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CONTENTS

98

January 2013

FEATURES 86

56 Energy and the Growroom by Evan Folds

64 The Miracle of Silver by Nick Griffith

70 Troubleshooting in Hydroponics by Dr. Lynette Morgan

154 tebraG dahC yb

86 Proper Propagation by Helene Isbell

98 Snails: Pest, Predator, And Food By Donald Lester

112 Seeds and Germination by Ed Harwood

126 The Fungus Amoung Us by Gubbycup

138 Making A Good Garden Great by Matt LeBannister

144 From Guns to Greenhouses by Philip McIntosh

154 Mixing Grow Mediums by Chad Garbet

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70 DEPARTMENTS 12

From the Editor

14

MaximumYield.com

18

Letters to the Editor

20

Ask the Experts

22

MAX Facts

36

Product Spotlight

124

Beginner's Corner

134

Avant Gardening

136

Green Thumb Gardening

152

Growing for Health

158

Mastering the Art of Hydroponics (STEM)

160

Tips and Tricks

162

How It's Made

164

Talking Shop

166

10 Facts On....

168

Max Mart

170

Do You Know?

171

Distributors

186

Coming up in February


FROM THE EDITOR | Linda Jesson Happy New Year! If your resolution was to enhance and improve your garden, you have all the info and tools right in your hands in this January issue of Maximum Yield. From lighting to germination, amino acids to getting rid of a host of devastating pests, we’ve packed this first issue of the year with tons of great tips to make your good garden great. We’ve also zoomed out of the growroom to look at some interesting gardening projects across the country, including a non-profit program in Colorado that trains veterans to become farmers.

Message from the

Editor Linda Jesson

Of course, we made sure to touch base on the many topics needed to keep your growroom running as efficiently as possible, including the power of silver additives and how to troubleshoot when things just don’t look right. Add this with some awesome new product finds and you have the recipe to start your year just right! From all of us here at Maximum Yield, we’d like to wish you all a great New Year filled with health, happiness and plenty of maximized yields! Be sure to keep entering our Win Big… Grow Big contest for your chance to win some great gear every other month. Oh, and feel free to e-mail editor@maximumyield.com with any comments, questions, rants, raves or requests—we love hearing from you!

I’m a Fan!

VOLUME 13 – NUMBER 10 January 2013 Maximum Yield is published monthly by Maximum Yield Publications Inc. 2339A Delinea Place, Nanaimo, BC V9T 5L9 Phone: 250.729.2677; Fax 250.729.2687 No part of this magazine may be reproduced without permission from the publisher. If undeliverable please return to the address above. The views expressed by columnists are a personal opinion and do not necessarily reflect those of Maximum Yield or the editor.

Publication Agreement Number 40739092 Printed In Canada PRESIDENT/PUBLISHER - Jim Jesson GENERAL MANAGER - Don Moores BUSINESS MANAGER - Linda Jesson editorial editor@maximumyield.com Editor-in-chief Linda Jesson Assistant Editor Jessica Skelton ADVERTISING SALES Sales Manager Ilona Hawser - ilona@maximumyield.com Account Executives Ashley Heppell - ashley@maximumyield.com Emily Rodgers - emily@maximumyield.com Kelsey Hepples - kelsey@maximumyield.com Katie Montague - katie@maximumyield.com DESIGN & PRODUCTION ads@maximumyield.com Art Director Alice Joe Graphic Designers Liz Johnston Jennifer Everts Dionne Hurd ACCOUNTING Tracy Greeno - accounting@maximumyield.com Tara Campbell - tara@maximumyield.com USA DISTRIBUTION Aurora Innovations • BWGS • General Hydroponics Humbolt Wholesale • Hydrofarm National Garden Wholesale/Sunlight Supply • Nickel City Wholesale Garden Supply • R&M Supply • Tradewinds CANADIAN DISTRIBUTION Brite-Lite Group • Biofloral • Eddis Wholesale • Greenstar Plant Products Inc. • MegaWatt • Quality Wholesale UK DISTRIBUTION Direct Garden Supplies • Growth Technology • Future Harvest Development Europe • Hydrogarden Nutriculture UK • Dutch Pro • Maxigrow AUSTRALIAN DISTRIBUTION Dome Garden Supply • House N Garden • Futchatec • Growth Technology • Hydraspher

Also be sure to also check our out new “I’m a Fan” contest. Simply tell us why you are a Maximum Yield fan and we will put your name into a draw to win monthly gift certificates of $100 to your favorite indoor gardening shop, with a chance to win the final grand prize of a $1,000 gift certificate – see page 167 for more details.

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contributors Dr. Lynette Morgan holds a B. Hort.

Evan Folds is president of Progressive Gardens, a natural approach land care company, and Progress Earth (www.progressearth. com). With a degree in biology and religion, Evan’s interests include making sense of food production and bringing awareness to such topics as empty food, municipal water fluoridation and spiritual intolerance.

Dr. Ed Harwood is founder and chief

Tech. degree and a PhD in hydroponic greenhouse production from Massey University, New Zealand. Lynette is a partner with SUNTEC International Hydroponic Consultants and has authored five hydroponic technical books. Visit suntec.co.nz for more information.

Helene Isbell is an avid

Philip McIntosh is a science and

Donald Lester occupe le poste de

Grubbycup has been an avid

Chad Garbet considers plants the

Matt LeBannister developed a

horticulturalist and has been an advocate of the hydroponics and organic gardening industry for over 10 years. A California native, Helene lives in San Diego, where she promotes the education of urban agriculture and represents Mad Farmer, a company that specializes in hydroponic nutrient supplements.

technology writer with a bachelor’s degree in botany and chemistry and a master’s degree in biological science. During his graduate research, he used hydroponic techniques to grow axenic plants. He lives in Colorado Springs, CO., where he teaches mathematics at Challenger Middle School.

most fascinating things on our planet. Trying to get information about growing plants out to the general public is his goal. He works at Word of Mouth Hydroponics Inc. in Nanaimo, British Columbia where he passes his growing knowledge to customers. Chad wants to see jungles inside our major cities and on every corner on every street.

indoor gardener for over 20 years. His articles were first published in the United Kingdom, and since then his gardening advice has been published in French, Spanish, Italian, Polish, Czechoslovakian and German. He is also considered one of the world’s leading authorities on crochet hydroponics.

Nicholas Griffith lives in northern California and has been working extensively with plants for the last seven years. He definitely considers himself an experienced green thumb! He spends most of his time doing research and development for Silver Nutrient Solutions, LLC—specifically, testing different colloidal silver formulations on plants. It’s fair to say he has devoted most of his time and energy to plant sustainability.

executive officer of AeroFarms. Ed previously served as associate director of Cornell Cooperative Extension for Agriculture. Prior to that, Ed served as CEO of Topline Waikato, Inc.

directeur des produits chez JH Biotech, Inc., une compagnie de technologie agricole située en Californie qui fabrique 27 produits biologiques homologués OMRI. Donald détient une maîtrise en agronomie avec spécialisation en entomologie. Vous pouvez rejoindre Donald par courriel à l’adresse Internet dlester@jhbiotech.com green thumb as a child, having been born into a family of experienced gardeners. During his career, he has managed a hydroponic retail store and represented leading companies at the Indoor Gardening Expos. Matt has been writing articles for Maximum Yield since 2007. His articles are published around the world.

Become a Maximum Yield contributor and have your articles read by 250,000 readers throughout USA, Canada, UK, New Zealand and Australia. Maximum Yield is the largest free-to-consumer indoor gardening magazine in the world. Every issue is available on maximumyield.com, which has thousands of unique visitors monthly.

COMING UP ON THE WEB I'm A Fan! Tell us why you are a fan of Maximum Yield and you could win a monthly prize of $100 at your favorite indoor gardening shop and/or a grand prize of $1,000 at your favorite indoor gardening shop. Visit maximumyield.com/imafan

Got Questions? Get Answers. Maximum Yield’s resident experts are available and ready to answer your modern gardening questions. Email editor@maximumyield.com or fill out the “Ask the Experts” question form on maximumyield.com

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Free Digital Subscription to Maximum Yield Now you can receive Maximum Yield free to your inbox every month. Subscribe to the digital edition of Maximum Yield by simply filling out the form at maximumyield.com/subscriptions

Connect With Us Connect to maximumyield.com instantly from your Smartphone with our Quick Response (QR) Code, found on the cover of every issue of Maximum Yield. Now you can access the best products, the most in-depth articles and

information, and the latest news at high speeds. Simply download the QR Code Reader software compatible with your Smartphone, scan the QR Code and your phone’s browser will automatically launch, redirecting you to maximumyield.com. It’s that simple!

Connect with US maximumyield.com facebook.com/MaximumYield indoorgardeningexpo.com twitter.com/max_yield


LETTERS TO THE EDITOR

Can't hardly wait... Dear editor, I hope this reaches you. I’m not a very educated man. I never graduated high school and I never did anything very productive in life until I started in this new trend of growing a garden. It’s not a very big one—just a few herbs, veggies and things like that. I’m 45 and knew not one thing (NOTHING lol) about gardening or plant life until I read your mag for the very first time (three years ago, I think). I’ve been an avid reader ever since and I can’t wait til each month’s new mag comes out [so I can get] it from one of the local hydro shops. Because of your articles and your master gardeners, I’ve become a self-taught gardener and I can help … [answer people’s] questions when it comes to soil gardening. I’ve learnt a lot and I’m still learning from your writers and master gardeners [about things from] pH to microbiology, beneficial bacteria to compatibility between fertilizers. Reading your mag and taking what I’m learning from it, I’ve surpassed the people who helped me get started, and they now ask me questions that they can’t answer themselves. It feels very good to help people with their compost questions to soil-based garden questions, so I just wanted to say keep up the great f-ing work ‘cuz you guys are the best. I tell everyone I know, “If you want to become a gardener on a low budget, Maximum Yield is the mag for you to read if you want ANY chance for success.” Anyway, [thanks to] all the free help that I’ve learned from you guys there at Max Yield, I am able to now help others to make their gardens produce more with less money. So, thank you very much, Max Yield; YOU GUYS ROCK!!!!! Robert Smith

enews

In our October 2012 E-News, we asked, “What growing techniques and products do you plan to use in the new year?” This is what one of our readers had to say: Dear Maximum Yield, I have been using an aeroponic grow setup for awhile now but I have concerns about it's ongoing power consumption demands. I am trying to move towards a more environmental footprint with less direct power input into my system. I think some of the gravity-fed systems which have been mentioned lately in Maxiumum Yield offer a long term viability that many systems do not. My plan this coming year is to try and adapt some of the gravity-fed and hybrid sytems I have been reading about to my existing system. Thanks for all the great ideas MY. Keep 'em coming! Joan Hill

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Hi, Robert! Thank you so much for the awesome letter. We here at Maximum Yield are so happy that our magazine could help both you and your garden grow so much! It’s for fans like you that we all strive to put of the best articles, products and trivia in each issue. Best of luck in the future and remember, if you ever have any questions regarding any indoor gardening topic, please don’t hesitate to send them to editor@maximumyield.com and one of our resident experts will answer you. Are you a fan of Maximum Yield, too? If so, don’t forget to enter our “I’m a Fan” contest. Simply tell us why you’re a fan of the magazine and you could win some fantastic prizes. See page 167 for more details.

via Facebook Coming to a enue Near You... Any convention dates yet for 2013? Joe Poirier Is there any show close to Oklahoma? Grady Coburn We’re just in the final stages of setting up our 2013 expo dates and locations. Be sure to keep an eye on indoorgardeningexpo.com and our Facebook page, where we’ll announce them in the next few weeks.

We want to hear from you! Maximum Yield Publications Inc. Snail-mail: 2339 Delinea Place, Nanaimo, BC V9T 5L9 Email: editor@maximumyield.com Twitter: twitter.com/max_yield Facebook: facebook.com/MaximumYield


ASK THE EXPERTS

As a grower, I always want optimal pest control and nutrient balance in my garden. Is it possible to use companion planting to help with this? In particular, I’m interested in companion plants for my upcoming crops of tomatoes and culinary herbs like basil, cilantro and dill. Thank you, JD Matt LeBannister

That is a great question. There are a few companion planting options that can improve the health of your plants, as well as prevent harmful insects and diseases. The first thing I would suggest is planting more than one variety of each crop. If a disease or insect wave strikes, having multiple varieties of tomatoes, basil, etc. will usually ensure that at least one variety survives the outbreak. There are also a number of companion plants that can be beneficial to the plants’ health, as well as help deter insects. Planting garlic in between tomato plants can protect the tomatoes against spider mites and aphids. Basil can also help tomatoes overcome insects and diseases; however, you should plant basil parallel to, not amongst, the tomatoes. Planting pollen- and nectar-producing plants (i.e. dandelions, marigolds and wild carrots) nearby will also attract beneficial insects, such as lady bugs, and give them a place to lay eggs. There are certain plants that should not be planted along side of tomatoes. Do not plant any type of cabbage, corn, potatoes, eggplant, peppers or fennel in the

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same garden as tomatoes because they will repel each other, resulting in an inferior or failed crop. It is also recommended that you should not plant your tomatoes where potatoes, eggplants or peppers have been planted within the past three to five years. On the other hand, there are some plants that make great companions to tomatoes and can benefit each other, improving growth and overall health. Tomatoes are compatible with chives, onion, parsley, marigold, nasturtium, carrots, stinging nettle and redroot pigweed. Hope this helps, Matt LeBannister Resources: Carrots Love Tomatoes, Louise Riotte. 1975,1998 Storey Publishing The Organic Gardener’s Handbook of Natural Insect and Disease Control, edited Barbara W. Ellis & Fern Marshall Bradley. 1996 Rodale Press Inc.


MAX FACTS

hydroponic news, tips and trivia

Aphid Resistance in Black Raspberries Good news: A USDA scientist and his commercial colleague have found black raspberries that have resistance to a disease-spreading aphid. Depending on the population, aphid resistance seemed to be controlled by either multiple genes or one dominant gene. (Source: sciencedaily.com)

MAXFACTS

hydroponic news, tips and trivia

Chocolate Substitute Fights Food-poisoning Bacteria According to a report in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, leaves of the carob plant, which is used as a substitute for chocolate, are a rich source of antibacterial substances ideal for fighting the microbe responsible for listeriosis (a serious form of food poisoning) (Source: sciencedaily.com)

Good Offense The stem-mining weevil is an effective offense against Canada thistle, the primary invader across North Dakota’s rangeland and cropland. The weevil feeds on newly emerged plants and females deposit eggs within the plant tissue, weakening them to other threats. Studies concluded that weevils alone cannot completely control these invading plants, but they can weaken the plants enough that other weed control methods can deliver a knockout. (Source: sciencedaily.com)

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MAX FACTS

hydroponic news, tips and trivia

Blueberry Tunnel Vision A University of Florida study shows that structures called high tunnels could shield the state’s plants from cold and promote earlier fruit ripening. In particular, high tunnels increase air and soil temperatures and protect the plants from wind and rain damage, leading to better flowering and more fruit. Though the initial investment can run from $18,000 to $25,000 per acre plus labor, high tunnels deliver better quality fruit, bigger early yields and higher prices if growers beat competitors to market, said Bielinski Santos, an associate professor with UF’s Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. (Source: freshplaza.com)

Fair Trade Produce Popularity Rise Consumers are becoming increasingly aware of the power their purchases can have on the regions from which their produce is sourced. Currently, 34% of American consumers are aware of fair trade products (this is triple the amount from five years ago) and that number is rapidly growing. According to Alex Coari, business development manager for Fair Trade USA, the market is also growing. “In 2010, we only had four products, and between 2011 and 2012 we’ve added eight new certified products, so I think retailers and consumers have really started to respond.” (Source: freshplaza.com)

Organic Foods for Kids To offer guidance to parents—and the pediatricians caring for their children’s health— the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has conducted an extensive analysis of scientific evidence surrounding organic produce, dairy products and meat. The conclusion: organic foods have the same vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, proteins, lipids and other nutrients as conventional foods, but they have lower pesticide levels. Organically raised animals are also less likely to be contaminated with drug-resistant bacteria. “At this point, we simply do not have the scientific evidence to know whether the difference in pesticide levels will impact a person's health over a lifetime, though we do know that children—especially young children whose brains are developing—are uniquely vulnerable to chemical exposures,” said Joel Forman, MD, FAAP, a member of the AAP Council on Environmental Health and one of the lead authors of the AAP clinical report. (Source: sciencedaily.com)

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MAX FACTS

hydroponic news, tips and trivia

New Way in Which Plants Control Flower Production We know that the major driving forces of flowering are external factors like light and temperature. Now, new research from CSHL Assistant Professor Zach Lippman, Ph.D., and his collaborators shows there is a second mechanism controlling flowering. The gene Lippman's team found, called Terminating Flower (TMF), seems to regulate a previously unknown pathway involved in the timing of flowering. Flowering is a tightly coordinated process, which becomes de-synchronized and uncoordinated when TMF function is lost. Using the tomato plant as their model, researchers shows that speeding up the flowering program results in production of only a single flower on each branch, rather than the usual seven to 10. Conversely, slowing down the flowering program enables more flowering branches to grow, which means more fruit. (Source: sciencedaily.com)

Using Algae for Good Researchers at the University of Kentucky are studying the feasibility of growing algae with flue gas from coal-burning power plants to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Andy Placido, an engineer associate with the university’s Center for Applied Energy Research, says the goal is “to find out how we can improve the process for making fuel and how does that compare with other algae-derived products, such as fertilizers, animal feed, etc.” “Our end goal is to make biofuel. In the future the ideal situation would be for growers to produce their own energy source.” (Source: hortamericas.blogspot.ca)

Missouri Specialty Crop Growers Offered USDA Insurance Missouri speciality crop growers had an opportunity to purchase special disaster coverage through the USDA Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance Program (NAP). The program provided financial assistance to producers of Missouri’s otherwise uninsurable crops—including fruits like apples and peaches—when low yields, loss of inventory or prevented planting occur due to natural disasters. (Source: freshplaza.com)

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MAX FACTS

hydroponic news, tips and trivia

More Than one Use for Diarrhea Medicine The search for a sustainable slow-release fertilizer—a key to sustaining global food production at a time of burgeoning population growth—has led scientists to an ingredient used in some diarrhea medicines. They describe use of attapulgite as a carrier for plant nutrients in a report in ACS' journal Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. The report describes development and successful tests of a new fertilizer composed of attapulgite, guar gum and humic acid. The slow-release pellets were easy to prepare, reduced nutrient loss via runoff and leaching, improved soil moisture content and regulated soil acidity and alkalinity. (Source: sciencedaily.com)

Changes Afoot To encourage improved phosphorus management in fields, the Phosphorus Index was proposed as a risk assessment tool in 1992. Now, a special section in the Journal of Environmental Quality addresses the question: does the Index accurately assess the risk of phosphorus loss? The section acknowledges the problems that have been encountered with Phosphorus Index development and implementation, such as inconsistencies between state indices, and also suggests ways in which the indices can be tested against data or models to improve risk assessment and shape future indices. (Source: sciencedaily.com)

Reducing Ammonia Emissions The USDA has developed a process to capture and recycle ammonia from livestock waste. This invention could help streamline on-farm nitrogen management by allowing farmers to reduce potentially harmful ammonia emissions and concentrate nitrogen in a liquid product to sell as fertilizer. (Source: sciencedaily.com)

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MAX FACTS

hydroponic news, tips and trivia

World’s First Subterranean Aquaponic System Nelson and Pade, Inc. has designed, built and installed a unique underground aquaponic system at the Survival Condo in Glasco, Kansas. Located on two floors in the Survival Condo (a former Atlas missile silo), The Clear Flow Aquaponic Systems produce a continuous supply of fresh fish and a variety of vegetables, including lettuce, herbs, tomatoes, beans, peas, peppers, cucumbers and more, to condo owners.

Illuminating Organic Weed Control Clove oil has strong fungicidal, insecticidal and herbicidal properties, making it an effective herbicide. However, a recent study found that light intensity can affect the efficacy of clove oil. Solar intensity can create a thicker layer of epicuticular wax on leaves, acting as a protective barrier. In this study, electrolyte leakage from leaf discs sprayed with clove oil decreased as light intensity increased. Therefore, plants’ exposure to light before they are sprayed with clove oil could play a role in how well the oil controls the plants. (Source: sciencedaily.com)

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PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT YOUR GUIDE TO THIS MONTH’S

HOTTEST ITEMS Ask for them at your local indoor gardening store

Sunleaves Announces Blueprint HID Hubs Gardeners can control multiple lights as easily as they would one light with the Blueprint HID Hub. The HID Hubs accommodate up to four or eight 1,000-W HID ballasts, depending on the model. Just plug the integrated trigger cable into a standard 24-hour timer to operate the ballasts using any timed lighting sequence. These high-quality units carry a three-year warranty for solid, long-term performance. Four- and eight-outlet models are available. Visit your local hydroponics store to find more information.

Can you Bloom Under Your T5? UNO Can!

Gold Label Hydrococo

Extremely high output and performance have been forced together to give birth to the new UNO T5 VHO Horticulture Lighting System. With the ability to run 95-W and 110-W Himalaya T5 bulbs, these units push out more lumens per square foot than traditional HIDs! UNO T5 Fixtures put out 60% more light than our Bad Boy fixtures without additional power consumption (less than 1 A per bulb) This heavy lumen hit results in tighter internodal spacing, thicker stem walls, heartier foliage and a natural increase in extracts. Experience vigorous growth without all the heat, and a grow full cycle with T5s! Each UNO T5 VHO system is 4-ft. long and 4-tubes wide. This product is available in multiunit set-ups (4-, 8-, 12- and 16-bulb configurations). Visit your local indoor gardening equipment retailer for more information.

Gold Label Americas is proud to introduce Hydrococo 60/40, the newest addition to the premium substrate line by Gold label. A well-balanced mix of the highly popular Gold Label Hydrocorn and Gold Label’s premium coco, this versatile medium is designed for high waterholding ability coupled with extremely high air ratios meant for explosive root development. Ideal for hydroponic growing, Hydrococo 60/40 is also an ideal home for microbes and fungi, which today’s growers use with much enthusiasm. The balanced ratio allows you to flood and drain or use the watering system of your choice while retaining perfect moisture to air balance. To learn more, visit your local indoor gardening shop.

General Hydroponics’ BioWeed BioWeed is a cold processed virgin seaweed, which contains high concentrations of natural plant growth regulators and is a great growth stimulant for foliage and stem production. It creates a strong and healthy environment for rapid growth on vegetative and fruiting plants. BioWeed can be used with all nutrients and supplements. For more information, visit your local indoor gardening shop.

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PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT

Sunleaves Presents the Utopian Split A/C Keep indoor areas cool and air quality high with the Utopian Split A/C. Opting for a split A/C system over central air or a window unit can cut costs, maintenance, heat and noise. The ETL-listed Utopian Split A/C features quick-connect refrigerant pipes to make installation a cinch. Low-ambient operation means the Split A/C continues to cool indoors even when outside temperatures fall below 55°F. A carbon air filter helps to remove contaminants, such as gases and odors, from the air. See your local indoor gardening retailer for more information.

Bringing you Tomorrow’s Technology Today Flower Power LED™ is proud to present the world’s first LED grow lights using Nano Technology Inside™. These grow lights are going to change indoor growing forever. Nanotechnology is the technology of building devices, such as electronic circuits, from single atoms and molecules. So, nanotechnology is (among other things) generally a conversation about new science that creates machines the size of molecules. What we have done at Flower Power LED is to incorporate our proprietary nanotechnology into our grow lights, thus creating a brighter, more powerful spectrum specific light that outperforms the old technologies of the past. In today’s ever-changing competitive marketplace, our technology will dramatically reduce your operating costs and increase profits without sacrificing quality. For more information, please contact your favorite hydroponics shop.

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PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT

Sunleaves Introduces VitaPlant Lites The Sunleaves VitaPlant Lites and the Sunleaves VitaPlant Clamp Lite are great options for adding light to indoor gardens. The 2-ft. and 4-ft. Sunleaves VitaPlant Lites accept two T8 or T12 fluorescent tubes, and their UL-listed 120-V Philips Advance AmbiStar ballasts have instant-start capability and two-year warranties for reliable performance. The VitaPlant Clamp Lite illuminates any space with a spot to anchor it, and it includes a one-year warranty. This heavy-duty light with protective vinyl grips features an 8.5-in. aluminum reflector and is compatible with mediumbase CFL, LED, PAR and incandescent lamps. Visit your local retailer to find out more information.

Flower Tower Dry Racks GeoPot now offers the best designed dry racks in the industry. The Flower Tower’s unique features make it easy and convenient to dry your harvest. Our Open Top buckle racks have four buckles attached to every level individually (our 36-in. model includes a middle support buckle). This is an ideal feature for adding or removing layers due to space restrictions or for removing your harvest from each layer. Our U-Shaped Zipper Dry Rack is an enclosed rack that we have designed to load and unload your harvest without anything getting caught in the lip of the opening. Thanks to the enclosed design, it has the versatility to be reversed and hung from either end to allow for even drying. Each of these features a 2-in.-wide heavy-duty Velcro strap and a reinforced top rim to prevent warping. For more information, visit your local hydroponics store. 42

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PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT

General Hydroponics’ AzaMax AzaMax, the industry’s numberone selling organic pesticide, is a natural product with a broad spectrum of pest control for all plants. AzaMax affects the pests’ ability to digest food and grow, making your plant an inhospitable environment to harmful bugs. AzaMax also affects the reproductive systems of the pests, reducing the chance of bugs passing on resistant genes and stopping colonization. AzaMax can be used as a foliar spray, or systemically in a hydroponic system. AzaMax is made using patented extraction technology, and does not use harsh chemical solvents. AzaMax is OMRI listed and licensed in all 50 states. See your local hydroponics retailer for more information.

Humboldt Nutrients Three-part Humboldt Nutrients Three-part formula was designed in Humboldt County as a complete growing nutrient program for hydroponics, soil and all other growing media. Grow Portion contains a 2-1-6 N-P-K ratio for the best vegetative growth. Bloom contains a 0-6-5 ratio, and some growers add more Bloom during the flowering stages for vigorous growth. Finally, Micro contains a 5-0-1 ratio. These trace elements are the catalyst to help produce chlorophyll. Micro also contains 5% calcium and can be used as a foliar spray to correct deficiencies—just be sure to add this first when mixing Three-part to avoid lock out. Our premium three-part nutrient system leaves nothing to chance and produces excellent high-yield crops. For more information, go to your local indoor gardening retail shop.

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PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT

Olivia’s Cloning Starter-kit from Olivia’s Solutions Olivia’s Cloning Starter-kit is what every grower needs to get cloning their favorite plant off to the right start. The Starter-Kit contains three items: one 16-oz. bottle of Olivia’s Cloning Solution concentrate (makes 4 gal.), one 2-oz bottle of Olivia’s Cloning Gel and one tri-fold pamphlet with complete instructions on how to clone and propagate your favorite plant, plus tips every successful gardener needs know. All the essentials you need for your clones/ cuttings are in one easy-touse box. The liquid solution and gel can be used with any hydroponic or soil applications; all types of propagating domes, tents, trays, spray or mister applicators; and all types of cloning systems. For more information, see your local indoor gardening equipment retailer.

Global Pacific Nutrients Introduces Beyond Belief Beyond Belief is not a fertilizer; it is a growth stimulator that features a breakthrough formula that is truly beyond belief. Our proprietary blend is packed with B vitamins and multiple forms of seaweed specifically designed for thriving gardens. Beyond Belief works perfectly in soil, soilless and hydroponic applications; it can also be used as a foliar spray. Beyond Belief encourages extremely vigorous root development, as well as a significant reduction in transplants shock during the propagation process. When used during the vegetative cycle, Beyond Belief aids in the generation of new growth shoots. For more information, see your local retailer.

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PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT

AeroGarden 7, Gourmet Herb and Grow Anything Kit The AeroGarden 7 high-output garden produces an abundance of fresh herbs, flowers, vegetables, salad greens and more indoors, year-round. Using aeroponic technology, your plants grow in water, nutrients and oxygenated air to directly deliver nourishment to their roots. The Gourmet Herb Seed Kit includes seed pods and SUPERGROW liquid nutrients. The Grow Anything Kit—which includes seed pods and nutrients for a full season of growing—allows you to grow your favorite plants from seeds or root cuttings. The AeroGarden 7 lets you grow beautiful plants indoors, any time of year. It makes indoor gardening easy, with no dirt, no weeds and no mess. Visit your local hydroponics shop for more information.

CO2 Regulator and Valve now Available Through HDI

Hydrodynamics International introduces the Aura Systems CO2 Regulator and Valve. Enriching the air with CO2 helps to stimulate growth and development in nearly all plants. Using the Aura Systems CO2 Regulator and Valve makes adding CO2 to your plant’s environment easier for you. This regulator will work with any 120-V device and has flexible 0.5- to 15-SCFH settings. In addition, there is a tank pressure gauge and a 3-year full-exchange warranty for this product, along with a solenoid valve and a 6-ft. power cord. You’ll appreciate the easy to read square CO2 flow meter and your plants will appreciate the added CO2! Visit your local retailer for more information.

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PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT

Gorilla Grow Tents Release the Thickest Grow Tents. Gorilla Grow Tents are designed with the thickest 1680D IR-blocking fabric mesh insulation, essentially three to nine times thicker than any other tent on the market today. Due to this feature, Gorilla Grow Tents maintain perfect temperature and humidity throughout while eliminating odor and sound. The tents unzip on multiple sides to allow easy access to the inside of the Gorilla Grow Tent. The increased thickness also encapsulates sound better so noise created by fans on the inside of the tent does not permeate to the outside. The noise reduction feature is desired by the growers who do not want their indoor growing hobby interfering with the rest of their existing lifestyle. For more information, see your favorite hydroponic equipment retailer.

Digimax Digital HPS Lamps Sunlight Supply®, Inc. is excited to announce the arrival of the Digimax Digital 600- and 1,000-W HPS Lamps. Digimax Digital HPS lamps are engineered to operate specifically with modern high-frequency electronic HID ballasts. The Digimax lamp construction includes thicker component welds and stainless steel materials required to withstand acoustic resonance and harmonic distortion as seen with digital HID ballasts. This robust lamp construction in combination with a light spectrum geared towards photosynthetic response offers a superior product for the high-end horticulture market. Packaged in a protective tin keepsake box. Visit your local indoor gardening retailer for more information.

Zephyr 3 Titan Controls would like to announce the release of the newest product in the line, Zephyr 3! The Zephyr 3 is a heating or cooling controller designed to meet the rigorous requirements of your garden. With just a flip of a switch from “Heating” to “Cooling,” its broad temperature range of 40 to 100°F provides the grower with a solution for any temperature need their garden might require. This stout controller is hand-built in the United States and conforms to ETL-listing standards. For more information, see your local hydroponics retailer

Cultured Solutions Premium Plant Nutrient from Current Culture H2O

Current Culture H2O™ is pleased to announce the release of our new Cultured Solutions™ line of premium plant nutrients. Cultured Solutions™ is the first and only nutrient in the hydroponics industry developed specifically for high-performance water-culture applications, such as the Under Current. Our perfectly balanced mineral ratios and high-quality chelates make Cultured Solutions extremely effective at lower EC/TDS levels, where water-culture applications tend to perform best. By maximizing nutrient solution uptake, crops grown using Cultured Solutions are kept well-nourished and hydrated, resulting in optimum evapo-transpiration and stellar plant performance. For more information, visit your favorite indoor gardening shop.

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PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT Super Large Reflectors (6 and 8 in.) Hydrofarm’s Super Large Reflectors feature highly-reflective, four-sided hammertone aluminum specular designed to give you bigger, broader and brighter light coverage. The Super Large Reflectors come with built-in aerodynamic 5-kV socket and cord set, fully sealed lens and a safety wire catch lens support system for easy cleaning. These reflectors also include a 15-ft. lamp cord and are compatible with all common ballasts. For more information, see your local hydroponics equipment retailer.

SuperCloset SuperNova Launched In response to customer feedback, SuperCloset, Inc., just launched the SuperNova, the largest rendering of their number-one selling grow cabinets. This all-in-one grow cabinet is 46-in. wide, 24-in. deep and 78-in. tall. It features a professionally air-cooled, closed-loop 600-W lighting system. Other features unique to the SuperNova are the bottom vegetation chamber that includes a SuperCloner-50 and SuperMother hydroponic system (allowing growers to harvest continually as plants are cloned and vegetated below and flowered up top), the Dual Carbon Filtration configuration (oriented to pull waste air through charcoal filters) and the T5 Side Lighting (positioned to distribute light to the bottom third of the plant’s body mass, leading to a larger yield of usable plant matter). Visit your favorite retail shop for more information.

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PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT Xtreme Nano Ballast The Xtreme Nano Ballast technology is the premier addition to your custom lighting set-up. The 1,000-W ballast comes in at just 9.65 by 4.9 by 2.3 in. and weighs an amazing 2.9 lb. The 600-W is 9.64 by 4.7 by 1.7 in. and weighs only 2.6 lb. The Nano Ballast also features our Independent Ignition Timing™, which delivers a zero to 15 second ignition delay during start-up, thus eliminating power spikes and circuit overload when firing multiple ballasts at once. It also allows for just the right amount of light, giving you the ability to customize between 100%, 75% and 50% settings. With the unique vented case design and dual fans, it provides for optimal ventilation and cooling. Finally, we included built-in user safety diagnostics codes that allow the user to troubleshoot bulb and power issues and much more. For more information, visit your local hydroponics store.

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Active Aqua Premium White Trays Active Aqua’s new premium white trays offer unparalleled strength and performance. These heavy-duty, full-ID flood trays are thick, rigid, durable and easy to clean. The tray edge has been arch formed, which reinforces the tray and minimizes flexing. They feature a square drainage pattern and smooth channels, which simplifies cleaning. Active Aqua’s premium white trays are manufactured in five sizes: 2 by 4 ft., 3 by 3 ft., 4 by 4 ft., 3 by 6 ft. and 4 by 8 ft. To learn more, visit your favorite indoor gardening store.


and the Growroom by Evan Folds

Energy is a loaded word. We debate it in Congress, it allows our lights to turn on, it can result in deadly radiation and, most importantly, it regulates how cells—the most basic form of life—work.

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Energy and the GrowRoom

If the cell

didn’t know what it needed or have the ability to use energetic gradients to accomplish this deliberate homeostasis, we would not have life as we know it.”

Simply put, energy defines and regulates life. There is a delicate balance and intention involved in a cell’s ability to regulate itself. Consider cell membrane pumps and channels. Pumps transport solutes across the boundary of the cell wall against a concentration gradient. Channels allow solutes to flow back out. The pump and the channel are the check and balance of the cell. They ensure that potassium concentrations are higher inside the cell and that higher levels of sodium and chlorine are on the outside. If the cell didn’t know what it needed or have the ability to use energetic gradients to accomplish this deliberate homeostasis, we would not have life as we know it. We take things like this for granted, but there are always opportunities to penetrate deeper into natural truths. For instance, when growing plants indoors, why do we consider the wavelengths that occur in the visible spectrum but not others? Do we imagine that plants are not affected by them? The electromagnetic spectrum (EMF) is defined by light waves and, in addition to the visible portion, is comprised of radio waves, infrared, x-rays and gamma rays. Do we imagine that simply because these frequencies are outside of our visible spectrum that they have no influence on plants? It’s easy to be confused when discussing the idea of frequencies. We measure light and sound in the same way (hertz), but they are actually different phenomena—the EMF does not encompass sound waves. Light, electricity and magnetism are all manifestations of electromagnetic radiation and do

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not need a medium to travel through, but sound waves are like ripples in a lake or a flag. They rely on the molecules in water and air to get from A to B, which is why light waves travel through space and sound does not. While it might be confusing, it is by no means foreign. We use TV remotes and cell phones on a daily basis, yet seem uncomfortable discussing the idea that these wavelengths and frequencies have an effect on anything but their intended destination. It would be prudent to consider the potential benefits of these frequency spectrums to plants, but also the possible detriments if they are not naturally organized. Not only are we completely separating ourselves from any sort of natural environment in an indoor growroom, but we are also setting up myriad artificial energy fields with the ballasts, fans, timers, etc. being used. Standard magnetic ballasts operate at 60 Hz (or, cycles per second), which is the frequency of the AC voltage they run on. This means that each lamp switches on and off 120 times per second, resulting in a barely perceptible flicker and a noticeable hum. (Actually, about 25% of the population is sensitive to ballast flicker and hum and can become physically ill with symptoms like headaches, nausea, itching and burning eyes, tension or eye fatigue.) Also, all of the energy is artificial.


Energy and the GrowRoom

There are ways to harmonize these unnatural energies in your growroom, similar to the chips designed to reduce bad EMF from mobile phones. This can be done by creating a crystal grid, using the form of the vortex and even the presence of highly potentized organic matter, such as biodynamic compost. Potentize might also be a word people are unfamiliar with. This concept is used in homeopathic medicine and biodynamic agriculture. To potentize means to influence the whole with energetic organization; to make more active and productive, or to energize and create synergy. It is the act of bringing higher order, or resonance, through dilution. This is the opposite of the materialistic model we have adopted in the modern world. Normally, when we add more of a substance, we consider it more concentrated, but Nature marches to the beat of a different drum. This is also true when it comes to how energy is utilized. Many human technologies are explosive and wasteful; there is very low energy transfer and the result is destruction and degeneration. Nature, on the other hand, operates via implosion, which helps build up living systems and is regenerative. So, your growroom or garden is organized in straight lines, but can you find this kind of rigid symmetry in a forest? Aren’t plants in Nature allowed access to more than the

17 elements found in conventional hydroponic nutrients? Does a river run in straight lines like the nutrient solution in a standard drip line? (Think of the difference between the vortexial motion accomplished by the meander of a healthy river and the massive fish kills, erosion and general unhealth of straightened rivers.) Nature does not work in symmetrical order and the lowest common denominator, but texture, spirals and chaos. Could it be that we are only paying attention to part of story? One thing is for sure: the better you feel about your garden, the better it will grow. We forget how vital the human involvement is in farming. Everyone has a different way to express these ideas in the garden (and there is no right and wrong), but the idea is simply to take the above concepts into consideration and apply them. Simply put, consider the effects of subtle energies on growing plants—because, the truth is, we don’t at the moment. Of course, one should not expect to be able to replicate outdoor natural phenomena with any exactness indoors. However, with persistence and research, we can tap into these principles in order to enhance the life force of our plants. All of these concepts are ideas we don’t have to consider when growing plants; however, when we do, we open up possibilities that were not seen or benefited from

There are ways

to harmonize these unnatural energies in your growroom, similar to the chips designed to reduce bad EMF from mobile phones.”

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Energy and the GrowRoom

previously. We truly maximize the genetic potential of our garden. A healthy growing situation is balanced in all physical, mineral, biological and energy aspects. Biodynamics is the only method of agriculture that consciously addresses the energetic aspects of living systems. Think of organic gardening as treading water and biodynamics as swimming where you want to go. Growing plants for what they need, rather than what we need from them is what’s wrong with the world. It’s why food is becoming emptier and degenerative disease is increasing with no explanation. We know very little about what plants want. Often, we are too smart for our own good. We take advantage of our knowledge every time we use a hydroponic fertilizeror indoor grow light. Knowing what a plant needs, we can provide this for them artificially and our eyes are not capable of noticing the difference until pests and disease manifest.

We have conquered the physical side of gardening, but doesn’t it beg the question of what we might be missing? Is it possible that a human can replace everything desired by a plant in an indoor environment? The answer might be no, but we don’t know yet as we are scarcely even trying. People such as Rudolf Steiner, Viktor Schauberger, Wilhelm Reich, Nikola Tesla and many others were aware of these natural energies and put them into practice a long time ago. They generated their understanding through trial and practice with an undiluted and penetrating focus into the mechanisms of the natural world. You can too. Hopefully an experimental seed has been planted here. Start your journey on the backs of these giants. After all, what better arena is there to test some of these natural principles and techniques than an indoor growroom? So, ask yourself, when was the last time you considered the life force of your garden?

It would be

prudent to consider the potential benefits of these frequency spectrums to plants, but also the possible detriments if they are not naturally organized.”

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In the old storybooks, silver provided defense against all sorts of ghouls and monsters. Well, as Nick Griffith explains, there seems to be some real-life truth to the protective powers of silver...

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the miracle of silver Pathogens, viruses, bacteria and pests— ranging in severity, including the potential to devastate and even destroy single cell organisms— target plants, just as they do humans. However, while humans would take antibiotics, probiotics and nutritional supplements to kill and prevent disease, what do you do about plants when confronted with

“Most conventional treatments kill

these same issues? Do you treat the problem with pesticides or fertilizers, or both? Some of the questions you might ask when trying to remedy a crop-borne illness or insect infestation include: Are these potential solutions chemical based or organic; what kind of residues do they leave behind; and are they safe? Most importantly, however, you should ask yourself, “How can I prevent these problems from arising in the first place?” As an experienced green thumb and someone who takes pride in my work, I always like to do my research regarding

micro-organisms, but leave behind chemical residues, consequently damaging your fruits and vegetables and causing possible toxicity.”

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the miracle of silver pesticides, nutrients and fertilizers to ensure I’m using the highest-quality product. In doing so, I have come across one of the most amazing, organic, elemental supplements to kill and prevent crop-borne pathogens safely and effectively without any harmful chemicals or pesticides. This supplement also results in greener leaves, healthier roots and bigger fruits and vegetables with zero toxicity. I’m referring to the precious metal silver in its ionic form, known as ionic colloidal silver. Silver is best known for its use in jewelry, coins, tableware and silverware. However, silver has provided mankind many other uses since its discovery, including numerous health benefits. Aside from being one of the most, if not the most effective, elemental antibiotics known to man, silver has been used for sterilization, preservation and decontamination without building up a resistance to the pathogens it is killing (unlike man-made antibiotics). Thanks to science and technology in the modern era, we now have what is known as ionic colloidal silver—this is what is created when pure silver becomes charged with an electrical current while suspended in water over different periods of time. Silver, in this ionic form, has proven to be most effective in plants and humans, killing and preventing over 650 harmful pathogens.

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classifies silver as an oligodynamic biocide, meaning it is fatal to primitive life forms like bacteria, viruses, fungi and eggs, yet is readily utilized by more complex cells to kill off pathogens. In layman’s terms, the silver ion attaches to the pathogens respiration and causes death by suffocation while maintaining its safety for mature life forms—like ladybugs and bees—that are beneficial to plant sustainability. I cannot say the same for chemical pesticides or insecticides, which are harmful for the environment and the end-user, and known to cause cancer and numerous health issues. Ionic colloidal silver is not only used to kill bacteria, fungi and viruses in plant and humans, but more importantly, colloidal silver can also prevent crop-borne pathogens from devastating your crop in the first place. A safe, efficient and economical way to do that would be to disinfect your reservoir or feeding solution with 20 to 30 ppm ionic colloidal silver. By doing this, the silver will suffocate any pathogen present in your feeding solution, ensuring premium disease-free solution before you feed your plants. As a bonus, the added colloidal silver will repair damaged cell walls and help promote new cell growth when it is broken down by micro-organisms in the soil or other media and taken up by your plants. Ionic colloidal silver also fends off plant disease that normally wipes out a crop in days. When confronted with these issues, plants require immediate treatment to prevent total loss. Most conventional treatments kill micro-organisms, but leave behind chemical residues, consequently damaging your fruits and vegetables and causing possible toxicity. Brooke Bradley from the Harborne Research Foundation, however, found colloidal silver to be the only effective protocol—other than the toxin-loaded chemical aerosol streptomycin—against crop blight.

“In layman’s

terms, the silver ion attaches to the pathogens respiration and causes death by suffocation while maintaining its safety for mature life forms—like ladybugs and bees—that are beneficial to plant sustainability.”

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“Ionic colloidal

silver is not only used to kill bacteria, fungi and viruses in plant and humans, but more importantly, colloidal silver can also prevent crop-borne pathogens from devastating your crop in the first place.”

Also, in 2009, the Korean Journal of Plant Pathology stated that silver nano-particles were found to dramatically inhibit the growth of several species of sclerotium-forming fungi—the same fungi known to infect rice and lettuce crops all around the world. (This study then suggested the possibility of using silver nanoparticles as an alternative to pesticides for fungal control.) Both of these studies blatantly suggest that silver is extremely effective against pathogens and fungi that adversely diminish fruit and vegetable crops globally, making ionic colloidal silver the purest organic elemental biocide readily available for plants. So, whether you have a small garden at home or a large commercial operation with maximum exposure to nature’s elements, using ionic colloidal silver on your plants has numerous advantageous benefits. Along with being safe and non-toxic to end-users, colloidal silver is beneficial to plants (when absorbed into the plant systemically, it will boost immunity and speed up cell rejuvenation) and human beings. Also, killing and preventing crop-borne pathogens is a guarantee, no matter if you’re adding colloidal silver to your reservoir, mixing it in your nutrient solution or using it as a foliar spray. Known as natures antibiotic, ionic colloidal silver will help maintain plant vitality and prevent disease in all stages of growth!

Maximum Yield USA | January 2013

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by Dr. Lynette Morgan

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From time to time, we all strike problems with our hydroponic systems and plants. If we are lucky, it’s an easily resolved issue that doesn’t cause too much stress. However, some things can baffle even the most experienced grower and that’s when a step-by-step approach to troubleshooting is required… Most common problems experienced in hydroponic gardens are caused by one of four main things: nutrition, the plant’s growing environment, pests and pathogens and—less frequently encountered—genetic problems. Even though complete, balanced and well-formulated nutrient solutions are used in hydroponics, nutrition can still be a main area of troubleshooting and one that confuses many inexperienced growers.

Nutrient troubleshooting Hydroponic systems are reliant on the composition and formulation of the nutrient solution to supply all the essential elements required for optimal plant growth and yields. However, nutrient solutions are complex and their composition changes as mineral ions are extracted when they flow through the root system. Deficiencies in hydroponic production are more common than toxicities, as plant uptake of many elements has the potential to strip out nutrients at a rapid rate, particularly from recirculating solutions. The most common deficiency problems in hydroponic crops are potassium in fruiting plants like tomatoes; iron under certain environmental conditions; nitrogen in some readily growing, highly vegetative crops; and calcium in many species, such as lettuce, tomatoes and peppers.

nutrient

solutions are complex and their composition changes as mineral ions are extracted when they flow through the root system.” Maximum Yield USA | January 2013

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troubleshooting in the Hydroponic garden

Wilting can not only be caused by a lack of moisture, but also high EC, salt buildup, lack of oxygen and root damage.

To complicate hydroponic plant nutrition further, deficiencies (as they occur on different crops) might or might not be the result of an actual deficiency in the nutrient solution. Potassium can certainly be stripped from a nutrient solution rapidly as fruit develops and expands, and because luxury uptake occurs in many crops. However, iron, calcium and magnesium deficiencies on leaves and fruit occur even when there is more than a sufficient amount of these elements in a solution. These induced deficiencies often fool growers into thinking there is a problem with the formulation of their nutrient when the cause is often more complex.

Salt buildup and EC problems

Salt buildup appears as white or off-white crystalline crusts or residues on the surface of growing media and sometimes on the base of plant stems, where it can cause salt burn damage. Certain types of media are more prone to this nutrient problem than others—for example, those with porous structures and high rates of water loss are more prone to salt crusting than others. Expanded clay granules and similar media often develop a whitish coating on the surface after a few months use, and this can be common in ebb-and-flow systems. Media beds covered with plastic film—as in the case of rockwool slabs—rarely develop these salt deposits on the surface, as the film prevents excessive Iron moisture loss from the media. Iron deficiency is common under cool growing conditions, Salt buildup occurs when a media, which has been thorwhere the root system might have become saturated or damoughly wetted with nutrient solution containing aged, or where the pH is running high. dissolved salts, loses moisture to evaporation faster than the minerals are Magnesium taken up by the plant’s root Magnesium deficiency on crops system. In this case, the moislike tomatoes can be induced by ture is lost to the atmosphere high levels of potassium uptake. and the minerals stay behind, thus increasing the EC in the Calcium media and around the roots. Calcium deficiency, which shows problems experienced This salt buildup in the root as tip burn on lettuce and bloszone can cause damage both som end rot on tomatoes and in hydroponic gardens through direct contact with peppers, is a calcium transport are caused by one of four the salt crystals around the problem within the plant rather delicate plant stem, parthan a lack of calcium in the main things: nutrition, the ticularly in seedlings, and by solution. It is induced by enviincreasing the osmotic presronmental conditions like high plant’s growing environment, sure around the plant roots. humidity, which restricts transpipests and pathogens and Luckily, salt buildup is easily ration and calcium distribution.

Most common genetic problems.”

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troubleshooting in the Hydroponic garden

Salt buildup occurs

when a media, which has been thoroughly wetted with nutrient solution containing dissolved salts, loses moisture to evaporation faster than the minerals are taken up by the plant’s root system.” dealt with once growers recognize the symptoms: white crusting is the first sign, as is plant growth becoming stunted, dark, hard and unusually slow. As salt accumulation becomes more severe, the stem area at the base of the plant and roots can be burnt and die back, resulting in wilting during the warmer times of day and, later, disease attack in these areas. Regular monitoring of the EC of the nutrient solution draining from the media helps prevent and diagnose salt accumulation problems. Ideally the EC of the feed solution should not increase as it flows through the root system. If the EC is increasing as its flows through the root system and out the base of the growing container, then salt buildup is likely to occur. However, even plants fed a low EC solution can develop salt accumulation where the atmosphere is dry and high rates of water loss from a porous media occur. In this case, the media will benefit from some leaching from time to time and a thorough clean between crops (or even replacement in severe cases). Some growers prefer to leach excess salts from growing media using plain water; however, this can have negative effects when an actively growing crop is present, as the sudden drop in osmotic pressure in the root zone triggers a large influx of moisture into the

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root cells, which can result in fruit splitting and soft, weak vegetative growth. Flushing growing media with either a specifically designed flushing solution or a nutrient one-third its regular strength is recommended to remove excess salts from the root zone. Carrying this process out every few weeks might be required in certain hydroponic systems, such as shallow flood-and-drain or tray systems in warm climates with high evapotranspiration rates, and often between crops if media is to be reused

Algae Most hydroponic growers come across algae sooner or later. It can appear as a slimy green, brown, reddish or black growth that clings to channels, gullies and pumps or spreads over the surface of damp media. Long strings of algae are common in nutrient tanks and return channels, and the speed at which this form of plant life can grow and multiply is often impressive. Algae usually have earthy or moldy smells, and large volumes of decomposing algae in the nutrient can be responsible for unpleasant odors. Algae is a nuisance to any grower as it not only looks unsightly, but has the ability to block drippers, emitter, pumps, return channels and filters. Heavy growth can even seal off the surface of growing substrates, robbing the roots of oxygen. The problem with algae—apart from the appearance and smell problems it can create—is not so much that it competes with plant roots for nutrients, but that it sucks up dissolved oxygen from the system it blooms, dies and decomposes. This increases the biological oxygen demand (BOD) on the system and causes root suffocation from a lack of oxygen. Decomposing algae might also release toxins as it breaks down and provides a food source for plant pathogenic fungi, which might then multiply to high levels in the system. Algae directly attached to plant


troubleshooting in the Hydroponic garden

root systems can suffocate the roots, making the plants prone to attack by opportunist pathogens like pythium. Control of algae, once established in a hydroponic system, can be difficult. Still, most growers tolerate small amounts of algae in their systems, provided it does not become excessive. A regular scrub between crops will often remove stubborn algae and is often the only control used by commercial growers. Some growers do add algaecide products into the nutrient to kill off algae and there are a number of these products on the market. However, since any product that kills algae (a form of plant life) can also damage young or sensitive root systems, care must be taken with the dose. Also, algae will regrow very quickly after applications of most algaecide products, thus requiring regular applications to maintain good control.

Root death The major causes of root death in hydroponics are suffocation, starvation, pathogens, chemical damage, temperature and EC/pH problems. In hydroponics, suffocation is probably the leading cause of root death and reduced growth rates. Often, any pathogens present won’t attack a healthy root system until it is damaged or weakened by adverse conditions (such as stagnation or suffocation in the root zone). A lack of oxygen can be caused by flooding or ponding of the nutrient solution, decomposing organic matter in the solution, slow flow rates and too many plants robbing oxygen from the root zone, which is accelerated as conditions become warmer. A lack of oxygen reduces the permeability of roots to water, and toxins will accumulate as the root cells die. Some plants, such as tomatoes, will attempt to adapt to the lack of oxygen by producing adventitious roots on the lower stem and swelling at the stem base.

Starvation A lack of nutrients will affect the root system, just as it does the top of the plant; however, the symptoms are more difficult to observe. A phosphate deficiency will cause the roots to become brown with a reduced number of lateral branches. A lack of calcium will induce a thin, poorly developed brown root system. Manganese

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A lack of

oxygen can be caused by flooding or ponding of the nutrient solution, decomposing organic matter in the solution, slow flow rates and too many plants robbing oxygen from the root zone, which is accelerated as conditions become warmer.”


troubleshooting in the Hydroponic garden deficiency will cause a small root system that’s much shorter and finer than usual, with some browning of the root tips. Copper deficiency results in severe underdevelopment of the root zone. Boron deficiency causes the root tips to become jelly-like in appearance.

If the EC

reaches extreme levels, water will be lost from the root cells back into the nutrient solution to the point where root death will occur.”

EC and pH An electrical conductivity (EC) level that is too high for the crop being grown will result in severe stunting of the root system. If the EC reaches extreme levels, water will be lost from the root cells back into the nutrient solution to the point where root death will occur. This is more common in crops that prefer a lower EC level, such as lettuce. Likewise, pH levels that are too high or low can induce root damage and nutrient uptake problems. (Still, the pH range that plants can tolerate without any nega-

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tive effects is fairly large.) It has been found that the appearance of the root system differs in hydroponic plants that have been grown at different pH levels. Plants grown at a pH of 7.5 and above have a shorter, coarser root system than those grown at a pH of 5.5. Higher pH levels reduce the availability of certain elements in solution, mostly iron and manganese, and could induce deficiency symptoms.


troubleshooting in the Hydroponic garden

Root problems Root diseases are a major concern for hydroponic growers. This is particularly true of growers who use NFT and other recirculating systems that could quickly transport pathogens to a large number of plants. Some pathogens that can attack roots in hydroponic systems have symptoms that make them easy to identify (with some practice). However, others might not have any symptoms at all. One aspect these pathogens all have in common is their ability to reduce plant growth and yield. The most common pathogens that effect roots in hydroponic production are pythium, phytophthora, fusarium, olpidium, plasmopara, didymella and verticillium. Others have also been reported to cause crop losses; in fact, about 20 fungal, four viral and two bacterial pathogens exist that are commonly associated with root diseases in hydroponic vegetable crops. Root pathogens can infect hydroponic crops from a number of sources, including air, water, media, insects, infected plant material, seeds and dust. Airborne root pathogens are rare, but have been known to occur. A more common source of infection is soil, which hosts a huge number of inoculum. Soil can enter a hydroponics system on shoes, as dust in the air, in media, on equipment or in water (particularly from exposed sources, such as reservoirs, rivers and streams). Insects, such as shore flies and fungus gnats, can also carry pathogens. Since many root problems and odd symptoms are caused by pathogens, and such attacks are often induced by stressed plants, cultivating a Root browning, rot and death can have a number of causes, the most dreaded is the disease pathogen pythium. healthy crop is always a grower’s first line of defense. Ensuring adequate oxygen is present in the root zone throughout the hydroponic system is essential. Sometimes environmental or cultural problems exist that stress the plants without the grower’s knowledge. Therefore, observing the root zone on a regular basis is vitally important. In mediabased systems, a grower who notices a plant showing signs of wilt or discoloration should pull it out and examine the root system. Once any plant has

Since many root problems and odd symptoms are caused by pathogens, and such attacks are often induced by stressed plants, cultivating a healthy crop is always a grower’s first line of defense.”

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troubleshooting in the Hydroponic garden

been identified as potentially having a root disease, it should be removed from the cropping area and destroyed. Proper sanitation and hygiene in hydroponic systems is also important for pathogen control. Root pathogens can carry over from one crop to the next, so many media or substrate that contained an infected plant should be discarded. In areas where there are high populations of root disease pathogens, commercial growers need to consider some form of control, such as treating the water supply with UV light, H2O2 or ozone.

Fruiting and flowering problems Fruiting crop problems in hydroponics can range from a simple lack of fruit development to more complex physiological disorders like blossom end rot. Many growers have experienced fruit with skin disorders, such as uneven coloration, blotching, crazing, streaking, silvering and other unidentified spots. Fruit splitting can be common in crops like tomatoes. Bell peppers and cucumber can become grossly misshapen. These disorders are largely physiological, environmental and cultural.

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troubleshooting in the Hydroponic garden

Flower and fruitlet drop

There are many potential causes of flower and fruitlet drop in hydroponic crops; some are internal and caused by plant stress, and some are environmental.�

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Most common hydroponic crops will flower when they have reached their appropriate point in development. One frequent problem is flower drop. There are many potential causes of flower and fruitlet drop in hydroponic crops; some are internal and caused by plant stress, and some are environmental. In many crops, flower drop in induced by high air temperatures. However the point at which this thermal stress occurs varies for each crop and cultivar. Low light levels that limit the growth of the whole plant can also induce drop, particularly where low light is combined with high temperatures. Although not as common in hydroponic crops as those grown in soil, mineral deficiencies, such as low levels of nitrogen or phosphorus in the nutrient solution, can slow flower and fruit development and cause drop. Flower drop can also be caused by water stress (either a lack of irrigation or high EC levels). With the development of high-yielding cultivars, another major cause of flower and fruitlet drop has become heavy fruit load or excessive vegetative growth. Young, newly developed leaves compete for assimilates with the flowers and fruitlets already on the plant. If assimilates are transported to these new leaves at the expense of the flowers, drop can occur. This is more common in situations where assimilate production is limited due to low light or other reasons. Lowering plant density and using CO2 and suitable cultivars less prone to drop both assist growers in preventing these types of problems (which often occur in winter). The presence of a heavy fruit load developing on the plant has the same effect; new flowers and fruitlets can be sacrificed in favor of the rapidly developing, larger fruit already present. In certain crops, a lack of pollination could be the cause of flower and, more commonly, fruitlet drop.


ProPer ProPagation: Perfecting the Practice of Plant reproduction by Helene isbell Propagation is the process of plant reproduction. Here’s a rundown of the most popular methods used in the hydroponics industry...

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proper propagation

Propagation in the plant world is a beautiful thing. Both a science and an art, propagation is the delicate and, quite arguably, magical process of plant reproduction. While many forms of propagation have been experimented with throughout the history of horticulture, the classic methods of planting seeds (sexual reproduction) and making clones (asexual reproduction) remain the most popular, simple and reliable processes in the hydroponics industry.

What is sexual propagation? Planting from seed is nature’s way of sexually reproducing a plant. It occurs when the pollen of a male plant lands on the flower of a female plant, fertilizing its ovaries and producing seeds. The seed is a well-protected pod that contains the genetic characteristics of both parent plants. When the seed is planted, or sown, it develops into a new plant, or strain, that displays traits from both plants from which it was produced.

Planting seeds • Seeds can be planted directly into the soil or medium in which they will be grown, or they can be started in a starter cube or propagation tray. • Starter cubes are designed to help sprout seeds and they are perfect incubators for new seedlings. • Many growers soak their seeds in a warm, dark location for a day or so before planting. This enables the plant to soak up water and soften its hard casing prior to being sown. • To plant the seed, insert it into a start cube or planting mix about ¼ in. below the surface of the medium. Gently cover it so it is not directly exposed to light. • Secure a humidity dome over the starter tray.

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proper propagation

Taking

• Place the tray or potting container in a window that gets indirect sunlight or under a horticultural-grade fluorescent light fixture. • Keep the temperature inside the humidity dome around 75 to 80°F, and the seeds should sprout in five to seven days.

What are some advantages of starting from seed?

clones (or, cuttings) from a mother plant has established itself as the most reputable form of asexual propagation amongst growers in the hydroponics industry.”

Identifiable lineage Seeds purchased from a reputable distributor should have listed characteristics. Seeds harvested from healthy fruits and flowers should display dominant traits from the selected varieties. Vigor/yield Plants started from seed tend to grow with robust strength and produce high yields. Strains degrade over time and starting from seed is great way to revitalize good producers. Breeding Growers have the option to cross (or, breed) two strains that display desirable traits to create a new strain. This involves pollinating the female plant with the male plant to produce a new seed. Overall plant health Plants started from seeds are clean and there are fewer instances of the disease, pests, and mold often associated with clones.

What are some disadvantages of starting from seed? Cost/availability Some seeds are expensive, rare and sometimes hard to obtain.

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Time It often takes longer to reach harvest when starting from seed. The process involves planting the seed, seed germination, vegetative growth and then determining the gender of the plant.

Unpredictability There is the possibility that not all seeds will sprout (or, germinate). There is also a high possibility that not all seeds will be fruiting or flowering female plants. When determining the sex of plants started from seeds, it is imperative to remove male plants upon identification. One male plant in a group of females could pollinate all the plants, virtually turning a viable flower crop into a seed crop. Some companies sell feminized seeds, guaranteeing a certain percentage of the seeds to be female; however, even those seeds can contain an occasional male.

What is asexual propagation? Asexual propagation refers to one of many methods used to produce a new plant with the same genetics as the mother plant from which it was taken. Asexual propagation techniques include cloning, grafting, layering, and tissue culture (to name a few). Taking clones (or, cuttings) from a mother plant has established itself as the most reputable form of asexual propagation amongst growers in the hydroponics industry.

Making clones Clones are easy to make and root quickly under proper environmental conditions. To make a new clone: • Select good strong branches from a healthy mother plant. • From the tip of the branch, count down about four to five nodes and—using a sterile scalpel—slice the branch at a 45-degree angle directly below a node. • Slice off the two leaves directly above the cut and


proper propagation

It is

immediately dip the cutting into cloning/rooting gel. It is important to dip the cutting into cloning gel just after being cut to avoid the cut site from developing an air bubble (or, embolism) that could kill the new clone. • Gently insert the cutting into a moist starter cube and cover with a plastic humidity dome. • Place the cutting under a horticultural-grade T-5 light fixture and keep the temperature around 70 to 75°F. • Using a rooting gel with a strong concentration of rooting hormone should ensure healthy fuzzy white roots in about seven to 10 days.

Cloning gel is a thick gooey gel infused with a rooting hormone to aid in the propagation of clones from a mother plant. The hormones in the gel essentially tell the plant to make roots at the cut site of the plant where it has come into contact with the gel. New roots form on the cutting and eventually grow into a whole new plant with the same genetic characteristics as the mother plant from which it was snipped. There are many brands of cloning gel available in the horticultural industry, so find a reliable rooting gel and stick with it! Look for formulas that contain the hormone IBA (indole-3-butyric acid). It is also important to select a thick water-based gel that does not contain colorants or dyes.

important to dip the cutting into cloning gel just after being cut to avoid the cut site from developing an air bubble (or, embolism) that could kill the new clone.”

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What is cloning gel?


What are some advantages to starting from a clone? Quicker turn around With less veg time, starting from a clone usually takes less time to reach harvest, increasing the amount of crops that can be grown over time. Genetically identical Because clones are genetically the same as the mother plant, growers can be sure that clones are female and, thus, not have to wait to determine their sex. Note: female plants under stressful environmental conditions, such as light leaks in the dark cycle, can turn to hermaphrodites and produce seeds. Quickly reveal strain characteristics Since clones grow so rapidly, they will quickly display their defining traits, such as scent, growth rate, internodal spacing and quality of rootstock. Uniformity Clones tend to grow at a more uniform rate than seeds.

Note:

female plants under stressful environmental conditions, such as light leaks in the dark cycle, can turn to hermaphrodites and produce seeds.�

Maximum Yield USA | January 2013

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Proper propagation

What are some disadvantages to starting from a clone?

Choose

genetics carefully and use premium-grade propagation products and your crop should produce a bountiful harvest that is not only delicious, but also nourishing to the mind, body and soul!�

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Availability It is sometimes difficult to find specific plant varieties as clones. Environmental problems Clones are susceptible to inheriting any types of disease, pest problem or infection that the mother plant might have been exposed to. Sensitivity Clones are more sensitive to light and have a higher prob-ability of experiencing burns or shock.


What mediums are best for propagation? There is a wide range of media that work well for plant propagation. These media include soil, soilless mixes, perlite, vermiculite and rockwool. Peat-based starter cubes work excellent for both seeds and clones. They are a popular choice for many growers because once the plant has developed roots, the whole cube can be transplanted into soil or any hydroponic medium. They are compatible in organic gardens and are completely biodegradable. Look for peat-based starter cubes that come sealed so humidity levels are prime for planting. Make sure the cubes are slightly moist for planting seeds or clones. Once a new seedling or clone starts to show vigorous healthy white roots, it is ready to be transplanted. Carefully transfer it into a high-quality medium of choice and the new plant should shoot off into explosive vegetative growth! Finally, healthy, high-producing plants rely on good seed stock or healthy clones taken from a stable mother plant. Choose genetics carefully and use premium-grade propagation products and your crop should produce a bountiful harvest that is not only delicious, but also nourishing to the mind, body and soul!

Maximum Yield USA | January 2013

95


Snails Pest, Predator and

by Donald Lester

d o o F

Believe it or not, there are more ways to look at these slimy and slow creatures than you FIrst thought.… 98

Maximum Yield USA | January 2013


snails: Pest, predator and food

Pest Of all the pests that can enter a greenhouse, arguably the most repulsive is the common garden snail. (Snails are often confused with slugs since both have the same general appearance and both leave the characteristic slimy trails we are used to seeing. However, snails have a shell, slugs do not.) The common brown garden snail, which was originally brought to the United States from France, is the same type of escargot that is served in specialty restaurants. They were introduced to California in the 1850s by European settlers who thought snails would be a familiar food source. But, when the effort was less successful than they had expected, the idea was largely dropped.

When they were no longer cultivated as food crops, the snail populations grew and spread and are now a common pest in gardens, flower beds and greenhouses. In order to get an idea of how prolific brown snails can be, consider this: each adult snail can lay 80 eggs as often as six times per year, so effective control of snails requires constant vigilance. Snails are nocturnal and feed on organic matter in the soil, bark from trees, and especially on vegetation. Nearly anything growing in a vegetable or flower garden can be consumed. In particular, snails like tender

“Snails are often confused with slugs since both have the same general appearance and both leave the characteristic slimy trails we are used to seeing. However, snails have a shell, slugs do not.” foliage, young seedlings, herbaceous plants and ripening fruit that grows near the ground. They have also been known to feed on avocado and citrus foliage and fruit. Snails feed on both living and decaying plant material. The leaves of affected plants will have irregular holes with smooth edges, and new fruit and young plant bark can be damaged as well. Snails feeding on cultivated plants might become serious pests. Enormous populations can sometimes become established in citrus groves and cause serious damage to leaves and fruit. They also cause economic damage to truck crops and ornamental plants. Large numbers of snails are a nuisance around homes, greenhouses, nurseries, outbuildings and sheds.

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snails: Pest, predator and food

Predator Not all snails are pests. There is a predatory snail called decollate (Rumina decollate), or cannibal snails, that keep the brown garden snail under control since they devour brown garden snail eggs and small snails. Decollate snails are easy to distinguish from the brown garden snails. Brown garden snails have a rounded shell, whereas decollate snails have a cone shaped shell. While decollate snails work well as a biological control of brown snails, it is important to keep in mind that they can take years to become established. Moreover, decollate snails can also feed on young, tender seedlings, small plants and flowers—though not as heavily as the brown garden snails. So, if you can take some bad with the good, then decollate snails might be the control you are looking for. Decollate snails are available for sale through specialty shops and mail-order catalogs.

Food The only danger in eating garden snails is when they have ingested poisons for snail control. In order to eliminate this danger, wait six weeks after poison control

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“When they were no longer cultivated as food crops, the snail populations grew and spread and are now a common pest in gardens, flower beds and greenhouses.”


snails: Pest, predator and food

material has been applied to gather the snails. Larger mature snails have tastier meat than younger smaller ones and are easier to remove from their shells. Snails should be collected when they are about the size of peas, or about 10 days after hatching. Place them in a fine mesh cage and feed with cornmeal and chopped lettuce or other greens until they are large enough—about one to 1.5 in. in diameter. In order to make brown snails ready for consumption, the gathered snails must be purged of any off-flavor or toxic materials from previously eaten food. To do so, place about 0.5 in. of damp cornmeal in the bottom of a container, such as a plastic basket, metal pan or crock. Place the snails in the container and cover with a ventilated or screen top, such as a cheesecloth or nylon netting that would allow for air flow as well as visibility. Weight the cover along the sides with bricks or tie it securely so the snails do not escape. Place the container in a cool, shady area and let the snails purge themselves by eating the cornmeal for at least 72 hours. If you wish to keep them there longer, replace the cornmeal every other

“each adult snail can lay 80 eggs as often as six times per year, so effective control of snails requires constant vigilance.”

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snails: Pest, predator and food

day to prevent it from molding and souring. The snails feed and then crawl up on the side of the container to rest; take note of this movement as only active snails should be used and inactive snails on the bottom should be discarded. Once purged, the snails should be washed thoroughly with cold running water to remove the cornmeal from their shells. Heat a large pot of boiling water with bay leaf and then plunge in the live snails. Simmer about 15 minutes. Drain well. With a wood pick or pointed knife, pull the snail meat from the shell. If desired save shells for later use. Remove and discard the dark-colored gall, a quarter-inch protrusion on the tail end where the snail is attached to the shell. Rinse the snail several times under running water. The snail meat is then ready to be used in a recipe or packaged and frozen for later use. To prepare the empty shells for use, boil them in boiling soda water (use a ¼ tsp. baking soda per pint of water). Drain and rinse in cold running water, then dry.

Controlling snails Controlling snails involves keeping the following tips in mind: • Eliminate all hiding places where snails might take refuge during the day: under old boards, stones, debris, plastic tarps, stacked pots, weedy areas around tree trunks, dense ground covers and leafy, lowgrowing branches.

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snails: Pest, predator and food

• Daily monitoring of hard-to-control places, hand-picking and disposal are important tasks to perform until snail numbers are significantly decreased. Then inspect weekly. • Avoid overwatering. Irrigate early in the day so things dry out by evening. • Place 12-sq.-in. wood pieces, elevated an inch or so off the ground, in favorite hiding places to trap and collect snails. Check under the boards daily the first week, every other day during the second week, every three to four days the third week and weekly thereafter. • Snails are unable to cross copper, so place copper barriers (strips) around planter boxes, trunks or greenhouse bench legs. • Use predatory decollate snails as a natural biological control. • As for baits, remember they are toxic to decollate snails, pets and children. Using the above methods should reduce snail population enough so chemical control will not be necessary. There are several problems with using baits. In the scientific community, there is the question of whether a bait is more attractive to snails than their preferred food. • Caffeine is known to be a great snail killer. However, the bitter taste of caffeine keeps snails from eating lethal amounts in bait preparations. And don’t forget, there is one more method of controlling snails: eating them.

“Snails are unable to cross copper, so place copper barriers (strips) around planter boxes, trunks or greenhouse bench legs.” 108

Maximum Yield USA | January 2013


& Germination SEEDS

BY ED HARWOOD

seeds and germination 4.5

Starting to think about your spring/summer garden already? Well, germination is a great place to start trials that will maximize yields and optimize your plants’ overall performance…

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SEEDS AND GERMINATION With many experimental technologies (and a likely equal number of environments that are being used to grow crops), germination is a very important place to begin some trials to optimize yields. Also, noting that seeds are generally a significant cost, plant performance that does not waste growing space or seed is related to profits as well. If we keep records of our plantings, we often concern ourselves with the final product and ignore the impact of germination on optimizing yields per unit of time and cost for final product. Germination performance, often referred to as vigor, depends on the seed (source, quality and variety), seed treatment (dormancy and scarification), environment (moisture, temperature and light) and the need for stem elongation. Genetics has the largest impact on germination, so you might wish to trial several varieties of the same species. Seeds come from many places, including outside the United States. For instance, imported lettuce seeds come mostly from Australia and Chile, although they come from Holland and the United Kingdom as well. Typically, seeds are harvested and then marked for the season in which they are to be planted. Distance travelled is not likely to be a factor in quality unless the seeds became moist (begin germinating or rotting), too hot (possibly sterilizing them) or too cold (inducing dormancy). Most seeds can last for several seasons when stored in a dry (less than 6% moisture), dark location at the proper temperature (typically

noting

that seeds are generally a significant cost, plant performance that does not waste growing space or seed is related to profits as well.�

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SEEDS AND GERMINATION 41°F). Tropical plant seeds often vary considerably in their tolerance of desiccation. (Indeed, the text for seed germination is quite thick reflecting the many types and needs of seeds.) When buying in larger quantities (lb.), the label has the date when the germination percent was determined. The determination of this percent was done under laboratory conditions engineered to get high numbers. This is no guarantee of performance under your conditions. However, hydroponic results often exceed these percentages to the advantage of the grower. Seeds come with a variety of treatments, most often pesticides and pelleting. Pesticide-free seeds are generally available, but caution should be used to ensure a disease is not present on the seeds that will damage the more mature crop. If seeds are stored for some time at low moisture and sealed to remove oxygen, pests cannot survive. Pelleting is an aid to handling that might also provide nutrients.

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Germination performance, often referred to as vigor, depends on the seed, seed treatment, environment and the need for stem elongation.”


SEEDS AND GERMINATION

Before planting, be sure that there is not a requirement for a treatment to release the seed from dormancy.”

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Germination will reflect growing with proper conditions, so one must learn what is best for the variety being grown. Seed companies typically publish these results, but usually for soil conditions. By experimenting, you can derive the interpretation of these recommendations to performance with your own growing system. Before planting, be sure that there is not a requirement for a treatment to release the seed from dormancy (e.g. strawberries require some time in the freezer). Also, prepare your labeling scheme and a map of location so that the records of your trials will be accurate. Be sure to plant with very similar conditions to ensure a good comparison. The following are the conditions to consider: • Moisture – Be sure that the maintenance of moisture is similar via covers and regular replenishment, if applicable. Note that the contact a seed has with the growing medium will determine the moisture it receives. • Light – Be sure that the presence of light or dark is similar. Some seeds require a short burst of light or continuous light for best results. I use a set of squares moving from transparent to translucent to opaque (nested inside each other as covers for seed germination). • Duration - Experimentation with covering for different periods will give differing stem length that can ease harvesting. We typically remove covers just prior to, or at the presence of, cotyledons (first leaves). • pH – Seeds have a range they find acceptable and this should be similar for all being compared. • Density – Although little allelopathy (impact of natural herbicides produced by plants to enhance their competition with other plants) is of concern during the first few days to impact germination, your germination tests can also help determine optimal densities for future yields. In our experiments, there is an optimum where too many or too few hurt yields.


SEEDS AND GERMINATION

TABLE I

Seed weight and longevity for home garden vegetables Seeds per Ouncea

Relative Longevity under Cool, Dry Condition (Years)b/c

Asparagus

700

3

Bean, Lima

25 to 75

3

Bean, snap

110

3

Beets

1,600

4

Broccoli

9,000

5

Brussels sprouts

8,500

5

Crop

Cabbage Carrot Cauliflower

8,500

5

23,000

3

9000

5

Celariac

70,000

5

Celery

70,000

5

Chicory

26,000

5

Chinese cabbage

18,000

5

Cucumber

1,100

5

Eggplant

6,000

5

Endive

26,000

5

Kale

9,500

5

Kohlrabi

9,000

5

Leek

11,000

3

Lettuce

25,000

5

Muskmelon

1,200

5

350

5

New Zealand spinach Okra

500

2

Onion

9,000

1 to 2

Parsley

18,000

2

Parsnip

12,000

1 to 2

Pea

75 to 90

3

Pepper

4,500

4

Pumpkin

200

4

Radish

3000

5

Rutabaga

12,000

5

Salsify

1,900

2

Spinach

2,800

5

Squash

100 to 300

5

Sweetcorn

120 to 180

1 to 2

Swiss Chard

1,500

1 to 2

Tomato

11,000

4

Turnip

14,000

5

200 to 300

5

Watermelon

a Seeds, The Yearbook of Agriculture. 1961. Stefferud, A., Editor. The United States Government Printing Office. b Handbook for Vegetable Growers. 1960. Knott, Joe. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. c Vegetable Growing Handbook. 1979. Splittstoesser, W.E. AVI Publishing, Inc.

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SEEDS AND GERMINATION

TABLE II

Germination data for home garden vegetable seed Crop

Minimum Percent Germinationab

Germination Temperatureb Min. °F Opt. °F Max. °F

Days to Germinate Under Optimum Temperature and Moisture Conditionsc

Asparagus

60

50

75

95

10

Bean, Lima

70

60

85

85

6

Bean, snap

75

60

80

95

7

Beets

65

40

85

85

4

Broccoli

75

-

85

-

4

Brussels sprouts

70

-

80

-

4

Cabbage

75

40

80

100

4

Carrot

55

40

80

95

6

Cauliflower

75

40

80

100

5

Celariac

55

-

70

-

11

Celery

55

40

70

85

7

Chicory

65

-

80

-

6

Chinese cabbage

75

-

80

-

4

Cucumber

80

60

95

105

3

Eggplant

60

60

85

95

6

Endive

70

-

80

-

6

Kale

75

-

80

-

4

Kohlrabi

75

-

80

-

4

Leek

60

-

70

-

7

Lettuce

80

35

75

85

3

Muskmelon

75

60

90

100

4

New Zealand spinach

40

-

70

-

6

Okra

50

60

95

105

6

Onion

70

35

75

95

6

Parsley

60

40

75

90

13

Parsnip

60

35

65

85

14

Pea

80

40

75

85

6

Pepper

55

60

85

95

8

Pumpkin

75

60

95

100

4

Radish

75

40

85

95

4

Rutabaga

75

-

80

-

4

Salsify

75

-

70

-

6

Spinach

60

35

70

85

5

Squash

75

60

95

100

4

Sweetcorn

75

50

95

105

3

Swiss Chard

65

40

85

95

4

Tomato

75

50

85

95

6

Turnip

80

40

85

105

3

Watermelon

80

60

95

105

4

Minimum percent germination to federal standards Handbook for Vegetable Growers. 1960. Knott, J.E. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Seeds, The Yearbook of Agriculture. 1961. Stefferud, A., Editor. The United States Government Printing Office.

a

b c

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beginner's corner

WATER DISINFECTION by BY GUY SELA Sometimes water needs to be disinfected before being used on plants. Here, Guy Sela explains one method available to growers: the use of chorine. Many of the water sources used for irrigation require preliminary treatment before they can be considered safe to use. Water disinfection is one of the treatments that might be needed. Disinfection is important in order to prevent spread of diseases originating in the source water, and also to prevent bacteria and fungi growth in the irrigation system. THE IMPORTANCE OF IRRIGATION WATER DISINFECTION

Deciding whether to disinfect your irrigation water depends both on your water source and on the susceptibility of the crop to pathogens that can be spread by the water. Surface water might contain plant pathogens and infect plants with diseases. Bore-hole water might contain bacteria, such as iron bacteria, sulfur bacteria, etc. These bacteria can grow in irrigation lines and might cause severe clogging of irrigation systems and drip lines.

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Water recirculation and reuse are especially dangerous because it might cause rapid spread of plant diseases. Various methods are available for water disinfection, including chlorine, UV, slow sand filtration, ozone and heat. This article reviews chlorine disinfection, which is one of the most economic and the most effective methods. ADVANTAGES OF CHLORINE AS A DISINFECTANT

Efficiency Chlorine eliminates most micro-organisms, including most bacteria, viruses and fungi. Cost Both set-up and maintenance costs are relatively low compared to other water disinfection methods. Prolonged protection When chlorine disinfection is done correctly, residual free chlorine remains in water, protecting it

against regrowth of micro-organisms. Residual free chlorine also protects irrigation lines against clogging as a result of growth of slime and algae. Other methods leave water exposed to reinfection. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF WATER DISINFECTION BY CHLORINE

Combined chlorine versus free (residual) chlorine Chlorine binds to organic matter in water, resulting in compounds (combined chlorine) with very low disinfection efficiency. Free chlorine is the concentration of the residual chlorine in water, which has high disinfection efficiency. This is why free chlorine measurements are most frequently used in order to evaluate the efficiency of the disinfection.


Total chlorine is the sum of the combined chlorine and the residual chlorine. Measuring the total chlorine will not necessarily give a good indication of the disinfection efficiency. FACTORS AFFECTING DISINFECTION EFFICIENCY

water pH. The chart below shows that in pH above 6.7 the relative proportion of HOCl significantly decreases and, consequently, the efficiency of disinfection is markedly decreased. At pH of 7.4, only 50% of chlorine is in the form of HOCl.

Organic matter The organic matter load in the water affects chlorination efficiency. Higher organic matter levels consume more chlorine; therefore, in order to reach a particular residual chlorine concentration, addition of more chlorine is needed. However, preliminary water filtration, especially in water recirculation systems, might substantially decrease organic matter load. Thus, this would reduce the amount of chlorine needed for effective disinfection. Contact time and free chlorine concentration The duration of time allowed for contact and reaction between chlorine and the micro-organisms is extremely important. Free chlorine level, especially, must be related to the contact time. At longer contact times, lower concentrations of free chlorine can be used, and vice versa.

Temperature Disinfection is more effective in higher temperature, although too high a temperature actually reduces the efficiency of disinfection. As a rule of thumb, a decrease of 18 degrees Fahrenheit reduces efficiency of disinfection by 50 to 60%.

Water pH Free chlorine in water exists in three forms: Cl2 (dissolved gas), HOCl (Hypochlorous acid) and OCl- (hypochlorite). HOCl is 100 times more effective than OCl-. The relative proportions of these three forms are determined by the

Turbidity In turbid water, that contains many suspended particles, bacteria can hide inside and in between the particles, thus escaping contact with chlorine. Therefore, in many cases, it is necessary to filter the water prior to disinfection.

“Chlorine eliminates most micro-organisms, including most bacteria, viruses and fungi.” Maximum Yield USA | January 2013

125


Fungus among us the

by

grubbycup

What do molds, mildews, mushrooms, yeasts and mycorrhizae all have in common? Well, they are all forms of fungus, of course!

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The fungus among us Fungi large and small, enemies and allies, are a part of our everyday lives. They are particularly common in some gardens. In fact, overly humid or wet gardens have a greater tendency to have fungal problems. This is because fungi prefer low light and wet, undisturbed conditions. Many fungi reproduce by releasing spores, which are tiny groups of cells that float through the air in the hopes of landing in a hospitable area to form a new colony. Spores from common local fungi are often already present in gardens and are just awaiting proper conditions to begin growth. Continuous available moisture encourages spore growth, and humidity above 70% is ideal for fungal growth (although outbreaks can occur at lower levels). Air circulation can also have a strong influence on fugal growth, since poor air movement can create pockets of high-humidity air around plant material. Since fungi do not use chlorophyll, they have few light requirements (hence why they often prefer darker areas). Fungal outbreaks can start in as little as 24 hours of appropriate conditions.

“overly humid

or wet gardens have a greater tendency to have fungal problems.”

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The fungus among us

When it comes to fungi in the garden, prevention is easier than treatment. So, keeping humidity under control, removing decomposing plant material and the elimination of standing water are the best methods to avoid an initial outbreak. If a colony becomes established, it must be treated in most cases for the plant to survive. Correction of environmental issues, removal of colonized plant material, chemical fungicides and biological fungicides are all options for treatment. Here is a list of some of the more common fungi found in gardens (and some specific ways to avoid them):

On the more friendly fungal side, yeast is a fungus commonly used to make bread rise and create the alcohol in wine and beer. Edible mushrooms can be grown at home using logs inoculated with the proper mushroom spores (some mushrooms can be toxic, so make sure of the identity of any mushroom considered for consumption). Fungi also help out in the garden. They assist in plant decomposition and the conversion of waste plant material into compost by breaking down large and woody plant material into forms more accessible to further decomposition by bacteria. Mycorrhizal fungi have also formed symbiotic relationships with plants. Mycorrhizae are found naturally occurring in healthy “live” soil, where they eat the carbohydrates provided by the plants and, in return, assist the plant in drought resistance, blocking their environmental niche from pathogenic fungi and nutrient uptake. Of particular use is their ability to increase phosphorus uptake, which dramatically increases over non-infected plants. In the end, there are good fungi and there are some unpleasant ones. Like with everything else, make friends with the good and avoid the bad where you can.

keeping humidity under control, removing decomposing plant material and the elimination of standing water are the best methods to avoid an initial outbreak.”

• Stem rot is a fungus that can develop on, and kill off, overwatered seedlings. Once contracted, it is usually fatal, but can be avoided in the first place by proper watering. • Root rot is also caused by overwatering plants, but again can usually be avoided with proper watering and root aeration. • Gray mold attacks areas of poor air circulation and can usually be avoided with some combination of proper ventilation, trimming areas of dense growth and trying the plant open to allow for internal airflow. • Powdery mildew is another moist garden fungal menace, common to appear, but with several treatment options including milk and other homemade remedies. • Verticillium wilt is a destructive fungus that invades and grows inside infected plants, an almost always fatal and untreatable arrangement. • Dutch elm disease is another terminal fungal ailment. 130

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avant gardening

The Culture of the Perfect Plant

by Raquel Neofit

Check out some of the ins and outs that Raquel discovered on her journey into the scientific realm of tissue culturing… We’ve all heard the term “plant science” at some stage of our gardening adventures and tissue culture is truly the heart and soul of plant science. Tissue culturing strips a plant species of its internal workings and growth requirements. By the end, these plants have nothing to hide from scientific minds when it comes to the end game of propagating and multiplying.

What is tissue culture? Tissue culture is a scientific form of massharvest cloning from an extremely healthy plant called a motherplant. Once motherplants have reached high health levels, cuttings are taken from them and production begins. Tissue culture is based around totipotency, which—in its simplest form—means regenerating from a single cell to form a new plant. Plant tissue contains meristematic cells and it’s these cells that regenerate when they are anchored into an inert medium. Meristematic cells are the reason plant scientists can produce thousands of juvenile plantlets from a single original plant and why these new plants are all genetically the same. But why do plant scientists consider tissue culturing a more superior way to produce plants? Plant scientists believe clones produced by conventional methods, even under intense care, will not produce results as good as plants grown in tissue culture. This is due to the sterile conditions and the high health of the motherplants used in the tissue culture process. Motherplants possess no pathogens, no

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micro-organisms, no imperfections or abnormalities. This is accomplished by supplying the plants with optimum nutrition, hormones, light and temperature; treating them with a range of antibiotics; and constantly pruning them to encourage the absolute maximum foliage. (You’ll notice in the world of tissue culture the emphasis is on optimum— great or ideal won’t make the cut.)

How tissue culture plantlets are developed Once a new variety of motherplant is requested by a breeder, research is undertaken by laboratory staff to discover the plant’s specific nutrient and hormone requirements. Since every plant is different, each variety is generally tested and retested many times. The mother stock is treated with antibiotics to ensure it’s clean and free of diseases that can cause health problems or stunt growth. Once the motherplant is free from endogenous and endophytic bacteria, it is ready to be multiplied to build up the volume of mother stock. Then, once the mother has reached the initiation stage, mass production can begin. At this stage the new plants have come from, and are stored in, an artificial environment. There is no air porosity in the agar they’re kept in, so the plantlets are not functioning plants yet. While the roots look like real roots, they are only acting as an anchor at this stage—they aren’t fully functional. The leaves also don’t have their waxy cuticles. In other words, the plants aren’t ready to function in the real world as a live plant yet. This won’t happen until they are planted in a medium. Once the plants are anchored in a medium, their meristematic tissues activate and produce new root, leaf and stem growth.


The mother stock is treated with antibiotics to ensure it is clean and free of diseases that can cause health problems or stunt growth.

Tissue culture plantlets need to acclimatize slowly to grow and develop their functioning root mass, and most breeders will use a dry mist or fog while these plants grow into a living plant. Breeders call this the “hardening off” stage. If you care for you plantlets carefully at this stage, tissue culture plants might grow more vigorously than plants grown from seed or traditional cuttings.

Why use tissue culture?

The plants are uniform in appearance and possess the same characteristics. As such, they grow at the rate and thus mature at the same time and require the same nutrients and water. Also, large quantities of plants can be reproduced easily from an established mother.

Deflasking and planting Tissue cultures come anchored in a gel-like substance—along the lines of agar—that contains all the nutrients and hormones your perfect little cultures need to survive in their protected, sterile container. It is imperative that these containers are stored correctly (in a single layer with adequate light sources) and it is essential that you follow a strict and careful protocol when handling and planting them out. The later process is generally called the deflasking protocol. Here are some of the basic rules you need to follow: • Plants should be deflasked within the time specified by the breeder; any longer and you risk killing the plantlet. • Only plant out one container at a time to avoid the culture drying out. In really hot conditions, spray the cultures to stop them from overheating. • Make sure your medium has a low EC reading. • Only use sterile planting implements and sterilize implements between containers in case there are fungal spores or bacteria present in the media. • When planting, remove the culture from the container and shake off excess agar before dipping the plant in a planting solution. Then make a hole in the medium and gently place the culture into it. The plant’s base should be level with the top of the medium when you gently close the planting hole. • Move the tray into a fog house and, if the supplier has recommended a foliar spray, start this right away. • As soon as new roots form, you can start to harden off (acclimatize) these plants and move them out of heavy fog.

Here are some other hints for planting out your tissue cultures: If you do leave some of the agar behind, remember that hormones and nutrients contain high sugar levels, so it’s important to use a biological fungal control that contains Trichoderma when planting. Your breeder will give you the best nutrient recipe to use as an initial feed. Plantlets must be kept at appropriate humidity with a certain amount of fog to prevent drying out, so you need to keep an eye on them.

What tissue culture breeders want you to know •

• •

Think ahead: Tissue cultures are not mass produced and stored in a laboratory or a nursery waiting for buyers to order them. They are produced only when they are ordered. Allow time: Producing a new tissue culture variety takes time and planning—even more time than producing from seeds. Understand: Tissue culture is more expensive because it takes a lot of work to produce tissue culture stock. The manpower, hours, nutrients, research and development, and running the lab and glasshouses all increase the cost. Communicate: If you’re not sure about something, ask! For example, if you are having problems with deflasking, call the breeders; they do this job every day and are happy to share their knowledge and expertise.

Tips from the lab Here are the top five biggest mistakes made by tissue culture beginners: • Treating one genus the same as the next. Not all tissue culture plants are the same. Cordylines are completely different from grevilleas, for example. Even the deflasking process is different. • Treating tissue cultures like regular cuttings. Don’t leave them exposed to the atmosphere or in adverse conditions for any length of time without protection. • Spraying the plants with chemicals. Juvenile plants cannot handle strong sprays, particularly oil-based sprays. • Putting tissue cultures in conditions that are not appropriate for them in the deflasking house. • Not properly weaning the plants out of their protected condition; that is, either reducing the humidity too quickly—which can dehydrate the plant and burn it—or too slowly—which can cause the plants to become waterlogged and susceptible to attack by fungal growth. Maximum Yield USA | January 2013

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Green thumb gardening

In du ct i on lig h ting

:

BY MARK W. BOUTWELL

WHAT IT IS HOW IT WORKS

&

In the 1890s, Nikola Tesla invented the induction light. After being nearly forgotten for 100 years, this technology (also called the electrodeless lamp) is starting to shed its light on the hydroponics world… Induction lighting uses an electronic ballast to create a high frequency that generates a small amount of energy. It then sends that energy around in oval shape tube where it slowly reacts with mercury in the tube to create a dangerous ultraviolet light. Since ultraviolet light is part of the spectrum of light we don’t want, an inventor by the name of Nikola Tesla used a phosphorus compound to change the spectrum of light generated by the initial reaction with the mercury in the tube. That was over 100 years ago; now, thanks to our advancements in technology, we have become better at fine tuning the levels and quality of phosphorus that alter the ultraviolet light into the spectrum that plants ideally to grow under. 136

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Light

generated by induction bulbs is maximized by their unique shape.”


Light generated by induction bulbs is maximized by their unique shape. They do not emit light from one central point; rather, they generate light throughout the tube, making every surface a light source. This is because the energy reacts with the mercury throughout the entire tube and the entire inner surface of the tube is lined with phosphorus; so, wherever the mercury reactions take place, usable light can be emitted.

A LITTLE HISTORY

Let’s take a second to think about how Nikola Tesla and Thomas Edison both solved the same problem. One man uses an enclosed system with raw materials in harmony to create a reaction that organically wants to happen when started with a light amount of outside influence (that was Tesla, by the way). The other man shoves a large amount of constant energy through a single central point to create the same reaction.

Fluorescent

lighting technology last longer than other lighting sources because there is less moving parts that can break.”

A FEW OF THE BENEFITS OF INDUCTION LIGHTING Fluorescent lighting technology last longer than other lighting sources because there is less moving parts that can break—there are no soldering, tubes or fragile wires, and no worry about oil on your hands. However, the reason why fluorescent bulbs go bad in general is because of the long term consequences of rapidly turning on and off the bulb. When Telsa built his technology, he probably was thinking about quality. So, induction lighting turns on very slowly. This is why it lasts for over a 100,000 hours of burn time. Here are a few other benefits of induction lighting: • Highest lumen per watt technology • Uses 50 to 70% less energy other bulbs • Produces five times less heat than other bulbs • Uses 80+% less mercury than other bulbs Maximum Yield USA | January 2013

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Great

Making A

Good

Garden

Good Garden Great 3 by Matt LeBannister

For many growers, their gardening However, as Matt LeBannister practices falls under the old adage points out, change can help of “if it ain’t broke, don’t fix it.” make a good garden great… 138

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making a good garden great

Gardening is one of the most rewarding hobbies anyone can have. There is such a sweet satisfaction gained when all our painstakingly hard work pays off, whether it is delicious summer fruit or vegetables, some crisp winter greens or some beautiful homegrown flowers to brighten our days. It is also easy to get stuck in our ways when we get this first bountiful harvest. There is a certain fear that if we change anything in our regimen, nutrients or equipment, things might get worse rather than better. However, there is always room for improvement in the growroom; we just have to be confident in the decisions we make. Here are a few foolproof methods and products that are almost certain to increase yields, improve plant health and enhance flavors and aromas.

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“there is always room for improvement in the growroom; we just have to be confident in the decisions we make.”


making a good garden great

EC and pH

“Reservoirs should be emptied and the solution replaced every five to seven days, regardless of EC or pH levels.”

One of the simplest, easiest ways to improve plant health is to start monitoring pH and EC levels more frequently and with extremely accurate pH and EC pens or continuous monitors. With hydroponic systems, checking the pH levels everyday can make a huge difference. If pH levels fluctuate out of the ideal range (5.8 to 6.3), plants lockout nutrients and deficiencies can occur. If the pH level is too low, add more acid until corrected, and if it is too high (which is rarely the case), adding more water to your reservoir to balance the pH level. The same can be done with EC levels. EC levels that are too high can burn plants, so we need to add more water. If EC levels are too low, we can add more nutrients to get the EC level back where we need them to be. Reservoirs should be emptied and the solution replaced every five to seven days, regardless of EC or pH levels. EC requirements vary between plants and stage of plant development. If you are gardening in a potting soil or soilless mix, then you are already checking the pH of the nutrient solution before watering. To get a really accurate reading, measure the pH level of the runoff water. If there is a large difference between the readings, you will need to adjust the pH or add some dolomite lime to balance the pH.

CO2 enrichment

CO2 enrichment is another method that is guaranteed to increase your yield. All plants need CO2 for photosynthesis, the process in which plants convert light, CO2 and water into food and oxygen. Air averages 200 to 300 ppm if CO2. If we can increase the levels to somewhere around to 1,200 to 1,500 ppm, you can increase yields dramatically, quicken crop turnarounds and improve your plants’ resistance to heat and pests. There are many ways to add CO2 to your growroom: CO2 generators, CO2 emitters, fermentation, as well as many products available in store.

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HID bulbs

Making sure you have the right spectrum bulb for the stage of plant development is crucial. Using a Cool Blue 6,500-K bulb during the vegetative stage will keep plants healthy and squat. Using a Warm Red 2,500-K bulb during the flowering stage of plant growth, on the other hand, will lead to bigger, denser and higherquality flowers. Switching from a neutral, all-stage bulb to one of these stage-specific bulbs can greatly improve your yield. Replacing HID bulbs frequently can also enhance your plants’ health and increase yields. Lumen levels gradually drop off as the bulbs age. A bulb that has been used everyday for a year could put off half as much light as the same bulb when brand new.

Products

There are many products that, when used correctly, will certainly increase yields and enhance flavors and aromas. Fulvic acid and humic acid are chelating nutrient supplements that latch on the other nutrients and make them more absorbable. The foliar application of fulvic acid during the flowering phase will increase the number of flower sites. The application of beneficial bacteria and fungi can also improve the plants ability to absorb nutrients, increasing yields safely. This is especially so when gardening with organic nutrients. Most organic nutrients, especially the types that haven’t been pre-digested, require root-borne beneficial bacteria and fungi to break them down to a more easily absorbable form. There are many ways that we can always improve our plants’ health and our overall yield. It can be unnerving to try something new at the risk of hurting the plants we have worked so hard grow, but we can’t stop working towards better results. Being informed and testing new products on only a few plants is the safest way to ensure the best possible results.

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FROM

GUNS TO

Greenhouses BY PHILIP MCINTOSH

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from guns to greenhouses

We have

Kevin Lanzi sits quietly next to a 6-ft. tall tomato plant heavily laden with clusters of ripening fruit. He takes his time, checking the plant for signs of stress or disease. It looks good. Soon these tomatoes will be on their way to a Whole Foods Market somewhere in Colorado, not too far away. The only sound is the unobtrusive hum of the fans that keep air moving through the greenhouse. It’s a far cry from the oil fields of Iraq where the smoke, noise and chaos of battle were an almost every day experience for the young ex-marine, who did two tours of duty, ending in 2004. After serving his country, Kevin returned home with shattered knees and a severe case of post-traumatic stress disorder. Still not fully recovered from the experience of war, he continues to receive counseling at nearby Veterans Administration hospital. “It’s real peaceful in the greenhouse,” he says with a smile. In Colorado, the Veterans to Farmers (VTF) project (veteranstofarmers.org)—a newly formed nonprofit, founded by ex-marine and local food advocate Buck Adams—aims to transform veterans (like Kevin and others returning from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan) into farmers and entrepreneurs skilled in the art and science of controlled environment agriculture. The city of Denver is receptive to the idea. At a recent VTF fundraiser, Denver mayor Michael B. Hancock said, “We have the power to secure locally grown food and give veterans the skills and training to really achieve it. We are growing a sustainable fresh food economy.” Like everything else, it comes down to money and Buck is seeking ways to fund more training for the many veterans who have expressed interest in the program. For its part, the city is pitching in on the Denver Seeds Initiative to build a greenhouse on an available lot in the heart of the city. The greenhouse will provide fresh produce for local residents and serve as a training facility for veterans who join the program.

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the power to secure locally grown food and give veterans the skills and training to really achieve it. We are growing a sustainable fresh food economy agriculture.”


from guns to greenhouses

For now, VTF works with two or three vets at a time to provide on-the-job training in the hydroponic production of food crops like as tomatoes, cucumbers, and lettuce at Circle Fresh Farms, a company formed by Buck and his business partner, John Nicholas. They have built and staffed a growing number of greenhouses in Colorado from Pueblo to Longmont, all of which are part of the Front-Range Food Shed Alliance. Circle Fresh is one of the few hydroponic food producers in the United States to have obtained organic certification. Once they complete their training, veterans will be skilled in the organic production methods pioneered by Circle Fresh. Veterans to Farmers and Circle Fresh are not just giving ex-warriors the education and skills needed to be indoor farm laborers. Trainees are mentored by master growers, who teach the methods and technology of indoor growing (including nutrient formulation, fluid delivery systems, integrated pest management, plant biology and basic and advanced agricultural practices). An extended apprenticeship program includes a business and finance component, as well as the education needed to prepare the participants for all aspects of greenhouse management. Upon completion of the program, veterans are qualified controlled-environment agriculture professionals. Adam Cutlett is a former aircraft maintenance technician who planned to make a career in the air force. His plans were cut short when he was seriously injured on the job. After discharge, he tried graphic design, worked for the census bureau for a while and did a few other odd jobs, but he had always been interested in farming. “Food, water and shelter,” he explains, “it doesn’t get more basic than that.” After searching for opportunities to farm in a number of states, he heard about

Food,

water and shelter,” he explains, “it doesn’t get more basic than that.”

Kevin Lansi inspecting crops.

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from guns to greenhouses

Veterans to Farmers and contacted Buck by email. Although VTF couldn’t offer any guarantees at the time since the program was just getting under way, Buck invited Adam to come to Colorado to work in a greenhouse. Adam ended up camping out in his pickup truck for three weeks next to the Nicholas Farms greenhouse outside of Pueblo while he worked and situated himself in Colorado. Since then, the program has been refined with the assistance of the staff of the Controlled Environment Agriculture Center at the University of Arizona. Now, with his initial training complete and with a solid practical experience base to build on, Adam is ready for bigger things. With the financial assistance of an investor, he is now manager of a new 7,000-sq.-ft. production greenhouse with plans to add an additional 20,000 sq. ft. Business is good and there seems to be no limit to how much organic produce the local markets can handle. With over a million vets unemployed and more to come home soon as the war in Afghanistan winds down, VTF is one of a number of efforts that has sprung up in recent years to help war fighters return to a productive peacetime role. Another organization, the Farmer-Vet-

eran Coalition (farmvetco.org)—a collaborative effort to place veterans in farming—operates out of Davis, California. Buck estimates that at least 400 veterans could be placed in programs like these and eventually become agricultural entrepreneurs in the local food movement over the next few years. That number could easily increase into the thousands around the nation with the support of local communities (like in Denver), and as the market for locally grown organic produce expands. The transition from combat to civilian life can be tough for many vets. It’s especially difficult for those who return disabled and unable to perform many of the few jobs that are available. Buck, who knows what it’s like, is confident he can help. He likes to say he is “training our protectors to become providers.” Perhaps Isaiah was more right than he ever could have imagined when he said, “…and they shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning hooks: nation shall not lift up a sword against nation, neither shall they learn war anymore.”

Buck

estimates that at least 400 veterans could be placed in programs like these and eventually become agricultural entrepreneurs in the local food movement over the next few years.” 150

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growing for health

Amino Acids Explained Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and without these tiny organic compounds, life as we know it could not exist. Here’s how it all works… A plant’s metabolism is a combination of complex physical and chemical events, including photosynthesis, respiration and the degradation and synthesis of organic compounds. Photosynthesis is the driving force that produces the substrates for respiration and the organic compounds used as the foundation for the biosynthesis of nucleic acids, amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and organic acids. When a plant is provided with optimal environmental and nutritional conditions, it produces its own amino acids, which serve as the building blocks of all proteins. Amino acids are organic compounds with an amino (-NH2) and a carboxylic acid group (-COOH), and they are required for plant functions throughout the plant’s entire life cycle. Amino acids are used for the synthesis of cellular molecules including chlorophyll, enzymes, proteins and vitamins. In other words, amino acids are required for virtually every plant function and life on earth would not exist without them. Amino acids play a vital role at the beginning of a plant’s life. During the germination process,

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an embryo will consume amino acids derived from proteins stored in the endosperm. Amino acids affect the plant’s metabolism in many ways. Amino acids are directly linked to vital plant functions, including the synthesis of structural proteins, contributing to the formation of phytohormones (auxins, ethylene, polyamines, etc.) and the regulation of water balance (particularly in times of stress). Amino acids can also act as chelators of the essential nutrients required for normal plant development. So, if plants produce their own amino acids, why do horticulturists supplement additional amino acids? Plants grown in perfect conditions will create enough amino acids on their own to function properly; however, most plants are not grown in perfect conditions. When a plant is grown in less than desirable conditions, the amount of amino acids created can be hindered, which will result in slowed growth and reduced yields. In extreme cases, plants can actually break down structural proteins in order to obtain the essential amino acids. This activity requires a lot of energy


that would otherwise be used to promote more growth or root stimulation. All this causes less than desirable results for the grower. By supplementing an amino acid formula, the grower can ensure their plants are receiving an adequate amount of amino acids—to which the benefits are multifaceted. Even in a room with a consistent environment and steady plant growth there are benefits to supplementing amino acids. The main advantage is heightened efficiency in terms of plant energy. The fewer amino acids a plant has to produce, the more energy it can redirect into growth. There is also an increase in the speed of growth because the supplemented amino acids are readily available. This allows the plant’s metabolism to continually function at high speed (there’s no having to wait for the plant to synthesis its own amino acids). Additional amino acids also give extra protection against pathogens because a plant’s immune system’s functions are reliant on amino acids. With readily available amino acids, the plant’s immune system can work full tilt continuously.

Types of amino acids

There are two types of amino acids: D-form and L-form. The D-form amino acids are larger molecules that cannot be used by plants. This is why any amino acid formula designed for horticultural use should be comprised mostly, if not entirely, of L-form amino acids. L-form amino acids, in the free form or in formation with small peptides, can be absorbed and used by plants. One process used by fertilizer companies to extract amino acids is the use of strongly acidic or alkaline solutions to extract the amino acids. Another method used to extract amino acids is an enzymatic hydrolysis extraction process. Whether you’re a novice or professional grower, the benefits of amino acid supplementation can be reaped by all. Some growers use them to optimize their already bountiful gardens, while others utilize them as a safeguard to stress and pathogens. Either way, as we learn more about the microscopic world and how it directly influences our garden’s performance, amino acid supplementation’s role will be significant in the future of organic nutrient composition and plant nutrition.

Maximum Yield USA | January 2013

153


MIXING YOUR

GROW MEDIUMS by Chad Garbet

No one wants to grow their plants in poor soil. However, even if you have the best soil, you can always add certain things—or mix together mediums—to help your plants grow. 154

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Every one strives to get the best soil to grow the best plants, but there is always a way to make it even better. Making the soil a better medium is called soil conditioning or soil amendment. These conditioners add things to make plant growth better. Some conditioners include lime, peat, diatomaceous earth, clay, vermiculite, hydrogel and shredded bark, which all increase the water retention. Conditioners that add to the soil’s nutrients include manure and composts. I make a special mix of soil, and it works wonders for my soil plants. The soil I use is a usually a type of pro mix after I add all my fertilizers like black worm castings, kelp, seaweed and some powdered minerals. This is to make sure the soil has a good nutrient value for plants. Also, the organic fertilizers will take a while to breakdown, so the plant will be fed slowly over a period of time. The water retention is the next step, and rocks are an easy fix for that. I prefer to use diatomaceous earth, a porous, silica-rich stone that retains water and helps drain it too. My mix also contains another water retention aid: coco coir. Coco coir has great drainage and keeps perfect water retention, as well as helps hold in precious nutrient values while keeping the soil aerated. All in all, the ratio I use to about 50% soil and fertilizer mix, 25% diatomaceous earth and 25% coco coir.

Making the soil a better medium is called soil conditioning or soil amendment.”

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155


mixing your grow mediums

I have never seen soil-based tomato plants grow so fast and lush as they do in this mix, and I have used a lot of different soil throughout my gardening lifetime. Growing a soil garden in the summer is always a great escape from everyday life. Build a small getaway and let your plants flourish in the soil mix and you will have a lush jungle or some vigorous veggies in no time. Just remember that the nutrients in the soil does deplete, so try to stay on top of fertilizing the soil and to turn the soil over after your garden is done for the winter and again in early spring. This will keep the soil aerated and help distribute the nutrients evenly throughout the soil mix.

Hydroponics

also has a pretty big list of grow mediums, including diatomaceous earth, coco coir, coco polymer, rock wool, clay pebble and perlite” Hydroponics also has a pretty big list of grow mediums, including diatomaceous earth, coco coir, coco polymer, rock wool, clay pebble and perlite. These mediums are all usually used alone; however, strange combinations are always fun to try (it’s important to have fun while you garden). That being said, knowing about growing mediums before doing so is always a good idea—you can’t be too sure before putting seedlings into a medium. The hydroponic grow medium that I prefer is a form of diatomaceous earth. Its high silicate content is a major benefit to plant cellular structure, and it has very good water retention. It’s also a natural pesticide that causes pests to dehydrate. My second choice is coco polymer. While it’s usually a bit unstable and plants can have a habit of falling right over, polymer holds perfect moisture retention—not too wet and not too dry—that is perfect for plant growth. If you try mixing the polymer with the diatomaceous earth, you will find it doesn’t mix very well (all the rocks will fall to the bottom and the polymer

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will come out on top). There is a solution to this, however; using equal amounts of each medium, first put down a layer of polymer, then a layer of diatomaceous earth, followed by more polymer and finally finishing with more diatomaceous earth on the top. This builds shelves for the roots to expand into the coco polymer, resulting in huge healthy root masses. All growing mediums have benefits and their downfalls. This is why some gardeners like to mix things up (some people have even tried soil and hydroponics). There is no limit to the combinations. Taking the time to make the best grow mediums always pays off in the end; experimenting with grow mediums can help expand one’s garden knowledge and lead to the greatest garden ever grown. It’s also fun to try new things, even though they sound a bit out to lunch. Try something bold and make your own mix, and enter the world of the new and strange; you might find you quite like it.

All growing mediums have benefits and their downfalls. This is why some gardeners like to mix things up ”

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157


Mastering the Art of Hydroponics (STEM) by Ryan M. Taylor

S T E M

science

technology

engineering

mathematics

NEW YEAR, NEW Beginnings, NEW Systems by Ryan M. Taylor

The New Year symbolizes a chance for new beginnings, a chance to make resolutions and alter patterns of behavior and thinking. In resolving to push his hydroponic creativity to the maximum this year, Ryan M. Taylor shares with you a unique growing system design that combines aeroponics with flood-and-drain technology. Every year people all over the world use the New Year holiday to mark a turning point in their lives, a time in which they attempt to discard old, bad habits and replace them with good ones. For this upcoming year, I’ve decide to focus my energy on reconciling two opposite qualities that bias my mind: habits and novelty. In other words, my goal is to overcome complacent thinking patterns—A.K.A. using tried and true hydroponic methods—and inject a

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serious dose of creativity into the manufacture of my growing systems and growing techniques. For this first STEM column of the New Year, we look at how basic principles can be used to creatively design hybrid hydroponic systems.


For my initial experiment of the year, I have chosen to blend technology of my two favorite irrigation approaches: aeroponics and flood-and-drain. Even if the final product is a flop incapable of growing exceptional plants, it will still be a fun learning experience. While each irrigation method has a number of relative strengths and weaknesses, the goal for this (and any other hybrid system) is to accentuate a few of the former while limiting a few of the latter. In other words, we could spend a lifetime trying to design the ultimate system that maximizes all the advantages and simultaneously minimizing all the disadvantages, but progress and personal satisfaction is achieved much sooner by focusing on only a small set of each. This particular project is really informal, as my main goal is to simply mix the technologies; in particular, I want to combine an aeroponic spray manifold system with a flood-and-drain reservoir. After writing up a cursory sketch of the design and gathering the materials, it is time to start building. Square black buckets are used as growing vessels, containing the roots, aeroponic manifolds and drain fittings. These buckets rest on top of a lid, which covers a 25-gal. reservoir. Inside the reservoir, a submersible pump is linked to the four square buckets via piping that connects to the four aeroponics manifolds. In sum, when the system is turned on, the pump pushes nutrient solution through the piping and onto the roots via the aeroponics manifolds; the solution then drains back into the reservoir, thus closing the loop of its journey. Ok, so how does this system perform? One nice benefit of this design is that, with the proper pump size, we can run our irrigation

system continuously without heating up the nutrient solution too much. This continuous flow and constant aeration via misting and falling back allows us to omit the use of other aeration technology. Perhaps the greatest benefit is that by manipulating the size of the drain fittings in conjunction with the pump strength, we can create a depth of solution in the square buckets, thus integrating elements of deep-waterculture into the system. This building project was fun and sparked a whole slew of ideas I’m interested in trying over the rest of the year. I hope it inspired you to be creative too!

Maximum Yield USA | January 2013

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Tips TIPs and Tricks

Year-round

Blueberry Production

By Mike Nichols

There is an increasing demand by supermarkets (and consumers) to have the same produce available on a year-round basis, but fresh, locally produced blueberry fruit tends to be seasonal. Well, that is without a little help…

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Blueberries’ popularity is not only cosmetic, but also because the berries contain higher antioxidant levels than just about every other fruit (primarily due to the blue anthocyanin pigment in the skin). So, there is an increasing demand to have blueberries available year-round. It is, of course, possible to produce ripe blueberry fruit somewhere in the world on any day of the year. Blueberries will grow out of season in a range of climates, and in Mexico, it is possible to produce them for a considerable part of the year, simply by selecting the appropriate altitude. I saw in a single day fruit ready to harvest and some several weeks from maturity, simply because they were grown at different altitudes. However, freight costs and damage during transport makes this a demanding activity. And while blueberry fruit probably transport best of all the berry fruit, nevertheless proximity to market is still desirable. A further potential constraint to importation is that of plant quarantine, as many plant viruses can be transmitted by the fresh fruit (I say potential as, although there are frequently stringent quarantine regulations for live plants, these do not appear to be seriously considered at this time for the movement of fruits between different countries). Theoretically, one can divide blueberries into several different types, (depending on the quantity of chilling units they require), but from a point of view of out-of-season production, the low-chill types are likely to be the most desirable. Other key factors to consider also must be quality, the size of the calyx (at the end of the fruit) and the amount—if any—of damage to the fruit when harvesting. So, in order to produce large amounts of quality berry fruit locally over a long season, it is essential to use protected cultivation and to incorporate hydroponic systems. A sound knowledge on crop agronomy is a further essential factor.

In my studies at Massey University, I grew a range of different blueberries (with different chilling requirements) in a greenhouse in coir (coco peat) modules, using liner plants and drip fertigation. In fact, we used 12 different cultivars with distinct chilling requirements. Planting occurred in a greenhouse in mid-December, and the plants were 23.62in. tall by the end of the summer—thanks to the magic of growing in protected cultivation using coir modules and adequate water and nutrition. Monthly from March 1st, plants were placed in a cool store at 44.6°F for two, four and six weeks so that they experienced varying degrees of chilling, and also different day lengths up to the start of chilling. A set of plants was also retained in the greenhouse without any chilling treatments. No difference in flowering was noted between any of the treatments, although the early varieties flowered first. All the plants produced flowers, which were pollinated by bumble bees. However, the harvest was poor due to the cunning of the local birds, who would sit on the automatic ventilators until they opened in the morning, when they would then have breakfast! The following year we had some problems because the water pH at Massey is over 7.0, and we experienced some iron deficiency problems; nevertheless, there was little doubt that blueberries could be successfully grown out of season (possibly even to produce fruit year-round) and that it might be possible to obtain two crops per year by using early-maturing types. Clearly if there is a serious interest in the availability of fresh blueberries year-round, and quarantine measures preclude importation, then a small research program should be able to determine the way ahead. The key points appear to be the use of containers filled with a well-drained growing medium, an efficient watering and nutrition program, and (of course) the appropriate selection of varieties.

Maximum Yield USA | January 2013

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Hows it's made

harpin proteins BY TODD BRADY

TODD BRADY

Plants have come under the attack of plant pathogens for thousands of years. Over time, plants developed receptors on their seeds, roots and foliage to detect the presence of harpin proteins, a protein present in plant pathogens. Upon the detection of harpin proteins, an early warning system is triggered, sending a signal throughout the plant to activate certain defensive and growth responses in order to fight off the attacking pathogen. These vigorous responses have helped plants survive the stresses and other threats of disease. It has been proven that when harpin proteins are applied to a plant, the resulting plant develops increased health, growth and yield. Axiom Harpin Proteins are the latest, and only retail-available, harpin protein technology in the United States. 162

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discovery

Harpin proteins were discovered in 1992 at Cornell University by a team—led by Dr. Zhongmin Wei—attempting to understand how plant pathogenic bacteria interacted with plants. When a plant pathogen is introduced to a plant, the first line of defense is the hypersensitive response (HR) within the plant. The scientists at Cornell University aimed to identify a specific bacterial protein responsible for triggering the HR. It was discovered that the eliciting protein was encoded by one of a group of bacterial genes called the hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (hrp) gene cluster. The hrp cluster in the bacterium Erwinia amylovora (Ea), which causes fire blight in pears and apples, was dissected and a single protein that elicited HR in certain plants was identified. In addition to the HR, this protein was also responsible for triggering systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and surprisingly, increased plant growth. Based on this discovery, the protein was given the name harpin (from the corresponding gene, designated hrpN) and was the first example of its species.


commercialization

Harpin proteins are commercialized through a precise scientific process of extracting the harpin proteins from a natural plant pathogen and multiplying this protein through highly controlled sugar- and water-based fermentation. At the conclusion of the commercialization process, the end result is concentrated, purified harpin proteins with zero pathogens present. The purified harpin proteins are then mixed with a starch-based formula to provided added consistency and volume.

“harpin proteins are a powerful ingredient; it only requires a very small amount to generate the strong plant health and plant growth effects. ”

axiom makeup

Axiom contains 1% harpin protein (alpha-beta generation) and 99% other ingredients. Harpin proteins are a powerful ingredient; it only requires a very small amount to generate the strong plant health and plant growth effects. (If Axiom contained only harpin proteins, 0.00071 oz. (0.02 g) of formula would be enough for 1,000 sq. ft. of coverage!) The 99% other ingredients are inert, food-grade, non-toxic ingredients. This formulation allows Axiom to be applied to all crops.

quality control process

Prior to any sale of Axiom Harpin Proteins, a multi-step, industry-leading quality control process is conducted to ensure product quality and consistency. This includes independent lab run tests to verify harpin protein species, particle size and moisture levels are consistent with the specifications. Once the product quality and consistency is lab tested, each batch of harpin protein are then tested and trialed on live plants to ensure disease reduction and growth activation characteristics are present. Axiom can guarantee growers are receiving active ingredients that have been proven to increase plant health and plant growth. Lastly, Axiom Harpin Proteins are packaged in a clean, environmental protection agency (EPA) certified facility.

environmental protection agency Harpin proteins are produced in nature and are commercialized in an environmentally friendly process; therefore, they have been approved by the EPA.

axiom package sizes

Axiom Harpin Proteins are packaged in several different sizes: 1. 3 x 2-g (0.071-oz.) packets in a carton. Each packet mixes with 1 gal. of water and can be foliar applied to roughly 1,000 sq. ft. 2. 2-oz. individual packet. Each 2-oz. packet mixes with 50 gal. of water and can be foliar applied to 1 acre. Harpin proteins are present each and every day in nature. Axiom, the latest retail-available product containing harpin proteins, conducts an acute scientific process to ensure the end product is consistent and remains biologically based. Axiom Harpin Proteins undergo a strict quality control and packaging process to assure end-users are receiving a quality product with proven results! Harpin protein technology is covered by over 100 domestic and international patents.

Maximum Yield USA | January 2013

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talking shop

Since B. Lenhard opened Advanced Hydro-Ponics in 2007, he has always had a trusted manager to run day-to-day business. So, for this Talking Shop, he’s asked Kevin Hirsch—the store’s new manager—to take the mic and tell the story… AT A GLANCE Company: Advanced Hydro-Ponics Owner: B. Lenhard Manager: Kevin Hirsch Locations: 10737 Mockingbird Dr., Omaha, Nebraska Phone: 1-402-991-6630 Email:

advancedomaha@gmail.com

Motto:

“Harvest year-round”

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Although the shop moved once because it outgrew its original location, Advanced Hydro-Ponics has always been a small shop by choice. Small means more personal service, and when you’re striving to bring the most advanced gardening techniques to a very traditional gardening region, personal attention helps make an impression and gets the proverbial ball rolling. The larger stores have too many employees (and too many voices), which means that there is often no direct plan for a client’s new garden, explains Kevin Hirsch, the shop’s manager. Instead, the staff at Advanced Hydro-Ponics enjoys being able to sit down with a customer, plan their garden with them and coach them step-by-step—and even doing the occasional house call to play plant doctor. So far, it’s been a successful approach. There are only two people who work for Advanced Hydro-Ponics (Kevin and owner B. Lenhard), and there is only need for one person to physically be in the store. It took a few tries to get it right, says Lenhard, but since Kevin’s start, Advanced


Hydro-Ponics’ business has tripled and they are seeing new referrals on nearly a daily basis. Yes, people are slowly coming over to the hydroponics side; in fact, Kevin recalls his favorite day at work as the day he converted a 78-year-old retiree from soil to hydroponic gardening (a conversion that resulted in one of the most beautiful gardens he has ever seen). “We will never stop attempting to bring a healthier lifestyle to a very unhealthy city,” says Kevin. Since respectively starting work at the shop, Kevin and Lenhard have lost a cumulative 160 lb. They both live a much more active and healthy lifestyle, and they hope to help as many of our customers to achieve the same results. To do this, they’ve learned the importance of a good rapport with clients, saying that if a customer trusts you enough to try one of your tips that work for them, you will typically wind up with a customer for life. Another lesson the team at Advanced Hydro-Ponics learned was that the business aspect of gardening is the total opposite of the actual gardening. The old

adage “nothing good ever happens quickly in the garden” does not hold true on the business end, says Kevin. When word gets out, things go quickly. It’s why the shop has spent virtually nothing on advertising; instead, it relies almost solely on word of mouth. And it works. Advanced Hydro-Ponics has a large survivalist following, as well as a client-base made of those trying to live a completely selfsustaining lifestyle. “When people see the amazing displays, knowledgeable advice and healthy vegetable gardens through the store, they tend to spread the word,” Kevin explains happily. “This simple philosophy has given us five years of continuous growth.” Most recently, Advanced Hydro-Ponics has been making a huge push toward aquaponics. “I’d always been told that hydro and organics did not work together, and being an organics-driven gardener, I found this to be very frustrating,” the manager says. “So when aquaponics showed up on my radar, I was ecstatic.” The shop has a strong water culture background, and they are now the only store in Nebraska to offer aquaponics info, training and supplies (they will soon ofter both custom and plug-and-play styles). Plus, the cichlid display tank in the front window has helped set the shop apart. Since it was built, their walkin business has grown exponentially. Of course, Advanced Hydro-Ponics still offers everything traditional hydroponic growers need to make their indoor gardens thrive. They proudly offer Hydrofarm, R&M Supply and Advanced Nutrients products, and can distribute throughout Nebraska Nonetheles, no matter which method of indoor gardening the business’ current customers choose, Kevin hopes that new clients will continue flowing into both sides. “We chose our motto to entice the gardeners who are only familiar with outdoor gardening. What on Earth could taste better than a fresh picked strawberry in the middle of a blizzard? So, please feel free to ‘Harvest yearround’ with us!”

Maximum Yield USA | January 2013

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10 facts on... Molybdenum by Philip mcintosh

Molybdenum (atomic symbol Mo and atomic number 42) is an essential element for pretty much every living thing on Earth. It is definitely a micronutrient. The only element required by plants in lower concentration than molybdenum is copper. Molybdenum was first identified as an essential element for plants in 1939 in hydroponic studies with tomatoes. Molybdenum is found in healthy plants in concentrations of 0.5 to 1.0 mg/kg (ppm) dry weight. Depending on the formulation, Mo is provided in nutrient solutions in low concentrations (0.001-2.5 mg/L [ppm]). Molybdenum is usually provided in nutrient solutions as the the molybdate anion (MoO42-) from ammonium molybdate [(NH4)6Mo7O24•4H2O]. Molybdenum availability is pH dependent, with slightly acidic conditions being most favorable to Mo uptake by roots. Molybdenum is found in living systems mostly as an enzyme cofactor called Moco. Numerous enzymes or enzyme synthesis pathways require Moco. Nitrate reductase and nitrogenase require Moco, and it is involved in synthesis of the hormone abscisic acid. Legumes have a higher Mo requirement than other plants because their root noduleforming bacteria also require molybdenum— which is why legumes are an excellent source of molybdenum for humans. Like plants, humans need only a trace amount of Mo for good health. The requirement is so small that molybdenum deficiency has never been observed in otherwise healthy people.

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DO YOU KNOW?

1.

Snails are nocturnal and feed on organic matter in the soil, bark from trees, and especially on vegetation.

2.

3..

Most seeds can last for several seasons when stored in a dry (less than 6% moisture), dark location at the proper temperature (typically 41°F).

Surface water might contain plant pathogens and bore-hole water might contain bacteria. These bacteria can grow in irrigation lines and might cause severe clogging of irrigation systems and drip lines.

5. 6. 7. 8. 170

Snails are unable to cross copper.

4.

Salt buildup appears as white or off-white crystalline crusts or residues on the surface of growing media and sometimes on the base of plant stems, where it can cause salt burn damage.

Germination performance, often referred to as vigor, depends on the seed (source, quality and variety), seed treatment (dormancy and scarification), environment (moisture, temperature and light) and the need for stem elongation.

Most common problems experienced in hydroponic gardens are caused by one of four main things: nutrition, the plant’s growing environment, pests and pathogens and—less frequently encountered—genetic problems.

The major causes of root death in hydroponics are suffocation, starvation, pathogens, chemical damage, temperature and EC/pH problems.

Maximum Yield USA | January 2013


MAXIMUM YIELD distributors ALABAMA Alabama Organics 3348 Bethel Rd., Hammondville, AL 35989 256-635-0802 ALASKA Far North Garden Supply 2834 Boniface Parkway, Anchorage, AK 99504 907-333-3141 Southside Garden Supply AK 12870 Old Seward Hwy., Unit 114, Anchorage, AK 99515 907-339-9997 Holmtown Nursery Inc. 1301 - 30th Ave., Fairbanks, AK 99701 907-451-8733 Sea of Green Flagstaff 204 East Route 66 Flagstaff, AZ 86001 928-774-7643 Homegrown Hydroponics 2401 East Baseline Rd. Gilbert, AZ 85234 480-633-2100 Ground Control Hydroponic & Garden Supplies 1392 Ocean Dr. Homer, AK 99603 907-235-1521

ACI Hydroponics 1325 South Park Lane, Tempe, AZ 85282 800-633-2137 Homegrown Hydroponics 1845 East Broadway Tempe, AZ 85282 480-377-9096 Sea of Green Hydroponics 1301 E. University Dr., Tempe, AZ, 85281 800-266-4136 _________________________

Gonzo Grow 10297 W Van Buren St., Suite 8 Tolleson, AZ 85353 623-780-GROW (4769) _________________________ Sea of Green Hydroponics 402 North 4th Ave., Tucson, AZ 85705 520-622-6344 Sea of Green Tuscon East 7955 E. Broadway Blvd., #151., Tucson, AZ 85710 520-751-7745 _________________________

Northern Lights Greenhouse & Garden Supply Suite 105-9737 Mud Bay Rd., Ketchikan, AK 9901 907-225-GROW (4769)

Tucson Hydroponics & Organics 4235 W. Ina Rd., Ste. 131 Tucson, AZ 85741 520-395-2052 _________________________

Mesa Hydroponics 1720 W. Southern Ave, Ste. C7 Mesa, AZ 85202 480-969-4769

ARKANSAS Mickey’s Mercantile 1303 Hwy., 65 South, Clinton, AR 72031 501-412-0214 Old Soul Organics and More 1771 Crossover Rd., Fayetteville, AR 72701 479-444-6955 Growfresh Organics & More 2900 Zero St., Ste 106, Fort Smith, AR 72901 479-648-8885 Fermentables 3915 Crutcher St., N. Little Rock, AR 72118 501-758-6261 Anuway Hydroponics 2711 W. Walnut St., Rogers, Arkansas 72756 479-631-0099

Alaska Jack’s Hydroponics and Garden Supply 1150 S. Colony Way, Ste.9, Palmer, AK 99645 907-746-4774 Peninsula Garden Supply AK 44224 Sterling Highway, Suite 4, Soldotna, AK 99669 907-420-0401 Alaska Jack's Hydroponics and Garden Supply 244 S Sylvan Way Unit 25 Wasilla AK 99654 907 373 4757 Far North Garden Supply 300 Centaur Street, Wasilla, AK 99654 907-376-7586 ARIZONA Casa Grande Hydroponics 205 N. Florence St., Casa Grande, AZ 85122 520-836-4606 Sea of Green Flagstaff 204-C E. Route 66, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 928-774-SOGF (7643) The Hydro Closet 5826 West Olive Ave. #106, Glendale, AZ 85302 02-361-2049 Homegrown Hydroponics 2525 West Glendale Ave Phoenix, AZ 85051 602-368-4005 Sea of Green West 2340 W. Bell Rd., Suite 116, Phoenix, AZ 602-504-8842 Show Low Hydroponics 1400 E. Deuce of Clubs #2 Show Low, AZ 85901 928-537-4606

CALIFORNIA Greenleaf Hydroponics 1839 W Lincoln Ave., Anaheim, CA 92801 714-254-0005 Grow It Yourself Gardens

401 Sunset Dr., Suite F, Antioch, CA 94509 925-755-GROW High Desert Hydroponics 13631 Pawnee Rd., #7, Apple Valley, CA 92308 760-247-2090 _________________________

A Fertile World 5565 W End Rd Arcata, CA 95521 707-825-0255 _________________________ American Hydroponics 286 South G St., Arcata, CA 95521 800-458-6543 Let it Grow 160 Westwood Center,

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

Arcata, CA 95521 707-822-8733 _________________________

Northcoast Horticulture Supply 639 6th St., Arcata, CA 95521 707-826-9998 _________________________ Sweet Harvest Hydroponics & Organics 1041 E. Grand Ave., Arroyo Grande, CA 93420 805-473-0004 Auburn Organic 4035 Grass Valley Hwy., Auburn, CA 95602 530-823-8900 High Street Hydro 180 Cleveland Ave., Auburn, CA 95603 530-885-5888 Quail Mountain Ranch 230 Palm Ave., Auburn, CA 95603 530-889-2390 Tell 2 Friends Indoor Gardening 62 Sutherland Dr., Auburn, CA 95603 530-889-8171 Bakersfield Hydroponics Bakersfield , CA 661-808-4640 _________________________

Stop N Grow 5455 Rosedale Hwy., Bakersfield, CA 93308 661-859-1988 _________________________ Green Leaf Hydroponics 3903 Patton Way #103 Bakersfield, CA 93308 661-245-2616 Kern Hydroponics 2408 Brundage Lane, Suite B, Bakersfield, CA 93304 661-323-7333 _________________________

The Hydro Shop 3980 Saco Rd., Bakersfield, CA 661-399-3336 _________________________ Super Starts PO Box 732, Bellmont, CA 94002 650-346-8009 Berkeley Indoor Garden 844 University Ave., Berkeley, CA 94710 510-549-2918 Berkeley’s Secret Garden 921 University Ave., Berkeley, CA 94710 510-486-0117 Hydroponic Connection, The 2816 San Pablo Ave., Berkeley, CA 94702 510-704-9376 The Hydroponic Connection Berkeley

2816 San Pablo Ave. Berkeley CA 94702 510-704-9376 Brentwood Hydroponics & Organics 560 Valdry Ct #85, Brentwood, CA 94513 925-634-6704Good To Grow & Global

Garden Supply 1350 Rollins Rd., Burlingame, CA, 94010 650-733-4420 Advanced Garden Supply 3113 Alhambra Dr., Unit F, Cameron Park, CA 95682 530-676-2100 Sky High Garden Supply 3081 Alhambra Dr. Suite 105 Cameron Park, CA 95682 530-676-4009 Precision Hydroponics 132 Kennedy Ave., Campbell, CA 95008 408-866-8176 Elite Horticulture Supply 22330 Sherman Way, C13, Canoga Park, CA 91303 818-347-5172 Hydro International 7935 Alabama Ave., Canoga Park, CA 91304 Advanced Hydroponics 17808 Sierra Hwy., Canyon Country, CA 91351 Myron L Company 2450 Impala Dr., Carlsband, CA 9210-7226 760-438-2021 661-299-1603 _________________________

San Diego Hydroponics North County Coastal 6352 Corte Del Abeto #J Carlsbad CA, 92011 760-420-8934 _________________________ The Greenhouse Garden Supply 7619 Fair Oak Blvd. Carmichael, CA 95608 916-515-9130 NorCal Creations PO Box 28, Cedar Ridge, CA 95924 Garden Connection, The 629 Entler Ave. #32 Chico, CA 95928 530-342-7762 Hydro King 2540 South Whitman Place, Chico, CA 959282 530-893-GROW (4769) Grow4Less garden Supply & Hydroponics 320 Trousdale Dr., Suite L Chula Visa, CA 91910 619-425-GROW Citrus Heights Hydrogarden 8043 Greenback Lane Citrus Heights, CA 95610 916-728-4769 Conrad Hydroponics Inc. 14915 Unit E, Olympic Dr., Clearlake, CA 95422 707-994 3264 Under The Sun 13361 East Highway 20 Clearlake Oaks, CA USA 95423 G & G Organics and Hydroponics 901 W. Victoria Street Unit D, Compton, CA 90220 310-632-0122 Concord Indoor Garden 2771 Clayton Rd., Concord, CA 94519 925-671-2520 Hydroponics Plus 2250 Commerce Ave., Suite C Concord, CA 94520 925-691-7615 123 Grow 2175 Sampson Ave. #123, Corona, CA 92879

951-280-9232 Hydrostar Hydroponics & Organics 1307 W. Sixth St., #211, Corona, CA 92882 951-479-8069 The Hydro Spot 21785 Temescal Cyn Rd., Corona, CA 92883 A+ Hydroponics & Organics 1604 Babcock St., Costa Mesa, CA 92627 949-642-7776 The Hydro Source 671 E. Edna Place Covina, CA 91723 877 HYDRO 82; 626-915-3128 Let it Grow 1228 2nd St., Crescent City, CA 95531 707-464-9086 _________________________

Northcoast Horticulture Supply 1070 Highway 101, Crescent City, CA 95531 707-464-1200 _________________________ Seaside Hydrogarden 1070 Hwy., 101 North, Crescent City, CA 95531; 707-465-3520 Pacific Coast Hydroponics 4147 Sepulveda Boulevard, Culver City, CA 90230 310-313-1354 Dr. Greenthumbs Hydroponic Garden Supplies 566 San Ramon Valley Blvd., Danville, CA 94526 925-314-9376 Constantly Growing - Davis 123 D St., Davis, CA 95616 530-756-4774 Constantly Growing 6200 Enterprise Dr., Suite A Diamond Springs, CA 95619 530-642-9710 Appleseed Hydroponics 6650 Merchandise Way Suite B, Diamond Springs, CA 95619 530-622-5190 Victory Garden Supply 1900 N Lincoln St., #100 Dixon, CA 95620 707 678 5800 Watch it Grow Hydro

9453 Firestone Blvd Downey, CA USA Tel: 562 861 1928 www.watchitgrowhydro.com joe@watchitgrowhydro.com Grow A Lot Hydroponics, San Diego 1591 N. Cuyamaca St., El Cajon, CA 93612 619-749-6777 Indoor Garden Solution Inc. 12424 Exline St., El Monte, CA 91732, 626-453-0443 Go Green Hydroponics 15721 Ventura Boulevard, Encino, CA 91436 818-990-1198 _________________________

A Fertile World (Eureka) 6th Street, Eureka, CA 95501 707-444-0200 _________________________ Bayside Garden Supply 4061 Highway 101 Ste 6 Eureka, CA 95503 707-826-7435

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MAXIMUM YIELD distributors ________________________

Humboldt Hydroponics 1302 Union St., Eureka, CA 95501 707-443-4304 _________________________

Northcoast Horticulture Supply 60 West 4th St., Eureka, CA 95501 707-444-9999 _________________________ Happy Green Lawn Care

3890 Walnut Drive Eureka, CA USA 95534 Tel: 707 497 6186 Fax: 707 832 2255 www.happygreenlawncare.com brian@happygreenlawncare.com Constantly Growing 4343 Hazel Ave., Fair Oaks, CA 95628 916-962-0043 Fallbrook Hydro 208 E Mission Rd., Ste B Fallbrook, CA 92028 760-728-4769 _________________________

Tulare County Growers Supply 435 W. Noble Ave., Unit A, Farmersville, CA 93223 559-732-8247 _________________________ Santa Cruz Hydroponics & Organics - North 6241 Graham Hill Rd., Felton, CA 95018 831-335-9000 _________________________

Eel River Hydroponics & Soil Supply 164 Dinsmore Dr., Fortuna, CA 95540 707-726-0395 _________________________ The Shop 6542 Front Str., Forestville, CA 95436, 707-887-2280 Dirt Cheap Hydroponics 17975 H Hwy. 1, Fort Bragg, CA 95437; 707-964-4211 Hydrogarden Mendocino County 1240 North Main St., Fort Bragg, CA 95437 707-962-9252 _________________________

A Fertile World (Fortuna) 610 7th St., Fortuna, CA 95540 707-725-0700 _________________________

Northcoast Horticulture Supply 357 Main St., Fortuna, CA 95540 707-725-5550 _________________________ Nature’s Secret Garden and Supply 41469 Albrae St., Fremont, CA 94577 510-623-8393

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_________________________ Gro More Garden Supply & Hydroponics Gro More Garden Supply 2686 Clovis Ave., Ste.109 Fresno, CA 93727 559-348-1055 _________________________

Roots Grow Supply 1330 North Hulbert, #101 Fresno, CA 93728 559-840-0122 _________________________ Tower Garden Supply & Organic Nursery

403 W. Olive Ave., Fresno, CA 93728 559-495-1140 Valley Hydroponics 207 E. Sierra Ave. Fresno, CA 93710; 559-449-0426 Grow Wurks Hydroponics 765 S. State College Boulevard. Suite J Fullerton, CA 92831 714-253-Grow (4769) SB Hydro 1109 W. 190th Street, Unit #F, Gardena, CA 90248 310-538-5788 Golden Gecko Garden Center, The 4665 Marshall Rd., Garden Valley, CA 95633 530-333-2394 Probiotic Solutions 20889 Geyserville Ave., Geyserville, CA 95441 707-354-4342 South Valley Hydroponics

320 Kishimura Dr., #3 Gilroy, CA 95020 866-848-GROW _________________________

Zen Hydroponics 1801 Victory Blvd. Glendale, CA 91201 877 ZEN Grow; 818 806 4500 _________________________

Stop N Grow 340 Pine Ave., Goleta, CA 93003 805-685-3000 _________________________ Dirt Cheap Hydroponic

151 N 7th St. #4 Grover Beach CA 93433 Tel:805-473-3478 _________________________

All Seasons Hydroponics 17614 Chatsworth St., Granada Hills, CA 91344 818-368-4388 _________________________ AG Natural 403 Idaho Maryland Rd., Grass Valley, CA 95945 530-274 0990 Grass Valley Hydrogarden 12506 Loma Rica Dr., Grass Valley, CA 95945 530-477-2996

Maximum Yield USA | January 2013

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

_________________________

Weather Top Nursery 44901 Harmon Dr., Laytonville, CA 95454 707-984-6385 Garden Supplies

Vital Landscaping Inc. 12817 Loma Rica Dr., Grass Valley, CA 95945 530-273-3187 _________________________ West Coast Growers Hydroponics 13481 Colifax Hwy., Grass Valley, CA 95945 888-924-4769 Joy's Green Garden Supply 340-A Elm Ave, Greenfield, CA 93927 831-674-1416 M.G.S. 22540 D Foothill Boulevard, Hayward, CA 94541; 510-582-0900 Thrive Hydroponics 30-A Mill Street Healdsburg CA USA 95448 707 433 4068 Bear Valley Hydroponics & Homebrewing 17455 Bear Valley Rd., Hesperia CA 92345 760 949 3400 Emerald Garden 13325 South Hwy. 101, Hopland, CA 95482 707-744-8300 Surf City Hydroponics 7391 Warner Ave. Ste B Huntington Beach, CA 92647

22 Ricknbacker Circle, Livermore, CA 94551 925-454-9376 DL Wholesale 6764 Preston Ave. Suite D Livermore CA 94551 510-550-0018 _________________________

National Garden Wholesale/ Sunlight Supply 6485 Brisa Street, Livermore, CA 94550 888-570-4678 (Southern CA) _________________________ Garden Depot, The 203 Commerce Street, Suite 101 Lodi, CA 95240 209-339-9950 Valley Rock Landscape Supply 2222 N H Street; Lompoc CA 93436 805 736 0841; 805 735 5921 562 Hydro Shop 717 East Artesia Blvd. Long Beach Ca,90805 562-726-1101 _________________________

Hydroluv Hydroponics

16582 Gothard St Huntington Beach CA 92647 714-916-0428 Dutch Garden Supplies Park Circle Suite 12 Irvine CA 92614 949-748-8777 West Coast Hydroponics, Inc. 27665 Forbes Road, Unit 10 Laguna Niguel, CA 92677 949-348-2424 La Habra Hydroponics 1301 S Beach Blvd., Suite O. La Habra, CA 90631 562-947-8383 _________________________

Grass Roots Hydroponics 31875 Corydon, Suite 130 Lake Elsinore, CA 92530 951-245-2390 _________________________ South County Hydroponics 22511 Aspan St., Suite E Lake Forest, CA 92630 949-837-8252 Clover Hydroponics & Garden Supply

43 Soda Bay Rd., Lakeport, CA 95453 707-263-4000 _________________________

San Diego Hydroponics East County 11649 Riverside Dr., Suite 141, Lakeside, CA 92040 619-562-3276 _________________________

Total Hydroponics Center Inc 4820 Paramount Blvd., Lakewood, CA 90712 562-984-GROW (4769) _________________________

Green Coast Hydroponics 2405 Mira Mar Ave., Long Beach, CA 90815 562-627-5636 _________________________ Grow Light Express 5318 East Second St. Suite 164, Long Beach, CA 90803 888-318-GROW _________________________

Long Beach Hydroponics & Organics 1772 Clark Ave., Long Beach, CA 90815 562-498-9525 _________________________ Atwater Hydroponics 3350 Glendale Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90039; 323-663-8881 Green Door Hydro and Solar 830 Traction Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90013 212-625-1323 Hardman Hydroponics 3511 Youree Dr., Shreveport Los Angeles 71105 318-865-0317Hollywood Hydroponics and Organics 5109 1/2 Hollywood Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90027-6105 323-662-1908 Hydroasis 2643 S. Fairfax Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90232 888-355-4769 LAX Hydro 10912 S. La Cienaga Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90304 310-337-6995 Nirvana Hydroponics 340 South San Pedro Los Angeles, CA 90013 310-795-2914 _________________________

Sunland Hydroponics 4136 Eagle Rock Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90065 323-254-2800 _________________________

Superior Hydroponic Supply 5651 Hollywood Blvd., 90028 Los Angeles,CA 323 465-grow (4769) _________________________ Green Giant Hydroponics 7183 Hwy. 49 Unit B Lotus, CA 95651; 530-622-4465 Big Momma’s 11455 Clayton Creek Rd., Lower Lake, CA 95457 707-994-1788 California Green Hydroponics 16491 Rd., 26, Suite 101 Madera, California 93638 559-674-1400 grow 22333 Pacific Coast Hwy., Ste. 101 Malibu, CA 90265; 310-456-2910 Deep Roots Garden Center & Flower Shop 207 N. Sepulveda Blvd. Manhattan Beach, CA 90266 310-376-0567 B & S Gardening Supplies 592 Commerce Court, Manteca, CA 95336 209-239-8648 Monterey Bay Horticulture Supply

218 Reindollar Ave., Suite 7A, Marina, CA 93933 831-38-HYDRO Two Chix Garden Supply 1230 Yuba St., Marysville, CA 95901 530-923-2536 _________________________

Northcoast Horticulture Supply 1580 Nursery Way McKinleyville, CA 95519 707-839-9998 _________________________ Mendocino Garden Shop PO Box 1301, 44720 Maint St. (at Hwy. 1), Mendocino, CA 95460 707-937-3459 Hooked Up Hydroponics 1004 W. 15th St. Suite B & C, Merced, Ca 95340; 209-723-1300 Indoor/Outdoor Garden Supply 1501 W. Main St., Merced, CA 95340 209-580-4425 The Urban Farmer Store 653 E. Blithedale Ave., Mill Valley, CA 94941 415-380-3840 Mission Viejo Hydroponics 24002 Via Fabricante Suite 502 Mission Viejo, CA 92691 949-380-1894 Coca’s Central Valley Hydroponics 116 West Orangeburg Ave., Modesto, CA 95350 209-567-0590 Year Round Garden Supply 11000 Carver Rd. #20 Modesto, CA 95350 209 522 2727


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Green Light Hydroponics 2615 Honolula Ave. Montrose, CA 91020 818-640-2623 _________________________ 247 Garden

1101 Monterey Pass Rd. Unit B Monterey Park CA 91754 323-318-2600 South Bay Hydroponics and Organics - Mtn. View 569 East Evelyn Ave., Mountain View, CA 94041 650-968-4070 Redwood Garden Supply 55 Myers Ave., Myers Flat, CA 95554 707-943-1515 _________________________

Endless Green Hydroponics 25 Enterprise Court, Suite 3 Napa, CA 94558 707-254-0200 _________________________ Wyatt Supply 4407 Solano Ave., Napa, CA 94558 707-251-3747 Conejo Hydroponics 3481 Old Conejo Rd., #106 Newbury Park, CA 91320 805-480-9596 Big Momma’s 2581 Stokes Ave., Nice, CA 95464 707-274-8369 _________________________

Stop N Grow 640 S. Frontage Rd., Nipomo, CA 93444 805-619-5125 _________________________ Valley Garden Solutions Inc. 15650 Nordhoff Ave., Suite 104, North Hills, CA 91345 818-336-0041 _________________________

Foothill Hydroponics 10705 Burbank Boulevard, N. Hollywood, CA 91601 818-760-0688 _________________________ One Stop Hydroponics 12822 Victory Boulevard North Hollywood, CA 91606 818-980-5855 Lumatek Digital Ballasts 33 Commercial Boulevard, Suite B Novato, CA 94949 415-233-4273

3rd Street Hydroponics 636 3rd St., Oakland, CA 94607 510-452-5521 Medicine Man Farms 1602 53rd Ave., Oakland, CA 94601 707-980-0456 Plant-N-Grow 1602 53rd Ave., Oakland, CA 94601 707-980-0456 Hydrobrew 1319 South Coast Hwy., Oceanside, CA 92054 760-966-1885; 877-966-GROW Socal Hydroponics 1727-B Oceanside Boulevard, Oceanside, CA 92054 760-439-1084 Cultivate Ontario 2000 Grove Ave. #a110 Ontario, CA 91761 909-781-6142 Flairform 1751 S Pointe Ave., Ontario, CA 91761 213-596-8820 GreenCoast Ontario Unit 102-103 1920 South Rochester Ave., Ontario, CA 909-605-5777 _________________________

National Garden Wholesale/ Sunlight Supply 1950 C South Grove Ave., Ontario, CA 91761 888-888-3319 _________________________ Palm Tree Hydroponics 2235 E 4th St, Suite G Ontario, CA 91764 909-941-9017 _________________________

RH Distribution 1751 S. Pointe Ave., Ontario, CA 91761 888-545-8112 _________________________

Green Coast Hydroponics 496 Meats Ave., Orange, CA 92865 714-974-4769 _________________________ Natural Pest Controls 8320 B Hazel Ave., Orangevale, CA 95662 916-726-0855 Greenback Garden Supply 9341 Greenback Ln., Ste C Orangevale, CA 95662 530-391-4329 _________________________

Marin Hydroponics

721 Francisco Blvd East San Rafael CA 94901 415-482-8802 Marin Hydroponics 1219 Grant Ave., Novato, CA 94945 415-897-2197 Roots Grow Supply 40091 Enterprise Dr. Oakhurst CA 93644 559-683-6622

Advanced Soil & Garden Supply 350 Oro Dam Boulevard, Oroville, CA 95965 530-533-2747 _________________________ Igrow Hydro 2280 Veatch St., Oroville, CA 95965 530-534-4476

Orville Organic Gardens 5250 Olive Hwy Ste 1 Oroville, CA 95966 530-589-9950 US Orchid & Hydroponic Supplies 1621 South Rose Ave.,, Oxnard, CA 93033 805-247-0086 Pacifica Hydroponics 90 Eureka Square Pacifica, CA 94044 650-355-5100 _________________________

America’s Best Hydroponics & Gardening Center 641 W. Palmdale Blvd. Unit D Palmdale, CA 93551 661-266-3906 _________________________

Hydroponics Unlimited 641 W. Palmdale Blvd. “D” Palmdale, CA 93550 661-266-3906 _________________________ Palm Springs Hydroponics 4651 Ramon Rd., Palm Springs, CA 92264 760-327-ROOT _________________________

DNA Hydroponics Inc 19345 North Indian Canyon Dr., North Palm Springs, Suite 2-F CA 92258 760-671-5872 _________________________

Green Bros Hydroponics 14072 Osborne St., Panorama City, CA 91402 818-891-0200 _________________________ Mission Hydroponics 1236 East Mission Pomona, CA 91766 909-620-7099 New Leaf Hydro 34150 123rd St., Parablossom, CA 93553 661-944-2226 Alternative Hydro 3870 East, Colorado Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91107 888-50-HYDRO 365 Hydroponics 2062 Lincoln Ave., Pasadena, CA 91103 626-345-9015 Garden All Year Inc. 3850 Ramada Dr.,Unit D2 Paso Robles, CA 93446 805 434 2333 www.gardenallyear.com Supersonic Hydroponic and Organic Garden Supply 3850 Ramada Dr., Unit D2 Paso Robles, CA 93446 805-434-2333 Foothills Hydrogarden 3133 Penryn Rd., Penryn, CA 95663 916-270-2413

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Funny Farms Hydroponics 963 Transport Way, #12 Petaluma, CA 94954 707-775-3111 _________________________ House of Hydro 224 Weller St., #B, Petaluma, CA 94952 707-762-4769 Wyatt Supply 1016 Lakeville St., Petaluma, CA 94952 707-762-3747 JNJ Hydroponics 4774 Phelan Rd. Suite 2 Phelan, CA 92371 760-868-0002 Turbo Grow 1889 San Pablo Ave., Pinole, CA 94564 510-724-1291 Hillside Hydro & Garden 4570 Pleasant Valley Rd., Placerville CA 95662 530-644-1401 Best Yield Garden Supply 3503 West Temple Ave., Unit A, Pomona, CA 91768 909-839-0505 Mission Hydroponics 1236 East Mission Pomona, CA 91766 909-620-7099 Emerald Garden 8249 Archibald Ave., Ranch Cucamanga, CA 91730 909-466-3796 Radiant Roots Gardening & Hydroponics 1394 S Pacific Coast Hwy., Redondo Beach, CA 90277 310-540-2005 Shadow Valley Aquatics

75 Kimick Way, Red Bluff, CA 96080 530-526-0479 Bear Roots Hydroponics 1615 East Cypress, #5 Redding, CA 96002 530-244-2215 Dazey’s Supply 3082 Redwood Dr., Redway, CA 95560 707-923-3002 Humboldt Hydroponics 2010 Tunnel Rd., Redway, CA 95560 707-923-1402 Redway Feed Garden and Pet Supply

290 Briceland Rd., Redway, CA 95560 707-923-2765 Sylvandale Gardens 1151 Evergreen Rd., Redway, CA 95560 707-923-3606 Hydro King 105 Hartnell Ave., Suite C and D, Redding, CA 96002 888-822-8941 Orsa Organix 111 Willow St., Redwood City, CA 94063 650-369-1269 _________________________

Mendocino Greenhouse & Garden Supply 960 East School Way, Redwood Valley, CA 95470 707-485-0668 _________________________

EZ Green Hydroponics 7017 Reseda Boulevard, Reseda, CA 91335 818-776-9076 Hydro Hills Hydroponics 19320 Vanowen St., Reseda, CA 91335 Box Of Rain Inc. Po Box 302, Rexford, CA 59930 406-755-7245 Hi-Tech Gardening 5327 Jacuzzi St., #282, Richmond, CA 94804 510-524-4710 The Urban Farmer Store 2121 San Joaquin St., Richmond, CA 94804 510-524-1604 _________________________

Discount Hydroponics 4745 Hiers Ave., Riverside, CA 92505 877-476-9487 _________________________

All Ways Hydro 2220 Eastridge Ave. Suite C Riverside CA 92507. 888-HYDRO98 _________________________

Calwest Hydroponics 11620 Sterling Ave., Suite A Riverside, CA 92503 800-301-9009 _________________________ Hydro Depot 5665 Redwood Dr., #B, Rohnert Park, CA 94928 707-584-2384 Igrow Hydro 9000 Atkinson St., Roseville, CA 95678 916-773-4476 Constantly Growing

1918 16th Street Sacramento CA USA 95811 916-448-1882 Green Acres Hydroponics 1215 Striker Ave., Suite 180, Sacramento, CA 95834 916-419-4394 Greenfire Sacramento 3230 Auburn Boulevard, Sacramento, CA 95821 916-485-8023 Green Thumb Hydroponics 35 Quinta Court, Suite B, Sacramento, CA 95823 916-689-6464 _________________________

KY Wholesale 8671 Elder Creek Rd. #600 Sacramento, CA 95828 916 383 3366 _________________________ Mystic Gardens 8484 Florin Rd., #110, Sacramento, CA 95828 916-381-2464 Sac Hydroponics 9529 Folson Boulevard, Suite C Sacramento, CA 95827 916-369-7968 Skywide Import & Export Ltd. 5900 Lemon Hill Ave., Sacramento, CA 95824 916-383-2369

Maximum Yield USA | January 2013

173


MAXIMUM YIELD distributors Tradewinds Wholesale Garden Supplies 1235 Striker Ave. #180, Sacramento, CA 95834 888-557-8896 Green Joint Ventures 61 Tarp Circle, Salinas, CA 93901 831-998-8628 _________________________

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Mighty Garden Supply 4780 Mission Gorge Pl. #A-1, San Diego, CA 92120 619-287-3238 _________________________

Reforestation Technologies International 1341 Daton St., Unit G Salinas, CA 93901 800-784-4769 _________________________

Xtreme Gardening 1341 Dayton St. Annex B Salinas CA 93901 800-784-4769 _________________________

National Garden Wholesale / Sunlight Supply 1900 Bendixsen St. , Bldg. 1, Samoa, CA 95564 800-683-1114 (Northern CA) _________________________ Greenmile Hydroponic Garden Supply 1480 South E. Street, Suite D, San Bernardino, CA 92408 909-885-5919 Garden Shed, The 1136 El Camino Real San Carlos, CA 650-508-8600 Pure Food Gardening/ Microclone 830 H Bransten Rd. San Carlos,CA 94070-3338 Green Gopher Garden Supply 679 Redwood Ave., Suite A, Sand City, CA 93955 831-899-0203 Modern Gardens 26620 Valley Center Dr. Santa Clarita, CA 91351 661-513-4733 Best Coast Growers 4417 Glacier Ave. Suite C, San Diego, CA 92120 800-827-1876 City Farmer’s Nursery 4832 Home Ave., San Diego, CA 92105 619-284-6358 Green Lady Hydroponics 4879 Newport Ave., San Diego, CA 92107 619-222-5011 Home Brews & Gardens 3176 Thorn St., San Diego, CA 92104 619-630-2739 _________________________

Indoor Garden Depot 1848 Commercial St. San Diego CA 92113 619-255-3552 _________________________ Innovative Growing Solutions (IGS) 5060 Santa Fe St. Ste.D San Diego, CA 92109 858-578-4477

174

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

The Hydroponic Connection San Francisco

1549 Custer Ave. San Francisco CA 94124 415-864-9376 Nor Cal Hydroponics 4837 Geary Boulevard, San Francisco, CA 94118 415-933-8262 Plant It Earth 2279 Market St., San Francisco, CA 94114 415-626-5082 _________________________ UrbanGardens advanced hydroponics and gardening

704 Filbert Street, San Francisco, CA 94133

Miramar Hydroponics & Organics 8952 Empire St., San Diego CA 92126 858-549-8649 _________________________

Oracle Garden Supply 5755 Oberlin Dr., Suite 100 San Diego, CA 92121 858-558-6006 _________________________ Pacific Beach Hydroponics

1852 Garnet Ave., San Diego, CA 92109 858-274-2559 _________________________

San Diego Hydroponics Beach Cities 4122 Napier St., San Diego, CA 92110 619-276-0657 _________________________ Wai Kula Hydrogardens 5297 Linda Vista Rd., San Diego, CA 92110 619-299-7299 Direct Hydroponics Wholesale 1034 W. Arrow Hwy. #D San Dimas, CA 91773 888-924-9376 Liquid Gardens 1034 West Arrow Hwy. #D San Dimas, CA 91773 888-924-9376 Extreme Hydroponics 11479 San Fernando Road C, San Fernando, CA 91340 818-898-0915 Plant It Earth 661 Divisadero San Francisco, CA 94117 415-626-5082 Plant It Earth Warehouse 1 Dorman Ave., San Francisco, CA 94124 415-970-2465 _________________________

Grow Your Own 3401 Traval St., San Francisco, CA 94116 415-731-2115 _________________________ Hydroponic Connection Warehouse, The 1995 Evans Ave., San Francisco, CA 94124 415-824-9376

Maximum Yield USA | January 2013

Urban Gardens Unlimited 704 Filbert St., San Francisco, CA 94133 415-421-4769 _________________________ San Francisco Hydro 123 Tenth St., San Francisco, CA 94103 The Urban Farmer Store 2833 Vicente St., San Francisco, CA 94116 415-661-2204

Marin Hydroponics 721 Francisco Blvd East San Rafael, CA 94901 415-482-8802 Pacific Garden Supply 128 H Carlos Dr., San Rafael, CA 94903 San Rafael Hydroponics 1417 Fourth St. San Rafael, CA 94901 415 455 9655 _________________________

Green Coast Hydroponics 3560 State St., Santa Barbara, CA 93105 805-898-9922 _________________________ Nutes Int’l 204 N Quarantina St., Santa Barbara, CA 93103 805-687-6699 Planet Earth Hydroponics 102 East Haley St., Santa Barbara, CA 93101 805 899 0033 _________________________

Santee Hydroponics 7949 Mission Gorge Rd., Santee, CA 92071 619-270-8649 Gardening Unlimited 60 Old El Pueblo Rd., Scotts Valley, CA 95066 831-457-1236 Pro Gardening Systems 765 Petaluma Ave., Sebastopol, CA 95472 707-829-7252 Better Choice Hydroponics 610 S. Washington St., Senora, CA 95370 209 533 2400 Go Big Hydroponics

4501 Van Nuys Boulevard, Sherman Oaks, CA 91403 818-789-3341 Bloom Brothers Garden Supply, Inc. 3293 Industry Dr. Signal Hill, CA 90755 562 494-0060 ________________________

US Garden

417 Agostinio Rd., San Gabriel Ca 91776 626 285-5009 Inland Empire Hydrogarden 1301-C South State St., San Jancinto, CA 92853 Hahn’s Lighting 260 E. VA Suite 1, San Jose, CA 95112 408-295-1755 Plant Life 32 Race St., San Jose, CA 95126 408-283-9191 Hydrofarm, Inc. 2249 South McDowell Extension Petaluma, CA 94954 800-634-9990 Hydrofarm Southwest 12991 Leffingwell Road Santa Fe Springs, CA 90670 800-634-9990 South Bay Hydroponics and Organics - San Jose 1185 South Bascom Ave., San Jose, CA 95128 408-292-4040 D&S Garden Supplies 17-130 Doolittle Dr., San Leandro, CA 94577 510-430-8589 Hydrogarden Delight 13762 Doolittle Dr., San Leandro, CA 94577 510-903-1808 Central Coast Hydrogarden

1951 Santa Barbara St., San Luis Obispo, CA 93401 805-544-GROW Healthy Harvest Hydroponics and Organics 2958 S. Higuera St., San Luis Obispo, CA 93401 805.596.0430 _________________________

San Diego Hydroponics North 802 N. Twin Oaks Valley Road #108 San Marcos, CA 92069 760-510-1444 _________________________ H20 Gardening 355 West 7th St., San Pedro, CA 90731 310-514-1416

Urban Grow Systems 204 N Quarantine St., Santa Barbara, CA 93103 805-637-6699 _________________________ Santa Clarita Valley Hydroponics 25835 Railroad Ave. #26 Santa Clarita CA 91350 661 255 3700 661 255 3701 California Hydroponics 310 Coral St., Suite C Santa Cruz, CA 95060 831-423-4769 Hydro-Logic Purification Systems 370 Encinal St., Suite 150, Santa Cruz, CA 95060 888 H2O LOGIC Santa Cruz Hydroponics & Organics - West Side 815 Almar Ave., Unit K, Santa Cruz, CA 95060 831-466-9000 Gottagrow Garden Supply 769 Wilson St., Santa Rosa, CA 95404 707-544-7782 _________________________

Green Logic Garden Supply 860 Piner Road, #38, Santa Rosa, CA 95403 707-843-3156 _________________________ Organic Bountea 1919 Dennis Lane, Santa Rosa, CA 95403 800-798-0765 Wyatt Supply 747 Yolanda Ave. Santa Rosa, CA 95404 707-578-3747 Next Generation Hydroponics 10658 Prospect Ave., Ste.A Santee, CA 92071 619-438 2415 _________________________

Santa Rosa Hydroponics 4880 Sonoma Hwy Santa Rosa, CA 707-595-1340 Santa Rosa Hydroponics 4130 S Moorland Ave Santa Rosa, CA 707-584-9370 _________________________

We Grow Hydroponics 3350 East Los Angeles Ave., Simi Valley, CA 93063 805-624-4566 ________________________ Abundant Hydroponics LLC 1611 Shop St., #1-A, S. Lake Tahoe, CA 96150 530-54 HYDRO ________________________

Advanced Garden Supply 2660 Lake Tahoe Boulevard, Building C, Unit 9, S. Lake Tahoe, CA 96150 530-541-4769 ________________________ Farm Hydroponics, The 1950 Lake Tahoe Boulevard #3, S. Lake Tahoe, CA 96150 530-541-3276 Valley Hydro and Organics 19230 Sonoma Hwy. Sonoma CA 95476 707-396-8734 Santa Cruz Hydroponics & Organics - East Side 4000 Cordelia Lane Soquel, CA 95073 831-475-9900 ________________________

Orange County Hydroponics 12797 Beach Boulevard, Stanton, CA 90680 714-893-9493 ________________________

HomeGrown Indoor Garden Supply

681 A Grider Way, Stockton, CA 95210 209-477-4447 ________________________


.City Farm Hydroponics

8903 Laurel Canyon Boulevard, Sun Valley, CA 91352 818-767-2076 ________________________

Sunland Hydroponics 8300 Foothill Boulevard, Sunland, CA 91040 818-352-5300 ________________________ Anthony’s Garden & Lighting Supply

30 Ridge Road, Suites 8 & 9 Sutter Creek, CA 95685 209-267-5416 Tahoe Garden Supply 645 Westlake Boulevard, Suite 2, PO Box 487 Tahoe City, CA 96145 530-581-3200 The Otherside Hydroponics 19425 Ventura Blvd Tarzana CA 91356 818 881 hydro (4937) Hydroponics 4 Less 41669 Winchester Avenue, Temecula, CA 92590 800-A1-HYDRO Inland Empire Hydrogarden 28822 Old Town Front St. #206 Temecula, CA 92590 886-74-HYDRO ________________________

805 Hydroponics & Organics 1785 E. Thousand Oaks Boulevard Thousand Oaks, CA 91362 805-494-1785 ________________________

Garden Depot Hydroponics 1460 Freitas Park Turlock, CA 95380 209-250-0101

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HydroPacific - Hydroponics & Garden Supplies 351 C Hastings Av., Ukiah, CA 95482 707-467-0400 ________________________ Northcoast Hydrogardens 3450 North State Street, Ukiah, CA 95482 707-462-7214 Wyatt Supply 2200 N. State St. Ukiah, CA 95482 707-462-7473 Atlantis Garden Supply 2851 A Whipple Road, Union City, CA 94587 510-487-8007 Evergreen Hydroponics 923 N. Central Avenue, Suite B, Upland, CA 91786 909-946-7100 TNC Supply 9490 Main Street, P.O. Box 763 Upper Lake, CA 95485 707-275-9565 Everything Green 1650 Lewis Brown Dr. Vallejo, CA 94589 707 647 0774 Sky High Garden Supply 3081 Alhambra Dr. Suite 105 Cameron Park CA 95682 530-676-4009 Hydroponics Market 15816 Arminta St Van Nuys, CA 91406 818-305-6261 886-72-HYDRO ________________________

Stop N Grow 4160 Market Street, Unit 11 Ventura, CA 93003 805-639-9489 ________________________

BWGS-CA 7530 W. Sunnyview Avenue Visalia, CA 93291 888-316-1306 ________________________ The Green Shop 66420 Mooney Boulevard, Suite 1 Visalia, CA 93277 559-688-4200 Kaweah Grower Supply 1106 1/2 N. Ben Maddox Way, Visalia, CA 93293 559-625-4937 Greentrees Hydroponics Inc. 2581 Pioneer Avenue, Unit D Vista, CA 92081 760-598-7551 Home Life Hydroponics and Organics 1745 East Vista Way, Vista, CA 92084 760-643-2150

California Hydro Garden

1043 South Glendora Avenue, Suite A West Covina, CA 91790 626-813-0868No Stress Hydroponics 7543 Santa Monica Boulevard, West Hollywood, CA 90046 323-845-9874 Hydronation 2491 Boatman Drive, Suite B West Sacramento, CA 95691 916-372-4444 Flower Hut Nursery 603 4th Street Wheatland, CA 95692 530-633-4526 ________________________

Southern Humbolt Garden Supplies 34919 Yucaipa Boulevard, Yucaipa, CA 92399 909-797-6888; 707-459-6791 Yucca Valley Hydroponics 56825 Twentynine Palms Hwy. Yucca Valley, CA 92284 760 369 0300

CT. Home Grown

COLORADO South Park Hydroponics 42 E Buckskin Rd. Alma CO 80420 719 836 1533 ________________________

National Garden Wholesale/Sunlight Supply 3550 B Odessa Way, Aurora, CO 80011 866-877-4188 (Northeast) _________________________



Green Coast Hydroponics 11510 Whittier Boulevard Whittier, CA 90601 562-699-4201 ________________________ GreenWay Hydroponics 11510 Whittier Boulevard, Whittier, CA 90601 Lazy Gardeners Hydroponics ‘N’ More 14626 East Whittier Boulevard, Whittier, CA 90605 562-945-0909 Garden Spout, The 260 Margie Dr Willits, CA 95490 707-456-0196 Jolly Rancher

399 Business Park Ctr. Suite 205 Windsor CA 95492 707-838-0842 Green Acres 20946 Victory Blvd., Woodland Hills, CA91367 Sparetime Supply 208 E. San Francisco Avenue, Willits, CA 95490-4006 ________________________

Hydromagic Supply 40 N. East St. Suite F Woodland,CA 95776 530-661-0117 ________________________ Urban Gardens 22516 Ventura Boulevard, Woodland Hills, CA 91364 818-876-0222 ________________________

Ultra Lo Hydro ultralohydro.com 937-252-8224 _________________________ Garden Highway Garden Supply 598 Garden Highway #22 Yuba City, CA 95991 530-755-2877 Golden Valley Hydroponics 870 W. Onsott Rd. Ste F Yuba City, CA 95993 530-763-2151

Hydrofarm Mountain 400 Burbank St Broomfield, CO 80020 800-634-9990 J&D Organic Growing Solutions 217 1/2 Clayton Street Brush, CO 80723 970-310-5408.

Nick’s Garden Center 2001 S. Chambers, Aurora, CO 80014 303-696-6657 ________________________

The Big Tomato Indoor Garden Supply 14440 E. 6th Ave. Aurora, CO 80011 (303) 364-4769 ________________________ Family Hydroponics-Boulder 2125 32nd Street Boulder, co 80301 303-996-6100 Polar Ray 5171 Eldorado Springs Dr. Boulder, CO 80303 303 494 5773 Rocky Mountain Lighting and Hydroponics 2125 32 Street Boulder, CO 80301 303-996-6100 Way To Grow 6395 Gunpark Drive, Boulder, CO 80301 303-473-4769 Deep Roots Garden Supply 1790 Airport Road, Unit 1 Breckenridge, CO 80424 970-453-1440 Mile High Hydroponics 37 Strong St. Brighton, CO 80601 303-637-0069 Brighton Hydroponics 839so.Kuner rd., Brighton, CO 80601 303-655-1427 ________________________

ACME Hydroponics 300 Nickel St Suite 3 Broomfield, CO 80020 720.524.7306 ________________________ Colorado Grow 3400 Industrial Lane, Unit 10A Broomfield, CO 80020-1652 303-465-GROW (4769)

45 South Canterbury Rd. Canterbury CT 06331 BIG BloomZ 1011 Caprice Drive, Castle Rock, CO 80109 303-688-0599 ________________________

Gardener

Indoor

The

Indoor Gardener. The 3225 I-70 Business Loop Unit A10 Clifton, Colorado 81520 970-434-9999 ________________________ Indoor Garden Warehouse 8100 S Akron St., Suite 322, Centennial, CO 80112 720-496-2110 Garden Tech 737 Garden of the Gods Road, Colorado Springs, CO 80907 719-278-9777 Greenhouse Tech 917 East Fillmore, Colorado Springs, CO 80907 719-634-0637 Hydro Grow Supply 644 Peterson Road, Colorado Springs, CO 80915 719-596-2600 Purple Mountain Hydroponics LLC 1530 S Nevada Avenue, Colorado Springs, CO 80906 719-635-5859 Room To Grow LLC 422 South 8th Street Colorado Springs CO 80905 719-633-8682 Roots and Rocks Hydroponic and Organic Garden Supply 1014 S. 21st Street Colorado Springs, CO 80904 719-634-1024 ________________________

High Tech Garden Supply 5275 Quebec St. Commerce City, CO 80022 720-222-0772 _________________________

C

N-BR Y-

TS

Anything Grows 10607 W. River Street, Building 3 Suite C, Truckee, CA 96161 530-582-0479

Emerald Garden 307 East Perkins Street, Ukiah, CA 95482 707-463-2510

Specialty Garden Supply 7 Hangar Way Ste B Watsonville Ca 95075 831-768-0420 Evergreen Farm Feed and Garden 1131 Main Street Weaverville, CA 96093 530-623-2884

EN

Art of Hydro 2636 E. Thousand Oaks Blvd. Thousand Oaks, CA 91362 805-230-2227 ________________________ Green Thumb Lighting & Garden 1647 W. Sepulveda Boulevard, Unit 5, Torrance, CA 90501 888-326-GROW Los Angeles Hydroponics and Organics 3007-3009 W. Artesia Blvd. Torrance, CA 90504 310-323-4937

Hooked Up Hydroponics 339 S. Golden State Boulevard, Turlock, CA 95380 209-668-1300

ROC K

Golden Harvest Hydroponics & Garden Supply 8626 Lower Sacramento Road #48, Stockton, CA 95210 209-951-3550 M&M Garden Supply 2509 West Lane, Suite B Stockton, CA 95205 209-939-0664 Pacific Ave Indoor Garden Supply 4633 pacific Ave Stockton, CA 95207 209-955-0945

ON

I F E R, C

O

Grofax 25797 Conifer Rd #a-8 Conifer, Co 80433 303-838-5520 _________________________ Happy Grow Lucky

11873 Springs Rd. Conifer, CO 80433 1-303-838-8700 _________________________

Roll-N-Green Farms Horticultural Supply 25797 Conifer Rd #A-8 Conifer, Co 80433 303-838-5520 _________________________

Maximum Yield USA | January 2013

175


MAXIMUM YIELD distributors _________________________

Global Organics & Hydroponics 11 N Broadway Cortez CO 81321 970-564-8100 _________________________

Way To Grow

3201 E. Mulberry Street, Fort Collins, CO 80524 970-484-4769 _________________________

Joy of Growing

1410 Valley View Dr. Delta CO 81416 970 874 2550 _________________________

BWGS-CO 11685 E. 55th Avenue Denver, CO 80239 888-316-1306 _________________________

Chlorophyll 3801 Mariposa St. Denver CO 80211 303-433-1155 _________________________ Denver Hydroponic & Organic Center 6810 North Broadway, Unit D Denver, CO 80221 303-650-0091 Rocky Mountain Lighting and Hydroponics 1717 39th Ave Denver, CO 80205 800-58HYDRO The Grow Outlet 4272 Lowell Boulevard Denver, CO 80211 303-586-5543 Way To Grow 301 East 57th Ave. Denver, CO 80216 303-296-7900 _________________________

All Seasons Gardening 434 Turner Drive, Suite 2B Durango, CO 81303 (970) 385-4769 _________________________ Blue Sky Hydroponics 1301 Florida Road Unit C Durango, CO 81301 970-375-1238 DHL Garden Supply 178 Bodo Dr.Unit B Durango, Co 81303 970-247-1090 Grow Store South, The 5050 S. Federal Boulevard, #37, Englewood, CO 80110 303-738-0202 Rocky Mountain Lighting and Hydroponics 439 Edwards Access Rd Unit B101 Edwards, CO 81632 970-926-2100 Alpenglow Garden Supply 2712 South College Ave Fort Collins, CO 80525 970-266-8888 Bath Nursery & Garden Center 2000 E. Prospect, Fort Collins, CO 80525 970-484-5022 Gold Coast Hydroponics West 8101 S.W. Frontage Road Suite 300 Fort Collins, Colorado 80528 970-232-3220 Indoor Paradise Hydroponics 309 S. Summit View, Unit 17, Fort Collins, CO 80524-1462 970-221-3751

176

Hydro Shack, The 220 Main Street, Suite E Frisco, CO 80443 970-668-0359 _________________________ GWS Hydroponics 7025 Highway 82 Building 4B, Glenwood Springs, CO 81601 970-384-2040 Rocky Mountain Hydroponics and Organics 7800 Colorado 82 #203 Glenwood Springs, Colorado 81601 970-947-9551 Hydro Planet 711 Washington Avenue, Golden, CO 80401 303-279-6090 Rocky Mountain Hydroponics and Organics 15985 S. Golden Road Golden, CO 80401 720-475-1725 Desert Bloom Hydroponics 445 Pitkin Avenue, Grand Junction, CO 81501 970-245-6427 • 970-668-0359 _________________________

Primo Gardens 1600 North Ave. Suite B Grand Junction, CO 81501 970-241-1209 970-668-0359 _________________________ Greeley Nutrients 700 11th Street Unit 101 Greeley CO 80631 970 673 8302 Your Grow Bud 6801 South Emporia St. Suite 106 Greenwood Village, CO 80112 303-790-2211 GroWize 3225 S. Wadsworth Boulevard, Lakewood, CO 80227 303-986-2706 Grow Store, The 8644 W. Colfax Avenue, Lakewood, CO 80215 888-510-0350 _________________________

MileHydro 355 S. Harlan St. Lakewood CO 80226 303-935-4769 _________________________ Ever Green Hydroponics Inc. 1131 Francis Street, Suite A, Longmont, CO 80501 303-682-6435 _________________________

Ultra Lo Hydro ultralohydro.com 937-252-8224 _________________________

Victory Hydro Gardening 1387 E. South Boulder Rd. Louisville, CO, 80027 303-664-9376 _________________________

Maximum Yield USA | January 2013

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

Lyons Indoor Gardening 138 Main Street, Lyons, CO 80540 720-530-3828 Head Start Hydroponics & Organic Gardening Emporium 34500 US Highway 6, Unit B-9, North Edwards, CO 81632 970-569-313 Grow Depot 1434 W. 104th Ave. Northglenn, CO 80234 303-459-7878 Pueblo Hydroponicss and Organics - Downtown 113 W 4th St, Pueblo CO 81003 719 542 6798 Pueblo Hydroponics and Organics- South 2704 S Prarie Ave Suite C Pueblo CO 81005 719 564 2660 Pueblo Hydroponics and Organics 609 E Enterprise Dr Pueblo West CO 81007 709 647 0907 Salida Hydroponic Supply 1242 C Street Salida, CO 81201 719-539-4000 _________________________

Cultivate Hydroponics & Organics 7777 W. 38th Avenue, A120A, Wheat Ridge, CO 80033 303-954-9897 _________________________

 CONNECTICUT _________________________

CT Home Grown 45 South Canterbury Rd. Canterbury, CT 06331 860-546-6161 _________________________ Grow Crazy 11 Berlin Rd. Unit 2 Cromwell CT 06416 203-660-8486 Harvest Moon Hydroponics 775 Silver Lane, East Hartford, CT 06118 860-568-4067 LiquidSun® CT 10C South Main Street, East Windsor, CT 06088 860-254-5757 _________________________

Rogue Hydroponics 160 Broadway Hamden, CT 06518 866-277-4432 _________________________

Delaware Sunny Day Organics 1867 Coastal Hwy. Rehoboth Beach, Delaware MD 19917 302 703 2538 FLORIDA _________________________

Urban Sunshine 1420 E. Altamonte Dr. Altamonte Springs, FL 32701 407-830-4769 _________________________ Best Hydro 4920 Lena Road, Bradenton, FL 34211 941-756-1928 Palm Coast Hydroponics 4490 N Hwy US1 Ste. 108 Bunnell FL 32110 386 246 4119 _________________________

East Coast Hydroponics & Organics 461 Forrest Avenue, Suite 105 Coca, FL 32922 321-243-6800 _________________________

 GreenTouch Hydroponics Inc. 5011 S State Road 7, Suite 104 Davie, FL 33314 954-316-8815 Absolute Hydroponic Garden Center Inc 1607 Old Daytona Steet Deland, FL 32724 386-734-0696 Organic Grow Hut 2 780 Deltona Blvd. #107 Deltona, Florida 32725 1-888-574-grow 386-259-5777 Gold Coast Hydroponics 1539 SW 21st Avenue, Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33312 1-800-780-7371 _________________________

Biofloral 6250 NW 27th Way, Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33309 877 735 6725 _________________________ Green Thumb Hydroponics Supplies 13482 North Cleveland Avenue, Fort Meyers, FL 33903 239-997-4769 Gardener’s Edge Gainesville 5408 Northwest 8th Ave. Gainesville Florida 32605 352-375-2769 _________________________

Organix Hydroponics

749 Saybrook Road, (Tradewinds Plaza) Middletown, CT 06457 860-343-1923 _________________________

Good To Grow 335 Westport Avenue Norwalk, CT 06851 203 956 5600 www.goodtogrowct.com _________________________

Hydroponics International Inc. 7029-10 Commonwealth Avenue, Jacksonville, FL 32220 904-693-6554 _________________________

Florida Garden Supplies 2692 W 79 Street, Hialeah, FL 33016 1-800-931-5215 _________________________ Hydro Terra Corp. 924 North Federal Highway, Hollywood, FL 33020 954-920-0889 Simply Hydroponics & Organics (North) 3642 South Suncoast Boulevard, Homosassa, FL 34448 352-628-2655

Grower’s Choice & Hydroponics 11855 North Main Street, Jacksonville, FL 32218 904-683-4517 _________________________ Urban Organics & Hydroponics 5325 Fairmont Street, Jacksonville, FL 32207 904-398-8012 Simply Hydroponics & Organics 7949 Ulmerton Road, Largo, FL 33773 727-531-5355 GrowSmart Indoor Garden Centers 14587 Southern Boulevard, Loxahatchee, FL 33470 561-429-3527 Palm Beach Discount Hydroponics – West 14703 Southern Blvd. Loxahatchee, FL 33470 561 296 8555 Atlantic Hydroponics 430 Count Street, Melbourne, FL 32901 321-821-1535 _________________________

High Tech Garden Supply 2975 West New Haven Avenue, Melbourne, FL 32901 321-821-0853 ________________________ Advanced Hydro Gardens 4960 NW 165 Street, Suite B-4, Miami, FL 33014 866-97-HYDRO Blossoms Experience, The 7207 NW 54th Street, Miami, FL 33166 866-452-4769 _________________________

Florida Garden Supplies 9545 Sunset Drive, Miami, FL 33173 800-931-5215 _________________________ Future Farms Inc., The 14291 SW 120th Street, Suite 105 Miami, FL 33186 305-382-2757 Gold Coast Hydroponics 4241 SW 71st Avenue, Miami, FL 33155 1-800-780-6805 Growing Garden Inc., The

12811 SW 42nd Street, Miami, FL 33175 305-559-0309 VitaOrganix 7921 NW 67th St Miami, FL 33166 786 845 8633 3D Hydroponics and Organics 7139 US Highway #19, New Port Richey, FL 34652 727-847-3491 _________________________

Florida Garden Supplies 8442 Tradeport Drive, Unit 200, Orlando, FL 32827 _________________________


_________________________

Urban Sunshine 6100 Hanging Moss Rd ste 50 Orlando, FL 32807 407-647-4769 _________________________

Urban Sunshine 6142 S. Orange Ave Orlando, FL 32809 407-859-7728

_________________________

Green Winters Inc. 147 Tomoka Avenue, Ormond Beach, FL 32174 386-235-8730 800-931-5215 The Healthy Harvest Ste. 126 21113 Johnson St. Pembroke Pines, FL. 33029 954-538-1511 Eden Garden Supply 5044 N. Palafox Street, Pensacola, FL 32505 850-439-1299 Healthy Gardens and Supply of Florida, Inc. 196 East Nine Mile Road, Suite F, Pensacola, FL 32534 850-912-4545 _________________________

National Garden Wholesale/ Sunlight Supply 455 S. Andrews Avenue, Pompano Beach, FL 33069 877-649-3567 (Southeast) _________________________ Hydroponic Depot II 2395 S Tamiami Trail #19 Port Charlotte FL 33952 941 255 3999t EZ Grow Green 604 S.W. Bayshore Blvd. Port St. Lucie, Fl 34983 772-807-7755 Urban Sunshine Organic & Hydroponic Gardening 2841 South Nove Rd., Ste. 5 South Daytona, FL 32119 386-236-9989 386-492-6978 Mr. Nice Guy Hydroponics 1800 NW. Federal Hwy., Stuart, FL 34994 772 934 6785 Esposito Garden Center 2743 Capital Circle NE, Tallahassee, FL 32308 850-386-2114 Evershine Hydroponics

1519 Capital Circle NE Unit #35 Tallahassee FL 32308 850-765-0040 Grace’s Hydro-Organic Garden Center 8877 North 56th Street Tampa, FL 33617 813-514-9376 Harvest Time Hydroponics 14414 N. Florida Avenue, Tampa, FL 33613 813-264-7101 Hydroponics of Tampa 120 W. Bougain Villea, Tampa, FL 33612 813-333-6828 Stoney Hydro @ Schiro’s Barn n Garden Supplies 7812 Causeway Boulevard, Tampa, FL 33619 813-626-0902

_________________________

Worm’s Way Florida 4412 North 56th Street, Tampa, FL 33610 800-283-9676; 813-621-1792 _________________________

Alpha Hydroponics and Garden Supply Inc. 3904 N Druid Hills Rd. Suite 247 Decatur GA 30033 404 590 4769 Savannah Hydroponics & Organics 4107 Eighth Street, Suite C Garden City, GA 31408 912-349-4030 Atlantis Hydroponics 5182-B Brook Hollow Parkway, Norcross, GA 30071 770.558.1346

365 Hydroponics 13054 W Colonial Drive Winter Garden, FL 34787 407-656-GROW(4769) _________________________ Cultivating Eden Hydroponic Supplies 946 18th Avenue SW, Vero Beach, FL 32962 772-564-8880 _________________________

HAWAII Eco-Island Supply 810 Haiku Road, #394 Haiku, HI 96708 808-575-9171 Aqua Plant Hawaii / Kahala Hydroponics 4224 Wailae, Suite 1A, Honolulu, HI 96816 808-735-8665 Green Hands of Aloha 1713 Mary Street, Honolulu, HI 96819 808-847-4263 Ohana Greenhouse & Garden Supply 300 Hukilike Street, #2M, Kahalui, HI 96732 808-871-6393 Aiyah’s Garden 4558 kukui st. kapa’a, Hi. 96746 Aiyah’s Garden 3-3122 Kuhio Hwy. unit B-2 Lihue, Hi. 96766 808 245 2627 Pahoa Feed & Fertilizer 15-2754 Old Government Road, Pahoa, HI 96778 808-965-9955

Florida Garden Supplies 8020 Belvedere Road,Unit 4, West Palm Beach,FL 33411 800-931-5215 _________________________ Palm Beach Discount Hydroponics – East 968 North Congress Ave. West Palm Beach, FL 33409 561 296 6161

IDAHO Boise Hydroponics 614 North Orchard Street, Boise, ID 83706 208-344-3053 Four Seasons Garden Supply 6218 W Overland Rd Boise ID 83709 208-377-3030 Greenthumb Greenhouses 5895 Ensign Avenue, Boise, ID 83714

Monkey Hydroponics 940 West Oakland Ave. Unit A1 407-574-8495 _________________________

Happy Planet Hydroponics 1179 E. Alfred St., Tavares FL 32778 352-253-1001 _________________________

GEORGIA _________________________

Atlantis Hydroponics 1422 Woodmont Lane, #4, Atlanta, GA 30318 404-367-0052 _________________________ Flora Hydroponics, Inc. 1239 Fowler St. NW Atlanta, GA 30318 Flora Hydroponics Inc. 2475 Jefferson Road, Suite 600 Athens, GA 30607 866-404-0551 Flora Hydroponics, Inc. 195 Paradise Blvd. Athens, GA 30607 _________________________

Atlantis Hydroponics 2561 West Point Avenue, College Park, GA 30337 678-510-0032 _________________________

ILLINOIS Aerostar Global 824 South Kay Avenue, Addison, IL 60101 Brew and Grow 181 Crossroads Parkway, Bolingbrook, IL 60194 847-885-8282Let it Grow Carbondale West Main Street, Carbondale, IL 62908 573-450-5401 Versaponics.COM Box 166 West Main St. Carbondale, IL62901 573-450-5401 Alternative Garden Supply 615 Industrial Drive, Unit A Cary, IL 60013 800-444-2837 Brew and Grow 3625 N. Kedzi Avenue, Chicago, IL 60618 773-463-7430 Fertile Ground 463 West MacArthur Drive, Cottage Hills, IL 62018 618-259-5500 Brew and Grow- Crystal Lake 176 W. Terra Cotta Ave. Crystal Lake, IL 60014 815-301-4950

_________________________

Midwest Hydroganics 20647 Renwick Road, Crest Hill, IL 60403 815-838-0100 _________________________

Brew and Grow 359 W. Irving Park Road Unit E, Roselle, IL 60172 630-894-4885 Organic Garden Center 9223 Skokie Blvd. Skokie, IL 60077 847-675-2722 _________________________

Inc.

Goldman’s Grow Shop 910 Greenwood Road, Glenview, IL 60025 847-657-7250 _________________________

Grow Masters 4641 Old Grand Ave. Gurnee, Il. 60031 224-399-9877 _________________________ Big Grow Hydroponics 9225 Trinity Drive, Lake In The Hills, IL 60156 847-854-4450 Grow Big Hydroponics 7817 B North 2nd Street, Manchesney Park, IL 61115 815-637-4769 _________________________

Gardinside 618 S. Rt. 59 suite 104 Naperville, IL 60540 630-276-9885 _________________________ Green Fields 8137 N. Milwaukee, Niles, IL 60714 847-965-5056 _________________________

Autumn Bloom Alternative Indoor Gardening 1020 Derby Street Pekin, Illinois 61554 309-642-6943 _________________________ Grow Shop of Peoria 2621 N University Peoria, IL 61604 (309)-299-0953 wix.com/growshoppeoria/growshoppeoria GroUp Gardening 221 N. 5TH St. Pekin, IL 61554 309-349-4407 Aerogro 502 N Prospect suite 18 Bloomington, IL, 61704 Prairie House Garden Center 15151 South Harlem Avenue, Orland, IL 60462 708-687-3131 Brew and Grow 3224 South Alpine Road, Rockford, IL 61109 815-874-5700

Kreation’s Indoor Gardening Center 3427 Old Chatman Road, Springfield, IL 62704 217-341-0821 Kreation’s Indoor Gardening Center 2110 North Grand Ave Springfield , IL, 62702 217-341-0821 _________________________ Kentuckiana Hydroponic Garden Supply 632 Eastern Blvd, Unit B Clarksville IN, 47129 812-725-8005 kentuckianahydro.com Water Works Indoor Gardening 1900 South Dirksen Parkway, Springfield, IL 62703 217-553-6929 _________________________

Midwest Hydroganics 949 W Irving Park Rd. Streamwood IL 60107 630-483-1600 _________________________ INDIANA _________________________

BWGS-IN 1400 Hancel Pkwy., Mooresville, IN 46158 800-316-1306 _________________________ Sunleaves Garden Products 7854 North State Road 37, Bloomington, IN 47404 888-464-9676 _________________________

Worm’s Way Indiana 7850 North State Road 37, Bloomington, IN 47404 800-598-8158 _________________________

Worm’s Way Mail Order 7850 North State Road 37 Bloomington, IN 47404 800-274-9676 _________________________ Kentuckiana Hydroponic Garden Supply 632 Eastern BLVD, Unit B Clarksville, IN 47129 812-725-8005 www.kentuckianahydro.com

Maximum Yield USA | January 2013

177


MAXIMUM YIELD distributors Frogs Lilly Pad, The 706 Citation Road, Carmel, IN 46032 317-846-4610 Hops & Harvest 4616 E. DuPont Road, Suite Q, Fort Wayne, IN 46825 260-918-3035 Harvest Moon Hydroponics 1336 East Washington St. Indianapolis, IN 46202 317-780-8020 Magic Bulb Garden Center 6229 Allisonville Road, Indianapolis, IN 46220 317-202-2852 Maximum Grow Gardening 6117 E Washington Street, Indianapolis, IN 46219 317-359-GROW (4769) Next Generation Gardening & Hydroponics 6805 Madison Avenue Indianapolis, IN 46227 317-786-0066 www.nggandh.com _________________________

Five Point Gardens 56555 Oak Road, South Bend, IN 46619 574-287-9232 _________________________ KANSAS Green Circle Hydroponics 6890 W. 105th Street, Overland Park, KS 66212 913-642-3888 KENTUCKY Garden Grove Organics 29 East 7th Street, Covington, (Cincinnati Metro), KY 41011 859-360-1843 _________________________

Worm’s Way Kentucky 1360 Donaldson Hwy. Suite A, Erlanger, KY 41018 800-669-2088 _________________________ Grow Shop, The of Lexington 2320 Palumbo Drive, Suite 130, Lexington, KY 40509 859-268-0779 Louisville Hydroponics 3471 Taylor Boulevard, Louisville, KY 40215 502-366-4000 New Earth Garden Center 9810 Taylorsville Road, Louisville, KY 40299 800-462-5953 The Wine-N-Vine Inc. 1524 East McGalliard RD. Muncie IN. 47303 765) 282-3300 Bluegrass Organic Grow Shop 125 Quinn Dr., Nicholasville, KY 40356 859 887 0677 LOUISIANA Geaux Hydroponics! 2126 O’Neal Lane, Baton Rouge, LA 70816 225-751-4769

178

Laughing Buddha Nursery 4516 Clearview Parkway, Metairie, LA 70006 504-887-4336 Urban Organics 285 St. Claude Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70117 504-352-4709 Ourcrazydeals Hydroponics 201 Angus Drive, Yungsville, LA 70592 337-303-6146 MAINE The Urban Garden Center 600 Wilson St. Brewer, ME 04412 207-989-2020 LiquidSun of Maine 51West Gray Rd. Gray, ME 04039, 207-657-8033 Natures Palate Indoor Garden Store 1321 Mercer Rd ( rte2) Mercer, Maine 04957 877-587-4150 207-587-4150 _________________________

Evergreen Garden Center 301 Forest Ave Portland, ME 04101 207-761-2800

_________________________

High Tech Garden Supply Maine178 Rand Rd. Portland, ME 04102 Phone 207-899-4387 _________________________ The Urban Garden Center 659 Warren Ave Portland, ME 04103 1-207-347-2350Here We Grow 30 Parsons St. Presque Isle, ME 04769 207-SOY-BEAN (769-2326) Green Thumb Indoor Gardening 19 Stage Road, St. Albans, ME 04971 207-938-5909 New England Horticulture Supply 125 John Roberts Road Suite 1 South Portland, ME 04106 207-899-0510 newenglandhorticultersupply.com Urban Garden Center 235 Lewiston Road, Topsham, ME 04086 207-373-0990 Greenlife Garden Supply 611 US Rt. 1 York, ME 03909 207-363-0844 MARYLAND East Coast Organics 2800 Sisson Street, Baltimore, MD 21211 Healthy Gardens and Supply 5001-F Harford Road, Baltimore, MD 21214 443-708-5144 Maryland Hydroponics Inc. 10051 North 2nd Street, Laurel, MD 20723 301-490-9236 Meadowview Feed & Garden Center 1202 Meadowview Road, Pasadena, MD 21122 443-817-0018

Maximum Yield USA | January 2013

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

Maryland Hydroponics Inc. 12130 Nebel Street, Rockville, MD 20852 240-551-4625 Purple Mountain Organics 100-7010 Westmoreland Avenue, Takoma Park, MD 20912 877-538-9901 MASSACHUSETTS Grow it Green 122 Pulaski Boulevard Bellingham MA 02019 508-883-GROW Greenlife Garden Supply 481 Boston Road, Unit 4, Billerica, MA 01821 978-262-9966 GYOstuff – Grow Your Own 2400 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02140 617-945-1654 Harvest Moon Hydroponics 29 Washington Street, Route 1 Foxboro, MA 02035 800-660-6977 Here We Grow 123 Russell St. (Rt. 9) Hadley, MA 01035 413-584-FARM (3276) LiquidSun® MA 8 Lynwood Avenue, Holyoke, MA 01040 413-539-6875 _________________________

INDOOR GARDEN CENTER

Rootdown Hydroponics Indoor Garden Center 236 Mystic Ave. Medford MA 01255 781-874-1693 _________________________ Green Path Garden Supply 276 West Main Street, Northborough, MA 01532 508-393-4181 _________________________

Evergreen Garden Center 216 Newbury St. Peabody MA 01960 _________________________

MICHIGAN _________________________

Flo-N-Grow Hydroponics Co. 214 North 2nd Street Niles, MI 49120 (269) 683-1877 www.FNGhydro.com _________________________ Get Growing Urban Garden Centre 142 S. Main St Adrian MI 49221 U Can Grow Hydro 2247 W. Liberty Ann Arbor MI 48103 Hydro Vision 11820 Belleville Belleville, MI 48111 (734) 325-6210 Growers Outlet 7720 Clyde Park SW Byron Center, MI 49513 616-878-4444\

High Tech Garden Supply 560 Boston Turnpike (Rt.9) Shrewsbury, MA 01545 508-845-4477 _________________________

New England Hydroponics 15 D College Hwy. (Rt. 10), Southampton, MA 01073 888-529-9025 _________________________

Worm’s Way Massachusetts 121 Worc-Providence Turnpike, Sutton, MA 01590 800-284-9676 _________________________

Cultivation Station 3 Inc. 46912 Gratiot, Chesterfield, MI 48051 586-949-7453 _________________________ H2O Grow Supply 3364 Arent Ct Coloma, MI 49038 269-468-3890 Van Hydro

7480 N State, Davison, MI 48423 810-653-8267 The Grow Station 5670 Telegraph Rd. Dearborn, MI 48127 313-406-5147 800-797-4769 (GROW) _________________________

A Plus Hydroponics of Michigan LLC

9750 Cherry Valley Ave SE Caledonia MI 49316 (616) 891-0706 Absolute Hydro & Grow Centre 2583 Union Lake Rd., Commerce Township, MI 48382 248-937-8664 HydroMaster 36345 Groesbeck Hwy Clinton Twp, MI 48035 586-792-0277 Granny Green Thumbs 103 W. Grand River Flowerville MI 48836 517-223-1302 Hydro Grow Room 15201 N. Holly Road, Unit B Holly, MI 48442 248-369-8333 _________________________ Aric’s Indoor Garden Supply 611 Main st. Norway, Michigan 49870 (906)563-1518 _________________________

Hydroponics N More Garden Center

331 Centre Ave., Rockland, MA 02370 Tel: 781 421 3356 _________________________

________________________

Cultivation Station of Michigan Inc., The 6540 Allen Road, Allen Park, MI 48101 313-383-1766 _________________________ Gro Blue Indoor Gardening Supplies 270 W. Liberty Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48104 734-913-2750 Grow Show, The 4095 Stone School Rd. Ann Arbor, MI 48108 734-677-0009; 734-677-0509 HotHydro® 5245 Jackson Road, Suite F Ann Arbor, MI 48103 734-761-5040; 877-893-0716 Homelight Gardens 3471 S. Huron Road, Bay City, MI 48706 989-922-0088 J&L Growco 206 S. Michigan Avenue, Big Rapids, MI 49307 231-796-1528 Greenway Gardens 916 W 13th St Cadillac, Mi,49601 231-775-7075

Hydro Giant 14455 Ford Rd, Dearborn, MI _________________________

Cultivation Station – Eastern Market, The 2518 Market Street, Detroit, MI 48207 313-394-0441 _________________________

Hydro Giant 21651 W. 8 Mile Rd. Detroit, MI (8Mile & Lahser) 313-387-7700 313-216-8888 _________________________ Hydro Heaven 73647 W 8th Mile Road, Detroit, MI 48235 313-861-0333; 877-823-2076 _________________________

Ultra Lo Hydro ultralohydro.com 937-252-8224 _________________________

Urban Gardening Center, The 2520 22nd Street, Detroit, MI 48216 313-898-0200 _________________________

Superior Growers Supply 4870 Dawn Avenue, East Lansing, MI 48823 517-332-2663 _________________________ Sunnyside Hydroponics 24930 Gratiot Avenue, Eastpoint, MI 48021 586-777-2528


Hydro Vision 495 Fenway Dr. Fenton, MI 810-714-1719 _________________________

OÊFÊÊÊGÊAÊRÊDÊEÊNÊÊÊCÊIÊTÊY

The Grow Shop of Garden City 28505 Ford Road Garden City, MI 48135 734-956-5400 ________________________

Synthetic Sun Hydroponics, LLC 799 S. Wisconsin Avenue Gaylord, MI 49735 989-731-8800 _________________________

Growco Garden Supply 1042 Michigan Street, NE, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 877-939-6900 NEW 2nd LOCATION!

4640 West River Dr Comstock Park, Mi. 49321 _________________________ Home Grown Hydroponix 5333 Plainfield Suite C, Grand Rapids MI 49525, 616-361-2924 _________________________

Horizen Hydroponics 1614 Leonard Street, NW, Grand Rapids, MI 49504 866-791-1664 _________________________ It is Green Ville Gardens

11500 Morgan Mills Road NE Green Ville Michigan 48838 616-745-0500 www.greenvillegardens.com _________________________

Hydroharrys- HP 24047 Dequindre Road Hazel Park, MI 48030 248-541-0099 _________________________ Garden Doctor 2974 28th St. SW Grandville MI 49418 616-530-2500 _________________________ Hydro Grow Room 15201 N Holly Rd Unit B Holly MI, 48430 248-369-8333

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_________________________

Flower Factory, The 2223 East Highland Road Highland, MI 48356 248-714-9292 _________________________ Holland Hydroponic Outlet 587-40 East 8th Street, Holland, MI 49423 616-298-7395 HGR Garden Supply 15231 N. Holly Rd. Holly MI 48442 248 369 8333 ________________________

Superior Growers Supply Inc. 3928 West Saginaw Highway Lansing, MI 48917 517-327-1900 _________________________

Synthetic Sun Hydroponics, LLC 705 S., Loxley Houghton Lake, MI 48629 989-422-2800 _________________________ Hydro Vision 1247 e Grand River Howell, MI 48843 517-552-4965 _________________________

Superior Growers Supply, Inc. 2731 East Grand River Howell, MI 48843 517-376-6843 _________________________

Hills Hydro 700 Main St. Ste III Lapeer, MI 48446 810-245-8687 _________________________

Superior Growers Supply 292200 Seven Mile West Livonia, MI 48152 248-473-0450 _________________________ Northern Lights Hydroponic and Garden Supply 29090 Campbell rd. Madison Heights, MI 48071 248-439-6269. BIg Creek Hydroponics 555 Old Little Lake Road, Marquette, MI 49855 906-249-5297 Indoor Garden Center 236 Mystic Ave. Medford, MA 02155 781-874-1693 Stealth Hydro 14630 King Dr. Milan, MI 48160 734 961 4333 Big Blue Hydroponics 590 Ottawa St. Muskegon, MI 49441 231-571-9400

Green Forest Indoor Garden Supply, LLC. 2555 N. State(M-66) Rd. Ionia, MI 48846 616-523-6111 _________________________

High Tech Garden Supply 1745 West Main St. Kalamazoo, MI 49006 269-978-8697 _________________________ Horizen Hydroponics 4646 W. Main Street, Kalamazoo, MI 49006 269-567-3333 Kalamazoo Indoor Garden 450 W. Maple, Kalamazoo, MI 49001 269-344-2550 _________________________

High Tech Garden Supply 2815 East Grand River Ave. Lansing, MI 48912 (517) 580-0555 _________________________ Hills Hydro 1290 S. Lapeer Rd., Lake Onion, MI 48360 248-693-5747 Horizen Hydroponics 5425 W. Saginaw Highway Lansing, MI 48917 517-323-ROOT

Growing Consultant 2260 Apple Avenue, Muskegon, MI 49442 231-773-5600 Green Lantern H2O 1383 E. Laketon Ave Muskegon, Mi 49442 greenlanternh2o@yahoo.com www.greenlanternh2o.com 231-722-0420 Sunshine Supply Co. 5800 East Pickard Street, Mt. Pleasant, MI 48858 989-775-3700 Flo-N-Grow. 214 N. 2nd Street, Niles, MI 49120 269-683-1877 HGR Garden Supply 200 E. Main St, Owosso MI 48867 989 472 4999 Super Grow 288 W. MONTCALM PONTIAC, MI 48342 248-24SUPER (78737) Green Earth Hydroponics 8127 Portage Rd. Portage, MI 49002 269-342-4190 Hydroponics Highway Inc. 2708 14th Ave. Port Huron MI, 48060 810-982-4769 Hydro Vision 66783 Gratiot Ave. Richmond, MI 48062 586-430-1956

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Growers Edge 175 Marcell Dr Rockford MI 49341 _________________________ Hills Hydro 896 S. Rochester Rd. Rochester Hills, MI 48307 248-650-4937 Green Thumb Hydroponics and Organic Indoor Supply 8460 Algoma Suite G Rockford MI 49341 616 884 5500 _________________________

High Tech Garden Supply 28000 Groesbeck Highway Roseville, Michigan 48066 586-435-2335 _________________________ Home Grown Hydroponics 4880 Gratiot Rd., Ste # 2 Saginaw MI 48638 989 781 1930 _________________________

Superior Growers Supply, Inc. 5716 South Pennsylvania Avenue South Lansing, MI 48911 517-393-1600 _________________________ ________________________ Hydro Giant 19363 Eureka Rd, Southgate, MI 734.281.8888 _________________________

Cultivation Station of Michigan Inc., The 23529 Little Mack Avenue, St. Clair, MI 48080 586-775-9485 _________________________

High Tech Garden Supply 7889 Telegraph Road. Taylor, MI 48180 313-908-7554 _________________________ Hydro Grow, The 8210 Telegraph Road, Taylor, MI 48180 313-633-0641 Great Lakes Green Horticultural Supply 757 S. U.S. Highway 131 Three Rivers, MI 49093 269-278-130 Grow Store, The 90 N U.S. Highway 31 South , Traverse City, MI 49685-7923 231-421-5191

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High Tech Garden Supply 720 South Garfield Ave. Traverse City, MI 49686 231-668-6913 _________________________ Wild Child 7740 M 72 East Traverse City, MI 49690 866-711-GROW Hydro Vision 1910 West rd Trenton, MI 48183 734-301-3745 _________________________

Hydroharrys – WL 1138 E. West Maple Road Walled Lake, MI 48390 248-896-0099 _________________________ Beste's Indoor/Outdoor Garden Supply 21410 Schoenherr Warren, MI 48089 586 776-1794 Hydro King Indoor Garden Supply 32000 Van Dyke Ave Warren MI 48093 Indoor Garden Superstore 2570 Dixie Highway, Waterford Twp., MI 48328 248-673-2200; 877 22 HYDRO _________________________

Light Green Water 3661 Highland Road, Waterford, MI 48329 248-681-0001 _________________________ Bubonic Hydroponics 38540 Michigan Ave Wayne MI, 48184 734-331-2316 _________________________

Hydrospot 34236 Michigan Avenue, Wayne, MI 48184 734-722-1285 _________________________

Synthetic Sun Hydroponics, LLC 3218 W. Houghton Avenue West Branch, MI 48661 989-345-8800 _________________________ B&B Hydro Supply 28974 Warren Rd Westland MI 48185 G.C. II 1006 E. Colby St. Suite A Whitehall, MI 49417 231-893-2400 _________________________

Indoor Eden 9281 East-M 36 Whitmore MI 48189 810-355-1465 _________________________

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MAXIMUM YIELD distributors AAA Hydroponics LLC 22 50th Street Wyoming, MI 49504 616-249-8338 Urban Garden Supply 4516 Pasadena Ave. Flint, MI 48504 810-733-0420 Urban Garden Supply 3410 S. Dort Hwy Flint, MI 48507 810-875-9580 _________________________

Cultivation Station – Grand Rapids, The 4907 S. Division Ave., Wyoming, MI 49548 616-855-4440 _________________________

Stealth Hydro 15 E. Cross Street, Ypsilanti, MI 48198 866-998-1916 _________________________

The Grow Stop

7380 Highland Road Waterford, MI 48327 248-599-9231 _________________________ MINNESOTA Duluth Hydroponics 26 W 1st Street Duluth, MN 55802 218-341-7253 The Interior Tomato, LLC 519 N. Central Ave. Duluth, MN 55087 218-260-5167 www.theinteriortomato.com _________________________

Indoor Gardening 10 NE 3rd Street, Faribault, MN 55021 507-209-1546 _________________________ Brew and Grow 8302 Highway 65 NE., Minneapolis, MN 55432 763-780-8191 Interior Gardens 115 -1620 Central Avenue NE, Minneapolis, MN 55413 800-498-4178; 612-870-9077 _________________________

Midwest Hydroponics 5825 Excelsior Blvd., St. Louis Park,MN 55416 888-449-2739 _________________________ Eden Indoor Organic Gardens 831 Highway 75 North Moorhead, MN 56560 218-477-EDEN (3336)

180

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

_________________________

_________________________

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American Garden Supply 601-6th Avenue, North, Princeton, MN 55371 763-631-0543Q _________________________ Still-H2O Inc. 14375 North 60th Street, Stillwater, MN 55082 651-351-2822 Eco Garden Supply 800 Transfer Door 25 in rear St. Paul, MN 55114 651-647-1896

Green Thumb Organics 249 Mid Rivers Mall Drive, St. Peters, MO 63376 636-397-4769 (GROW) _________________________

Paradigm Gardens 8949 J Street, Suite 5, Omaha, NE 68127 402-339-4949 _________________________

MISSISSIPPI Indoor Garden Shop LLC 1310 Bienville Boulevard, Ocean Springs, MS 39564 228-875-3725 _________________________

Sunrise Garden Center

5173 W 4th St. Hattiesburg, MS USA Tel: 601 264 9300 matthew@sunrisegc.com www.sunrisegc.com _________________________ MISSOURI Versaponics LTD 879 South Kingshighway Cape Girardeau, Missouri 63703 573-450-5401 www.versaponics.com _________________________

HYDROGARDENS Heartland Hydrogardens 705 Vandiver Drive, Suite G Columbia, MO 65202 573-474-4769 _________________________ Grow Your Own Hydroponics 3617 Saint John Avenue, Kansas City, MO 64123 816-241-2122 _________________________

Grower’s Edge 175 Marcell Drive Rockford, MI, 49341 _________________________ Let It Grow - Springfield 2519 E. Kearney Street, Springfield, MO 65803 417-862-GROW U-Grow 1724 North, 13th Street, St. Louis, MO 63106 314-452-6368 _________________________

Worm’s Way Missouri 1225 North Warson Road, St. Louis, MO 63132 800-285-9676 _________________________

Maximum Yield USA | January 2013

MONTANA Heightened Harvests 3103 Harrison Ave. Butte, MT 59701 406-494-4222 Magic City Organic & Hydroponic Supply 812 Central Billings, MT 59102 406-245-LEAF(5323) One World – Life Products 906 Broadwater Billings MT 59101 406 839 9969 Heightened Harvests 3103 Harrison Avenue, Suite B Butte, MT 59701 Alpengrow Nursery Supplies 238 Highway 93 S., Eureka, MT 59917 406-882-4496 _________________________

Butteopia 127 Main Street, Butte, Montana 59701 1-406-782-8476 _________________________ Big Sky Garden Supply 528 West Idaho, Kallispell, MT 59901 406-755-1465 Box of Rain Indoor Garden Center 860 N. Meridian Road B-19, Kalispell, MT 59901 406-755-RAIN (7246) Cornucopia Grow Your Own 127 Stoner Creek Road Lakeside, MT 59922 406-709-1076 Dr. Green Thumbs 1106 West Park, Livingston, MO 59047 406-222-7440 Bizzy Beez LLP 5875 Highway 93 S, Whitefish, MT 59937 406-863-9937 NEBRASKA Bodhi Organic Garden Supply 1438 S1 St. Ste 6 Lincoln, NE 68502 402 438 6785 Patio-Ponics 3255 Cornhusker Highway, Suite 4 Lincoln, NE 68504 402-466-9218 _________________________

Advanced Hydro-Ponics 10711 Mockingbird Drive, Omaha, NE 68127 (108th and L-Q) 402-991-6630 _________________________

NEVADA Carson Valley Hydroponics 2520 Empire Ranch Road, Carson City, NV 89701 775-884-4769 Lorraine Ink 290 Spear Court, Fernley, NV 89408 775-575-7757 Hydro Store, The 1014 W. Sunset Road, Henderson, NV 89014 702-434-7365 AAA Indoor Organic Garden SuperCenter 2101 S. Decatur Boulevard, #21, Las Vegas, NV 89102 702-450-4769 ________________________

Advanced Gardens Hydroponics 3111 South Valley View, (on Desert Inn West of Valley View) Suite V103 Las Vegas, NV 89102 702-257-4769 _________________________ Advanced Gardens Hydroponics 7850 Dean Martin Dr. Suite 506 Las Vegas,NV 89139 702-247-4769 All American Hydroponics 2675 East Patrick Lane, Unit 8, Las Vegas, NV 89120 702-894-9888 Best Hydroponic Supply 6818 W Cheyenne, Las Vegas, NV 89108 702-750-9300 Grow Hydro Gardens 5870 s Decatur Suite 11 Las Vegas, NV 89148 702-997-7053 Local 866-568-4769 Toll Free GrowHydroGardens.com Hydro Store, The 7145 W. Ann Road, Las Vegas, NV 89130 702-434-9376 Nevada Hydroponics 4700 B Maryland, Suite 1, Las Vegas, NV 89119 702-798-2852 Anything Grows 190 West Moana Lane, Reno, NV 89509 775-828-1460 Everything Green Hydroponics Box 34869 Reno, Nevada 89533 The Hydro Store 121 Woodland Ave #160

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Hydro101 545 Hooksett Rd. #24 Manchester, NH 03104 603-782-8894 _________________________ Natural Roots Hydroponics 24 Crown St. Nashua NH 03060 603-204-5528 Four Seasons Horticulture Supply 2076 White Mountain Hwy. North Conway, NH 03860 603-733-5444 NEW JERSEY Garden State Hydroponics 511 Avenel Street, Avenel, NJ 07001 888-300-8711 Bergen County Hydroponics 70 Essex Street, Hackensack, NJ 07601 201-342-2001 _________________________

greentouch2 HYDROPONI C S

I NC .

Green Touch 2 Hydroponics Inc. 888 Route 33, Unit 1, Hamilton, NJ 08619 609-570-8829 _________________________ East Coast Horticultural Supply 1652 Hurffville Road, Sewell, NJ 08080 856-228-5290 77HYDRO 37 Fairfield Place, West Caldwell, NJ 07006 877-774-9376 Claraqua 4 Redwood Court, West Windsor, NJ 08550 NEW MEXICO AHL Year Round Garden Supply 1051 San Mateo Blvd. SE, Albuquerque, NM 87108 505-255-3677 _________________________

All Seasons Gardening 3600 Osuna Road, Suite 406 Alburquerque, NM 87109 505-508-4292 _________________________ Common Shaman 1319 San Mateo N.E., Albuquerque, NM 87110 505-255-6463 _________________________

Reno NV 89523 775-787-2760

NEW HAMPSHIRE Greenlife Garden Supply 885 Second Street Manchester, NH 03102 603-782 8259 www.greenlifegardensupply.com The Beez Kneez Garden Supply 180 Emerald St., Keene, NH 03431 603-903-1488 info@thebeezkneezgardensupply.com www.thebeezkneezgardensupply.com

All Seasons Gardening 1228 Parkway, Suite E Sante Fe, NM 87507 505-438-GROW _________________________ Santa Fe Hydroponics 821 W. San Mateo Road, Suite 4, Santa Fe, NM 87505 505-467-8454


NEW YORK Organica: Garden Supply & Hydroponics 296 Delaware Ave., Albany, NY 12209 518-618-7666 The Grow Room 32-32 49th Street Astoria, NY 11103 718-218-GROW (4769) Saratoga Organics & Hydroponic Supply 19 Front Street, Ballston Spa, NY 12020 518-885-2005; 800-850-4769 The Grape Vine 4020 Hempstead Turnpike Bethpage,NY,11714 516-731-1100 Bronx Hydro & Garden 39 Bruckner Boulevard, Bronx, NY 10454 718-993-3787 Bklyn Hydro & Garden 316 McGuiness Blvd Brooklyn NY 11222 718-383-0095 Brooklyn Farms 51Hicks Street St. Brooklyn, NY 11231 347-725-3491 Indoor Outdoor Gardener 8223 5th Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11209 718-836-2402 Hydroponics of Buffalo 1497 Hertel Avenue, Buffalo, NY 14216 716-838-3545 Harvest Moon Hydroponics 340 West at 59, Central Nyack, NY 10960 California Hydroponics 27 Corporate Circle, East Syracuse, NY 13057 315-432-9387 Upstate Hydroponics 2026 Lake Rd unit B Elmira, NY 14903 607-483-9199 _________________________

FutureGarden Inc. 59 Central Avenue, Farmingdale, NY 11735 516-420-0884 _________________________ Sunflower Supplies, LLC 176-18 Central Ave Farmingdale, NY 11735 631-651-8281 East Coast Hydroponics 14649 Horace Harding Exp, Flushing, NY 11367 718-762-8880 Healthy Harvest Organics and Hydro 163 Broadway, Fort Edwart, NY 12828 518-480-4698 Saratoga Organics & Hydroponic Supply 10 Saratoga Ave S. Glen Falls, NY 12803 518-798-820 Greentree Garden Supply 606 Elmira Rd. Ithaca, NY 14850 607-272-3666 Mike’s Nursery and Grower Supplies 199 E. Fairmount Ave, Lakewood, NY 14750 716-763-1612 Hudson Valley Hydroponics 217 Route 32 North, New Paltz, NY 12561 845-255-3633

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The Green Box 495 9th Avenue NY NY 10018 212 967 4777 thegreenboxhydro.com _________________________ Sunlight Solutions Hydroponics 2045 Niagara Falls Blvd, Suite 13 Niagara Falls, NY 14304 888-GROWBOX The Grow Room 8 Bridge Street, Nyack, NY 10960 800-449-9630 Revolution Hydroponics 309 West State St. Olean NY 14760 716.373.Grow (4769) Mor Gro Hydroponics 5680 State Route 104 E Oswego , NY 13126 315-877-8725 Environmental Gardens 8 John Walsh Boulevard, Suite 310 Peekskills, NY 10566 800-254-0507; 914-736-6676 Harvest Moon Hydroponics Henrietta Townline Plaza, 3047 West Henrietta Road, Rochester, NY 14623 716-865-7353 Hydro Garden Center 1069B Lyell Avenue, Rochester, NY 14606 1-800-277-1322 Sunset Hydroponics & Home Brewing 1590 West Ridge Road, Rochester, NY 14615 866-395-9204 KG Garden Supply 4575 Commercial Drive New Hartford, NY 13413 877-KG-HYDRO LiquidSun of New York 1702 Fiero ave Rotterdam, NY 12150 518-952-4654 Hydroponics Shops of America 2606 Erie Boulevard, Syracuse, NY 13224 315-251-2516 _________________________

Green Zone Hydroponics 2148 Niagara Falls Blvd. Tonawanda, NY. 14150 716-693-9663 _________________________ Harvest Moon Hydroponics 147 Fourth Street, Troy, NY 10960 Follow The Sun 1185 B Yonkers Ave Yonkers, N.Y 10704 914-237-2760 NORTH CAROLINA Advanced Hydroponic Garden 55 Shiloh Road #6 Asheville, NC 28803 1 (828) 277-3488Fifth Season Gardening Company 21 B Westside Dr. Asheville NC 28806 828-225-5007 Fifth Season Gardening Company 45 Banks Avenue, Asheville, NC 28801 828-253-4112

Fifth Season Gardening Company 106 South Greensboro Street, Carrboro, NC 27510 919-932-7600 ________________________

BWGS-NC 4045 Perimeter West Drive,Suite 400, Charlotte, NC 28214 800-316-1306 ________________________

High Tech Garden Supply 2712 B Freedom Drive Charlotte, NC 28208 704-697-0911 ________________________ Flow & Grow Hydroponics & Organic Garden Center 4521 Cumberland Road, Fayetteville, NC 28306 910-423-FLOW (3569) Fifth Season Gardening Company 1616 D-3 Battleground Avenue, Greensboro, NC 27408 336-271-3373 Good Harvest Garden Center 629 Oakridge Farm Hwy. Mooresville NC 28115 704-658-9136 Fifth Season Gardening Company 5619-A Hillsborough Street, Raleigh, NC 27606 919-852-4747 New Age Gardens 2236A US Highway 70, Swannanoa, NC 28778 828-299-9989 _________________________

All Season Hydroponics 890 South Kerr Avenue, Wilmington, NC 28410 _________________________ Progressive Gardens 6005 Oleander Drive, Wilmington, NC 28403 910-395-1156 OHIO Akron Garden Center 434 W Wilbeth Road, Akron, OH 44314 330-724-2700 Summit Hydroponics 1030 Kenmore Boulevard Akron, OH 44314-2114 330-753-5222 _________________________

Purely Hydroponic, LLC 1507 Lear Industrial Pkwy. Avon, OH 44011 866-787-5060 _________________________ Campbells Indoor Gardening Supplies 1721 Greenville Road Bristolville, OH 44402 330-889-0049 Magic Home Gardens 209 Cemetery Road, Canal Winchester, OH 43110 614-837-2440

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CincyPonics 3314 Harrison Ave. Cincinnati, Ohio 45211 513-661-3886 ________________________ Dumont Seed Co. 619 30th ST. N.W. Canton, ohio 44709 330-492-0204 Dayton Hydroponics 4920 Provident Drive Cincinnati, Ohio 45246 513-942-7111 Eastside Hydroponics 834 Ohio Pike #318 Cincinnati, Ohio 45245 513-528-4769 Eastside Hydroponics 550 Ohio Pike #136 Cincinnati, OH 45255 513-528-GROW Kissed by the Sun Hydroponic 10740 Reading Road, Cincinnati, OH 45241 513-769-0159 Cleveland Garden Center Inc. 727 East 185th Street, Cleveland, OH 44119 216-481-7868 Grow Wizard, The 5700 Denison Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44102 216-961-2500 Herb-N-Garden Center 14901 Puritas Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44135 216-252-2001 Garden Indoors of Ohio 4720 Indianola Avenue, Columbus, OH 43214 800-833-6868 Magic Home Garden 4538 Indianola Avenue, Columbus, OH 43214 614-263-2440 Miami Valley Hydro 8220 N. Dixie Dr. Dayton OH 45414 937-280-4468 Gardening-Indoor 5851 Youngstown-Warren Rd. Niles, OH 44446 USA 330-932-1023 Garden Connections 3341 Centerpoint Dr. Grove City OH 43123 614 871 0707 Advanced Hydrorganics Indoor Garden Center 5204 Darrow Road, Hudson, OH 44236 234-380-1287 Sweet Greens 5540 Brecksville Road Independence, OH 44131 800-421-7084 _________________________

Hydro Gardens Wholesale 1144 N Memorial Drive Lancaster, OH 43130 855-210-5599 _________________________ Carefree Garden Center 134 West Drive, Lodi, OH 44254 330-302-4203

CropKing 134 West Drive, Lodi, OH 44254 330-302-4203 USA Hydrogarden 7450 Industrial Pkwy, Ste. A Lorain, Ohio 44053 440-282-4880 The Grow Shop 165 Davids St. Marion OH 43302 740-223-7467 _________________________

Urban Gardens 671 E. Center Street Marion, OH 43302 740-375-2800 _________________________ Top Garden Products 8600 East Avenue Suite C. Mentor, OH 44060 440-290-8773 Green Garden Indoor Garden Center 1664 North Main St. N. Canton, OH 44720 330-494-1234 Pet Finatics LLC 3150 Navarre Ave Suite A Oregon OH 43616 Indoor Gardens 1222 Hill Road, North, Pickerington, OH 43147 614-866-6065 _________________________

Trinity Hydro Organics 465 Woodman Drive Riverside, OH 45431 937-252-GROW _________________________ 4 Ever Green Grow Shop 5228 Detroit Rd. Sheffield, Ohio 44035 440-934-2664 Toledo Hydroponics Ltd. 855 S. Holland-Sylvania Road, Suite 2 Toledo, OH 43615 877-893-0716 Organic Garden Center

5215 Monroe St. Toledo OH 43623 419-517-8110 Hot Hydro ®

855 S. Holland-Sylvania Rd. #2 Toledo, Ohio 43615 419-866-1266 _________________________

Plant Lighting Hydroponics 2201-A Pinnacle Parkway Twinsburg, OH 44087 888-258-0670 _________________________ Greenleaf Hydroponics 1805 Elm Road, Warren, OH 44483 330-372-1039 Dayton Hydroponics 3856 Miamisburg-Centerville Road, West Carrolton, OH 45449 937-859-3999

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MAXIMUM YIELD distributors Gardening-Indoor 9215 Market St. Youngstown (North Lima) OH 44452 330 758 0272

Anthony’s Garden & Light Supply 93779 B Troy Lane, Coos Bay, OR 97420 541-266-8822

Indoor Garden Worx 906 Blue Avenue, Zanesville, OH 43701 866-900-9679

Corvallis Hydroponics & Organics 5490 SW Philomath Boulevard, Corvallis, OR 97333 541-738-2820 _________________________

OKLAHOMA Tulsa County Hydro-Organics 1928 W. Albany, Broken Arrow, OK 74012 918-259-HYDRO AAAAHA! Hydroponics Unlimited P.O. Box 74, Oakhurst, OK 74050 Organics OKC Garden Supply 2800 N Pennsylvania Avenue, Oklahoma City, OK 73107 405-528-GROW The OKC Urban Gardener 3711 N. Western Ave. Oklahoma City, OK 73118 405-521-9300 Urban Garden 3141 E. 15th Street, Tulsa, OK 74104 918-289-0018 OREGON _________________________

Aqua Serene 465 Applegate Way, Ashland, OR 97520 541-482-7600 _________________________

Astoria Indoor Garden Supply 1343 Duane St. Unit C Astoria OR 97103 503 468 0606 _________________________ Rogue Silicates Inc. POB 21, Azalea, OR 97410 541-837-8590 American Agriculture

9966 SW. Arctic Dr. Beaverton OR 97005 503 641 3500 B.I.G.S. 155 SW Century Drive, Suite 401, Bend, OR 97702 541-385-5222 Herb N’ Jungle Hydroponics 930 SE Textron Drive, Bend, OR 97702 541-382-4010 Northern Light and Garden Beaverton 9290 SW Beaverton-Hillsdale Highway, Beaverton, OR 97005 503-297-7331 Westcoast Organic and Hydroponic Supply 12410 SE 282nd Avenue, Unit C Boring, OR 97009 503-766-4106 The Good Earth Organics 30088 Redwood Highway, Cave Junction, OR 97523 541-592-4496

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Aqua Serene 2836 W. 11th Avenue, Eugene, OR 97402 541-302-9073 _________________________

Aurora Innovations PO Box 22041, Eugene, OR 97402 866-376-8578 _________________________ SunInside Gardening Co. 665 Conger, Unit F, Eugene, OR 97402 541-686-9966 Advanced Indoor Gardens 17831 se 82nd drive Gladstone, OR 97027 503 305 6341 Northern Light and Garden Grants Pass 1203 Rogue River Highway, Grants Pass, OR 97527 541-474-1700 Paradise Supply LLC 560 NE. “F” Street, Unit C, Grand Pass, OR 97526 541-955-7293 Vital Organix 932-B SE “M” Street Grants Pass, OR 97526 541-226-9283 _________________________

Oregon Rainforest Co. 19949 E. Burnside Street, Gresham, OR 97233503-465-9909 _________________________

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

Green Thumb Hydrogarden and Organic Supply 2021 West Main Street, Medford, OR 97501 541-779-8600 Growing Crazy (Hooked On Hydroponics) 817 W. 2nd Street, Medford, OR 97501 _______________________

In & Out Gardens 1574 Skypark Drive Medford, OR 97501 541-858-3333 _________________________ Ladybug Indoor Gardens 3960 W. Main Street, Medford, OR 97501 541-618-4459 Advanced Organics & Garden Supply 290- B Merlin Avenue Merlin, Oregon 97532 541-659-1466 H2organic LCC 620 NE 3rd Street, McMinnville, OR 97128 503-434-6107 _________________________

Wizard’s Garden, LLC 621 Spruce Street, Unit C, Myrtle Point, OR 97458 541-572-2333 _________________________ Green Zone Garden Center & Hydroponic Supplies

454 S.W. Coast Hwy Newport OR 97365 USA 541-265-8252 _________________________

Garden Supplies

Gorilla Garden Supply 2011 Union Ave, North Bend, OR 97459 541-756-5005 _________________________ Green Garden Indoor Garden Center

1664 North Main St. N. Canton, OH 44720 330-494-1234 _________________________

Healthy Harvest 1635 SE Tualatin Valley Hwy., Hillsboro, OR 97123 503-640-0995 _________________________

In & Out Gardens 93484 Hwy 99 South Junctin City OR 97448 541-234-2342 _________________________ Basin Indoor Gardening 417 N. Spring St. Klamath Falls, OR 97601 541-273-2023 Green Zone Garden Center & Hydroponic Supplies

1845 S W Hwy. 101 Ste. 3 Lincoln OR 97367 USA 541 994 7070 H2organic LCC 620 NE 3rd Street, McMinnville, OR 97128 503-434-6107

Maximum Yield USA | January 2013

Everybody’s Garden Center 2701 SE 14th Avenue, Portland, OR 97202 800-669-5483 Garden Spout, The 4532 South East 63rd Avenue, Portland, OR 97206 503-788-4769 Homegrown Garden Supply 7112 NE Gilsan Street, Portland, OR 97213 877-EZ2-GROW Island Flowers & Indoor Garden Center 909 N. Tomahawk Island Drive, Suite 103, Portland, OR 97217 503-546-3185 Lights Distributing 9843 SW 55th Avenue, Portland, OR 97219 Rain or Shine

13126 NE Airport Way, Portland, OR 97230 503-255-1981 Roots Garden Supply 5426 North Gay Avenue, Portland, OR 97217 503-285-4768 Urban Flora 2865 South East, Portland, OR 97214 503-236-3344 BIGS Warehouse 2606 SW 4th Street, Unit B Redmond, OR 97756 541-504-8886 Indoor Garden Supply

536 SW 6th Street (rear alley), Redmond, OR 97756 541-504-7750 DC Hydroponics & Organics 7275 Green Siding Rd. Roseburg, OR 97471 541-679-3700 Roseburg Hydroponics 853 SE Stephens Street, Roseburg, OR 97470 541-229-1420 Indoor Garden Center 1697 SE 25th Street, Salem, OR 97302 503-566-7888 Northern Light and Garden Salem 1915 Lancester Drive, Salem, OR 97305 503-364-4769 Cascade Horticulture 39570 Pioneer Boulevard, Sandy, OR 97055 503-668-8242

Indoor Garden Depot 3260 SE Oak Grove Blvd., Oak Grove, OR 97267-1421 503-786-2445 _________________________ American Agriculture

9220 SE Stark St. Portland OR 97216 800-433-6805 Bloom Garden Supply 518 NE 20th Ave. Portland, OR 97232 971-255-1336 _________________________

BWGS-OR 18201 NE Portal Way, Ste. 104 Portland, OR 97230 888-316-1306 _________________________

PENNSYLVANIA Pocono Hydroponic Solutions 25 Route 611 Bartonsville, PA 18321 570-730-4544 Green Solutions Hydroponics 1700 Orange Street Berwick, PA 18603 570-752-1530 Garden Indoors of Pennsylvania 208 Route 13, Bristol, PA 19007 800-227-4567 422 GROW 1775 North Main Street Extension Butler, PA 16001-1327 724-561-3777 ________________________

Moonshine Park Farm 135 South East 62nd, Unit F South Beach, OR 97366 541-444-2298 J-N-B Hydro 2 Go 155 West Central Avenue, Sutherlin, OR 97479 541-459-9211 Samurai Greenhouse Supply 32067 Old Hwy. 34 Tanget, OR 97389 541-928-3431 Grow America Garden Supply LLC 11511 SW Pacific Highway, Tigard, OR 97223 503-841-6868 Pharmer Hydroponics 11135 SW Industrial Way Bldg 10-4 Tualatin, OR 97062 503-486-5751

High Tech Garden Supply 20232 Route 19, Unit 6, Cranberry Twp., PA 16066 724-473-1113 ________________________ New Moon Indoor Garden Supply 20550 Route 19 Perry Highway, Cranberry Twp., PA 16066 724-591-8086 Home Hydroponics of Pittsburgh 830 Route 119, Greensburg, PA 15601 724-836-1118 Buds to Blooms Garden and Supply Co., LLC 509 Orchard Avenue Kennett Square, PA 19348 484-860-8056 _________________________

The Companion Plant 363 E. Main St Kutztown, PA 19530 610-683-9676 _________________________ Flairform PO 1417, Lansdale, PA 19446 215-395-6353 _________________________

RH Distribution PO 1417, Lansdale, PA 19446 888-545-8112 _________________________ Esbenshades Greenhouses 546A East 28th Div Hwy Lititz Pa 17543 717-626-7007 Hydro Ponics of Harrisburg 310 South 10th Street, Lemoyne, PA 17043 877-684-3808 Always Green Garden Supply 4400 Old William Penn Hwy Ste. 106 Monroeville PA 15146 412-646-1243 New Stanton Hydro 150 Post Ave. New Stanton, PA. 15672 724-635-0297 Hydrofarm East 270 Canal Road Fairless Hills, PA 19030 888-780-4567 The Companion Plant 363 E. Main St Kutztown, PA 19530 610-683-9676


Esbenshades Greenhouses 546A East 28th Div Hwy Lititz Pa 17543 717-626-7007Full Bloom Hydroponics 84 South 24th Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15203 888-872-3602 Gardening-Indoor 20550 Rt. #19 Cranberry Twp. Pitsburgh PA 16066 724 591 8086 Home Hydroponics of Pittsburgh 2008 Smallman Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15222 412-232-7030 Healthy Gardens and Supply 1012 Lincoln Avenue, Prospect Park, PA 19076 866-32-HYDRO Northeast Hydroponics & Homebrewing

221 Scranton Carbondale Hwy. Scranton PA 18508 570-209-7924 Full Time Garden Supply

1011 Ritner Highway Shippensburg PA.17257 717-477-0350 www.fulltimegardensupply.com Home Hydroponics of Pittsburgh 9 North Main St. Washington, PA 15301 724-222-0200 Western Pennsylvania Innovative Gardening 1177 Pittsburgh Road, Suite 103 Valencia, PA 16059 724-903-0800 Organic Garden Center 800 Washington Blvd. Williamsport, PA 17701 570-322-3120 _________________________

National Garden Wholesale/ Sunlight Supply 450 Grim Lane, York,PA 17406 877-779-7111(Northeast) _________________________ PA Hydroponics & Home Gardening Supply 20 Quaker Church Road, York Springs, PA 17372 717-528-4175 RHODE ISLAND Oakworld Garden Center 39 West Street, Barrington, RI 02806 401-245-5705 Solar Seed Hydroponics, Inc. 2406 Putman Pike, Chepachet, RI 02814 401-710-9010 Organically Grown 768 Atwood Ave Cranston, RI 02920 401-944-0549 Hydro-Earth 1243 Mineral Springs Avenue, North Providence, RI 02904 401-305-5520 The Organic Grow Hut 375 Putnam Pike- Ste 13 Smithfield, RI 02828 401-349-4141 South County Hydroponics 51 Old Tower Hill Road, Wakefield, RI 02879 401-783-1733 Mother Nature Hydroponics 1268 Post Rd. Warwick RI 02888 401-780-0600

LiquidSun® RI 1179 Central Avenue, Pawtucket, MA 02861 401-722-2724 _________________________

Good To Grow 34 Nooseneck Hill Road, West Greenwich, RI 02817 401-392-3100 _________________________ Growin’ Crazy 93 Kingston Road Wyoming, Rhode Island 02898 401-284-0810 SOUTH CAROLINA GreenSpirit Hydrogarden 1864 Meeting Street, Charleston, SC 29405 843-225-1GRO Skyes the Limit 455 B Fleming Rd. Charleston, SC 29412 843-566-2121 www.skyesthelimitsc.com 247 Garden Supply 535 D Clemson Road, Columbia, SC 29229 803-788-4445 The Urban Garden Hydroponics 9557 Two Notch Rd. Ste. E Columbia, SC 29223 803-788-9313 Okatie Organics and Hydroponics 138 Short Cut Rd. Ridgeland SC 29936 _________________________

All Season Hydroponics 1350 Hwy. 501 Business, Store 3&4 Conway, SC 29526 843-347-9266 _________________________ Green Thumb Unique Gardening & More 1230 Rutherford Road, Greenville, SC 29609 864-271-8830 _________________________

Greenspirit Hydrogardens 3600 Unite 1 Hwy.17 S. North Myrtle Beach, SC 29582 843-361-7777 _________________________ SOUTH DAKOTA

Green Earth Products Inc. 5700 Highway 79 S.,Unit 1, Rapid City, SD 57702 605-342-1307 _________________________ TENNESSEE Innovative Hydroponic Supply Inc. 3286 North Park Blvd. Unit G Alcoa TN 37701 865 984 0280 Atlantis Hydroponics 1800 Rossville Avenue, #3, Chattanooga, TN 37408 423-752-5400 Advanced Hydroponic Garden 783 French Mill Road, Dandridge, TN 37725 800-521-1643 Perpetual Harvest 75 Riverport Drive, Jackson, TN 38301 877-422-3391

Advanced Hydroponic Garden 6912 Clinton Highway, Knoxville, TN 37921 866-938-3318 Sun City Hydroponics 2235 Whitten Road, Suite 104, Memphis, TN 38133 901-372-8100 _________________________

National Garden Wholesale/ Sunlight Supply 126 Belinda Parkway, Mt. Juliet, TN 37122 888-265-9005 _______________________ All Seasons Gardening and Brewing Supply Co. 924 8th Avenue, South, Nashville, TN 37203 800-790-2188 _________________________

Worm’s Way Tennessee 901 Main Street, Nashville, TN 37072 800-397-4153 _________________________ TEXAS Abundant Harvest Hydroponics & Organics 3101 Avenue E East, Arlington, TX 76011 817-649-0100 Brite Ideas Hydroponics & Organics 4360 S.Congress Avenue, #310, Austin, TX 78745 512-444-2100 Texas Hydroponics & Organics (Central Austin) 5126 Burnet Road, Austin, TX 78756 512-459-4769 Texas Hydroponics & Organics (South Austin) 2125-A Goodrich Avenue, Austin, TX 78704 512-440-4769 Third Coast Horticulture Supplies 7010 Burnet Rd., Ste.A Austin, TX 78757 512 459 4353 Happy Harvest Hydroponics & Organic 1500 C rescent Drive, Suite 202 Carrollton, TX 75006 972-466-1300 GroGreen Hydroponics 4015 Main Street, Dallas, TX 75226 214-370-9984 Jolly Green Hydroponics (Greenhouse Horticultural Supplies) 13628 Neutron Road, Dallas, TX 75244 866-WE-JOLLY; 469-341-5555 Lone Star Hydroponics and Organics 1302 Motor Circle, Dallas, TX 75207 214-634-9376 Texas Hydroponics & Organics (Dallas) 3400 Elm Street, Dallas, TX 75226 214-744-4769 _________________________

Organic Garden & Feed 3801 N Interstate Hwy 35,Suite126, Denton Texas 76207 940-381-9890 _________________________

Earth Organics 1360 Lee Trevino Drive,Suite 105 El Paso, TX 79936 915-591-9500 Hydrofarm Central 950 Avenue S Grand Prairie, TX 75050-1133 800-634-9999 Airline Hydroponics P.O. Box 980904, Trader’s Village #363, Houston, TX 77098 713-942-0484 Botani Garden 15120 Bellaire Blvd Houston, TX 77083 281-575-1999 Houston Discount Hydroponics 9384 Richmond Avenue, Houston, TX 77063 713-464-9406 Hydroponic Nation 9001 Frey Road Houston TX 77034 713-943-1115 In-N-Out Garden Supply 11011 S Wilcrest Drive Ste K Houston, TX 77099 281-568-5265 Texas Hydroponics & Organics (Houston) 7730 A Park Place Boulevard, Houston, TX 77087 713-641-4769 Ultimate Hydroponic Garden Supply 6125 West Sam Houston Parkway, North Suite 206 Houston, TX 77041 713-856-8425 Texas Growers Supply 5990 N. Sam Houston Pkwy. E. #602, Humble, TX 77396 281-441-3739 Field of Dreams Indoor Growing Supplies 5302 Slide Road Unit B,Lubbock, TX 79414 806-793-2901 Hydro Mart 3841 Main Street, Rowlett, TX 75088 972-475-6114 Brite Ideas Hydroponics & Organics 5121 Crest Way Dr., Ste. 203 San Antonio, TX 78239 210-248-9309 www.bihydro.com _________________________

Sol Organics & Hydroponics 1634 Babcock Road, San Antonio, TX 78229 210-366-9082 _________________________

VERMONT Greenthumb - Vermont 394 Route 15, Jericho, VT 05465 802-899-4323 Peak Hydroponic Garden Supplies 20 School Street, Plainfield, VT 05667 802-454-8000 LiquidSun® VT 1 Bellows Falls Road, (Route 5 North) Putney, VT 05158 802-387-1100 Green Thumb Gardening P.O. Box 235, Route 15, Underhill, VT 5489 800-564-9376 VIRGINIA Fifth Season Gardening Co. 900 Preston Ave. Charlottesville VA 22903 434-293-2332 Clean & Green Technologies 196 Corning Drive, Christiansburg, VA 24073 866-694-1628 I Love Hydroponics 612 N. Sheppard Street, Richmond, VA 23221 804-377-3020 Lucky Roots 612 North Sheppard St. Richmond, VA 23221 804-377-3020 Blue Ridge Hydroponics & Home Brewing Company The Williamson Road Plaza, 5327 D Williamson Road Roanoke, VA 24012 540-265-2483 Inside-Out Garden Supply 6517 Backlick Road, Springfield, VA 22150 703-451-3259 I Love Hydroponics 368 Newtown Road, #105, Virginia Beach, VA 23462 757-490-5425 Hydroponics & Growlights 13400 Occoquan Road, Woodbridge, VA 22191 703-490-0700 West VIRGINIA Panhandle Hydroculture 800 East Moler Ave. Martinsburg, WV 25401 304-240-7587 Almost Heaven Hydroponics 3476 University Ave., Morgantown, WV 26505 304-598-5911 WASHINGTON _________________________

Innergrow Hydroponics

24451 Interstate Highway 20, Wills Point, TX 75169 866-475-4769 UTAH Wasatch Hydroponics 4050 South Howick, Suite 11E, Salt Lake City, Utah 84107 801-716-4133 _________________________

Salt Lake Plant & Hydro 60 West 3300 S. #6 South Salt Lake, UT 84115 801-488-3200 _________________________

Island Horticulture Supply 8608 S March Point Rd. Anacortes WA 98221 360 293 0000 _________________________ Mike’s Indoor Garden Supply 6121 172nd Street NE #A, Arlington, WA 98223 360-474-1900 Belfair Garden & Lighting 24090 NE State Route 3 #F Belfair,WA 98528 360-275-2130 Green Gardens Distributing 12738 Bel-Red Road, Bellevue, WA 98005 425-454-5731

Maximum Yield USA | January 2013

183


MAXIMUM YIELD distributors Northern Lights Gardening 4159 Hannegan Road, Bellingham, WA 98225 360-715-8585

_________________________

Liquid Sunshine Hydroponics 5087 Lincoln Road, Blaine, WA 98230 Kitsap Garden & Lighting 2130 6th Street, Bremerton, WA 98312 360-377-1277 M & R Lighting Unit C 22914 Highway 410, Buckley, WA 98390 253-891-4190 Island Horticulture Supply 1500 Port Dr., Burlington, WA 98233 360 293 0000 www.islandhorticulture.com _________________________

North West Hydro Supply 1355 Pacific Pl, Ste. 101 Ferndale WA 98248 360 778 3254 _________________________ Fife Indoor Garden Center

1422 54th Ave. E. Fife WA 98424 253 922 5352

Garden Smart 500 Bond Drive, Castlerock, WA 98611 360-274-7960 Indoor Gardening

111 W.Main Centralia, WA 98531 360-807-4259 Grow Center, The 615 South Fir DeerPark WA 99006 509-276-GROW _________________________

Indoor Tropics 704 N. Wenas St. Ellensburg, WA 98926 509-933-4441 _________________________ Healthy Grow Indoor Garden Supplies 10 SE Everett Mall Way Suite B Everett WA 98208 425-374-2227 _________________________

Indoor Garden Depot 8630 Evergreen Way, Suite B Everett, WA 98208 425-347-0700 _________________________

Indoor Garden Depot 1401 S. 324th Street, Federal Way, WA 98003 253-874-1112 _________________________

184

Island Hydroponic & Supplies 1515 5th Street #B, Marysville, WA 98271 425-299-5855

Grow Center, The 2808 W Sprague Spokane WA 99202 509-456-GROW

Mike’s Indoor Garden Supply 1204 East Wheeler Road, Moses Lake, WA 98837 509-766-5856

River City Hydroponics 1514 East Francis Avenue, Spokane, WA 99208 509-464-0246

M & R Lighting 17238 Memorial Drive, Mt. Vernon, WA 98273 360-848-1080 Northern Lights Gardening 1524 Riverside Dr #2 Mt. Vernon, WA 98273 360-982-2217 ________________________

Spokane Organic and Hydroponic Supply 4823 East Sprague Avenue E., Spokane Valley, WA 99212 509-534-4055 ________________________

Good 2 Gro 3507 W Clearwater Ave. Kennewick WA 99336 509-737-1313 Hefty Harvest Garden & Hydroponic Supply

2825 Marvin Road NE Ste M Lacey WA 98516 360-628-8964 _________________________ Indoor Tropics 5930 Sunburst Lane #B Cashmere, WA 98815 509-470-7782 _________________________

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

Indoor Garden & Lighting 8606 Preston Fall City Rd. SE Preston WA 98050 425-222-9661 ________________________ Linda’s Gardening & Hydroponics

11522 Canyon Road East, Puyallup, WA 98373 253-531-9641 Indoor Garden & Lighting 714 South Central Avenue, Kent, WA 98032 253-373-9060 _________________________ Kent Garden Supplies Ltd. 18817 East Valley Highway, Kent, WA 98032 • 425-251-9299 Grogro Hydro 12403 NE. 124th Street, Kirkland, WA 98034 888-7-GROGRO • 425-820-6200 _________________________

KP Indoor Garden Store 8912 Key Peninsula HWY N Lakebay, WA 98349 253-884-SURE (7873) ________________________ InDoor Gardening 1158 Commerce Longview WA, 98632 360-353-3851

Renton Indoor Garden Center 329 Wells Ave. S., Renton WA 98057 425-917-9000 Eco Enterprises 1240 NE 175th Street, #B Shoreline, WA 98155 800-426-6937 _________________________

Aqua Serene 3839 Stone Way North, Seattle, WA 98103 206-547-GROW (4769) ________________________

Waterworks Hydroponics 5039 S. Washington Tacoma, WA 98409 253-301-4343 waterworkshydro@hotmail.com ________________________ Garden City Hydroponics 14103 Pacific Ave., S. Tacoma WA 98444 253-301-3985 ________________________

Indoor Garden & Lighting 3839 6th Avenue, Tacoma, WA 98406 253-761-7478 ________________________ Solar Shop 306 West 4th Street, Tonasket, WA 98855 509-486-4508 ________________________

Indoor Garden Depot 6400 NE Highway 99, Suite H, Vancouver, WA 98665 360-993-7779 _________________________

Indoor Gardening

5718 Pacific Ave. Lacey WA 00000 360-338-0676 ________________________

Indoor Garden & Lighting 20505 Highway 99,, Lynnwood, WA 98036 425-673-2755 _________________________ Go-N-Green Hydroponics 1241 State Ave Suite #102 Marysville, WA 98270 (360)386-8230 Green Acres Indoor Garden & Lighting 514 State Ave, Suite #102 Marysville, WA 98270 360-658-GROW (4769)

Maximum Yield USA | January 2013

Seattle's Hydro Spot 917 NW 49th St. Seattle, WA 98107 206-784-2161 ________________________

Sodo Hydro 1727 1st Ave. South, Seattle, WA 98134 206-682-9377 888-90HYDRO (904-9376) __________________________ Northwest Horticultur-e Supply 161 Hooker Road, #1, Sequim, WA 98057 360-582-0702 509 Grow 2718 N Division Spokane, WA 99207 509-327-GROW(4769)

Aric’s Indoor Garden Supply 1104 West Wisconsin Avenue, Appleton, WI 54914 920-574-3258 _________________________ Grow BIG Hydroponics 954 S. Westland, Appleton, WI 54914 920-749-4769 H2oGrow 1150 Madison rd Beloit WI 53511 608-289-1852 Brew and Grow 285 N. Janacek Road, Brookfield, WI 53045 262-789-0555 Sustainable Growth LLC

218 N Dewey St. Eau Claire WI 54703 715-901-0511 Garden Supply Guys 752 Memorial Drive - Suite A Green Bay, WI 54303 920-857-9493

Grogro Hydro 12316 32nd AVE NE #103 Seattle, WA 98125 Hydro-Tech 2121 Aurora Avenue, North, Seattle, WA 98103 206-547-2202 ________________________

WISCONSIN _________________________

National Garden Wholesale/ Sunlight Supply 4525 NW Fruit Valley Road, Vancouver, WA 98660 888-478-6544 (Northwest) ___________________________

National Garden Wholesale/ Sunlight Supply 5408 NE 88th Street, Building A, Vancouver, WA 98665 888-478-6544 _________________________ Indoor Garden Supply LLC

1250 Atlantic Ave, Woodland, WA 98674 360-841-8055

Hydro Your Own 8501-75th Street, Unit C Kenosha, WI 53142 262 697 6112 Brew and Grow 3317 Agriculture Drive, Madison, WI 53716 608-226-8910 _________________________

Paradigm Gardens 4501 Helgesen Drive, Madison, WI 53718 608-241-3800 _________________________ Brew and Grow 2246 Bluemound Road Ste. B Waukesha, WI 53186 262-717-0666 PUERTO RICO _________________________

Tecno-Hydro Ave Campo Rico GJ17, PO Box 1450 Carolina, PR 00982 787-752-8252 _________________________


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Understanding Phosphorous Acid Products

for more information

Phosphorous acid products are causing a lot of buzz in the agricultural and horticultural worlds, but their many similar sounding terms and chemical compounds can cause even more confusing. Don’t worry, though; this article will help you set things straight.

Decoding ppm Everyone knows that ppm is the standard abbreviation for parts per million; however, do you know exactly what ppm is?

Short Wavelength Light and Plant Responses Light: it’s what powers photosynthesis and growth; however, a plant’s response to different parts of the light spectrum— such as UV, or short wavelength, light—is much more complex than photosynthesis alone.

www.maximumyield.com Maximum Yield USA February will be available next month for free at select indoor gardening retail stores across the country and on maximumyield.com Subscriptions are available at maximumyield.com/subscriptions Also, Stay in the Know with Maximum Yield’s E-News Every month Maximum Yield’s E-News brings you the latest news, tips and tricks, reader questions, contests and upcoming events. If you are not yet subscribed to our mailing list, sign up today at maximumyield.com/enewssignup 186

Maximum Yield USA | January 2013

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Maximum Yield USA January 2013  

Indoor gardening monthly magazine that is distributed internationally through stores that retail hydroponics gardening products.

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