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The Future is UP

Winterizing Your Grow Room

+

Use

Less

Water

Greening America’s Rooftops

and Grow More

www.maximumyield.com

2012

Indoor gardenING expo

NEW: Follow us on Twitter

DENVER

COLORADO March 10 -11

GREAT LAKES

MICHIGAN June 2 - 3

SAN FRANCISCO

CALIFORNIA July 21-22

LONG BEACH

CALIFORNIA november 3-4

indoorgardeningexpo.com


Maximum Yield USA | November 2011

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Maximum Yield USA | November 2011


CONTENTS November 2011

FEATURES 46

The Future is Up - Greening America’s Rooftops by Simon Hart

56

46

82

82

by Dr. Lynette Morgan

96 104 118 122

132

by Matt LeBannister

68

56

Woof! Pet Food Gets a Hydro Upgrade Lights, Power, Grow by Grubbycup

Understanding Heirloomology Healthy, Safe, Eco-friendly Use Less Water (and Grow More) by Dr. J. Benton Jones, Jr.

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DEPARTMENTS 10

From the Editor

156

Tips and Tricks Beginner’s Corner

12

Letters to the Editor

162

by Lee McCall

14

MaximumYield.com

164

You Tell Us

Getting Back to Your Roots

20

Simon Says

168

Talking Shop

22

MAX Facts

170

Max Mart

30

Product Spotlight

175

Coming up in December

Winterizing Your Grow Room

by Frank Rauscher

Propagation for Profit: Grow Aloe for Dough…

80

Green Thumb Gardening

176

Do You Know?

by Casey Jones Fraser

114

Avant-Gardening

180

Distributors

What is Plant Nutrition?

130

Growing for Health

by Dr. David E. Neal

Maximum Yield USA | November 2011

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FROM THE EDITOR | Jessica Raymond Curious where the future of modern gardening is headed? Look up, way up. Our cover feature this month focuses on the latest trend in urban farming—green roofs in urban centers. Green roofs keep food close to home, make efficient use of vacant space and offer the potential for economic growth; and those are just the obvious benefits. When you’re on the roof, the only way to go is down, which is exactly what we’ve done. Propagation, water, nutrition, lighting and grow room extras for winter—we cover a little bit of everything. Every time you step into your grow room or greenhouse is an opportunity, to embrace new ideas and practices, to

help life grow and grow your life. This is true whether you grow for people (or pets), for the planet or for profit. Growers expend their creative energy day after day, researching, testing and trialing for the ultimate goal of improving their garden’s quality, improving yields and making the seemingly impossible possible. This special issue will help you grow your best from roots to roofs. So, get reading, so you can get growing! And to keep your grow room stocked, for FREE, all winter long, enter our last Win Big…Grow Big contest for 2011. Details on page 177. Grow on!

Wishing you and yours peace, love and happiness this Thanksgiving and always. Maximum Yield Team Jessica Raymond, editor editor@maximumyield.com

contributors Dr. Lynette Morgan holds a B. Hort.

Frank Rauscher is a certified

Matt LeBannister developed a green thumb as a child, having been born into a family of experienced gardeners. During his career, he has managed a hydroponic retail store and represented leading companies at the Indoor Gardening Expos. Matt has been writing articles for Maximum Yield since 2007. His articles are published around the world.

Grubbycup has been an avid

indoor gardener for over 20 years. His articles were first published in the United Kingdom, and since then his gardening advice has been published in French, Spanish, Italian, Polish, Czechoslovakian and German. He is also considered one of the world’s leading authorities on crochet hydroponics.

Dr. J. Benton Jones Jr. has 50 years of experience growing plants hydroponically. He is an Emeritus Professor at the University of Georgia, Athens and has authored eight books and written articles for magazines that deal with hydroponic issues. He currently has his own consulting company, Grosystems, Inc. Dr. Jones currently lives in Anderson, SC, USA.

Lee McCall is an alumnus of Johnson &

Simon Hart is a certified organic

Dr. David E. Neal has been in the

Casey Jones Fraser owns Garden

Tech. degree and a PhD in hydroponic greenhouse production from Massey University, New Zealand. Lynette is a partner with SUNTEC International Hydroponic Consultants and has authored five hydroponic technical books. Visit www.suntec.co.nz/ consultants.htm and www.suntec. co.nz/books.htm for more information.

gardener and soil manager. He grew up on a 30 acre mixed farm, which inspired a deep-rooted passion for nature and gardening. His university studies focused on forestry, biology and the environment. He’s worked as Greenstar Plant Products jack-of-all-trades for the past seven years and is the author of Maximum Yield’s “Simon Says’ column.

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Maximum Yield USA | November 2011

horticulturist and consultant for the garden industry. He’s a contributing author to several publications and was writer and editor of the Green Pages. Frank finds that analyzing plant stress and finding solutions is exciting. He is very much at home bringing new ideas to the field of horticulture and indoor gardening.

plant nutrition business for the past 20 years. He is the chairman and CEO of Dyna-Gro Nutrition Solutions. Dave holds a J.D. from Golden Gate University. David has been a member of Mensa and the American Association for the Advancement of Science for over 35 years.

Wales University. His extensive culinary background helped him gain experience in and knowledge of fine dining and food production, which developed into a career in the hydroponics and year-round gardening industry. Lee and his business partner use their Denver-based businesses to educate the public on sustainable gardening and high quality produce. Grove Organics, in Northern Kentucky/ Greater Cincinnati. He has a degree in communications and electronic media. He believes that indoor gardeners can achieve the highest quality crops and maximum yields when proper science is applied. Since 1998, Casey has been testing various nutrients and supplements in search of outstanding harvests.


Maximum Yield USA | November 2011

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LETTERS TO THE EDITOR a circular issue

When a plant becomes root bound does this actually harm the plant? If you transplant a root bound plant into a larger container will bound roots fix themselves? Richard Bergen To help you answer your root bound question, I invite you to check out the following articles on maximumyield.com. We have published many articles on root health in the past couple years that may answer your question: 1. The Basics of Root Care by Matt LeBannister 2. Keeping Roots in Tip Top Condition by Dr. Lynette Morgan 3. Root Pruning 101 by Gabriel Bronzstein 4. The Root Whisperer by Dr. J. Benton Jones, Jr. All of these articles can be searched by author or article under the resources tab or by issue; simply click View All Editions of Maximum Yield on the left of the main screen. Good luck with your root problem and thanks for reading.

Online Love via Facebook

Vermiculite is a standard horticultural substrate commonly used in hydroponics for germinating seeds and as a growing medium. The high quality grades of vermiculite sold in the United States hydroponic industry are free of asbestos, and it is recommended that only horticultural grade vermiculite be used to grow produce. Up until the early 1990s there were some products made from vermiculite that contained naturally-occurring asbestos, however, this vermiculite was largely made into insulation and other products at that time. Pure vermiculite does not contain asbestos and is non-toxic, so it is safe to use for growing beets and other vegetables. Lynette Morgan

FREE

Best magazine in the world! Anthony Leandro Can’t wait to see you in Michigan next year. Had a great time in SF. You guys are awesome. Thanks Keith Sortor

A Question of Safety

In the article by Dr. Lynette Morgan titled Old Fashioned Crops are Making a Comeback she suggests that growing mediums such as coco fiber, perlite or vermiculite be used for growing beetroots. I thought that vermiculite was asbestos-based, and its use has been banned in most countries. In that case is it safe to use it as a growing medium for crops that could be consumed. Kindly guide me in the matter. Thanks and regards, Mohan Udiavar

BPlasic an Genettics

Hit Me With a PDF

basic princ iples genetics can be demo at work behind the modif nstrated ication of with a simpl plant e pack of playing cards.

Beat th e heat www.ma

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| calif

ornia octob , usa er 22-23

NEW: FolloW

Is there a way to download the older issues for offline reading? Todd Mueller

us oN TWiTTEr

indoorg

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Best magazine! I can’t wait to get my subscription. Gary Raymond Love the website. Great tips on hydroponic gardening. Keep up the good work. Hydroponic Gardening Guru Your website is awesome! Thanks so much for all the help. Keep up the good work. Terry Paiva

I lost the August 2011 issue. On the past issues page I can only view it digitally. There is no option to save it. Can you please e-mail directions to me? Thanks in advance. Ricardo Vergueiro Yes! Simply visit issuu.com, create a free profile and search for your favorite issues.You can download every archived issue as a PDF from there.

via Twitter

Woop! Just got a delivery of four@Max Yield magazines #Hydroponics @nfnutrifield I am reading @Max_Yield July 2011 issue. Great choice of topics! Thanks @PhillipW00

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Maximum Yield USA | November 2011

We want to hear from you! Write us at: Maximum Yield Publications Inc. 2339 Delinea Place, Nanaimo, BC V9T 5L9 or e-mail us at: editor@maximumyield.com


Maximum Yield USA | November 2011

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Coming up on the Web Upcoming Events 2012 ‘grow like a pro’ Indoor Gardening Expo Tour The dates are set, the venues are chosen and the 2012 Indoor Gardening Expo Tour is coming to four North American cities near you. You’re invited to visit one, two, three or all four shows. Stay tuned to indoorgardenexpo.com for details

Got Questions? Get Answers. Maximum Yield’s resident experts are available and ready to answer your modern gardening questions. E-mail editor@maximumyield.com or fill out the Ask the Experts question form on maximumyield.com

Latest News

Connect to MaximumYield.com instantly from your Smartphone with our Quick Response (QR) Code, found on the cover of every issue of Maximum Yield. Now you can access the best products, the most in-depth articles and information, and the latest news at high speeds. Simply download the QR Code Reader software compatible with your Smartphone, scan the QR Code and your phone’s browser will automatically launch, redirecting you to www.maximumyield.com. It’s that simple!

www.maximumyield.com www.facebook.com/MaximumYield www.indoorgardeningexpo.com twitter.com/max_yield

Tell us what you think at editor@maximumyield.com. We’d love to hear from you. 14

Maximum Yield USA | November 2011

Maximum Yield is published monthly by Maximum Yield Publications Inc. 2339A Delinea Place, Nanaimo, BC V9T 5L9 Phone: 250.729.2677; Fax 250.729.2687 No part of this magazine may be reproduced without permission from the publisher. If undeliverable please return to the address above. The views expressed by columnists are a personal opinion and do not necessarily reflect those of Maximum Yield or the Editor. Publication Agreement Number 40739092 Printed In Canada.

PRESIDENT/PUBLISHER - Jim Jesson GENERAL MANAGER - Don Moores BUSINESS MANAGER - Linda Jesson EDITOR - Jessica Raymond jessica@maximumyield.com ADVERTISING SALES 250.729.2677 Linda Jesson - linda@maximumyield.com Lisa Lambersek - lisa@maximumyield.com Ilona Hawser - ilona@maximumyield.com Ashley Heppell - ashley@maximumyield.com Hayley Jesson - Hayley@maximumyield.com PRODUCTION & DESIGN ads@ads.maximumyield.com Tina Skujins - tina@maximumyield.com Mike Linden - mike@maximumyield.com Jennifer Duong - jennifer@maximumyield.com Alice Joe - alice@maximumyield.com ACCOUNTING - Tracy Greeno accounting@maximumyield.com

Rooftop farms are sprouting up all over the globe and changing how people think of gardening. There’s probably one near you. Check them out on maximumyield.com under Latest News.

Connect with Maximum Yield

VOLUME 12 – NUMBER 8 November 2011

USA DISTRIBUTION Aurora Innovations BWGS General Hydroponics Humbolt Wholesale Hydrofarm Hydro International National Garden Wholesale / Sunlight Supply Nickel City Wholesale Garden Supply R&M Supply Tradewinds CANADIAN DISTRIBUTION Brite-Lite Group Biofloral Eddis Wholesale Greenstar Plant Products Inc. MegaWatt Quality Wholesale UK DISTRIBUTION Direct Garden Supplies Growth Technology Future Harvest Development Europe Nutriculture UK AUSTRALIAN DISTRIBUTION House N Garden Futchatec Growth Technology Hydraspher


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SIMON SAYS

Hey Simon, I was thinking about trying some organics this time around but my friend told me that it makes no difference to the plants. I remember you did a question on organics before but do you think you could answer this one for me again? Thanks, James It’s an interesting question, and like many I tackle, the answer is a little gray for the indoor grower. Outdoors I recommend organics without question; the biodiversity and activity in true soils needs the interaction with organics to have great yields year after year. Indoors it is a different story. Your friend might be a chemist, and in a narrow sense he is correct. When you look at the end result, organic nitrogen and chemical nitrogen do look very similar as they enter the plant and function but that is like flipping to the last page of a book and not knowing how the story got there. Chemical products are water soluble and available; as soon as they are put in the reservoir they are available.This can be an important advantage in an indoor garden where there is not enough biology present to breakdown organic material properly.A slow nutrient release can cause problems when growing nutrient-hungry plants indoors. For this reason a chemical base should be considered by all but the most diligent indoor growers.Also by excluding organic compounds you are limiting the amount of biology in your system—both good and bad. In a much slower process, organic nutrients follow the nature of decomposition, which requires a food chain of various organisms 20

Maximum Yield USA | November 2011

to absorb, digest and secrete basic organic components. Many of the microbes sold in our industry are key components of the soil food web.Their purpose is to digest and release available nutrients for plants. While doing this, many of them also secrete beneficial substances that can tremendously benefit your plants—even indoors. Using undigested organic material requires a strong understanding of how long each organic input takes to break down. An example would be the use of blood meal, which is water soluble and can break down quite rapidly versus the use of feather meal, which has a similar level of nitrogen but can take months to actually start breaking down.Also, for those growing in true water systems the use of organic compounds should be knowledge-based and focused to avoid unwanted issues with recirculated water supply. Organics, however, do have a very serious role to play indoors even for chemical users.The important point is to focus on compounds that provide immediate and dramatic differences. Key examples are the humates, humic and fulvic acid.Although some of the benefits are still questioned most gardeners, commercial and hobby, all agree that these compounds do provide a richer soil that is more resilient and holds more nutrients in suspension for the plants. Kelp-based products can also provide tremendous benefits with all of the organic acids they contain.Worm castings are a natural way of adding plant-available nutrients and a vast array of biology into your soils.There are more quality organic products available every year so keep your eyes and ears open. If you are keen on switching to organics indoors I commend you, but would also caution you to keep a little chemical product around—a base nutrient for overall slow growth and also a calcium magnesium supplement, as a cal-mag deficiency can be a recurring issue in organic systems.A digested organic liquid is your best option for an organic base nutrient, and make sure you look beyond the basic N-P-K for things like calcium, magnesium, sulfur, iron and other micronutrients. Check with your local shop for some organic options that have proven themselves and for organically-fortified soil blends that provide some initial nutritional quality.

Do you have a question for one of our resident experts? Send it to editor@maximumyield.com or fill out the form on maximumyield.com and your answer might be printed in an upcoming issue.


Maximum Yield USA | November 2011

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MAX FACTS

hydroponic news, tips and trivia

2012

Announcing the 2012 ‘Grow like a pro’ Indoor Gardening Expo Tour Dates

The dates are set, the venues are chosen and the 2012 Indoor Gardening Expo Tour is coming to a city near you. After the great success of this year’s Denver, Colorado Expo, we will be returning to the Mile High City March 10 to 11, 2012 to kick off the first show of the 2012 tour. Following Denver, the expo tour hits Michigan June 2 to 3, 2012 for the Great Lakes Indoor Gardening Expo. We have a perfect venue picked at the Suburban Collection Showplace that will allow exhibitors to showcase their products to a growing east coast industry. Our 9th Annual San Francisco Expo is scheduled for July 21 to 22, 2012 with a bigger-than-life venue. The final stop on the expo tour will be in Long Beach, California in October. This special event will be a combination Indoor Gardening/Hydrolife Expo. You won’t want to miss it! Stay tuned to www.indoorgardenexpo.com for event details and updates.

DENVER

GREAT LAKES

SAN FRANCISCO

LONG BEACH

March 10 - 11

June 2 - 3

July 21-22

NOVEMBER 3-4

COLORADO

MICHIGAN

CALIFORNIA

MAXFACTS hydroponic news, tips and trivia

Pacific Islands Offer Glimpse of the Future with Aquaponics Recent studies indicate that although geographically isolated, Pacific islands like Hawaii and Kiribati could face catastrophic food shortages as a result of climate change and failing fish stocks. New aquaponics initiatives tested successfully on other islands could increase food security in the Pacific by boosting agricultural efficiency over traditional methods by as much as eight times—while using just 12 per cent of the energy and two per cent of the water. Kiribati islanders now spend about 50 per cent of their household budgets on food and the World Bank recently had to underwrite an emergency food grant of $2 million. The same study revealed that 95 per cent of food in Hawaii is imported from just a single shipping company, leaving the islands vulnerable to delivery failures and potentially just “20 meals from starvation.” (Source: http://hydroponicsguide.co.uk)

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Maximum Yield USA | November 2011

CALIFORNIA

Rooftop Farms Sprouting in Brooklyn - Urban Pioneers Cater to Restaurants and Markets For consumers in New York City, ‘local’ produce has long meant fruits and vegetables from farms upstate, on Long Island or in New Jersey, but urban hydroponic growers are trying to shift that expectation by growing Bibb lettuce, basil and other leafy plants and herbs on rooftops and selling the produce to retailers and chefs. “We can harvest something in the morning and have it on the supermarket shelf or restaurant plate that same afternoon,” said the CEO of one Brooklynbased operation. Although the cost of a hydroponic rooftop can run up to about $2.5 million, hydroponic farmers are able to achieve a denser yield and harvest crops year-round and operators claim their first-year revenues can be higher “by a factor of hundreds” than those of the average soil-based rooftop farm. (Source: www.crainsnewyork.com)


Maximum Yield USA | November 2011

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MAX FACTS

hydroponic news, tips and trivia

Want Fresher Produce, Leave Dirt Behind Futurist Melissa Sterry Looks on the Bright Side… In a recent interview with Urban Times magazine, futurist Melissa Sterry predicted that people might one day start looking at natural disasters as opportunities rather than catastrophes, calling such cataclysmic events as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions “absolutely essential operating functions of our planet” and “Earth’s surface-recycling system.” Sterry urged city planners to build more resiliency and adaptability to changing environmental conditions into the cities of the future and suggested that humans might eventually learn to harvest “kinetic energy from floods and nutrients from volcanic eruptions, while mimicking the way in which natural ecosystems build resilience to reduce the damage such events can cause.” (Source: www.theurbn.com)

Gotham Greens’ $2 million hydroponic greenhouse, located in Brooklyn’s industrial Greenpoint, has chefs singing the praises of hydroponic technology. The sleek garden is one of the largest commercial-scale hydroponic greenhouses in urban America providing pristine, sustainable produce for restaurants and high-end retailers. The water is recycled so only 700 gallons are used per day, a 10th of that used in conventional farming. Soil is replaced by thin films of nutrient-rich water sluicing down hundreds of plastic channels cradling the roots of salad greens, lettuces and culinary herbs. (Source: www.nytimes.com)

New ‘Smart’ Window System Delivers Unprecedented Performance A study appearing in the journal ACS Nano is reporting that a new ‘smart’ window system has the unprecedented ability to inexpensively change from summer to winter modes, darkening to save air conditioning costs on scorching days and returning to crystal clarity in the winter to capture free heat from the sun. Although ‘smart’ windows that reflect sunlight away from buildings in summer and switch back to full transparency in winter are already in use, they have many drawbacks—including high cost, rapid deterioration in performance and manufacturing processes that involve potentially toxic substances. (Source: www.sciencedaily.com)

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Maximum Yield USA | November 2011

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MAX FACTS

hydroponic news, tips and trivia

Using Nitrogen-Fixing Plants to Restore Abused Garden Soil In a recent informal experiment, Simon Watkins of Permaculture Magazine discovered that he could remediate heavily abused garden soil by planting it with alfalfa. (Source: www.treehugger.com)

What Counts is the Water That Actually Enters Plant Roots To help farmers make the best use of limited irrigation water in the arid West, agriculture researchers are helping farmers determine how much water major crops actually need. Researchers are measuring crop wateruse efficiency by yield per drop of water actually taken in by the crop. Crops are being grown with six levels of irrigation, from full irrigation down to only 40 per cent of full. These results will help farmers in this region decide whether to put all their irrigation water into producing corn, or to reduce either their irrigation levels or the amount of land they plant, and sell or lease water rights on the rest. (Source: www.ars.usda.gov)

The Future of Food: Why Farmers Are Being Driven off the Land Chris Turner, author of The Geography of Hope and The Leap, has written an article in online magazine The Walrus about how “the growing gap between what they produce and what they earn is driving many farmers off the land.” The article, an eye-opening look at how modern farms work, explains how growers have to “get big or get out” and shows how the system is optimized to deliver the maximum yield per hectare at the lowest possible cost per unit of production, guided by a largely undeclared continental food regime sometimes called “the cheap food policy.” In the history of agriculture, Turner claims, no one has ever paid less for their calories than contemporary North Americans do. (Source: www.walrusmagazine.com)

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Maximum Yield USA | November 2011


Maximum Yield USA | November 2011

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MAX FACTS

hydroponic news, tips and trivia

Using Ground Covers in Organic Production Recent studies by U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) scientists indicate that fabric and polypropylene ground covers used by organic farmers to control weeds did not significantly impede the penetration of nutrients and water into the soil. One study found that soil microbial activity indicators were essentially the same in soils protected by fabric covers, those protected by polypropylene covers and control soil samples where the movement of nutrients had not been impeded by a ground cover, although links were observed between the use of fabric covers and reduced soil levels of nitrogen and phosphorus. (Source: www.ars.usda.gov)

Eco-Farming Trade Show in Ohio The Acres U.S.A. Conference and Trade Show, being held this December 8 to 12, 2011 in Columbus Ohio, will be called ‘Building Resilience on Your Farm Through Eco-Farming’ and will feature leading authors, master consultants, successful farmers and dozens of speakers who will cover all facets of eco-agriculture—including soils, crops, weed and insect control and livestock management. Over 100 eco-suppliers will also be on hand to display the latest agricultural technology and to share their knowledge and experience with consumers.

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PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT

YOUR GUIDE TO THIS MONTH’S

HOTTEST ITEMS Ask for them at your local indoor gardening store. Gold Label 80/20

Sunlight Supply®, Inc. is pleased to announce the arrival of Gold Label 80/20 Mix direct from Holland. Made from 80 per cent Gold Label hydro korrels and 20 per cent Gold Label coco substrate, this growing media was specially developed for growers looking for the perfect combination of water retention and oxygen in the root zone. Gold Label 80/20 is rinsed with fresh water to provide very low EC as well as low sodium and chloride levels. Roots love the irregular shapes of the hydro korrels and the addition of the coco adds just the right amount of water retention, while allowing biology to thrive. The substrate of choice among professional hydroponics growers worldwide, Gold Label 80/20 stands above the rest. Please visit an indoor gardening retailer for more information.

Homegrown CO2 With ExHale® Natural Grass With Frass Get sassy with your plants and give them the vital nutrients they need with Insect Frass. This 100 per cent natural fertilizer is pure insect frass, or waste product, and is low in sodium and chloride. It’s water soluble and great for all stages of plant growth. Use in a variety of ways, including as a hydroponic additive, a compost tea extra, as a foliar spray, a pre-mix for soil or potted plants, on row crops and raised beds, or as a root drench. Find it at your local hydroponic retail shop today!

ExHale® Homegrown CO2 is a more harmonious way of providing your plants with CO2. ExHale cultivates CO2 24 hours a day with no refills or electricity. The power of ExHale lies in the mycelial mass inside the vented cultivator. Our superior genetics are the driving force behind this mycelium. The mycelial mass cultivates CO2 and the breather patch releases CO2 for up to six months. No need to turn it on or turn it off, simply place ExHale in your grow space and leave it alone to do its job. Visit a hydroponics shop near you for more information.

SteadyGROWpro Introduces New Five Gallon Bucket System SteadyGROWpro is rolling out a new five gallon bucket system designed as an all-in-one hydroponic system for growers. The steadyGROWpro five gallon bucket system comes with an internal water pump, flexible drip tube system, water level/removal tube and basket loaded with steadyGROWpro H+ media. This standalone system is easy to use and features a flexible drip tube, which allows growers to direct and change the irrigation pattern to more quickly reach the root zone. The water level/removal tube provides a water level indicator that is easy to see, and a quick and easy method for draining. In addition, water and nutrient refills can be accomplished without removing the basket and steadyGROWpro media. Order it today at your local hydroponics shop.

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Maximum Yield USA | October 2011

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PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT

Royal Gold Potting Soil Now Available From Authorized Hydrofarm Retailers

Royal Gold is proud to have been the first coco pith-based soil company in the United States. Made from the husk of the coconut, coconut coir naturally contains large amounts of potassium that are made available throughout its growth cycle and cannot be washed away. In peat-based soils, potassium is quickly leached and needs to be supplemented. The result of all this potassium is strong stems that support large, beautiful flowers. For more information visit a local gardening shop.

Cyclone ONA Fan - High Efficiency Airflow Design a Win-Win for Odor Control Odorchem Manufacturing Corp., the makers of ONA Odor Neutralizers, is pleased to introduce our new ONA Cyclone Fan. Unlike its predecessor, the ONA Storm Fan, our new high-efficiency airflow design draws air in a cyclonic motion from above the fan propelling it directly into the pail of gel providing a 30 per cent increase of ONA into the air. ONA Cyclone provides enough air circulation to neutralize odors in a room up to a maximum of 53,820 square feet. Check out the Cyclone ONA Fan at your local indoor gardening shop.

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Maximum Yield USA | November 2011

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PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT

Botanicare’s Hercules Air Pots Now Available Botanicare’s® New Hercules Air Pots are formed with a unique shape to help give your plants the guidance they need to keep from becoming root bound. Air holes positioned throughout the sides of the Hercules Air Pots uniformly dry growing media in between feedings, offering growers increased control over their plants’ nutritional and watering needs. Hercules Air Pots are available in five sizes from eight inches to 16 inches. For more information visit your local authorized Hydrofarm retailer.

Help is Finally Here In any growing system there are times that stress levels increase to the point where they interfere with the proper growing cycle of plants. This is where Help™ from Age Old Organics comes to the rescue. Help is an enzymatic, fermented, organic compound that provides vitamins, enzymes and bio-stimulators to rejuvenate your plant’s production system. Help revitalizes and renews photosynthesis and cell production within the plant, which helps damaged plants recover. Use regularly in your hydroponic system to prevent stressed out plants and keep your plants growing with fewer problems. It also helps new transplants get off to a great start. Visit your local hydroponics shop for more information.

CO2 Boost Proudly Presents the Boost Buddy The Boost Buddy is a safe, organic way to add CO2 to small, indoor growing environments (four square feet or smaller) and is usable during all stages of growth from vegetative to fruiting. The Boost Buddy constantly produces CO2, requires no daily maintenance and doesn’t produce electricity or heat. Simply place the Boost Buddy inside your garden space and watch your garden grow. For areas larger than four square feet, Boost Buddy should be used as an accessory only to your all-natural, organic CO2 generator, CO2 Boost. Ask your local hydroponics shop to carry CO2 Boost Buddy.

Announcing Hydro-Logic’s Portable Water Purification Systems No matter what the water source—lake, river, stream, stagnant surface water, rain, high TDS, brackish or sea water—our filtration systems can handle the most challenging contamination levels. Three different filtration options are available, including Ultra-Filtration, Reverse Osmosis and Sea Water Reverse Osmosis, and each one fits into a virtually indestructible case the size of a standard suitcase. Each system can be powered by a variety of sources including: direct AC120 volts, 240 volts, solar PV, wind turbine, car battery or generator. You can produce pure, safe, drinking water at pennies per gallon saving precious resources. Visit your favorite hydroponics shop for more information.

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PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT

ScareCrow Some Fear Into Outdoor Garden Pests Keep pesky animals out of your prized gardens and flower beds with the ScareCrow Sprinkler. Deer, raccoons, unwanted dogs and other animals are blasted with a short burst of water when they come within 1,300 square feet of the ScareCrow Sprinkler. Just connect it to a garden hose and position it so your desired coverage area is within its 10° sensor radius. The long lasting (up to six months) nine volt battery to keeps animals at bay day and night. The ScareCrow uses only two to three cups of water per deterrence, and can be linked to other ScareCrow systems to create an effective and large water barrier. Find it at your local gardening supplier today.

DeComp-9™ Organic Compost Booster DeComp-9 contains patented microorganisms that add beneficial nutrients to any compost heap while accelerating the composting process. DeComp-9 is all-natural and completely safe. It builds stronger and healthier compost. A 20 gram package makes 10 gallons of solution. Simply pour the solution directly into a compost pile or into a compost bin. For more information contact a hydroponics retailer near you.

Chameleon Fabric Pot by Root Pouch Root Pouch’s award-winning fabric pot technology is now available in our new Chameleon line. Choose from standard and digital designs in Woodland or Desert Camouflage used by military forces around the world. Our Chameleon line of fabric pots has the ability to blend in with its surroundings as an effective form of camouflage. Check out the new camo line at your local indoor/ outdoor gardening shop.

Supernatural Brand Instant Jungle® Supernatural Brand® is excited to introduce our ready to use Instant Jungle® 0.081-0.004-0.02 foliar spray plant food. Our unique aerosol can contains no CFCs, hydrocarbons or flammable gasses. Just point and spray; a light misting of all plant surfaces is all it takes. Foliar feeding creates a feedback loop, whereby a rise in the rate of photosynthesis increases water and nutrient uptake by the plant’s vascular system. Primarily a supplement to your regular feeding program, it may be used in other ways: saturate seeds to promote germination; spray stock plants before taking cuttings to aid in the transition to the growth medium; use on cuttings all the way through to blooming. For more information visit a hydroponics shop near you.

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PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT

Improve Hydroponic Systems With Unique Fabric Containers Specifically designed for ebb and flood tray systems, The Original Wonder Pot’s Hydro Pot™ containers restrain roots from co-mingling with other plants and clogging drains. They are compact, lightweight, compatible with all hydroponic and soilless growing mediums, and their resistance to mold and mildew make them an excellent choice for all hydro systems. They are easily cleaned, reusable and storable for repeated use. All Wonder Pots can be used for hydroponic gardening as liners for bucket or tray systems. Hydro Pots are available in custom sizes with many options for diverse planting systems. Wonder Pots and Hydro Pots are handmade in Durango, Colorado. For more information, visit your local indoor gardening shop.

Redi Root From Urban Agricultural Maintaining a healthy, happy root mass is the key to a bountiful harvest. With Redi Root reusable and recyclable containers, you will get increased oxygen to the root zone and a resulting increase in root mass. Additionally, the fabric used in Redi Root containers allows for the release of heat and cooling of roots. The result is faster growing roots. Redi Root is sold in packs of three for convenience and affordability. With eight different sizes to choose from, you can keep any plant happy. Visit a hydroponics retailer for more information.

New Low Cost Handheld pH Meter From HM Digital, Inc. HM Digital is proud to release its new pH-80, an economically-priced water-resistant handheld tester specifically designed for use in hydroponics. This easy-to-use meter is fast-acting, with a resolution of 0.1 pH and an accuracy of +/-0.02 pH. It includes one touch automatic digital calibration, as well as on-screen diagnostic messaging and temperature display on a large LCD. The pH-80 is backed by a one year factory warranty. For more information contact a hydroponics retailer near you.

General Hydroponics FloraNectar GrapeExpectations Now Available Exclusively From Authorized Hydrofarm Retailers The scientists at General Hydroponics have formulated FloraNectar to optimize the greatest transference of sweetness and aroma into your fruits and flowers. FloraNectar contains all-natural raw cane sugar, molasses, malt syrup, select plant-based esters, L-amino acids, organic acids, vitamins and essential minerals. This unique blend of ingredients helps your plants regulate enzymes that trigger specific reactions involved in maintaining optimal metabolism. This allows plants to achieve a balance between respiration and photosynthesis in high intensity growing environments where the rate of respiration can sometimes exceed the rate of photosynthesis. FloraNectar fulfills the additional energy requirements of your plants throughout all phases of growth and during stressful times of transition. For more information visit an authorized Hydrofarm retailer near you.

Continued on page 42

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PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT Continued from page 38

Get Your Plants Moving With Heavy-duty Dollies Move large pots, heaters and water reservoirs with ease with Plant Dollies. Each dolly is durable and features wheels with steel ball bearing casters for smooth transport. The 12 inch dolly has four wheels and can hold up to 200 pounds; the 16 dolly has five wheels and can hold up to 250 pounds; the 24 inch has six wheels and can hold up to 500 pounds; and the rectangular 16 by 11 inch dolly has six wheels and can hold up to 200 pounds. Look for it at your favorite hydroponic retail shop today!

Organic Control Ladybugs Are you looking for an alternative to pesticides? Give the popular ladybug a try. This good bug has been a part of the Organic Control/Orcon line of beneficial insects for more than 20 years, eating aphids, mealy bugs, scale, leafhoppers and other destructive softbodied pests. When released at sundown, ladybugs eat to their heart’s content and lay eggs along the way. When new pests arrive, young ladybugs are there, hungry for more bad bugs. Orcon offers earth-friendly solutions for the most frustrating bad bugs known to plants—such as aphids, whiteflies, mealy bugs and mites—by using pests’ natural enemies to destroy the unwelcome bugs. Ask your local retailer about beneficial bugs from Organic Control/Orcon.

Indoor and Outdoor Container Gardening Just Got Better The Original Wonder Pot™ is gaining international acclaim as an effective and highly efficient fabric garden container for use in soilbased and hydroponic applications. The design and function of the Wonder Pot creates the healthiest plants, providing a sterile soil environment and auto-pruning technology for robust root mass and abundant growth. The Wonder Pot uses the principle of simple, superior growing technology to increase the quality and quantity of your plant yields. Wonder Pots come in a wide range of container sizes and options to accommodate diverse planting needs, and are reusable and easily storable for repeated use. For more information, visit your local indoor gardening shop.

Sun System® Luxor™ Reflector Sunlight Supply®, Inc. is excited to announce the arrival of Luxor™, the latest addition to the Sun System reflector line. Luxor offers a vertical burning lamp in a completely symmetrical reflector providing optimal light usage from the lamp. This state-of-the-art reflector is specifically optimized to eliminate any hot spots from your growing area. The completely sealed reflective chamber, with double gasketted glass, ensures airtight performance. Luxor offers a robust design and is made from durable materials providing superior strength and longevity. The reflective insert is made from a combination of a new 98 per cent reflective German aluminum and 95 per cent reflective textured German aluminum in the corners for unmatched output and light diffusion. Visit an indoor gardening shop near you for more information.

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by Simon Hart

The Future is

UP Greening America’s Rooftops The latest trend in urban farming is rooftop gardens or green roofs. Green roofs keep food close to home, make efficient use of vacant space and offer the potential for economic growth.

Photo Credit: Patrick Blanc

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The Future is Up - Greening America’s Rooftops

Our cities are growing rapidly as more of us seek out the urban lifestyle, but have you ever looked down at a city through a plane window and noticed how barren the tops of all those buildings look? Rooftops stretch as far as the eye can see, but most roofs hold little more than HVAC systems and the odd cellphone relay station. With all of our efficient urban planning, we still always seem to overlook this valuable real estate in the sky. For a variety of reasons, though, planners and entrepreneurs are now looking at the potential of these spaces to radically change our cities, and potentially, the future of our food supply. Green roofs are something that many of us have begun to hear about—and more and more often we are now actually able to see them in real-world applications. A green roof is simply an extension of a standard roof, which involves installing a waterproof layer on top of normal roofing materials. This layer is part of

Photo Credit : Patrick Blanc

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Green roofs are something that many of us have begun to hear about-and more and more often we are now actually able to see them in real-world applications.

a system that involves a root barrier, a drainage network with growing medium and select plant species. There are two main types of green roofs and they are very different from each other, even though many of the benefits they provide are identical. The first and more common type is an

extensive green roof, which generally involves a modular system forming an interlocking grid. The growing medium is quite shallow and under high temperatures leads to a low-moisture, almost desertlike microclimate. The coarse mineral-based soil lends itself to low plant diversity. The plants have to be low to the ground and hardy in order to survive this harsh environment, so generally alpine, dry land and indigenous species are selected. This type of roof is not very pleasing to the eye—sometimes more brown than green—but it is functional, inexpensive to install and requires very little maintenance. The future probably lies in intensive green roofs, installations where functional aesthetics are the goal. These rooftops feel like real gardens, with ground cover, shrubs and even trees. The relatively deep soil puts a heavy load on the roof and reinforcement is sometimes required, but


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The Future is Up - Greening America’s Rooftops

along with the high capital cost associated with this type of roof there are also amazing benefits, including the possibility of local urban food production. There are lots of good reasons for planning green roofs into our cities before we even begin to consider local food production, including positive economic, social and even environmental benefits. When it comes to pure economics, there are several reasons to consider installing green roofs. The first bonus is found underneath the garden. When roofs are covered with soil and plants they last for much longer because the sun’s energy is being absorbed by the organic material, so a roof that needed replacing every 10 years might now last 40. Extending the life of roofing materials is an exceptional benefit for developers and could be a key reason for them to consider greening their next project. A green roof also means there is essentially an extra floor on top of every building and from a building owner’s perspective this means additional revenue. This might seem greedy, but always remember the best way to get private sector buy-in for additional costs is increased revenue. For the early adopters there is also a marketing and branding opportunity available here to Photo Credit: Patrick Blanc

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The Future is Up - Greening America’s Rooftops

The future probably lies in intensive green roofs, installations where functional aesthetics are the goal.

Photo Credit : Patrick Blanc

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promote the green initiative and take advantage of the publicity around its development. Because of the vegetation and growing medium they are covered in, green roofs provide dramatic temperature regulation. This is a key benefit because it helps deal with the urban heat island effect, where hard surfaces absorb heat, thus increasing city temperatures. The green material absorbs solar energy without any massive release of heat and it also actively cools the surrounding air with the evaporation of dew and with water created by the plant’s own transpiration. A planted roof will cool a building in summer and warm it in colder weather, reducing dependence and stress on building ventilation systems and saving energy. This is a clear economic benefit with the increased energy efficiency, but it’s also easy to see how this has social and environmental benefits as well. From a purely social perspective, the aesthetics of rooftop gardens soften hard city lines and the tranquility provided can act as a sort of horticultural therapy for residents. A green roof can provide urban park land by taking advantage of what is essentially wasted space and the foliage can even reduce the amount of noise that echoes through busy urban areas. Green rooftops


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The Future is Up - Greening America’s Rooftops

When roofs are covered with soil and plants they last for much longer because the sun’s energy is being absorbed by the organic material, so a roof that needed replacing every 10 years might now last 40.

Photo Credit: Patrick Blanc

can be a much-needed reminder of the natural world outside of our urban sprawl and allow us to feel connected with nature while surrounded by skyscrapers. Gardens within our cities can also be gathering places and can create a stronger sense of community. We are only just coming to realize the serious importance of green spaces to human health and the sense of wellbeing such natural connections provide. As more research comes out showing the tremendous benefits of greening in our urban communities it becomes increasingly clear just how important such initiatives will be for the social fabric of our communities in the future. Part of the problem with industrial agriculture is the lack of diversity in our production systems. Monocrops have no place anywhere—especially on our rooftops—and biodiversity is probably one of the most important benefits green rooftops will provide. Bringing the natural world back into our urban spaces will create a healthier ecosystem as well as a more enjoyable experience for garden managers and people who just enjoy green spaces. The flow of water in a city during a rain or snow event is affected by all the hard surfaces—concrete surfaces that can 54

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absorb little to no water. This can put incredible pressure on storm drains and the water system, but the plants and soils of a green roof can retain huge amounts of water. This water is then filtered and used by the plants or released much more slowly into the city’s drainage system. Our cities produce a large volume of carbon emissions, but as green roofs grow they fix atmospheric carbon, which can help to keep our carbon dioxide levels in a more manageable range. Plants absorb carbon along with many other compounds from the air and there are clear benefits when plants are used to purify the air in our communities. Air quality can be a health hazard, but plants are a natural HEPA filter! So our green roofs can provide carbon sinks that clean the air, make people feel better, help the environment and increase profits for developers—and they could even help feed us. Rooftop gardens hold the key to urban food production. There is nothing more local than farming on the top of a building and selling the produce on the street below. Being close to market would be a huge benefit to the many potential urban farm businesses that would develop as a result of rooftop

greening initiatives. These micro-farms would also be labor-intensive, meaning there would be a positive affect on local employment. As with organic farming, the emphasis would be on labor rather than mechanization, which would bring more people back to growing food—an important step considering how many young people are abandoning farms for the city. A reconnection with our food supply would be positive not just for garden workers but also consumers, who would feel much more connected and in tune with their food. There would also be the peace of mind and security that would come from knowing where our food was coming from and that it was produced locally. The movement toward greening our cities is now beginning to get the attention it deserves and green rooftops clearly have a tremendous role to play in the development of the green potential of our urban spaces. Using the skylines of our cities to grow food looks like it will be the way of the future and the benefits will be tremendous. For now, we’ll keep watching the city planners and urban innovators as they continue to search for the best methods to bring food to our rooftops… MY


Understanding

Heirloomology Healthy, Safe, Eco-friendly by Matt LeBannister

Get set up to grow only heirloom—warm up your plate and palate with these delicious and distinct peppers.

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Understanding Heirloomology

The people have spoken and for the first time in ages the availability of heirloom fruit, vegetables, herbs and flowers is on the rise. Seed-saving banks that distribute heirloom seeds to the home gardener have become more numerous and popular in recent years and many farmers are making the switch to growing heirloom strains, breaking into this new market in order to meet the demands of concerned consumers. By growing a variety of cultivars many farmers are able to reduce the use of expensive pesticides, creating healthier, safer food and cutting operating costs significantly. Some grocers have started to specialize in different organic heirloom alternatives to the standard commercially grown hybrid varieties that have dominated produce sections for so many years. This groundswell of change is the result of a lot of hard work and education—growers and consumers alike have begun to seek a better way and the food industry is beginning to listen. Heirloom or heritage strains are open-pollinated plants that are true, distinct breeding varieties. In modern agriculture, however, commercial farmers grow hybrid monocultures. They generally grow one type of hybrid vegetable that cannot reproduce, obliging farmers to buy seeds from large seed

All you need to successfully overwinter your Grandpa’s Siberian Home Peppers indoors is a sunny windowsill.” 58

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Understanding Heirloomology

companies each year. Within a monoculture there is very little genetic diversity, which means that a certain pest or disease could take out the entire crop. This is why farmers must use so much pesticide to protect their crops. For example, the great potato famine was largely the result of a monoculture of potatoes becoming infected with potato blight, leading to the widespread starvation of millions. Heirloom crops, on the other hand, not only provide more variety to the consumer who may be tired of the same pepper varieties season after season, but they also allow farming to be safer. If a pest or disease attacks a farm that grows heirloom crops it might wipe out one strain, but genetic diversity would probably allow the other strains to survive. There are a huge variety of peppers—in every shape, color, size and degree of heat. The first unique heirloom pepper strain we’ll discuss is called the Black Hungarian. This cultivar is a very hearty strain and can handle colder weather than most types, making it an excellent choice for those of us living in cooler climates. Black Hungarian peppers are quite productive and since they are an early type—maturing in about 70 days—they’re a great choice for short growing seasons. Black Hungarian peppers produce fruit similar in shape to a jalapeno, except the fruit starts dark purple (almost black) then turns red as it ripens. The foliage is ornamental, with green leaves and purple veins. In terms of taste and heat, Black Hungarian peppers are known for their great flavor, almost as spicy as a chili pepper but slightly milder in taste, which would

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The world of heirloom peppers is one of endless possibilities, a world where every pepper has a unique flavor, color and level of heat.” put the heat somewhere around 1,000 to 5,000 Scoville heat units (SHUs). The Scoville scale indicates the level of capsaicin (the chemical that creates the spicy flavor) present in the pepper—as a reference, green peppers are rated at zero SHUs and jalapeno peppers are rated at around 3,000 to 5,000 SHUs. Black Hungarian peppers can be easily cultivated indoors in soil or soilless mixes or in hydroponics. During the vegetative stage you should provide the plant with 18 hours of uninterrupted light, followed by 12 hours of uninterrupted darkness. They will grow to be 18 to 24 inches tall and will produce fruit ranging from four to six inches in length. Black Hungarian peppers do best in full sun with a pH range from 6.1 to 6.5 and they can be forced into blooming by switching the photoperiod to 12 hours of uninterrupted light followed by 12 hours of uninterrupted darkness—although they will often begin to flower on their own.You must self-pollinate these peppers when gardening indoors. To best accomplish this, use a small paintbrush—once your peppers begin to flower, simply

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Understanding Heirloomology

touch the end of the paintbrush inside each flower a couple of times a day, which should ensure the spread of pollen from flower to flower. Another excellent heirloom pepper is the Matchbox pepper, a variety of the Super Chili pepper. Matchbox pepper plants grow 18 to 24 inches in height and produce small, two inch fruit that begins green and turns red as the fruit ripens. The peppers are often eaten when green, but have a little extra sweetness to them once they turn red. Matchbox peppers are quite fiery— they can be as hot as 30,000 SHUs—and while the thick skin found on these peppers allows them to retain their flavor, it does make drying them difficult. Matchbox peppers can be easily cultivated indoors. Peppers germinate best in warm environments, so when starting seeds use a heating mat or place the seeds in a warm place such as the top of a fridge or a sunny windowsill. Just be careful not to overheat the seeds, as they will go dormant if temperatures

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get above 95°F. Matchbox peppers have pretty much the same requirements as Black Hungarian peppers, except that they are less tolerant of cooler temperatures and they are not recommended for short outdoor growing seasons as they can take 80 to 90 days to mature. Another type of heirloom pepper—rare, and one of the most unique I have ever come across—is called Grandpa’s Siberian Home Pepper. This type of pepper plant is really small, growing just one to 1.5 feet in height. Grandpa’s Siberian Home Peppers produce small fruit that are just a half inch to an inch in length and are red to purple in color. The heat level of this particular pepper is around 1,500 to 4,000 SHUs, giving it a nice amount of heat while still maintaining good flavor. What makes Grandpa’s Siberian Home Peppers so unique is that this variety was developed in Siberia and was bred to overwinter indoors. They are grown outdoors throughout a short summer season and at the end of the season they are just beginning to mature, which is when you bring the plants indoors— where they will continue to produce fruit all winter long. And the best part is that this variety can thrive on lower levels of light: all you need to successfully overwinter your Grandpa’s Siberian Home Peppers indoors is a sunny windowsill.

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Understanding Heirloomology

Another great type of heirloom pepper is the Chimayo pepper, which originates from the farming town of Chimayo, New Mexico, famous for its chili. Chimayo pepper plants grow to be 18 to 24 inches tall and will produce tapered fruit that is four to six inches long. These peppers begin green and will turn red as they ripen and are said to be one of the most magnificent-tasting peppers available. The heat levels are on the mild side—measuring only 1,000 to 5,000 SHUs—and they are ideal for drying because their flesh and skin is quite thin. The Chimayo pepper, which can be easily cultivated indoors, has a few

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characteristics that set it apart from other peppers. It’s an early variety, maturing in 60 to 70 days, and will actually begin to flower when it is still a seedling about four inches tall. This makes the Chimayo pepper a great choice if you are growing them outdoors in a short-season part of the world—and when growing them indoors, it simply means more peppers in less time. The world of heirloom peppers is one of endless possibilities, a world where every pepper has a unique flavor, color and level of heat. Whether you are using peppers for chili, pickling, drying or just adding spice to any of your favorite dishes, it is hard to imagine ever tiring of the never-ending variety of peppers that can be grown in your own home. MY

Resources: www.heritageharvestseed.com www.ecoseeds.com www.seedlibrary.com www.davesgarden.com


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Use Less

Water by Dr. J. Benton Jones, Jr.

(and Grow More)

Sub-Irrigation Hydroponics No electricity required The future of hydroponics lies with sub-irrigation techniques for delivering water and nutrient solution. There are huge advantages in the use of water and reagents compared to other hydroponic methods. Sub-irrigation systems provide control of plant root activity, which results in superior vegetative growth and fruit yield.

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Use Less Water (and Grow More)

A number of years ago I joined a group of agronomists as we visited several research stations and commercial farms that were using various irrigation methods. One of the more interesting visits was to a research station where cotton was being irrigated by sub-irrigation using a new product called leaky pipe, placed six inches below the soil surface under each cotton row. Nearby fields were being flood irrigated. What was remarkable was that the plants receiving water by means of the leaky pipes were larger and more vigorous in appearance than those receiving water by means of flood irrigation and we were also told that water use was 30 per cent less with the leaky pipe system. However, there were two drawbacks to the system—the leaky pipe had to be replaced each year and control-fitting leaks were difficult to locate and fix.

“The primary advantage of sub-irrigation is that all of the applied water and essential plant nutrient elements pass through the plant with no loss of either to waste and the system can be operated by gravity flow with no need for electrical power.”

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In the 1960s, fresh market stake-tomato growers in the Bradenton, Florida area were experiencing financial challenges due to high production costs. Since the Bradenton soils were sandy, replacement fertilization following periods of rainfall was required. In addition, the underlying water table had to be controlled by ditching to keep it below the rooting zone. However, an innovative method for growing tomato plants under such soil conditions was eventually developed, based on the ability to control soil depth in relation to the water table. A soil bench was formed, fertilizer for the crop season was applied on the soil surface and

Figure one: cross section of a plastic sheet covered soil bench for growing tomatoes in a sandy soil, showing the position of applied fertilizer and mulch and the water table creating a moisture gradient zone where roots occupy that portion of the soil where there is a balance among water, plant nutrient elements and air.

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Use Less Water (and Grow More)

the bench was then covered with plastic. The water table was adjusted during the growing season in order to keep the soil under the bench moist. The inventor, Geraldson (1963), named this system concept “quality and balance,” since it established a nutrient-moisture gradient within the soil bench. A cross-section of the soil bench (shown in figure one) gives the dimensions and position of the applied fertilizer and the depth of the water table. This system not only saved the stalk-tomato growers’ business by reducing their production costs, but the tomato plants responded to the consistent nutrient element-moisture environment by producing higher yields of market-quality fruit. Using this sub-irrigation principle, several colleagues and I successfully grew greenhouse tomatoes in seven inches of milled composted pinebark placed in a watertight container. The required fertilizer for the season was mixed into the pinebark and an inch of water was maintained in the bottom of the box using a float value mechanism. An article describing this method for use by the home gardener appeared in the March 1980 issue of Popular Science magazine (Jones, 1980) and a research paper was published authored by Bruce et al (1980). The Scaife pipe dream growing method applied the same principle for supplying water and essential plant nutrient elements by means of sub-irrigation. A sock of sphagnum peat moss was

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Figure two: an illustration of the “Scaife Pipe Dream” rooting system in which a mesh sock is filled with an organic rooting medium that is set into a vertical stand pipe fitted into a horizon pipe of flowing nutrient solution. The air column maintained around the rooting medium sock is thought to stimulate root function, therefore vigorous vegetative plant growth.


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Use Less Water (and Grow More)

placed into a vertical pipe fitted into an opening in a horizontal pipe of circulating nutrient solution. Scaife attributed the vigorous plant growth he obtained to what he called the carburetor effect—the aeration conditions that existed around the root mass as illustrated in figure two, again a result of the use of sub-irrigation. There are two growing systems marketed today that employ the sub-irrigation technique. In the one growing system, the rooting container is filled with an organic rooting medium containing sufficient essential plant nutrient elements to carry the plants through the growing season. By observing an indicator float, water is added by hand when needed to maintain a certain level in the bottom of the rooting vessel. In the other growing system,

Figure three: on the left are three 9-gallon boxes, two planted with tomatoes and one with peppers (four plants in each box), and on the right are two troughs planted to green beans. The two 30-gallon garbage cans in the back ground are the supply tanks that deliver by gravity nutrient solution to the float values in each of the rooting vessels.

each rooting vessel has its own value that regulates the level of nutrient solution in the base of the pot, the nutrient solution being delivered to the value by gravity flow from a supply tank. I have devised similar growing systems, one using nine gallon plastic storage boxes as the rooting vessel, and the other being constructed troughs that are 13 feet long, four inches wide and seven inches deep. The level of nutrient solution in the base of the rooting boxes and troughs is maintained using an attached float value. Nutrient solution is delivered to the float value by gravity flow from a supply tank. One of my home garden arrangements using boxes and troughs is shown in figure three.

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Use Less Water (and Grow More)

The primary advantage of sub-irrigation is that all of the applied water and essential plant nutrient elements pass through the plant, therefore no loss of either to waste and the system can be operated by gravity flow with no need for electrical power. My experience with long troughs has revealed that there exists a water-flow mechanics issue, requiring the placement of a dispensing pipe in the bottom of long (greater than four feet) troughs. By maintaining a constant level of nutrient solution (or water) in the base of the rooting vessel, roots will occupy that portion of the rooting medium where there exists a balance between occupied water and air space. Root absorption of water and plant nutrient elements is controlled by root activity and therefore not influenced by periodic applications of either water or nutrient solution. For use in my growing systems, a dilute nutrient

“The hydroponic sub-irrigation concept has great potential, currently only lacking innovative growing systems that would lend themselves to wide commercial use.”

solution formulation is required. I have found that a 1/3 dilution of a modified Hoagland/Arnon formulation is sufficient to meet the nutrient element needs of most plants with no need to change the formulation based on plant species or stage of growth. One essential requirement is that the level of nutrient solution in the base of the rooting vessel be kept constant, as a changing depth will adversely affect root function. Therefore, automatic depth control is essential for maximum plant performance. Constancy within the rooting vessel contributes to greater vegetative top growth, since the root system is stabilized and not continually growing in size. I have used various rooting media: perlite, composted milled pinebark, a 50/50 mixture of perlite and composted milled

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Use Less Water (and Grow More)

pinebark, as well as various organic soilless mixes, but perlite consistently gives the best results. The depth of the rooting medium is critical, based on its own wicking characteristics. Seven inches of either perlite or composted milled pinebark seems to be the optimum depth, sufficient for maintaining the proper mix of water and air within the medium while keeping the top surface dry. The hydroponic sub-irrigation concept has great potential, currently only lacking innovative growing systems that would lend themselves to wide commercial use. The savings in water and reagents compared to other hydroponic methods in use—such as flood and drain or drip irrigation—would certainly seem to justify more intensive commercial development and use. The other major advantage for the sub-irrigation technique is of course that it requires no electrical power. MY

References: Bruce, R.R., J.E. Pallis, Jr., L.A. Harper and J.B. Jones, Jr. (1980) “Water and Nutrient Element Regulation Prescription in Nonsoil Media for Greenhouse Crop Production”, Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 11(7), pages 677 to 698. Geraldson, C.M. (1963) “Quality and Balance of Nutrients Required for Best Yields and Quality of Tomatoes”, Selected Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society 76, pages 153 to 158. Jones, Jr., J.B. (1980) “Construct your own Automatic Growing Machine”, Popular Science 216(3), page 87.

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GREEN THUMB GARDENING

Killer All-natural neem oil will kill bad bugs dead without harming the good guys With today’s push for more organic gardening in the home garden, it can be hard to balance using natural cures for common problems and still get a good harvest. Some organic pesticides are not as effective as their chemical counterparts, but there is one exception, and that is neem oil. Neem oil not only effectively kills the pests on your plants (without hurting beneficial bugs like bees) but it can also eliminate most fungus problems. If you are wondering what neem is used for and how you can use a neem oil foliar spray in your garden, keep reading.

What is neem used for? A neem oil foliar spray is used in the garden one of two ways—as an insecticide or as a fungicide.

Neem oil as an insecticide Neem oil is an effective insecticide against many insects that can hurt your plants. These include: • Aphids • Mealybugs • Mites • Scale • Japanese beetles • Whiteflies • Any pest that chews or sucks on the plant

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Neem oil insecticide doesn’t kill bugs that don’t chew on leaves. All beneficial bugs fall into this category, so you can spray your plants with this organic spray without worrying that you’re harming the good guys, like bees, butterflies and spiders. Neem oil insecticide is unique in that it does not immediately kill the insects it affects. Instead, for reasons not yet understood by scientists, neem oil insecticide causes a pest to be unable to maintain hydration, which in turn kills it. Some pests are also repelled by neem oil insecticide, which means they stay away from the plant that was sprayed with neem oil.

Neem oil as a fungicide Neem oil is also an effective fungicide. Applying it to plants can kill harmful and unsightly funguses such as:

• • • • • •

Powdery mildew Root rot Rust Black spot Sooty mold All other kinds of fungi

Is neem oil safe for humans?

Neem oil is safe for humans and is a common ingredient in things like toothpaste, shampoo and cosmetics. It is found to be safe in smaller amounts for human consumption, and since insecticidal mixtures of neem oil contain only a very dilute amount of the oil, you can eat fruits and vegetables that are treated without any problems. It is commonly used in organic farming.

How to apply neem oil foliar spray

Neem oil is normally applied as a spray to the leaves of the plant. While neem oil is a good insecticide, there are some things to keep in mind when using it. First, some plants can be killed by neem oil, especially if it is applied heavily. Before spraying a whole plant, spray a leaf on the plant and wait 24 hours to see if the leaf has any damage. If there is no damage, than the plant will not be harmed by the neem oil. Second, neem oil should not be applied to a plant in direct sun. If the plant you want to treat is in full sun, apply the neem oil foliar spray in the evening so that it has time to absorb overnight. Also, do not use neem oil in extreme temperatures, either very hot or very cold. Do not apply neem oil to plants that are stressed, either due to drought or overwatering. Apply your neem oil insecticide about once a week to most kill and control pests. Apply neem oil like you would other oil-based sprays— make sure the leaves of the plant are coated, especially where the pest problem is the worst.

Where to buy neem oil Most nurseries and garden centers sell neem oil. Even some of the big box stores are starting to carry this increasingly popular pesticide. MY For more gardening tips and tricks visit www.gardeningknowhow.com or check out www.gardeningknowhow.com/questions


Woof! by Dr. Lynette Morgan

Pet food gets a hydro upgrade Discover the benefits of hydroponics for cats, dogs, fish, turtles, reptiles, hamsters, rabbits, guinea pigs, rats, mice, livestock, chickens and other poultry, and caged or aviary birds.

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Many of us have experienced the satisfaction that comes from growing our own fruits, vegetables and herbs from an indoor garden and being able to provide something fresh and healthy for family meals. Our furry, finned and feathered friends don’t need to be left out when it comes to the benefits of hydroponic gardening, though—after all, we want our pets to have the best quality, safest and pesticide-free snacks possible too! The range of animals who love to chomp, sniff or nibble certain types of vegetation is quite wide—even carnivores such as cats and dogs often appreciate some fresh greens, although for some it’s only a few blades of grass. Small caged pets such as hamsters, guinea pigs, rabbits, rats and mice can all benefit from having their diet extended with fresh greens, sprouted grains, fruits and vegetables, all of which can be easily grown indoors. Caged and wild birds also enjoy an assortment of fresh produce and even grains such as sunflower seeds and millet can be grown to supple-

“Standard vegetative hydroponic nutrients can be used from germination right throughout the life of the pet grass tray using overhead watering or ebb and flow systems. ment commercial seed mixes. Larger outdoor pets such as hens and other forms of poultry, goats and sheep can be fed specially grown greens, which are a great supplement to dry food in the depths of winter when other fresh feed is scarce. There are also many species of wet pets that may go overlooked when it comes to diet diversity—turtles often like a treat of greenery, as do many aquarium fish, whether it’s in the form of aquatic plants or fresh vegetables. Much of the information available regarding pets and plants is in the form of lists of toxic species that can cause serious problems if ingested; while most of these plants are outdoor species,

The green parts of tomato plants, including green fruit, are known to be toxic to pets if ingested.

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there are a number of indoor houseplants that are an issue for nibbling pets and some of these might be common hydroponic specimens. Many lilies, for example, are popular houseplants; however, they pose a poisoning threat to pets who like to chew on foliage. Other toxic houseplants include ivy, philodendron, poinsettia, begonia, dieffenbachia and many others, while common

Cats, dogs and many other pets enjoy healthy, chemical-free, hydroponically-grown grass.

food plants such as rhubarb, avocado (fruit and foliage) and even the green parts of tomato plants (leaves, stems and green fruit) are considered poisonous to many pets.

Plants for cats and dogs Both cats and dogs may be attracted to fresh grass and occasionally nibble a few blades. The reason they do this is not really known—vitamin deficiencies, hair balls, feeling unwell or just boredom have all been cited. For whatever reason, it does seem that some animals do crave fresh grass; indoor pets in particular should be offered some access to safe greenery. Outdoor grass may not always be a safe option for pets, as chemicals applied to lawns and grassed areas to control pests might be present and the risk of contamination in some areas can be high. Luckily, grass is relatively easy to grow and performs well indoors in a shallow tray when fed good-quality hydroponic nutrients. Even once nibbled on, grass is highly resilient and will regrow many times without the need for a lot of space. 86

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One of the best grass species for cats and dogs is Dactylis glomerata, also known as cat grass or cocksfoot. This is a very hardy, drought-tolerant and vigorous grass species that grows well in containers over a range of temperature conditions. For hydroponic production, a tray should be thickly sown and cut back with scissors if excessive vegetation becomes an issue—the grass will continue to grow and produce fresh produce year round. For trays of cat grass, the safest growing mediums are coco fiber, peat or thick mats of microgreen material, which are least likely to contaminate the grass with indigestible particles. Standard vegetative hydroponic nutrients can be used from germination right throughout the life of the pet grass tray using overhead watering or ebb and flow systems. Most pet owners

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“Hydroponic systems containing catnip plants may need protection from unsupervised pet visits, as cats intoxicated on this herb have been known to do considerable damage to plants.”


who grow their own trays of cat grass tend to have two to three small trays, which can be rotated and offered to pets one at a time while the others remain under lights regenerating foliage. Perhaps the best-known plant grown specifically and on a commercial scale for the pet trade is catnip (Nepeta cataria). Dried catnip and catnip sprays are used in a huge range of cat toys and products, although the fresh plant material can be somewhat more potent and many cats enjoy harvesting their own directly from an indoor garden. It’s estimated about 80 per cent of cats respond to catnip—some with dramatic behavioral changes which many owners find highly entertaining. The compound responsible for this reaction—which only occurs in cats—is nepetalactone, found in the foliage and stems of the plant, which retains its psychoactive powers even when the foliage has been dried and stored for many months. Catnip, being a member of the mint family, is an excellent specimen plant for an indoor garden and performs spectacularly well in hydroponics, with masses of lush vegetative growth followed by small pink or white flowers. The plant is easily grown from seeds that readily germinate within a few days and are highly productive. Catnip is well suited to NFT and aeroponics as well as many container systems and prefers a moisture-retentive medium. The plants are hardy and will continue to grow year round with sufficient warmth and light. As long as the plants are regularly harvested and cut back a compact bush will develop, although growth can spread outward over time and may need some heavier pruning now and then. The only problems with hydroponic catnip plants can be infestation with thrips or mites and the fact that the plants do tend to become very tall and lanky under ‘lower-than-optimal’ light conditions. The aromatic and volatile compounds in catnip—as with most herbs— are concentrated when the nutrient EC is run at moderate Aquarium fish enjoy fresh plant material; hydroponics can be used to propagate and grow tropical and cold water aquatic plants.

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to high levels and under bright, direct light conditions. EC in the range of 2.5 to 3.8 will provide a potent catnip product that will delight any nepetalactone-sensitive felines. Hydroponic systems containing catnip plants may need protection from unsupervised pet visits, as cats intoxicated on this herb have been known to do considerable damage to plants. Harvesting a few stems at a time and offering this to pets away from the indoor garden area as well as drying any excess foliage is a good way to manage the plants. Another complimentary and related herb for the cat garden is catmint (Nepeta faassenii), which is a more ornamental form of Nepeta with striking purplish-blue flowers and grey-white foliage. While not as potent as catnip, it does have a mild effect and makes an attractive ornamental plant.

Fish, turtles and reptiles “It’s estimated about 80 per cent of cats respond to catnip—some with dramatic behavioral changes which many owners find highly entertaining.”

Tropical and cold-water fish—along with turtles and some reptiles—often appreciate some green vegetation as either the main part of their diet or as a supplement. There is a huge diversity among these species, and while some fish may be solely vegetarian, others prefer a mixed diet. Aquatic pet owners don’t necessarily need to rely on commercial dried vegetable tablets and products as many of these animals will happily feed on recommended vegetables such as peas or shredded lettuce. For

Fresh fruit and vegetables are enjoyed by many animals.

aquarium fish, aquatic plants are a good way of providing some readily available greenery, which can be nibbled on as required and will continue to grow in the nutrient-rich substrate at the bottom of a fish tank. However, aquatic plants can also be grown hydroponically—and in many instances this is preferable to trying to maintain plant growth in a tank of hungry and disruptive fish that may uproot cuttings or completely eat plant material down to the roots. A hydroponic aquatic plant production system is also a fun way of growing different types of highly attractive plants underwater, provided the correct amount of nutrients, 90

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light and CO2 is readily available in the system. Many aquarium plants, particularly the tropical species, grow reasonably fast when provided with hydroponic nutrients and temperatures in the range of 68 to 82°F. A deep tank system will provide sufficient room for growth and most plants will require a good depth of growing medium (either aquarium sand or gravel) to anchor the stems during the propagation phase. With most species being easily divided or grown from stem cuttings, which readily form roots, aquatic plants are a great addition to aquarium tanks and as a valuable source of fresh food for fish.

FEED ME!

“Although caged or aviary birds might have a diet dominated by commercial seed mixes, many birds love being given an entire dried flower head of sunflower seeds to pick at and pull apart.“ Small animals Small caged animals such as hamsters, rabbits, guinea pigs, rats and mice will all benefit from a rich and varied diet that not only ensures they get sufficient vitamins and minerals but also helps alleviate boredom by giving them something different to chew on. These small nibblers prefer a diet rich in grains, seeds and plant material—some of which should be provided daily as fresh

A young rabbit enjoys some freshly grown grass.

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produce. Rabbits and guinea pigs in particular should be offered fresh grass and one of the easiest ways of doing this safely is with sprouted grains such as wheat or barley. Standard grass such as cat grass (Dactylis glomerata) can also be grown for other caged animals, although its rate of growth is much slower than that of sprouted grains, which can be ready for cutting and feeding in less then 14 days. Another plant that can be grown in hydroponic media beds or containers—making a spectacular specimen due to its size—is the mangel, (Beta vulgaris var crassa), which is much loved by rabbits, but also by larger pets such as chickens, sheep, pigs and cattle. The mangel is a type of large beet that produces a large swollen root as well as a mass of edible leaves that are nutritious and highly palatable. Other root vegetables such as carrots and radishes can also be grown in hydroponic media beds and shared with caged pets.

Fresh hydroponic carrots are a great treat for caged rabbits and guinea pigs.

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Outdoor livestock, chickens and other poultry Pets come in all shapes and sizes—from the tiniest mouse to horses and other livestock, laying hens and other poultry—all of which appreciate fresh greens and other fruits and vegetables as part of a balanced diet. One of the most commercially accepted methods of growing plants for animals is the hydroponic fodder system, where large sheds are used to grow trays of sprouted grain on vertical shelves. Within 10 to 14 days trays of thickly sown wheat, barley or oats are turned

“The mangel is a type of large beet that produces a large swollen root as well as a mass of edible leaves that are nutritious and highly palatable. ” into dense mats of grass fodder, which can be fed—root systems and all—to livestock. The trays of sprouted grains are irrigated with a complete hydroponic nutrient solution and lighting is used to keep the fodder in thick, healthy and vigorous condition. While commercial systems use automated equipment to grow large volumes of fresh fodder for livestock, the same can be done on a smaller scale indoors to grow fresh plant material for many pets. Laying hens and other types of indoor poultry respond well to fresh fodder grasses, as this increases the intensity of the yellow yolk color in eggs as well as giving the hens some valuable vitamins and minerals. Trays or containers of other plants such as plantain, parsley, cocksfoot, dandelion, subterranean clover and chicory can also be grown


Chickens love green feed and it makes their egg yolks an attractive bright yellow color without the use of dye additives.

for confined laying hens to peck at. Most of these plants have tap roots, so they will regenerate leaves after they have been eaten. Other pets such as goats, sheep and deer also appreciate fresh hydroponic grass during the depths of winter—when only dry feed may be available—and even a small indoor growing space will produce a good biomass of fresh feed over a relatively short time.

Caged birds Although caged or aviary birds might have a diet dominated by commercial seed mixes, many birds love being given an entire dried flower head of sunflower seeds to pick at and pull apart. There are now many varieties of dwarf sunflower plants that can be grown in containers or indoor gardens that not only look spectacular when in full bloom, but can later be harvested, hung up to dry completely and then fed to caged birds. Millet, another seed crop, can also be grown in this way and the entire plant can then be placed into aviaries for birds to harvest themselves. Many caged birds also enjoy an occasional treat of greens such as sprouted and cut wheatgrass, although not all species will consume these sorts of treats. While growing catnip, sunflower seeds or aquatic plants in an indoor hydroponic garden may not directly benefit your own health, your furry, feathered and finned friends will certainly appreciate your efforts. It’s also a great way to encourage species diversity—both plants and animals flourishing together in your indoor growing space. MY

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Lights, Power, Grow Lighting basics

for beginners and hobby growers by GrubbycuP

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The kind of light that plants require to grow and flourish is not necessarily the kind of light that we are familiar with— the lightwaves our eyes see best with are not the same lightwaves that plants use. While outdoor plants benefit from true full-spectrum lighting, the indoor grower must supply his crops with the wavelengths they need to thrive. Proper lighting is one of the most important facets to a successful indoor garden and indoor gardeners should understand at least the basics.

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Light

Light is energy; a form of electromagnetic radiation made from electric and magnetic fields set at right angles to each other. These fields are synchronized together and collectively are known as an electromagnetic field. Electromagnetic radiation travels in a wave emitted outward from a source.

Wavelength

Although the speed of light is a constant, the wavelength and frequency is not. The speed at which the same point on the wave passes by a point in space is the frequency.

Approximate values by color: Red: 625 to 700 nanometers Orange: 600 to 624 nanometers Yellow: 599 to 670 nanometers Green: 500 to 569 nanometers Blue: 465 to 499 nanometers Indigo: 426 to 464 nanometers Violet: 400 to 425 nanometers

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“Although the speed of light is a constant, the wavelength and frequency is not. “

The distance between wave crests is its wavelength—a wavelength is literally the length of the wave. Even though specific numbers are often used as boundary markers, electromagnetic waves are actually not this precise. Where one color starts being a different color is more an approximation than a hard line. The order of longest to shortest wavelengths is: radio waves, infrared (heat), visible light, ultraviolet, X-rays and gamma rays. The human eye uses only a small portion of the electromagnetic spectrum to see with, the wavelength of visible light between about 390 and 790 nanometers. This visible light is further broken down into colors—the long wavelength end of the visible light spectrum is perceived as red and at the short end of the spectrum is violet. Lightwaves slightly too long to be red are called infrared, while wavelengths slightly too short to be violet are called ultraviolet. Objects appear to be the color of the light they reflect. If all colors are absorbed by a leaf except for green, then the leaf will appear green. The wavelength of the electromagnetic field determines its color if visible, or its type if not. Photosynthesis in plants makes the best use of light with wavelengths from peaks at the red, blue and violet bands. Chlorophyll ‘A’ is the blue-green pigment in plants and two peaks of absorption occur at 665 (red) nanometers and 465 (violet-indigo) nanometers. Chlorophyll ‘B’ is the yellow-green pigment in plants and absorbs light at two peaks of 640 (red) nanometers and 450 (indigo-blue) nanometers. The colors in the valley between the two spikes, between 500 and 600 nanometers (the green and green-yellow bands) are not used as much and are mostly reflected by the plant, which is why most plants have green foliage. An ideal light source should supply wavelengths including 640 to 665 nanometers (red) and 450 to 465 nanometers (indigo). A rule of thumb is that cool lights lean toward the blue-violet side, while warm lights tend toward the red-orange side.

Intensity

Waves not only have length, but also height or amplitude. The greater the amplitude, the more energy it contains and the brighter the light. A light at 550 nanometers will appear green— either dim at low intensity or bright at a high intensity—but the color will remain the same. The greater the intensity, the more energy is transmitted. A lumen is the light of one candle. A lux is that light from one meter away, spread over a square area three feet wide. A full moon on a clear night lights at about one lux, a well-lit indoor room is about 400 lux and bright sunlight is about 100,000 lux.

Lighting efficiency

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Power comes from a source—such as a wall plug—and goes through a process to give off light. How much of this power is converted to useful light is known as the lighting efficiency. If the process produces 683 lumens of light per watt of energy used, perfect efficiency has been achieved. Fire gives off light, but most of the energy is expressed in the infrared wavelengths and therefore is not very well suited for growing plants. Incandescent lighting has an efficiency of about six per cent (10 to 30 lumens per watt). LEDs are also about six per cent—although in theory they could be made more efficient—fluorescents are about 10 per cent (30 to 100 lumens per watt), metal halides 14 per cent (70 to 125 lumens per watt) and high-pressure sodiums clock in at five per cent (60 to 140 lumens per watt). The excess heat generated by lighting systems is often the largest source of waste heat in a garden.

“...make sure you can deal with any waste heat your lights generate, as cooked plants perform even worse than under-lit ones do!”

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Light levels drop exponentially over distance. An object twice as far away will receive only ¼ of the light since the light is spread out over four times the area.

Matching the light to the space

One number that is often listed represents lumens— which includes all the light given off by a source (including the lesser used wavelengths)—but at least it is an estimate to work with. The amount of light that ends up actually hitting your plants drops off as an inverse square to the distance. At 6.5 feet, the lux is reduced to ¼ and at 10 feet it is reduced to 1/₉th. A plant that is twice as far from the light source only receives ¼ of the light, while a plant three times as far only receives 1/₉th. If a 400 watt bulb gives off 50,000 lumens in an area three feet to a side, then the bulb gives off 50,000 lux. These lights are used for areas 1.6 feet to three feet to a side. This same bulb could be used to light an area 6.5 feet on a side, but it would deliver only 12,500 lux to the plants. A 600 watt bulb giving off 95,000 lumens at three feet—a bulb size well suited for three feet to four feet gardens—still delivers only 23,750 lux at 6.5 feet. A 1,000 watt bulb may give off 130,000 lux, which would be overkill for three feet, but 32,500 lux over a 6.5 feet space is more reasonable. These bulbs are also well suited for gardens of five feet to a side. Measure your grow space and you’ll be able to draw out different scenarios until you find one you like. For example, in a space measuring five feet 10 feet, two 1,000 watt lights, two or three 600 watt lights or three 400 watt lights could be used as a general guideline. However, make sure you can deal with any waste heat your lights generate, as cooked plants perform even worse than under-lit ones do! There are many factors involved in choosing the perfect lighting system for an indoor garden—the better informed you are, the better the chances are you’ll be happy with the results. MY

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Winterizing your Grow Room

By Lee McCALL

Why your winter grow room should feature a water chiller and other suggestions for maximizing the space 104

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As summer winds down and we head into harvest time, indoor gardeners become very busy preparing our grow rooms for winter—otherwise known as our prime indoor growing season. Now is the time to add more lights and expand our growing space. Those unfortunate growers who have suffered from excessive heat all summer long are only able to turn lights back on now after they’ve been off all summer—heat from the summer

“Prior to entering the ideal indoor growing season, one lesson I’ve learned has been to generate a healthy vegetative crop while it’s still warmer outside in preparation for the approaching cold weather.” sun has now diminished and no longer will excessive hot spells decimate our grow rooms. Cooler weather allows for enhanced environmental control. In residential grow rooms, adding heat is a lot easier than trying to subtract it, especially during those peak summer heat waves that make it nearly impossible to generate a successful crop without the aid of tons of A/C. By the time you’ve put in your second year indoors, though, you should have learned a few lessons. Obviously the fluctuation in temperature from winter to spring to summer can tend to throw off many first-time growers who may have pulled a ‘beginner’s luck’ crop off earlier that winter season. Having learned the hard way, we now know to either prep the room with the appropriate tonnage of A/C or run fewer lights during the summer months! Although LEDs are

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becoming more popular as a viable indoor grow light option, the rumor is that you shouldn’t expect the same fresh weightto-watt ratio. Instead, their benefit lies in the energy savings these efficient grow lights offer as the trade-off for a possible— but not guaranteed—small loss in yield.

“Winter is a great time for indoor gardening. Seasonal crops that may have been difficult to source for consumers during the winter months. . . can be produced indoors on a perpetual cycle.” Prior to entering the ideal indoor growing season, one lesson I’ve learned has been to generate a healthy vegetative crop while it’s still warmer outside in preparation for the approaching cold weather. T5s, LEDs and lower-wattage metal halide lights are an excellent source of vegetative spectrum light— with lower heat and energy output compared to 1,000 watt systems—and many growers are making the switch in their

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vegetative grow rooms. Kick off the beginning of the colder season with a healthy veg crop just waiting to transition over into its flowering cycle, because time is valuable and you should make the most of the indoor season. The goal is to achieve more successful flowering cycles during this time since it’s much easier to control environmental problems; in other words, there is less heat and there are fewer bugs during winter.You should concentrate on having a great starter crop for flowering by the time colder temperatures are becoming more frequent. As opposed to trying to band-aid a lost-cause flowering crop suffering from mite damage and heat stress, build the health and vigor of a healthy veg room up a month or so prior to the cold season, so that when the cooler season has arrived you have an immaculate stress-free crop of stock plants, mature vegetatives and cuttings ready to go all season long. Non-air-cooled horticultural lighting reflectors are ideal in the winter grow room so long as the emitted heat does not affect room comfort. In places like the foothills and deep into the mountains, where long periods of near- or below-freezing temperatures are more common, growers may be inclined to use these types of hoods. One major benefit is a stronger penetration of light to the crop due to the fact that no loss is experienced from glass lenses or duct ports on the reflectors. Actual surface area square footage of plant production may increase and the crop may receive higher radiant levels of useable light when


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“you can recycle grow light heat back into the house in order to reduce natural gas costs from furnaces or added electrical costs from space heaters.” these reflectors are employed, as compared to air-cooled alternatives. If non-air-cooled reflectors are not an option, use only what is needed in order to keep air-cooled lights cool to the touch. In colder regions, grow rooms operating on a PM to AM schedule will have the least amount of radiant heat hindering production. Because the room will operate and function its ‘ON’ cycle during the coolest parts of the day, there will obviously be less ambient heat at night to combat in conjunction with grow room appliances—such as lights, CO2 generators and so on. Below-freezing air used to cool off air-cooled reflectors housing high-wattage HID lamps may cause condensation to occur on duct runs, walls, and equipment. Either temper the air in a separate space indoors prior to allowing it to enter the reflector housing, or operate the fans on rheostats or fan-speed temperature controllers to facilitate less energy consumption and prevent uncomfortably cool temperatures. Also, you can recycle grow light heat back into the house in order to reduce natural gas costs from furnaces or added electrical costs from space heaters—you’d be surprised how much usable heat a few 1,000 watt lights will generate! Make sure to HEPA

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filter all fresh-air intake points, as plant pests and other nasty organisms will be looking to vacation in the HID oasis you’ve created. Water-chilled systems are another great example of new age grow room technology currently sparking the interest of avid indoor farmers intending to keep production consistent year-round. Cloning systems that once suffered failure from pumps overheating reservoir solutions are easily kept to a specific chilled temperature dictated automatically by portable and weatherproof water-chilling units. Although water chillers may seem like a luxury, you can save energy by operating them in the winter since colder air is more readily available. If you’re running a chiller to improve the condition of your nutrient solution, you’re probably already using an air pump to provide enhanced oxygen levels to the root—and if not, it may help. Place the air pump in a cold closet, crawl space or garage if possible and run the air line to the air stone or diffuser. Avoid lengthy air lines, as this may decrease the overall pump output. Low water temperatures may also decrease oxygen availability to the root system, so don’t get overzealous with temperatures below 65°F or suffocation could result. Reservoir heaters (I prefer titanium) combine plug-and-go versatility with a low electrical draw and many integrate a digital LCD for precise temperature control and to prevent overheating. Keep the reservoir at a solid 68 to 70 °F for optimal root health and nutrient uptake and to ensure that concentrations of dissolved oxygen are available to your plants. Winter is a great time for indoor gardening. Seasonal crops that may have been difficult to source for consumers during the winter months because they were field or greenhouse grown can be produced indoors on a perpetual cycle and you’ll be able to charge top-market price for these out-of-season rarities. Fresh yellowstriped boar tomatoes, delicate squash blossoms, ghost peppers and more can now all be harvested in December or January due to the research that has been done and the technological innovations that have resulted in the last few years in the world of indoor horticulture. I urge everyone who is passionate about indoor high-tech gardening to try to enlighten an interested friend or family member. Seeds, dirt and a fluorescent bulb are all it takes to start the beginning of a wonderful addiction—and the more minds we have working together to promote our industry, the more innovation will continue to thrive in the world of hydroponic, organic and year-round gardening. MY

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Avant-Gardening

Cutting With Precision and Ease

by Karen Wilkinson

How to properly take babies from your MILC Cloning your MILC (mother I’d like to clone) is a fairly simple process; however, if done sloppily, in haste or without some experience, it can result in weak, disease-prone offspring. If taken with care and patience, the cuttings will grow into mature, healthy plants. When propagating in an aeroponic cloning machine, the stems will be in their own little environmental heaven, constantly receiving water and air, but virtually no light. So you want to prepare them by caring for your motherplant—you are, after all, making replicas of her genetics, so you want the best. Once you’re ready to take cuttings—given the MILC is at least two months old and in optimal health—get your very sterile tools, rooting gel and system ready (or whatever medium you’ve chosen to produce the clones). But first, a few quick tips: >>

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• Three to four days before taking cuttings, heavily water your MILC to help remove nitrogen (just pH-adjusted water without fertilizers or other additives). By decreasing the nitrogen in the motherplant, you help her babies root faster. • Choose a sharp, clean, thin-bladed knife, razor or pair of scissors to cut the stems. Using dull, blunt tools increases the potential for damaging the plant tissue during cuttings, and therefore increases the risk of disease. • If taking cuttings from more than one MILC, sterilize the blade or scissors between plants to decrease any potential cross contamination (disease, fungus or viruses).

When ready, choose a stem with at least one leaf node that’s about two to four inches long, and relatively new (at least from the current season). Cut about one inch beneath the node. Some people swear by the 45° angle rule, while others say it doesn’t matter as long as the cut is clean; whatever works best for you. Remove any excessive, large leaves off but don’t clip all of them. Leave some, and if needed, cut leaves in half that may take energy away from root growth.

Immediately after taking the cutting, dip the stem in rooting gel. Take extra precautions to pour the gel into a separate container; never dip directly into the rooting gel container as they may cause cross contamination. Though some swear by the 60 second rule, the length of time the stem stays in the gel is inconsequential—as long as it gets some, you’re good to go. When placing the cutting into the growing medium, make sure at least one inch of the stem is below the surface. Once you’re done taking cuttings and they are properly inserted into your unit, be sure to promptly plug in your machine to begin the process. Be clean, be thorough, be patient and above all, be kind to your motherplant—she’s the provider in this equation and will only produce what she already embodies. Happy cloning! MY

About the Author:

Karen Wilkinson works for EZ-CLONE Enterprises, Inc. as their social media editor. Her background is in journalism and technical writing, and she is learning to grow, clone and write for the hydroponics community. She’s a budding gardener and loves growing her own vegetables.

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by Frank Rauscher

Getting Back to Your Roots The Development of Healthy Roots in Soil

Repairing your roots is as easy as 1 (dissect), 2 (wash), 3 (examine).

Sometimes gardeners find that the top foliar growth of their plants is poorly developed and lacking in vigor. Do we understand why this occurs? Perhaps the culprit is a poorly developed root system. To ascertain what the problem that caused the poor growth was, the roots need to be carefully examined after the plant has been harvested. As well as being attentive gardeners, sometimes growers need to be scientists too! In this article we’ll harvest a plant in order to investigate and document what is going on at the root level. At first when we dissect the root ball (image one) it may look as though the roots are thin and mostly located at the edge. Our second task is to wash away the soil from around the roots to see what we really have—this is where we can learn a lot. In image two we can see after the initial washing that the roots look more substantial than they first appeared. Finally, after washing off the top dirt as well as much of the lower root growth we see a well developed, deep and extended root mass. You’ll notice that the better developed the roots are, the more difficult it is to wash the dirt out. What are some of the things that impact root growth? Soil, the type of nutrients used, the formula utilized in those 118

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Getting Back to Your Roots

development phase, or maybe we forget to water sometimes and so end up watering irregularly. After the initial transplanting shock period is past, plant growth should be primarily root growth, so our focus should be on roots more than foliar development at this time. Slow, deep and infrequent watering encourages a more “After the initial transplanting shock expansive root system. As the soil begins to dry out, the root system period is past, plant growth should naturally grows outward and be primarily root growth, so our deeper into the earth in order to focus should be on roots more than attempt to meet the demands of foliar development at this time.” Image the plant. If a small and shallow one. system of roots is capable of supplying all the plant’s needs, where is the incentive for the plant’s roots to expand? There isn’t any! nutrients and the method we choose for the application of an This is the reason that infrequent watering is an important factor in adequate supply of quality water are all important factors in healthy root development—it teases the roots to follow the water. healthy root development. After watering, however, if the deeper level of soil is not still Consider how we often water many of our indoor soil conmoist when the surface level has dried, there is still no motainer plants by hand, with a watering can—and rather quickly. tivation for the plant to produce larger roots. This is why we After all, watering is just another chore. There is also a tendency want to water deeply—rapid and cursory watering does not to water frequently when a plant is young and in the root provide the necessary thorough and deep saturation of the soil.

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Image two.

“Infrequent watering is an important factor in healthy root development—it teases the roots to follow the water.”

Soil type also has a major impact on root development, as do macro and micronutrients—and these issues will be covered in future articles. Maintaining the optimum moisture content of your garden soil is like keeping a proper level in your gas tank.You don’t want to be running on empty, but you don’t want to be stopping at every filling station either. During the root development phase it is very important to find just the right balance for moisture. A quality moisture meter can help. Just touching the surface doesn’t give much information—you’ll want to sample surface moisture as well as sub-surface and deep soil moisture in order to have a grasp on the water-holding properties of your soil and to accurately gauge plant transpiration as well as evaporation rates. A slow and evenly dispersed application of water—like rainfall—affords excellent distribution of moisture throughout the entire structure of the soil. If portions of the soil are inadequately moistened they will dry out early and these will naturally be the areas with fewer roots present. It’s difficult and time-consuming to water like this by hand, but fortunately the industry has been developing automated outdoor drip-irrigation systems for many years and now there are some good options for indoor drip systems too. The most significant point here is for the indoor grower to recognize and understand the root development phase of their young plants and to provide the right type of watering, nutrients and soil to encourage them to thrive. When the root system has pretty much expanded throughout the container, then an adjustment to the watering schedule is appropriate. Making this judgment is no easy matter since we can’t see the roots at this stage, but this goes back to examining the root structures of your plants after harvest. Observe and record everything—like a scientist—at every step of your crop’s growth and your notes will be an invaluable reference tool for you to consult for years to com MY Maximum Yield USA | November 2011

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Propagation for Profit: Grow Aloe for Dough... Industry veteran Casey Jones Fraser divulges effective techniques and best practices to grow aloe vera for profit. by Casey Jones Fraser

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.

.

Handle with care!

If you are into houseplants, chances are pretty good that you have an aloe plant in your home. Some gardeners keep aloe around to soothe sunburns or digestive ailments (always consult a physician), but I grow aloe for profit. Sure, I like to have it in my home and I will use it medicinally when necessary, but mainly I grow aloe to sell the small young plants.

........... “...leaf cuttings will not work for aloe, so don’t bother cutting a succulent aloe leaf and shoving it into some soil-even with rooting hormone, it won’t work.”

...........

When you grow aloe under the proper conditions (quality grow lights, extreme periods of drought, plenty of welldraining growing medium) it can grow to quite a large size—my biggest aloe plant is about four feet tall, not including the root ball. Once they start growing at a steady pace, they will also generate small plants that pop up from the root system. Gardeners seeking additional aloe plants can easily propagate these ‘pups’, as they are called. The key to getting a big crop of young aloe plants is growing large mother aloe plants. The large plants produce the small pups from their root systems, so the bigger the motherplant the more pups will appear in your planter.

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Grow your motherplants in large containers. Aloe plants will get bigger in every direction if they have enough growing medium, so five gallons or more is ideal for encouraging chunky leaf growth and lots of pups. The fat leaves on these large plants are great for producing homemade ointments or hair treatments. If you are interested in taking aloe internally make sure to first consult with your health professional, as aloe sap can have negative effects on some people when ingested. If you do plan to ingest aloe for health reasons you will need to increase your plant numbers so you’ll be able to harvest the leaves on a regular basis. I propagate these plants because they sell for between $5 and $15 dollars apiece and I sell over 100 of them every year. Do the math—it’s worth it! So what is the best way to propagate the small aloe plants produced by the large mothers? I’m glad you asked! First, however, I’d like to begin by mentioning two ways that I do not recommend. First off, leaf cuttings will not work for aloe, so don’t bother cutting a succulent aloe leaf and shoving it into some soil—even with rooting hormone, it won’t work. Wait for pups to emerge from the soil of larger plants and gently pull them up, roots included. Second, after you have uprooted your baby aloe, don’t put it in a glass of water! I know that many houseplants No gloves, no shovels.

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are started in glasses of water, but aloe is native to desert regions and would never experience a glass of water in its natural environment. Author’s note to Grandma Jones: I know you start your aloe pups in water and that it works, but I promise you that my method works better! I’m sorry for contradicting you, and I’ll see you at Christmas. The best way to get aloe going is with tough love. Let the young plants sit out in a tray—no water, no nutrients, no soil. The aloe plants will start to brown off after a few days, but

........... “The best way to get aloe going is with tough love. Let the young plants sit out in a tray - no water, no nutrients, no soil.”

........... be patient. Think of the harsh desert climate of North Africa, where moisture is a precious commodity—aloe has evolved to store water and tolerate drought. After about two weeks, the plants will be greenish-brown and the roots completely dry. Only now should you transplant them into containers. Potting soil is an option and you can even find bags of soil specifically formulated for aloe and cacti, but after years of experimenting with various mixes I’ve found that aloe plants grow best in plain old coconut coir. Coir is the groundup fibers from coconut shells—if you aren’t familiar with this amazing stuff, ask your local hydroponics dealer. The coconut coir will hold plenty of moisture when you initially wet it down. A 20 minute soak is recommended before potting up your new plants. After that, stand your aloe plant up in a six inch pot and carefully fill in around the tap root with wet coconut coir. Gently pack in the loose coir so the aloe stays

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in place and then repeat this process until all of the pups are planted. Don’t water your new plants for at least a month. Always wait until the coir or soil is completely dried out before watering again, as overwatering an aloe plant can quickly lead to a type of black spot fungus, which is both unsightly and unhealthy. As far as nutrients are concerned, aloe plants grow well when fed quality hydroponic nutrients along with B vitamins and beneficial microbiology. Once your aloe plants are growing, continue to give them periods of extreme drought, followed by a heavy watering with this nutrient regimen. Feed young plants a very mild solution, but the large motherplants can handle moderate to heavy doses of plant food. So start growing some aloe plants for health reasons or for profit. They thrive when neglected, so plant ‘em and forget ‘em. All you have to do is make sure they have large enough containers and plenty of light; before you know it tiny new plants will be poking through the coir, reaching for the light. And after a few months you might be pulling 30 pups out in one sitting—and that can equate to big bucks at farmers’ markets or in the online classifieds. Supplies for removing pups from motherplants: • Large plastic tray for the mother • Small plastic tray for the pups • Coconut coir to fill in the holes left from removing the pups • Your fingertips and a gentle touch* Supplies for transplanting aloe pups: • A tray full of dry aloe pups • A few six inch containers (clay or plastic) • Coconut coir or loose potting mix • Your fingertips and a gentle touch* *Never use a shovel when digging up the pups. Fragile roots are easily damaged.

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Growing for Health

Outside In Bringing what’s outside indoors is simple, if you know how Many gardeners move their houseplants outside in the summer so that the plants can enjoy the sun and outdoor air. But, because most houseplants are actually tropical, they must be brought inside once the weather turns cold.

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Bringing plants inside for winter is not as easy as simply moving their pots from one place to another. There are a few precautions you need to take when acclimatizing plants indoor to prevent sending your plant into shock. Let’s look at how it’s done.


Before bringing plants inside for winter… One of the most common issues that arise when houseplants are brought indoors is they bring unwanted pests with them. Check your houseplants thoroughly for small insects like aphids, mealybugs and spidermites, and remove them. These pests can hitch a ride on the plants you bring in for the winter and infest all of your houseplants. You may even want to hose off your houseplants before bringing them in. This will help knock off any pests that you may have missed. If the plant grew over during the summer, you may want to consider either pruning or repotting the houseplant. Do not prune back more than ⅓ of the plant. Also, make sure that you root prune an equal amount off the roots as you do off the foliage. If you will be repotting, use a container that is at least two inches larger than the current container. Acclimatizing plants indoors Once the temperatures outside reach 50°F or less at night your houseplants must come back into the house. Most houseplants cannot stand temps below 45°F. Acclimatizing plants indoors for winter is easy, but without following the tips outlined, your plants may experience shock, wilting and leaf loss. Light and humidity outside versus inside are dramatically different. When acclimatizing your houseplants, start by bringing them in at night. For the first few days, bring the container inside in the evening and move it back outside in the morning. Gradually, over the course of two weeks, increase the amount of time the plant spends indoors until it is indoors full time. Remember, plants that are indoors will not need as much water as plants that are outdoors, so only water when the soil is dry to the touch.You may also want to consider cleaning your windows to help maximize the amount of sunlight your plants get through the windows. MY

For more gardening tips and tricks visit www.gardeningknowhow.com or check out www.gardeningknowhow.com/questions

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by Dr. David E. Neal

Plants use inorganic minerals for nutrition, whether grown in the field or in a container. Complex interactions involving weathering of rocks, decaying organic matter, animals and microbes take place to form inorganic minerals in soil. Roots absorb mineral nutrients as ions, dissolved in soil water. Many factors influence nutrient uptake for plants. Ions can be readily available to roots or could be tied up by other elements or the soil itself. Soil that is too high in pH (alka132

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line) or too low in pH (acidic) makes many minerals unavailable to plants. Fertility or Nutrition The term fertility refers to the inherent capacity of a soil to supply nutrients to plants in adequate amounts and in suitable proportions. The term nutrition refers to the interrelated steps by which a living organism assimilates food and uses it for growth and replacement of tissue.

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what is plant nutrition?

Previously, plant growth was thought of in terms of soil fertility or how much fertilizer should be added to the soil to increase the levels of mineral elements. Most fertilizers were formulated to account for deficiencies of mineral elements in the soil. The use of soilless mixes and increased research in nutrient cultures and hydroponics as well as advances in plant tissue analysis has led to a broader understanding of plant nutrition. Plant nutrition is a term that takes into account the interrelationships of mineral elements in the soil or growing medium as well as their role in plant growth. These interrelationships involve a complex balance of mineral elements, which are essential or beneficial for optimum plant growth. Essential versus Beneficial Arnon and Stout proposed a definition of an essential mineral element (or mineral nutrient) in 1939. They concluded that three criteria must be met for an element to be considered essential. These criteria are: 1. A plant must be unable to complete its lifecycle in the absence of the mineral element. 2. The function of the element must not be replaceable by another mineral element. 3. The element must be directly involved in plant metabolism. These criteria are important guidelines for plant nutrition but ignore beneficial mineral elements. Beneficial elements are those that can compensate for toxic effects of other elements and replace mineral nutrients in some other less specific function such as the maintenance of osmotic pressure or provide other nonessential benefits. The omission of beneficial nutrients in commercial production could mean that plants are not being grown to their optimum genetic potential but are merely produced at a subsistence level. 134

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In other words, Arnon and Stout’s proposed definition of an essential element is a narrow one. A plant cannot survive without these elements. A better definition of an essential mineral element would include all elements essential for optimum growth and health of any plant. This discussion of plant nutrition includes both the essential and beneficial mineral elements. What Mineral Elements Do Plants Need There are 20 mineral elements essential for plant growth. Carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) are supplied by air and water. The six macronutrients: nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and sulphur (S) are required by plants in large amounts. The rest of the elements are micronutrients and are only required in trace amounts. Essential trace elements include boron (B), chlorine (Cl), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), sodium (Na), zinc (Zn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), silicon (Si) and cobalt (Co). Note that silicon and cobalt are not considered essential by the Arnon and Stout definition to all plants but are essential to some. Studies have also shown that other mineral elements are beneficial to the growth of some plants. The distinction between beneficial and essential is often difficult in the case of some trace elements. Cobalt for instance is essential for nitrogen fixation in legumes. It may also inhibit ethylene formation and extend the life of cut roses. Silicon, deposited in cell walls, has been found to improve heat and drought tolerance and increase resistance to insects and fungal infections. Silicon, acting as a beneficial element, can help compensate for toxic levels of manganese, iron, phosphorus and aluminium as well as zinc deficiency. A more holistic approach to plant nutrition would not be limited to nutrients essential to survival but would include mineral elements at levels beneficial for optimum growth. With developments in analytical chemistry and the ability to eliminate

contaminants in nutrient cultures, the list of essential elements may well increase in the future. For example, nickel, the most recent addition to the list of essential elements, was added in the early 1990s as a result of several years of research. The Mineral Elements in Plant Production The use of soil for greenhouse production before the 1960s was common. Today few growers still use soil in their mixes. The bulk of production is in soilless mixes. Soilless mixes must provide support, aeration, nutrient and moisture retention just as soils do, but the addition of fertilizers or nutrients are different. Many soilless mixes have calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sulphur, nitrogen, potassium and some micronutrients incorporated as a pre-plant fertilizer. Nitrogen and potassium still must be applied to the crop during production. Difficulty in blending a homogeneous mix using pre-plant fertilizers may often result in uneven crops and possible toxic or deficient levels of nutrients. Soilless mixes that require the addition of micro and macronutrients applied as liquid throughout the growth of the crop actually give the grower more control of his crop. To achieve optimum production, the grower can adjust nutrient levels to compensate for other environmental factors during the growing season. The uptake of mineral ions is dependent on a number of factors in addition to weather conditions. These include the cation exchange capacity or CEC and the pH of the growing medium and water supply, as well as the total alkalinity of the irrigation water. CEC or Cation Exchange Capacity CEC refers to the ability of the growing medium to hold exchangeable mineral elements within its structure. These cations include ammonium (nitrogen), potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron,


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what is plant nutrition?

Your # 1 source for the BIGGEST

Yields!

“Nitrogen is a major component of proteins, hormones, chlorophyll, vitamins and nucleic acids.”

manganese, zinc and copper. Peat moss, coir and mixes containing bark, sawdust and other organic materials all have some level of cation exchange capacity. pH: What Does it Mean? The term pH refers to the alkalinity or acidity of a growing medium water solution. This solution consists of mineral elements dissolved in ionic form in water. The reaction of this solution whether it is acid, neutral or alkaline will have a marked effect on the availability of mineral elements to plant roots. When there is a greater amount of hydrogen (H+) ions the solution will be acidic (pH<7.0). If there are more hydroxyl (-OH) ions, the solution will be alkaline (pH>7.0). A balance of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions results in a pH neutral soil (pH=7.0). The optimum pH range for most crops is 5.5 to 6.2 or slightly acidic. This creates the greatest average availability of all essential plant nutrients. Different mineral elements are available at different pH levels. Extreme variations in pH can cause mineral deficiencies or toxicity by binding or releasing large amounts of various elements. Enzymes: The Workhorses of Life Enzymes are proteins, which are involved in increasing the rate and efficiency of biochemical reactions. Most enzymes require metal ions for activation and function. Without proper enzyme function, growth would cease in an organism. Most of the essential mineral elements affect enzymes in multiple ways. Many of the roles of mineral elements in enzymes are discussed in the following paragraphs. 136

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what is plant nutrition?

The Elements of Complete Plant Nutrition The following is a brief summary of the role of essential and beneficial mineral nutrients crucial to plant growth. If any one of the essential elements is eliminated from a plantâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nutrition, it will display abnormalities of growth, symptoms of deficiency and may not reproduce normally. Essential Macronutrients Nitrogen is a major component of proteins, hormones, chlorophyll, vitamins and nucleic acids. Nitrogen metabolism is a major factor in stem and leaf growth (vegetative growth). Excessive nitrogen can be detrimental to growth by delaying flowering and fruiting. Deficiencies can reduce yields, cause yellowing of the leaves and stunt growth. Phosphorus is necessary for seed germination, photosynthesis, protein

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synthesis and almost all aspects of growth and metabolism in plants. Phosphorus is a component of RNA and DNA, the genetic makeup of life. It is essential for flower and fruit formation. Low pH (<4) results in phosphate being chemically locked up in organic soils. Deficiency symptoms include stunted growth, reduced yields of fruit and flowers and premature drop of fruit and flowers. Purple coloring may also appear due to anthocyanin and accumulation. Large applications of phosphorus without adequate levels of zinc can cause a zinc deficiency. Potassium is an activator of many enzymes that are required in photosynthesis and respiration. It is involved in osmotic potential in cells. Potassium is also required for sugars, carbohydrates, cell division, protein synthesis and phloem transport. It helps adjust water balance, improves stem rigidity and cold hardi-

ness, enhances flavor and color in fruit and vegetable crops, increases oil content and is important in leafy crops. Deficiencies result in low yields, mottled, spotted or curled leaves and a scorched or burned look to leaves. Sulfur is a structural component of amino acids, enzymes, proteins and vitamins. Sulfur is essential in respiration and lipid metabolism. It imparts flavor to many vegetables. Deficiency symptoms appear as chlorosis throughout the leaves. Sulfur is readily lost by leaching from soils and should be applied with a nutrient formula. Many water supplies contain sulfur. Magnesium is a critical structural component of the chlorophyll molecule and is necessary for functioning or activation of plant enzymes to produce carbohydrates, sugars, proteins and fats.


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It is used for fruit and nut formation and is essential for germination of seeds. In essence, magnesium is essential to every metabolic pathway in plants. Deficient plants appear chlorotic meaning they show yellowing between the veins of older leaves and the leaves may droop. Magnesium is leached by watering and must be supplied when feeding. It can be applied as a foliar spray to correct deficiencies.

Calcium activates enzymes, is a structural component of cell walls, influences water movement in cells and is necessary for cell growth and division. Calcium is required for membrane function in all cells. Some plants must have calcium to take up nitrogen and other minerals. Calcium is easily leached. Calcium, once deposited in plant tissue, is immobile (non-translocatable). Accordingly, a constant supply of calcium is essential for growth. Deficiency causes stunting of new growth in stems, flowers and roots. Symptoms range from distorted new growth to black spots on leaves and fruit. Essential Micronutrients Iron is a component of many structural and enzymatic proteins. It is essential for electron transport and chlorophyll biosynthesis. It is, therefore, required for photosynthesis and respiration. Iron is also essential for lipid metabolism. A well-known symptom of iron deficiency is interveinal chlorosis. High soil pH can cause iron deficiency. Toxic levels of iron are associated with waterlogged soils as iron is immobile. Manganese activates many enzymes, but to date, only two are considered manganese-containing enzymes. One of these enzymes is directly involved with the photosynthetic evolution of oxygen. Manganese is required for respiration and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.

“Nickel is essential for iron absorption. Seeds require nickel in order to germinate.”

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what is plant nutrition?

“Copper is an integral component of several enzymes and other critical biological proteins.”

Deficiency symptoms in dicots appear as chlorosis between the veins (interveinal) of young leaves, as manganese is not mobile in plants. In grasses, greenish gray spots on the more basal leaves are a sign of manganese deficiency. In neutral or alkaline soils, plants often show deficiency symptoms. In highly acidic soils, manganese may be available in toxic levels.

IAA synthesis, membrane integrity and carbohydrate metabolism. Deficiency symptoms in dictos include shortened internodes and a reduction in leaf size. Chlorosis often accompanies these symptoms. At low soil pH, zinc may accumulate to toxic levels. Raising the pH is the most effective method of reducing zinc availability in soils.

Zinc is a structural component of many enzymes and also acts as a cofactor in others. Zinc is essential to DNA replication, gene expression, protein synthesis,

Copper is an integral component of several enzymes and other critical biological proteins. It is required in photosynthesis, respiration and lignin biosynthesis and in carbohydrate, nitrogen and lipid metabolism. Copper is also required for pollen grain formation. A copper deficiency can cause die back of the shoot tips, stunted growth and terminal leaves may develop black necrotic spots. Copper deficiency affects fruit and seed formation much more drastically than vegetative growth. Copper is bound tightly to organic matter and deficiencies may result in highly organic soils even though copper is present. Copper becomes toxic to plants at high levels. Molybdenum is a structural component of the enzyme nitrate reductase that reduces nitrates to ammonia.This enzyme is found in all higher plants. Many plants (i.e., legumes) reduce atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia via bacteria located in root nodules.These bacteria use the enzyme nitrogenase, which also contains molybdenum.Without adequate levels of molybdenum, the synthesis of proteins is blocked, plant growth ceases and seeds may not form completely. Not surprisingly, other biologically important enzymes beside the two mentioned contain molybdenum. One of the most common signs of molybdenum deficiency is interveinal chlorosis of young leaves. Other symptoms include stunted seedling growth and those symptoms associated with nitrogen deficiency, including rolled or cupped leaf margins.

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Chlorine is involved in osmoregulation, the regulation of movement of water and other solutes into and out of cells. Chlorine is essential for cell division in leaves and in the regulation of opening and closing of stomata. Chlorine is also involved in the photosynthetic evolution of oxygen and nitrogen metabolism. Deficiency symptoms include wilting of leaves, chlorosis and stunted root growth. High levels of chlorine can be severely detrimental to plant growth. Nickel has recently been determined to be an essential trace element for plants by a group of scientists at the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) in Ithaca, New York. It is required for the enzyme urease, which most plants use to break down urea into usable forms of nitrogen. Nickel is also a necessary component for the function of other enzymes. Nickel is essential for iron absorption. Seeds require nickel in order to germinate. Plants grown without an adequate supply of nickel will gradually reach a deficient level at about the time they mature and begin reproductive growth. Boron plays an essential role in membrane integrity, calcium uptake, root elongation, nucleic acid metabolism, cell wall synthesis and pollen tube formation. Boron affects at least 16 functions in plants. These functions include flowering, pollen germination, fruiting, cell division, water relationships and the movement of hormones. Boron is non-translocatable and, therefore, must be available throughout the life of the plant. Its uptake is closely related to the soil pH. It becomes more readily available as pH increases. Deficiency symptoms include discoloration or death of young leaves and terminal bud leaving a rosette effect on the plant. Plants will also fail to set seed and fruit. Leaves are thick, curled and brittle. Fruits, tubers and roots are discolored, cracked and flecked with brown spots. Beneficial Micronutrients Sodium is involved in osmotic (water movement) and ionic balance and is required for some plants. Sodium is essential for many but not all C4 plants. Cobalt is required for nitrogen fixation in legumes and in root nodules of non-legumes because it is a component of enzymes essential for nitrogen fixation. Deficient levels could result in nitrogen deficiency symptoms. Silicon is found as a component of cell walls. Plants with supplies of soluble 144

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“silicon produces stronger, tougher cell walls creating a mechanical barrier to the mouthparts of piercing and sucking insects.” silicon produces stronger, tougher cell walls creating a mechanical barrier to the mouthparts of piercing and sucking insects. Silicon significantly enhances plant heat, drought and cold tolerance. Silicon stimulates the production of polyphenols, part of a plant’s natural defences against fungal and insect attack. Foliar sprays of silicon have also shown benefits reducing populations of aphids on field crops. Tests have also found that silicon can be deposited by the plants at the site of a fungal infection to combat the penetration of cell walls by the attacking fungus. Improved leaf erectness, stem strength and prevention or depression of iron and manganese toxicity has all been noted as effects from feeding soluble silicon. Silicon, known to be essential to members of the poaceae family (grasses), has demonstrated benefits to a wide variety of plants. Silicon is the second most common element in the earth’s crust. However, it is largely tied up in the form of insoluble rock. Hence, it is only available in very low levels in nature, though it is ubiquitous in soil solutes and all water supplies, even rainwater. Even double distilled water contains not less than five ppb of silicon. Accordingly, it is not possible to deprive any plant of all silicon, a requirement for the Arnon and Stout definition of essentiality. MY

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Tips and Tricks

Decoded: Fertilizer Injector Usage by Guy Sela

Do the math, learn the lingo Modern fertilization systems include fertilizer injectors that belong to one of two types: fertilizer injectors that are electrically powered (independently or by a controller) and fertilizer injectors that are mechanically powered by water pressure. Both types inject fertilizer solutions into the irrigation water. The ratio in which the solution is injected is termed the injection rate. This ratio can be expressed as percentage or as v/v (volume/volume). For example, a ratio of one gallon per 35 cubic feet means that one gallon of fertilizer solution is injected into each 35 cubic feet of irrigation water. The same fertilizer injector rate can be expressed as a percentage at 0.5 per cent. A higher fertilizer injector rate means more fertilizer solution is injected into the irrigation water.

Factors affecting efficient operation of fertilizer injectors There are three essential factors that need to be considered to ensure an efficient operation of a fertilizer injector: the required injector flow rate, the water pressure and the materials the fertilizer injector is made of.

Injector flow rate The required flow rate of a fertilizer injector depends on: • the irrigation flow rate • the required fertilization level • the concentration of the fertilizer stock solution For reaching a certain fertilization level, higher irrigation flow rates require fertilizer injectors with higher flow rates. For 154

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Water pressure and water flow affect the performance of fertilizer injectors. Water flow through the fertilizer injector and water pressure in the irrigation line must be adequate for an efficient operation of fertilizer injectors.”

example, if you want to inject one gallon of fertilizer stock solution into 35 cubic feet of water, and the irrigation flow rate is 1,059 cubic feet per hour, you’ll need a fertilizer injector with a minimum flow rate of 40 gallons per hour. It would be impossible for a fertilizer injector with a lower flow rate to reach the desired fertilization level. Use this simple calculation to check whether your fertilizer injector can provide the required fertilizers quantities: Divide the fertilizer injector flow by the irrigation flow to get the injection rate. For example, if your fertilizer injector flow is 40 gallons per hour and the irrigation flow rate is 1,059 cubic feet per hour, then the maximal possible injection rate is one gallon per 35 cubic feet or 0.5 per cent.

If the flow rate of your fertilizer injector is too low, you can take one of the following actions: • Decrease the irrigation flow rate by irrigating fewer valves at the same time. • Increase the concentration of the fertilizer stock solution. In this case, make sure you don’t exceed the solubility limitations of the fertilizers. Water pressure and water flow affect the performance of fertilizer injectors. Water flow through the fertilizer injector and water pressure in the irrigation line must be adequate for an efficient operation of fertilizer injectors. For example, if the water pressure in the irrigation line is higher than the maximal pressure against which the fertilizer injector can work, the fertilizer solution might not be efficiently injected, and the fertilizer injector might even eventually not inject any fertilizers at all. MY

About the Author:

Guy Sela is an agronomist and a chemical engineer for his innovative software company, Smart Fertilizer (www.smart-fertilizer.com) that provides fertilizer management solutions. Applying his background in water treatment, he has lead a variety of projects on reverse osmosis, water disinfection and water purification, providing high quality water for irrigation.

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Beginner’s corner

Say What? Master the following 29 hydro words and phrases and master your garden

Aeration A condition where plenty of oxygen is present.

Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC)

Algal

A measure of the ability of the growing medium to adsorb exchangeable cations that are available to the plant and will resist the leaching nutrients during watering.

A plant-like microorganism that grows where there is plenty of water and some light.

Callus

Cloning

A mass of cells that forms at the bottom of the cut end of a stem that starts growing roots.

The asexual propagation of a plant; cuttings or grafts are taken from a motherplant to reproduce a plant identical to the motherplant.

Cation

Decisiemens per meter (dS/m)

An ion in the root environment that has a positive charge.

A unit of measure for EC.

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Drip irrigation

NFT hydroponic systems

A method of watering plants where water is applied slowly as it drops onto the growth medium.

A technique for growing plants hydroponically in which the plant roots are suspended in a slow moving stream of nutrient solution.

Ebb and flow hydroponics A hydration system that works by flooding the media containing the plant roots. The media sits in a reservoir of water and nutrient supply for a specified period of time. The water and nutrient supply is then drained. Draining allows the roots to access needed oxygen for maximum growth.

Effluent Liquid/solution that flows out of a media.

Electric Conductivity (EC) A measure of the electrical resistance of a nutrient solution or media, used to determine the level of ions.

Etiolation The process of growing the plant in total darkness for a period of time.

Floating Hydroponic Systems Where plants grow and complete their lifecycle on top of water with nutrients.

Fungal

Parthenocarpic A plant that can produce fruits without pollination.

pH The negative logarithm of hydrogen ion concentration to the base 10. It is a value between one and 14.

PPM Parts per million.

Propagation The process of multiplying plants either sexually or asexually. Sexual propagation of plants uses a seed to reproduce the plant. Asexual propagation uses a graft or cutting to reproduce plants. Asexual reproduction produces plants that are identical to the motherplant. Asexual propagation is also known as cloning.

Recycled and reusable watering systems

A disease-causing microorganism.

Where water is collected, stored, cleaned and recirculated in order to water plants.

Germinate

Soilless Media

A process where seeds start growing by producing leaves and roots.

Any plant growing media other than soil.

Hydroponic

Clean, free from any kind of microorganisms.

Sterile

A method of growing plants using water and nutriens only for root development. Roots are not housed in soil or any type of soilless media.

Sub-irrigation systems

Inert

Vermiculite

Having no chemical or biological action or value.

A growing medium that has aluminum-iron-magnesium silicate. It is lightweight and highly porous. MY

Leach out Using water to wash out salts and other material from the growth media. Leaching is also used to adjust pH, EC and CEC to desirable levels.

Leachate Solution that drains from the growing media.

A method of supplying water to plant roots under the roots.

The hydro glossary was compiled by the Dr. P Team at steadyGROWpro: Bill DeBoer (lab technician), Todd Trobaugh (education specialist), Kelvin Frye (national sales manager) and, of course, Dr. Pawan Srivastava (horticulture scientist). Maximum Maximum Yield Yield USAâ&#x20AC;&#x201A; USAâ&#x20AC;&#x201A; | November | October 2011

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you tell us

Root Pouch’s Ashley Fromm leads us into their imaginarium, the place where creativity lives, and gives MY readers the first look at their new camo line of cloth containers. Maximum Yield (MY): What was the inspiration behind the creation of Root Pouch sustainable products? Ashley Fromm: Growers today are demanding healthier plants that produce bigger yields in shorter periods of time.This could not be done as efficiently with the old tools and older technologies. The Root Pouch fabric line was created to answer these needs. MY: How do you know your containers grow better plants than their plastic counterparts? Ashley: The Root Pouch fabric containers not only deliver the initial benefits we were striving for when first producing the product—such as preventing roots from circling, creating insulation

from winter cold and allowing roots to cool in summer heat—but the fabric containers also deliver additional benefits, which we discovered from talking to growers.These include quicker growing times, better drainage, less water needed and a quicker transition to hardening off cycles. Plants are living, breathing things—fabric pots offer a soft, nurturing, breathable environment for the plants. MY: How are Root Pouch products different from similar cloth containers now available on the market? Ashley: Root Pouch containers are environmentally friendly— just like the plants growing in them. Using materials made from recycled plastic water bottles and additional natural fibers, we have created a variety of environmentally conscious horticulture products. Our products are more versatile and considerably less expensive than their plastic and fabric counterparts.We are focused on reducing the use and need for plastic containers to ensure less waste in the landfills and less use of fossil fuels one garden at a time. MY: What does your imaginarium workshop look like and how does it help spark the designer’s creativity? Ashley: At the Root Pouch headquarters we have a warehouse/ workshop/testing area/think tank.We call it the imaginarium—a place where anyone, anytime can visit and share ideas.We listen to ideas and try to build prototypes to see if we can create the result that people and customers are imagining. Next time you are in Portland come by and see some of these things. Some are a little crazy and some are really cool. Most of what Root Pouch offers originated in the imaginarium; things like our vertical garden pouch that has an origami wall hanger to attach to the wall.This is a new item to look forward to in 2012.

Ashley Fromm

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MY: What are Root Pouch containers made of that makes them degradable? How long does it take for a Root Pouch pot to degrade in the soil?


Ashley: One of our most famous and recognized creations that came out of the imaginarium was degradability.We were given the challenge one day of creating a fabric that would degrade (breakdown) in time.We all thought, wow! What if we could actually make fabric out of recycled materials that would— once planted in the ground or ended up in a landfill—actually breakdown.We put a lot of really smart folks together, travelled to three countries and spent a few years of trials and testing and voila—Root Pouch degradable pots. Not just one but five distinctively different degradable lifespans from 15 to 20 months, from five to six years and everything in between. MY: What Root Pouch products are you most excited about right now? Ashley: Our more recent and new creation to come out of the imaginarium just a few weeks ago is really quite fun and interesting. We were asked to make our degradable pots have the ability to blend into their surroundings, to be camouflage.We turned to our military forces for ideas. Root Pouch just launched our new chameleon line for when you just want your pots to blend in.

We now offer our award-winning technology in degradable pots in five different camouflage colors and patterns used by military forces around the world. MY: What makes your products so versatile? Ashley: Root Pouch plant pots can be used to grow plants of any size and type, and are also ideal for transporting plants because they are lightweight, durable and come equipped with carrying handles. Potted plants and trees will enjoy healthy growth while aboveground, and can also be planted directly in the ground, where the pot will degrade to allow the roots to take hold in the natural environment.The Root Pouch plant pot can be used successfully in many different climate and soil conditions, from desert sand to clay. MY: What various products do you offer to American growers? Ashley: We offer a wide range of growing possibilities with our fabrics, both degradable and non-degradable. Our fabric containers, in varying degradable lifespans and colors and camouflaged prints has been the focus of our talk this time, however, we do have other wonderful products: vertical and living wall gardens, Urban Saddlebags perfect for planting over railings, erosion control sacks and net pot inserts. MY: Where can growers in the USA purchase your products? Ashley: You can find Root Pouch product lines at your local garden centers and hydroponic stores. MY: What can indoor and outdoor gardeners expect from Root Pouch in the near future? Ashley: We are often asked, “What’s next?”We are as curious as anyone else.We are always waiting to hear what consumers want. Once they bring an idea to the imaginarium, we promise our people will give the idea a lot of attention, and if we think we can do it, we will give it a try.We are committed to being more than just another fabric pot company; we are committed to be always pushing the envelope, to always be building what works best, offering more choices and better pricing than anyone else. So if you have an idea, we welcome you to bring it to the imaginarium and we would be happy to make it a reality. MY: How can your dedicated and interested fans stay connected to Root Pouch? Ashley: You can learn more about our company and our products on our website www.RootPouch.com as well as social media outlets such as Facebook and Twitter. You can also contact us via our toll free phone number 1-800-801-2053 or ashley@rootpouch.com. We really enjoy working with our customers to answer questions, work on new designs/projects and lead them in the right direction. MY Maximum Yield USA  | November 2011

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talking shop

AT A GLANCE Company: Art of Hydro Owners: Matt Sledge and Josh Roman Location: 2636 Thousand Oaks Blvd Thousand Oaks, California Phone: 1-805-230-2227 Web: www.artofhydro.com E-mail: info@artofhydro.com Motto: “Grow to Live, Live to Grow.”

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It seems like everybody comes to hydrofor their shop already picked out—and it ponics by a different route—some folks seemed to nicely reflect the way they felt get turned on to it by family and friends, about their new business. some people want to grow their own food, “Our first idea was to take the five-star and for some, like Matt Sledge and Josh customer service experience that we had Roman of Art of Hydro in Thousand Oaks, been exposed to for so many years and bring California, their previous jobs just kind of it into the hydro world,” says Matt.“We also lead them into it. believed that we could approach hydroponMatt and Josh were long-time gardenics as an art and then teach people about this ing enthusiasts who were partners in a art.That’s when the idea for the name ‘Art of commercial lighting company.They loved Hydro’ was born.” helping their customers out with their grow The one thing Josh and Matt knew for sure light requirements and eventually decided when they started the new shop was that that they were actually more interested in they didn’t know nearly enough. Although the hydro aspect of the business anyhow— they both had gardening backgrounds, they which is when they started looking for a weren’t really anything more than gifted location to open their new grow shop. amateurs—and that was something they Josh begins their story:“We have always were determined to change. had a passion for gardening.We both began “Art of Hydro opened its doors in May our careers in the customer service industry of 2010,” explains Josh,“but the preparation and then became involved in opening a started long before.We knew that if we were commercial lighting company, but while going to be a successful store, we would have working at our lighting company we began to learn everything about hydro and gardento merge the lighting with our green ing in general. So we studied and studied. thumbs.We started to do some research on When we were done, we studied some the hydroponic industry and soon realized more. At some point we actually felt like we that we had something new and differwere studying for the bar exam! The thing ent to offer this ever-growing industry.We is, we knew if we were going to do this, we knew that we had a niche that we “We embrace a new generation of could exploit.” gardening and we have a rewards Not only had program that offers customers an they found their opportunity to save even more money.” niche, but they had a great name


had to do it right.We had a lot of knowledge to start with, but we believed that that was not good enough—we decided that we would have to become ‘hydro masters’. Educating themselves so they could better assist their customers was just the first step for our ninja garden men—when the shop opened they had no employees, so Josh and Matt had to learn how to do everything by themselves and they put in some pretty crazy hours along the way. “Yeah,” say Matt, “We started with just us. Even today, we both work countless hours. We feel that it is important for us to be present and continue the relationships that we have established with all of our customers. In the beginning we did everything—from stocking shelves to setting up the POS system to sweeping the floors. Only now, after we have grown as a company, have we been able to hire employees and get companies to help us with the outside marketing and internet optimization, as well as shipping and receiving.” Josh feels like the work and study has begun to pay off, though.They’ve got four employees now, they’ve figured out what it takes to keep their customers coming back and their client base is steadily growing. “We believe that a solid reputation plays a huge role in attracting new business. We had to learn how to listen to our custom-

ers and understand their needs and make adjustments accordingly.” Matt continues:“We began to gain market share and recognition by word-of-mouth. We offered a fully stocked store with great discounts and plenty of knowledge.We even had a video advertisement playing in a local movie theater.We embrace a new generation of gardening and we have a rewards program that offers customers an opportunity to save even more money by building up rewards points and then cashing them in for store credit. In addition to these discounts, we randomly select one customer each month from our e-mail list and award them with a $100 gift certificate.We do all this to thank our customers for their loyalty.”

When asked how he thought he and Matt would do in the future, Josh sounded pretty confident. Matt agrees, “The industry itself has grown leaps and bounds in recent years and is ever-evolving. Once an industry that was in the shadows is now an industry that is in lights. We embrace all the latest technological advances and look forward to a bright and green future.” We asked Josh to sum it up for us—what sets Art of Hydro apart from all the others and why should you want to shop there? “We’ve got a great location in Thousand Oaks, California,” he answers. “We carry all major brands and product lines, as well as boutique product lines. We distribute locally from our store and worldwide on the Internet. We stay on top of the newest trends by attending all trade shows, we stay in contact with industry representatives and manufacturers and we welcome suggestions and feedback from our customers. We also have a full e-commerce website.” Matt leaves us with their most recent achievement. “We are proud to say that we were part of a primetime ABC cooking show. On the show we provided multiple full hydroponic gardens to grow healthy fruits and vegetables and we demonstrated how to eat better and live a more healthy lifestyle—and isn’t that what our whole store is all about?” MY Maximum Yield USA  | November 2011

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MAX-MART

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MAX-MART

LLC

Phone: 510.903.1808 Fax: 510.764.1246 13762 Doolittle Drive, San Leandro, CA 94577

www.hydrogardendelight.com

GRowco indoor Garden supply

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MAX-MART

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COMING UP IN DECEMBER

A Passion for Peppers There are literally hundreds of varieties of capsicum that will grow easily using hydroponics technology, and they come in red, green and gold (yellow) just in time for Christmas.

Wow! What Big, White, Bushy Roots You Have The bigger your roots are the better…right? Perhaps not, as it turns out. This and other hydro myths are debunked.

The Art of Insect Control Discover the various creatures that might be lurking in your grow room and learn how to conquer them creatively.

Talking Shop With… Get to know your local hydro shop. We could feature your favorite grow gurus in the next issue. Recommend your favorite shop to be featured in Maximum Yield USA by e-mailing editor@maximumyield.com

www.maximumyield.com Maximum Yield USA December will be available December 1 for FREE at selected indoor gardening retail stores across the country and on maximumyield.com Subscriptions are available at maximumyield.com/subscriptions.php

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DO YOU KNOW?

1.

When roofs are covered with soil and plants they last for much longer because the sunâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s energy is being absorbed by the organic material, so a roof that needed replacing every 10 years might now last 40.

2.

3.

Many houseplants are started in glasses of water, but aloe is native to desert regions and would never experience a glass of water in its natural environment.

Common food plants such as rhubarb, avocado (fruit and foliage) and even the green parts of tomato plants (leaves, stems and green fruit) are considered poisonous to many pets.

A planted roof will cool a building in summer and warm it in colder weather, reducing dependence and stress on building ventilation systems and saving energy.

8. 4.

The order of longest to shortest wavelengths is: radio waves, infrared (heat), visible light, ultraviolet, X-rays and gamma rays.

5.

Grow light heat can be recycled back into the house in order to reduce natural gas costs from furnaces or added electrical costs from space heaters.

6. 176

The great potato famine was largely the result of a monoculture of potatoes becoming infected with potato blight, leading to the widespread starvation of millions.

Maximum Yield USAâ&#x20AC;&#x201A;|â&#x20AC;&#x201A;November 2011

7.

The mangel is a type of large beet that produces a large swollen root as well as a mass of edible leaves, which are nutritious and highly palatable.

Lightwaves slightly too long to be red are called infrared, while wavelengths slightly too short to be violet are called ultraviolet.

9.


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EXP AD 178

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MAXIMUM YIELD distributors

ALABAMA Alabama Organics 3348 Bethel Road, Hammondville, AL 35989 256-635-0802 ALASKA Brown’s Electrical Supply 365 Industrial Way, Anchorage, AK 99501 907-272-2259 Far North Garden Supply 2834 Boniface Parkway Anchorage, AK 99504 907-333-3141 Southside Garden Supply AK 12870 Old Seward Highway, Unit 114, Anchorage, AK 99515 907-339-9997 Holmtown Nursery Inc. 1301 - 30th Avenue, Fairbanks, AK 99701 907-451-8733 Ground Control Landscape ServicesHydroponic & Garden Supplies 1067 Ocean Dr. Homer ,Alaska 99603 907-235-1521 Northern Lights Greenhouse & Garden Supply Suite 105-9737 Mud Bay Road Ketchikan, Alaska 9901 907-225-GROW (4769) Anuway Hydroponics Suite #1 2711 W Walnut Rogers AK 72756 USA 479 631 0099 Peninsula Garden Supply AK 44224 Sterling Highway, Suite 4, Soldotna, AK 99669 907-420-0401 Far North Garden Supply 300 Centaur Street, Wasilla, AK 99654 907-376-7586

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

Growfresh Organics & More 2600 S Zero St, Suite C Fort Smith, AR 72901 479.648.8885 Fermentables 3915 Crutcher Street, N. Little Rock, AR 72118 501-758-6261 Anuway Hydroponics 2711 W. Walnut Street, Rogers, Arkansas 72756 479-631-0099 CALIFORNIA Greenleaf Hydroponics 1839 W Lincoln Avenue, Anaheim, CA 92801 714-254-0005 Grow It Yourself Gardens 401 Sunset Drive, Suite L, Antioch, CA 94509 925-755-GROW High Desert Hydroponics 13631 Pawnee Road, #7 Apple Valley, CA 92308 760-247-2090 American Hydroponics 286 South G Street, Arcata, CA 95521 800-458-6543 Humboldt Hydroponics 601 I Street, Arcata, CA 95521 707-822-3377 Let it Grow 160 Westwood Center, Arcata, CA 95521 707-822-8733 Northcoast Horticulture Supply 639 6th St. Arcata, CA 95521 707-826-9998 Sweet Harvest Hydroponics & Organics 1041 E. Grand Ave. Arroyo Grande,CA 93420 (805) 473-0004

ARIZONA

Auburn Organic 4035 Grass Valley Highway, Auburn, CA 95602 530-823-8900

Sea of Green Flagstaff 204-C E. Route 66 Flagstaff, AZ 86001 928-774-SOGF(7643)

High Street Hydro 180 Cleveland Avenue, Auburn, CA 95603 530-885-5888

The Hydro Closet 5826 West Olive Avenue #106 Glendale, Arizona 85302 602-361-2049

Quail Mountain Ranch 230 Palm Ave Auburn, CA 95603 530-889-2390

Homegrown Hydroponics 2525 West Glendale Ave Phoenix AZ 85051 602-368-4005

Tell 2 Friends Indoor Gardening 62 Sutherland Drive, Auburn, CA 95603 530-889-8171

Sea of Green West 2340 W. Bell Road, Suite 116, Phoenix, AZ 85023 602-504-8842

Bakersfield Hydroponics Bakersfield , CA 1 (661) 808-4640

ACI Hydroponics 1325 South Park Lane, Tempe, AZ 85282 800-633-2137 Homegrown Hydroponics 601 East Broadway Road, Tempe, AZ 85282 480-377-9096 Sea of Green Hydroponics 1301 E. University Dr. Tempe AZ, 85281 800-266-4136 Gonzo Grow 10297 W Van Buren Street, Tolleson, AZ 85353 623-780-GROW Natural Pools & Gardens 2143 North Country Suite C, Tucson, AZ 85716 520-323-2627 Sea of Green Hydroponics 402 North 4th Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85705 520-622-6344

Stop N Grow 5455 Rosedale Hwy Bakersfield, CA 93308 (661) 859-1988 Green Leaf Hydroponics 3903 Patton Way #103 Bakersfield CA 93308 661-245-2616 Kern Hydroponics 2408 Brundage Lane, Suite B, Bakersfield, CA 93304 661-323-7333 The Hydro Shop 3980 Saco Road Bakersfield, CA 661-399-3336  Better Grow Hydro Los Angeles 5554 Bandini Boulevard, Bell, CA 91106 323-510-2700; 877 640 GROW Super Starts PO Box 732, Bellmont, CA 94002 650-346-8009

ARKANSAS

Berkeley Indoor Garden 844 University Avenue Berkeley, CA 94710 510-549-2918

Mickey’s Mercantile 1303 Highway 65 South, Clinton, AR 72031 501-412-0214

Berkeley’s Secret Garden 921 University Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94710 510-486-0117

Old Soul Organics and More 1771 Crossover Road, Fayetteville, AR 72701 479-444-6955

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Hydroponic Connection, The 2816 San Pablo Ave Berkeley, CA 94702 510 704-9376

Brentwood Hydroponics & Organics 560 Valdry Ct #85 Brentwood, CA 94513 925-634-6704 Good To Grow & Global Garden Supply 1350 Rollins Rd Burlingame, CA, 94010 (650) 733-4420 Advanced Garden Supply 3113 Alhambra Drive, Unit F, Cameron Park, CA 95682, 530-676-2100 Precision Hydroponics 132 Kennedy Avenue, Campbell, CA 95008 408-866-8176 Elite Horticulture Supply 22330 Sherman Way, C13, Canoga Park, CA 91303 818-347-5172 Hydro International 7935 Alabama Avenue Canoga Park, CA 91304 Advanced Hydroponics 17808 Sierra Highway, Canyon Country, CA 91351 Myron L Company 2450 Impala Drive, Carlsband, CA 9210-7226 760-438-2021 661-299-1603 San Diego Hydroponics North County Coastal 6352 Corte Del Abeto #J Carlsbad CA, 92011 760-420-8934 The Greenhouse Garden Supply 7619 Fair Oak Blvd. Carmichael, CA 95608 1 (916) 515-9130 NorCal Creations PO Box 28, Cedar Ridge, CA 95924 Garden Connection, The 2145 Park Avenue, Unit 2 Chico, CA 95928 530-342-7762 Hydro King 2540 South Whitman Place, Chico, CA 959282 530-893-GROW (4769) Grow4Less garden Supply & Hydroponics 320 Trousdale Dr., Suite L Chula Visa CA 91910 619-425-GROW Citrus Heights Hydrogarden 8043 Greenback Lane Citrus Heights, CA 95610 916-728-4769 Conrad Hydroponics Inc. 14915 Unit E, Olympic Drive, Clearlake, CA 95422 707-994 3264 Under The Sun 12638 Foothill Boulevard, Clearlake Oaks, CA 95423 707-998-GROW (4769) Gro More Garden Supply 2937 Larkin Avenue, Clovis, CA 93021 559-348-1055 G & G Organics and Hydroponics 901 W. Victoria Street Unit D, Compton, CA 90220 310-632-0122 Concord Indoor Garden 2771 Clayton Road, Concord, CA 94519 925-671-2520 Hydroponics Plus 2250 Commerce Avenue, Suite C Concord, CA 94520 925-691-7615 Hydrostar Hydroponics & Organics 1307 W. Sixth Street, #211, Corona, CA 92882 951-479-8069 A+ Hydroponics & Organics 1604 Babcock Street, Costa Mesa, CA 92627 949-642-7776 The Hydro Source 671 E. Edna Place Covina, CA 91723 877 HYDRO 82; 626-915-3128 Let it Grow 1228 2nd Street, Crescent City, CA 95531 707-464-9086 Northcoast Horticulture Supply 1070 Highway 101, Crescent City, CA 95531 707-464-1200


Seaside Hydrogarden 1070 Highway 101 North, Crescent City, CA 95531 707-465-3520

Roots Grow Supply 1330 North Hulbert, #101 Fresno, CA 93728 559-840-0122

Clover Hydroponics & Garden Supply 43 Soda Bay Road, Lakeport, CA 95453 707-263-4000

Pacific Coast Hydroponics 4147 Sepulveda Boulevard, Culver City, CA 90230 310-313-1354

Tower Garden Supply & Organic Nursery 403 W. Olive Avenue, Fresno, CA 93728 559-495-1140

Dr. Greenthumbs Hydroponic Garden Supplies 566 San Ramon Valley Blvd. Danville, CA 94526 925-314-9376

Valley Hydroponics 207 E. Sierra Ave. Fresno, CA 93710 559-449-0426

San Diego Hydroponics East County 11649 Riverside Drive, Suite 141, Lakeside, CA 92040 619-562-3276

Constantly Growing - Davis 123 D Street Davis, CA 95616 530-756-4774

Grow Wurks Hydroponics 765 S. State College Boulevard. Suite J Fullerton, CA 92831 714-253-Grow (4769)

Constantly Growing 6200 Enterprise Drive, Suite A Diamond Springs, CA 95619 530-642-9710

SB Hydro 1109 W. 190th Street, Unit #F, Gardena, CA 90248 310-538-5788

Harvest Hydroponics 6650 Merchandise Way Suite B, Diamond Springs, CA 95619 530-622-5190

Golden Gecko Garden Center, The 4665 Marshall Road, Garden Valley, CA 95633 530-333-2394

Victory Garden Supply 1900 N Lincoln St #100 Dixon CA 95620 707 678 5800

Probiotic Solutions 20889 Geyserville Avenue, Geyserville, CA 95441 707-354-4342

Grow A Lot Hydroponics, San Diego 1591 N. Cuyamaca Street, El Cajon, CA 93612 619-749-6777

South Valley Hydroponics 320 Kishimura Drive, #3 Gilroy, CA 95020 1-866-848-GROW

Indoor Garden Solution Inc. 12424 Exline Street, El Monte CA 91732, 626-453-0443

Zen Hydroponics 1801 Victory Blvd. Glendale, CA 91201 877 ZEN Grow 818 806 4500

Go Green Hydroponics 15721 Ventura Boulevard, Encino, CA 91436 818-990-1198 A Fertile World (Eureka) 6th Street, Eureka, CA 95501 707-444-0200 Bayside Garden Supply 4061 Highway 101 Ste 6 Eureka, CA 95503 1 (707) 826-7435 Humboldt Hydroponics 1302 Union Street, Eureka, CA 95501 707-443-4304 Northcoast Horticulture Supply 60 West 4th Street, Eureka, CA 95501 707-444-9999 Constantly Growing 4343 Hazel Avenue, Fair Oaks, CA 95628 916-962-0043 Fallbrook Hydro 208 E Mission Rd Ste B Fallbrook CA 92028 1 (760) 728-4769 Tulare County Growers Supply 435 W. Noble Avenue, Unit A, Farmersville, CA 93223 559-732-8247 Santa Cruz Hydroponics & Organics - North 6241 Graham Hill Road, Felton, CA 95018 831-335-9000 Eel River Hydroponics & Soil Supply 164 Dinsmore Drive, Fortuna, CA 95540 707-726-0395 The Shop 6542 Front Street, Forestville, CA 95436 707-887-2280 Dirt Cheap Hydroponics 17975 H Highway 1, Fort Bragg, CA 95437 707-964-4211 Hydrogarden Mendocino County 1240 North Main Street, Fort Bragg, CA 95437 707-962-9252 A Fertile World (Fortuna) 610 7th Street, Fortuna, CA 95540 707-725-0700 Northcoast Horticulture Supply 357 Main Street, Fortuna, CA 95540 707-725-5550 Nature’s Secret Garden and Supply 41469 Albrae Street, Fremont, CA 94577 510-623-8393

Stop N Grow 340 Pine Avenue, Goleta, CA 93003 805-685-3000 All Seasons Hydroponics 17614 Chatsworth Street, Granada Hills, CA 91344 818-368-4388 AG Natural 403 Idaho Maryland Road, Grass Valley, CA 95945 530-274 0990 Grass Valley Hydrogarden 12506 Loma Rica Drive, Grass Valley, CA 95945 530-477-2996 Vital Landscaping Inc. 12817 Loma Rica Drive, Grass Valley, CA 95945 530-273-3187 West Coast Growers Hydroponics 13481 Colifax Highway, Grass Valley, CA 95945 888-924-4769 M.G.S. 22540 D Foothill Boulevard, Hayward, CA 94541 510-582-0900 Thrive Hydroponics 70 A West North Street, Healdsburg, CA 95446 707-433-4068 Bear Valley Hydroponics & Homebrewing 17455 Bear Valley RD. Hesperia CA 92345 760 949 3400

Total Hydroponics Center Inc 4820 Paramount Blvd Lakewood, CA 90712 562-984-GROW (4769) Weather Top Nursery 44901 Harmon Drive, Laytonville, CA 95454 707-984-6385 CNG Garden Supplies 22 Ricknbacker Circle, Livermore, CA 94551 925-454-9376 DL Wholesale 6764 Preston Ave. Suite D Livermore CA 94551 510 550 0018 National Garden Wholesale/Sunlight Supply 6485 Brisa Street, Livermore, CA 94550 888-570-4678 (Southern CA) Garden Depot, The 203 Commerce Street, Suite 101 Lodi, CA 95240 209-339-9950 Valley Rock Landscape Supply 2222 N H Street Lompoc CA 93436 P: 805 736 0841 805 735 5921 Green Coast Hydroponics 2405 Mira Mar Avenue, Long Beach, CA 90815 562-627-5636 Grow Light Express 5318 East Second Street suite 164, Long Beach, CA 90803 888-318-GROW Long Beach Hydroponics & Organics 1772 Clark Avenue, Long Beach, CA 90815 562-498-9525 Atwater Hydroponics 3350 Glendale Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90039 323-663-8881 Green Door Hydro and Solar 830 Traction Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90013 212-625-1323 Hardman Hydroponics 3511 Youree Dr., Shreveport Los Angeles 71105 318-865-0317 Hollywood Hydroponics and Organics 5109 1/2 Hollywood Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90027-6105 323-662-1908 Hydroasis 2643 S. Fairfax Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90232 888-355-4769

Emerald Garden 13325 South Highway 101, Hopland, CA 95482 707-744-8300

LAX Hydro 10912 S. La Cienaga Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90304 310-337-6995 Nirvana Hydroponics 340 South San Pedro Los Angeles, CA 90013 310-795-2914

Surf City Hydroponics 7319 Warner Street, Suite B Huntington Beach, CA 92647 714-847-7900

Sunland Hydroponics 4136 Eagle Rock Blvd, Los Angeles, CA 90065 323-254-2800

Dutch Garden Supplies Park Circle Suite 12 Irvine CA 92614 949-748-8777 West Coast Hydroponics, Inc. 27665 Forbes Road, Unit 10 Laguna Niguel, CA 92677 949-348-2424 La Habra Hydroponics 1301 S Beach Blvd, Suite O. La Habra, CA 90631 562-947-8383 Grass Roots Hydroponics 31875 Corydon, Suite 130 Lake Elsinore, CA 92530 951-245-2390 South County Hydroponics 22511 Aspan Street, Suite E Lake Forest, CA 92630 949-837-8252

Green Giant Hydroponics 7183 Hwy 49 Unit B Lotus CA 95651 530 622 4465 California Green Hydroponics 16491 Road 26, Suite 101 Madera, California 93638 559-674-1400 Deep Roots Garden Center & Flower Shop 207 N. Sepulveda Blvd. Manhattan Beach, CA 90266 Telephone: 310-376-0567 B & S Gardening Supplies 592 Commerce Court, Manteca, CA 95336 209-239-8648 Monterey Bay Horticulture Supply 218 Reindollar Avenue Suite 7A, Marina, CA 93933 831-38-HYDRO

Maximum Yield USA  | November 2011

181


MAXIMUM YIELD distributors

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

Two Chix Garden Supply 1230 Yuba Street, Marysville, CA 95901 530-923-2536

Plant-N-Grow 1602 53rd Avenue, Oakland, CA 94601 707-980-0456

Northcoast Horticulture Supply 1580 Nursery Way McKinleyville, CA 95519 707-839-9998

Hydrobrew 1319 South Coast Highway, Oceanside, CA 92054 760-966-1885; 877-966-GROW

Mendocino Garden Shop PO Box 1301, 44720 Maint Street (at Hwy. 1), Mendocino, CA 95460 707-937-3459

Socal Hydroponics 1727-B Oceanside Boulevard, Oceanside, CA 92054 760-439-1084

Hooked Up Hydroponics 1004 W. 15th St. Suite B & C, Merced, Ca 95340 209-723-1300

Cultivate Ontario 2000 Grove Ave #a110 Ontario, CA 91761 909-781-6142

The Urban Farmer Store 653 E. Blithedale Avenue, Mill Valley, CA 94941 415-380-3840

Flairform 1751 S Pointe Avenue, Ontario, CA 91761 213-596-8820

Mission Viejo Hydroponics 24002 Via Fabricante Suite 502 Mission Viejo, CA 92691 949-380-1894

GreenCoast Ontario Unit 102-103 1920 South Rochester Avenue Ontario, CA 1 (909) 605-5777

Coca’s Central Valley Hydroponics 116 West Orangeburg Avenue, Modesto, CA 95350 209-567-0590

National Garden Wholesale/Sunlight Supply 1950 C South Grove Avenue, Ontario, CA 91761 888-888-3319

Year Round Garden Supply 11000 Carver Rd. #20 Modesto, CA 95350 Tel: 209 522 2727

Palm Tree Hydroponics 2235 E 4th St,Suite G Ontario, CA 91764 909-941-9017

Green Light Hydroponics 2615 Honolula Ave. Montrose, CA 91020 818-640-2623

RH Distribution 1751 S. Pointe Avenue Ontario, CA 91761 888-545-8112

South Bay Hydroponics and Organics - Mtn. View 569 East Evelyn Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94041 650-968-4070

Green Coast Hydroponics 496 Meats Avenue Orange, CA 92865 714-974-4769

Redwood Garden Supply 55 Myers Avenue, Myers Flat, CA 95554 707-943-1515

Natural Pest Controls 8320 B Hazel Avenue, Orangevale, CA 95662 916-726-0855

Endless Green Hydroponics 25 Enterprise Court, Suite 3 Napa, CA 94558 707-254-0200 Wyatt Supply 4407 Solano Ave. Napa, CA 94558 707-251-3747

Advanced Soil & Garden Supply 350 Oro Dam Boulevard, Oroville, CA 95965 530-533-2747 Igrow Hydro 2280 Veatch Street, Oroville, CA 95965 530-534-4476

Conejo Hydroponics 3481 Old Conejo Road #106 Newbury Park, CA 91320 805-480-9596

Orville Organic Gardens 5250 Olive Hwy Ste 1 Oroville, CA 95966 530-589-9950

Stop N Grow 640 S. Frontage Road, Nipomo, CA 93444 805-619-5125

US Orchid & Hydroponic Supplies 1621 South Rose Avenue, Oxnard, CA 93033 805-247-0086

Valley Garden Solutions Inc. 15650 Nordhoff Avenue, Suite 104, North Hills, CA 91345 818-336-0041

Pacifica Hydroponics 90 Eureka Square Pacifica, CA 94044

Foothill Hydroponics 10705 Burbank Boulevard, N. Hollywood, CA 91601 818-760-0688

America’s Best Hydroponics & Gardening Center 641 W. Palmdale Blvd. Unit D Palmdale, CA 93551 661-266-3906

One Stop Hydroponics 12822 Victory Boulevard North Hollywood, CA 91606 818-980-5855 Lumatek Digital Ballasts 33 Commercial Boulevard, Suite B Novato, CA 94949 415-233-4273 Marin Hydroponics 55 Frosty Ln Novato, CA 94949 (415) 233-4104 Marin Hydroponics 1219 Grant Avenue, Novato, CA 94945 415-897-2197 Roots Grow Supply 40091 Enterprise Dr. Oakhurst CA 93644 559 683 6622 3rd Street Hydroponics 636 3rd Street Oakland, CA 94607 510-452-5521 Bloom Hydro 1602 53rd Ave. Oakland CA 94601 707 980 0456 Medicine Man Farms 1602 53rd Avenue, Oakland, CA 94601 707-980-0456

182

Maximum Yield USA | November 2011

(650) 355-5100

Hydroponics Unlimited 641 W. Palmdale Blvd. “D” Palmdale, CA 93550 661-266-3906 Palm Springs Hydroponics 4651 Ramon Road, Palm Springs, CA 92264 760-327-ROOT DNA Hydroponics Inc 19345 North Indian Canyon Drive, North Palm Springs, Suite 2-F CA 92258 760-671-5872 New Leaf Hydro 34150 123rd Street, Parablossom, CA 93553 661-944-2226 Alternative Hydro 3870 East, Colorado Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91107 888-50-HYDRO Better Grow Hydro Pasadena 1271 E. Colorado Boulevard, Pasedena, CA 91106 626 737 6612 365 Hydroponics 2062 Lincoln Ave Pasadena, CA 91103 1 (626) 345-9015 Supersonic Hydroponic and Organic Garden Supply 3850 Ramada Drive, Unit D2

Paso Robles, CA 93446 805-434-2333 Foothills Hydrogarden 3133 Penryn Road, Penryn, CA 95663 916-270-2413 Funny Farms Hydroponics 963 Transport Way, #12 Petaluma, CA 94954 707-775-3111 House of Hydro 224 Weller Street, #B, Petaluma, CA 94952 707-762-4769 Wyatt Supply 1016 Lakeville St. Petaluma, CA 94952 707-762-3747 JNJ Hydroponics 4774 Phelan Rd. Suite 2 Phelan CA 92371 760 868 0002 Turbo Grow 1889 San Pablo Avenue, Pinole, CA 94564 510-724-1291 Hillside Hydro & Garden 4570 Pleasant Valley Road Placerville CA 95662 530-644-1401 Best Yield Garden Supply 3503 West Temple Avenue, Unit A, Pomona, CA 91768 909-839-0505 Emerald Garden 8249 Archibald Avenue, Ranch Cucamanga, CA 91730 909-466-3796 GreenLeaf Hydroponics 2212 Artesia Boulevard, Redondo Beach, CA 90278 310-374-2585 Shadow Valley Aquatics 75 Kimick Way, Red Bluff, CA 96080 530-526-0479 Bear Roots Hydroponics 1615 East Cypress, #5 Redding, CA 96002 530-244-2215 Dazey’s Supply 3082 Redwood Drive, Redway, CA 95560 707-923-3002 Humboldt Hydroponics 2010 Tunnel Road, Redway, CA 95560 707-923-1402 Redway Feed Garden and Pet Supply 290 Briceland Road, Redway, CA 95560 707-923-2765 Sylvandale Gardens 1151 Evergreen Road, Redway, CA 95560 707-923-3606 Humboldt Hydroponics 2174 Pine Street, Redding, CA 96001 530-241-7454 Hydro King 105 Hartnell Avenue, Suite C and D, Redding, CA 96002 888-822-8941 Orsa Organix 111 Willow Street, Redwood City, CA 94063 650-369-1269 Mendocino Greenhouse & Garden Supply 960 East School Way, Redwood Valley, CA 95470 707-485-0668 EZ Green Hydroponics 7017 Reseda Boulevard, Reseda, CA 91335 818-776-9076 Hydro Hills Hydroponics 19320 Vanowen St. Reseda CA 91335 Box Of Rain Inc. Po Box 302, Rexford, CA 59930 406-755-7245 Hi-Tech Gardening 5327 Jacuzzi Street, #282, Richmond, CA 94804 510-524-4710


The Urban Farmer Store 2121 San Joaquin Street, Richmond, CA 94804 510-524-1604

Green Lady Hydroponics 4879 Newport Avenue, San Diego, CA 92107 619-222-5011

D&S Garden Supplies 17-130 Doolittle Drive San Leandro, CA 94577 510-430-8589

Discount Hydroponics 4745 Hiers Avenue, Riverside, CA 92505 877-476-9487

Home Brews & Gardens 3176 Thorn St San Diego, CA 92104 619 630 2739

Hydrogarden Delight 13762 Doolittle Drive, San Leandro, CA 94577 510-903-1808

All Ways Hydro 2220 Eastridge Ave. Suite C Riverside CA 92507 888-HYDRO98

Indoor Garden Depot 1848 Commercial St. San Diego CA 92113 619-255-3552

Central Coast Hydrogarden 1951 Santa Barbara Street, San Luis Obispo, CA 93401 805-544-GROW

Calwest Hydroponics 11620 Sterling Avenue, Suite A Riverside, CA 92503 800-301-9009

Innovative Growing Solutions (IGS) 5060 Santa Fe St. Ste.D San Diego, CA 92109 858-578-4477

Healthy Harvest Hydroponics and Organics 2958 S. Higuera St. San Luis Obispo, CA 93401 805.596.0430

Hydro Depot 5665 Redwood Drive, #B, Rohnert Park, CA 94928 707-584-2384

Mighty Garden Supply 4780 Mission Gorge Pl. #A-1, San Diego, CA 92120 619-287-3238

Igrow Hydro 9000 Atkinson Street, Roseville, CA 95678 916-773-4476

Miramar Hydroponics & Organics 8952 Empire Street San Diego CA 92126 858-549-8649

San Diego Hydroponics North 802 N. Twin Oaks Valley Road #108 San Marcos, CA 92069 760-510-1444

Green Acres Hydroponics 1215 Striker Avenue, Suite 180, Sacramento, CA 95834 916-419-4394 Greenfire Sacramento 3230 Auburn Boulevard, Sacramento, CA 95821 916-485-8023 Green Thumb Hydroponics 35 Quinta Court, Suite B, Sacramento, CA 95823 916-689-6464 KY Wholesale 8671 Elder creek Rd. #600 Sacramento, CA 95828 916 383 3366 Mystic Gardens 8484 Florin Road, #110, Sacramento, CA 95828 916-381-2464 Sac Hydroponics 9529 Folson Boulevard, Suite C Sacramento, CA 95827 916-369-7968 Skywide Import & Export Ltd. 5900 Lemon Hill Avenue, Sacramento, CA 95824 916-383-2369 Tradewinds Wholesale Garden Supplies 1235 Striker Avenue #180, Sacramento, CA 95834 888-557-8896 Green Joint Ventures 61 Tarp Circle, Salinas, CA 93901 831-998-8628 Reforestation Technologies International 1341 Daton Street, Units G&I Salinas, CA 93901 831-424-1494; 800-RTI-GROW National Garden Wholesale / Sunlight Supply 1900 Bendixsen Street , Bldg. 1, Samoa, CA 95564 800-683-1114 (Northern CA) Greenmile Hydroponic Garden Supply 1480 South E. Street, Suite D, San Bernardino, CA 92408 909-885-5919 Garden Shed, The 1136 El Camino Real San Carlos, CA 650-508-8600 Pure Food Gardening/Microclone 830 H Bransten Rd. San Carlos,CA 94070-3338 Green Gopher Garden Supply 679 Redwood Avenue, Suite A, Sand City, CA 93955 831-899-0203

H20 Gardening 355 West 7th Street, San Pedro, CA 90731 310-514-1416

Oracle Garden Supply 5755 Oberlin Drive, Suite 100 San Diego, CA 92121 858-558-6006

Marin Hydroponics 721 Francisco Blvd East San Rafael, CA 94901 415-482-8802

Pacific Beach Hydroponics 1852 Garnet Avenue, San Diego, CA 92109 858-274-2559

Pacific Garden Supply 128 H Carlos Drive, San Rafael, CA 94903

San Diego Hydroponics Beach Cities 4122 Napier Street, San Diego, CA 92110 619-276-0657

San Rafael Hydroponics 1417 Fourth Sreet San Rafael, CA 94901 415 455 9655

Wai Kula Hydrogardens 5297 Linda Vista Road, San Diego, CA 92110 619-299-7299

Green Coast Hydroponics 3560 State Street, Santa Barbara, CA 93105 805-898-9922

Direct Hydroponics Wholesale 1034 W. Arrow Hwy#D San Dimas, CA 91773 888-924-9376

Nutes Int’l 204 N Quarantina Street, Santa Barbara, CA 93103 805-687-6699

Liquid Gardens 1034 West Arrow Hwy.#D San Dimas, CA 91773 888-924-9376

Planet Earth Hydroponics 102 East Haley St. Santa Barbara, CA 93101 P. 805 899 0033

Extreme Hydroponics 11479 San Fernando Road C, San Fernando, CA 91340 818-898-0915

Urban Grow Systems 204 N Quarantine Street Santa Barbara, CA 93103 1 (805) 637-6699

Grow Your Own 3401 Traval Street, San Francisco, CA 94116 415-731-2115

Santa Clarita Valley Hydroponics 25835 Railroad Ave. #26 Santa Clarita CA 91350 661 255 3700 661 255 3701

Hydroponic Connection Warehouse, The 1995 Evans Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94124 415-824-9376

California Hydroponics 310 Coral Street, Suite C Santa Cruz, CA 95060 831-423-4769

Nor Cal Hydroponics 4837 Geary Boulevard, San Francisco, CA 94118 415-933-8262

Hydro-Logic Purification Systems 370 Encinal St, Suite 150, Santa Cruz, CA 95060 888 H2O LOGIC

Plant It Earth 2279 Market Street, San Francisco, CA 94114 415-626-5082

Santa Cruz Hydroponics & Organics - West Side 815 Almar Avenue, Unit K, Santa Cruz, CA 95060 831-466-9000

Urban Gardens Unlimited 704 Filbert Street, San Francisco, CA 94133 415-421-4769

UrbanGardens advanced hydroponics and gardening

704 Filbert Street, San Francisco, CA 94133

Full Sun Supply 3535 Industrial Drive, Unit B-3 Santa Rosa, CA 95403 877-FULL-SUN

San Francisco Hydro 123 Tenth Street, San Francisco, CA 94103

Gonzo Grow 2550 Guerneville Road,Suite C, Santa Rosa, CA 95401 707-546-1800

The Urban Farmer Store 2833 Vicente Street, San Francisco, CA 94116 415-661-2204

Gottagrow Garden Supply 769 Wilson Street, Santa Rosa, CA 95404 707-544-7782

US Garden 417 Agostinio Rd San Gabriel Ca 91776 626 285-5009

Green Logic Garden Supply 860 Piner Road, #38, Santa Rosa, CA 95403 707-843-3156

Inland Empire Hydrogarden 1301-C South State Street, San Jancinto, CA 92853

Modern Gardens 26620 Valley Center Dr. Santa Clarita, CA 91351 661-513-4733

Organic Bountea 1919 Dennis Lane, Santa Rosa, CA 95403 800-798-0765

Hahn’s Lighting 260 E. VA Suite 1, San Jose, CA 95112 408-295-1755

Pro Gardening Systems 3715 Santa Rosa Avenue #2, Santa Rosa, CA 95407 707-585-8633

Best Coast Growers 4417 Glacier Avenue Suite C, San Diego, CA 92120 800-827-1876

Plant Life 32 Race Street, San Jose, CA 95126 408-283-9191

Sun-In Hydroponics 1257A Cleveland Avenue, Santa Rosa, CA 95401 707-578-5747

City Farmer’s Nursery 4832 Home Avenue, San Diego, CA 92105 619-284-6358

South Bay Hydroponics and Organics - San Jose 1185 South Bascom Avenue, San Jose, CA 95128 408-292-4040

Sweet Leaf Hydroponics 1611 Sebastobol Road, Santa Rosa, CA 95407 707-575-GROW (4237

Maximum Yield USA  | November 2011

183


MAXIMUM YIELD distributors

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

Wyatt Supply 747 Yolanda Ave. Santa Rosa, CA 95404 707-578-3747) 

805 Hydroponics & Organics 1785 E. Thousand Oaks Boulevard Thousand Oaks, CA 91362 805-494-1785

No Stress Hydroponics 7543 Santa Monica Boulevard, West Hollywood, CA 90046 323-845-9874

Santee Hydroponics 7949 Mission Gorge Road, Santee, CA 92071 619-270-8649

Art of Hydro 2636 E. Thousand Oaks Blvd. Thousand Oaks, CA 91362 805-230-2227

Hydronation 2491 Boatman Drive, Suite B West Sacramento, CA 95691 916-372-4444

Green Thumb Lighting & Garden 1647 W. Sepulveda Boulevard, Unit 5, Torrance, CA 90501 888-326-GROW

Flower Hut Nursery 603 4th Street Wheatland, CA 95692 530-633-4526

Gardening Unlimited 60 Old El Pueblo Road, Scotts Valley, CA 95066 831-457-1236 Pro Gardening Systems 765 Petaluma Avenue, Sebastopol, CA 95472 707-829-7252 Better Choice Hydroponics 610 S. Washington Street, Senora, CA 95370 209 533 2400 Go Big Hydroponics 4501 Van Nuys Boulevard, Sherman Oaks, CA 91403 818-789-3341 Bloom Brothers Garden Supply, Inc. 3293 Industry Dr. Signal Hill, CA 90755 562 494-0060 We Grow Hydroponics 3350 East Los Angeles Avenue, Simi Valley, CA 93063 805-624-4566 Abundant Hydroponics LLC 1611 Shop Street, #1-A, S. Lake Tahoe, CA 96150 530-54 HYDRO Advanced Garden Supply 2660 Lake Tahoe Boulevard, Building C, Unit 9, S. Lake Tahoe, CA 96150 530-541-4769 Farm Hydroponics, The 1950 Lake Tahoe Boulevard #3, S. Lake Tahoe, CA 96150 530-541-3276 Valley Hydro and Organics 19230 Sonoma Hwy. Sonoma CA 95476 707 396 8734 Santa Cruz Hydroponics & Organics - East Side 4000 Cordelia Lane Soquel, CA 95073 831-475-9900 Orange County Hydroponics 12797 Beach Boulevard,  Stanton, CA 90680 714-893-9493 HomeGrown Indoor Garden Supply 681 A Grider Way, Stockton, CA 95210 209-477-4447 Golden Harvest Hydroponics & Garden Supply 8626 Lower Sacramento Road #48, Stockton, CA 95210 209-951-3550 M&M Garden Supply 2509 West Lane, Suite B Stockton, CA 95205 209-939-0664 Pacific Ave Indoor Garden Supply 4633 pacific Ave Stockton , CA 95207 209-955-0945 City Farm Hydroponics 8903 Laurel Canyon Boulevard, Sun Valley, CA 91352 818-767-2076 Sunland Hydroponics 8300 Foothill Boulevard, Sunland, CA 91040 818-352-5300 Anthony’s Garden & Lighting Supply 30 Ridge Road, Suites 8 & 9 Sutter Creek, CA 95685 209-267-5416 Tahoe Garden Supply 645 Westlake Boulevard, Suite 2, PO Box 487 Tahoe City, CA 96145 530-581-3200 The Otherside Hydroponics 19425 Ventura Blvd Tarzana CA 91356 818 881 hydro (4937)

Los Angeles Hydroponics and Organics 3007-3009 W. Artesia Blvd. Torrance, CA 90504 310-323-4937 Anything Grows 10607 W. River Street, Building 3 Suite C, Truckee, CA 96161 530-582-0479 Hooked Up Hydroponics 339 S. Golden State Boulevard, Turlock, CA 95380 209-668-1300 Emerald Garden 307 East Perkins Street, Ukiah, CA 95482 707-463-2510 HydroPacific - Hydroponics & Garden Supplies 351 C Hastings Av., Ukiah, CA 95482 707-467-0400 Northcoast Hydrogardens 3450 North State Street, Ukiah, CA 95482 707-462-7214 Wyatt Supply 2200 N. State St. Ukiah, CA 95482 707-462-7473

Lazy Gardeners Hydroponics ‘N’ More 14626 East Whittier Boulevard, Whittier, CA 90605 562-945-0909 Garden Spout, The 260 Margie Dr Willits, CA 95490 707-456-0196 Sparetime Supply 208 E. San Francisco Avenue, Willits, CA 95490-4006 Hydromagic Supply 40 N. East St. Suite F Woodland,CA 95776 530-661-0117 Urban Gardens 22516 Ventura Boulevard, Woodland Hills, CA 91364 818-876-0222 Ultra Lo Hydro ultralohydro.com 937-252-8224 Garden Highway Garden Supply 598 Garden Highway #22 Yuba City, CA 95991 530-755-2877

Evergreen Hydroponics 923 N. Central Avenue, Suite B, Upland, CA 91786 909-946-7100

Golden Valley Hydroponics 870 W. Onsott Rd. Ste F Yuba City, CA 95993 (530) 763-2151

TNC Supply 9490 Main Street, P.O. Box 763 Upper Lake, CA 95485 707-275-9565

Southern Humbolt Garden Supplies 34919 Yucaipa Boulevard, Yucaipa, CA 92399 909-797-6888 707-459-6791

Everything Green 1650 Lewis Brown Dr. Vallejo, CA 94589 707 647 0774 Hydroponics Market 15816 Arminta St Van Nuys, CA 91406 818-305-6261 886-72-HYDRO Stop N Grow 4160 Market Street, Unit 11 Ventura, CA 93003 805-639-9489 BWGS-CA 7530 W. Sunnyview Avenue Visalia, CA 93291 888-316-1306 The Green Shop 66420 Mooney Boulevard, Suite 1 Visalia, CA 93277 559-688-4200 Kaweah Grower Supply 1106 1/2 N. Ben Maddox Way, Visalia, CA 93293 559-625-4937 Greentrees Hydroponics Inc. 2581 Pioneer Avenue, Unit D Vista, CA 92081 760-598-7551 Home Life Hydroponics and Organics 1745 East Vista Way, Vista, CA 92084 760-643-2150 Specialty Garden Center 1970 East Vista Way, Suite 10, Vista, CA 92084 760-758-4769 Monterey Bay Hydroponics and Organics 81 Hangar Way, #1, Watsonville, CA 95076 831-761-9999 Evergreen Farm Feed and Garden 1131 Main Street Weaverville, CA 96093 1 (530) 623-2884

Inland Empire Hydrogarden 28822 Old Town Front St. #206 Temecula, CA 92590 886-74-HYDRO

California Hydro Garden 1043 South Glendora Avenue, Suite A West Covina, CA 91790 626-813-0868

Maximum Yield USA | November 2011

GreenWay Hydroponics 11510 Whittier Boulevard, Whittier, CA 90601

Atlantis Garden Supply 2851 A Whipple Road, Union City, CA 94587 510-487-8007

Hydroponics 4 Less 41669 Winchester Avenue, Temecula, CA 92590 800-A1-HYDRO

184

Green Coast Hydroponics 11510 Whittier Boulevard Whittier, CA 90601 562-699-4201

Yucca Valley Hydroponics 56825 Twentynine Palms Hwy. Yucca Valley, CA 92284 760 369 0300 COLORADO South Park Hydroponics 42 E Buckskin Rd. Alma CO 80420 719 836 1533 National Garden Wholesale/Sunlight Supply 3550 B Odessa Way, Aurora, CO 80011 866-877-4188 (Northeast) Nick’s Garden Center 2001 S. Chambers, Aurora, CO 80014 303-696-6657 Family Hydroponics-Boulder 2125 32nd Street Boulder, co 80301 303-996-6100 Polar Ray 5171 Eldorado Springs Dr. Boulder, CO 80303 303 494 5773 Way To Grow 6395 Gunpark Drive, Boulder, CO 80301 303-473-4769 Deep Roots Garden Supply 1790 Airport Road, Unit 1 Breckenridge, CO 80424 970-453-1440 Mile High Hydroponics 37 Strong St. Brighton, CO 80601 303 637 0069 Brighton Hydroponics 839so.Kuner rd., Brighton Colorado 80601 303-655-1427 ACME Hydroponics  300 Nickel St Suite 3 Broomfield, CO 80020 720.524.7306 Colorado Grow 3400 Industrial Lane, Unit 10A Broomfield, CO 80020 (303) 465-GROW (4769)


Hydrofarm CO 400 Burbank St Broomfield, CO 80020 800-634-9990

Bath Nursery & Garden Center 2000 E. Prospect, Fort Collins, CO 80525 970-484-5022

Sunny Day Organics 1867 Coastal Hwy. Rehoboth Beach, Delaware MD 19917 302 703 2538

J&D Organic Growing Solutions 217 1/2 Clayton Street Brush, CO 80723 970-310-5408

Gold Coast Hydroponics West 8101 S.W. Frontage Road Suite 300 Fort Collins, Colorado 80528 970-232-3220

FLORIDA

BIG BloomZ 1011 Caprice Drive, Castle Rock, CO 80109 303-688-0599

Indoor Paradise Hydroponics 309 S. Summit View, Unit 17, Fort Collins, CO 80524-1462 970-221-3751

Indoor Garden Warehouse 8100 S Akron St., Suite 322, Centennial, CO 80112 720-496-2110

Way To Grow 3201 E. Mulberry Street, Fort Collins, CO 80524 970-484-4769

Garden Tech 737 Garden of the Gods Road, Colorado Springs, CO 80907 719-278-9777 Greenhouse Tech 917 East Fillmore, Colorado Springs, CO 80907 719-634-0637 Hydro Grow Supply 644 Peterson Road, Colorado Springs, CO 80915 719-596-2600 Purple Mountain Hydroponics LLC 1530 S Nevada Avenue, Colorado Springs, CO 80906 719-635-5859 Room To Grow LLC 422 South 8th Street Colorado Springs CO 80905 719 633 8682 Roots and Rocks Hydroponic and Organic Garden Supply 1014 S. 21st Street Colorado Springs, CO 80904 719-634-1024 High Tech Garden Supply 5275 Quebec St. Commerce City, CO 80022 720-222-0772 R-n-B Horticultural Supply 25797 Conifer Rd #a-8 Conifer, Co 80433 303-838-5520 Roll-N-Green Farms Horticultural Supply 25797 Conifer Rd #A-8 Conifer, Co 80433 303-838-5520

Hydro Shack, The 220 Main Street, Suite E Frisco, CO 80443 970-668-0359 GWS Hydroponics 7025 Highway 82 Building 4B, Glenwood Springs, CO 81601 970-384-2040 Hydro Planet 711 Washington Avenue, Golden, CO 80401 303-279-6090 Rocky Mountain Hydroponics and Organics 15985 S. Golden Road Golden, CO 80401 720-475-1725 Desert Bloom Hydroponics 445 Pitkin Avenue, Grand Junction, CO 81501 970-245-6427 Primo Gardens 1600 North Ave. Suite B Grand Junction, CO 81501 970-241-1209  Greeley Nutrients 700 11th Street Unit 101 Greeley CO 80631 970 673 8302 GroWize 3225 S. Wadsworth Boulevard, Lakewood, CO 80227 303-986-2706 Grow Store, The 8644 W. Colfax Avenue, Lakewood, CO 80215 888-510-0350

Global Organics & Hydroponics 11 N Broadway Cortez CO 81321 970 564 8100

Ever Green Hydroponics Inc. 1131 Francis Street, Suite A, Longmont, CO 80501 303-682-6435

Your Grow Bud 6801 South Emporia St. Suite 106 Greenwood Village, CO 80112 Tel: 303-790-2211

Ultra Lo Hydro ultralohydro.com 937-252-8224

BWGS-CO 11685 E. 55th Avenue Denver, CO 80239 888-316-1306  Chlorophyll 3801 Mariposa St. Denver CO 80211 303-433-1155 Denver Hydroponic & Organic Center 6810 North Broadway, Unit D Denver, CO 80221 303-650-0091 Rocky Mountain Lighting and Hydroponics 7100 N. Broadway, Suite 3D Denver, CO 80221 303-428-5020 The Grow Outlet 4272 Lowell Boulevard Denver, CO 80211 303-586-5543 Way To Grow 301 East 57th Ave. Denver, CO 80216 303-296-7900 All Seasons Gardening 434 Turner Drive, Suite 2B Durango, CO 81303 (970) 385-4769 Blue Sky Hydroponics 1301 Florida Road Unit C Durango, CO 81301 970-375-1238 Grow Store South, The 5050 S. Federal Boulevard, #37, Englewood, CO 80110 303-738-0202 Alpenglow Garden Supply 2712 South College Ave Fort Collins, CO 80525 970-266-8888

Victory Hydro Gardening 1387 E. South Boulder Rd. Louisville, CO, 80027 Tel: 303-664-9376 Lyons Indoor Gardening 138 Main Street, Lyons, CO 80540 720-530-3828 Head Start Hydroponics & Organic Gardening Emporium 34500 US Highway 6, Unit B-9, North Edwards, CO 81632 970-569-313 Cultivate Hydroponics & Organics 7777 W. 38th Avenue, A120A, Wheat Ridge, CO 80033 303-954-9897 Salida Hydroponic Supply 1242 C Street Salida, CO 81201 (719) 539-4000  CONNECTICUT Grow Crazy 11 Berlin Rd. Unit 2 Cromwell CT 06416 203 660 8486 Harvest Moon Hydroponics 775 Silver Lane, East Hartford, CT 06118 860-568-4067 LiquidSun® CT 10C South Main Street, East Windsor, CT 06088 860-254-5757 Organix Hydroponics 749 Saybrook Road, (Tradewinds Plaza) Middletown, CT 06457 860-343-1923 Delaware

Urban Sunshine 1420 E. Altamonte Dr Altamonte Springs, FL 32701 407-830-4769

.

Best Hydro 4920 Lena Road, Bradenton, FL 34211 941-756-1928 Palm Coast Hydroponics 4490 N Hwy US1 Ste. 108 Bunnell FL 32110 386 246 4119 East Coast Hydroponics & Organics 461 Forrest Avenue, Suite 105 Coca, FL 32922 321-243-6800 GreenTouch Hydroponics Inc. 5011 S State Road 7, Suite 104 Davie, FL 33314 954-316-8815 Absolute Hydroponic Garden Center Inc 1607 Old Daytona Steet Deland, FL 32724 386-734-0696 Organic Grow Hut 2 780 Deltona Blvd. #107 Deltona, Florida 32725 1-888-574-grow 386-259-5777 Gold Coast Hydroponics 1539 SW 21st Avenue, Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33312 1-800-780-7371 Biofloral 6250 NW 27th Way, Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33309 877 735 6725 Green Thumb Hydroponics Supplies 13482 North Cleveland Avenue, Fort Meyers, FL 33903 239-997-4769 Gardener’s Edge Gainesville 5000 NW 34th Street, Suite 13, Gainesville, FL 32605 352-375-2769 Florida Garden Supplies 2692 W 79 Street, Hialeah, FL 33016 1-800-931-5215 Hydro Terra Corp. 924 North Federal Highway, Hollywood, FL 33020 954-920-0889 Simply Hydroponics & Organics (North) 3642 South Suncoast Boulevard, Homosassa, FL 34448 352-628-2655 Hydroponics International Inc. 7029-10 Commonwealth Avenue, Jacksonville, FL 32220 904-693-6554 Grower’s Choice & Hydroponics 11855 North Main Street, Jackonsonville, FL 32218 904-683-4517 Urban Organics & Hydroponics 5325 Fairmont Street, Jacksonville, FL 32207 904-398-8012 Simply Hydroponics & Organics 7949 Ulmerton Road, Largo, FL 33773 727-531-5355 GrowSmart Indoor Garden Centers 14587 Southern Boulevard, Loxahatchee, FL 33470 561-429-3527 Palm Beach Discount Hydroponics – West 14703 Southern Blvd. Loxahatchee, FL 33470 561 296 8555 Atlantic Hydroponics 430 Count Street, Melbourne, FL 32901 321-821-1535 High Tech Garden Supply 2975 West New Haven Avenue, Melbourne, FL 32901 321-821-0853 Advanced Hydro Gardens 4960 NW 165 Street, Suite B-4, Miami, FL 33014 866-97-HYDRO Blossoms Experience, The 7207 NW 54th Street, Miami, FL 33166 866-452-4769 Florida Garden Supplies 9545 Sunset Drive, Miami, FL 33173 800-931-5215

Maximum Yield USA  | November 2011

185


MAXIMUM YIELD distributors

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

Future Farms Inc., The 14291 SW 120th Street, Suite 105 Miami, FL 33186 305-382-2757

Florida Garden Supplies 8020 Belvedere Road,Unit 4, West Palm Beach,FL 33411 800-931-5215

Fertile Ground 463 West MacArthur Drive, Cottage Hills, IL 62018 618-259-5500

Gold Coast Hydroponics 4241 SW 71st Avenue, Miami, FL 33155 1-800-780-6805

Palm Beach Discount Hydroponics – East 968 North Congress Ave. West Palm Beach, FL 33409 561 296 6161

Brew and Grow- Crystal Lake 176 W. Terra Cotta Ave. Crystal Lake, IL 60014 1 (815) 301-4950

Growing Garden Inc., The 12811 SW 42nd Street, Miami, FL 33175 305-559-0309

GEORGIA

Midwest Hydroganics 20647 Renwick Road, Crest Hill, IL 60403 815-838-0100

VitaOrganix 7921 NW 67th St Miami, FL 33166 786 845 8633 3D Hydroponics and Organics 7139 US Highway #19, New Port Richey, FL 34652 727-847-3491 Florida Garden Supplies 8442 Tradeport Drive, Unit 200, Orlando, FL 32827 Urban Sunshine 6100 Hanging Moss Rd ste 50 Orlando, FL 32807 407-647-4769 Urban Sunshine 6142 S. Orange Ave Orlando, FL 32809 407-859-7728 Green Winters Inc. 147 Tomoka Avenue, Ormond Beach, FL 32174 386-235-8730 800-931-5215 The Healthy Harvest Ste. 126 21113 Johnson St. Pembroke Pines, FL. 33029 Tel: 954-538-1511 Eden Garden Supply 5044 N. Palafox Street, Pensacola, FL 32505 850-439-1299 Healthy Gardens and Supply of Florida, Inc. 196 East Nine Mile Road, Suite F, Pensacola, FL 32534 850-912-4545 National Garden Wholesale/Sunlight Supply 455 S. Andrews Avenue, Pompano Beach, FL 33069 877-649-3567 (Southeast) Hydroponic Depot II 2395 S Tamiami Trail #19 Port Charlotte FL 33952 941 255 3999t EZ Grow Green 604 S.W. Bayshore Blvd. Port St. Lucie, Fl 34983 772-807-7755 Esposito Garden Center 2743 Capital Circle NE, Tallahassee, FL 32308 850-386-2114 Evershine Hydroponics 1519 Capital Circle NE Unit #35 Tallahassee FL 32308 850-765-0040 Grace’s Hydro-Organic Garden Center 8877 North 56th Street Tampa, FL 33617 813-514-9376

Atlantis Hydroponics 1422 Woodmont Lane, #4, Atlanta, GA 30318 404-367-0052 Flora Hydroponics, Inc. 1239 Fowler St. NW Atlanta, GA 30318 Flora Hydroponics Inc. 2475 Jefferson Road, Suite 600 Athens, GA 30607 866-404-0551 Flora Hydroponics, Inc. 195 Paradise Blvd. Athens, GA 30607 Atlantis Hydroponics 2561 West Point Avenue, College Park, GA 30337 678-510-0032 Alpha Hydroponics and Garden Supply Inc. 3904 N Druid Hills Rd. Suite 247 Decatur GA 30033 404 590 4769

Goldman’s Grow Shop 910 Greenwood Road, Glenview, IL 60025 847-657-7250 Grow Masters 4641 Old Grand Ave. Gurnee, Il. 60031 (224) 399-9877 Big Grow Hydroponics 9225 Trinity Drive, Lake In The Hills, IL 60156 847-854-4450 Grow Big Hydroponics 7817 B North 2nd Street, Manchesney Park, IL 61115 815-637-4769 Gardinside 618 S. Rt. 59 suite 104 Naperville, IL 60540 630-276-9885

Savannah Hydroponics & Organics 4107 Eighth Street, Suite C Garden City, GA 31408 912-349-4030

Green Fields 8137 N. Milwaukee, Niles, IL 60714 847-965-5056

Atlantis Hydroponics 5182-B Brook Hollow Parkway, Norcross, GA 30071 770.558.1346

Autumn Bloom Alternative Indoor Gardening 1020 Derby Street Pekin, Illinois 61554 309-642-6943

HAWAII Eco-Island Supply 810 Haiku Road, #394 Haiku, HI 96708 808-575-9171 Aqua Plant Hawaii / Kahala Hydroponics 4224 Wailae, Suite 1A, Honolulu, HI 96816 808-735-8665 Green Hands of Aloha 1713 Mary Street, Honolulu, HI 96819 808-847-4263

Prairie House Garden Center 15151 South Harlem Avenue, Orland, IL 60462 708-687-3131 Brew and Grow 3224 South Alpine Road, Rockford, IL 61109 815-874-5700 Brew and Grow 359 W. Irving Park Road Unit E, Roselle, IL 60172 630-894-4885

Ohana Greenhouse & Garden Supply 300 Hukilike Street, #2M, Kahalui, HI 96732 808-871-6393

Organic Garden Center 9223 Skokie Blvd. Skokie, IL 60077 (847) 675-2722

Aiyah’s Garden 4558 kukui st. kapa’a, Hi. 96746

Kreation’s Indoor Gardening Center 3427 Old Chatman Road, Springfield, IL 62704 217-341-0821

Aiyah’s Garden 3-3122 Kuhio Hwy. unit B-2 Lihue, Hi. 96766 808 245 2627

Water Works Indoor Gardening 1900 South Dirksen Parkway, Springfield, IL 62703 217-553-6929

Pahoa Feed & Fertilizer 15-2754 Old Government Road, Pahoa, HI 96778 808-965-9955

Midwest Hydroganics 949 W Irving Park Rd. Streamwood IL 60107 630 483 1600

IDAHO

INDIANA

Harvest Time Hydroponics 14414 N. Florida Avenue, Tampa, FL 33613 813-264-7101

Boise Hydroponics 614 North Orchard Street, Boise, ID 83706 208-344-3053

BWGS-IN 7854 North State Road 37, Bloomington, IN 47404 800-316-1306

Hydroponics of Tampa 120 W. Bougain Villea, Tampa, FL 33612 813-333-6828

Greenthumb Greenhouses 5895 Ensign Avenue, Boise, ID 83714

Stoney Hydro @ Schiro’s Barn n Garden Supplies 7812 Causeway Boulevard, Tampa, FL 33619 813-626-0902

ILLINOIS

Sunleaves Garden Products 7854 North State Road 37, Bloomington, IN 47404 888-464-9676

Aerostar Global 824 South Kay Avenue, Addison, IL 60101

Worm’s Way Indiana 7850 North State Road 37, Bloomington, IN 47404 800-598-8158

Worm’s Way Florida 4412 North 56th Street, Tampa, FL 33610 800-283-9676; 813-621-1792

Brew and Grow 181 Crossroads Parkway, Bolingbrook, IL 60194 847-885-8282

Worm’s Way Mail Order 7850 North State Road 37 Bloomington, IN 47404 800-274-9676

Monkey Hydroponics 940 West Oakland Ave. Unit A1 407 574 8495  Winter Garden FL 34787 13054 W Colonial Drive Winter Garden, FL 34787 407-656-GROW(4769)

Let it Grow - Carbondale West Main Street, Carbondale, IL 62908 573-450-5401

Cultivating Eden Hydroponic Supplies 946 18th Avenue SW, Vero Beach, FL 32962 772-564-8880

Brew and Grow 3625 N. Kedzi Avenue, Chicago, IL 60618 773-463-7430

186

Maximum Yield USA | November 2011

Alternative Garden Supply 615 Industrial Drive, Unit A Cary, IL 60013 800-444-2837

Frogs Lilly Pad, The 706 Citation Road, Carmel, IN 46032 317-846-4610 Hops & Harvest 4616 E. DuPont Road, Suite Q, Fort Wayne, IN 46825 260-918-3035 Harvest Moon Hydroponics 1336 East Washington St. Indianapolis, IN 46202 317-780-8020

Inc.


Magic Bulb Garden Center 6229 Allisonville Road, Indianapolis, IN 46220 317-202-2852

Healthy Gardens and Supply 5001-F Harford Road, Baltimore, MD 21214 443-708-5144

J&L Growco 206 S. Michigan Avenue, Big Rapids, MI 49307 231-796-1528

Maximum Grow Gardening 6117 E Washington St Indianapolis, IN 46219

Maryland Hydroponics Inc. 10051 North 2nd Street, Laurel, MD 20723 301-490-9236

Greenway Gardens 916 W 13th St Cadillac, Mi,49601 231-775-7075

Meadowview Feed & Garden Center 1202 Meadowview Road, Pasadena, MD 21122 443-817-0018

Hydro Vision 303 W 14 Mile Rd. Clawson, MI 48017 (248) 435-2250

Maryland Hydroponics Inc. 12130 Nebel Street, Rockville, MD 20852 240-551-4625

Cultivation Station 3 Inc. 46912 Gratiot, Chesterfield, MI 48051 586-949-7453

Purple Mountain Organics 100-7010 Westmoreland Avenue, Takoma Park, MD 20912 877-538-9901

H2O Grow Supply 3364 Arent Ct Coloma, MI 49038 269-468-3890

MASSACHUSETTS

Van Hydro 7480 N State, Davison, MI 48423 810-653-8267

Five Point Gardens 56555 Oak Road, South Bend, IN 46619 574-287-9232 KANSAS Green Circle Hydroponics 6890 W. 105th Street, Overland Park, KS 66212 913-642-3888 KENTUCKY Garden Grove Organics 29 East 7th Street, Covington, (Cincinnati Metro), KY 41011 859-360-1843 Worm’s Way Kentucky 1360 Donaldson Hwy. Suite A, Erlanger, KY 41018 800-669-2088 Grow Shop, The of Lexington 2320 Palumbo Drive, Suite 130, Lexington, KY 40509 859-268-0779 Louisville Hydroponics 3471 Taylor Boulevard, Louisville, KY 40215 502-366-4000 New Earth Garden Center 9810 Taylorsville Road, Louisville, KY 40299 800-462-5953 LOUISIANA Geaux Hydroponics! 2126 O’Neal Lane, Baton Rouge, LA 70816 225-751-4769 Laughing Buddha Nursery 4516 Clearview Parkway, Metairie, LA 70006 504-887-4336 Urban Organics 285 St. Claude Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70117 504-352-4709 Ourcrazydeals Hydroponics 201 Angus Drive, Yungsville, LA 70592 337-303-6146 MAINE The Urban Garden Center 600 Wilson St. Brewer, ME 04412 1-207-989-2020 LiquidSun of Maine 51West Gray Rd. Gray, ME 04039 207-657-8033 Natures Palate Indoor Garden Store 1321 Mercer Rd ( rte2) Mercer, Maine 04957 877-587-4150 207-587-4150 Evergreen Garden Center 301 Forest Avenue Portland, ME 04101 207-761-2800

Greenlife Garden Supply 481 Boston Road, Unit 4, Billerica, MA 01821 978-262-9966 GYOstuff – Grow Your Own 2400 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02140 617-945-1654 Harvest Moon Hydroponics 29 Washington Street, Route 1 Foxboro, MA 02035 800-660-6977 LiquidSun® MA 8 Lynwood Avenue, Holyoke, MA 01040 413-539-6875 Green Path Garden Supply 276 West Main Street, Northborough, MA 01532 508-393-4181 High Tech Garden Supply 560 Boston Turnpike (Rt.9) Shrewsbury, MA 01545 508-845-4477 New England Hydroponics 15 D College Hwy. (Rt. 10), Southampton, MA 01073 888-529-9025 Worm’s Way Massachusetts 121 Worc-Providence Turnpike, Sutton, MA 01590 800-284-9676 MICHIGAN Hydro Vision 11820 Belleville Belleville, MI 48111 (734) 325-6210

East Coast Organics 2800 Sisson Street, Baltimore, MD 21211

Ultra Lo Hydro ultralohydro.com 937-252-8224 Urban Gardening Center, The 2520 22nd Street, Detroit, MI 48216 313-898-0200 Superior Growers Supply 4870 Dawn Avenue, East Lansing, MI 48823 517-332-2663 Sunnyside Hydroponics 24930 Gratiot Avenue, Eastpoint, MI 48021 586-777-2528 Hydro Vision 495 Fenway Dr. Fenton, MI (810) 714-1719

Growco Garden Supply 1042 Michigan Street, NE, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 877-939-6900

Hydro Vision 5844 N. Shelton Rd. Canton, MI 48187 (734) 335-6818

Home Grown Hydroponix 5333 Plainfield Suite C, Grand Rapids Michigan 49525, 616-361-2924

Hydro Grow Room 15201 N. Holly Road, Unit B Holly, MI 48442 248-369-8333

Horizen Hydroponics 1614 Leonard Street, NW, Grand Rapids, MI 49504 866-791-1664

Cultivation Station of Michigan Inc., The 6540 Allen Road, Allen Park, MI 48101 313-383-1766

MARYLAND

Hydro Heaven 73647 W 8th Mile Road, Detroit, MI 48235 313-861-0333; 877-823-2076

A Plus Hydroponics of Michigan LLC 9750 Cherry Valley Ave SE Caledonia MI 49316 (616) 891-0706

The Urban Garden Center 659 Warren Ave Portland, ME 04103 1-207-347-2350

Greenlife Garden Supply 611 US Rt. 1 York, ME 03909 207-363-0844

Hydro Giant 21651 W. 8 Mile Rd. Detroit, MI (8Mile & Lahser) 313-387-7700 313-216-8888

Synthetic Sun Hydroponics, LLC 799 S. Wisconsin Avenue Gaylord, MI 49735 989 731 8800

Aric’s Indoor Garden Supply 611 Main st. Norway, Michigan 49870 (906)563-1518

Urban Garden Center 235 Lewiston Road, Topsham, ME 04086 207-373-0990

Cultivation Station – Eastern Market, The 2518 Market Street, Detroit, MI 48207 313-394-0441

Growers Outlet 7720 Clyde Park SW Byron Center, MI 49513 616-878-4444

High Tech Garden Supply Maine178 Rand Rd. Portland, ME 04102 Phone 207-899-4387

Green Thumb Indoor Gardening 19 Stage Road, St. Albans, ME 04971 207-938-5909

Hydro Giant 14455 Ford Rd, Dearborn, MI

Gro Blue Indoor Gardening Supplies 270 W. Liberty Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48104 734-913-2750 Grow Show, The 4095 Stone School Rd. Ann Arbor, MI 48108 (734)-677-0009 (734)-677-0509

Hydro Grow Room 15201 N Holly Rd Unit B Holly MI, 48430 248-369-8333 Flower Factory, The 2223 East Highland Road Highland, MI 48356 248-714-9292 Hydro Vision 2858 E Highland rd Highland, MI 48356 (248) 714-5556 Holland Hydroponic Outlet 587-40 East 8th Street Holland, MI 49423 616-298-7395

HotHydro® 5245 Jackson Road, Suite F Ann Arbor, MI 48103 734-761-5040; 877-893-0716

Synthetic Sun Hydroponics, LLC 705 S., Loxley Houghton Lake, MI 48629 989-422-2800

Homelight Gardens 3471 S. Huron Road, Bay City, MI 48706 989-922-0088

Hydro Vision 1247 e Grand River Howell, MI 48843 (517) 552-4965

Maximum Yield USA  | November 2011

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MAXIMUM YIELD distributors

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

Green Forest Indoor Garden Supply, LLC. 2555 N. State(M-66) Rd. Ionia, MI 48846 616-523-6111

Hydroharrys.com 24500 Dequindre, Warren, MI 48091 800-461-8819

Green Circle Hydroponics 12 East Missouri, Kansas City, MO 64106 816-421-1840

Horizen Hydroponics 4646 W. Main Street, Kalamazoo, MI 49006 269-567-3333

Indoor Garden Superstore 2570 Dixie Highway, Waterford Twp., MI 48328 248-673-2200; 877 22 HYDRO

Grow Your Own Hydroponics 3617 Saint John Avenue, Kansas City, MO 64123 816-241-2122

Kalamazoo Indoor Garden 450 W. Maple, Kalamazoo, MI 49001 269-344-2550 HTG Supply-Lansing Michigan 2815 East Grand River Ave.Lansing, MI 48912 (517) 580-0555 Horizen Hydroponics 5425 W. Saginaw Highway Lansing, MI 48917 517-323-ROOT Superior Growers Supply 19582 Middlebelt Road, Livonia, MI 48152 248-473-0450 Northern Lights Hydroponic and Garden Supply 29090 Campbell rd. Madison Heights, MI 48071 248-439-6269 BIg Creek Hydroponics 555 Old Little Lake Road, Marquette, MI 49855 906-249-5297 Growing Consultant 2260 Apple Avenue, Muskegon, MI 49442 231-773-5600 Sunshine Supply Co. 5800 East Pickard Street, Mt. Pleasant, MI 48858 989-775-3700 Flo-N-Grow. 214 N. 2nd Street, Niles, MI 49120 269-683-1877 Super Grow 288 W. MONTCALM PONTIAC, MI 48342 248-24SUPER (78737) Green Earth Hydroponics 8127 Portage Rd. Portage, MI 49002 269-342-4190 Hydroponics Highway Inc. 2708 14th Ave. Port Huron MI, 48060 810-982-4769 Hydro Vision 66783 Gratiot Ave. Richmond, MI 48062 (586) 430-1956 Green Thumb Hydroponics and Organic Indoor Supply 8460 Algoma Suite G Rockford MI 49341 USA 616 884 5500 Home Grown Hydroponics 8075 Gratiot Road, Unit C, Saginaw MI 48609 989-781-1930

188

Maximum Yield USA | November 2011

Magic City Organic & Hydroponic Supply 812 Central Billings, MT 59102 (406)-245-LEAF(5323)

AAA Hydroponics LLC 22 50th Street Wyoming, MI 49504 616-249-8338

One World – Life Products 906 Broadwater Billings MT 59101 406 839 9969

Cultivation Station – Grand Rapids, The 4907 S. Division Ave.,  Wyoming, MI 49548 616-855-4440 Stealth Hydro 15 E. Cross Street, Ypsilanti, MI 48198 866-998-1916

Heightened Harvests 3103 Harrison Avenue, Suite B Butte, MT 59701 Alpengrow Nursery Supplies 238 Highway 93 S., Eureka, MT 59917 406-882-4496 Butteopia 127 Main Street, Butte, Montana 59701 1-406-782-8476

MINNESOTA Duluth Hydroponics 26 W 1st Street Duluth, MN 55802 218-341-7253

Big Sky Garden Supply 528 West Idaho, Kallispell, MT 59901 406-755-1465

Indoor Gardening 10 NE 3rd Street, Faribault, MN 55021 507-209-1546

Box of Rain Indoor Garden Center 860 N. Meridian Road B-19, Kalispell, MT 59901 406-755-RAIN (7246)

Brew and Grow 8302 Highway 65 NE., Minneapolis, MN 55432 763-780-8191

Cornucopia Grow Your Own 127 Stoner Creek Road Lakeside, MT 59922 406-709-1076

Interior Gardens 115 -1620 Central Avenue NE, Minneapolis, MN 55413 800-498-4178; 612-870-9077

American Garden Supply 601-6th Avenue, North, Princeton, MN 55371 763-631-0543Q

(734) 301-3745

Heightened Harvests 2018 Main Street #4, Billings, MT 59105 406-252-4311

G.C. II 1006 E. Colby St. Suite A Whitehall, MI 49417 231-893-2400

Cultivation Station of Michigan Inc., The 23529 Little Mack Avenue, St. Clair, MI 48080 586-775-9485

Hydro Vision 1910 West rd Trenton, MI 48183

MONTANA

G.C. II Whitehall, MI 49461 231-893-2400

Eden Indoor Organic Gardens 831 Highway 75 North Moorhead, MN 56560 218-477-EDEN (3336)

Wild Child 7740 M 72 East, Traverse City, MI 49690 866-711-GROW

Green Thumb Organics 249 Mid Rivers Mall Drive, St. Peters, MO 63376 636-397-4769 (GROW)

Synthetic Sun Hydroponics, LLC 3218 W. Houghton Avenue West Branch, MI 48661 989-345-8800

Hydro Vision 22180 Pontiac Trail South Lyon, MI 48178 (248) 435-2268

Grow Store, The 90 N U.S. Highway 31 South , Traverse City, MI 49685-7923 231-421-5191

Worm’s Way Missouri 1225 North Warson Road, St. Louis, MO 63132 800-285-9676

Indoor Eden 11090 Hi Tech Dr. Whitmore lake MI 48189 810-355-1465

Midwest Hydroponics 5825 Excelsior Blvd., St. Louis Park,MN 55416 888-449-2739

Hydro Grow, The 8210 Telegraph Road, Taylor, MI 48180 313-633-0641 Great Lakes Green Horticultural Supply 757 S. U.S. Highway 131 Three Rivers, MI 49093 269-278-130

U-Grow 1724 North, 13th Street, St. Louis, MO 63106 314-452-6368

Hydrospot 34236 Michigan Avenue, Wayne, MI 48184 734-722-1285

Hydro Giant 19363 Eureka Rd, Southgate, MI 734.281.8888

High Tech Garden Supply 7889 Telegraph Road. Taylor, MI 48180 313-908-7554

Let It Grow - Springfield 2519 E. Kearney Street, Springfield, MO 65803 417-862-GROW

Light Green Water 3661 Highland Road, Waterford, MI 48329 248-681-0001

Dr. Green Thumbs 1106 West Park, Livingston, MO 59047 406-222-7440 Bizzy Beez LLP 5875 Highway 93 S, Whitefish, MT 59937 406-863-9937 NEBRASKA Patio-Ponics 3255 Cornhusker Highway, Suite 4 Lincoln, NE 68504 402-466-9218 Advanced Hydro-Ponics 10711 Mockingbird Drive, Omaha, NE 68127 (108th and L-Q) 402-991-6630

Still-H2O Inc. 14375 North 60th Street, Stillwater, MN 55082 651-351-2822

Paradigm Gardens 8949 J Street, Suite 5, Omaha, NE 68127 402-339-4949

Eco Garden Supply 800 Transfer Door 25 in rear St. Paul, MN 55114 651-647-1896

NEVADA Carson Valley Hydroponics 2520 Empire Ranch Road, Carson City, NV 89701 775-884-4769

MISSISSIPPI Indoor Garden Shop LLC 1310 Bienville Boulevard, Ocean Springs, MS 39564 228-875-3725 MISSOURI

Lorraine Ink 290 Spear Court, Fernley, NV 89408 775-575-7757

Let It Grow - Girardeau 879 S. Kings Highway, Cape Girardeau, MO 63703 573-803-0628

Hydro Store, The 1014 W. Sunset Road, Henderson, NV 89014 702-434-7365

Heartland Hydrogardens 705 Vandiver Drive, Suite G Columbia, MO 65202 573-474-4769

HYDROGARDENS

AAA Indoor Organic Garden SuperCenter 2101 S. Decatur Boulevard, #21, Las Vegas, NV 89102 702-450-4769


Advanced Gardens Hydroponics 3111 South Valley View, (on Desert Inn West of Valley View) Suite V103 Las Vegas, NV 89102 702-257-4769 Advanced Gardens Hydroponics 7850 Dean Martin Dr. Suite 506 Las Vegas,NV 89139 702-247-4769 All American Hydroponics 2675 East Patrick Lane, Unit 8, Las Vegas, NV 89120 702-894-9888 Best Hydroponic Supply 6818 W Cheyenne, Las Vegas, NV 89108 702-750-9300 Hydro Store, The 7145 W. Ann Road, Las Vegas, NV 89130 702-434-9376 Nevada Hydroponics 4700 B Maryland, Suite 1, Las Vegas, NV 89119 702-798-2852 Anything Grows 190 West Moana Lane, Reno, NV 89509 775-828-1460 Everything Green Hydroponics P.O Box 34869 Reno, Nevada 89533 NEW HAMPSHIRE Natural Roots Hydroponics 24 Crown St. Nashua, NH 1 (603) 204-5528 NEW JERSEY Garden State Hydroponics 511 Avenel Street, Avenel, NJ 07001 888-300-8711 Bergen County Hydroponics 70 Essex Street, Hackensack, NJ 07601 201-342-2001 Green Touch 2 Hydroponics Inc. 888 Route 33, Unit 1, Hamilton, NJ 08619 609-570-8829

greentouch2 HYDROP ONICS

East Coast Horticultural Supply 1652 Hurffville Road, Sewell, NJ 08080 856-228-5290 77HYDRO 37 Fairfield Place, West Caldwell, NJ 07006 877-774-9376 Claraqua 4 Redwood Court, West Windsor, NJ 08550 NEW MEXICO AHL Year Round Garden Supply 1051 San Mateo Blvd. SE, Albuquerque, NM 87108 505-255-3677  All Seasons Gardening 3600 Osuna Road, Suite 406 Alburquerque, NM 87109 505-508-4292 Common Shaman 1319 San Mateo N.E., Albuquerque, NM 87110 505-255-6463 All Seasons Gardening 1228 Parkway, Suite E Sante Fe, NM 87507 505-438-GROW Santa Fe Hydroponics 821 W. San Mateo Road, Suite 4, Santa Fe, NM 87505 505-467-8454  NEW YORK The Grow Room 32-32 49th Street Astoria, NY 11103 718-218-GROW (4769) Saratoga Organics & Hydroponic Supply 19 Front Street, Ballston Spa, NY 12020 518-885-2005; 800-850-4769 The Grape Vine 4020 Hempstead Turnpike Bethpage,NY,11714 516-731-1100 Bronx Hydro & Garden 39 Bruckner Boulevard, Bronx, NY 10454 718-993-3787

INC.

Bklyn Hydro & Garden 316 McGuiness Blvd Brooklyn NY 11222 718-383-0095 Brooklyn Farms 51Hicks Street St. Brooklyn, NY 11231 347-725-3491 Indoor Outdoor Gardener 8223 5th Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11209 718-836-2402 Hydroponics of Buffalo 1497 Hertel Avenue, Buffalo, NY 14216 716-838-3545 Harvest Moon Hydroponics 340 West at 59, Central Nyack, NY 10960 California Hydroponics 27 Corporate Circle, East Syracuse, NY 13057 315-432-9387 Upstate Hydroponics 2026 Lake Rd unit B Elmira, NY 14903 607 483 9199 FutureGarden Inc. 59 Central Avenue, Farmingdale, NY 11735 516-420-0884 East Coast Hydroponics 14649 Horace Harding Exp, Flushing, NY 11367 718-762-8880 Healthy Harvest Organics and Hydro 163 Broadway, Fort Edwart, NY 12828 518-480-4698

NORTH CAROLINA

Saratoga Organics & Hydroponic Supply 10 Saratoga Ave S. Glen Falls, NY 12803 (518) 798-820 Greentree Nursery 308 Elmira Road, Ithaca, NY 14850 607-272-3666 Crossroads Hydroponics & Organics 181 S. Plank Rd. Newburgh, NY 12550 845-561-GROW Hudson Valley Hydroponics 217 Route 32 North, New Paltz, NY 12561 845-255-3633 Sunlight Solutions Hydroponics 2045 Niagara Falls Boulevard, Suite 13, Niagara Falls, NY 14304 888-GROWBOX The Grow Room 8 Bridge Street, Nyack, NY 10960 800-449-9630 Revolution Hydroponics 309 West State St. Olean NY 14760 716.373.Grow (4769) Mor Gro Hydroponics 5680 State Route 104 E Oswego , NY 13126 315-877-8725 Environmental Gardens 8 John Walsh Boulevard, Suite 310 Peekskills, NY 10566 800-254-0507; 914-736-6676 Harvest Moon Hydroponics Henrietta Townline Plaza, 3047 West Henrietta Road, Rochester, NY 14623 716-865-7353 Hydro Garden Center 1069B Lyell Avenue, Rochester, NY 14606 1-800-277-1322 Sunset Hydroponics & Home Brewing 1590 West Ridge Road, Rochester, NY 14615 866-395-9204 KG Garden Supply 1327 Floyd Avenue, Rome, NY 13440 1-877-KG-HYDRO LiquidSun of New York 1702 Fiero ave Rotterdam, NY 12150 518-952-4654 Hydroponics Shops of America 2606 Erie Boulevard, Syracuse, NY 13224 315-251-2516

Good Harvest Garden Center 629 Oakridge Farm Hwy. Mooresville NC 28115 704-658-9136

Green Zone Hydroponics 2148 Niagara Falls Blvd. Tonawanda, NY. 14150  716-693-9663 Harvest Moon Hydroponics 147 Fourth Street, Troy, NY 10960

Advanced Hydroponic Garden 55 Shiloh Road #6 Asheville, NC 28803 1 (828) 277-3488 Fifth Season Gardening Company 21 B Westside Dr. Asheville NC 28806 828-225-5007 Fifth Season Gardening Company 45 Banks Avenue, Asheville, NC 28801 828-253-4112 Fifth Season Gardening Company 106 South Greensboro Street, Carrboro, NC 27510 919-932-7600 Be Well Hydroponics & Urban Gardening 4732 Monroe Road, Charlotte, NC 28205 704-344-8010 BWGS-NC 4045 Perimeter West Drive,Suite 400, Charlotte, NC 28214 800-316-1306 High Tech Garden Supply 2712 B Freedom Drive Charlotte, NC 28208 704-697-0911 Flow & Grow Hydroponics & Organic Garden Center 4521 Cumberland Road, Fayetteville, NC 28306 910-423-FLOW (3569) Fifth Season Gardening Company 1616 D-3 Battleground Avenue, Greensboro, NC 27408 336-271-3373

Fifth Season Gardening Company 5619-A Hillsborough Street, Raleigh, NC 27606 919-852-4747 New Age Gardens 2236A US Highway 70, Swannanoa, NC 28778 828-299-9989 All Season Hydroponics 890 South Kerr Avenue, Wilmington, NC 28410 Progressive Gardens 6005 Oleander Drive, Wilmington, NC 28403 910-395-1156 OHIO Akron Garden Center 434 W Wilbeth Road, Akron, OH 44314 330-724-2700 Summit Hydroponics 1030 Kenmore Boulevard Akron, OH 44314-2114 330-753-5222 Campbells Indoor Gardening Supplies 1721 Greenville Road Bristolville, OH 44402 330-889-0049 Magic Home Gardens 209 Cemetery Road, Canal Winchester, OH 43110 614-837-2440 Dumont Seed Co. 619 30th ST. N.W. Canton, ohio 44709 330-492-0204 Dayton Hydroponics 4920 Provident Drive Cincinnati, Ohio 45246 513-942-7111 Eastside Hydroponics 550 Ohio Pike Cincinnati, OH 45255 513-528-GROW Kissed by the Sun Hydroponic 10740 Reading Road, Cincinnati, OH 45241 513-769-0159 Cleveland Garden Center Inc. 727 East 185th Street, Cleveland, OH 44119 216-481-7868 Grow Wizard, The 5700 Denison Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44102 216-961-2500 Herb-N-Garden Center 14901 Puritas Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44135 216-252-2001

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MAXIMUM YIELD distributors

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

Garden Indoors of Ohio 4720 Indianola Avenue, Columbus, OH 43214 800-833-6868

Rogue Silicates Inc. POB 21, Azalea, OR 97410 541-837-8590

H2organic LCC 620 NE 3rd Street, McMinnville, OR 97128 503-434-6107

Magic Home Garden 4538 Indianola Avenue, Columbus, OH 43214 614-263-2440

B.I.G.S. 155 SW Century Drive, Suite 401, Bend, OR 97702 541-385-5222

Wizard’s Garden, LLC 621 Spruce Street, Unit C, Myrtle Point, OR 97458 541-572-2333

Garden Connections 3341 Centerpoint Dr. Grove City OH 43123 614 871 0707

Herb N’ Jungle Hydroponics 930 SE Textron Drive, Bend, OR 97702 541-382-4010

Advanced Hydrorganics Indoor Garden Center 5204 Darrow Road, Hudson, OH 44236 234-380-1287

Northern Light and Garden Beaverton 9290 SW Beaverton-Hillsdale Highway, Beaverton, OR 97005 503-297-7331

Green Zone Garden Center & Hydroponic Supplies 454 S.W. Coast Hwy Newport OR 97365 USA P: 541-265-8252

Sweet Greens 5540 Brecksville Road Independence, OH 44131 800-421-7084

Westcoast Organic and Hydroponic Supply 12410 SE 282nd Avenue, Unit C Boring, OR 97009 503-766-4106

Hydro Gardens and Lights 1144 N Memorial Drive Lancaster, OH 43130 705-65 Hydro

The Good Earth Organics 30088 Redwood Highway, Cave Junction, OR 97523 541-592-4496

Carefree Garden Center 134 West Drive, Lodi, OH 44254 330-302-4203

Anthony’s Garden & Light Supply 93779 B Troy Lane, Coos Bay, OR 97420 541-266-8822

CropKing 134 West Drive, Lodi, OH 44254 330-302-4203

Corvallis Hydroponics & Organics 5490 SW Philomath Boulevard, Corvallis, OR 97333 541-738-2820

The Grow Shop 165 Davids St. Marion OH 43302 740 223 7467

Aqua Serene 2836 W. 11th Avenue, Eugene, OR 97402 541-302-9073

Urban Gardens 671 E. Center Street Marion, OH 43302 740-375-2800

Aurora Innovations PO Box 22041, Eugene, OR 97402 866-376-8578

Top Garden Products 8600 East Avenue Suite C. Mentor, OH 44060 440-290-8773

SunInside Gardening Co. 665 Conger, Unit F, Eugene, OR 97402 541-686-9966

Indoor Gardens 1222 Hill Road, North, Pickerington, OH 43147 614-866-6065

Advanced Indoor Gardens 17831 se 82nd drive Gladstone, OR 97027 503 305 6341

Trinity Hydro Organics 465 Woodman Drive Riverside, OH 45431 937-252-GROW Toledo Hydroponics Ltd. 855 S. Holland-Sylvania Road, Suite 2 Toledo, OH 43615 1-877-893-0716 Greenleaf Hydroponics 1805 Elm Road, Warren, OH 44483 330-372-1039 Dayton Hydroponics 3856 Miamisburg-Centerville Road, West Carrolton, OH 45449 937-859-3999 Harvest Moon 9215 Market Street, Youngstown (North Lima), OH 44452 800-776-8399 Indoor Garden Worx 906 Blue Avenue, Zanesville, OH 43701 866-900-9679 OKLAHOMA Tulsa County Hydro-Organics 1928 W. Albany, Broken Arrow, OK 74012 918-259-HYDRO AAAAHA! Hydroponics Unlimited P.O. Box 74, Oakhurst, OK 74050 Organics OKC Garden Supply 3620 N Pennsylvania Avenue, Oklahoma City, OK 73118 405-528-GROW The OKC Urban Gardener 3711 N. Western Ave. Oklahoma City, OK 73118 405-521-9300 Urban Garden 3141 E. 15th Street, Tulsa, OK 74104 918-289-0018

Northern Light and Garden Grants Pass 1203 Rogue River Highway, Grants Pass, OR 97527 541-474-1700 Paradise Supply LLC 560 NE. “F” Street, Unit C, Grand Pass, OR 97526 541-955-7293 Vital Organix 932-B SE “M” Street Grants Pass, OR 97526 541-226-9283 Oregon Rainforest Co. 19949 E. Burnside Street, Gresham, OR 97233503-465-9909 In & Out Gardens 93484 Hwy 99 South Junctin City OR 97448 541-234-2342 Basin Indoor Gardening 1221 Main Street, Klamath Falls, OR 97601 541-273-2023 Green Zone Garden Center & Hydroponic Supplies 1845 S W Hwy. 101 Ste. 3 Lincoln OR 97367 USA 541 994 7070 H2organic LCC 620 NE 3rd Street, McMinnville, OR 97128 503-434-6107 Green Thumb Hydrogarden and Organic Supply 2021 West Main Street, Medford, OR 97501 541-779-8600 Growing Crazy (Hooked On Hydroponics) 817 W. 2nd Street, Medford, OR 97501 In & Out Gardens 1574 Skypark Drive Medford, OR 97501 541-858-3333

OREGON

Ladybug Indoor Gardens 3960 W. Main Street, Medford, OR 97501 541-618-4459

Aqua Serene 465 Applegate Way, Ashland, OR 97520 541-482-7600

Advanced Organics & Garden Supply 290- B Merlin Avenue Merlin, Oregon 97532 541-659-1466

Astoria Indoor Garden Supply 1343 Duane St. Unit C Astoria OR 97103 503 468 0606

Indoor Garden Depot 15828 SE McGloughlin Boulevard, Milwaukie, OR 97267 503-786-2445

190

Maximum Yield USA | November 2011

Gorilla Garden Supply 2011 Union Ave, North Bend, OR 97459 541-756-5005

Garden Supplies

American Agriculture 9220 Southeast Stark Street, Portland, OR 97216 800-433-6805 Bloom Garden Supply 518 NE 20th Ave. Portland, OR 97232 (971)255-1336 Everybody’s Garden Center 2701 SE 14th Avenue, Portland, OR 97202 800-669-5483 Garden Spout, The 4532 South East 63rd Avenue, Portland, OR 97206 503-788-4769 Homegrown Garden Supply 7112 NE Gilsan Street, Portland, OR 97213 877-EZ2-GROW Island Flowers & Indoor Garden Center 909 N. Tomahawk Island Drive, Suite 103, Portland, OR 97217 503-546-3185 Lights Distributing 9843 SW 55th Avenue, Portland, OR 97219 Rain or Shine 13126 NE Airport Way, Portland, OR 97230 503-255-1981 Roots Garden Supply 5426 North Gay Avenue, Portland, OR 97217 503-285-4768 Urban Flora 2865 South East, Portland, OR 97214 503-236-3344 BIGS Warehouse 2606 SW 4th Street, Unit B Redmond, OR 97756 541-504-8886 Indoor Garden Supply 536 SW 6th Street (rear alley), Redmond, OR 97756 541-504-7750 DC Hydroponics & Organics 7275 Green Siding Rd. Roseburg, OR 97471 541-679-3700 Roseburg Hydroponics 853 SE Stephens Street, Roseburg, OR 97470 541-229-1420 Indoor Garden Center 1697 SE 25th Street, Salem, OR 97302 503-566-7888 Northern Light and Garden Salem 1915 Lancester Drive, Salem, OR 97305 503-364-4769 Cascade Horticulture 39570 Pioneer Boulevard, Sandy, OR 97055 503-668-8242 Moonshine Park Farm 135 South East 62nd, Unit F South Beach, OR 97366 541-444-2298 J-N-B Hydro 2 Go 155 West Central Avenue, Sutherlin, OR 97479 541-459-9211 Samurai Greenhouse Supply 32067 Old Hwy. 34 Tanget, OR 97389 541-928-3431 Grow America Garden Supply LLC 11511 SW Pacific Highway, Tigard, OR 97223 503-841-6868 PENNSYLVANIA


Pocono Hydroponic Solutions 25 Route 611 Bartonsville, PA 18321 Tel: 570-730-4544

Organically Grown 768 Atwood Ave Cranston, RI 02920 401-944-0549

All Seasons Gardening and Brewing Supply Co. 924 8th Avenue, South, Nashville, TN 37203 800-790-2188

Green Solutions Hydroponics 1700 Orange Street Berwick, PA 18603 570-752-1530

Hydro-Earth 1243 Mineral Springs Avenue, North Providence, RI 02904 401-305-5520

Worm’s Way Tennessee 901 Main Street, Nashville, TN 37072 800-397-4153

South County Hydroponics 51 Old Tower Hill Road, Wakefield, RI 02879 401-783-1733

TEXAS Abundant Harvest Hydroponics & Organics 3101 Avenue E East, Marshall, TX 76011 817-649-0100 Brite Ideas Hydroponics & Organics 4360 S.Congress Avenue, #310, Austin, TX 78745 512-444-2100 Texas Hydroponics & Organics (Central Austin) 5126 Burnet Road, Austin, TX 78756 512-459-4769 Texas Hydroponics & Organics (South Austin) 2125-A Goodrich Avenue, Austin, TX 78704 512-440-4769 Happy Harvest Hydroponics & Organic 1500 C rescent Drive, Suite 202 Carrollton, TX 75006 972-466-1300 GroGreen Hydroponics 4015 Main Street, Dallas, TX 75226 214-370-9984 Jolly Green Hydroponics (Greenhouse Horticultural Supplies) 13628 Neutron Road, Dallas, TX 75244 (866) WE-JOLLY; 469-341-5555 Lone Star Hydroponics and Organics 1302 Motor Circle, Dallas, TX 75207 214-634-9376 Texas Hydroponics & Organics (Dallas) 3400 Elm Street, Dallas, TX 75226 214-744-4769 Organic Garden & Feed 3801 N Interstate Hwy 35,Suite126, Denton Texas 76207 940-381-9890 Earth Organics 1360 Lee Trevino Drive,Suite 105 El Paso, TX 79936 915-591-9500 Airline Hydroponics P.O. Box 980904, Trader’s Village #363, Houston, TX 77098 713-942-0484 Botani Garden 15120 Bellaire Blvd Houston, TX 77083 281-575-1999 Houston Discount Hydroponics 9384 Richmond Avenue, Houston, TX 77063 713-464-9406 Hydroponic Nation 9700 Almeda Genoa Road, Suite 108, Houston, TX 77075 281-501-9636 In-N-Out Garden Supply 11011 S Wilcrest Drive Ste K Houston, TX 77099 1 (281) 568-5265

Garden Indoors of Pennsylvania 208 Route 13, Bristol, PA 19007 800-227-4567 422 GROW 1775 North Main Street Extension Butler, PA 16001-1327 724-561-3777 High Tech Garden Supply 20232 Route 19, Unit 6, Cranberry Twp., PA 16066 724-473-1113 New Moon Indoor Garden Supply 20550 Route 19 Perry Highway, Cranberry Twp., PA 16066 724-591-8086 Easton Hydroponcis 437 N. Hampton St. Easton, PA 18042 484-373-3232 Home Hydroponics of Pittsburgh 830 Route 119, Greensburg, PA 15601 724-836-1118 Buds to Blooms Garden and Supply Co., LLC 509 Orchard Avenue Kennett Square, PA 19348 484-860-8056 The Companion Plant 363 E. Main St Kutztown, PA 19530 1 (610) 683-9676 Flairform POB 1417, Lansdale, PA 19446 215-395-6353 RH Distribution POB 1417 Lansdale, PA 19446 888-545-8112 Hydro Ponics of Harrisburg 310 South 10th Street, Lemoyne, PA 17043 877-684-3808

Mother Nature Hydroponics 1268 Post Rd. Warwick RI 02888 401 780 0600 LiquidSun® RI 1179 Central Avenue, Pawtucket, MA 02861 401-722-2724 Good To Grow 34 Nooseneck Hill Road West Greenwich, RI 02817 401-392-3100 Growin’ Crazy 93 Kingston Road Wyoming, Rhode Island 02898 401-284-0810 SOUTH CAROLINA GreenSpirit Hydrogarden 1864 Meeting Street, Charleston, SC 29405 843-225-1GRO; 247 Garden Supply 535 D Clemson Road, Columbia, SC 29229 803-788-4445 All Good Hydroponics & Gardening 6729 Two Notch Road, Columbia, SC 29223 803-708-4819 All Season Hydroponics 6729 Two North Road, 10B Columbia, SC 29223 803-708-4819 The Urban Garden Hydroponics 9557 Two Notch Rd. Ste. E Columbia, SC 29223 803-788-9313

Always Green Garden Supply 4400 Old William Penn Hwy Ste. 106 Monroeville PA 15146 412 646 1243

All Season Hydroponics 1350 Hwy. 501 Business, Store 3&4 Conway, SC 29526 843-347-9266

New Stanton Hydro 150 Post Ave. New Stanton, PA. 15672 724-635-0297

Green Thumb Unique Gardening & More 1230 Rutherford Road, Greenville, SC 29609 864-271-8830

Full Bloom Hydroponics 84 South 24th Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15203 888-872-3602

Greenspirit Hydrogardens 3600 Unite 1 Hwy.17 S. North Myrtle Beach, SC 29582 843-361-7777

Home Hydroponics of Pittsburgh 2008 Smallman Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15222 412-232-7030

SOUTH DAKOTA

Healthy Gardens and Supply 1012 Lincoln Avenue, Prospect Park, PA 19076 866-32-HYDRO Home Hydroponics of Pittsburgh 9 North Main St. Washington, PA 15301 724-222-0200 Western Pennsylvania Innovative Gardening 1177 Pittsburgh Road, Suite 103 Valencia, PA 16059 724 - 903 - 0800 Organic Garden Center 800 Washington Blvd. Williamsport, PA 17701 570-322-3120 National Garden Wholesale/Sunlight Supply 450 Grim Lane, York,PA 17406 877-779-7111(Northeast) PA Hydroponics & Home Gardening Supply 20 Quaker Church Road, York Springs, PA 17372 717-528-4175

Green Earth Products Inc. 5700 Highway 79 S.,Unit 1, Rapid City, SD 57702 605-342-1307 TENNESSEE Innovative Hydroponic Supply Inc. 3286 North Park Blvd. Unit G Alcoa TN 37701 865 984 0280

,

Texas Hydroponics & Organics (Houston) 7730 A Park Place Boulevard, Houston, TX 77087 713-641-4769

Atlantis Hydroponics 1800 Rossville Avenue, #3, Chattanooga, TN 37408 423-752-5400

Ultimate Hydroponic Garden Supply 6125 West Sam Houston Parkway, North Suite 206 Houston, TX 77041 713-856-8425

Advanced Hydroponic Garden 783 French Mill Road, Dandridge, TN 37725 800-521-1643

Texas Growers Supply 5990 N. Sam Houston Pkwy. E. #602, Humble, TX 77396 281-441-3739

Perpetual Harvest 75 Riverport Drive, Jackson, TN 38301 877-422-3391

Field of Dreams Indoor Growing Supplies 5302 Slide Road Unit B,Lubbock, TX 79414 806-793-2901 Hydro Mart 3841 Main Street, Rowlett, TX 75088 972-475-6114

RHODE ISLAND

Advanced Hydroponic Garden 6912 Clinton Highway, Knoxville, TN 37921 866-938-3318

Oakworld Garden Center 39 West Street, Barrington, RI 02806 401-245-5705

Sun City Hydroponics 2235 Whitten Road, Suite 104, Memphis, TN 38133 901-372-8100

Sol Organics & Hydroponics 1634 Babcock Road, San Antonio, TX 78229 210-366-9082 

Solar Seed Hydroponics, Inc. 2406 Putman Pike, Chepachet, RI 02814 401-710-9010

National Garden Wholesale/Sunlight Supply 126 Belinda Parkway, Mt. Juliet, TN 37122 888-265-9005

Innergrow Hydroponics 24451 Interstate Highway 20, Wills Point, TX 75169 866-475-4769

Maximum Yield USA  | November 2011

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MAXIMUM YIELD distributors

UTAH Wasatch Hydroponics 4050 South Howick, Suite 11E, Salt Lake City, Utah 84107 801-716-4133 Salt Lake Plant & Hydro60 West 3300 S. #6 ,South Salt Lake, UT 84115 801-488-3200 VERMONT Greenthumb - Vermont 394 Route 15, Jericho, VT 05465 802-899-4323 Peak Hydroponic Garden Supplies 20 School Street, Plainfield, VT 05667 802-454-8000 LiquidSun® VT 1 Bellows Falls Road, (Route 5 North) Putney, VT 05158 802-387-1100 Green Thumb Gardening P.O. Box 235, Route 15, Underhill, VT 5489 800-564-9376

Indoor Tropics 5930 Sunburst Lane #B Cashmere, WA 98815 509-470-7782

Hydro-Tech 2121 Aurora Avenue, North, Seattle, WA 98103 206-547-2202

Garden Smart 500 Bond Drive, Castlerock, WA 98611 360-274-7960

Sodo Hydro 1727 1st Ave. South, Seattle, WA 98134 206-682-9377 888-90HYDRO (904-9376)

Grow Center, The 615 South Fir DeerPark WA 99006 509-276-GROW Healthy Grow Indoor Garden Supplies 10 SE Everett Mall Way Suite B Everett WA 98208 425-374-2227 Indoor Garden Depot 1401 S. 324th Street, Federal Way, WA 98003 253-874-1112 North West Hydro Supply 1355Pacific Pl Unit 117 Ferndale WA 98248-7824 360-778-3254

VIRGINIA

Good 2 Gro 3507 W Clearwater Ave. Kennewick WA 99336 509 737 1313

Fifth Season Gardening Company 900 Preston Ave. Charlottesville VA 22903 434-293-2332

Indoor Garden & Lighting 714 South Central Avenue, Kent, WA 98032 253-373-9060

Clean & Green Technologies 196 Corning Drive, Christiansburg, VA 24073 866-694-1628

Kent Garden Supplies Ltd. 18817 East Valley Highway, Kent, WA 98032 425-251-9299

I Love Hydroponics 612 N. Sheppard Street, Richmond, VA 23221 804-377-3020

Grogro Hydro 12403 NE. 124th Street, Kirkland, WA 98034 888-7-GROGRO 425-820-6200

Lucky Roots 612 North Sheppard St. Richmond, VA 23221 804-377-3020 Blue Ridge Hydroponics & Home Brewing Company The Williamson Road Plaza, 5327 D Williamson Road Roanoke, VA 24012 540-265-2483 Inside-Out Garden Supply 6517 Backlick Road, Springfield, VA 22150 703-451-3259 I Love Hydroponics 368 Newtown Road, #105, Virginia Beach, VA 23462 757-490-5425 Hydroponics & Growlights 13400 Occoquan Road, Woodbridge, VA 22191 703-490-0700 West VIRGINIA Panhandle Hydroculture 800 East Moler Ave. Martinsburg, WV 25401 304-240-7587 WASHINGTON Island Horticulture Supply 8608 S March Point Rd. Anacortes WA 98221 360 293 0000 Mike’s Indoor Garden Supply 6121 172nd Street NE #A, Arlington, WA 98223 (360) 474-1900

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

KP Indoor Garden Store 8912 Key Peninsula HWY N Lakebay, WA 98349 253-884-SURE (7873) InDoor Gardening 1158 Commerce Longview WA, 98632 360-353-3851 Indoor Garden & Lighting 20505 Highway 99,, Lynnwood, WA 98036 425-673-2755 Go-N-Green Hydroponics 1241 State Ave Suite #102 Marysville, WA 98270 (360)386-8230 Green Acres Indoor Garden & Lighting 514 State Ave Suite #102 Marysville, WA 98270 360-658-GROW (4769) Island Hydroponic & Supplies 1515 5th Street #B, Marysville, WA 98271 425-299-5855

Spokane Organic and Hydroponic Supply 4823 East Sprague Avenue E., Spokane Valley, WA 99212 509-534-4055 Green Tree Hydroponics and Garden 12316 Pacific Ave South Tacoma, WA 98444 253-536-1791 Indoor Garden & Lighting 3839 6th Avenue, Tacoma, WA 98406 253-761-7478 Solar Shop 306 West 4th Street, Tonasket, WA 98855 509-486-4508 Indoor Garden Depot 6400 NE Highway 99, Suite H, Vancouver, WA 98665 360-993-7779 National Garden Wholesale / Sunlight Supply 4525 NW Fruit Valley Road, Vancouver, WA 98660 888-478-6544 (Northwest) National Garden Wholesale / Sunlight Supply 5408 NE 88th Street, Building A, Vancouver, WA 98665 888-478-6544 VM Indoor Garden Supply 2903 NE 109th Ave Ste. D Vancouver, WA 98682 P: (360) 256-2933 Indoor Garden Supply LLC 1250 Atlantic Ave, Woodland, WA 98674 360-841-8055 WISCONSIN

Grow BIG Hydroponics 954 S. Westland, Appleton, WI 54914 920-749-4769

Northern Lights Gardening 1524 Riverside Dr #2 Mt. Vernon, WA 98273 360-982-2217

Linda’s Gardening & Hydroponics 11522 Canyon Road East, Puyallup, WA 98373 253-531-9641

Northern Lights Gardening 4159 Hannegan Road, Bellingham, WA 98225 360-715-8585

Renton Indoor Garden Center 207 Sunset Blvd. N, Building A, Renton, WA 98055 425-917-9000

Liquid Sunshine Hydroponics 5087 Lincoln Road, Blaine, WA 98230

Eco Enterprises 1240 NE 175th Street, #B Shoreline, WA 98155 800-426-6937

Maximum Yield USA | November 2011

River City Hydroponics 1514 East Francis Avenue, Spokane, WA 99208 509-464-0246

M & R Lighting 17238 Memorial Drive, Mt. Vernon, WA 98273 360-848-1080

Green Gardens Distributing 12738 Bel-Red Road, Bellevue, WA 98005 425-454-5731

192

Grow Center, The 2808 W Sprague Spokane WA 99202 509-456-GROW

Aric’s Indoor Garden Supply 1104 West Wisconsin Avenue, Appleton, WI 54914 920-574-3258

Indoor Garden & Lighting 8606 Preston Fall City Rd. SE Preston WA 98050 425 222 9661

M & R Lighting Unit C 22914 Highway 410, Buckley, WA 98390 253-891-4190

509 Grow 2718 N Division Spokane, WA 99207 509-327-GROW(4769)

Mike’s Indoor Garden Supply 1204 East Wheeler Road, Moses Lake, WA 98837 (509)766-5856

Belfair Garden & Lighting 24090 NE State Route 3 #F Belfair,WA 98528 360-275-2130

Kitsap Garden & Lighting 2130 6th Street, Bremerton, WA 98312 360-377-1277

Northwest Horticulture Supply 161 Hooker Road, #1, Sequim, WA 98057 360-582-0702

Aqua Serene 3839 Stone Way North, Seattle, WA 98103 206-547-GROW (4769) Grogro Hydro 12316 32nd AVE NE #103 Seattle, WA 98125

Brew and Grow 285 N. Janacek Road, Brookfield, WI 53045 262-789-0555 Garden Supply Guys 752 Memorial Drive - Suite A Green Bay, WI 54303 920-857-9493 Brew and Grow 3317 Agriculture Drive, Madison, WI 53716 608-226-8910 Paradigm Gardens 4539 Helgesen Drive, Madison, WI 53718 608-241-3800 Brew and Grow 2246 Bluemound Road Ste. B Waukesha, WI 53186 1 (262) 717-0666 PUERTO RICO Tecno-Hydro Ave Campo Rico GJ17, PO Box 1450 Carolina, PR 00982 787-752-8252


194

Maximum Yield USA | July 2011


USA Nov 2011  

Hydroponics gardening resources by Maximum Yield, a free how-to hydroponics gardening and indoor gardening bi-monthly magazine that is distr...

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