century and include the Grant Tower (16th century) the best-preserved part of the complex.

URQUHART CASTLE

The Loch Ness Exhibition Centre, Drumnadrochit pays tribute to that sense of wonderment as well as revealing some of the many secrets hidden in it's dark depths.


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Old Stirling B

ridge

Stirling is located in central Scotland where the River Forth meets the Firth of Forth estuary. It is the smallest Scottish city with a population of just 33,700 in 2008, which is smaller than many major Scottish towns. It's uncertain where Stirling actually got it's name from, but some believe it derives it's name from the Scots or Gaelic terms for battle or struggle. Once the capital of Scotland, Stirling was given the formal status of being a city in 2002 as part of the Queen Elizabeth II's Golden Jubilee celebrations. In fact the Old Town of Stirling is still protected by the original walls which were built in 16th century to protect Mary Queen of Scots from Henry VIII during that violent part of Scotland's history called the "Rough Wooing", when Henry VIII determined as ever to get his way, tried to get Mary to marry his son. In 1746 Bonnie Prince Charlie seized control of the town of Stirling, but not the castle. In retaliation his followers blew up the local church of St. Ninians, (where they stored their munitions) of which now only the tower survives. Two miles south of Stirling is the famous Battlefield of Bannockburn where in 1314, Robert the Bruce, in spite of his enemies' superior numbers, defeated the English under Edward II and sent them scurrying away. The Battle of Stirling Bridge in 1297 was also fought here between the English and the legendary William Wallace, portrayed in the movie "Braveheart" by Mel Gibson. You can see the 220 feet high monument dedicated to this deservedly famous Scottish hero and legend which stands at Abbey Craig, two miles to the north of Stirling. The views from the top are stunning. WALLACE MONUMENT


Around S tirling

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CHURCH OF THE HOLY RUDE

500 years old, The Church of the Holy Rude (another word for cross) is the only surviving church to have held a coronation apart from Westminster Abbey. This is where the Infant son of Mary Queen of Scots was crowned on 29th July 1567 as James VI of Scotland - John Knox performed the ceremony. Opened in 1996 and located in the city's historic quarter, the Old Town Jail is an interesting insight into how prisoners were dealt with in Victorian times. The story of the prison is told through costumed actors and the view of Stirling from the rooftop viewpoint is not to be missed. Unfortunately only open from April to October. Visiting this beautifully restored Arcade is an experience all of its own. The incredible Victorian architecture and period features makes you feel like you’ve stepped back in time.

STIRLING ARCADE

At the Stirling Arcade, traditional values combine with contemporary style to provide the city’s most unique shopping experience. From fashion to music and jewellery to furniture – along with fantastic food and great service. ARGYLL’S LODGING Another landmark well worth a visit is the magnificent town house of William Alexander, Earl of Stirling, whose home, called Argyll's Lodging, has been restored to its former glory. To visit his home is to relive the lavish aristocratic style of this literary Earl. It is situated below Stirling Castle.


My School Trip to Scotland

Page 27

Fortress, royal palace, garrison - home of the Stuart Kings and Mary Queen of Scots - captured by Bruce and besieged by Bonnie Prince Charlie - backdrop for coronations and bloody murders, Stirling Castle is Scottish history. Allow half a day to explore its battlements, The Royal Palace, Great Hall, Royal Chapel, Renaissance courtyards and kitchens. Visitors can now glimpse life in one of the great royal residences of Scotland’s kings and queens. The decorative scheme is amazingly elaborate and colourful. It includes handwoven tapestries, superb, hand-made furniture and painted replicas of the famous Stirling Heads - carved portraits in oak that once adorned the ceiling of James V’s magnificent Palace.


Edinburgh Map

My School Trip to Scotland

Page 28


My School Trip to Scotland

Page 29

NOTE: This map was taken and adapted from the 2012 Explore Tourist Guide with maps. We highly recommend the visit to the site: http://www.explore-inverness.com/


S tirling Map

My School Trip to Scotland

Page 30


My School Trip to Scotland

Page 31

NOTES & BIBLIOGRAPHY:

IMAGES: Google Search Engine—Images was our main tool to get the pictures used in this booklet. Some of them were CC-licensed but others had no information. As these were available to download, we felt free to use them in this educational booklet for our students. TEXTS: Likewise the great majority of the texts/ descriptions used in this booklet were copied, abridged and/or adapted from some of the sites below.                   

http://en.wikipedia.org http://www.scotland.com http://www.visitscotland.com http://www.arrivalguides.com http://www.scotland.org http://www.undiscoveredscotland.co.uk http://www.insiders-scotland-guide.com http://www.bestofedinburgh.com/ http://www.royal-mile.com http://www.edinburghguide.com http://www.edinburgh-inspiringcapital.com http://www.scottishcityguide.com http://www.royal.gov.uk http://www.edinburghcastle.biz/history.html http://www.inverness-scotland.com http://glenaffric.org/inverness.html http://www.stirlingcastle.gov.uk http://www.visitstirling.org http://www.edintattoo.co.uk

Grupo de Inglês 330

Coordenação e Dinamização Projecto:  Professora Dulce Calhau  Professora Dina Costa  Professora Lurdes Farinha  Professora Mª José Brito Edição Gráfica:  Professora Mª José Brito

E.B. 2,3 / Sec Cunha Rivara - Agrupamento de Escolas de Arraiolos


Emergencies: ring 999 from any phone and you'll be connected to the Police, Fire or Ambulance service

Agrupamento de Escolas de Arraiolos 266 490 400

PORTUGAL

School Trip to Scotland  

Short description of the cities and places our students are going to visit/spot during their school trip to Scotland.

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