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READY, SET

GROW! Denver expo

Control Salt Buildup NEW Cloning Craze Pythium Predator – Fight Back

IS HYDROPONICS A

SCIENCE? 2011

www.maximumyield.com

Indoor gardenING expo Denver

Colorado, USA March 31- April 3

VANCOUVER BC, CANADA May 14-15

SAN FRancisco California, USA July 16-17

long beach california, usa october 22-23

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indoorgardeningexpo.com


FEATURES 58

CONTENTS March 2011

46

Custom Fit Hydroponics

58

The Pythium Predator

72

Hairy Root Tissue Culture and the Future of Horticulture

by Casey Jones Fraser by Dr. Lynette Morgan

by Peter Vakomies

100

84

Hydroponics as a Science

94

Greenhouse Construction - Part 3: Glazing

by Dr. J. Benton Jones, Jr. by Philip McIntosh

100

Pinching the Pest

114

Controlling Salt Buildup

124

Cloning Wars - Part 2

132

Make Friends With Fungi

136

Orchids - Love, Prosperity, Wisdom and Perfection

142

A Vital Winter

146

A Soil Gardening Report

156

Greenhouse Ventilation Systems What’s Your Budget?

by Lee McCall by Donald Lester by Brian Chiang and Josh Puckett by Emma Cooper by Sarah Matters by Robbie Martin

132

by Dr. Benjamin Grimes

by Paula Greenfield

DEPARTMENTS 10 12 14 20 22 32

From the Editor Letters to the Editor MaximumYield.com Simon Says MAX Facts Product Spotlight

70 82 92 112 130 154

Beginner’s Corner You Tell Us Green Thumb Gardening Tips and Tricks Avant-Gardening

162 166 170 171 172

Talking Shop Max Mart Coming up in April Do You Know? Distributors

Growing for Health

Maximum Yield USA | March 2011

9


FROM THE editor

jessica raymond

Ready, Set, Grow – Denver, Colorado Expo Issue Make this the month you try something new. Test out the latest LED lighting options; design a custom hydro garden for your home; discover the beauty of orchids. Why not? With the Denver, Colorado Expo just 30 sleeps away we’ve pumped this issue full of over 184 pages of information and education, challenges and treats. This issue serves as your ultimate guide to the Denver Expo with sneak peeks at the products and technologies you can expect to discover from our industry’s best manufacturers. (Flip to the special expo Product Spotlight section on page 32). Get ready to grow BIG! Our spotlighted companies this month are eco-minded Green Planet and Rogers, Arkansas-based Anuway Hydroponics. Get to know these two innovative companies a bit better by checking out their features on page 82 and 162 respectively. In order to keep our finger on the pulse of the industry, we’ve added yet another web-based network to our dynamic media platform. You can now find us on Twitter @Max_Yield. This is just one more way we’re helping keep you connected to the growing world in realtime. Gain instant access to Maximum Yield contests, Indoor Gardening Expo updates, magazine sneak peaks and the latest industry news.

Enjoy this special Denver, Colorado Expo Issue of Maximum Yield USA, created with growers and expo-goers in mind. Email your most memorable Denver Expo moment to editor@maximumyield.com and enter for your chance to win a subscription to Maximum Yield.

Jessica Raymond, Editor editor@maximumyield.com

contributors Brian Chiang has worked for

Casey Jones Fraser owns Garden

Donald Lester is the plant

Dr. Lynette Morgan holds a B. Hort.

Emma Cooper is the voice of the

Tech. degree and a PhD in hydroponic greenhouse production from Massey University, New Zealand. Lynette is a partner with SUNTEC International Hydroponic Consultants and has authored five hydroponic technical books. Visit www.suntec.co.nz/ consultants.htm and www.suntec. co.nz/books.htm for more information.

Alternative Kitchen Garden podcast and writes about kitchen gardening and environmental issues. An edible plant geek, she tries to grow her own food sustainably with the help of a reluctant husband and two pet chickens. Visit http://coopette.com for more information.

Dr. J. Benton Jones Jr. has 50

Lee McCall graduated from

Philip McIntosh is a science and

Peter Vakomies, BSc, has 17 years

Josh Puckett earned his bachelor’s

DiCon Fiberoptics, Inc., an advanced technology company based in California, for the last 13 years. Brian received his bachelor’s degree in physics from UC Berkeley and master’s degree in physics from UC Davis. He is currently the managing director for Kessil Lighting, a DiCon business division.

Johnson and Wales University with a concentration in Culinary Arts. Culinary school opened the door to research and work with hydroponics and organic production. Currently, Lee attends business school in Denver and focuses on continuing advancements with Maximum Yield and indoor gardening technology. experience as a professional silviculture grower, vegetable grower and horticulturist. He graduated from Simon Fraser University where he studied photosynthesis in nursery and field settings. Living and working in British Columbia, Canada, Peter participated in growing over 550 million tree seedlings for reforestation programs.

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Maximum Yield USA | March 2011

Grove Organics, in Northern Kentucky/ Greater Cincinnati. He has a degree in communications and electronic media. He believes that indoor gardeners can achieve the highest quality crops and maximum yields when proper science is applied. Since 1998, Casey has been testing various nutrients and supplements in search of outstanding harvests.

technology writer with a bachelor’s degree in botany and chemistry and a master’s degree in biological science. During his graduate research he used hydroponic techniques to grow axenic plants. He lives in Colorado Springs, CO. where he teaches mathematics at Challenger Middle School.

degree in biology with an emphasis on plant biology from Sonoma State University. He currently works at the UC Davis Foundation Plant Services. He has years of experience in the horticulture and agriculture industries. He also serves as an advisor for the Kessil Research team.

products manager at JH Biotech, Inc., a California based agricultural technology company with 27 OMRI certified products. Donald has a master’s degree in agronomy with an emphasis in entomology. He is an agricultural scientist with over 10 years of research experience and 50 scientific publications to his credit. years of experience growing plants hydroponically. He is an Emeritus Professor at the University of Georgia, Athens and has authored eight books and written articles for magazines that deal with hydroponic issues. He currently has his own consulting company, Grosystems, Inc. Dr. Jones currently lives in Anderson, SC, USA.

Dr. Benjamin Grimes Ph.D (hc) is a

horticulture enthusiast. He regularly applies his extensive skills in engineering and science by installing his control systems for indoor gardens and greenhouses throughout Oregon’s Willamette Valley. Benjamin is devoted to the research and development of sustainable and alternative agriculture solutions.

Robbie Martin works for Vital

Landscaping Inc. in the sierra foothills town of Grass Valley, California. He holds an associate of science degree in horticulture and nursery crop production from Cabrillo College and attended a two year apprenticeship in ecological horticulture at the University of California Santa Cruz.


LETTERS TO the editor

Inspired Reading

Discovery Through Books

Dear MY, I have been reading your magazine for nearly a year and I think it is great. I always look forward to getting your mag when it becomes available; I get your magazine from my local grow shop for free. I enjoy reading back issues on your website, and I was wondering if it would be possible to download your back issues. I do not have my own internet connection, and I am limited to when I can read your mag online. If I could download your back issues I could read them in my own time. I would also like to subscribe to your magazine.

I’ve been growing plants in terrariums for years. The programmer in me wants to build a micro-controller terrarium with control over the lighting, humidity and temperature. What I want to do is alter the growth cycle of small plants. Suppose I have a perennial flower that blooms in August. I want to take a bulb and grow it in this controlled chamber in December and have it bloom in two months—set a camera on a timer inside the vessel and track the growth. I’d like to see how different kinds of programs alter growth. See how a dark/45°F and light/85°F cycle makes a plant grow when on a four hour cycle vs. a 12 hour cycle; maybe see how a pressurized growth at 30 psi differs from a growth at atmospheric pressure. Stuff like that. What books would you recommend to study about this?

Yours Gratefully, Arran Griffin

Back issues of Maximum Yield are available to download on http://issuu.com.You will need to sign up (http:/issuu.com/signup) in order to download past issues.You can subscribe to Maximum Yield by visiting http://maximumyield.com/subscriptions.php or by calling our office at 1-250-729-2677. Thanks for reading.

Recipe for Success Your magazine is a great source of information. I appreciate the diversification of articles. New to this world, I realize nutrients are a major part of your industry. I am focused on aquaponics and bioponics. I do not believe that fish poop is the end to the needs of the plants, and neither are worm casting or compost teas. I would appreciate articles—if archived I would appreciate direction to articles—on studies of nutrient deficiencies with these systems and what should be monitored and supplemented, plus suggested amounts. Some of us are not chemists so maybe a baby-step kind of approach would be ideal to bring us up to speed. I glaze over trying to read and comprehend some of the articles out there. Thanks again for all of the information that you provide. Frank Feiller San Jose, CA

MaximumYield.com is a great source for information on nutrients and deficiencies, fertilizers, additives and supplements. Our website features hundreds of articles for beginners and expert growers alike. If your questions aren’t answered, or you require more specific information, I recommend you drop Simon Hart, our resident expert, an email at Simon@maximumyield.com

12

Maximum Yield USA | March 2011

Chris Parks

I recommend you visit your local library and peruse their available books and research papers on the topic.Your local university and Google Scholar might be a good point of reference and set you in the right direction as well. And don’t forget about your favorite grow shop—the owners and staff at many of these fine shops have been working at hydroponics for years, and will be able to direct you to appropriate products and provide the knowledge you require. Let us know how you make out, and good luck!

It’s All About Air Great magazine! I want to grow strawberries using an aeroponic system and trust you to guide me to the information we need. Online archives, online searches, books— wherever I need to go, please help. Thanks in advance. John Gavlick

The following articles might help in your endeavor.They can all be found on maximumyield.com under our author or article archive. “Berry Bonanza: Growing Indoor Strawberries” by Dr. Lynette Morgan (November 2009 USA). “Aeroponic Technology Versus Premium Organic Soil Cultivation” by Lee McCall - December 2008 through April 2009 USA). “Water as a Substrate: Aeroponics and Aero-Hydroponics” by Noucetta Kehdi (July 2010 USA). “Advance Aeroponics” by Joshua Serpa (August 2010 USA). Good luck, and let us know how you make out. Maximum Yield reserves the right to edit for brevity.

We want to hear from you! Write us at: Maximum Yield Publications Inc. 2339A Delinea Place, Nanaimo, BC V9T 5L9 or Email us at: editor@maximumyield.com


Coming up on the Web Upcoming Events

Get set for the Denver, Colorado Indoor Gardening Expo set for the end of this month, March 31 to April 3. You’re invited to attend Sunday, April 3 from noon to 5 p.m. Admission is $10 and no registration is required. An interactive floor plan—featuring exhibitor bios and links to your favorite company’s websites—is available on indoorgardenexpo.com

Contests

Our Win Big…Grow Big contest is making growers’ wishes come true. If you want free grow gear, you need to enter online at http://maximumyield.com/contests.php. Four new prizes are up for grabs from now until April 15.

Latest News

This month’s top news stories focus on protecting and improving our environment and our health with a strong focus on the latest information on the Colony Collapse Disorder. Connect to MaximumYield.com instantly from your Smartphone with our Quick Response (QR) Code, found on the cover of every issue of Maximum Yield. Now you can access the best products, the most in-depth articles and information and the latest news, at high speeds. Simply download the QR Code Reader software compatible with your Smartphone, scan the QR Code and your phone’s browser will automatically launch, redirecting you to www.maximumyield.com. It’s that simple!

Connect with Maximum Yield

Maximum Yield USA | March 2011

G A R D E N I N G

Maximum Yield is published monthly by Maximum Yield Publications Inc. 2339A Delinea Place, Nanaimo, BC V9T 5L9 Phone: 250.729.2677; Fax 250.729.2687 No part of this magazine may be reproduced without permission from the publisher. If undeliverable please return to the address above. The views expressed by columnists are a personal opinion and do not necessarily reflect those of Maximum Yield or the Editor. Publication Agreement Number 40739092 Printed In Canada.

PRESIDENT/PUBLISHER - Jim Jesson GENERAL MANAGER - Don Moores BUSINESS MANAGER - Linda Jesson EDITOR - Jessica Raymond jessica@maximumyield.com ADVERTISING SALES 250.729.2677 Linda Jesson - linda@maximumyield.com Lisa Lambersek - lisa@maximumyield.com Ilona Hawser - ilona@maximumyield.com Ashley Heppell - ashley@maximumyield.com Christina Indseth - christina@maximumyield.com PRODUCTION & DESIGN ads@ads.maximumyield.com Mike Linden - mike@maximumyield.com Daniel Peters - daniel@maximumyield.com Tina Skujins - tina@maximumyield.com Jennifer Duong - jennifer@maximumyield.com ACCOUNTING - Lee Anne Veres leeanne@maximumyield.com USA DISTRIBUTION Aurora Innovations BWGS, BWGS West and BWGS East General Hydroponics Hydrofarm Hydro International National Garden Wholesale / Sunlight Supply R&M Supply Tradewinds CANADIAN DISTRIBUTION Brite-Lite Group Biofloral Eddis Wholesale Greenstar Plant Products Inc. Hydrotek MegaWatt Quality Wholesale UK DISTRIBUTION Growth Technology Hydrogarden Northern Hydroponic Wholesale Nutriculture UK AUSTRALIAN DISTRIBUTION House N Garden Futchatec Growth Technology Hydraspher

www.maximumyield.com www.facebook.com/MaximumYield www.indoorgardeningexpo.com twitter.com/max_yield

Tell us what you think at editor@maximumyield.com. We’d love to hear from you. 14

I N D O O R

VOLUME 11 – NUMBER 12 March 2011


SIMON says

Good day, I want to run a 400 watt light on solar power. Can you tell me how it can be done and what I require to make this possible? I need to run the light for up to 18 hours. I hope you can assist me. Regards Keith

Well Keith I am always trying to think green, but living near Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada) I am not really focused on harnessing power from the sun. Still it’s an excellent idea and a feasible opportunity for those gardeners looking to grow indoors when there is a lack of space outside but lots of good sunshine to use. Solar power can be generated in two distinct ways: The first is to align a series of mirrors to reflect sunlight onto a small surface, which superheats a liquid substance that powers a turbine. It can be the most efficient way to access the sun’s energy but it is expensive and uses vast amounts of land. The second, more residentially friendly way, channels electrons from the sun’s rays through silicone panels and into batteries or directly onto a power grid. Electrical energy is measured in watts and solar panels are primarily grouped based on their maximum wattage. This value fluctuates with variables such as temperature, angle of the sun and shading, which all reduce the potential energy created. The panels are becoming more efficient with most falling between 14 to 22 per cent efficiency. One company has actually achieved over 40 per cent but I am sure this comes with a high price tag. When thinking about price, you need to consider the amount and size of panels required. The first and most obvious cost is installing a solar array. To run a 20

Maximum Yield USA | March 2011

400 watt light you need 400 watts of panels functioning at peak efficiency. You will be running your lights longer than normal sunlight hours so you will need to generate, and perhaps store, more energy. Each 200 watt panel will cost you about $1,000 not including installation; you need at least three of these panels to run your light for the time you require. You also need a way of taking the direct current (DC) created by the panels and converting it into alternating current (AC). For this task you need a grid tie inverter, one that handles a maximum load of 400 watts will be $300 but you will need one slightly bigger to cover three - 200 watt panels. This means that you will have spent at least $3,300 not including installation. A pretty large price tag for green energy and one you need to consider. Check with your local government to see if there are any tax breaks or grants you might qualify for. For instance, in the UK they have announced a major incentive program to reward people with a guaranteed rate on a long term plan where you are paid for the electricity even if you use it all. An upfront investment of £10,000 will give an estimated £25,000 return over 25 years. I would recommend checking the rate you pay for electricity ($ per kw/h) to see how long it would take to pay of the investment. In the UK example the cost is paid off in 10 years.

Now you must decide whether to store or connect your power. If you are planning to conduct this experiment off the grid you will require a battery pack to store excess energy produced, unless you will only use the lights when sun is hitting the panels.Your requirement of 18 hours of light would make this a virtual impossibility. I am not familiar with the cost or maintenance of battery storage but a visit to a green energy site might help with the concept. The easier option is to turn your house into an energy provider for the larger grid. In some jurisdictions this could simply mean that your meter could theoretically turn back to zero meaning your monthly bill would be zero. In other areas, if you produce more power than you use you can actually gain income from this energy production. Check with local authorities to get the most accurate information. Good luck channeling its energy where the sun doesn’t shine!


MAX

facts

hydroponic news, tips and trivia

Gardening Experts From The Big Tomato Featured on Lifetime Television’s ‘The Balancing Act’_________________________________________ Growing fruits and vegetables without the hassle of a traditional garden is gaining popularity. Technology is opening doors to a new generation of green thumbs and has caught the attention of producers at Lifetime Television’s “The Balancing Act,” who aired a segment on indoor hydroponic gardening late last year. Appearing on the show were owners of The Big Tomato Jeremy Stout and Josh Field who make it their business to provide indoor gardeners with the tools to grow fruits, herbs, flowers, plants and vegetables without dirt and very little water. The segment specifically featured two unique hobby gardens by Botanicare—the Microgarden™ and Turbogarden™. While on the show Stout and Field explained the concept of growing hydroponically and how easy it is to incorporate into a lifestyle routine regardless of your location and experience. (For more information: www.TheBigTomato.com, www.botanicare.com)

Are Environmentalists Ready for ‘Third Wave Green’? _________________________________ Great movements must constantly reexamine themselves if they are to evolve and survive over time. They must self-generate their own “waves” to “make it” into popular culture. It’s time to ask what this means to the Green movement. Consider First Wave Green to have been 20th century activity surrounding basic environmental laws and practices. The current, Second Wave has targeted the consumer, focusing on lifestyle issues such as green consciousness and health choices made by individuals. But the evidence shows that green is still niche and has failed to grip the national consciousness in a mainstream way—something that needs to happen to manifest the kind of change required to “save” our planet. And ourselves. A third wave works when a movement has the courage to both embrace its diversity and look critically at previous incarnations and current paradigms, and then has the courage to evolve. If the Green movement is to survive and enjoy a Third Wave, it must open its arms to diversity of thought and practice from within. (Source: http://ecosalon.com)

Brite Lite Group Gives Back - Take Two __________________________________________ To express their gratitude and appreciation of all those who contributed to their success, this holiday season, for the second year, Brite Lite sponsored and served an evening meal to more than 300 of Montreal’s homeless community. The event took place on Saturday, November 27, 2010 at the Old Brewery Mission. As a parting gift, Brite Lite brought along 400 pairs of wool socks and gloves that were greatly appreciated. The support of individuals, foundations and companies are truly valued by organizations like the Old Brewery Mission to effectively provide for the needs of the homeless and disadvantaged who turn to them for help day after day. On behalf of the team at Brite Lite, the committed members of the Mission and the homeless community, we say thanks for helping us help others.

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Maximum Yield USA | March 2011

Top row from left: Jennifer Hodgson, Ewen Glorennec, Patti Nolan, Shane Boucher, Dave Hodgson, Penny Rose, Chris Allard, June Angus. Bottom row from left: Betty Livingstone,Tanya Brossoit, Ana Godoy, Karla Saltiel.


MAX

facts

hydroponic news, tips and trivia

Get Started With Aquaponics_____________ If you want to get started producing a constant supply of fish, vegetables and other plants in an efficient, inexpensive small-scale system, plan to attend an aquaponics training session nearest you. Each attendee will learn to construct and manage a variety of highly productive aquaponics systems from barrels and buckets for home or outreach. In addition, practical commercial aquaponics systems will be examined. The benefits of aquaponics are that the fish provide the nutrient solution and extra income is obtained from fish sales. The 2011 schedule is as follows: March 7 to 8 - Barrel Aquaponics Workshop (Florida); March 9 to 11 - Aquaponics Conference; March 14 to 15 - Barrel Aquaponics Workshop (Nicarauga); March 16 to 18 - Aquaponics Conference; March 27 to 28 - Barrel Aquaponics Workshop (Panama); March 29 to April 1 - Aquaponics Conference; May 23 to 24 - Barrel Aquaponics Workshop (Vermont); May 25 to 27 - Aquaponics Conference. For more information or to register, go to www.aquacultureinternational.org

When Will the Food Bubble Burst? __________ Over the last few decades we have created a global food production bubble—one based on environmental trends that cannot be sustained, including overpumping aquifers, overplowing land and overloading the atmosphere with carbon dioxide. Food appears to be the weak link for our global civilization as well. The food bubble is based on the overuse of land and water resources. It is further threatened by the climate stresses deriving from the excessive burning of fossil fuels. When the bubble bursts, food prices will soar worldwide, threatening economic and political stability everywhere. The principal threats to our future are climate change, population growth, water shortages, spreading hunger and failing states. What we now need is a mobilization to reverse these trends. The challenge is to quickly reduce carbon emissions, stabilize population and restore the economy’s soils, aquifers, forests and other natural support systems. This requires not only a redefining of security but a corresponding reallocation of fiscal resources from military budgets to budgets for climate stabilization, population stabilization, water conservation and other new threats to security. (Source: www.treehugger.com)

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Maximum Yield USA | March 2011


MAX

facts

hydroponic news, tips and trivia

“Peak Fertilizer” may Make Manure a Valuable Commodity ___________________________ Synthetic fertilizer is likely to become significantly more costly for US farmers. This trend will make manure a valuable commodity once again. There are two main reasons for the anticipated cost rise: Traditional US natural gas production has already gone ‘past peak,’ while natural gas is increasingly needfor producing electricity. One of the more fascinating and plausible implications of more expensive chemical fertilizers is that animal manure, particularly the large volumes of manure stored in concentrated animal feed lot lagoons, will increase greatly in value, to the point where it becomes a reliably profitable commodity rather than a waste no one wants. If we run out of cheap sources of commercial fertilizer, there will be no way to avoid a precipitous decline in crop yields, no matter how rapidly farmers try to switch to organic methods. And as they switch, the demand for organic fertilizers will also rise precipitously.

ed

(Source: www.treehugger.com)

Humans Now Consuming 25 Per Cent of all Plant Life Growing Each Year______________ Plenty of research on both personal and national ecological footprints has shown that we are using the Earth’s resources at unsustainable rates, that we are using them up faster than they can be regenerated. Now, some new work from NASA digs a bit deeper, examining how plant consumption is increasing as both population and consumerism levels increase. Though population growth and rising demand for resources as more of the world enters into consumeristic lifestyles both play a part in the rising amount of plant life consumed, on a global basis rising per capita increases in consumption have far outpaced the influence of population growth. Lead researchers say that this does not present a “doomsday” scenario. Though consumption and population growth are often looked at as separate issues, the biosphere doesn’t care if it’s a small number of people consuming lots of resources or a lot of people consuming very little, it’s the total consumption rate that matters. (Source: www.treehugger.com)

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Maximum Yield USA | March 2011

Renee’s Seed Donations Make a Difference__ Every year, Renee’s Garden donates seeds to a wide variety of organizations and educational programs worldwide that strive to improve social, economic and health conditions, and promote sustainable organic gardening. We also encourage retailers to donate unsold Renee’s Garden seeds to local non-profit organizations at the end of the season. Some of the fine nonprofit organizations that received seed donations include: The Gimbie Adventist Hospital Garden in West Wollega, Ethiopia; Altoona Community Garden in Greensboro, NC; Museum and Science and Industry Smart Home Garden in Chicago, IL; Homeless Services Center/Page Smith Community House in Santa Cruz, CA and many more. (Source: www.reneesgarden.com)


MAX

facts

hydroponic news, tips and trivia

USDA Releases 2010 Honey Bee Colony Collapse Disorder Progress Report__________ The U.S. Department of Agriculture has released the 2010 Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) Progress Report highlighting current research on this still mysterious disease affecting the nation’s honey bees. The report summarizes research to find the cause of CCD and how to stop or mitigate its impact. CCD, a syndrome characterized by the sudden disappearance of all adult honey bees in a colony, was first recognized in 2006. Since then, surveys of beekeepers indicate that the industry is suffering losses of more than 30 per cent annually. Before the appearance of CCD, losses averaged 15 to 20 per cent annually from a variety of factors such as varroa mites and other pests and pathogens. During the past three years, numerous causes for CCD have been proposed and investigated. Research supports the hypothesis that CCD may be a syndrome caused by many different factors, that work individually or in combination. The sequence and combination may not even be the same in every case. (Source: www.ars.usda.gov)

Doctors Group Sues USDA for Ignoring Vegetarianism_______________________ The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM) filed suit last week against the US Department of Agriculture and the Department of Health and Human Services in US District Court for the District of Columbia, alleging the agencies violated federal law in failing to respond to a PCRM petition advocating a plant-based food pyramid as an alternative to USDA’s “MyPyramid” dietary guidelines. Research shows Power Plate is a better choice, and it’s simple enough that a child could follow it. In case you’re unfamiliar with it, Power Plate is a dietary recommendation chart developed by PCRM, which includes no animal products in it whatsoever. Rather than recommending a hierarchy of foods as do more familiar food pyramid diet charts, Power Plate just recommends eating a variety of what they call The New Four Food Groups daily (“new” since 1991 when PCRM first began the campaign): three or more servings of fruits, two or more servings of legumes, five or more servings of whole grains and four or more servings of vegetables. (Source: www.treehugger.com)

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Maximum Yield USA | March 2011


MAX

facts

hydroponic news, tips and trivia

One Seed Chicago - Community Activism Through Gardening _____________________ One Seed Chicago is focusing on drawing attention to food deserts and childhood obesity by encouraging Chicagoland residents to grow, cook and eat their own veggies. The organization is helping residents learn to eat what they grow via their “seed to plate” initiative, in which prominent chefs and others share recipes for how to cook the three vegetables that are up for voting. In contention this year: radishes, eggplant and Swiss chard. Chicagoland residents can vote at the One Seed Chicago page (www.oneseedchicago.com) through April 1, 2011. Upon voting, residents will be signed up to receive a packet of the winning seeds, whether it was the one they voted for or not. Who wouldn’t want free vegetable seeds? Whether you’re in Chicago or not, consider getting involved in a community greening project like this—it’s a great way to beautify the neighborhood while getting to know your neighbors at the same time. (Source: http://planetgreen.discovery.com)

Big Industry Welcome to Hydro Vision_______ Hydro Vision is owned by Alan Waddell and Ryan Shamrock, childhood friends with a dream of opening a hydroponic and indoor gardening supply shop. Their knowledge of gardening comes from several years of landscaping and golf course turf management. Their goal was to open a store that would stand out due to excellent customer service and an appealing and easy shopping environment. Alan and Ryan put a lot of effort into going the extra mile for their customers. Hydro Vision carries all of Sunlight Supply products along with CO2 Boost and a local company that makes aeroponic systems—Pro Gro Consultants. Hydro Vision opened in September of 2010 in Howell, MI and now has three additional locations in Highland, Trenton, and Fenton. MY

The Hydro Vision guys from left: Ryan Scarcelli, Scott Brownlie (Trenton), Ryan Shamrock, Alan Waddell (Howell) and Michael Bruce (Highland).

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Maximum Yield USA | March 2011


PRODUCT spotlight

GUIDE TO THIS MONTH’S HOTTEST ITEMS YOUR Ask for them at your local indoor gardening store. Extreme Flower LED (180 Watts) From Advanced LED Lights ___________________________ Our enhanced full spectrum lights are a tested blend of 11 wavelengths of color that produce the highest yield per watt of any LED grow light. The Extreme Flower (180) LED light will produce heavy flower production with only 180 watts of power. This light will grow your plants from seed to harvest with extreme growth in all stages. The core coverage for the 180 watt Extreme Flower LED is three by three feet. Ask your favorite indoor gardening shop to offer the 180 watt Extreme Flower LED from Advanced LED Lights.

ATA Awa Bloombastic Box From Atami ___________________________________________ For new growers Atami has developed the Bloombastic Box that contains every product required for a small culture on soil garden, making growing a piece of cake. In combination with the ATA nutrients and supplements, the box provides excellent growth and flowering results. Products are ultra concentrated with more active ingredients. They promote the enzyme process, so that your system is less vulnerable to stress factors. Products increase the sugar content and thus the weight of your plants for colossal blooms. Easy to use for every type of substrate including hydroculture, soil and coconut fiber. ATA Awa Bloombastic Box includes: Awa Max A and Max B (one quart), Awa Leaves A and Leaves B (eight ounces), Rootfast (three ounces) and Bloombastic (eight ounces). Atami’s performance in a box makes beginners professionals and professionals champions. For more information visit your local indoor gardening store.

Get Guanolicious With Sunleaves __________ CubeCap® Introduces the Long Awaited Six Inch Square DripCap® __________________ Sunleaves All-Purpose Guano (10-4-1) is an effective and environmentally-friendly way to make plants happy! It’s a great source of nitrogen and potassium for improved overall growth and blooming, with no questionable chemicals. Sunleaves All-Purpose Guano can be applied using a variety of methods in soil and hydroponic gardens. Available in one and five pound bags, and nine and 14 pound buckets at your local gardening shop.

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Maximum Yield USA | March 2011

The new Grodan approved six inch square DripCap® minimizes algae and algae-related problems while saving water and nutrients. It hosts a list of other attributes like a new “one size fits all” hose holder, which accommodates 0.12 ounce to 0.25 ounce diameters. A new innovative drip technology allows for an even saturation of the growing medium promoting larger root mass and yields with more uniformity. For more information visit your favorite indoor gardening shop.


PRODUCT spotlight

OMRI listed Eco-Nereo Kelp ______________ Eco-Nereo Kelp is a biologically active liquid organic auxiliary soil and plant substance. Apply it to soil, plants or seeds for the purpose of soil correction and to improve germination, growth, yield, product quality, reproduction, flavor, color or other desirable plant characteristics. To produce Eco-Nereo, we manually harvest the fronds of cold-water Nereocystis luetkeana (Bull Kelp) found in abundance along the Pacific Northwest. We grind the kelp, add an enzyme and place the slurry in vats at 55 to 60°F. Two per cent water-soluble humic acid is added, and the product is allowed to cold-process. We then filter it through a 200 mesh Sweco screen making it ideal for any fertigation system. For more information please visit a gardening shop near you.

Structural Integrity – the Most Advanced Silicate Additive on the Market ___________ Silicates are used by plants to improve the structure and strength of plant stems, stalks and tissues. Structural Integrity (S.I.) is the newest addition to the Humboldt Nutrients family of products. This proprietary blend is formulated to instantly supply your root zone with the silicates needed to build strong, thick cell walls and cellular membranes. When adequate silicates are present in your garden plants can produce larger, stronger stalks and stems. When your stalks are heartier your plant has the ability to hold heavier fruits and flowers, which means less time staking your plants for support and more overall production. Ask for S.I. from Humboldt Nutrients at your favorite hydroponics retailer.

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PRODUCT spotlight

Your guide to this month’s hottest items.

The Outlaw T5 Reflector ______________________________________ Maverick Sun is proud to introduce the new Outlaw T5 fluorescent reflector. The Outlaw provides bulging yields inside grow rooms at a reasonable price. Featured in two and four foot hoods with the option of four or eight lamps, this reflector is sure to please any end user. The eight lamp hood has two switches allowing you to have only the inner four lamps on during the seedling, small plant vegetative phase. With a computer generated reflector design, this hood will leave you satisfied. The Outlaw T5 reflector is the real bad boy of the T5 revolution! Visit your local hydroponics shop for more information.

JD-Lightings Electronic Ballasts __________ JD-Lightings Electronic Ballasts provide a strong and stable light output for your customers to experience a thriving grow. Research has shown that our squareshaped printed-circuit board (PCB) is great for heat dissipation. These ballasts are 120/240 volt compatible and operate both metal halide (MH) and high pressure sodium (HPS) lamps. Our dimmable feature ranges from 50, 75, 100 to 110 per cent for maximum control of lumen output. The resonance ignition is designed for the right amount of voltage to strike the lamp in order to initiate a gradual ignition rather than a fast single ignition strike, which may decrease lamp life during re-strikes. JD-Lightings resinsealed ballasts are completely silent and fully insulated for electrical safety (UL and CUL approved). Available now at your local indoor gardening shop.

New Chameleon Cable Clips and Spiral Wraps ______________________ Flexible cord sets are one of the most common, yet dangerous, products in use today. Too often they can lead to safety and fire risks because of overloading, poor connections, frayed conductors and load device failure. When the Chameleon detects excess heat (110+°F), it changes colors from green to orange. The color change is a visual warning that the electric cord is potentially hot and hazardous. Chameleon Clips and Spiral Wraps can be used with appliance cord sets, workshop power tool cords, extension and power cord sets, portable heaters and generator cables, computers, office machine cord sets and more. For more information, visit your favorite indoor gardening shop.

Hydro International Presents 16” Wall Fan _____________________ Hydro International’s new 16 inch wall fans are superior quality and design. These attractive and modern fans have three speeds with 90˚ oscillation. They are whisper quiet with a self-lubricating motor and a powerful and efficient blade design. Specifications Blade: PP Voltage: 110 volts/60 hertz, 220 volts/50 hertz Motor: 71 x 71 x 14CM Visit an indoor gardening shop near you for more information. 36

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PRODUCT spotlight

Your guide to this month’s hottest items.

Kessil Introduces the H150 Red LED Grow Light Booster _________________________

The Smartest Ballast on the Block has Finally Arrived - the Diablo Digital ______________

Kessil is proud to introduce the H150 Red, designed to supplement spectrums for traditional broadband sources. The H150 Red is a booster for the flowering stage, increasing photon intensity and balancing the spectrum. Using the latest Dense Matrix LED™ platform, the H150 Red delivers focused, intense light for effective photosynthesis. Its compact form and low heat emission means it can be used in close conjunction with conventional grow light systems. Extremely versatile, the H150 Red can be hung from the ceiling or positioned with a gooseneck arm to direct light where it’s needed. For more information visit an authorized Kessil retailer near you.

Maverick Sun introduces the Diablo Digital Ballast. Our Diablo E-ballast has an exclusive pre-start test from the breaker box to the lamp. It runs diagnostics before lighting the lamp and checks for short and open circuits, over and under voltages, lamp life, thermal protection, igniter, capacitance tolerances and low and high current. It features an exclusive staggered ignition, which means no more tripping breakers at start up. These bad boys need no fan to run, effectively eliminating moisture, dirt and contaminate debris from sensitive electronic parts, which means a much longer life. Available sizes: 400, 600, and 1,000 watt dimmable and 600 watt fixed. For more information, visit your local hydroponics shop.

Hydro International KM641 Flower Snips - Precision in Your Hands KM641 Flower Snips are the ultimate in snipping tools. This tool is ideal for the precision trimming and shaping of flowers and small plants. You can use it in your herb garden or flower garden, on bonsais, for houseplant maintenance and of course for floral arranging, and with its stainless steel spring and blades you never have to worry about rust and corrosion. It also has a safety latch, and comes with a sharpening stone and an extra spring. Make Hydro International Flower Snips part of your gardening tool kit. Visit your local gardening shop to learn more.

LP240S Lamp Pro Timer From Solatel _________________ Solatel’s new LP240S Lamp Pro Timer controls six 1,000 watt, 240 volt lamps. Our selection knob clicks to your choice of 16 time settings: accelerated 18 hour cycle running on for six hours and off for 12 hours; 13 popular 24 hour cycles; and continuous on and off. Some researchers have reported that an accelerated 18 hour cycle causes faster plant growth with reduced time to harvest compared to a normal 24 hour cycle. Six outlets sequence on and off in pairs to minimize power line problems. A six foot, 10 gauge power cable connects to 240 volt 30 amp service. Visit an indoor gardening shop near you for more information. Continued on page 42 38

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PRODUCT spotlight

Your guide to this month’s hottest items.

Titan Controls® Flo-N-Gro™___________________________________________ Sunlight Supply,® Inc. is proud to announce the release of the Flo-N-Gro™ 12 site growing system from Titan Controls®. This innovative hydroponic system comes with a 55 gallon reservoir, 12 - four gallon grow sites and 12 - three gallon 360° mesh aeration inserts that promote lateral root growth and oxygen exchange for your plants. This complete system also includes the Titan Controls® solid state Oceanus 1 Flo-N-Gro Controller, two Maxi-Jet 1,000 pumps and all the necessary ¾ inch tubing and fittings to build your system. Simply add your favorite growing media and start growing. Easy to use and simple to understand, the Flo-N-Gro 12 site system makes growing plants fun! Visit an authorized Titan Controls® retailer for more information.

Extreme Flower LED (360 Watts) from Advanced LED Lights ___________________________ Our 360 watt LED grow lights are extremely potent and meant for growers who are serious about high yields and lowoverhead indoor growing. These efficient systems can cover an area of about four square feet. The light provided is all within the usable red and blue portions of the spectrum. This light is easily absorbed by plants’ chlorophyll molecules that are so vital to the photosynthesis process. Our LED grow lights are the safe, efficient and eco-friendly choice for the modern indoor gardening enthusiast. Order the 360 watt Extreme Flower LED from your favorite indoor gardening store today.

Introducing ATA Rootfast ________________

Sunleaves Beacon is Just Right __________

A healthy plant starts with a well developed root system. More then 50 per cent of a plant’s quality depends on what is below the surface. ATA Rootfast is a 100 per cent natural root stimulator that creates powerful root production. When used during the first two weeks the plant is forced to grow larger and stronger roots, which ensures stability during the whole cycle. Suitable for all substrates and with every watering system. NPK: 1/6/1. The stimulators and liquid nutrients of Atami are packed and sealed to be air and light tight under the twistable cap, so quality is guaranteed. For more information visit your local indoor gardening shop.

If you want to explore the benefits of fluorescent lighting but can’t find a fixture size that’s right for your set-up, the mid-sized Sunleaves Beacon fluorescent fixture is a great option. The Beacon emits 14,400 lumens at 6500K from its two 96 watt tubes, it has a highly reflective insert and it includes hanging hardware. It’s protected by a five year warranty, and the included tubes are protected by a one year warranty. Unit measures 34.75 inches by 9.5 inches by 2.75 inches. Replacement tubes available separately. Check out the Sunleaves Beacon at your local indoor gardening store.

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“That Stuff” Plant Washes _______________ Sunlight Supply,® Inc. is pleased to announce the arrival of “That Stuff” Mighty Wash, PM Wash and Power Wash. Many years of research have led to the creation of these amazing plant cleaning products. These ready-to-use washes may be used throughout your plant’s entire growing and flowering cycle, up to and including the day of harvest. “That Stuff” is truly the cleanest solution for your problems. Use Power Wash as your final spray to remove residue left behind from other plant sprays. Available now from authorized Sunlight Supply,® Inc. retailers.

New Xtrasun II Reflector Now With Built-in Socket _______________________ The new and improved Xtrasun II Aluminum Wing Reflector now comes pre-wired with a socket, so it’s ready to plug in and go. This reflector is solidly built, compatible with all Hydrofarm or Xtrasun ballasts and priced to fit any budget. This series has a low profile design but is bright and offers a broad spread of light. The Xtrasun units are made with European high-performance specular aluminum for maximum light reflection, and carry a five year warranty on reflective materials. For more information, visit an indoor gardening shop near you.

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Custom Fit

Hydroponics by Casey Jones Fraser

Common sizes of flood trays (in feet): • One by three • Two by two • Two by four • Three by three • Three by six • Four by four • Eight by eight

L

et me start by saying: I love pre-fab hydroponics! Whether we are talking ebb and flow, aeroponics, NFT, drip systems or even hand-watered gardens, the premade trays they sell at hydroponics stores are the easiest way to set up a garden. The prices of these tables are quite reasonable, and they come in a wide variety of sizes to suit your garden. So what do you do when you need a different size? What if your room is four feet by eight feet, but you need something smaller, so you can walk around all four sides? Maybe you want three feet by seven feet. Maybe you have a walk-in closet that needs a 2.5 foot by 5.5 foot flood tray. What do you do then? Well, sometimes when you grow your own, you also have to build your own. I’ll show you how to achieve the same watertight quality you value in pre-fab trays, while creating a custom-built table in which to grow your lush garden. Picture a wooden box without a lid. Now think of that box and add four legs, making it a table. Next, add a plastic liner for waterproofing. That is the basic concept of the flood tables we will be building: boxes

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with legs and waterproof liners.You can then add the same fill and drain fittings used on the pre-fab hydro trays. Get ready to make a list and head to the hardware store—you are going to need lumber and supplies.


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Custom Fit Hydroponics

Table number one The first table will be approximately five feet by three feet. I needed this particular size for some of my larger houseplants recently, and I could not find it at the local hydro shops. No problem—I can build one that looks great, fits the space and doesn’t cost a lot. If any readers are growing mother plants under a four foot, eight-tube T5, this table will be perfect for you. While shopping for lumber and hardware, be sure to get the good stuff. Indoor gardens mimic outdoor environments, Here is your shopping list: Pressure-treated wood: • Two (five foot) two by sixes, two (three foot) two by sixes • Six (six inch) two by fours, six (11.5 inch) two by fours Deck screws, one box each: • Number nine three inch screws, number nine 2.5 inch screws • Number eight two inch screws, number eight 1.25 inch screws • One box 1.25 inch finishing washers • One large pond liner • 5/8 inch plywood (four foot by eight foot sheet, cut down to three feet by five feet) • Fill and drain fittings kit (grow store)

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The extra coup treated wood ale of dollars you’ll pay for pres nd outdoor deck su screws will be w reorth it.

so this table will need to be strong. Water, light, humidity, heat and air movement can all damage cheap wood and cheap screws. The extra couple of dollars you’ll pay for pressure-treated wood and outdoor deck screws will be worth it. Also, use pond liners instead of cheap plastic sheets—I have accidentally hit pond liners with shovels and other tools, with zero punctures. Cheap plastic sheets will not stay watertight if they are scratched or jabbed by your garden tools; pond liners will. If you want to add fill and drain fittings, buy them from your local hydroponics retailer. Since many lumber and hardware stores will cut the wood for you, I had all of my lumber cut to size before leaving the hardware store. When I got home, I simply screwed the


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Custom fit hydroponics wood together, dropped in the pond liner and secured it with screws and washers. The project was complete—with plants in—in about two hours.

Each leg is a six inch - two by four and an 11.5 inch two by four with 2.5 inch deck screws.

Six legs, a the tray b ll attached. Time to add ottom.

Step 1 Build the legs. One (six inch) two by four plus one (11.5 inch) two by four equals one complete leg.The first step is building the legs. This requires a couple of two by fours per leg. One two by four is cut 5.5 inches longer than the other.This table is large, so I needed six legs (twelve two by fours) for support. Each leg is made from one (six inch) two by four and one (11.5 inch) two by four, screwed together using 2.5 inch deck screws.

Step 2 Build the d in sidewalls of the Drop the plywoome. down table fra tray. For the tray walls, I attached the (three foot) two by sixes to the (five foot) two by sixes using three inch deck screws.

upsideto place on the

Step 3 Attach legs to tray sides. The longer side of each leg goes inside the table edge. Use 2.5 inch deck screws to secure each leg to the tray side. Now we have an upside-down table frame. Step 4 Prepare plywood by cutting out spots for legs. This can be easily accomplished by sliding the ⅝ inch plywood under the 50

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frame, then tracing around the legs. Use a jigsaw to cut out the areas you traced to ensure a solid fit. With the slots cut out, drop the plywood into place.

Drill pilot holes on the exterior and secure with lots of two inch or 2.5 inch deck screws.

Step 5 Attach plywood to table frame. Go around the perimeter of the plywood and drill pilot holes. Now drive in plenty of two inch deck screws, securing the plywood to the two by sixes. The entire weight of plants, water and growing medium will be depending on those screws for support.

The finis add planthed product. Just s and gro w lights!

Line table Step 6 t he rim with pond li Flip table upright and finishing with 1.25 inch nder. Secure liner t eck screw washers. line with pond liner. s and o I used a five foot by seven foot pond liner, which gave me an extra foot on each side of the three foot by five foot table. That leaves six inches for each side wall, plus six inches of slack. I tuck under the slack and attach the pond liner to the rim using 1.25 inch deck screws and finishing washers. Finishing washers are shaped like bagel halves, nesting the deck screws and pressing tightly against the pond liner. Make sure the pond liner is pressed into all of the corners before attaching with the screws. If you make it too tight the This table is now complete.


Custom Fit Hydroponics sides will be sloped, which can reduce your total number of plant sites. This table is now complete. I will be using it for very large houseplants, so there is no need to set up drains. My next table, however, will be tricked out with ebb and flow fittings and wall-to-wall drainage. It will also be much taller, to accommodate a 20 gallon reservoir underneath.

Table number two Table number two is for hydroponics, specifically ebb and flow or top-feed drip. Space is limited for this garden, and it turns out that no local store carries a two foot by 3.5 foot flood tray. Time to start building! I get my lumber and pond liner from the local hardware store, and I have plenty of deck screws and finishing washers left over from the first table.

Each leg is made of two two by fours. One is 5.5 inches longer than the other. This shape fits perfectly onto the frame.

Here is my lumber list: Pressure-treated wood • Two 21 inch two by sixes – (short sidewalls) • Two 3.5 foot two by sixes – (long sidewalls) • Four 36 inch two by fours – (short half of each leg) • Four 41 inch two by fours – (long half of each leg) • One 5/8 inch plywood, two feet by 3.5 feet – (tray bottom)

This tray should be much easier after building the first one. Since the tray itself is smaller, only four legs are needed. Other than that, the table frame is built the same way.

Step 2 Build the sidewalls.

Add a hydroponic drain kit to the holes in the pond liner. Rubber washers make these fittings water-tight.

Step 6 Pond liner.

Step 3 Attach legs to sidewalls.

52

Line the tray liner with 1.25 with pond liner. Secure p ond inch deck scre washers. ws and finish ing

Step 5 Attach plywood: here is where you will see a major difference in the two tables. This tray requires drainage, so I cut out a three inch by six inch hole near one end of the table. This is where ebb and flow fittings will be added to the pond liner.

Step 1 Build the legs.

Step 4 Cut plywood (leg slots).

three by , and cut out aage. m to ot b y a tr drain Attach on one end for five inch space

n frame with The upside-dowhed. all legs attac

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Step 7 Add ebb and flow fittings for drainage. Using the rubber washers from the fittings, mark circles where you will


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Custom Fit Hydroponics

place the fill and drain kit. Check to make sure the markings are properly in place over the three inch by six inch space. Cut the two holes in the pond liner with a knife and some sharp scissors. Try to make the circles as close to perfect as possible, so the fittings are watertight. Pop the fittings into place with the rubber washer inside the tray, and an additional rubber washer outside the tray. Tighten the plastic nut, and the finished result should be watertight. Accuracy will prevent a leaky fit, but aquarium silicone can seal up any accidents. Step 8 Create a drainage layer. This final step will ensure ideal drainage from the growing medium. Most hardware stores carry suspended ceiling tiles, also called drop ceiling tiles.

Drainage layer created with plastic louver and vinyl strips.

Close u tightly p of the hydr oponics installe d. fill and

astic louver

created with pl Drainage layer . and vinyl strips 54

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drain k

it,


e houseplants.

My extra large dog checking out my extra larg

Completed insert planthydro table, with rock w s!

ool blocks. P

lease

Along with these tiles, you will find a white plastic grid, approximately two feet by four feet, called a louver. The louver can be easily trimmed to fit perfectly into place. Under the louver, I placed four vinyl strips (1 inch by .5 inch) to raise everything slightly above the pond liner. The second tray is now complete and ready for live plants. The total cost for both tables, including everything seen here, was less than $150.00. It does take just a bit more effort when compared to buying pre-fab trays, but these tables can be made to fit all kinds of non-standard spaces, and they are durable and effective additions to any indoor grow area. So—no more excuses! Light up that spare closet and start customizing your own garden.MY  Maximum Yield USA | March 2011

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by Dr. Lynette Morgan

Emerging research reveals simple, modern solutions to help even beginner gardeners fight back against Pythium so your plants feel better fast.

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Pythium. The word strikes fear into many a hydroponic gardener—even those who have never encountered a plague of this nature have usually heard what a scourge this pathogen can be. Unfortunately Pythium can strike at any time and many a new grower has been disillusioned by an outbreak of wilting leaves and browned roots. Pythium is the genetic name for over 50 species in the class Oomycetes, of which only a few are common on hydroponic crops. Pythium ultimum, Pythium aphanidermantum and Pythium dissotocum are the main culprits we encounter in soilless systems, although the range of species being found to cause highly damaging attacks has been growing. In hydroponic spinach, for example, there is one species of Pythium that attacks under cool conditions and another that thrives at higher temperatures. Pythium spread and infection Pythium is termed a water mold, as it thrives under wet conditions and produces zoospores, which spread by water and through nutrient solutions. In most hydroponic systems there are few natural enemies of Pythium, so once it starts multiplying a large source of inoculum can rapidly develop. The spread of Pythium is relatively simple.

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The Pythium Predator

Spinach is particularly prone to Pythium infection, having two species of Pythium which can attack at high and low temperatures.

After infection, the pathogen produces two kinds of spores—the oospores, which have a thick wall and can survive dry conditions for months or years, germinating again when conditions are favorable for infection, and the zoospores. Released from diseased tissue, these have a pair of beating flagella by which the zoospores swim towards a new plant surface, attracted by chemicals released by plant roots. Once the zoospores have made it to a new site they encyst and infect the plant to start the cycle again. Infection rates with Pythium zoospores are much higher in hydroponic systems with low levels of oxygen in the root zone, which is why overwatering, which reduces the air-filled porosity of a growing substrate, is often a major contributing factor to a Pythium outbreak. One of the main problems with Pythium infection is that while it can rapidly cause symptoms such as damping off on young seedlings, older plants may be heavily infected for some time before any signs are seen, and often the rate at which symptoms appear is dependent on temperature. At higher temperatures, more rapid browning and die-back of Pythiuminfected roots is common, while at lower temperatures many crops don’t show any of the usual symptoms while the pathogen is busy breeding and building up levels of inoculum in the root zone. Many growers are often not even aware they have Pythium, as it can attack the tiny feeder roots without 60

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“As with many root diseases, Pythium is extremely difficult to control once it is present at high inoculum rates in a hydroponic system, and prevention is the best form of defense.” any obvious signs until the leaves suddenly start a midday wilt pattern, by which time there is little chance of control and recovery. Typical symptoms of Pythium infection are die-back of recently germinated seedlings, browning of root tips, loss of feeder roots and the gradual spread of brown, rotten root tissue. The tops of the plants may remain green, but can become wilted during the warmer part of the day. Plant stunting, lack of growth and eventual death usually occur rapidly with severe infections. Milder outbreaks may cause continual, moderate loss of feeder roots, with the plant continually trying to replace these. Short, stubby, thickened roots may also be seen, and overall growth is often severely reduced. Some plants—such as cucumbers in solution culture—are more prone to Pythium attack than others, and this is thought to be due to the large volumes of mucilage produced by the roots, which attracts Pythium zoospores. Mucilage is organic matter or exudate released by healthy root tissue, and it often appears as a whitish mass around and in the root mat. Pythium feeds on organic material such as mucilage, multiplies, then launches a full-blown attack on the root system.

The first visible sign of Pythium on the tops of plants may be midday wilting and a failure to thrive.

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The Pythium Predator

Pythium control As with many root diseases, Pythium is extremely difficult to control once it is present at high inoculum rates in a hydroponic system, and prevention is the best form of defense. If the water supply is suspected of carrying Pythium spores—which is more common in well or ground water—slow sand filtration or filtrating slowly through 24 to 36 inches of granulated rockwool has been found to be effective. The correct dose of UV can also treat a water supply and will reduce the population of swimming zoospores. However, UV can’t be used to treat oospores already in the plant’s root zone or growing media. There has been some evidence that the use of soluble silica at 100 ppm can help control Pythium in cucumbers by strengthening the plant, while many other studies have found that the treatment of nutrient solution with a small dose of non-ionic surfactant (certain types of detergent) can reduce and even eliminate a Pythium outbreak. Much of the current research into control of root rot pathogens in hydroponics is focusing on the use of beneficial microbe species, either alone or in combination with effective fungicides and biocontrol agents.

Pythium prevention factors

1. Consider oxygen. A severe infection of Pythium can result in a completely brown and rotten root system.

Another factor that predisposes indoor or greenhouse hydroponic crops to Pythium outbreaks is the presence of tiny black shore flies or fungus gnats, which are attracted to wet growing media and rotting vegetation. Fungus gnat larvae (small white grubs which feed on roots) also ingest Pythium oospores, which then stay in their guts until the insects become flying adults, ready to carry the infection on to a new crop. This is why Pythium, which in itself is much more common under overly damp conditions, is often associated with the presence of fungus gnat flies and larvae.

“If the water supply is suspected of carrying Pythium spores—which is more common in well or ground water—slow sand filtration or filtrating slowly through 24 to 36 inches of granulated rockwool has been found to be effective.”

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A high level of oxygen around the roots is proven to be suppressive of Pythium and some of the other root rot pathogens as well. Oxygen in most of our hydroponic systems comes from pores in the substrate (the air-filled capacity of the growing media) which holds air. Air has approximately 21 per cent oxygen, while nutrient solution or water can only hold six to 13 ppm depending on temperature. So while aeration of the nutrient can certainly help, especially in solution culture systems, plants can get more oxygen directly from the air. Choosing a highly aerated media—such as a coarser grade of coco fiber with long fibers that open out the substrate, goodquality rockwool or chunky perlite—all mean more oxygenation around the roots, provided of course no one is being too heavy-handed with the irrigation.


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The Pythium Predator

Forced aeration of the nutrient solution is also beneficial in all hydroponic systems. Creating a good level of turbulence in solution culture systems may also be a valuable technique, because when the flow of nutrient solution is turbulent, Pythium zoospores shed their flagella and encyst, losing the ability to sense and be attracted to infection sites on the roots.

2. Don’t ever overwater. Review your watering procedures. Nutrient, when applied to a substrate, displaces the air-filled pockets—then when draining fully occurs, more air is drawn down into the root system. But if watering is too frequent, the air-filled pores remain saturated, and the plant has less access to the oxygen contained in air. Overwatering is the most

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common cause of Pythium in hydroponics, and it seems most inexperienced growers tend to water plants to death without understanding the root system requirement for breathing and absorbing oxygen for respiration.

3. Keep the temperatures down. Maybe investing in a solution chiller or even a bottle of ice in the nutrient tank when it’s hot is worth considering. Solution chilling to lower the risk of Pythium is probably a better option in a continually circulating solution culture system where the chilled nutrient can keep root temperatures down to an optimal state, but shading the root zone can also be easily carried out. Keeping the air temperature down with evaporative or air conditioning is also an option. Pythium has been proven to be far more aggressive when


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The Pythium Predator

conditions are hot, and less oxygen is held in the nutrient solution as temperature increases as well. Combining an overly warm root zone with a bit too much irrigation and a heavy, saturated growing media is going to cause problems sooner or later.

4. Maintain biodiversity in the root zone.

the microbial products on the market. Hydroponic systems are often low in microbial diversity and density, particularly with regard to those species that may control root rot disease pathogens such as Pythium. However, several species of specific microbes have been shown to have potential for controlling root rot pathogen in certain crops. These microbes include Pseudomonas chlororaphis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, some species of Bacillus, Gliocladium, Lysobacter and Trichoderma, which indicates that inoculation with beneficial

Heavy use of sanitation chemicals was once thought to be the answer to preventing a Pythium attack; however, research has shown that even with very thorough cleaning and use of disinfectants, Pythium is not always completely eradicated, and new sources of the disease are pretty much everywhere. Encouraging a healthy root zone with a highly diverse range of microbes is a more effective long-term “When cleaning out a system or even while the crop is still approach. developing, areas of biofilm (a layer of grime and organic Recently matter) can build up inside the irrigation system.” disinfected hydroponic systems are devoid of useful microbes, allowing opportunists such as Pymicrobes of the corthium an open field for attack. A well-seasoned system may be rect species could be a better approach, as would be the introduction of beneficial an effective control microbes. There are many thousands of species of beneficials, option if carried out so natural inoculates such as fresh vermicast (worm castings) correctly. incorporated into the growing media are worth trying, as are

5. Eliminate stress.

Environmental stress is one factor that often brings on a Pythium attack. Keeping temperatures within range; supplying plenty of oxygen and sufficient light (Pythium attack is more common under low light in certain plant species); applying correct watering practices; and reducing transplant shock are all good methods of preventing problems. Healthy plants are more able to resist and defend themselves from Pythium, while those that have been weakened or damaged will release phenolic compounds, which signal to any lurking Pythium spores that it’s a good time to attack.

6. Reduce Pythium inoculation.

Cucumbers produce large volumes of mucilage in the root system, which attracts Pythium spores.

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Unfortunately, Pythium is pretty much everywhere in our environment. However, it is most commonly introduced on new transplants— which probably will appear symptomless—in water (well or ground water in particular); on feet, shoes or clothing; carried by animals; as wind-blown dust; or sometimes in growing media such as peat or substrates, which might have been in contact with soil or plant matter such as compost.


The Pythium Perdator

7. Don’t let the gnats attack. One of the more common methods of spread is via fungus gnats and shore flies. These tiny insects are attracted to overly damp media, and are common in some hydroponic systems. Unfortunately, the larvae of these flies not only chew on the root system, they also carry Pythium spores in their gut and mouth parts and are responsible for transmission of the disease. Fungus gnats can be controlled with commercial products or with beneficial predators, or by reducing watering, removing any rotting vegetation or covering the surface of growing media.

8. Give some thought to biofilms, root tissue fragments and mucilage. When cleaning out a system or even while the crop is still developing, areas of biofilm (a layer of grime and organic matter) can build up inside the irrigation system. Old root fragments are a common source of Pythium infection, and can be difficult to eradicate from growing media, although oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide will dispose of organic matter if applied at a strong enough dosage. Mucilage is more difficult to manage—some crops, such as cucumber, which produce vast quantities of this root exudate material, are best not grown in recirculating systems because of this.While all roots produce some organic compounds, the buildup can become higher in recirculating systems in which there is little biodynamic diversity, as beneficial microbes are responsible for much of the breakdown of mucilage.

9. Surfactants are worth trying if a Pythium outbreak is starting to occur. While many commercial NFT growers have experimented with the use of non-ionic surfactants in their nutrient for Pythium and other root rot pathogen control, the results are somewhat inconclusive, as many factors other than pathogens can cause similar symptoms. Many researchers have carried out trials into the effect of surfactants for Pythium control in hydroponics with promising results, although dose rates and the surfactant products used differ from study to study. Non-ionic surfactants (detergents) have been proven to control Pythium in nutrient solutions by having a lytic effect—they dissolve the plasma membrane of the fungus structures, killing them. Surfactants may cause quite a bit of foaming at the nutrient tank in recirculating systems, but may be worth trying—particularly if all else fails. MY

Seedlings are particularly prone to Pythium infection. Here the plant is trying to regenerate healthy white roots after a mild infection.

Sources and references Stanghellini, M. E. and Tomlinson J A., 1987, “Inhibitory and Lytic Effects of a Nonionic Surfactant on Various Asexual Stages in the Life Cycle of Pythium and Phytophthora Species.” The American Phytopathological Society Vol.77, No. 1, pp 112-114. Seebold, I. W. and Dixon E., 2008, “Control of Pythium Root Rot in a Tobacco Float System with Surfactants.” Phytopathology Vol. 98, No. 6, pp 143. Cherif M., Tirilly,Y. and Belanger, R. R., 1997, “Effect of Oxygen Concentration on Plant Growth, Lipidperoxidation and Receptivity of Tomato Roots to Pythium F under Hydroponic Conditions.” European Journal of Plant Pathology Vol. 103, pp 255-264. Sutton, J. C., Sopher, C. R., Own-Going, T. N., Liu,W., Grodzinski, B., Hall, J.C. and Benchimol, R.L., 2006, “Etiology and Epidemiology of Pythium Root Rot in Hydroponic Crops: Current Knowledge and Perspectives.” Summa Phytopathology,Vol. 32, No.4.

White, well branched and fully formed, it’s relatively easy to identify a healthy hydroponic root system.

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BEGINNER’S CORNER

Benefits of a Healthy FOOD WEB (excerpt from “The Complete Soil Food Web”) b y T . A . O b r e z a , R . G . W e b b a n d R . H . B i ggs

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Bring health back into the soil by preserving the essential functions of a healthy food web. A healthy food web occurs when:

1. All the organisms the plant requires are present and functioning.

2. Nutrients in the soil are in the proper

forms for the plant to take-up. A healthy food web holds nutrients in non-leachable forms so they remain in soil until the plant requires them, and then the plant “turns-on” the right biology to convert the nutrients into forms the plant can take-up (but which are typically very leachable).

3. The correct ratio of fungi to bacteria

is present, and ratio of predator to prey is present, so soil pH, soil structure and nutrient cycling occur at the right rates and produce the right forms of nutrients for the plant.

The functions of a healthy food web are:

1. Retention of nutrients so they do not

leach or volatilize from the soil. Reduction or complete deletion of inorganic fertilizer applications is possible.

2. Cycling nutrients into the right

forms at the right rates for the plant desired. The right ratio of fungi to bacteria is needed for this to happen, as well as the right numbers and activity of the predators.

3. Building soil structure so oxygen,

water and other nutrients can easily move into the soil and into deep, well-structured root systems. Current concepts of plant root systems as being at the surface of the soil is the result of current agricultural and urban practices, not a real condition of plants. Roots should go down into the soil for at least several to tens and perhaps hundreds of feet, but the compaction that humans impose on soil results in toxic materials being produced, preventing good root penetration. The only way to deal with this is to have the proper biology build the structure in the soil again, so oxygen and water can move into the soil. When the biology is functioning properly, water use is reduced, the need for fertilizers is reduced and plant production is increased.

4. Suppression of disease-causing

organisms through competition with beneficials by setting up the soil and foliar conditions to help the beneficials instead of the diseases.

5. Protection of plant surfaces above or below ground by making certain the foods the plant surfaces release into the soil are used by beneficial, not disease organisms, making certain that infection sites on plant surfaces are occupied by beneficial, and not disease-causing organisms. And by making certain predators that prefer disease-causing organisms are present to consume disease-causing organisms. 6. Production of plant-growth-promoting hormones and chemicals can result in larger root systems, although whether forcing larger root systems on plants is a positive results needs to be understood. 7. Decomposition of toxic compounds. Organisms exist in populations that are: • Balanced according to optimal growth conditions for your type of plant.

For more information on and a deeper understanding of, the soil food web, visit www.groproorganics.com MY

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Future Hairy Root Tissue Culture and the

of Horticulture by Peter Vakomies

Plants are our food; they supply us with fresh air and they heal. Given proper attention, plants will grow like crazy. It is almost mindboggling how many plants exist for our survival and well-being. Of the over 276,000 plant species discovered so far, each has a unique gift that can be used to our benefit. Since the dawn of agriculture, farmers and horticulturists have developed techniques to maximize these applications. For example, modern maize, corn, is the result of centuries of inbreeding conducted by early Mesoamerican cultures. The huge-husked crops originally evolved from a ragged looking, low-yielding grass called teosinte that was selectively bred into the husked varieties we know today. This is just one example of how humanity has controlled and experimented with plant species.

All of life evolves, including horticulture;

especially horticulture. 72

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Scientists have been studying plant evolution since 3,000 Ma proving that plants evolve as our planet evolves. In order to survive, corn husks increased in size and developed tolerance to different climates. Ten thousand years ago, there was no corn—there was just the weedy grass teosinte.

A Microbial Tool for Modern Needs Tissue culture is a modern means of cultivating and micropropagating plants by the millions, as genetic clones. It requires growth chambers and specialized aseptic conditions, plus growth media found in laboratory settings, often utilizing complex apparatus. It is expensive to set up, but very cost effective to operate. Tissue culture uses techniques that exploit the abilities of the soil bacteria called Agrobacterium rhizogenes to transfer the genes of one plant to another, or to modify the genetic expression of plant biomolecules like alkaloids, pigments, sugars, flavonoids and proteins. The A. rhizogenes is a bacterium found in soil, but many variant strains exist. They can all infiltrate plant tissues and insert their DNA into the plant’s genes, modifying the growth of infected cells. The A. rhizogenes used in plant tissue culture laboratories is an engineered bacterium that can genetically transform all plant tissues. We can enhance almost any characteristic we like by modifying the genes for that trait, just like we did with the development of corn reshuffling its DNA over generations. But now it can be done much more sophisticatedly with A. rhizogenes and our scientific knowledge of life. Infecting plant roots, leaves or stems with the genetically engineered A. rhizogene strains causes the immediate growth of new roots on root cells or makes hairy looking aerial “roots” on leaves and shoots. The root tissue that is induced this way to grow in a bioreactor can grow at more than 10 times the normal rate. We can then harvest the alkaloids and secondary metabolites secreted by hairy roots simply by withdrawing and filtering the growth medium used to grow the hairy roots in. This seems too good to be true, but a complex molecule such as a cancerpreventing alkaloid, a pain killer or an antidepressant can now be mass produced, and secreted in pure form from the roots or leaves of the actual plants that make them. Maximum Yield USA | March 2011

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Hairy Root Tissue Culture and the Future of Horticulture Proteins are also harvestable this way—purified enzymes can be reaped in usable forms, fresh from the farm. And in the near future, these will be the kinds of biomolecules that are useful in horticulture as well, such as insecticidal alkaloids, never used before antibiotics and chitinase enzymes. Disinfectant compounds and growth promoting substances can be churned fresh from the plants using a horticultural process that “milks” the hairy roots of their potent secretions. These biomolecules can be reused right back on the crops of the same farm and laboratory.

All of a plant’s DNA can be made into a hairy root factory—every allele or genetic trait can be amplified exactly as we want using Agrobacterium rhizogenes. With just a small amount of equipment assembled into a bioreactor, we now can produce any plant made biomolecule using the transformed roots of the plant required. Large bioreactors can grow crops of just roots and even whole plants. Roots transformed by A. rhizogenes are grown without light, but whole plants transformed by hairy root genetic engineering are grown as any crop would require, under ideal conditions with light. As we explore below, aeroponics and recirculating hydroponic grow systems are being used for this very purpose—harvesting plant synthesized biomolecules. The miracle of this method is that these roots also become modified to secrete increased amounts of the precious alkaloids, flavonoids, pigments, co-factors, vitamins and enzymes that they make. Hairy root bioreactors are able to abundantly overproduce any of the biomolecules that we use for healthy living. With hairy root tissue culture, even the most complex molecules made in nature can now be harvested in the most ingenious way—by growing or brewing roots in a bioreactor. We no longer need to consume the natural ecosystems for medicine, or have to grow huge acreages of trees or plants to harvest. Now we can simply grow any of nature’s biomolecular gifts in a huge abundance by transforming the cells of any plant into producing hairy roots. 74

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Periwinkles, Corkwood and Poppies A great example of the abundance of A. rhizogenes found in nature that yields medicine and simple beauty is the Periwinkle plant, Catharanthus roseus. It has been used since ancient times for its medicinal and aesthetic properties. Periwinkle makes several medicinal alkaloids when cultured using hairy root techniques. These include vinblastine used to treat lymphomas, and vincristine used as an antineoplastic agent to treat other cancers. Ajmalicine and serpentine are two other valuable alkaloids used to control blood pressure found in C. roseus. Hairy root tissue culture from Periwinkle also yields catharanthine and vindolin in increased amounts, and these are precursors to other classes of alkaloids (see figure on page 46). A cascade of precious medicinal molecules comes from a culture of Periwinkle hairy roots. Although alkaloid-rich plants are dangerous to consume and handle, some alkaloids are able to treat many health conditions. In many cases it is safer to consume highly purified plant medicine instead of ingesting the whole plant, as the plant has mixtures of toxic and healing alkaloids. Scopolamine is another very valuable medicinal tropane-type of alkaloid made by certain poisonous plants that can be grown by hairy root culture. Scopolamine is used in minute doses to assist during surgery. It is also popularly used in motion sickness patches, and since 2007 has shown promise as a potent, rapid-acting antidepressant with negligible side effects, essentially working overnight as a mood stabilizer.

Agrobacterium rhizogenes lab.


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Hairy Root Tissue Culture and the Future of Horticulture

Disposable bioreactor for hairy root culture in darkness.

At the National Research Council of Canada - Plant Biotechnology Institute, scientists are working on a program called Plant Products for Health and Wellness.This includes work with Prairie Carnations or Saponaria vaccaria, famous in Chinese medicine to treat menstrual irregularities, some cancers and breast infections. In addition to medicinal phenolics and saponins, the Prairie

Carnation makes medicine called cyclic peptides that are another impossibly complex molecular structure to synthesize in the lab. However, the use of hairy root culture allows us to harvest even this type of medicine used to control blood pressure, in highly pure amounts. Plants also synthesize a class of complex shaped alkaloids called benzoisoquinolines. These molecules are some of humanities most relied upon alkaloids. They eliminate pain, and act as Hairy roots of Henbane make scopolamine - a muscle new and promising, fast acting antidepressant. relaxants, antibiotics and gout suppressants. The poppy plant (Papaver somniferum) makes drugs like morphine, codeine, sanguinarine and colchicine—precious molecules needed all over the world. The Future Although the bioreactor is not standard horticultural equipment, we do already use similar concepts and equipment for running greenhouses and growth chambers. We will soon adapt hydroponic systems to extract the secondary metabolites secreted by the plants being grown so that they are common equipment in greenhouse operations. A crude parallel example to a bioreactor might be a compost tea brewer, but this system is very rough and dirty. With compost teas we have to control pH, temperature, prevent contamination and maintain adequate aeration, just as with hairy root culture. But

The future of horticulture will include the ability to grow our own natural pesticides for use around the nursery or even produce our own growth promoters and inhibitors. with compost tea bioreactors it is the microbial crop that is the product to “harvest,” and there is no complex processing or filtration required when harvesting the crop of beneficial bacteria from compost tea. Hairy root tissue culture requires a harvest system that can extract molecular sized particles from the growing medium. Some76

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Hairy Root Tissue Culture and the Future of Horticulture

CLASS 1

Dehydrogeissoschizine

Stirctosidine N

Ajmalicine H N H

Preakuammicine

N H MeO2C

CH2OH

Stemmadenine

Vallesamine

N H

Akuammicine H C CH3

CH3 O

N

N H

CH2 Apparicine

N

H

MeO2C

Stemmadenine

Apparicine

H

Ajmalicine

N

N

CO2Me

Akuammicine

CLASS 2

Dehydrosecodine

Dehydrosecodien and similar compounds N H

CO2Me

CLASS 5 N N H

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CLASS 3

Catharanthine

Tabersonine

H COOCH3

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Vindoline

N H N H CO2Me Tabersonine

5 classes of Indole alkaloids The biogenetic classification of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids. The dashed arrows show postulated biosynthetic steps where enzymes haven’t been characterized. Enzymatic steps have been identified in the case of solid arrows. The classification and the biosynthetic routes have been recreated based on descriptions from various sources [78, 79, 81-83.] Class 4 is not included in this figure because it is irrelevant to this article.

times this closed growing system is called “hydroponic biopharming.” This is accomplished by using special polymers that adsorb the alkaloids very selectively from the recirculating nutrient solution pulling only the desired products out of solution. The polymer resins are used routinely in chromatography to separate complex mixtures of molecules in solution, and can achieve more than 90 per cent purity of the desired products by adsorbing them from the nutrient medium. The main “bioreactor” part of this kind of hydroponic hairy root culture system can be designed a few ways. One variation is to grow whole plants on aeroponic tables or hydroponic NFT tables with their roots secreting alkaloids into the runoff. Aeroponic systems have been used to grow plants that have been transformed by A. rhizogenes, and with specially adapted root misting systems the alkaloids secreted into the run-off fertigation water can be filtered, and purified from a more highly-concentrated runoff. In a second design style, bioreactors can be made cheaply now, using moulded plastics. Some components are disposable and recyclable. There are companies selling single-use, disposable bioreactors that utilize double polyethylene bags to contain the hairy root tissue, and use semi-permeable membranes to isolate the reactor volume into separate chambers. This essentially resembles the set up of an ebb and flow table used in hydroponics, but it rocks back and forth and the crop grows suspended inside a liquid medium within a two-chambered bag, similar in size to a loosely filled water bed. The double bag bioreactor is laid flat on a table and agitated by rocking back and forth. The table can be designed as a heater to maintain the optimal temperature for the liquid volume in the bag. The bag reactor is supplied with oxygen and nutrient solution by tubes attached to the bag, and the gasses and run-off nutrient are withdrawn the same way. This kind of system may not require lighting as some hairy root cultures just


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Hairy Root Tissue Culture and the Future of Horticulture grow root tissue, but if light is required to trigger biosynthesis, it can be added. Compared to traditional steel bioreactors, the instrumentation on these reusable bag bioreactors is minimal—the process of maintaining aseptic conditions and for cleaning and sterilizing the bag systems is much cheaper to do than with a huge, heavy steel machine with no disposable components. This makes this technology adaptable to the horticulture industry where existing greenhouse computer control systems can operate such closed, or recirculating cultivation equipment needed in hairy root culture. The future of horticulture will include the ability to grow our own natural pesticides for use around the nursery or even produce our own growth promoters and inhibitors. Imagine harvesting any combination of molecules we need to protect our crops and using these without poisoning and polluting. Imagine slightly more sophisticated compost tea bioreactors from which are harvested a semi-purified liquid product. Soon we could be growing many types of hairy root plants that are transformed by A. rhizogenes, and at harvest these would yield preciously elevated nutrients and medicinal alkaloids. The future of horticulture can meet all our needs as we unlock each of Gaia’s green gifts with hairy root tissue culture. MY

Bibliography: Guillon, Stéphanie, Jocelyne Trémouillaux-Guiller, Pratap Kumar Pati, Marc Rideau, and Pascal Gantet. “Harnessing the potential of hairy roots: dawn of a new era.” Trends in Biotechnology 24, no. 9 (2006): 403-409. Muranaka, Toshiya, Hideo Ohkawa, and Yasuyuki Yamada. “Scopolamine release into media by Duboisia leichhhardtii hairy root clones.” Applied Microbiological Biotechnology 37, no. 5 (1992): 554-559. Balsevich, John. “Prairie Carnation (Saponaria vaccaria) - A Potential New Industrial/Medicinal Crop for the Prairies.” Plant Biotechnology Institute, National Research Council of Canada, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. SSCA 2008, Regina Saskatchewan. Vani, Sundeep N. “Biorecator design for scale up of Catharanthus roseus hairy root cultures for production of indole alkaloids.” Houston, Texas: Rice University (1996). Park, Sang-Un and Peter J. Facchini. “Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation of opium poppy, Papaver somniferum L., and California poppy, Eschscholzia californica Cham., root cultures.” Journal of Experimental Botany 51, no. 347 (2000): 1005-1016.

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YOU TELL US

analysis on the end product and end produce. We have a monster following of individuals through all of our retails shops that faithfully use and test our products, and consistently return positive feedback.

Justin Cooper

and can be used in the flush cycle. The combination of the naturally occurring hormone Triacontanol—which speeds up vital plant processes including photosynthesis and CO2 utilization— along with fulvic acid, helps transport essential fluids to the flowering tops. Research has shown an increase in dry weight in all crops that use Finisher.

Maximim Yield (MY): What products in the Green Planet line are you most passionate about right now? Justin Cooper: Definitely Finisher. It’s a product designed to swell your flowers and increase overall bud swell; it works fantastic and doesn’t leave behind any heavy metals. It has low NPK values

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MY: What research has been done that proves Green Planet’s success rate in growing various crops? Justin: We have our own testing facilities in Vancouver, British Columbia, and also commercial greenhouses that do testing for us. Dr. Hornby, the foremost pioneer in testing plants and horticulture products, works with us. He endorses the Green Planet product line and the results he’s found supersede every product he’s ever tested. Dr. Hornby does the final

MY: What unique details help make your flagship product, Massive, the world’s best flowering additive? Justin: Everyone that tries it loves it. That’s because the formulation incorporates naturally occurring gibberellic hormones designed to increase internodal spacing, allowing more room for the flower to mature and swell to its full potential. After the spacing of the internodes or when flower sites have been established, the components in Massive work aggressively to produce and transport vital fluids and cell building materials to the flower sites creating truly massive stacked flower clusters full of aromatic essential oils. Massive couples the naturally occurring gibberellic hormones with the scientifically proven


Maximum Yield sits down with Green Planet’s Justin Cooper to discuss the best products for beginners, Triacontanol and pH perfection.

plant steroid Triacontanol that increases the rate of photosynthesis and CO2 utilization. MY: What are growers saying about Massive? Justin: Two thumbs up all the way. Massive easily replaces numerous similar products on the market, particularly carbohydrate booster products. MY: What sequence of products would you recommend for the beginner hobby grower that would ease them into hydroponic growing? Justin: I would recommend Hydro Fuel, an extremely concentrated yet simple two-part fertilizer that ensures no calcium lockout. It’s perfect for people that don’t know how to regulate pH; it’s basically pH perfect! If you desire fast growing, healthy, luscious blossoms and plants, Hydro Fuel Bloom and Grow fit the bill. MY: What makes Green Planet’s Nutrients unique from other options available in the market? Justin: We take the purest, most pH neutral water on the planet, and then run it through a top quality reverse osmosis and filtration machine to remove

all remaining bacteria (we recommend Hydro-Logic’s water filtration products). This water is the basis for all of the products in the Green Planet Nutrients line. We’re dedicated to making the finest nutrients. We don’t need hype to sell them. We’ve been able to keep our finger on the pulse of the industry to find out what growers really need and desire. We work with our customers, and ask them what works best for their plants. We’re the only nutrient manufacturer that has their own chain of retail stores, which ultimately means we have a base of thousands of satisfied customers. And you know your products work when you have that kind of following. MY: What plans do you have to give back to your community as your business grows? Justin: We’re currently in the middle of providing free land for people to grow their crops; a communal garden of sorts on my 15 acre property where family, employees, friends and acquaintances are invited to come and grow their plants.This plan is set to launch this summer. Last year we provided unlimited food to our friends and neighbors because we had such an abundance.This year we’re asking people

to get involved. I feel it’s fundamentally important for people to get their hands dirty.There’s a certain a spiritual aspect to growing and producing your own food and being able to feed yourself. We support the B.C. Children’s Hospital through corporate donations and events, and also coordinate charity events and fundraisers for the Heart and Stroke Foundation, the Parkinson Foundation and for the last five years, we’ve supported the Variety Club’s Boat for Hope—an annual event that raises money for children with special needs and provides a fun-filled day on the water. MY: What does Green Planet have planned for the future in the way of products and technologies? Justin: Just to continue moving forward and doing our best to make our customers happy. My customers cultivate plants, and our job is to cultivate customers. We also have plans to expand into Europe and make our products available to growers globally. MY: How can growers find out about the newest products available from Green Planet? Justin: Check out our website at mygreenplanet.com MY

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Hydroponics

as a Science by Dr. J. Benton Jones, Jr.

Don’t let anything stop you in your quest for knowledge. Defining hydroponics involves assessing and comparing previously offered definitions, looking at real-world situations and, of course, asking questions.

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Hydroponics as a Science

Is hydroponics a science? This question has been asked by many, but without a definite answer to date. Most dictionaries do not define hydroponics as a science, but as just another method of growing or cultivating plants.

In the Wikipedia (www.Wikipedia.com) definition and accompanying description of hydroponics the word “science” does not even appear. However, the fourth edition of Webster’s New World College Dictionary (1999) does define hydroponics as “the science of growing or the production of plants in a nutrient-rich solution.” One dictionary (Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary) definition for science is “something (as a sport or technique) that may be studied or learned like systemized knowledge.” Hydroponics is indeed a technique for growing plants and a body of knowledge regarding how to grow plants using the hydroponic method has indeed been accumulated, so hydroponics does match the criteria for being a “science” based on the above definition. There is also an accumulated body of “systemized knowledge” with regard to hydroponics that fits the second part of this definition. One of the aspects of hydroponics that has influenced its protocols is the fact that the hydroponic technique for growing plants is being used primarily in controlled environments—greenhouses—where the airflow, temperature and humidity are all carefully monitored. Even incoming solar radiation is somewhat controlled, or at least modified, by the transmission characteristics of the greenhouse glazing. This

“hydroponics [has been defined] as ‘the science of growing or the production of plants in a nutrient-rich solution’.” aspect of control would seem to help the case for hydroponics being regarded as a science. However, say you have grower reporting results on the use of a particular hydroponic method and making observations that are the result of the interaction between the plant’s environment and the growing technique, whether it’s a flood and drain, NFT or drip-irrigation method, with plants rooted in rockwool slabs or buckets of perlite. What exactly is the scientific value of information of this nature being reported— when plants are being grown in a glass greenhouse located 86

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Hydroponics as a Science in the mountains of Arizona using the rockwool slab dripirrigation system—for a gardener who may be contemplating growing the same plant in a double polyethylene-covered greenhouse located in the coastal plains of Georgia, using the flood and drain growing method? Several years ago, I made frequent visits to four hydroponic growers, one located in Georgia and three in South Carolina. All were growing tomatoes in double-walled polyethylene-covered greenhouses, with the tomato plants rooted in perlite-filled BATO buckets using a dripirrigation system for delivering a nutrient solution. I quickly learned that the skill of these growers was a major factor contributing to their obtained yield and fruit quality, although all were following the operational procedures provided by the supplier of the greenhouse and hydroponic system. Each grower had experienced several instances of plant nutrient elemental insufficiencies, and, as a result, one had made a major change in the nutrient solution formulation that he had been using. All were still doing fairly well in terms of fruit yield and quality, although additional growing experience However, the following growing season things changed, as both fruit yield and quality declined, and all four growers struggled to adjust their operational procedures to cope with what was occurring—without success. One grower ended his crop in mid-season, the other three searched for an answer as to why things had changed, asking me for advice at each visit as well as making frantic telephone calls to those who had advised them in the past when dealing

“hydroponics does match the criteria for being a science based on [some definitions].” with other problems. Although there was no obvious cause for the decline, weather conditions had changed significantly that year as the winter and spring months were warmer than normal, with few cloudy days and very dry air conditions, the low rainfall leading to drought throughout the entire area. From weather station data, it seemed that the minutes of sunshine during this period of time were significantly greater than in previous years. Based on this data I concluded that the radiation input into the four greenhouses had been significantly higher than in previous seasons, thereby stressing the plants, with the result being low fruit yield and poor fruit quality (mostly small fruit). What might have helped would have been the ability to draw shade cloth over the plant canopy during the high noon periods of intense radiation, but none of the growers had that particular capability in their greenhouses. Altering the frequency and volume of the nutrient solution applied with each irrigation or changing the nutrient 88

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Hydroponics as a Science solution formulation might also have reduced the rate of accumulated salts in the perlite. In addition, bringing conditioned air into the greenhouse up through the plant canopy would have kept the plant foliage cooler and would have contributed to a more consistent leaf turgidity status. Could these procedures be then considered “systemized knowledge,” and, if known and applied, would they have prevented the fruit losses these growers experienced? Several experts have written about the future of hydroponics, expressing concern that the limitations associated with the currently employed hydroponic techniques are not being adequately investigated. For example, little effort is being devoted to making hydroponic growing methods more efficient as to their use of water and reagents in order to better meet the nutritional requirements of the plants being grown. There are many nutrient solution formulations to choose from, with little solid information available as to their impact on the biological potential of the treated plants. From the time the Hoagland/Arnon nutrient solution formulations were introduced (Hoagland and Arnon, 1950), little research has been devoted to investigating the use of these two formulations under various application methodologies. It is not uncommon to read an article in a research journal or technical publication in which the writer uses the term modified Hoagland nutrient solution

“little effort is being devoted to making hydroponic growing methods more efficient as to their use of water and reagents in order to better meet the nutritional requirements of the plants being grown.” without indicating whether the formulation itself was altered, or one of its use parameters. And what were the use parameters? One gallon of nutrient solution per plant with replacement each week was the established formula. Change one of these parameters, and how does the plant respond? From real life experience, we can see that the “science” of hydroponics should be defined based on accompanying environmental conditions, with each set of hydroponic growing procedures applying only to a particular set of growing parameters—there can not be a fixed set of procedures that would apply universally. Until this is understood, the application of the hydroponic method of growing will continue to flounder in a maze of misinformation, and growers will be constantly searching for answers to why this or that calamity occurred. That hydroponics is a science is pretty much beyond doubt—that it is a science we are far from understanding completely and one that requires much further research is without question. MY 90

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GREEN THUMB GARDENING PUTTING THAT GREEN THUMB TO WORK:

COMMERCIAL GREENHOUSES

Take a closer look at greenhouse crop production on a commetrcial scale.

Starting a commercial greenhouse involves more than building a structure to grow plants; it becomes a productive part of your community. Providing the local gardeners with starter plants and the neighborhood grocers with fresh produce they can count on, quickly builds many personal relationships as well as grows your income. Choosing a location requires research and investigation. Most greenhouses require an internal heat source during the cold climate. According to some researchers, natural gas is the most cost-efficient method of heating your greenhouse. Additionally, it uses the least equipment, which means less maintenance costs. An adequate water supply is vital to the success of any agricultural business. Take advantage of the water-testing

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by Charlene Rennick

tools offered by the Ministry of Natural Resources or countryspecific equivalent. The total level of salts, nutrients and pH are indicative of a water supply that is safe for plants. How adequate the water supply is should be weighed against the value of collecting and filtering rain water or introducing a hydroponic system where water is recycled. Calculate start-up costs for equipment early. In addition to the construction materials, building permit and hydro or gas line modifications, an on-site generator should be included in the backup power and water system. Losing the crop due to a hydro failure is


not necessary and would be the result of a poorly planned operation. Proximity to emergency assistance or suppliers should be accounted for when assessing your location.When the greenhouse is in full production, waiting a couple of weeks for supplies or any repair materials needed for day-to-day operations could mean the difference between a successful harvest and a failed attempt. Distance to your customer base is another important consideration unique to a commercial business. Wholesalers purchase from greenhouses that supply a good product at a reasonable price and within a close geographical range. Many commercial operations benefit from additional drive-by business generated by the public.This can keep a greenhouse operator close to the fiscal surface in between the larger orders and help to cultivate word-of-mouth endorsements.

Another important consideration to evaluate is the quality of drainage underneath the base of and beside the greenhouse. Poor drainage can easily encourage algae, bacteria and insect infestations in a short period of time. Once fungus, bacteria or bugs settle in a location, removing them without harm to the plants is a major undertaking. Accessories become even more vital to your operation when you are counting on the income from your crop. Making the most of your space by adding extra hanging shelves, automatic misters and vent-openers, good quality thermostats and humidistats can increase your profits and minimize any potential damage due to environmental fluctuations. Deciding to begin a greenhouse as a commercial business can be profitable and gratifying especially when your heart is in it; just make sure that there is more to your land than a lot of space. MY

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C o n s t r u c t i o n

Part 3: Glazing by Philip McIntosh

W

ith the basics of locations, floors and frames behind us, it’s time to consider the final critical component of any greenhouse—the lighttransmitting covering, generally referred to as glazing. The term ‘glazing’ came into use when the only material available for covering a greenhouse was glass (a ‘glazier’ is a glass cutter and installer). It doesn’t seem entirely appropriate with the raft of non-glass materials now in use, but the term seems to have stuck.

Greenhouse Glazing The main parameters to consider when selecting a greenhouse covering are cost, light transmittance, lifespan, UV resistance and energy efficiency. Greenhouse glazing materials fall into one of two major classifications—glass or plastic. The true plastic age began in 1907 with the invention of Bakelite, the first synthetic polymer. Before the development of suitable transparent plastics, which happened many years after the introduction of Bakelite, the only material available for cladding greenhouses was glass.

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Glass is available in many different grades and colors. Maximum Yield USA | March 2011

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Greenhouse Construction – Part 3: Glazing

Glass The efficiency of early glass greenhouses was limited by the weight of the glass and the required thickness and spacing of wooden support frames, which tended to block light penetration. Modern glass can be produced in larger and lighter panes, and lighter and stronger framing materials such as galvanized steel and aluminum have improved glass greenhouses considerably. Glass is available in many different grades and colors. The most optically clear types have transmittances better than just about any plastic at around 90 per cent, although this figure can be lower, depending on tinting and other factors. Glass has high tensile strength but does not withstand impact well, and can shatter when struck by stones, falling branches or large hailstones. Regular window glass is relatively inexpensive and not a bad choice for a small cold frame, but it is the most shatter prone of all choices, while plate glass is heavier but more difficult to work with. Single-pane glass is a poor thermal insulator, so double pane is preferred if a lengthy cold season makes heating a requirement. Double pane is also the most expensive, but costs can be kept down if the glass is purchased in standard sizes. Glass has excellent UV resistance and does not discolor noticeably over time. The UV transmittance of glass varies with thickness and tinting, with inexpensive window glass allowing the highest percentage of damaging rays through. Despite its good appearance and high transmittance, glass has two major drawbacks—high weight and low flexibility. It is the heaviest of all glazing materials and a strong, well-built frame is needed to support it. Glass can also only be installed on planar frame elements, which limits the choices of frame design. Over the life of a glass-glazed greenhouse a few panels will probably break and have to be replaced, but if you don’t consider breakage, glass lasts longer than any other glazing material at 25+ years.

Polyethylene Polyethylene (PE or poly) film is lightweight and flexible, so it conforms to odd or curved frame shapes well and it doesn’t require elaborate or expensive structural support. It’s definitely the least expensive way to go when covering a PVC hoop or any other kind of greenhouse frame. There are two grades, if you will, of PE film—cheap plastic sheeting as found in hardware and home improvement stores, and ‘agricultural grade’, which comes in many formulations.The cheap stuff is not perfectly clear, so it transmits less light. This is fine for low-light level plants, or for situations where there is plenty of bright direct sunlight. However, since it is meant for temporary

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applications and not specially made for outdoor use, hardwaregrade PE breaks down quickly when exposed to UV radiation and requires replacement every one to two years. Agricultural or ‘greenhouse’ PE, either white or clear, is available in varying thicknesses in rolls up to 50 feet wide.Additional processing to add UV or mildew inhibitors make it more expensive than hardware grade, but it will last at least twice as long. Reinforced PE is a woven material with greater strength than plain PE. Some specialty PE greenhouse tarps come in a variety of sizes, and are provided with grommets or other fastening systems to make installation and tie-down easy. Agricultural PE is available in different light-transmittance ratings. Clear PE passes about 80 per cent of incidental light, and white about 20 per cent. By varying the formulation and by using different styles of woven reinforcement, transmittance values between 20 per cent and 80 per cent are available to customize coverings for specific environmental conditions. There is always a tradeoff between transmittance and heating—in hot climates, heating and heat retention are generally bad things, but in cold climates they may be desirable. One way to increase the insulating properties of a PE covering is to use two layers. A thick sheet on the outer surface provides durability, and a thinner, less expensive sheet on the inside of a frame traps a layer of air inside to reduce winter heating costs. Unless the film is stretched very tight, a forced air system may be required to keep the two layers apart to ensure an insulating air layer. There are brands of PE glazing available that are designed to capture the advantages of both flexible sheeting and insulating panels.Their double-wall design encloses rectangular air channels for insulation, while offering about 75 per cent light transmittance. Since they are flexible, they can be economically shipped in rolls and they conform well to curved frames.


Polycarbonate Polycarbonate panels are made in single-, doubleand even triple-walled configurations, and they are durable, offering a life expectancy of 10 to 15 years. The multi-walled panels trap a layer of insulating air, but as the number of walls and the thickness increases, light transmittance is reduced. Because of their strength and stiffness, polycarbonate panels can be made quite large, up to four feet wide and more than 30 feet long. Although not as translucent to photosynthetically active radiation as glass, polycarbonate may have a transmittance of up to 80 per cent, and if light and heat need to be reduced, it is available in less transparent forms and in a reflective bronze color. Like many rigid plastics, though, polycarbonate is easily scratched, and too many scratches will reduce light transmittance.

Acrylic Acrylic is another rigid plastic used to fabricate glazing panels, but it is usually more expensive than polycarbonate. As with polycarbonate, acrylic panels may be single- or multi-wall in design, with the same tradeoffs between transmittance and insulating properties. Acrylic panels have weaker light-transmittance properties than glass, but are comparable to or slightly better than polycarbonate at around 85 per cent. One advantage of acrylic over polycarbonate is long service life—up to 20 years—but acrylic will eventually become brittle with age and it is also easily scratched.

The term ‘vinyl’ can refer to clear polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA). Maximum Yield USA | March 2011

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Vinyl The term ‘vinyl’ can refer to clear polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA). Although notably more expensive, clear PVC films with transmittances in the 80 per cent range come in a selection of thicknesses and are a good alternative to PE film when appearance or visibility are design considerations. Clear PVC films for outdoor applications have good UV and mildew resistance and good low-temperature stability, and the life expectancy of PVC film is at least twice as long as that of PE. Greenhouses covered with PVC will retain more heat overnight than PE-covered structures, and this may be an important consideration, depending on climate. Rigid corrugated PVC panels are also available. Ethylene vinyl acetate is used as a copolymer with PE in film formulations that last four to seven years, compared to two for PE alone. These EVA copolymers also have improved clarity, temperature stability and tear resistance.

Fiberglass Fiberglass cladding is available in flat, corrugated or multilayer panels. The term ‘fiberglass’ usually refers to fiberglass-reinforced polyester (FRP) made of acrylic or polycarbonate plastic. Single-layer sheets are relatively inexpensive and are available in clear, white and green. The durability of FRP is good, and depending on the exact formulation, standard FRP panels have a life expectancy of five to 10 years. The exterior surfaces of typical fiberglass panels found in home improvement stores will weather over time, however, exposing the reinforcing fibers and significantly reducing transmittance. More highly engineered fiberglass cladding is much more expensive, but has superior mechanical and optical characteristics, including a transmittance factor of up to 90 per cent. While all plastics slowly lose their mechanical integrity and optical clarity over time—often with noticeable yellowing occurring near the end of their useful lives—engineered fiberglass panels can last for 20 years or more. Although one concern with traditional fiberglass is its flammability, specialty fiberglass panels have good fire resistance. Although considered a rigid material, fiberglass is flexible enough to be placed over curved frames, so long as the radius of curvature is not extreme. Even though FRP is not as optically clear as glass, its light weight requires less structural support, so the total light entering a greenhouse may actually be greater if fiberglass rather than glass is used. The same is also true of other plastics. Greenhouses exist in an amazing array of shapes and sizes, and are used for everything from simple seed germination to massive-scale commercial growing. When it comes to 98

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coverings, there are so many variations in material, size, weight, thickness, color, physical properties and special features that it is impossible to adequately consider all the options in a short article of this nature. However, a basic knowledge of the important features of the materials outlined here should provide you with a good starting point for a more detailed and critical analysis of the options currently available to you. MY


References Greenhouse Covering and Glazing Materials at Reasonable Cost, Envirocept Greenhouses and Supply, www.greenhouses-etc.net/glazing/index Greenhouse Glazing and Shading, H2outhouse. com, Inc., Greenhouses, www.h2othouse.com/html/ greenhouse_glazing.html Freeman, M., 1997, Building Your Own Greenhouse. Stackpole Books, Mechanicsburg, PA Giacomelli, G. A. and Roberts, W. J., 1993, “Greenhouse Covering Systems”, HortTechnology #3, pp. 50-58 Kessler, J. R., 1998, Hobby Greenhouse Construction, ANR-1105, Alabama Cooperative Extension System, <http://www.aces.edu/pubs/docs/A/ANR-1105/

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>

Pinching the

Pest b y L e e M c Ca l l

Help ensure pests and parasites look for lunch elsewhere by implementing these maintenance and prevention strategies in the grow room.

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ndoor gardens, both hydroponic and soil-grown, are microenvironments created from scratch that can be installed in virtually any available space. The quality and performance of the crop grown will at least to some degree be determined by the size of the grow space and the equipment and controls implemented. High-intensity lighting, state-of-the-art ventilation and intelligent CO2 control devices are a few examples of consumer products available to create and augment the perfect environment suitable for plant growth. Unfortunately, though, the conditions that make for

a comfortable life for plants are also pretty appealing to plant pests of many kinds. Spidermites, thrips, fungus gnats, root aphids and whiteflies are some of the primary enemies commonly seen throughout gardens across the world on a wide variety of different crop types. In larger grow spaces, battling these life-sucking parasites is a full-time job, in addition to the regular routine maintenance that follows standard hydroponic and soil gardening practices, like reservoir changes, mixing soil and other grow mediums, transplanting, cloning, pruning and trimming. As soon as any plant pest threat is identified, treatment must be initiated in order to prevent any further or potential damage to the crop. Foliar sprays and dips are common and preferably applied to plants that are not in a fruiting or blooming phase. This type of treatment is ideal for targeting pests that damage leaf and cellular production above the root mass on the plant tissue itself. Larger, more crowded grow rooms may not be effectively covered by foliar spraying, however, unless time and patience is invested into the application. Accidentally overlooking an infested corner or an untreated spot on a plant will usually result in regeneration of the initial pest— rendering the entire treatment a waste of time and money.

“Pest damage is easily recognized through a wide variety of different physical traits, depending on the type of insect present—leaf spotting, webs, bug feces and poor growth are all physical signs of an infestation.” 102

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Pest damage is easily recognized through a wide variety of different physical traits, depending on the type of insect present—leaf spotting, webs, bug feces and poor growth are all physical signs of an infestation. To ensure that adequate treatment is applied, use a wetting agent or surfactant in addition to the chosen pesticide in order to increase surface area coverage of the spray or dipping treatment. Attempt to saturate most of the available surface area of the plant (tops and undersides of leaves and stalks and even fruits and blooms, if necessary). Neem and other oil-based products may not easily or evenly mix with water; adding a wetting agent increases emulsification properties and will also prevent clogs in hand

“I recommend that flowering, fruiting and blooming plants avoid foliar treatments past the third or fourth week as a preventative against botrytis and other floral rots that attack cluster formations.” sprayers, atomizers and emitters. Many new and improved pesticide formulas contain azadirachtin, a Neem derivative proven to be effective when utilized as a foliar, a root drench or even a systemic treatment. Although several companies offer proprietary formulas that differ in extraction method and concentration of the azadirachtin active ingredient, positive results are reported from all the available varieties on the market. Other formulas incorporate botanical ingredients such as pyrethrins, derived from the chrysanthemum flower, while rosemary, clove, citrus and capsicum also contain potent active compounds capable of controlling pest populations in egg, larvae, nymph and adult stages. A wide variety of brands and formulations are available in systemic, organic, natural and synthetic grades, and aerosol options are also available, which provide effective coverage with minimal effort. “Bombs”—as 104

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Pinching the Pest these aerosols are commonly referred to—may contain an active ingredient such as pyrethrins or bifenthrin, and I suggest setting these off right when the grow lights are turning off for the dark cycle, or as close to this time as possible. These products are exceptionally advantageous for cleaning out spaces before building a grow room, or for setting off a day before plants are moved into a particular area. Vegetative grow rooms that operate on a 24 hour time clock can be shut off for a short duration of time so that sprays may be applied and lights turned off immediately following. Foliage that is saturated in oil-based solutions or water droplets is susceptible to burn under the concentration of high-intensity grow lights, so ideal grow room ventilation designs will leave drenched foliage dry within an hour or even within minutes following the application. If plant foliage and tissue continues to stay wet hours after the application, this is an indication of poor air movement, and may promote

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the development of molds, rots and mildews. I recommend that flowering, fruiting and blooming plants avoid foliar treatments past the third or fourth week as a preventative against botrytis and other floral rots that attack cluster formations. Damage to blooms and fruits are not uncommon if insecticidal sprays or bombs are applied late into the flowering cycle of the plant, so avoid using these products days or weeks before harvest so that produce quality is not hindered. Insects are attracted to plant strains with weaker immune systems and metabolic rates; when growing multiple strains it is not uncommon that certain types are susceptible to attack while others seem completely unharmed and immune. Personal preference will dictate which strains are worth keeping and which are a waste of a grower’s time and money. Root drenching, or top feeding, is another way of applying insecticidal controls that target soil-dwelling pests


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in the root zone. Root aphids, fungus gnat larvae and select species of thrips will consume organic, decaying matter in the growing medium, including healthy feeder roots; this slows the absorption of water and nutrient uptake for the plant and ultimately may result in root rot if ignored. A key concept to eradicating detrimental insect reproductive colonies is to disrupt their breeding cycles. Applying pesticides every three days up to four times or more increases the chance that adults will be destroyed on contact. This will also mean that within three days of any eggs hatching the pupae and larvae will also be destroyed during the following application before they have a chance to mature into egg-laying adults. Cleanliness and consistency should cause adult insects, larvae and egg populations to diminish drastically so long as the routine is upheld without interruption. As with foliar sprays, wetting agents will increase penetration of the active insecticidal ingredients in root zone drenches as well. I recommend

“Put the time, effort and quality products into your indoor garden and you can reasonably expect to get the equivalent back in terms of growth and results—put in only the bare minimum and that’s about what you should expect back as well.” thoroughly flushing each treated plant afterwards, as this helps to rinse away excess eggs and dead insects from the root mass. Plants grown in net pots, containers and buckets may benefit from full submersion of the root mass into a solution of insecticide, clean water and a wetting agent. 108

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Pinching the Pest

For growers who prefer a pesticide-free garden, beneficial insects such as ladybugs, predatory nematodes, praying mantises, green lacewings, Feltiella Acarisuga—a predator midge that stalks spidermites—and other beneficial bugs provide a natural form of preventative maintenance and control. These insects are excellent for outdoor and indoor grows of all types. To increase the effectiveness and reproductive rates of beneficial insects, always use more of them rather than less. HEPA filters over the intake points will prevent ‘bad’ insects from entering a controlled grow room.You should also always take care when accepting other growers’ clones or swapping genetics; this is one of the most common scenarios of how grow room contaminations are spread from one site to another. Utilize yellow and blue sticky traps to monitor insect populations—these traps capture many of the adults and keep infestations from occurring by alerting the grower to areas that need control. For best results, hang these traps close to canopies or the plant’s soil line. As feedings occur, the gnats may rise to the surface and flutter about aimlessly, allowing the traps to catch a small amount of the breeding population. As with lighting, nutrition, ventilation and CO2, pest-control maintenance and prevention are vitally important factors in the successful practice of indoor gardening. The cleanliness of any grow room is a major indicator directly reflecting the quality and quantity of crop production. Put the time, effort and quality products into your indoor garden and you can reasonably expect to get the equivalent back in terms of growth and results—put in only the bare minimum and that’s about what you should expect back as well. Neglect of your crop can allow infestations to spread rampant in a living garden, so never be lazy about checking the plants for signs of pests on a regular basis. Follow up on treatments to ensure eradication is complete and always start from seed if possible. MY

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TIPS & TRICKS

Add a Little (Coir) Fibre to Your Plant’s Diet by Charlotte Bradley

H More fiber please!

ydroponic gardeners use coir as a growing medium in place of soil. In traditional horticulture, coir is used as a substitute for peat moss. Coir, another name for coco peat, is simply the fibers removed from the outer shell of a coconut. As it is 100 per cent natural and biodegradable, it is popular with both organic and hydroponic gardeners. The vast majority of coco peat comes from Asia, in particular India and Sri Lanka, but countries in the Caribbean and Mexico also produce coir. One of the main reasons that coco peat is popular among gardening enthusiasts is that it is resistant to bacterial and fungal growth. An interesting fact about the coco peat that comes from Mexico is that it is populated with a beneficial fungus that acts as a biological control against pathological fungi. Coco peat has several characteristics that make it popular with both the hydroponic and traditional gardener: • •

• • •

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It retains water and is able to store eight to nine times its weight in water. It has a pH of 5.2 to 6.8, which makes it potentially acidic. Hydroponic gardeners should be careful to adjust pH as required when using coco peat. It is renewable and according to literature can be reused for up to four years. It stores and releases nutrients for extended periods of time. Has great oxygenation properties that assist in root development.


Coco peat typically comes in two formats, loose or compressed. The compressed form is more common because it is easier to ship and takes up less space. It is typically shipped as bricks that can be broken into smaller pieces and then rehydrated. In hydroponic systems coco peat is typically mixed at a ratio of 50/50, with pumice or coarse perlite to provide some drainage.

“Coco peat...is 100 per cent natural and biodegradable.” This type of medium is recommended for intermediate to advanced hydroponic gardeners due to the fact that the saline effect will vary from one brand of coco peat to another. During the hydration stage, the runoff should be checked to see how much dissolved solids are being introduced into the system. MY

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Salt Controlling

Buildup by Donald Lester

Knowing why and how salt accumulates in hydroponic solutions and soilless systems can help you avoid the situation in the future.

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Controlling Salt Buildup

S

alt buildup is a common problem for growers; in soil systems, it is characterized by an accumulation of white or off-white (sometimes even brown or gray) crystals forming on the soil surface in fields and on the surface of potting mix in pots. Salt buildup can also occur in hydroponic solutions and in soilless systems. Salt buildup can be a serious problem for plants because it affects the ability of their roots to take up water. Plants normally regulate how much water they have in their system by actively drinking through their roots. When the water surrounding the roots becomes too salty, however, the salty water does not have enough water molecules in it relative to the fresher water within the plant, so it becomes hard for the plant to suck up the few water molecules left in the salty water outside. Humans have the same problem with their cells trying to get fresh water from salty water—which is the reason a sailor lost at sea can die of thirst in the middle of the ocean.

“Plants respond to excess salt in the same way they respond to conditions of drought. The common symptoms are stunting, wilting, drying of the leaves and even death.”

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Controlling Salt Buildup There are several reasons why salt accumulation can occur, including the use of high-salt fertilizers, a poor water source, poor water drainage, bad substrate selection or even salt-sensitive plants. These factors can occur alone or in combination.

“Plants vary in their susceptibility to high salt concentrations.” One side effect of too much salt is that it can negatively affect the pH of the soil or nutrient solution.When a weak acid or a weak base is added to a salt it is called a “buffer”. If the pH is not in the desired range, then buffering can make pH correction more difficult.This is one reason why growers can continue to add a pH adjuster and see quick results, but then over time they see the pH drift back to where it was before the adjuster was added. Salt buildup can be corrected by leaching, changing the water source, choosing the proper substrate, switching to fertilizers with a low salt index, by the addition of calcium or by adapting to the salt by using plants with a high salt tolerance.

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Leaching and your water source In soil-based systems, salts can be leached out of the soil. Pure water can dissolve the salts and leach them out of the soil profile, but that is usually not practical in agricultural fields or large indoor cropping systems. Some growers resort to leaching salts out of the soil profile with water that is less salty. This method works, but it takes a lot more water to dissolve the unwanted salts than it would with pure water. Check the salt levels in your water source—any environmental laboratory can do this for you. Water softeners add sodium to the water, so softened water should never be used for watering plants.

Substrate choice Some substrates can be high in salt, so staying away from the main culprits can help avoid the problem. Coir coconut fiber can


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Controlling Salt Buildup be one of the offenders, so some industry experts recommend thoroughly rinsing the coir before use to remove excess salt. Sphagnum peat and compost made from purely plant sources are both good low-salt choices. Ask for an analysis of any organic amendments that you are considering, and choose your amendments wisely. If no analysis is available, you should test a small amount of the amendment before purchasing a large quantity. When considering substrates, remember that growing media should contain a substantial quantity of large pores to facilitate good drainage.

Low salt index fertilizers There are several types of salts that can build up in soils and fertilizer solutions, but sodium chloride (table salt) is arguably the most common. In fact, many fertilizers use salts as active ingredients.You can get a good indication of how much salt is in a fertilizer by looking at the salt index (SI). University studies have measured how much salt is in certain brands of fertilizer and they have been ranked accordingly. It should be noted, however, that the SI does not predict the exact amount of fertilizer or the particular formulation that could produce crop injury, although it does compare one fertilizer formulation with others regarding the relative osmotic (salt-related) effects.

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“There are several types of salts that can build up in soils and fertilizer solutions, but sodium chloride (table salt) is arguably the most common.” It also shows which higher-SI fertilizers will be most likely to cause injury to germinating seeds or seedlings if placed in close proximity. For example, a liquid 2-10-10 formula might rank 27.5, whereas a 2-20-20 might rank at 7.2. Clearly, using half the rate of 4-10-10 is still saltier than using the full rate of 2-20-20.

Addition of calcium In soils with a high sodium content, gypsum (calcium sulfate) may be applied to improve the soil structure. Managing soil sodium is really about maintaining optimum levels of soluble soil calcium—in order to amend a salty soil, sodium must be replaced with calcium, which is usually accomplished with high rates of gypsum. Calcium has a more powerful electrical charge than sodium, so the application of gypsum will displace soil sodium. Irrigation then leaches the free sodium through the soil profile, thus restoring the physical properties of the soil.


Salt tolerance in plants Plants vary in their susceptibility to high salt concentrations. The table to the right catalogues some common plants into sensitive, moderately tolerant or highly salt-tolerant categories. A more exhaustive listing of salt-tolerant plants is available in “Urban Horticulture Leaflet 14,” published in the North Carolina Cooperative Extension publication. Salt buildup is a common complication. If excessive salt accumulation is an issue in your garden, then hopefully these tips will help you isolate and rectify the situation and avoid the problem in the future. MY

Sensitive

Moderately tolerant

Highly tolerant

African Violet

Coleus

Bermuda Grass

Apricot

Cucumber

Date Palm

Apple

Fig

Daylily

Beans

Grape

Lantana

Chrysanthemum

Honeysuckle

Lymegrass

Gardenia

Ivy

Oleander

Geranium

Melon

Pampas Grass

Lettuce

Olive

Orange

Onion

Petunia

Pomegranate

Rosemary Russian Sage Saw Palmetto

Pear

Tomato

Spinach

Peas

Vinca

St. Augustine Grass

Plum

Wheat

Yucca

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Scent Relief Full Page

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O W T T R A P ckett d Josh Pu

S R A W G N I N O CL h by Brian C

iang an

As the use of dense matrix LED technology becomes more prevalent in the horticulture industry, indoor gardeners are finding ways to expand beyond traditional growing applications. The innate ability of LEDs to emit specific wavelengths has proven invaluable when applied during the normal growth cycle of plants. As researchers discover more about the effect of light for various crops during different stages of development, they will continue to rely on LEDs to create and test these spectrums.

The advent of dense matrix LED technology, which compacts many LED chips into a single point source, offers more than long lifetimes and energy savings. This platform is able to unite multiple wavelengths to produce one uniform spectrum that not only eliminates sporadic hot spots, but also allows the entire spectrum to penetrate deeply into plants. This capacity is intriguing to both indoor growers and researchers alike, as dense matrix LED products can now be used in more applications than just during the vegetative or flowering phases of growth.

Rethinking Light Spectrum and Plants A significant percentage of how plants perceive their environment and the passing of time is through the reception of light. Throughout their evolution, plants have developed pigments and photo-sensory complexes that allow them to detect the quality and quantity of light they are receiving. These biological mechanisms often trigger hormonal

responses that communicate to parts of the plant whether they should do things like grow longer, initiate flowering or generate roots. Most growers are familiar with plant groupings that include categories like ‘sun loving’ and ‘shade loving’. These terms describe plants by their lightintensity requirements—or the quantity of light they need to flourish. With the advancement of LEDs, we’re beginning to see a shift toward describing plants by their spectral requirements, which, like light-intensity requirements, vary among plant species and varieties. Spectral requirements information not only includes ideal wavelengths, but also the quality of light needed. Individual plants require different spectra and intensities throughout their lifecycle. Although it is currently difficult to make broad assertions on spectral requirements, we are researching plant reactions to light spectra and intensity amongst different species. The versatility of LEDs to define light spectra makes this technology the perfect medium to Maximum Yield USA | March 2011

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Cloning Wars: Part II

find optimal wavelength combinations for different plants throughout their growth cycles. We’ve seen positive results from vegetative and reproductive tests using dense matrix LED grow lights, and our research has devel- Different clones from the same parent tomato plant oped from this success to include experiments on plant steering, cloning and more. Last month we described the initial results of wavelength testing on root formation from propagated cuttings, or clones, and through the use of dense matrix LEDs we were successful in promoting roots, although it was unclear which spectrum actually proved most effective. We continued our rigorous testing and experimentation using herbaceous and dormant hardwood cuttings of different plant species and subjecting them to various wavelengths of LED light.

Initial Experiments: Husky Red Cherry Tomatoes As a recap of our initial experiments, we previously cloned Husky Red Cherry Tomatoes using green cuttings without hormone. Our results are based on observing the days until callus formation, root formation and root branching occurred among the cuttings. At the end of each experiment, percentages of these parameters were taken, in addition to wet and dry weights of generated root mass. To determine whether the presence of light played a role in hastening rooting or increasing the amount of produced root mass, Husky Red Cherry Tomato cuttings tests were done comparing subjected to high intensity light groups subjected to highintensity light and complete darkness. Tests were repeated numerous times to confirm results, each time confirming that green tomato cuttings root faster and produce more root mass when light is present. Next, we compared the Husky Red Cherry Tomato cuttings subjected to darkness role of light intensity Maximum Yield USA | March 2011

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Cloning Wars: Part II

Photographs of foliage and roots of Husky Red Cherry tomato green cuttings subjected to red, purple, and blue LED light treatments

upon rooting in herbaceous cuttings. We rooted 15 terminal and axillary propagations in cloning units subjected to different intensities of light. The number of dense matrix LED grow light units that were suspended above the cuttings controlled the difference in intensity. From these tests we confirmed that green tomato cuttings do not require high-intensity light to generate

Photographs of foliage and roots of Dr. Huey Rose Rootstock dormant cuttings subjected to red, purple, and blue LED light treatments

sufficient root mass quickly. There was little difference in quickness of rooting and biomass production among the groups. Having observed that light intensity, except in cases of extreme excess or deficiency, does not critically affect the rate and amount of root production, we next focused our efforts on identifying wavelengths and spectra that do. We rooted 15 terminal propagations in cloning units under different wavelengths of light and observed the differences in rooting. Original trials tested green, blue, red and purple (a mixture of red and blue wavelengths) dense matrix LED units as root-promoting light treatments. To eliminate the possibility of data corruption due to differences in cloning units, we repeated these tests multiple times. Cloning units were thoroughly cleaned, and unit components were switched before each trial. We maintained uniformity by matching each cutting’s stem length, stem width, leaf number and number of nodes to eliminate possible bias from cutting size and origin on the mother plant. Most of our trials demonstrated red to be the best light treatment for producing the most root mass in the herbaceous tomato cuttings. We recorded the longest roots with the highest percentage of branching in cuttings under the red LED treatment. Both wet and dry weights of root mass were the highest in this group at two weeks after the cuttings were stuck, and outside comparative tests done by industry representatives confirmed these results.

Most of our trials demonstrated red to be the best light treatment for producing the most root mass in the herbaceous tomato cuttings.” 126

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Secondary Experiments: Marianna Plum Rootstock and Dr. Huey Rose Rootstock To verify our initial observations, we ran secondary tests, analyzing how isolated wavelengths and wavelength mixtures affect root development in propagated cuttings. While herbaceous tomato cuttings produced the most root mass under the red LED light, we wanted to analyze whether this was also true for different plant species. Our secondary tests also used dormant or hardwood cuttings instead of herbaceous cuttings. Since dormant cuttings take longer to root, performance differences under each wavelength should be accentuated. It is also easier to maintain uniformity in the rooting plant material with dormant cuttings.

Dr. Huey Rose Rootstock Using the same cloning units, we rooted 15 dormant nine inch Dr. Huey Rose rootstock cuttings under red, purple and blue LED light. As before, we recorded days until callus formation, root formation and root branching among the cuttings. We also recorded the days until bud break, and compared vegetative production with root production. At the end of the experiment percentages of these parameters were also taken, in addition to wet and dry weights of generated root mass. As before, Maximum Yield USAâ&#x20AC;&#x201A;|â&#x20AC;&#x201A;March 2011

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The cuttings under purple and blue LED light produced considerably more callus, while the cuttings under red LED light produced significantly more roots.”

considerably more callus, while the cuttings under red LED light produced significantly more roots. In addition, there was noticeably more bud break and vegetative growth of the cuttings under the purple and blue treatments than there was in those under the red treatment. Further research will be required to investigate the significance of any correlation between these observations.

Marianna Plum Rootstock

we observed the most significant root production in those cuttings subjected to the red LED treatment, and these cuttings produced the longest roots with the highest percentage of root branching.

What was interesting to note in this experiment was the difference between callus and root formation among the treatments. The cuttings under purple and blue LED light produced

We approached the Marianna rootstock cuttings using a different cloning method. We filled a two inch by three inch ebb and flow tray with perlite, and stuck the six inch cuttings into the tray. Suspended above the cuttings were red and blue LED units, and the tray was on a timer set to flood twice daily for five minutes each time. Through this experiment we confirmed that our observations in the previous trials were not the result of variation in the cloning units. As before, we observed increased production of root

Initial Husky Cherry Tomato rooting experiment set-up

Marianna Plum Rootstock rooting experiment set-up

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mass in those cuttings rooted under the red LED. The percentage of root branching was also higher among those cuttings under the red LED treatment. While we did record increased rooting percentage in the cuttings under the blue Rooted Marianna Plum Rootstock cuttings LED treatment, the amount of roots produced was inferior to those rooted under red LED light. Trials of this experiment are currently being repeated.

Conclusion Though we are continuing our research, our current results indicate a correlation between root mass production and red light among propagated herbaceous and dormant cuttings across a variety of plant specifics. Red light seems to promote root elongation as well as root branching in cuttings despite different methods of rooting. The flexibility of LEDs to produce specific wavelengths—and the advancement of dense matrix LED technology, that compacts these wavelengths to create spectrums— is revolutionizing the indoor growing industry. By providing spectral variation, growers can choose the best spectrum for various species and different phases of growth. The capacity of dense matrix LEDs to emit these spectrums is also increasing our knowledge of plant light requirements by giving researchers the tools to investigate wavelength-driven plant responses. With this new understanding, and as LEDs continue to expand lighting applications, we will eventually be able to fully transform how we garden indoors. MY

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avant-gardening

Howto

Grow a Bonsai How to Grow From Tree From seeds a Bonsai Tree Seeds By Marc Alexander

Presenting key tips for growing ultra-zen bonsai trees from seeds, and adding a touch of Japanese artistry to your home décor. Growing bonsai trees is a very attractive diversion though quite challenging. Admittedly, maintaining a bonsai garden is not as easy as it seems. It takes a lot of time, care and patience to grow and sustain the trees especially when they are still young and just starting to flourish. To start you can buy a previously grown bonsai tree you can plant and grow your own from seeds. Although the former is more practical and uncomplicated, you may find the latter more gratifying and fulfilling. When you plant bonsai tree seeds, take time in choosing the seeds that you will use.

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Remember that although bonsai trees originate from regular trees, they require different methods of nurturing.You can use seeds that grow in the wild, however commercial bonsai seeds are preferable because it is more likely they will be disease-free. Also, there are species that are easier to grow and maintain.Your choice depends on your experience in growing these trees. If you already have sufficient experience in this hobby, you may be confident enough to risk planting species that are more difficult to develop. Once you have decided which kind of bonsai tree seeds to plant, you will need to prepare the materials, foremost of which are your bonsai tree seeds.You will also need bonsai-specific soil, pellet trays, peat pellets, sealable plastic bags, bonsai pots, paper towel tray and water. Most of these materials can be bought from garden shops. Germinate the seeds by drenching them in water for 24 hours using the tray. The next step is to place the soaked seeds in paper towels that you will then seal inside sealable plastic bags. Leave them for about a week in a cold place; the refrigerator is a good option. Afterward, bring the seeds out and place them in the pellet trays. This time, gradually put warm water in the trays. Observe the seeds closely until they start to swell. Be sure the trays have holes to drain the water off so as not to “drown” them. Place the seeds on the peat pellet then transfer them to the pots. Fill the pots with bonsai soil. Water the newly planted bonsai seeds and keep them moist while they are in the process of growing. Place them in a spot where they can get enough (but not too much) light. When the seeds have finally grown, inspect them and separate the healthy from the frail ones. Place them in individual pots and care for them until they bloom into full-grown bonsai trees. It is not an easy task to grow bonsai trees. If you are just beginning to grow your own bonsai garden, it is best to consult those who are already experienced in this hobby.You may also want to join associations of bonsai enthusiasts so you can learn more about this craft. MY (Source: www.howtodothings.com)

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MAKE FRIENDS WITH FUNGI by Emma Cooper

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If you want to grow something unusual in your kitchen garden, then you could consider mushrooms. They’re not plants, and they need different care, but in many cases they’re easy to grow and provide a gourmet home-grown treat. Mushrooms are fungi, and they have two main parts—the fruiting bodies that we see above ground and eat, and mycelium, thin strands that spread out through the soil and are roughly equivalent to plant roots. Mushrooms vary considerably in their size and shape, and the conditions in which they grow— but they all live on decomposing plant material of some kind. You’ll need to do a bit of research into which mushrooms will grow well in your climate. The next stage is to help the mycelium establish themselves in their chosen growing medium. After that all you need to do is wait until they’re ready to fruit, which can be unpredictable, depending on the species.

You can either buy your mushrooms as spawn (usually grains of rice or something similar, inoculated with mushroom spawn) or as ready-made kits or mushroom logs. If

“You can get several different mushrooms in kit form including button mushrooms, oyster mushrooms and the unappetizing named slime mushroom!” you have your own supply of suitable fresh logs then you can get impregnated dowels to insert into them. Mushroom kits are usually shortlived, providing one or more ‘flushes’ of mushrooms until the growing medium is exhausted. They’re great for kids and beginners because they’re predictable; you follow instructions to provide just the right conditions for establishing the mycelium and then encouraging them to fruit.


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You can get several different mushrooms in kit form including button mushrooms, oyster mushrooms and the unappetizing named slime mushroom! Some grow in compost, others on straw and some will even happily grow on toilet rolls—a fun project for kids. With mushroom logs you have one type of mushroom per log. Usually they’re just left in a suitable area of the garden, and will fruit as and when they want to, over several years. Mushroom logs are more of a long-term project.

“If you want a real gourmet experience, try growing truffles in your garden. These ultraexpensive fungi grow in the roots of live trees.”

If you want a real gourmet experience, try growing truffles in your garden. These ultra-expensive fungi grow in the roots of live trees. Hazel is a good choice, because you have the option of keeping it under control as a hedge rather than a large tree. Although truffles aren’t a common crop, there are now companies who supply trees impregnated with truffle mycelium, so all you have to do is plant the tree, wait and then dig up your truffles. MY

About the Author: Emma Cooper produces a weekly podcast called “The Alternative Kitchen Garden.”You can read her regular garden updates on her blog, http://coopette.com/blog

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ORCHIDS

– Love, Prosperity,

Wisdom and Perfection

Discover the global history &

evolution of these pretty perennials. by Sarah Matters

Orchids Throughout the World Greece: Orchids have long been symbols of fertility and vitality. The ancient Greeks derived the name from a figure in Greek mythology: Ochis. Ochis was said to be the son of a satyr and a nymph and to have been turned into this flower after his death. Dioscorides, a very notable Greek physician, hypothesized that orchids had an effect on sexuality. This was in the first century A.D. and has fueled a strong belief in the power of orchids. It was believed that if a woman ate small

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“Over the years orchids certainly have not lost their appeal. Even in our modern age they are linked to wisdom, beauty, innocence, luxury and perfection.” orchid tubers and then conceived, she would have a girl. They also believed that if a man ate the largest, newest orchid tubers he would father a boy. Some modern Greeks still hold this belief today.

Europe: In ancient Europe, orchids were a symbol of love and affection and were often a main ingredient in love potions. Fertility and vitality became associated with the plant, not only in Greece but all over Europe. This was in large part due to numerous scholars claiming that orchids grew where animals had bred. In the Victorian era, orchids became a symbol of luxury and elegance. They were a status symbol in a time when status was essential.

Aztecs: The ancient Aztecs viewed the orchid as a symbol of strength. The vanilla orchid grew naturally in certain areas of Mexico and it is told that the Aztecs often used them to make strength potions.

Asia: Ancient Chinese called orchids “Lan Hua” the symbol of human perfection. Confucius related the orchid to the superior man and its smell to the pleasures of friendship. Orchids have long been revered for their beauty and artistic value. In China today they are symbols of wealth and riches and are especially popular during the Chinese New Year. They are also popular as business gifts as they symbolize virtue and moral excellence. Orchids are actually worshiped in some parts of the Philippines. They are said to be the guardians of the forest. All over Asia orchids symbolize perfection, prosperity and virtue. They are a very popular gift as they are said to bring luck to their owners.

Current Associations: Over the years orchids certainly have not lost their appeal. Even in our modern age they are linked to wisdom, beauty, innocence, luxury and perfection. The pink orchid has been designated the official flower for the 14th wedding anniversary, symbolizing pure affection. As a symbol of mature charm the Cattalya orchid is the official flower of the 28th wedding anniversary. They are the national flower for several countries and still a very popular gift. Maximum Yield USA | March 2011

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For many of us, orchids resemble something special and unique to our own experience. For me, it is my grandmother. I remember hearing at a very young age that my Noni’s favorite flower was the orchid. I didn’t totally understand it at the time but I knew she was elegant and graceful and I couldn’t think of a flower that would suit her better. As I have grown and watched her remain elegant and graceful through the hardships of life, I see even more resemblances to her favorite plant. Most impressively, she has the same incredible ability to be delicate and strong simultaneously.

Orchidea Phalaenopsis The Beginner’s Orchid Want to master the orchid. Start simple with the popular Phalaenopsis, said to be one of the easiest orchids to propagate under artificial conditions. Orchidea Phalaenopsis (the proper name for the phalaenopsis orchid) is one of the easiest types of orchids that you can grow. The Phalaenopsis orchid is known as the moth orchid because of its beauty and the fact that it looks like a moth in flight when flowering. Now just because it is the easiest orchid to grow, don’t think it lacks anything in the beauty category. The Phalaenopsis Orchid is known as one of the most beautiful flowers in the world. It is also generally the favorite of all orchids available. Although orchids require unique care to look their best, the Phalaenopsis can provide some forgiveness that 138

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“Do not use hot water and do not use cold water, but use lukewarm or room temperature water to take care of your plant.” some other species might not. So let’s take a look at some guidelines that will help keep your orchid blooming.

Watering: When watering your Phalaenopsis it is best to use filtered water, as general tap water can have too many impurities and can lead to an unhealthy plant. Do not use hot water and do not use cold water, but use lukewarm or room temperature water to take care of your plant. Do not over- or underwater your orchid.You can test the moisture of the medium by placing a finger about two inches below the

surface and seeing how moist it feels. If the medium is dry then you should water your plant. However, if you could feel moisture in the medium then it is okay not to water. Bear this in mind at all times because overwatering an orchid is one of the easiest ways to kill the plant.

Environment and Temperature: The Phalaenopsis orchid thrives in warm temperatures. It also does well in moderate climates. However, the moth orchid does not like temperatures below about 65°F. This is one of the reasons why it is a good idea to keep your

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Orchids - Love Prosperity, Wisdom and Perfection

orchid inside. Keep in mind only select places in the country have the consistent temperatures that will allow for outdoor growth year-round. The outside climate can also affect your indoor plant. If you live in a dry region, you may want to invest in a humidifier system as this can help your orchid greatly. Remember that orchids primarily are grown in tropical environments. Most central

heating and air conditioning controlled homes tend to have lower humidity than what the Phalaenopsis can tolerate for optimal growth. If at all possible you’ll want to humidify the room where your orchid lives. Did you know that some orchids can live for a very long time? There have been documented cases where orchids have lived up to 150 years. This means

that you could even pass your orchids, properly cared for, on to your children or grandchildren. Because it is so versatile and easy to care for compared to other orchids, the Phalaenopsis is a logical first step for any new orchid enthusiast. Even orchid professionals keep them in their collection. All these reasons and more make the Phalaenopsis orchid the best first orchid to have in your collection. MY

“There have been documented cases where orchids have lived up to 150 years.”

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A Vital

Winter

by Robbie Martin

With these soil management strategies, winter doesn’t have to be a season of discontent.Care for your soil through healing and protecting.

Winter time

—what does it mean for gardeners? Short days, cool temperatures and wet soils all present seasonal challenges for those of us who cherish our time in the garden and fields. This is the time to sit by the fire and thumb through the multitudes of seed catalogs available and daydream of the season to come, and the new varieties of fruit, vegetables and flowers that will root in your garden as the days grow longer. Winter is also the time to buy and plant bare root fruit trees, cane berries, blueberries, grapes and roses.Your local nursery will be able to provide a selection of varieties that should excel in your area. Try inoculating the planting soil for these bare root plants with a Mycorrhizae solution or a commercially-available biopack. I also recommend amending this soil with a compost and a granular humus to ensure a fruitful future harvest. This season is a great time to build, manage and apply compost to your garden and indoor plants. Compost tea is an economical and practical way to provide nutrients, organic matter and beneficial biology to soil, soil mixes and plant surfaces in winter.

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Compost tea is as diverse in possible brewing methods as it is in options for additives. Brewing aerobic (with air), anaerobic (without air) and extraction teas all involve placing high-quality compost in a permeable cloth or mesh bag and suspending it in water for a period of time. Aerobic brewing involves active aeration with an air pump. “Real, aerobic compost contains a huge diversity of bacteria, fungi, protozoa, nematodes and perhaps even micro-arthropods. Beneficial species are almost strictly aerobic.” (Ingham, 2003). Anaerobic brewing is not aerated, and left to brew for an extended period of time until the tea loses most of its dissolved oxygen. Caution should be taken with anaerobic teas, since plant and human pathogens can spread in this manner to food crops. Extraction is the most economical brewing method. The extractor bag is left in the water to extract for 15 minutes to an hour, and then kneaded like bread dough. The compost and additives you use will affect the quality of the tea you brew. OMRI-approved compost and tea


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A Vital Winter

Winter is also the time to buy and plant bare root fruit trees, cane berries, blueberries, grapes and roses. additives will provide the macro and micronutrients, soluble organic matter and beneficial biology your plants need. Tea additives that increase microbial biomass and fertility include: fish hydrolyzate (a source of nitrogen that feeds beneficial fungus and spreader/ sticker), kelp extract (a source of potassium and micronutrients), granular humus (soluble organic matter) and glacial rock/rock powders (calcium, magnesium, sulfur and micronutrients). Other optional additives include molasses (a sugar source for bacteria) and vinegar (an acidifier). The two best ways of applying compost tea are by foliar application or the soil drench method. Foliar application in winter allows you to provide nutrients through plant stomata on leaf surfaces, thus bypassing cold soils. “Bacteria and fungi respire carbon dioxide,

which elevates [carbon dioxide] in the atmosphere surrounding the leaf surface, causing the stomates to open more rapidly, for a longer time—thus, the plant takes in more of the foliar nutrients applied in the tea.” (Ingham, 2003). Soil drenches of compost tea for indoor growers provide non-toxic complete liquid fertility that can be tailored for vegetative or flowering cycles, without the risks of conventional synthetic fertilizers. Healthy soil and leaf biology is promoted with the use of compost tea, as the organisms in the tea execute a

multitude of advantageous tasks, which are beneficial for plant health. “They consume the foods that plants put out around their bodies. Plant exudates… enhance the disease-suppressive bacteria and fungi that occur in aerobic tea, leaving no food for disease-causing organisms.” (Ingham, 2003). Compost tea made with quality ingredients will give you a consistent liquid fertility additive, ideal for winter or any time of year. Take advantage of winter moisture to inoculate your soil in preparation for spring. Whether you aerobically brew or extract, high-quality compost tea additives offer an organic solution to fertility and disease issues.

Works Cited:

Ingham, Elaine, Compost Tea: Promises & Practicalities, 2003, Acres, 2 November, 2007 < http://www.acresusa.com/toolbox/ reprints/Dec03_compost%20Teas.pdf >

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by Dr. Benjamin Grimes

A Soil Gardening Report IT’S NOT THE SIZE OF YOUR ROOT BALL ITS HOW YOU USE IT

Gardeners worldwide know that if your root system is poor, your crop will be poor. Similarly, if your root system is healthy and developed, your crop should be great and yield a substantial harvest. There are, however, a number of misconceptions about how large the root system must be to support each plant in order to achieve maximum yields. The simple answer to root system size has for years been the larger the better; however, this is not necessarily true, nor is it possible to achieve maximum root growth in all media. The following is based on several laboratory tests performed by university researchers. 146

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A Soil Gardening Report

Seed or clone roots Training young root growth from either seed or clone should always be done in a media similar to that which you plan to flower in—meaning that a gardener using soil to flower should also use soil to start plants. Similar

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media allows the primary or tap root to begin secondary growth or lateral roots at locations that are most beneficial to the plant during later development. So what is similar media? After testing a variety of rooting media— including rockwool, peat, perlite and several starter mixes containing mixtures of both compost and perlite— we concluded that roots are capable of adapting from any of them, but the best repeatable results came from the use of starter mixes containing compost and perlite. While the exact reasons for these results are not known, it is speculated that aeration of the media by perlite, combined with the naturally porous nature of wood cellulose, provides drainage and water-holding

in a balance which is optimal for early root propagation. Beyond starter media, the single most important factor that was shown to be beneficial to all plants studied was fungus. The use of endomycorrhizae and ectomycorrhizae and their benefits to root development have long been known, but this relationship is still largely unheard of by many gardeners. The Mycorrhizae fungus builds a symbiotic relationship with tertiary or root hairs branching off the lateral roots: this relationship helps transfer nutrients to the plant, helps the plant resist disease and provides a barrier to protect the fragile roots against toxins. Summary: Use Mycorrhizae to help your roots get established. Pots and planters At this early stage of development, maximizing the plant’s ability to grow as many roots throughout the initial growing media as possible is critical to maximizing your final yield. Tested pots and planters included wood, plastic, metal, felt and coconut fiber. The results obtained using wood, plastic and metal were nearly identical: root growth from the primary root extended to the bottom of the vessel almost immediately, followed by secondary root growth moving rapidly to the edge of the vessel about onethird the distance from the top of the container.


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A Soil Gardening Report

Finally, growth near the primary root nearly ceased as the secondary and tertiary roots colonized the outermost regions of the vessel before reaching critical mass and returning growth inward. Felt and coconut fiber displayed similar results in initial growth, with primary and secondary root development reaching the outer edges of the vessel in a nearly identical span of time:

however, the porous walls of both vessels caused the secondary and tertiary roots to stop outward growth, and many branches from the secondary root system that would have been tertiary roots became additional secondary roots, which produced a denser and more centralized tertiary root system. Summary: Porous pots and planters develop better root systems. Maximizing root volume before flowering Initial tests showed that a lot of soil within a given container space often goes unused because tertiary roots are extremely fragile and will not grow into the top layer of soil, which often becomes dried out from powerful lights and low humidity; additionally, lighter-weight soils or soils that contain aerating compounds like perlite are susceptible to being disturbed, which destroys tertiary root growth as the dirt is pushed and moved around by watering. What does this translate to in lost root growth? Using vessels measured for soil 18 inches wide and 12 inches tall, the top three inches of soil demonstrated little or no root growth. The loss of three inches of root growth in a 12 inch space means that 25 per cent of your soil volume—which holds both water and nutrients—is not accessible to the plant. “Using vessels measured for soil 18 inches wide and 12 inches tall, the top three inches of soil demonstrated little or no root growth.”

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A Soil Gardening Report

As the vessel size increases, the loss of root volume increases by a factor of four, which means that a vessel diameter of 12 inches will have an

approximate root volume loss of 340 cubic inches, and a 24 inch diameter vessel will have an approximate root loss of 1,357 cubic inches. Using the top 25 per cent Several tests were performed using commonly available materials at a depth

“Root volume determines the total amount of nutrients that can be transported from the soil to the plant.”

of two inches, including hydroton beads (clay balls), gravel and perlite. Skipping the details of each experiment and summarizing, we reach the following conclusions: rockwool holds a lot of water and dissolved nutrients, which can lead to detrimental fungal and bacterial growths—not recommended. Gravel works well to distribute the incoming water and disperse its force across the top of the soil, but the weight of standard granite-based gravel tends to cause gradual migration downward into the soft soil. Perlite was an almost immediate failure, its lightweight nature causing it to float on the water being added to the vessel, providing no protection for the soil. Hydroton beads were lightweight enough to not sink into the soil of the test vessels, but heavy enough to not be lifted by the force of water being applied. Summary: Hydroton beads two inches deep provide maximum soil protection and root growth. Growth and root volume Root volume determines the total amount of nutrients that can be transported from the soil to the plant; this is usually approached from the perspective of osmosis (water movement into the cells of the root from the soil).

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A high rate of osmosis means that the maximum amount of water and dissolved nutrients can move from the roots to the stem and ultimately to the fruits or flowers of a plant quickly and efficiently. So how much root volume is needed? Using planting vessels measuring 16 inches in diameter under identical flowering conditions, the depth of the soil was tested at six, eight, 10, 12 and 14 inches. This is a difference of 400 cubic inches of roots per interval (1,600

cubic inches difference between six and 14 inches depth). All above-soil growth was limited to 24 inches in height and 36 inches in diameter, and all test plants were genetically identical (clones). The average yield output was nearly identical at six, eight and 10 inches of soil depth, with a marginal increase at each depth integral. Twelve and 14 inch depth intervals provided no increase in yield over 10 inches of soil depth. Marginal increases in yields between shallower intervals totaled less than two per cent when the soil conditions were treated to maximize the root’s use of available soil. For testing, all subjects were capped with two inches of hydroton beads. MY  Summary: Save some soil—maximize your root growth and you don’t need to use large pots or planters to get big yields. Maximum Yield USA | March 2011

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GROWING FOR HEALTH

Growing Stevia A Natural Sugar Alternative by Michael Bloch

If you’re looking to replace sugar in your diet for health or environmental reasons, Stevia is a great no-calorie, more earth-friendly alternative. The demand for cane sugar has seen vast swathes of land degraded over centuries. According to the World Wildlife Federation, sugar cultivation has been responsible for considerable soil erosion, habitat destruction, pesticide and herbicide poisoning of water and eutrophication, caused by nutrient and waste runoff. Refining of sugar also presents environmental issues. For most people it’s health issues that lead them to seek sugar alternatives; and the products most often turned to are aspartame and saccharin. Aspartame is the chemical most widely used now, present in large quantities in diet soda and many other processed foods. When ingested; it breaks down into aspartic acid, phenylalanine and methanol. Phenylaline can cause problems for

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some, but methanol is a bigger concern. The methanol breaks down further into formaldehyde and formic acid, both known carcinogens. It poisons us and what we excrete poisons the environment. The major problem with aspartame is the scale of its use. The EPA recommends a limit of consumption of under eight milligrams a day. A quart of aspartamesweetened soda contains over 50 grams of methanol. The health problems associated with aspartame are currently being hotly debated. One of the components of saccharin is phthalic acid, which is used in plasticizers and for surface coatings. It’s a substance that has created considerable water pollution in China and is banned in some countries. Stevia—which is also known as sweetleaf, honeyleaf or sugarleaf—is an herb from South America that is said to be a couple of hundred times sweeter weight for weight compared with cane sugar. To put that into context, a teaspoon of refined Stevia powder is about as sweet as a cup of sugar. It contains no calories and refined Stevia products have no bitter after-taste. Stevia has been in use by the Guarini Indians of Paraguay for medicinal and sweetening purposes for 1,500 years and has been used extensively for decades in Japan. It has been approved


for use in many countries, but in the USA and Australia, Stevia still hasn’t been approved as a sweetening agent and it’s not permitted for sale in UK or Europe. According to longtime Maximum Yield contributor Noucetta Kehdi, legislation is cautious in Europe and the USA, but has every chance of being authorized in the coming years. It some countries

it can be found in health food stores and in some supermarkets as a dietary supplement. Stevia is available as whole leaf, ground leaf, powders or a liquid extract. The liquid and powder forms are the most potent, but even whole Stevia leaves are 20 to 30 times sweeter than cane sugar. Unlike aspartame, Stevia is stable when heated, so it can be used in a wide range of recipes requiring cooking. Stevia is a member of the chrysanthemum family and an herb that can grow in poor soils. Stevia is a subtropis g cal perennial and is a little in t take cutlike r o s water intensive, but given its d e e e the s known enemies ases t a in m r e potency it may be a plant e G gainst and fungal dis a t c e t o r that could be well suited to P d slugs s to in aphids atnoriosis g your own garden. Imagine e b it e like Sepck the plant beforin order to prehaving your “sugar” hit

sting ancdonsumption e v r a h , g n Growi ng Stevia for prepari 1. 2.

ba ten 3. Cut and cut back of bud egins ver time serve it o before budding bade, in a sh est 4. Harv the leaves in thde below 104˚F 5. Drytilated space an p leaves in a cris ven the dried, h s u r C 6. ns or l coffee mciloffee and infusio to 7. Addin cooking use

growing out in your backyard! Stevia plants have also been observed to have insect repelling tendencies, so it could be a perfect plant for an organic garden. So there you have it, a seemingly healthier and more environmentally friendly solution for your sweet tooth that can also assist with pest control in your garden. MY

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Greenhouse Ventilation Systems -

What’s Your Budget? by Paula Greenfield

Greenhouse ventilation systems can be complex or simple, pricey or free. Choosing the perfect greenhouse ventilation system for your hobby greenhouse is often a matter of personal choice and budget restraints, but going green is always a good idea in the greenhouse. 156

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Greenhouse ventilation systems that use the wind Non commercial greenhouses use wind-powered systems more than any other type for ventilation.Vents are placed in strategic areas to allow the circulation of air throughout the structure when the wind blows. You do not want to place the vents directly opposite each other, as the wind will come in one side and right out the other. Instead, the vents should be staggered.You can also add a chimney ventilation system, which allows the hot air to rise and be pulled out, creating a vacuum that draws in cooler air and keeps it near the ground. It is possible to also get great ventilation in your greenhouse through the use of either hinged or louvered systems. With louvered systems, you get more control because you can adjust them to get the flow you desire. Hinged systems allow air to escape, while preventing huge gusts of wind from flying through.

Getting a little help from modern science with powered greenhouse ventilation systems Another well-liked ventilation system among gardeners is the fan greenhouse ventilation system. These can run up your electric bill; however, if you’d prefer to be a bit more eco-friendly, you can always use them in combination with natural


“It is possible to also get great ventilation in your greenhouse through the use of either hinged or louvered systems.”

ventilation methods, and only use the electric fans in case of an emergency. Solar-powered fan systems in the greenhouse are also available for those with a larger budget. Over time, the savings in the cost of electricity will offset the cost of purchasing solar panels, but this lump sum may be difficult to obtain for many greenhouse enthusiasts. Automatic vents are also a great way to spruce up your nature-powered greenhouse ventilation system. These vents are connected to the thermostat in your greenhouse, and automatically open when the thermostat reaches a preset temperature, allowing your greenhouse to cool down. Once the temperature drops to a predetermined low, the vents close once again, trapping the remaining heat and air in

the greenhouse. Going green with your greenhouse ventilation is a great way to not only save money but improve the quality of everything in your greenhouse. Whichever system you choose, you can be confident that you’ll be producing healthy, happy crops. MY

About the Author: Paula Greenfield has nearly 20 years experience using and designing greenhouses and is an avid gardener. You can find additional useful information about greenhouse gardening and greenhouse gardening supplies at www.greenhousecatalog.com Maximum Yield USA | March 2011

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PRODUCT

Continued from page 42

spotlight

The Water’s Fine With a Sunleaves Titanium Heater _____________________ Water is always the right temperature for plants when you use a Sunleaves Titanium Heater with digital thermostat. These heaters use a remote sensor probe to keep constant tabs on water temperature, while the titanium heating element maintains temperatures at a user-defined set point between 68° and 92°F. They shut off automatically if they’re removed from water or get hotter than 95°F, and also feature an overheat alarm. The 200 watt unit is rated 1.8 amps at 115 volts, and is recommended for 50 to 80 gallon reservoirs, while the 300 watt unit is rated 2.7 amps at 115 volts, and is recommended for 80 to 100 gallon reservoirs. Both units are protected by a one year manufacturer’s warranty. Now available at indoor gardening shops.

Hydro International Presents the New and Improved Reflector YoYo ______________ Our Reflector YoYo has been completely redesigned from the ground up to be smarter, stronger and better than ever. Once you get this bad boy in your hands the first thing you’ll notice is its heavy-duty construction. The second thing you’ll notice is the strong cable. We used steel not nylon! Also, no S-Hooks here, you get a carabineer that can hold up to 33 pounds. When installed you’ll be able to grasp the reflector and pull it down or lift it up to your desired position with confidence, allowing you to focus on the task at hand by giving you access to your plants at any given time. Visit your local gardening shop to learn more.

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PRODUCT spotlight

New 40 Ounce Multi-Functional Pressure Sprayer _________ Hydrofarm’s new 40 ounce handheld multi-functional pressure sprayer/mister has an adjustable nozzle and is ideal for all houseplants and light duty spraying. This sprayer has a clearly marked measuring scale in both ounces and milliliters for accuracy. It also features a thumb-activated lock to keep the sprayer in the “on” position when in use, as well as an easy access pressure release valve. For more information, visit an indoor gardening shop near you.

Upgraded Plant Pro Environmental Controller From Solatel _______________ Growers have requested new features on our Plant Pro Environmental Controller and those changes are finally here. The upgraded Plant Pro Environmental Controller offers exact electronic timing for lighting, irrigation, ventilation and CO2. New features include: separate day and night temperature settings; vent fan mode (fan and CO2 never on together) or sealed room mode (fan and CO2 are independent) where fan has sensor and timer modes; timing from power line or internal timekeeping signal (use with generator or noisy power line); and over temperature emergency shut down. For upgrade of existing units and more information visit an indoor gardening shop near you. MY

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TALKING SHOP

AT A GLANCE

The Anuway Hydroponics team from left: owners Jesse and Trinity Wimmer and Trinity’s sister Tiffany Brown.

Store name: Anuway Hydroponics Owners: Trinity and Jesse Wimmer Location: 2711 W Walnut St. Rogers, Arkansas Phone: 1-479-631-0099 Web: www.anuwayhydroponics.com

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Although Jesse Wimmer was already the proud owner/operator of a masonry business and his wife Trinity was busy winning fitness competitions, they always figured they’d like to make a go of it in the retail hydroponics business. “How hard could it be?” asked Jesse. “All we had to do was open a store, fill it to the brim with gear, educate 50,000 people about the inner workings of selfsustainability, and then put in about 90 hours a week and never leave the store for the next 10 years—a piece of cake!” It’s hard to argue with a business plan like that, but things weren’t actually as simple as all that. The Wimmers’ first years were a struggle. But Jesse and Trinity knew that if the two of them saw a need for a socially responsible and wellstocked hydroponics store in their area, then others probably did too, and they soldiered on. “The first few months were slow, but we expected it to be that way,” said Trinity. “After that it was slow and frightening. After a year and a half with no pay check it was frustrating. We thought, ‘It’s a good thing we grow our own food—at least we won’t starve.”

Jesse and Trinity hung in there and kept plugging away, and the customers eventually started coming in. “People can’t help but stop and come in when they see the eight foot tall giant Belgium tomatoes in the window, and all the peppers and flowers. They want to know how to grow so they can have a garden and share the produce and knowledge with their friends.” Jesse continues, “Because people are designed to grow and share. I don’t care who you are, once you’re invited into a garden and given the encouragement to begin, nature takes its course in you.” Jesse and Tiffany soon discovered that their business was becoming a focal point in the area. Their customers came in the first time because they were intrigued, but they kept returning because they were comfortable, they enjoyed the atmosphere and there was always something interesting going on. “That is what makes Anuway Hydroponics more than just a store—it’s


like a pro shop. It is the local headquarters for the family that needs a greenhouse, or help with composting. Maybe you have bees that need to be removed, or raised beds you need built in your backyard. Perhaps you want to eat raw, or start a local community garden. Where can you go to find like-minded people to help? Anuway Hydroponics is where those people gather in our town,” said Tiffany. This kind of down-home but wellinformed service goes a long way in the Wimmers’ neighborhood, and now they’re catering to a much bigger crowd. “We love our people, and we show it by giving back to our schools,” Jesse goes on. “When the kids have projects, we are there to make sure they get what they need. When the students from the agriculture department at the University of Arkansas come in, we are there to provide not just technical assistance, but a friendly place to get feedback on their ideas for the future. They are the ones who will shape the future of our food production. This helps our cause by creating a base of customers that feel like they are part of the future. If someone mentions eating green, they are told to visit Anuway.” Both Jesse and Tiffany now feel that their biggest ongoing job is continuing education. “We have had to learn more than we ever expected during this venture,” said Jesse. “This industry is all about evolving and learning to become more efficient. I suppose everything nowadays requires continuous learning if you want to stay ahead.”

Jesse and Tiffany try to stock everything their customers might need or want in their shop, but they are adamant that every product they stock must meet their high expectations of quality and that every company they deal with must maintain high ethical and business standards. “We have narrowed the marketplace down to several good distributors and a line of products that we believe in,” said Jesse. “Some of our favorite companies are N.G.W., Hydrofarm, Turboklone, General Hydroponics, Humboldt Wholesale, Hydrotek, Sunlight Supply, West Coast Growers, Botanicare, R&M Supply, Hanna Instruments, Tradewinds, Amerinada, OFE International and Flairform. They are the ones that consistently give us the support we need to make our customers successful.” So do Jesse and Tiffany have any advice for their peers in the retail grow business? “You can’t just be nice,” Jesse says, “You have to genuinely care.You can’t do everything for your customers, so you must effectively teach them to do it themselves.You can’t rely on other people to solve product issues.You must be able to act quickly, with concrete solutions to help your client.You can’t just recommend a product because the salesman told you it was great—they all say that. If you recommend something, you better know it inside and out.” “Finally,” he says, “if we treat this industry like a way to

make a quick buck—that is all it will be. But there is an opportunity here for good people to manufacture and retail innovative products that will make the world a better place. In my opinion, to treat people the way they deserve to be treated is the only way to do business.” MY Tiffany

Trinity and Jesse

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MAX-MART

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LLC

Phone: 510.903.1808 Fax: 510.764.1246 13762 Doolittle Drive, San Leandro, CA 94577

www.hydrogardendelight.com

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MAX-MART

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COMING UP IN april

FEATURED ARTICLES Growing Japanese Style

Exotic and expensive, the Japanese wasabi has a reputation of being difficult to grow; but, hydroponics offers an almost ideal environment for this fiery herb to thrive. Grow your own wasabi with this growing guide.

Boosting the Bloom

Execute your grow with style and precision, and encourage your plants to transition, stress-free, into the bloom phase with these bloom boosting tips.

Strong Stems, Healthy Plants

Weak, discolored or stretched stems indicate the plant’s needs are not being met. Thankfully, most stem problems can be treated and prevented with a little knowledge and foresight.

Planning and Pruning in Winter

Spring is just around the corner, so now is the time for brave gardening souls to step outside into their brisk winter gardens and prep for spring growing.

www.maximumyield.com Maximum Yield USA April will be available April 1 for FREE at selected indoor gardening retail stores across the country and on maximumyield.com Subscriptions are available at maximumyield.com/subscriptions.php 170

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I N D O O R

G A R D E N I N G


DO YOU

know? 6 A complex molecule such as a cancer-preventing

alkaloid, a pain killer or an antidepressant can now be mass produced, and secreted in pure form from the roots or leaves of the actual plants that make them.

7 Sodium chloride (table salt) is arguably the most common salt that builds up in soils and fertilizer solutions.

8 Feltiella Acarisuga—a predator midge that stalks

spidermites—are excellent for outdoor and indoor grows of all types.

1 Agricultural polyethylene (PE) is available in

different light-transmittance ratings. Clear PE passes about 80 per cent of incidental light, and white about 20 per cent.

2

9 Some plants—such as cucumbers in solution culture— are more prone to a Pythium attack than others.

10 The true plastic age began in 1907 with the invention of Bakelite, the first synthetic polymer.

Many new and improved pesticide formulas contain azadirachtin, a Neem derivative proven to be effective when utilized as a foliar spray, a root drench or even a systemic treatment.

3 Plants’ biological mechanisms often trigger

hormonal responses that communicate to parts of the plant whether they should do things like grow longer, initiate flowering or generate roots.

4 Plants respond to excess salt in the same way they

respond to conditions of drought. The common symptoms are stunting, wilting, drying of the leaves and even death.

5 Pythium is the genetic name for over 50 species in the class Oomycetes, of which only a few are common on hydroponic crops.

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MAXIMUM YIELD distributors

ALABAMA Alabama Organics 3348 Bethel Road, Hammondville, AL 35989 256-635-0802

ALASKA Brown’s Electrical Supply 365 Industrial Way, Anchorage, AK 99501 907-272-2259 Far North Garden Supply 2834 Boniface Parkway Anchorage, AK 99504 907-333-3141 Holmtown Nursery Inc. 1301 - 30th Avenue, Fairbanks, AK 99701 907-451-8733 Anuway Hydroponics Suite #1 2711 W Walnut Rogers AK 72756 USA 479 631 0099 Far North Garden Supply 300 Centaur Street, Wasilla, AK 99654 907-376-7586

ARIZONA Homegrown Hydroponics 2525 West Glendale Ave Phoenix AZ 85051 602-368-4005 Sea of Green West 2340 W. Bell Road, Suite 116, Phoenix, AZ 85023 602-504-8842 ACI Hydroponics 1325 South Park Lane, Tempe, AZ 85282 800-633-2137 Homegrown Hydroponics 601 East Broadway Road, Tempe, AZ 85282 480-377-9096 Sea of Green Hydroponics 1301 E. University Dr. Tempe AZ, 85281 800-266-4136 Natural Pools & Gardens 2143 North Country Suite C, Tucson, AZ 85716 520-323-2627 Sea of Green Hydroponics 402 North 4th Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85705 520-622-6344

ARKANSAS Mickey’s Mercantile 1303 Highway 65 South, Clinton, AR 72031 501-412-0214 Old Soul Organics and More 1771 Crossover Road, Fayetteville, AR 72701 479-444-6955 Growfresh Organics & More 2600 S Zero St, Suite C Fort Smith, AR 72901 479.648.8885 Fermentables 3915 Crutcher Street, N. Little Rock, AR 72118 501-758-6261

CALIFORNIA Greenleaf Hydroponics 1839 W Lincoln Avenue, Anaheim, CA 92801 714-254-0005 Grow It Yourself Gardens 401 Sunset Drive, Suite L, Antioch, CA 94509 925-755-GROW High Desert Hydroponics 13631 Pawnee Road, #7 Apple Valley, CA 92308 760-247-2090

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Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

American Hydroponics 286 South G Street, Arcata, CA 95521 800-458-6543 Humboldt Hydroponics 601 I Street, Arcata, CA 95521 707-822-3377 Let it Grow 160 Westwood Center, Arcata, CA 95521 707-822-8733 Northcoast Horticulture Supply 639 6th St. Arcata, CA 95521 707-826-9998 Auburn Organic 4035 Grass Valley Highway, Auburn, CA 95602 530-823-8900 High Street Hydro 180 Cleveland Avenue, Auburn, CA 95603 530-885-5888 Quail Mountain Ranch 230 Palm Ave Auburn, CA 95603 530-889-2390 Tell 2 Friends Indoor Gardening 62 Sutherland Drive, Auburn, CA 95603 530-889-8171 Bakersfield Hydroponics 2408 Brundage Lane, Suite B Bakersfield, CA 93304 Green Leaf Hydroponics 3903 Patton Way #103 Bakersfield CA 93308 661-245-2616 Kern Hydroponics 2408 Brundage Lane, Suite B, Bakersfield, CA 93304 661-323-7333 The Hydro Shop 3980 Saco Road Bakersfield, CA 661-399-3336  Better Grow Hydro Los Angeles 5554 Bandini Boulevard, Bell, CA 91106 323-510-2700; 877 640 GROW Super Starts PO Box 732, Bellmont, CA 94002 650-346-8009 Berkeley Indoor Garden 844 University Avenue Berkeley, CA 94710 510-549-2918 Berkeley’s Secret Garden 921 University Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94710 510-486-0117 Brentwood Hydroponics & Organics 560 Valdry Ct #85 Brentwood, CA 94513 925-634-6704 Advanced Garden Supply 3113 Alhambra Drive, Unit F, Cameron Park, CA 95682, 530-676-2100 Precision Hydroponics 132 Kennedy Avenue, Campbell, CA 95008 408-866-8176 Elite Horticulture Supply 22330 Sherman Way, C13, Canoga Park, CA 91303 818-347-5172 Hydro International 7935 Alabama Avenue Canoga Park, CA 91304 Advanced Hydroponics 17808 Sierra Highway, Canyon Country, CA 91351

Myron L Company 2450 Impala Drive, Carlsband, CA 9210-7226 760-438-2021 661-299-1603 San Diego Hydroponics North County Coastal 6352 Corte Del Abeto #J Carlsbad CA, 92011 760-420-8934 NorCal Creations PO Box 28, Cedar Ridge, CA 95924 Garden Connection, The 2145 Park Avenue, Unit 2 Chico, CA 95928 530-342-7762 Hydro King 2540 South Whitman Place, Chico, CA 959282 530-893-GROW (4769) Grow4Less garden Supply & Hydroponics 320 Trousdale Dr., Suite L Chula Visa CA 91910 619-425-GROW Citrus Heights Hydrogarden 8043 Greenback Lane Citrus Heights, CA 95610 916-728-4769 Conrad Hydroponics Inc. 14915 Unit E, Olympic Drive, Clearlake, CA 95422 707-994 3264 Under The Sun 12638 Foothill Boulevard, Clearlake Oaks, CA 95423 707-998-GROW (4769) Gro More Garden Supply 2937 Larkin Avenue, Clovis, CA 93021 541-646-8245 G & G Organics and Hydroponics 901 W. Victoria Street Unit D, Compton, CA 90220 310-632-0122 Concord Indoor Garden 2771 Clayton Road, Concord, CA 94519 925-671-2520 Hydroponics Plus 2250 Commerce Avenue, Suite C Concord, CA 94520 925-691-7615 Beginning Hydroponics PO Box 1232, Corona, CA 92787 951-735-4446 Hydrostar Hydroponics & Organics 1307 W. Sixth Street, #211, Corona, CA 92882 951-479-8069 A+ Hydroponics & Organics 1604 Babcock Street, Costa Mesa, CA 92627 949-642-7776 The Hydro Source 671 E. Edna Place Covina, CA 91723 877 HYDRO 82; 626-915-3128 Let it Grow 1228 2nd Street, Crescent City, CA 95531 707-464-9086 Northcoast Horticulture Supply 1070 Highway 101, Crescent City, CA 95531 707-464-1200 Seaside Hydrogarden 1070 Highway 101 North, Crescent City, CA 95531 707-465-3520 Pacific Coast Hydroponics 4147 Sepulveda Boulevard, Culver City, CA 90230 310-313-1354 Dr. Greenthumbs Hydroponic Garden Supplies 566 San Ramon Valley Blvd. Danville, CA 94526 925-314-9376


Constantly Growing - Davis 123 D Street Davis, CA 95616 530-756-4774 Constantly Growing 6200 Enterprise Drive, Suite A Diamond Springs, CA 95619 530-642-9710 Harvest Hydroponics 6650 Merchandise Way Suite B, Diamond Springs, CA 95619 530-622-5190 Victory Garden Supply 1900 N Lincoln St #100 Dixon CA 95620 707 678 5800 Watch It Grow Hydro 9453 Firestone Blvd. Downey, CA 90241 562-861-1982 Garden Warehouse 6355 Scarlet Court, #2, Dublin, CA 94568 925-556-3319 Grow A Lot Hydroponics, San Diego 1591 N. Cuyamaca Street, El Cajon, CA 93612 619-749-6777 El Centro Hydro & Brew Supply Inc. 591 main Street, Suite N-2 El Centro, CA 92243 760-235-4985 Go Green Hydroponics 15721 Ventura Boulevard, Encino, CA 91436 818-990-1198 A Fertile World (Eureka) 65th Street, Eureka, CA 95501 707-444-0200 Humboldt Nutrients 65th Street, Eureka, CA 95501 888-420-7770 Humboldt Electronics 2547 California Street, Eureka, CA 95501 707-443-9408 Humboldt Hydroponics 1302 Union Street, Eureka, CA 95501 707-443-4304 Northcoast Horticulture Supply 60 West 4th Street, Eureka, CA 95501 707-444-9999 Constantly Growing 4343 Hazel Avenue, Fair Oaks, CA 95628 916-962-0043 Tulare County Growers Supply 435 W. Noble Avenue, Unit A, Farmersville, CA 93223 559-732-8247 Santa Cruz Hydroponics & Organics - North 6241 Graham Hill Road, Felton, CA 95018 831-335-9990 Eel River Hydroponics & Soil Supply 164 Dinsmore Drive, Fortuna, CA 95540 707-726-0395 The Shop 6542 Front Street, Forestville, CA 95436 707-887-2280 Dirt Cheap Hydroponics 17975 H Highway 1, Fort Bragg, CA 95437 707-964-4211 Hydrogarden Mendocino County 1240 North Main Street, Fort Bragg, CA 95437 707-962-9252 A Fertile World (Fortuna) 610 7th Street, Fortuna, CA 95540 707-725-0700 Western Auto 1156 Main Street, Fortuna, CA 95540 707-725-1189

Northcoast Horticulture Supply 357 Main Street, Fortuna, CA 95540 707-725-5550 Nature’s Secret Garden and Supply 41469 Albrae Street, Fremont, CA 94577 510-623-8393 Roots Grow Supply 1330 North Hulbert, #101 Fresno, CA 93728 559-840-0122 Tower Garden Supply & Organic Nursery 403 W. Olive Avenue, Fresno, CA 93728 559-495-1140 Valley Hydroponics 207 E. Sierra Ave. Fresno, CA 93710 559-449-0426 Grow Wurks Hydroponics 765 S. State College Boulevard. Suite J Fullerton, CA 92831 SB Hydro 1109 W. 190th Street, Unit #F, Gardena, CA 90248 310-538-5788 Golden Gecko Garden Center, The 4665 Marshall Road, Garden Valley, CA 95633 530-333-2394 Probiotic Solutions 20889 Geyserville Avenue, Geyserville, CA 95441 707-354-4342 South Valley Hydroponics 320 Kishimura Drive, #3 Gilroy, CA 95020 1-866-848-GROW Stop N Grow 340 Pine Avenue, Goleta, CA 93003 805-685-3000 All Seasons Hydroponics 17614 Chatsworth Street, Granada Hills, CA 91344 818-368-4388 AG Natural 403 Idaho Maryland Road, Grass Valley, CA 95945 530-274 0990 Grass Valley Hydrogarden 12506 Loma Rica Drive, Grass Valley, CA 95945 530-477-2996 Vital Landscaping Inc. 12817 Loma Rica Drive, Grass Valley, CA 95945 530-273-3187 West Coast Growers Hydroponics 13481 Colifax Highway, Grass Valley, CA 95945 888-924-4769 M.G.S. 22540 D Foothill Boulevard, Hayward, CA 94541 510-582-0900 Thrive Hydroponics 70 A West North Street, Healdsburg, CA 95446 707-433-4068 Emerald Garden 13325 South Highway 101, Hopland, CA 95482 707-744-8300 Surf City Hydroponics 7319 Warner Street, Suite B Huntington Beach, CA 92647 714-847-7900 Dutch Garden Supplies Park Circle Suite 12 Irvine CA 92614 949-748-8777 West Coast Hydroponics, Inc. 27665 Forbes Road, Unit 10 Laguna Niguel, CA 92677 949-348-2424 La Habra 1301 S Beach Boulevard, La Habra, CA 90631 562-947-8383

Grass Roots Hydroponics 31875 Corydon, Suite 130 Lake Elsinore, CA 92530 951-245-2390 South County Hydroponics 22511 Aspan Street, Suite E Lake Forest, CA 92630 949-837-8252 Clover Hydroponics & Garden Supply 43 Soda Bay Road, Lakeport, CA 95453 707-263-4000 San Diego Hydroponics East County 11649 Riverside Drive, Suite 141, Lakeside, CA 92040 619-562-3276 Total Hydroponics Center Inc 4820 Paramount Blvd Lakewood, CA 90712 562-984-GROW (4769) Weather Top Nursery 44901 Harmon Drive, Laytonville, CA 95454 707-984-6385 CNG Garden Supplies 22 Ricknbacker Circle, Livermore, CA 94551 925-454-9376 DL Wholesale 6764 Preston Ave. Suite D Livermore CA 94551 510 550 0018 National Garden Wholesale/Sunlight Supply 6485 Brisa Street, Livermore, CA 94550 888-570-4678 (Southern CA) Garden Depot, The 203 Commerce Street, Suite 101 Lodi, CA 95240 209-339-9950 Valley Rock Landscape Supply 2222 N H Street Lompoc CA 93436 P: 805 736 0841 805 735 5921 Green Coast Hydroponics 2405 Mira Mar Avenue, Long Beach, CA 90815 562-627-5636 Grow Light Express 5318 East Second Street suite 164, Long Beach, CA 90803 888-318-GROW Long Beach Hydroponics & Organics 1772 Clark Avenue, Long Beach, CA 90815 562-498-9525 Atwater Hydroponics 3350 Glendale Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90039 323-663-8881 Green Door Hydro and Solar 830 Traction Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90013 212-625-1323 Hardman Hydroponics 3511 Youree Dr., Shreveport Los Angeles 71105 318-865-0317 Hollywood Hydroponics and Organics 5109 1/2 Hollywood Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90027-6105 323-662-1908 Hydroasis 2643 S. Fairfax Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90232 888-355-4769 LAX Hydro 10912 S. La Cienaga Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90304 310-337-6995 Sunland Hydroponics 4136 Eagle Rock Blvd, Los Angeles, CA 90065 323-254-2800 Green Giant Hydroponics 7183 Hwy 49 Unit B Lotus CA 95651 530 622 4465

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MAXIMUM YIELD distributors

Deep Roots Garden Center & Flower Shop 207 N. Sepulveda Blvd. Manhattan Beach, CA 90266 Telephone: 310-376-0567 B & S Gardening Supplies 590 Commerce Court, Manteca, CA 95336 209-239-8648 Monterey Bay Horticulture Supply 218 Reindollar Avenue Suite 7A, Marina, CA 93933 831-38-HYDRO Two Chix Garden Supply 1230 Yuba Street, Marysville, CA 95901 530-923-2536 Northcoast Horticulture Supply 1580 Nursery Way McKinleyville, CA 95519 707-839-9998 Thunders Hydroponic Center 1729 Yosemite Boulevard, Medesco, CA 95354 Mendocino Garden Shop PO Box 1301, 44720 Maint Street (at Hwy. 1), Mendocino, CA 95460 707-937-3459 Grow Zone 718 Willow Rd. Menlo Park CA 94025 650-326-4769 Merced Hydroponics 1809 East 21st Street, Merced, CA 95340 209-726-4769 The Urban Farmer Store 653 E. Blithedale Avenue, Mill Valley, CA 94941 415-380-3840 Coca’s Central Valley Hydroponics 116 West Orangeburg Avenue, Modesto, CA 95350 209-567-0590 Growers Choice Hydroponics 1100 Carver Road, Modesto, CA 95350 209-522-2727 Year Round Garden Supply 11000 Carver Rd. #20 Modesto, CA 95350 Tel: 209 522 2727 Green Light Hydroponics 2615 Honolula Ave. Montrose, CA 91020 818-640-2623 Grodan Inc. Moorpark, CA 93021 541-646-8245 Supersonic Hydroponic and Organic Garden Supply 850 Shasta Avenue, Suite B Morro Bay, CA 93442 805-772-5869 South Bay Hydroponics and Organics - Mtn. View 569 East Evelyn Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94041 650-968-4070 Redwood Garden Supply 55 Myers Avenue, Myers Flat, CA 95554 707-943-1515 Endless Green Hydroponics 25 Enterprise Court, Suite 3 Napa, CA 94558 707-254-0200 Conejo Hydroponics 3481 Old Conejo Road #106 Newbury Park, CA 91320 805-480-9596 Stop N Grow 640 S. Frontage Road, Nipomo, CA 93444 805-619-5125 Valley Garden Solutions Inc. 15650 Nordhoff Avenue, Suite 104, North Hills, CA 91345 818-336-0041 Foothill Hydroponics 10705 Burbank Boulevard, N. Hollywood, CA 91601 818-760-0688 One Stop Hydroponics 12822 Victory Boulevard North Hollywood, CA 91606 818-980-5855

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Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

Lumatek Digital Ballasts 33 Commercial Boulevard, Suite B Novato, CA 94949 415-233-4273 Marin Hydroponics 1219 Grant Avenue, Novato, CA 94945 415-897-2197 Roots Grow Supply 40091 Enterprise Dr. Oakhurst CA 93644 559 683 6622 3rd Street Hydroponics 636 3rd Street Oakland, CA 94607 510-452-5521 Bloom Hydro 1602 53rd Ave. Oakland CA 94601 707 980 0456 Medicine Man Farms 1602 53rd Avenue, Oakland, CA 94601 707-980-0456 Plant-N-Grow 1602 53rd Avenue, Oakland, CA 94601 707-980-0456 Hydrobrew 1319 South Coast Highway, Oceanside, CA 92054 760-966-1885; 877-966-GROW Socal Hydroponics 1727-B Oceanside Boulevard, Oceanside, CA 92054 760-439-1084 Cultivate Ontario 2000 Grove Ave #a110 Ontario, CA 91761 909-781-6142 Flairform 1751 S Pointe Avenue, Ontario, CA 91761 213-596-8820 National Garden Wholesale/Sunlight Supply 1950 C South Grove Avenue, Ontario, CA 91761 888-888-3319 Palm Tree Hydroponics 2235 E 4th St,Suite G Ontario, CA 91764 909-941-9017 RH Distribution 1751 S. Pointe Avenue Ontario, CA 91761 888-545-8112 Green Coast Hydroponics 496 Meats Avenue Orange, CA 92865 714-974-4769 Natural Pest Controls 8320 B Hazel Avenue, Orangevale, CA 95662 916-726-0855 Igrow Hydro 2280 Veatch Street, Oroville, CA 95965 530-534-4476 Orville Organic Gardens 5250 Olive Hwy Ste 1 Oroville, CA 95966 530-589-9950 US Orchid & Hydroponic Supplies 1621 South Rose Avenue, Oxnard, CA 93033 805-247-0086 America’s Best Hydroponics & Gardening Center 641 W. Palmdale Blvd. Unit D Palmdale, CA 93551 661-266-3906 Hydroponics Unlimited 641 W. Palmdale Blvd. “D” Palmdale, CA 93550 661-266-3906 Palm Springs Hydroponics 4651 Ramon Road, Palm Springs, CA 92264 760-327-ROOT New Leaf Hydro 34150 123rd Street, Parablossom, CA 93553 661-944-2226

Alternative Hydro 3870 East, Colorado Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91107 888-50-HYDRO Better Grow Hydro Pasadena 1271 E. Colorado Boulevard, Pasedena, CA 91106 626 737 6612 Supersonic Hydroponic and Organic Garden Supply 3850 Ramada Drive, Unit D2 Paso Robles, CA 93446 805-434-2333 Foothills Hydrogarden 3133 Penryn Road, Penryn, CA 95663 916-270-2413 Funny Farms Hydroponics 963 Transport Way, #12 Petaluma, CA 94954 707-775-3111 House of Hydro 224 Weller Street, #B, Petaluma, CA 94952 707-762-4769 Turbo Grow 1889 San Pablo Avenue, Pinole, CA 94564 510-724-1291 Best Yield Garden Supply 3503 West Temple Avenue, Unit A, Pomona, CA 91768 909-839-0505 Emerald Garden 8249 Archibald Avenue, Ranch Cucamanga, CA 91730 909-466-3796 GreenLeaf Hydroponics 2212 Artesia Boulevard, Redondo Beach, CA 90278 310-374-2585 Shadow Valley Aquatics 75 Kimick Way, Red Bluff, CA 96080 530-526-0479 Bare Roots Hydroponics 1615 East Cypress, #5 Redding, CA 96002 530-244-2215 Dazey’s Supply 3082 Redwood Drive, Redway, CA 95560 707-923-3002 Humboldt Hydroponics 2010 Tunnel Road, Redway, CA 95560 707-923-1402 Redway Feed Garden and Pet Supply 290 Briceland Road, Redway, CA 95560 707-923-2765 Sylvandale Gardens 1151 Evergreen Road, Redway, CA 95560 707-923-3606 Humboldt Hydroponics 2174 Pine Street, Redding, CA 96001 530-241-7454 Hydro King 105 Hartnell Avenue, Suite C and D, Redding, CA 96002 888-822-8941 Orsa Organix 111 Willow Street, Redwood City, CA 94063 650-369-1269 Mendocino Greenhouse & Garden Supply 960 East School Way, Redwood Valley, CA 95470 707-485-0668 EZ Green Hydroponics 7017 Reseda Boulevard, Reseda, CA 91335 818-776-9076 Hydro Hills Hydroponics 19320 Vanowen St. Reseda CA 91335 Box Of Rain Inc. Po Box 302, Rexford, CA 59930 406-755-7245


Hi-Tech Gardening 5327 Jacuzzi Street, #282, Richmond, CA 94804 510-524-4710 The Urban Farmer Store 2121 San Joaquin Street, Richmond, CA 94804 510-524-1604 Discount Hydroponics 4745 Hiers Avenue, Riverside, CA 92505 877-476-9487 All Ways Hydro 2220 Eastridge Ave. Suite C Riverside CA 92507 888-HYDRO98 Calwest Hydroponics 11620 Sterling Avenue, Suite A Riverside, CA 92503 800-301-9009 Hydro Depot 5665 Redwood Drive, #B, Rohnert Park, CA 94928 707-584-2384 Igrow Hydro 9000 Atkinson Street, Roseville, CA 95678 916-773-4476 Green Acres Hydroponics 1215 Striker Avenue, Suite 180, Sacramento, CA 95834 916-419-4394 Greenfire Sacramento 3230 Auburn Boulevard, Sacramento, CA 95821 916-485-8023 Green Thumb Hydroponics 35 Quinta Court, Suite B, Sacramento, CA 95823 916-689-6464 KY Wholesale 8671 Elder creek Rd. #600 Sacramento, CA 95828 916 383 3366 Mystic Gardens 8484 Florin Road, #110, Sacramento, CA 95828 916-381-2464 Sac Hydroponics 9529 Folson Boulevard, Suite C Sacramento, CA 95827 916-369-7968 Skywide Import & Export Ltd. 5900 Lemon Hill Avenue, Sacramento, CA 95824 916-383-2369 Tradewinds Wholesale Garden Supplies 1235 Striker Avenue #180, Sacramento, CA 95834 888-557-8896 Green Joint Ventures 61 Tarp Circle, Salinas, CA 93901 831-998-8628 Reforestation Technologies International 1341 Daton Street, Units G&I Salinas, CA 93901 831-424-1494; 800-RTI-GROW National Garden Wholesale / Sunlight Supply 1900 Bendixsen Street , Bldg. 1, Samoa, CA 95564 800-683-1114 (Northern CA) Greenmile Hydroponic Garden Supply 1480 South E. Street, Suite D, San Bernardino, CA 92408 909-885-5919 Garden Shed, The 1136 El Camino Real San Carlos, CA 650-508-8600 Pure Food Gardening/Microclone 830 H Bransten Rd. San Carlos,CA 94070-3338 Green Gopher Garden Supply 679 Redwood Avenue, Suite A, Sand City, CA 93955 831-899-0203 Modern Gardens 26620 Valley Center Dr. Santa Clarita, CA 91351 661-513-4733

Best Coast Growers 4417 Glacier Avenue Suite C, San Diego, CA 92120 800-827-1876 City Farmer’s Nursery 4832 Home Avenue, San Diego, CA 92105 619-284-6358 Green Lady Hydroponics 4879 Newport Avenue, San Diego, CA 92107 619-222-5011 Home Brews & Gardens 3176 Thorn St San Diego, CA 92104 619 630 2739 Indoor Garden Depot 1848 Commercial St. San Diego CA 92113 619-255-3552 Innovative Growing Solutions (IGS) 5060 Santa Fe St. Ste.D San Diego, CA 92109 858-578-4477 Mighty Garden Supply 4780 Mission Gorge Pl. #A-1, San Diego, CA 92120 619-287-3238 Miramar Hydroponics & Organics 8952 Empire Street San Diego CA 92126 858-549-8649 Oracle Garden Supply 5755 Oberlin Drive, Suite 100 San Diego, CA 92121 858-558-6006 Pacific Beach Hydroponics 1852 Garnet Avenue, San Diego, CA 92109 858-274-2559 San Diego Hydroponics Beach Cities 4122 Napier Street, San Diego, CA 92110 619-276-0657 Wai Kula Hydrogardens 5297 Linda Vista Road, San Diego, CA 92110 619-299-7299 Direct Hydroponics Wholesale 1034 W. Arrow Hwy#D San Dimas, CA 91773 888-924-9376 Liquid Gardens 1034 West Arrow Hwy.#D San Dimas, CA 91773 888-924-9376 Extreme Hydroponics 11479 San Fernando Road C, San Fernando, CA 91340 818-898-0915 Grow Your Own 3401 Traval Street, San Francisco, CA 94116 415-731-2115 Hydroponic Connection Warehouse, The 1995 Evans Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94124 415-824-9376 Nor Cal Hydroponics 4837 Geary Boulevard, San Francisco, CA 94118 415-933-8262 Plant It Earth 2279 Market Street, San Francisco, CA 94114 415-626-5082 Urban Gardens Unlimited UrbanGardens 704 Filbert Street, San Francisco, CA 94133 415-421-4769 San Francisco Hydro 123 Tenth Street, San Francisco, CA 94103 The Urban Farmer Store 2833 Vicente Street, San Francisco, CA 94116 415-661-2204 US Garden 417 Agostinio Rd San Gabriel Ca 91776 626 285-5009 advanced hydroponics and gardening

704 Filbert Street, San Francisco, CA 94133

Inland Empire Hydrogarden 1301-C South State Street, San Jancinto, CA 92853 Hahn’s Lighting 260 E. VA Suite 1, San Jose, CA 95112 408-295-1755 Plant Life 32 Race Street, San Jose, CA 95126 408-283-9191 South Bay Hydroponics and Organics - San Jose 1185 South Bascom Avenue, San Jose, CA 95128 408-292-4040 D&S Garden Supplies 17-130 Doolittle Drive San Leandro, CA 94577 510-430-8589 Hydrogarden Delight 13762 Doolittle Drive, San Leandro, CA 94577 510-903-1808 Central Coast Hydrogarden 1951 Santa Barbara Street, San Luis Obispo, CA 93401 805-544-GROW Healthy Harvest Hydroponics and Organics 2958 S. Higuera St. San Luis Obispo, CA 93401 805.596.0430 San Diego Hydroponics North 802 N. Twin Oaks Valley Road #108 San Marcos, CA 92069 760-510-1444 H20 Gardening 355 West 7th Street, San Pedro, CA 90731 310-514-1416 Pacific Garden Supply 128 H Carlos Drive, San Rafael, CA 94903 San Rafael Hydroponics 1417 Fourth Sreet San Rafael, CA 94901 415 455 9655 Green Coast Hydroponics 3560 State Street, Santa Barbara, CA 93105 805-898-9922 Nutes Int’l 204 N Quarantina Street, Santa Barbara, CA 93103 805-687-6699 Santa Clarita Valley Hydroponics 25835 Railroad Ave. #26 Santa Clarita CA 91350 661 255 3700 661 255 3701 California Hydroponics 310 Coral Street, Suite C Santa Cruz, CA 95060 831-423-4769 Hydro-Logic Purification Systems 370 Encinal St, Suite 150, Santa Cruz, CA 95060 888 H2O LOGIC Santa Cruz Hydroponics & Organics - West Side 815 Almar Avenue, Unit K, Santa Cruz, CA 95060 831-466-9000 Full Sun Supply 3535 Industrial Drive, Unit B-3 Santa Rosa, CA 95403 877-FULL-SUN Gonzo Grow 2550 Guerneville Road,Suite C, Santa Rosa, CA 95401 707-546-1800 Gottagrow Garden Supply 769 Wilson Street, Santa Rosa, CA 95404 707-544-7782 Green Logic Garden Supply 860 Piner Road, #38, Santa Rosa, CA 95403 707-843-3156 Organic Bountea 1919 Dennis Lane, Santa Rosa, CA 95403 800-798-0765

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MAXIMUM YIELD distributors

Pro Gardening Systems 3715 Santa Rosa Avenue #2, Santa Rosa, CA 95407 707-585-8633 Sun-In Hydroponics 1257A Cleveland Avenue, Santa Rosa, CA 95401 707-578-5747 Sweet Leaf Hydroponics 1611 Sebastobol Road, Santa Rosa, CA 95407 707-575-GROW (4237)  Santee Hydroponics 7973A Mission Gorge Road, Santee, CA 92071 619-270-8649 Gardening Unlimited 60 Old El Pueblo Road, Scotts Valley, CA 95066 831-457-1236 Pro Gardening Systems 765 Petaluma Avenue, Sebastopol, CA 95472 707-829-7252 Better Choice Hydroponics 610 S. Washington Street, Senora, CA 95370 209 533 2400 Go Big Hydroponics 4501 Van Nuys Boulevard, Sherman Oaks, CA 91403 818-789-3341 We Grow Hydroponics 3350 East Los Angeles Avenue, Simi Valley, CA 93063 805-624-4566 Abundant Hydroponics LLC 1611 Shop Street, #1-A, S. Lake Tahoe, CA 96150 530-54 HYDRO Advanced Garden Supply 2660 Lake Tahoe Boulevard, Building C, Unit 9, S. Lake Tahoe, CA 96150 530-541-4769 Farm Hydroponics, The 1950 Lake Tahoe Boulevard #3, S. Lake Tahoe, CA 96150 530-541-3276 Santa Cruz Hydroponics & Organics - East Side 4000 Cordelia Lane Soquel, CA 95073 831-475-9900 Orange County Hydroponics 12687 Beach Boulevard, Unit H, Stanton, CA 90680 714-893-9493 Golden Harvest Hydroponics & Garden Supply 8626 Lower Sacramento Road #48, Stockton, CA 95210 209-951-3550 M&M Garden Supply 2509 West Lane, Suite B Stockton, CA 95205 209-939-0664 City Farm Hydroponics 8903 Laurel Canyon Boulevard, Sun Valley, CA 91352 818-767-2076 Sunland Hydroponics 8300 Foothill Boulevard, Sunland, CA 91040 818-352-5300 Anthony’s Garden & Lighting Supply 30 Ridge Road, Suites 8 & 9 Sutter Creek, CA 95685 209-267-5416 Tahoe Garden Supply 645 Westlake Boulevard, Suite 2, PO Box 487 Tahoe City, CA 96145 530-581-3200 The Otherside Hydroponics 19425 Ventura Blvd Tarzana CA 91356 818 881 hydro (4937) Hydroponics 4 Less 41669 Winchester Avenue, Temecula, CA 92590 800-A1-HYDRO Inland Empire Hydrogarden 28822 Old Town Front St. #206 Temecula, CA 92590 886-74-HYDRO

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Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

805 Hydroponics & Organics 1785 E. Thousand Oaks Boulevard Thousand Oaks, CA 91362 805-494-1785 Art of Hydro 2636 E. Thousand Oaks Blvd. Thousand Oaks, CA 91362 805-230-2227 Green Thumb Lighting & Garden 1647 W. Sepulveda Boulevard, Unit 5, Torrance, CA 90501 888-326-GROW Los Angeles Hydroponics and Organics 3007-3009 W. Artesia Blvd. Torrance, CA 90504 310-323-4937 Anything Grows 10607 W. River Street, Building 3 Suite C, Truckee, CA 96161 530-582-0479 Hooked Up Hydroponics 339 S. Golden State Boulevard, Turlock, CA 95380 209-668-1300 Emerald Garden 307 East Perkins Street, Ukiah, CA 95482 707-463-2510 HydroPacific - Hydroponics & Garden Supplies 351 C Hastings Av., Ukiah, CA 95482 707-467-0400 Northcoast Hydrogardens 3450 North State Street, Ukiah, CA 95482 707-462-7214 Atlantis Garden Supply 2851 A Whipple Road, Union City, CA 94587 510-487-8007 Evergreen Hydroponics 923 N. Central Avenue, Suite B, Upland, CA 91786 909-946-7100 TNC Supply 9490 Main Street, P.O. Box 763 Upper Lake, CA 95485 707-275-9565 Everything Green 448 Georgia Street, Vallejo, CA 94590 707-647-0774 Hydroponics Market 15816 Arminta St Van Nuys, CA 91406 818-305-6261 886-72-HYDRO Stop N Grow 4160 Market Street, Unit 11 Ventura, CA 93003 805-639-9489 BWGS-CA 7530 W. Sunnyview Avenue Visalia, CA 93291 888-316-1306 The Green Shop 66420 Mooney Boulevard, Suite 1 Visalia, CA 93277 559-688-4200 Kaweah Grower Supply 1106 1/2 N. Ben Maddox Way, Visalia, CA 93293 559-625-4937 Greentrees Hydroponics Inc. 2581 Pioneer Avenue, Unit D Vista, CA 92081 760-598-7551 Home Life Hydroponics and Organics 1745 East Vista Way, Vista, CA 92084 760-643-2150 Specialty Garden Center 1970 East Vista Way, Suite 10, Vista, CA 92084 760-758-4769 Monterey Bay Hydroponics and Organics 81 Hangar Way, #1, Watsonville, CA 95076 831-761-9999 California Hydro Garden 1043 South Glendora Avenue, Suite A West Covina, CA 91790 626-813-0868

No Stress Hydroponics 7543 Santa Monica Boulevard, West Hollywood, CA 90046 323-845-9874 Hydronation 2491 Boatman Drive, Suite B West Sacramento, CA 95691 916-372-4444 Flower Hut Nursery 603 4th Street Wheatland, CA 95692 530-633-4526 Green Coast Hydroponics 11510 Whittier Boulevard Whittier, CA 90601 562-699-4201 GreenWay Hydroponics 11510 Whittier Boulevard, Whittier, CA 90601 Lazy Gardeners Hydroponics ‘N’ More 14626 East Whittier Boulevard, Whittier, CA 90605 562-945-0909 Garden Spout, The 260 Margie Dr Willits, CA 95490 707-456-0196 Sparetime Supply 208 E. San Francisco Avenue, Willits, CA 95490-4006 Urban Gardens 22516 Ventura Boulevard, Woodland Hills, CA 91364 818-876-0222 Ultra Lo Hydro ultralohydro.com 937-252-8224 Garden Highway Garden Supply 598 Garden Highway #22 Yuba City, CA 95991 530-755-2877 Southern Humbolt Garden Supplies 34919 Yucaipa Boulevard, Yucaipa, CA 92399 909-797-6888 707-459-6791

COLORADO National Garden Wholesale/Sunlight Supply 3550 B Odessa Way, Aurora, CO 80011 866-877-4188 (Northeast) Nick’s Garden Center 2001 S. Chambers, Aurora, CO 80014 303-696-6657 Family Hydroponics-Boulder 2125 32nd Street Boulder, co 80301 303-996-6100 Polar Ray 5171 Eldorado Springs Dr. Boulder, CO 80303 303 494 5773 Way To Grow 6395 Gunpark Drive, Boulder, CO 80301 303-473-4769 Deep Roots Garden Supply 1790 Airport Road, Unit 1 Breckenridge, CO 80424 970-453-1440 Mile High Hydroponics 37 Strong St. Brighton, CO 80601 303 637 0069 Brighton Hydroponics 839so.Kuner rd., Brighton Colorado 80601 303-655-1427 ACME Hydroponics  300 Nickel St Suite 3 Broomfield, CO 80020 720.524.7306 Colorado Grow 3400 Industrial Lane, Unit 10A Broomfield, CO 80020 (303) 465-GROW (4769) J&D Organic Growing Solutions 217 1/2 Clayton Street Brush, CO 80723 970-310-5408


BIG BloomZ 1005 Caprice Drive, Castle Rock, CO 80109 303-688-0599 Indoor Garden Warehouse 8100 S Akron St., Suite 322, Centennial, CO 80112 720-496-2110 Garden Tech 737 Garden of the Gods Road, Colorado Springs, CO 80907 719-278-9777 Greenhouse Tech 917 East Fillmore, Colorado Springs, CO 80907 719-634-0637 Hydro Grow Supply 644 Peterson Road, Colorado Springs, CO 80915 719-596-2600 Olympic Hydroponics Supply LLC. 1530 S Nevada Avenue, Colorado Springs, CO 80906 719-635-5859 High Tech Garden Supply 5275 Quebec St. Commerce City, CO 80022 720-222-0772 Roll-N-Green Farms Horticultural Supply 25797 Conifer Rd #A-8 Conifer, Co 80433 303-838-5520  BWGS-CO 11685 E. 55th Avenue Denver, CO 80239 888-316-1306  Chlorophyll 3801 Mariposa St. Denver CO 80211 303-433-1155 Denver Hydroponic & Organic Center 6810 North Broadway, Unit D Denver, CO 80221 303-650-0091 Rocky Mountain Lighting and Hydroponics 7100 N. Broadway, Suite 3D Denver, CO 80221 303-428-5020 The Grow Outlet 4272 Lowell Boulevard Denver, CO 80211 303-586-5543 Way To Grow 301 East 57th Ave. Denver, CO 80216 303-296-7900 All Seasons Gardening 434 Turner Drive, Suite 2B Durango, CO 81303 (970) 385-4769 Blue Sky Hydroponics 1301 Florida Road Unit C Durango, CO 81301 970-375-1238 Grow Store South, The 5050 S. Federal Boulevard, #37, Englewood, CO 80110 303-738-0202 Alpenglow Garden Supply 2712 South College Ave Fort Collins, CO 80525 970-266-8888 Bath Nursery & Garden Center 2000 E. Prospect, Fort Collins, CO 80525 970-484-5022 Indoor Paradise Hydroponics 309 S. Summit View, Unit 17, Fort Collins, CO 80524-1462 970-221-3751 Way To Grow 3201 E. Mulberry Street, Fort Collins, CO 80524 970-484-4769 Hydro Shack, The 220 Main Street, Suite E Frisco, CO 80443 970-668-0359 GWS Hydroponics 7025 Highway 82 Building 4B, Glenwood Springs, CO 81601 970-384-2040

Hydro Planet 711 Washington Avenue, Golden, CO 80401 303-279-6090 Rocky Mountain Hydroponics and Organics 15985 S. Golden Road Golden, CO 80401 720-475-1725 Desert Bloom Hydroponics 445 Pitkin Avenue, Grand Junction, CO 81501 970-245-6427 Primo Gardens 1600 North Ave. Suite B Grand Junction, CO 81501 970-241-1209  Greeley Nutrients 700 11th Street Unit 101 Greeley CO 80631 970 673 8302 GroWize 3225 S. Wadsworth Boulevard, Lakewood, CO 80227 303-986-2706 Grow Store, The 8644 W. Colfax Avenue, Lakewood, CO 80215 888-510-0350 Ever Green Hydroponics Inc. 1131 Francis Street, Suite A, Longmont, CO 80501 303-682-6435 Ultra Lo Hydro ultralohydro.com 937-252-8224 Victory Hydro Gardening 1387 E. South Boulder Rd. Louisville, CO, 80027 Tel: 303-664-9376 Lyons Indoor Gardening 138 Main Street, Lyons, CO 80540 720-530-3828 Head Start Hydroponics & Organic Gardening Emporium 34500 US Highway 6, Unit B-9, North Edwards, CO 81632 970-569-313 Cultivate Hydroponics & Organics 7777 W. 38th Avenue, A120A, Wheat Ridge, CO 80033 303-954-9897

CONNECTICUT Harvest Moon Hydroponics 775 Silver Lane, East Hartford, CT 06118 860-568-4067 LiquidSun® CT 10C South Main Street, East Windsor, CT 06088 860-254-5757 Organix Hydroponics 749 Saybrook Road, (Tradewinds Plaza) Middletown, CT 06457 860-343-1923

FLORIDA Urban Sunshine 1420 E. Altamonte Dr Altamonte Springs, FL 32701 407-830-4769 Best Hydro 4920 Lena Road, Bradenton, FL 34211 941-756-1928 Palm Coast Hydroponics 4490 N Hwy US1 Ste. 108 Bunnell FL 32110 386 246 4119 East Coast Hydroponics & Organics 461 Forrest Avenue, Suite 105 Coca, FL 32922 321-243-6800 GreenTouch Hydroponics Inc. 5011 S State Road 7, Suite 104 Davie, FL 33314 954-316-8815 Absolute Hydroponic Garden Center Inc 1607 Old Daytona Steet Deland, FL 32724 386-734-0696

.

Gold Coast Hydroponics 1539 SW 21st Avenue, Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33312 1-800-780-7371 Biofloral 6250 NW 27th Way, Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33309 877 735 6725 Green Thumb Hydroponics Supplies 13482 North Cleveland Avenue, Fort Meyers, FL 33903 239-997-4769 Gardener’s Edge Gainesville 5000 NW 34th Street, Suite 13, Gainesville, FL 32605 352-375-2769 Florida Garden Wholesale 2692 W 79 Street, Hialeah, FL 33016 1-800-931-5215 Hydro Terra Corp. 924 North Federal Highway, Hollywood, FL 33020 954-920-0889 Simply Hydroponics & Organics (North) 3642 South Suncoast Boulevard, Homosassa, FL 34448 352-628-2655 Hydroponics International Inc. 7029-10 Commonwealth Avenue, Jacksonville, FL 32220 904-693-6554 Grower’s Choice & Hydroponics 11855 North Main Street, Jackonsonville, FL 32218 904-683-4517 Urban Organics & Hydroponics 5325 Fairmont Street, Jacksonville, FL 32207 904-398-8012 Simply Hydroponics & Organics 7949 Ulmerton Road, Largo, FL 33773 727-531-5355 GrowSmart Indoor Garden Centers 14587 Southern Boulevard, Loxahatchee, FL 33470 561-429-3527 Palm Beach Discount Hydroponics – West 14703 Sothern Blvd. Loxahatchee, FL 33470 561 296 8555 Atlantic Hydroponics 430 Count Street, Melbourne, FL 32901 321-821-1535 High Tech Garden Supply 2975 West New Haven Avenue, Melbourne, FL 32901 321-821-0853 Advanced Hydro Gardens 4960 NW 165 Street, Suite B-4, Miami, FL 33014 866-97-HYDRO Blossoms Experience, The 7207 NW 54th Street, Miami, FL 33166 866-452-4769 Florida Garden Wholesale 9545 Sunset Drive, Miami, FL 33173 800-931-5215 Future Farms Inc., The 14291 SW 120th Street, Suite 105 Miami, FL 33186 305-382-2757 Gold Coast Hydroponics 4241 SW 71st Avenue, Miami, FL 33155 1-800-780-6805 Growing Garden Inc., The 12811 SW 42nd Street, Miami, FL 33175 305-559-0309 VitaOrganix 7921 NW 67th St Miami, FL 33166 786 845 8633 3D Hydroponics and Organics 7139 US Highway #19, New Port Richey, FL 34652 727-847-3491

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MAXIMUM YIELD distributors

Monkey Hydroponics 940 West Oakland Ave. Unit A1 Oakland FL 34787  407 574 8495 Florida Garden Wholesale 8442 Tradeport Drive, Unit 200, Orlando, FL 32827 Urban Sunshine 6100 Hanging Moss Rd ste 50 Orlando, FL 32807 407-647-4769 Urban Sunshine 6142 S. Orange Ave Orlando, FL 32809 407-859-7728 Green Winters Inc. 147 Tomoka Avenue, Ormond Beach, FL 32174 386-235-8730 800-931-5215 The Healthy Harvest Ste. 126 21113 Johnson St. Pembroke Pines, FL. 33029 Tel: 954-538-1511 Eden Garden Supply 5044 N. Palafox Street, Pensacola, FL 32505 850-439-1299 Healthy Gardens and Supply of Florida, Inc. 196 East Nine Mile Road, Suite F, Pensacola, FL 32534 850-912-4545 National Garden Wholesale/Sunlight Supply 455 S. Andrews Avenue, Pompano Beach, FL 33069 877-649-3567 (Southeast) Hydroponic Depot II 2395 S Tamiami Trail #19 Port Charlotte FL 33952 941 255 3999t EZ Grow Green 604 S.W. Bayshore Blvd. Port St. Lucie, Fl 34983 772-807-7755 Esposito Garden Center 2743 Capital Circle NE, Tallahassee, FL 32308 850-386-2114 Evershine Hydroponics 1519 Capital Circle NE Unit #35 Tallahassee FL 32308 850-765-0040 Grace’s Hydro-Organic Garden Center 8877 North 56th Street Tampa, FL 33617 813-514-9376 Harvest Time Hydroponics 14414 N. Florida Avenue, Tampa, FL 33613 813-264-7101 Hydroponics of Tampa 120 W. Bougain Villea, Tampa, FL 33612 813-333-6828 Stoney Hydro @ Schiro’s Barn n Garden Supplies 7812 Causeway Boulevard, Tampa, FL 33619 813-626-0902 Worm’s Way Florida 4412 North 56th Street, Tampa, FL 33610 800-283-9676; 813-621-1792 Cultivating Eden Hydroponic Supplies 946 18th Avenue SW, Vero Beach, FL 32962 772-564-8880 Florida Garden Wholesale 8020 Belvedere Road,Unit 4, West Palm Beach,FL 33411 800-931-5215 Palm Beach Discount Hydroponics – East 968 North Congress Ave. West Palm Beach, FL 33409 561 296 6161

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Maximum Yield USA | March 2011

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

GEORGIA

Big Grow Hydroponics 9225 Trinity Drive, Lake In The Hills, IL 60156 847-854-4450 Grow Big Hydroponics 7817 B North 2nd Street, Manchesney Park, IL 61115 815-637-4769 Green Fields 8137 N. Milwaukee, Niles, IL 60714 847-965-5056 Prairie House Garden Center 15151 South Harlem Avenue, Orland, IL 60462 708-687-3131 Brew and Grow 3224 South Alpine Road, Rockford, IL 61109 815-874-5700 Brew and Grow 359 W. Irving Park Road Unit E, Roselle, IL 60172 630-894-4885 Brew and Grow 2379 Bode Road, Schaumburg, IL 60440 630-771-0555 Organic Garden Center 9223 Skokie Blvd. Skokie, IL 60077 (847) 675-2722 Kreation’s Indoor Gardening Center 3427 Old Chatman Road, Springfield, IL 62704 217-341-0821 Water Works Indoor Gardening 1900 South Dirksen Parkway, Springfield, IL 62703 217-553-6929

Atlantis Hydroponics 1422 Woodmont Lane, #4, Atlanta, GA 30318 404-367-0052 Flora Hydroponics Inc. 2475 Jefferson Road, Suite 600 Athens, GA 30607 866-404-0551 Atlantis Hydroponics 2561 West Point Avenue, College Park, GA 30337 678-510-0032 Savannah Hydroponics & Organics 4107 Eighth Street, Suite C Garden City, GA 31408 912-349-4030

HAWAII Eco-Island Supply 810 Haiku Road, #394 Haiku, HI 96708 808-575-9171 Aqua Plant Hawaii / Kahala Hydroponics 4224 Wailae, Suite 1A, Honolulu, HI 96816 808-735-8665 Green Hands of Aloha 1713 Mary Street, Honolulu, HI 96819 808-847-4263 Ohana Greenhouse & Garden Supply 300 Hukilike Street, #2M, Kahalui, HI 96732 808-871-6393 Aiyah’s Garden 3-3122 Kuhio Hwy. unit B-2 Lihue, Hi. 96766 808 245 2627 Pahoa Feed & Fertilizer 15-2754 Old Government Road, Pahoa, HI 96778 808-965-9955

INDIANA BWGS-IN 7854 North State Road 37, Bloomington, IN 47404 800-316-1306 Sunleaves Garden Products 7854 North State Road 37, Bloomington, IN 47404 888-464-9676 Worm’s Way Indiana 7850 North State Road 37, Bloomington, IN 47404 800-598-8158 Worm’s Way Mail Order 7850 North State Road 37 Bloomington, IN 47404 800-274-9676 Frogs Lilly Pad, The 706 Citation Road, Carmel, IN 46032 317-846-4610 Hops & Harvest 4616 E. DuPont Road, Suite Q, Fort Wayne, IN 46825 260-918-3035 Harvest Moon Hydroponics 1336 East Washington St. Indianapolis, IN 4620 317-780-8070 Magic Bulb Garden Center 6229 Allisonville Road, Indianapolis, IN 46220 317-202-2852 Five Point Gardens 56555 Oak Road, South Bend, IN 46619 574-287-9232

IDAHO Boise Hydroponics 614 North Orchard Street, Boise, ID 83706 208-344-3053 Greenthumb Greenhouses 5895 Ensign Avenue, Boise, ID 83714

ILLINOIS Aerostar Global 824 South Kay Avenue, Addison, IL 60101 Brew and Grow 181 Crossroads Parkway, Bolingbrook, IL 60194 847-885-8282 Let it Grow - Carbondale West Main Street, Carbondale, IL 62908 573-450-5401 Alternative Garden Supply 615 Industrial Drive, Unit A Cary, IL 60013 800-444-2837 Brew and Grow 3625 N. Kedzi Avenue, Chicago, IL 60618 773-463-7430 Fertile Ground 463 West MacArthur Drive, Cottage Hills, IL 62018 618-259-5500 Hydrocork 20647 Renwick Road, Crest Hill, IL 60435 815-838-0100 Goldman’s Grow Shop 910 Greenwood Road, Glenview, IL 60025 847-657-7250 Growmasters 4641 Old Grand Ave. Gurnee, Il. 60031 (224) 399-9877

KANSAS Inc.

Green Circle Hydroponics 6890 W. 105th Street, Overland Park, KS 66212 913-642-3888

KENTUCKY Garden Grove Organics 29 East 7th Street, Covington, (Cincinnati Metro), KY 41011 859-360-1843


Worm’s Way Kentucky 1360 Donaldson Hwy. Suite A, Erlanger, KY 41018 800-669-2088 Grow Shop, The of Lexington 2320 Palumbo Drive, Suite 130, Lexington, KY 40509 859-268-0779 Louisville Hydroponics 3471 Taylor Boulevard, Louisville, KY 40215 502-366-4000 New Earth Garden Center 9810 Taylorsville Road, Louisville, KY 40299 800-462-5953

LOUISIANA Geaux Hydroponics! 2126 O’Neal Lane, Baton Rouge, LA 70816 225-751-4769 Laughing Buddha Nursery 4516 Clearview Parkway, Metairie, LA 70006 504-887-4336 Urban Organics 285 St. Claude Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70117 504-352-4709 Ourcrazydeals Hydroponics 201 Angus Drive, Yungsville, LA 70592 337-303-6146

MAINE Evergreen Garden Center 301 Forest Avenue Portland, ME 04101 207-761-2800 High Tech Garden Supply Maine178 Rand Rd. Portland, ME 04102 Phone 207-899-4387 Green Thumb Indoor Gardening 19 Stage Road, St. Albans, ME 04971 207-938-5909 Urban Garden Center 235 Lewiston Road, Toposhan, ME 04086 207-373-0990 Greenlife Garden Supply 611 US Rt. 1 York, ME 03909 978 262 9966

MARYLAND East Coast Organics 2800 Sisson Street, Baltimore, MD 21211 Healthy Gardens and Supply 5001-F Harford Road, Baltimore, MD 21214 443-708-5144 Maryland Hydroponics Inc. 10051 North 2nd Street, Laurel, MD 20723 301-490-9236 Meadowview Feed & Garden Center 1202 Meadowview Road, Pasadena, MD 21122 443-817-0018 Maryland Hydroponics Inc. 12130 Nebel Street, Rockville, MD 20852 240-551-4625 Purple Mountain Organics 100-7010 Westmoreland Avenue, Takoma Park, MD 20912 877-538-9901

MASSACHUSETTS Greenlife Garden Supply 481 Boston Road, Unit 4, Billerica, MA 01821 978-262-9966

Harvest Moon Hydroponics 29 Washington Street, Route 1 Foxboro, MA 02035 800-660-6977 LiquidSun® MA 8 Lynwood Avenue, Holyoke, MA 01040 413-539-6875 Green Path Garden Supply 276 West Main Street, Northborough, MA 01532 508-393-4181 High Tech Garden Supply 560 Boston Turnpike (Rt.9) Shrewsbury, MA 01545 508-845-4477 New England Hydroponics 15 D College Hwy. (Rt. 10), Southampton, MA 01073 888-529-9025 Worm’s Way Massachusetts 121 Worc-Providence Turnpike, Sutton, MA 01590 800-284-9676

MICHIGAN Cultivation Station of Michigan Inc., The 6540 Allen Road, Allen Park, MI 48101 313-383-1766 Gro Blue Indoor Gardening Supplies 270 W. Liberty Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48104 734-913-2750 Grow Show, The 4095 Stone School Rd. Ann Arbor, MI 48108 (734)-677-0009 (734)-677-0509 HotHydro® 5245 Jackson Road, Suite F Ann Arbor, MI 48103 734-761-5040; 877-893-0716 Homelight Gardens 3471 S. Huron Road, Bay City, MI 48706 989-922-0088 J&L Growco 206 S. Michigan Avenue, Big Rapids, MI 49307 231-796-1528 Cultivation Station 3 Inc. 46912 Gratiot, Chesterfield, MI 48051 586-949-7453 Van Hydro 7480 N State, Davison, MI 48423 810-653-8267 Hydro Giant 14455 Ford Rd, Dearborn, MI Hydro Giant 21651 W. 8 Mile Rd. Detroit, MI (8Mile & Lahser) 313-387-7700 313-216-8888 Hydro Heaven 73647 W 8th Mile Road, Detroit, MI 48235 313-861-0333; 877-823-2076 Ultra Lo Hydro ultralohydro.com 937-252-8224 Urban Gardening Center, The 2520 22nd Street, Detroit, MI 48216 313-898-0200 Superior Growers Supply 4870 Dawn Avenue, East Lansing, MI 48823 517-332-2663 Sunnyside Hydroponics 24930 Gratiot Avenue, Eastpoint, MI 48021 586-777-2528

Synthetic Sun Hydroponics, LLC 799 S. Wisconsin Avenue Gaylord, MI 49735 989 731 8800 Growco Garden Supply 1042 Michigan Street, NE, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 877-939-6900 Horizen Hydroponics 1614 Leonard Street, NW, Grand Rapids, MI 49504 866-791-1664 Flower Factory, The 2223 East Highland Road Highland, MI 48356 248-714-9292 Hydro Vision 2858 E Highland rd Highland, MI 48356 Holland Hydroponic Outlet 587-40 East 8th Street Holland, MI 49423 616-298-7395 Synthetic Sun Hydroponics, LLC 9091 W. Lake City Road Houghton Lake, MI 48629 989-422-2800 Hydro Vision 1247 e Grand River Howell, MI 48843 Green Forest Indoor Garden Supply, LLC. 2555 N. State(M-66) Rd. Ionia, MI 48846 616-523-6111 Horizen Hydroponics 4646 W. Main Street, Kalamazoo, MI 49006 269-567-3333 Kalamazoo Indoor Garden 450 W. Maple, Kalamazoo, MI 49001 269-344-2550 Superior Growers Supply 19582 Middlebelt Road, Livonia, MI 48152 248-473-0450 Northern Lights Hydroponic and Garden Supply 29090 Campbell rd. Madison Heights, MI 48071 248-439-6269 BIg Creek Hydroponics 555 Old Little Lake Road, Marquette, MI 49855 906-249-5297 Growing Consultant 2260 Apple Avenue, Muskegon, MI 49442 231-773-5600 Sunshine Supply Co. 5800 East Pickard Street, Mt. Pleasant, MI 48858 989-775-3700 Flo-N-Grow. 214 N. 2nd Street, Niles, MI 49120 269-683-1877 Home Grown Hydroponics 8075 Gratiot Road, Unit C, Saginaw MI 48609 989-781-1930 Hydro Giant 19363 Eureka Rd, Southgate, MI 734.281.8888 Cultivation Station of Michigan Inc., The 23529 Little Mack Avenue, St. Clair, MI 48080 586-775-9485 High Tech Garden Supply 7889 Telegraph Road. Taylor, MI 48180 313-908-7554

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Hydro Grow, The 8210 Telegraph Road, Taylor, MI 48180 313-633-0641 Grow Store, The 721 W. Blue Star Drive, Traverse City, MI 49684 231-421-5191 Wild Child 7740 M 72 East, Traverse City, MI 49690 866-711-GROW Hydro Vision 1910 West rd Trenton, MI 48183 Hydroharrys.com 24500 Dequindre, Warren, MI 48091 800-461-8819 Indoor Garden Superstore 2570 Dixie Highway, Waterford Twp., MI 48328 248-673-2200; 877 22 HYDRO Light Green Water 3661 Highland Road, Waterford, MI 48329 248-681-0001 Hydrospot 34236 Michigan Avenue, Wayne, MI 48184 734-722-1285 Synthetic Sun Hydroponics, LLC 3218 W. Houghton Avenue West Branch, MI 48661 989-345-8800 Stealth Hydro 15 E. Cross Street, Ypsilanti, MI 48198 866-998-1916

MINNESOTA Duluth Hydroponics 26 W 1st Street Duluth, MN 55802 218-341-7253 Indoor Gardening 10 NE 3rd Street, Faribault, MN 55021 507-209-1546 Brew and Grow 8179 University Avenue, Fridley, MN 55432 612-780-8191 Interior Gardens 115 -1620 Central Avenue NE, Minneapolis, MN 55413 800-498-4178; 612-870-9077 Midwest Hydroponics 3440 Belt Line Boulevard,Suite A, Minneapolis, MN 55416 888-449-2739 Eden Indoor Organic Gardens 831 Highway 75 North Moorhead, MN 56560 218-477-EDEN (3336) American Garden Supply 601-6th Avenue, North, Princeton, MN 55371 763-631-0543Q Still-H2O Inc. 14375 North 60th Street, Stillwater, MN 55082 651-351-2822 Eco Garden Supply 800 Transfer Door 25 in rear St. Paul, MN 55114 651-647-1896

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

MISSOURI Let It Grow - Girardeau 879 S. Kings Highway, Cape Girardeau, MO 63703 573-803-0628 Heartland Hydrogardens 705 Vandiver Drive, Suite G HYDROGARDENS Columbia, MO 65202 573-474-4769 Green Circle Hydroponics 12 East Missouri, Kansas City, MO 64106 816-421-1840 Grow Your Own Hydroponics 3617 Saint John Avenue, Kansas City, MO 64123 816-241-2122 Let It Grow - Springfield 2519 E. Kearney Street, Springfield, MO 65803 417-862-GROW U-Grow 1724 North, 13th Street, St. Louis, MO 63106 314-452-6368 Worm’s Way Missouri 1225 North Warson Road, St. Louis, MO 63132 800-285-9676 Green Thumb Organics 249 Mid Rivers Mall Drive, St. Peters, MO 63376 636-397-4769 (GROW)

MONTANA Heightened Harvests 2018 Main Street #4, Billings, MT 59105 406-252-4311 Magic City Organic & Hydroponic Supply 812 Central Billings MT 59102 406-245-5323 One World – Life Products 906 Broadwater Billings MT 59101 406 839 9969 Heightened Harvests 3103 Harrison Avenue, Suite B Butte, MT 59701 Alpengrow Nursery Supplies 238 Highway 93 S., Eureka, MT 59917 406-882-4496 Big Sky Garden Supply 528 West Idaho, Kallispell, MT 59901 406-755-1465 Cornucopia Grow Your Own 127 Stoner Creek Road Lakeside, MT 59922 406-709-1076 Dr. Green Thumbs 1106 West Park, Livingston, MO 59047 406-222-7440 Bizzy Beez LLP 5875 Highway 93 S, Whitefish, MT 59937 406-863-9937

NEBRASKA Patio-Ponics 3255 Cornhusker Highway, Suite 4 Lincoln, NE 68504 402-466-9218 Advanced Hydro-Ponics 10711 Mockingbird Drive, Omaha, NE 68127 (108th and L-Q) 402-991-6630 Paradigm Gardens 8949 J Street, Suite 5, Omaha, NE 68127 402-339-4949

MISSISSIPPI

NEVADA

Indoor Garden Shop LLC 1310 Bienville Boulevard, Ocean Springs, MS 39564 228-875-3725

Carson Valley Hydroponics 2520 Empire Ranch Road, Carson City, NV 89701 775-884-4769

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Lorraine Ink 290 Spear Court, Fernley, NV 89408 775-575-7757 Hydro Store, The 1014 W. Sunset Road, Henderson, NV 89014 702-434-7365 AAA Indoor Organic Garden SuperCenter 2101 S. Decatur Boulevard, #21, Las Vegas, NV 89102 702-450-4769 Advanced Gardens Hydroponics 3111 South Valley View, (on Desert Inn West of Valley View) Suite V103 Las Vegas, NV 89102 702-257-4769 All American Hydroponics 2675 East Patrick Lane, Unit 8, Las Vegas, NV 89120 702-894-9888 Best Hydroponic Supply 6818 W Cheyenne, Las Vegas, NV 89108 702-750-9300 Hydro Store, The 7145 W. Ann Road, Las Vegas, NV 89130 702-434-9376 Nevada Hydroponics 4700 B Maryland, Suite 1, Las Vegas, NV 89119 702-798-2852 Anything Grows 190 West Moana Lane, Reno, NV 89509 775-828-1460 Everything Green Hydroponics P.O Box 34869 Reno, Nevada 89533

NEW HAMPSHIRE Hydro World 17 White Birch Lane, Lincoln, NH 03251 603-745-3030

NEW JERSEY Garden State Hydroponics 511 Avenel Street, Avenel, NJ 07001 888-300-8711 Green Touch 2 Hydroponics Inc. 888 Route 33, Unit 1, Hamilton, NJ 08619 HYDROPONI C S 609-570-8829 East Coast Horticultural Supply 1652 Hurffville Road, Swewell, NJ 08080 856-228-5290 77HYDRO 37 Fairfield Place, West Caldwell, NJ 07006 877-774-9376 Claraqua 4 Redwood Court, West Windsor, NJ 08550

greentouch2

NEW MEXICO AHL Year Round Garden Supply 1051 San Mateo Blvd. SE, Albuquerque, NM 87108 505-255-3677 AHL Year Round Garden Supply 9421 Coors Blvd. NW Suite K, Albuquerque, NM 87114 505-899-0592 All Seasons Gardening 3600 Osuna Road, Suite 406 Alburquerque, NM 87109 505-508-4292 Common Shaman 1319 San Mateo N.E., Albuquerque, NM 87110 505-255-6463 All Seasons Gardening 1228 Parkway, Suite E Sante Fe, NM 87507 505-438-GROW 

I NC .


NEW YORK Saratoga Organics & Hydroponic Supply 19 Front Street, Ballston Spa, NY 12020 518-885-2005; 800-850-4769 The Grape Vine 4020 Hempstead Turnpike Bethpage,NY,11714 516-731-1100 Bronx Hydro & Garden 39 Bruckner Boulevard, Bronx, NY 10454 718-993-3787 Bklyn Hydro & Garden 3116 McGuiness Blvd Brooklyn NY 11222 718-383-0095 Brooklyn Farms 51Hicks Street St. Brooklyn, NY 11231 347-725-3491 Indoor Outdoor Gardener 8223 5th Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11209 718-836-2402 Hydroponics of Buffalo 1497 Hertel Avenue, Buffalo, NY 14216 716-838-3545 Harvest Moon Hydroponics 340 West at 59, Central Nyack, NY 10960 California Hydroponics 27 Corporate Circle, East Syracuse, NY 13057 315-432-9387 Upstate Hydroponics 2026 Lake Rd unit B Elmira, NY 14903 607 483 9199 FutureGarden Inc. 59 Central Avenue, Farmingdale, NY 11735 516-420-0884 East Coast Hydroponics 14649 Horace Harding Exp, Flushing, NY 11367 718-762-8880 Healthy Harvest Organics and Hydro 163 Broadway, Fort Edwart, NY 12828 518-480-4698 Greentree Nursery 308 Elmira Road, Ithaca, NY 14850 607-272-3666 Hudson Valley Hydroponics 217 Route 32 North, New Paltz, NY 12561 845-255-3633 Sunlight Solutions Hydroponics 2045 Niagara Falls Boulevard, Suite 13, Niagara Falls, NY 14304 888-GROWBOX Grow Room, The 8 Bridge Street, Nyack, NY 10960 800-449-9630 Revolution Hydroponics 309 West State St. Olean NY 14760 716.373.Grow (4769) Environmental Gardens 8 John Walsh Boulevard, Suite 310 Peekskills, NY 10566 800-254-0507; 914-736-6676 Harvest Moon Hydroponics Henrietta Townline Plaza, 3047 West Henrietta Road, Rochester, NY 14623 716-865-7353 Hydro Garden Center 1069B Lyell Avenue, Rochester, NY 14606 1-800-277-1322

Sunset Hydroponics & Home Brewing 1590 West Ridge Road, Rochester, NY 14615 866-395-9204 KG Garden Supply 1327 Floyd Avenue, Rome, NY 13440 1-877-KG-HYDRO Hydroponics Shops of America 2606 Erie Boulevard, Syracuse, NY 13224 315-251-2516 Green Zone Hydroponics 2148 Niagara Falls Blvd. Tonawanda, NY. 14150  716-693-9663 Harvest Moon Hydroponics 147 Fourth Street, Troy, NY 10960

NORTH CAROLINA Fifth Season Gardening Company 21 B Westside Dr. Asheville NC 28806 828-225-5007 Fifth Season Gardening Company 45 Banks Avenue, Asheville, NC 28801 828-253-4112 Fifth Season Gardening Company 106 South Greensboro Street, Carrboro, NC 27510 919-932-7600 Be Well Hydroponics & Urban Gardening 4732 Monroe Road, Charlotte, NC 28205 704-344-8010 BWGS-NC 4045 Perimeter West Drive,Suite 400, Charlotte, NC 28214 800-316-1306 High Tech Garden Supply 2712 B Freedom Drive Charlotte, NC 28208 704-697-0911 Flow & Grow Hydroponics & Organic Garden Center 4521 Cumberland Road, Fayetteville, NC 28306 910-423-FLOW (3569) Fifth Season Gardening Company 1616 D-3 Battleground Avenue, Greensboro, NC 27408 336-271-3373 Good Harvest Garden Center 629 Oakridge Farm Hwy. Mooresville NC 28115 704-658-9136 Fifth Season Gardening Company 5619-A Hillsborough Street, Raleigh, NC 27606 919-852-4747 New Age Gardens 2236A US Highway 70, Swannanoa, NC 28778 828-299-9989 All Season Hydroponics 890 South Kerr Avenue, Wilmington, NC 28410 Progressive Gardens 6005 Oleander Drive, Wilmington, NC 28403 910-395-1156

OHIO Akron Garden Center 434 W Wilbeth Road, Akron, OH 44314 330-724-2700 Summit Hydroponics 1030 Kenmore Boulevard Akron, OH 44314-2114 330-753-5222 Magic Home Gardens 209 Cemetery Road, Canal Winchester, OH 43110 614-837-2440

Eastside Hydroponics 550 Ohio Pike Cincinnati, OH 45255 513-528-GROW Kissed by the Sun Hydroponic 10740 Reading Road, Cincinnati, OH 45241 513-769-0159 Cleveland Garden Center Inc. 727 East 185th Street, Cleveland, OH 44119 216-481-7868 Grow Wizard, The 5700 Denison Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44102 216-961-2500 Herb-N-Garden Center 14901 Puritas Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44135 216-252-2001 Garden Indoors of Ohio 4720 Indianola Avenue, Columbus, OH 43214 800-833-6868 Magic Home Garden 4538 Indianola Avenue, Columbus, OH 43214 614-263-2440 Garden Connections 3341 Centerpoint Dr. Grove City OH 43123 614 871 0707 Advanced Hydrorganics Indoor Garden Center 5204 Darrow Road, Hudson, OH 44236 234-380-1287 Sweet Greens 5540 Brecksville Road Independence, OH 44131 800-421-7084 Hydro Gardens and Lights 1144 N Memorial Drive Lancaster, OH 43130 705-65 Hydro Carefree Garden Center 134 West Drive, Lodi, OH 44254 330-302-4203 CropKing 134 West Drive, Lodi, OH 44254 330-302-4203 Urban Gardens 671 E. Center Street Marion, OH 43302 740-375-2800 Indoor Gardens 1222 Hill Road, North, Pickerington, OH 43147 614-866-6065 Trinity Hydro Organics 465 Woodman Drive Riverside, OH 45431 937-252-GROW Toledo Hydroponics Ltd. 855 S. Holland-Sylvania Road, Suite 2 Toledo, OH 43615 1-877-893-0716 Greenleaf Hydroponics 1805 Elm Road, Warren, OH 44483 330-372-1039 Dayton Hydroponics 3856 Miamisburg-Centerville Road, West Carrolton, OH 45449 937-859-3999 Harvest Moon 9215 Market Street, Youngstown (North Lima), OH 44452 800-776-8399 Indoor Garden Worx 906 Blue Avenue, Zanesville, OH 43701 866-900-9679

OKLAHOMA Tulsa County Hydro-Organics 1928 W. Albany, Broken Arrow, OK 74012 918-259-HYDRO

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MAXIMUM YIELD distributors

AAAAHA! Hydroponics Unlimited P.O. Box 74, Oakhurst, OK 74050 Organics OKC Garden Supply 3620 N Pennsylvania Avenue, Oklahoma City, OK 73118 405-528-GROW Urban Garden 3141 E. 15th Street, Tulsa, OK 74104 918-289-0018

OREGON Aqua Serene 465 Applegate Way, Ashland, OR 97520 541-482-7600 Rogue Silicates Inc. POB 21, Azalea, OR 97410 541-837-8590 B.I.G.S. 155 SW Century Drive, Suite 401, Bend, OR 97702 541-385-5222 Herb N’ Jungle Hydroponics 930 SE Textron Drive, Bend, OR 97702 541-382-4010 Northern Light and Garden Beaverton 9290 SW Beaverton-Hillsdale Highway, Beaverton, OR 97005 503-297-7331 Westcoast Organic and Hydroponic Supply 12410 SE 282nd Avenue, Unit C Boring, OR 97009 503-766-4106 The Good Earth Organics 30088 Redwood Highway, Cave Junction, OR 97523 541-592-4496 Anthony’s Garden & Light Supply 93779 B Troy Lane, Coos Bay, OR 97420 541-266-8822 Corvallis Hydroponics & Organics 5490 SW Philomath Boulevard, Corvallis, OR 97333 541-738-2820 Aqua Serene 2836 W. 11th Avenue, Eugene, OR 97402 541-302-9073 Aurora Innovations PO Box 22041, Eugene, OR 97402 866-376-8578 SunInside Gardening Co. 665 Conger, Unit F, Eugene, OR 97402 541-686-9966 Northern Light and Garden Grants Pass 1203 Rogue River Highway, Grants Pass, OR 97527 541-474-1700 Paradise Supply LLC 560 NE. “F” Street, Unit C, Grand Pass, OR 97526 541-955-7293 Vital Organix 932-B SE “M” Street Grants Pass, OR 97526 541-226-9283 Oregon Rainforest Co. 19949 E. Burnside Street, Gresham, OR 97233503-465-9909 In & Out Gardens 93484 Hwy 99 South Junctin City OR 97448 541-234-2342 Basin Indoor Gardening 1221 Main Street, Klamath Falls, OR 97601 541-273-2023

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Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

Green Zone Garden Center & Hydroponic Supplies 1845 S W Hwy. 101 Ste. 3 Lincoln OR 97367 USA 541 994 7070 Liquid Sun 1845 Southwest Highway 101, Lincoln City, OR 97367 541-994-7070 H2organic LCC 620 NE 3rd Street, McMinnville, OR 97128 503-434-6107 Green Thumb Hydrogarden and Organic Supply 2021 West Main Street, Medford, OR 97501 541-779-8600 Growing Crazy (Hooked On Hydroponics) 817 W. 2nd Street, Medford, OR 97501 In & Out Gardens 1574 Skypark Drive Medford, OR 97501 541-858-3333 Ladybug Indoor Gardens 3960 W. Main Street, Medford, OR 97501 541-618-4459 Advanced Organics & Garden Supply 290- B Merlin Avenue Merlin, Oregon 97532 541-659-1466 Indoor Garden Depot 15828 SE McGloughlin Boulevard, Milwaukie, OR 97267 503-786-2445 H2organic LCC 620 NE 3rd Street, McMinnville, OR 97128 503-434-6107 Wizard’s Garden, LLC 621 Spruce Street, Unit C, Myrtle Point, OR 97458 541-572-2333 Green Zone Garden Center & Hydroponic Supplies 454 S.W. Coast Hwy Newport OR 97365 USA P: 541-265-8252 Gorilla Garden Supply 1810 Virginia Avenue, Garden Supplies North Bend, OR 97459 541-756-5005 American Agriculture 9220 Southeast Stark Street, Portland, OR 97216 800-433-6805 Bloom Garden Supply 518 NE 20th Ave. Portland, OR 97232 (971)255-1336 Everybody’s Garden Center 2701 SE 14th Avenue, Portland, OR 97202 800-669-5483 Garden Spout, The 4532 South East 63rd Avenue, Portland, OR 97206 503-788-4769 Homegrown Garden Supply 7112 NE Gilsan Street, Portland, OR 97213 877-EZ2-GROW Island Flowers & Indoor Garden Center 909 N. Tomahawk Island Drive, Suite 103, Portland, OR 97217 503-546-3185 Lights Distributing 9843 SW 55th Avenue, Portland, OR 97219 Rain or Shine 13126 NE Airport Way, Portland, OR 97230 503-255-1981

Roots Garden Supply 5426 North Gay Avenue, Portland, OR 97217 503-285-4768 Urban Flora 2865 South East, Portland, OR 97214 503-236-3344 BIGS Warehouse 2606 SW 4th Street, Unit B Redmond, OR 97756 541-504-8886 Indoor Garden Supply 536 SW 6th Street (rear alley), Redmond, OR 97756 541-504-7750 Indoor Garden Center 1697 SE 25th Street, Salem, OR 97302 503-566-7888 Northern Light and Garden Salem 1915 Lancester Drive, Salem, OR 97305 503-364-4769 Cascade Horticulture 39570 Pioneer Boulevard, Sandy, OR 97055 503-668-8242 Moonshine Park Farm 135 South East 62nd, Unit F South Beach, OR 97366 541-444-2298 J-N-B Hydro 2 Go 155 West Central Avenue, Sutherlin, OR 97479 541-459-9211 Roseburg Hydroponics 853 SE Stephens Street, Roseburg, OR 97470 541-229-1420 Grow America Garden Supply LLC 11511 SW Pacific Highway, Tigard, OR 97223 503-841-6868 Forever Green Organic Hydro Gardens 7530 Crater Lake Highway, White City, OR 97503 541-826-2946

PENNSYLVANIA Oakworld Garden Center 39 West Street, Barrington, RI 02806 401-245-5705 Pocono Hydroponic Solutions 25 Route 611 Bartonsville, PA 18321 Tel: 570-730-4544 Garden Indoors of Pennsylvania 208 Route 13, Bristol, PA 19007 800-227-4567 422 GROW 1775 North Main Street Extension Butler, PA 16001-1327 724-561-3777 High Tech Garden Supply 20232 Route 19, Unit 6, Cranberry Twp., PA 16066 724-473-1113 Home Hydroponics of Pittsburgh 830 Route 119, Greensburg, PA 15601 724-836-1118 Buds to Blooms Garden and Supply Co., LLC 509 Orchard Avenue Kennett Square, PA 19348 484-860-8056 Flairform POB 1417, Lansdale, PA 19446 215-395-6353


All Season Hydroponics 1350 Hwy. 501 Business, Store 3&4 Conway, SC 29526 843-347-9266 Green Thumb Unique Gardening & More 1230 Rutherford Road, Greenville, SC 29609 864-271-8830 Greenspirit Hydrogardens 3600 Unite 1 Hwy.17 S. North Myrtle Beach, SC 29582 843-361-7777

RH Distribution POB 1417 Lansdale, PA 19446 888-545-8112 Hydro Ponics of Harrisburg 310 South 10th Street, Lemoyne, PA 17043 877-684-3808 New Stanton Hydro 150 Post Ave. New Stanton, PA. 15672 724-635-0297 Full Bloom Hydroponics 84 South 24th Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15203 888-872-3602 Home Hydroponics of Pittsburgh 2008 Smallman Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15222 412-232-7030 Healthy Gardens and Supply 1012 Lincoln Avenue, Prospect Park, PA 19076 866-32-HYDRO Western Pennsylvania Innovative Gardening 1177 Pittsburgh Road, Suite 103 Valencia, PA 16059 724 - 903 - 0800 Organic Garden Center 800 Washington Blvd. Williamsport, PA 17701 570-322-3120 National Garden Wholesale/Sunlight Supply 450 Grim Lane, York,PA 17406 877-779-7111(Northeast) PA Hydroponics & Home Gardening Supply 20 Quaker Church Road, York Springs, PA 17372 717-528-4175

SOUTH DAKOTA Green Earth Products Inc. 5700 Highway 79 S.,Unit 1, Rapid City, SD 57702 605-342-1307

TENNESSEE Atlantis Hydroponics 1800 Rossville Avenue, #3, Chattanooga, TN 37408 423-752-5400 Advanced Hydroponic Garden 783 French Mill Road, Dandridge, TN 37725 800-521-1643 Perpetual Harvest 75 Riverport Drive, Jackson, TN 38301 877-422-3391 Advanced Hydroponic Garden 6912 Clinton Highway, Knoxville, TN 37921 866-938-3318 Sun City Hydroponics 2235 Whitten Road, Suite 104, Memphis, TN 38133 901-372-8100 National Garden Wholesale/Sunlight Supply 126 Belinda Parkway, Mt. Juliet, TN 37122 888-265-9005 All Seasons Gardening and Brewing Supply Co. 924 8th Avenue, South, Nashville, TN 37203 800-790-2188 Worm’s Way Tennessee 901 Main Street, Nashville, TN 37072 800-397-4153

RHODE ISLAND Solar Seed Hydroponics, Inc. 2406 Putman Pike, Chepachet, RI 02814 401-710-9010 Organically Grown 768 Atwood Ave Cranston, RI 02920 401-944-0549 Hydro-Earth 1243 Mineral Springs Avenue, North Providence, RI 02904 401-305-5520 LiquidSun® RI 1179 Central Avenue, Pawtucket, MA 02861 401-722-2724 Good To Grow 34 Nooseneck Hill Road West Greenwich, RI 02817 401-392-3100 Growin’ Crazy 93 Kingston Road Wyoming, Rhode Island 02898 401-284-0810

SOUTH CAROLINA GreenSpirit Hydrogarden 1864 Meeting Street, Charleston, SC 29405 843-225-1GRO; 247 Garden Supply 535 D Clemson Road, Columbia, SC 29229 803-788-4445 All Good Hydroponics & Gardening 6729 Two Notch Road, Columbia, SC 29223 803-708-4819 All Season Hydroponics 6729 Two North Road, 10B Columbia, SC 29223 803-708-4819

TEXAS

,

Abundant Harvest Hydroponics & Organics 3101 Avenue E East, Marshall, TX 76011 817-649-0100 Brite Ideas Hydroponics & Organics 4360 S.Congress Avenue, #310, Austin, TX 78745 512-444-2100 Texas Hydroponics & Organics (Central Austin) 5126 Burnet Road, Austin, TX 78756 512-459-4769 Texas Hydroponics & Organics (South Austin) 2125-A Goodrich Avenue, Austin, TX 78704 512-440-4769 Happy Harvest Hydroponics & Organic 1500 Crescent Drive, Suite 202 Carrollton, TX 75006 972-466-1300 GroGreen Hydroponics 4015 Main Street, Dallas, TX 75226 214-370-9984 Jolly Green Hydroponics (Greenhouse Horticultural Supplies) 13628 Neutron Road, Dallas, TX 75244 (866) WE-JOLLY; 469-341-5555

Lone Star Hydroponics and Organics 1302 Motor Circle, Dallas, TX 75207 214-634-9376 Texas Hydroponics & Organics (Dallas) 3400 Elm Street, Dallas, TX 75226 214-744-4769 Organic Garden & Feed 3801 N Interstate Hwy 35,Suite126, Denton Texas 76207 940-381-9890 Earth Organics 1360 Lee Trevino Drive,Suite 105 El Paso, TX 79936 915-591-9500 Airline Hydroponics P.O. Box 980904, Trader’s Village #363, Houston, TX 77098 713-942-0484 Botani Garden 15120 Bellaire Blvd Houston, TX 77083 281-575-1999 Houston Discount Hydroponics 9384 Richmond Avenue, Houston, TX 77063 713-464-9406 Hydroponic Nation 9700 Almeda Genoa Road, Suite 108, Houston, TX 77075 281-501-9636 Texas Hydroponics & Organics (Houston) 7730 A Park Place Boulevard, Houston, TX 77087 713-641-4769 Ultimate Hydroponic Garden Supply 6125 West Sam Houston Parkway, North Suite 206 Houston, TX 77041 713-856-8425 Texas Growers Supply 5990 N. Sam Houston Pkwy. E. #602, Humble, TX 77396 281-441-3739 Field of Dreams Indoor Growing Supplies 5302 Slide Road Unit B, Lubbock, TX 79414 806-793-2901 Hydro Mart 3841 Main Street, Rowlett, TX 75088 972-475-6114 Sol Organics & Hydroponics 1634 Babcock Road, San Antonio, TX 78229 210-366-9082 GreenMaker Nursery 3030 Northwest Loop, Stephenville, TX 76401 254-965-7273 Innergrow Hydroponics 24451 Interstate Highway 20, Wills Point, TX 75169 866-475-4769

UTAH Salt Lake Plant & Hydro 60 West 3300 S. #6 South Salt Lake, UT 84115 801-488-3200

,

VERMONT Greenthumb - Vermont 394 Route 15, Jericho, VT 05465 802-899-4323 Peak Hydroponic Garden Supplies 20 School Street, Plainfield, VT 05667 802-454-8000

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MAXIMUM YIELD distributors

LiquidSun® VT 1 Bellows Falls Road, (Route 5 North) Putney, VT 05158 802-387-1100 Green Thumb Gardening P.O. Box 235, Route 15, Underhill, VT 5489 800-564-9376

VIRGINIA Fifth Season Gardening Company 900 Preston Ave. Charlottesville VA 22903 434-293-2332 Clean & Green Technologies 196 Corning Drive, Christiansburg, VA 24073 866-694-1628 I Love Hydroponics 612 N. Sheppard Street, Richmond, VA 23221 804-377-3020 Blue Ridge Hydroponics & Home Brewing Co. 5524 Williamson Road, Suite 11 Roanoke VA 24012 540-265-2483 Inside-Out Garden Supply 6517 Backlick Road, Springfield, VA 22150 703-451-3259 I Love Hydroponics 368 Newtown Road, #105, Virginia Beach, VA 23462 757-490-5425 Hydroponics & Growlights 13400 Occoquan Road, Woodbridge, VA 22191 703-490-0700

West VIRGINIA Panhandle Hydroculture 800 East Moler Ave. Martinsburg, WV 25401 304-240-7587

WASHINGTON Island Horticulture Supply 8608 S March Point Rd. Anacortes WA 98221 360 293 0000 Mike’s Indoor Garden Supply 6121 172nd Street NE #A, Arlington, WA 98223 (360) 474-1900 Green Gardens Distributing 12738 Bel-Red Road, Bellevue, WA 98005 425-454-5731 Northern Lights Gardening 4159 Hannegan Road, Bellingham, WA 98225 360-715-8585 Liquid Sunshine Hydroponics 5087 Lincoln Road, Blaine, WA 98230 Kitsap Garden & Lighting 2130 6th Street, Bremerton, WA 98312 360-377-1277 M & R Lighting Unit C 22914 Highway 410, Buckley, WA 98390 253-891-4190 Indoor Tropics 5930 Sunburst Lane #B Cashmere, WA 98815 509-470-7782 Garden Smart 500 Bond Drive, Castlerock, WA 98611 360-274-7960

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Maximum Yield USA | March 2011

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

Grow Center, The 615 South Fir DeerPark WA 99006 509-276-GROW Healthy Grow Indoor Garden Supplies 10 SE Everett Mall Way Suite B Everett WA 98208 425-374-2227 Indoor Garden Depot 1401 S. 324th Street, Federal Way, WA 98003 253-874-1112 North West Hydro Supply 1355Pacific Pl Unit 117 Ferndale WA 98248-7824 360-778-3254 Good 2 Gro 3507 W Clearwater Ave. Kennewick WA 99336 509 737 1313 Indoor Garden & Lighting 714 South Central Avenue, Kent, WA 98032 253-373-9060 Kent Garden Supplies Ltd. 18817 East Valley Highway, Kent, WA 98032 425-251-9299 KP Indoor Garden Store 8912 Key Peninsula HWY N Suite B Lakebay, WA 98349 253-884-SURE (7871) InDoor Gardening 1158 Commerce Longview WA, 98632 360-353-3851 Indoor Garden & Lighting 20505 Highway 99,, Lynnwood, WA 98036 425-673-2755 Go-N-Green Hydroponics 1241 State Ave Suite #102 Marysville, WA 98270 (360)386-8230 Island Hydroponic & Supplies 1515 5th Street #B, Marysville, WA 98271 425-299-5855 M & R Lighting 17238 Memorial Drive, Mt. Vernon, WA 98273 360-848-1080 Indoor Garden & Lighting 8606 Preston Fall City Rd. SE Preston WA 98050 425 222 9661 Linda’s Gardening & Hydroponics 11522 Canyon Road East, Puyallup, WA 98373 253-531-9641 Renton Indoor Garden Center 207 Sunset Blvd. N, Building A, Renton, WA 98055 425-917-9000 Eco Enterprises 1240 NE 175th Street, #B Shoreline, WA 98155 800-426-6937 Aqua Serene 3839 Stone Way North, Seattle, WA 98103 206-547-GROW (4769) Grogro Hydro 12316 32nd AVE NE #103 Seattle, WA 98125 Hydro-Tech 2121 Aurora Avenue, North, Seattle, WA 98103 206-547-2202 Sodo Hydro 1727 1st Ave. South, Seattle, WA 98134 888-904-9376

Northwest Horticulture Supply 161 Hooker Road, #1, Sequim, WA 98057 360-582-0702 509 Grow 2718 N Division Spokane, WA 99207 509-327-GROW(4769) Grow Center, The 2808 W Sprague Spokane WA 99202 509-456-GROW River City Hydroponics 1514 East Francis Avenue, Spokane, WA 99208 509-464-0246 Spokane Organic and Hydroponic Supply 4823 East Sprague Avenue E., Spokane Valley, WA 99212 509-534-4055 Green Tree Hydroponics and Garden 12316 Pacific Ave South Tacoma, WA 98444 253-495-6757 Indoor Garden & Lighting 3839 6th Avenue, Tacoma, WA 98406 253-761-7478 Solar Shop 306 West 4th Street, Tonasket, WA 98855 509-486-4508 Indoor Garden Depot 6400 NE Highway 99, Suite H, Vancouver, WA 98665 360-993-7779 National Garden Wholesale / Sunlight Supply 4525 NW Fruit Valley Road, Vancouver, WA 98660 888-478-6544 (Northwest) National Garden Wholesale / Sunlight Supply 5408 NE 88th Street, Building A, Vancouver, WA 98665 888-478-6544 VM Indoor Garden Supply 2903 NE 109th Ave Ste. D Vancouver, WA 98682 P: (360) 256-2933 Indoor Garden Supply LLC 1250 Atlantic Ave, Woodland, WA 98674 360-841-8055

WISCONSIN Aric’s Indoor Garden Supply 1104 West Wisconsin Avenue, Appleton, WI 54914 920-574-3258 Grow BIG Hydroponics 954 S. Westland, Appleton, WI 54914 920-749-4769 Brew and Grow 285 N. Janacek Road, Brookfield, WI 53045 262-789-0555 Brew and Grow 3317 Agriculture Drive, Madison, WI 53716 608-226-8910 Paradigm Gardens 4539 Helgesen Drive, Madison, WI 53718 608-241-3800

PUERTO RICO Tecno-Hydro Ave Campo Rico GJ17, Carolina, PR 00982 787-752-8252 ARE YOU CURRENTLY DISTRIBUTING MAXIMUM YIELD FROM YOUR RETAIL STORE?

If so, pass along your contact information to us here at the magazine care of ilona@maximumyield.com and we will add your store’s name, address and telephone number to our distributor listing in an upcoming issue.


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Maximum Yield March 2011