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Seeing GREEN Special Issue


2012 sary

niver 12 an th




get the job done faster!









Seeing GREEN Special Issue


2012 sary

niver th 12 an




get the job done faster!







Maximum Yield USA | April 2012



Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012



Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012



Maximum Yield USA | April 2012


CONTENTS April 2012




66 From Toilet to Tap: Some Dirty Truths About Your Drinking Water

by Jennifer Casey and Richard Gellert


Organic Hydroponics


Phytoremediation and Greenwalls: The Next Revolution in Interior Plantscaping

by Dr. Lynette Morgan

by Chris Pianta


Electrical Conductivity and Monitoring Plant Nutrition

by Bill DeBoer and the Dr. P Team


Aquaponics: The Key to a More Sustainable Future by Matt LeBannister



Going Green: What Can You Do?


Eco-friendly Horticultural Lighting—The Future is Here


From the Editor


Growing for Health

by Eric Hopper


Letters to the Editor


Beginner’s Corner


Fertilizers—What’s For Dinner?



You Tell Us


Conservation Starts in the Garden


Ask the Experts


Talking Shop

by Casey Jones Fraser


MAX Facts


Max Mart


Backyard Composting Made Easy


Product Spotlight


Coming up in April


Trellises, Super-cropping or Ladybugs—Increase your Yield by All Means Necessary!


Green Thumb Gardening






Do You Know?


Tips and Tricks

by Frank Rauscher

by Dr. J. Benton Jones, Jr.

by Grubbycup

by Lee McCall


Creative Control: Out-of-theBox Cooling Solutions for Your Summer Garden by Stephen Keen

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012


FROM THE EDITOR | Jessica Raymond “Out of all those millions and millions of planets floating around there in space, this is our planet, this is our little one, so we just got to be aware of it and take care of it.” - Paul McCartney I like to think there’s a little green in all of us—a desire to live simply and sustainably. Our gardens are a great place to start (or continue) doing so.We are, after all, growing life there—healthy crops full of nutrients that feed us and help us thrive. Often gardeners can become blinded by the all mighty yield (and we help you achieve that every month—it’s Maximum Yield, after all!) But, it would serve us well to be eco warriors in the garden, grow room or greenhouse as well.The less we use, the less we waste, the more there is for future use and for others. In this special Seeing Green issue of Maximum Yield our industry’s experts cover every green topic imaginable—as it relates to gardening—including applying

green principles to hydroponics, conserving resources in the garden, going organic, eco lighting, composting, aquaponics, detecting toxins in your water and so much more. Turn your garden from brown to green, from synthetic to natural, with easy tips from Maximum Yield’s eco experts. After reading this issue cover to cover and implementing the Jessica Raymond, editor techniques you’ll be seeing green in the garden in no time.

Next stop: Michigan Celebrate with us on the second stop of our ‘Grow Like a Pro’ Tour at our Great Lakes Expo in Novi, Michigan, June 3, 2012. Visit or flip to page 192 for full details.

contributors Casey Jones Fraser owns Garden

Eric Hopper has over 10 years of

Lee McCall is an alumnus of Johnson &

Chris Pianta AgroSci CEO, has over

Dr. J. Benton Jones Jr. has 50

25 years of experience in the lawn and garden market. He managed two successful startups and developed programs for Franks Nursery, FTD, Profile Soil Products, Martha Stewart, Agway and GROWELL. Chris is a holder of two United States patents. He earned his B.S. in Environmental and Professional Horticulture from UConn.

years of experience growing plants hydroponically. He is an Emeritus Professor at the University of Georgia, Athens and has authored eight books and written articles for magazines that deal with hydroponic issues. He currently has his own consulting company, Grosystems, Inc. Dr. Jones currently lives in Anderson, SC, USA.

Matt LeBannister developed a

Stephen Keen has been an indoor gardening hobbyist for nearly 10 years. His personal successes with his garden led him to want to bring new ideas, mainly water-cooling, to the mainstream, which led to the founding of Hydro Innovations.

Frank Rauscher is a certified horticulturist and consultant for the garden industry. He’s a contributing author to several publications and was writer and editor of the Green Pages. Frank finds that analyzing plant stress and finding solutions is exciting. He is very much at home bringing new ideas to the field of horticulture and indoor gardening.

Richard Gellert owns Hydro-Logic Purification Systems, providers of cutting edge water purification technologies. His knowledge of and passion for water quality has been instrumental in helping gardeners achieve the high quality harvests. Hydro-Logic offers a complete line of water purification solutions for guaranteed garden success.

Dr. Lynette Morgan holds a B. Hort.

Grubbycup has been an avid indoor gardener for over 20 years. His articles were first published in the United Kingdom, and since then his gardening advice has been published in French, Spanish, Italian, Polish, Czechoslovakian and German. He is also considered one of the world’s leading authorities on crochet hydroponics.

Jennifer Casey loves her two dogs, her husband, the amazing garden he grows and living in the country—in that order. Crafting, reading and cooking from the garden are her favorite ways to spend her time.

Grove Organics, in Northern Kentucky/ Greater Cincinnati. He has a degree in communications and electronic media. He believes that indoor gardeners can achieve the highest quality crops and maximum yields when proper science is applied. Since 1998, Casey has been testing various nutrients and supplements in search of outstanding harvests.

Tech. degree and a PhD in hydroponic greenhouse production from Massey University, New Zealand. Lynette is a partner with SUNTEC International Hydroponic Consultants and has authored five hydroponic technical books. Visit consultants.htm and www.suntec. for more information.

Bill DeBoer is a research scientist at Indiana-based steadyGROWpro. A master gardener intern, Bill is responsible for overseeing the company’s laboratory operation, including the design and execution of research projects, plant propagation, seed germination and overall plant care. Bill has a B.S. and M.S. from Purdue University, and was previously a research technician for the U.S. Department of Agriculture.


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

experience in the hydroponic industry as both a retail store manager and owner. He continuously seeks new methods and products that could help maximize garden performance. Eric resides in Michigan where he and his family strive for a self-sufficient and sustainable lifestyle.

Wales University. His extensive culinary background helped him gain experience in and knowledge of fine dining and food production, which developed into a career in the hydroponics and year-round gardening industry. Lee and his business partner use their Denver-based businesses to educate the public on sustainable gardening and high quality produce. green thumb as a child, having been born into a family of experienced gardeners. During his career, he has managed a hydroponic retail store and represented leading companies at the Indoor Gardening Expos. Matt has been writing articles for Maximum Yield since 2007. His articles are published around the world.

Become a Maximum Yield contributor and have your articles read by 250,000 readers throughout USA, Canada, UK, New Zealand and Australia. Maximum Yield is the largest free-to-consumer indoor gardening magazine in the world. Every issue is available on, which has thousands of unique visitors monthly.

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012


LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Help Us Help Them—A Request for Contributions

We are a non-profit starting a hydroponics class for disabled adults and was wondering if there are any sample products out there to help the project move forward. My name is Mike Gochis with Advanced Hydro Systems and Jobs Inc. Our address is 11835 and 1/2 Lewis and Clark Lolo, MT 59847. Thanks for your time, Mike Gochis If you would like to get involved and help this organization’s cause, please e-mail

Maximum Yield—A Must-Read

Hello Max Yield, I want to start by saying I love your publication and am always learning new things from your magazine. What I was wondering is why you guys have different issues that touch on different topics for different parts of the world. I feel like I might be missing out on some information that someone somewhere else is getting. Also, the issues that I get from the local hydro shop differ from the ones online, meaning the months don’t match up to what I have in hand. It would be greatly appreciated if you could shed some light on this. I just want to make sure I have the best information possible and I’m not missing anything. Thanks, Steven Cooper The major difference between the various editions of Maximum Yield USA, Canada, UK and Australia/New Zealand—is the products featured in the Product Spotlight department.We always ensure to only feature products available in the various countries.We also gear the Max Facts—hydroponic news, tips and trivia—and special features to local readers by printing information that is relevant to their geographic location and interests. The most current issues of Maximum Yield Magazines are always available on our website. Most of the retail shops that carry Maximum Yield should have the most current issue as well. If they don’t, they should make sure to request new boxes of magazines from their distributors every time they order product for their store. To ensure you get every issue of Maximum Yield, I encourage you to subscribe. Visit to download the form.We also now offer free digital subscriptions to each edition. To subscribe, fill out the form at


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

More and Better

It’s just a suggestion but I’d like to see more technologydriven articles. It seems like you have some interesting stuff on plant DNA, propagation, tissue and things of that nature, but I would like to see more equipment reviews and progressive technology coverage—new ways of doing things rather than the same old stuff. Regards, Victor Schroyer This issue of Maximum Yield contains some fresh tips and new tricks for growing green. Check out Phytoremediation and Greenwalls (page 66), Aquaponics (page 82) and Eco-friendly Horticultural Lighting—the Future is Here (page 112). And make sure to check out Product Spotlight, featuring over 30 of the hottest new items available this month at hydroponic shops across the country.

Subscribe to Win

Every month we give away a special issue of Maximum Yield to one lucky eNews subscriber. If you aren’t subscribed, you can’t participate. Get involved, share your thoughts and participate in discussions monthly and you could win. Sign up today at so you can start winning! Maximum Yield Team

We want to hear from you! Maximum Yield Publications Inc. Snail-mail: 2339 Delinea Place, Nanaimo, BC V9T 5L9 E-mail: Twitter: Facebook:

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012


COMING UP ON THE WEB Upcoming Events

Maximum Yield’s ‘Grow Like a Pro’ Indoor Gardening Expo Tour Hits Michigan Celebrate with us on the second stop of our ‘Grow Like a Pro’ Tour at our Great Lakes Expo in Novi, Michigan, June 3, 2012. The vibrant and rapidly growing East Coast indoor gardening industry will be in for a treat as exhibitors from around the globe showcase the newest and most innovative products at the Suburban Collection Showplace. Stay tuned to for complete event details.

Got Questions? Get Answers. Maximum Yield’s resident experts are available and ready to answer your modern gardening questions. E-mail or fill out the Ask the Experts question form on

Free Digital Subscription to Maximum Yield Now you can receive Maximum Yield Magazine free to your inbox every month. Subscribe to the digital edition of Maximum Yield by simply filling out the form at

Connect to instantly from your Smartphone with our Quick Response (QR) Code, found on the cover of every issue of Maximum Yield. Now you can access the best products, the most in-depth articles and information, and the latest news at high speeds. Simply download the QR Code Reader software compatible with your Smartphone, scan the QR Code and your phone’s browser will automatically launch, redirecting you to It’s that simple!

Connect with Maximum Yield

Tell us what you think at We’d love to hear from you. 14

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

VOLUME 13 – NUMBER 1 April 2012 Maximum Yield is published monthly by Maximum Yield Publications Inc. 2339A Delinea Place, Nanaimo, BC V9T 5L9 Phone: 250.729.2677; Fax 250.729.2687 No part of this magazine may be reproduced without permission from the publisher. If undeliverable please return to the address above. The views expressed by columnists are a personal opinion and do not necessarily reflect those of Maximum Yield or the Editor. Publication Agreement Number 40739092 Printed In Canada.

PRESIDENT/PUBLISHER - Jim Jesson GENERAL MANAGER - Don Moores BUSINESS MANAGER - Linda Jesson EDITOR - Jessica Raymond ADVERTISING SALES 250.729.2677 Linda Jesson - Lisa Lambersek - Ilona Hawser - Ashley Heppell - Hayley Jesson - PRODUCTION & DESIGN Jennifer Duong - Alice Joe - Liz Johnston - Denise Higginson - ACCOUNTING Tracy Greeno - Tara Campbell - USA DISTRIBUTION Aurora Innovations BWGS General Hydroponics Humbolt Wholesale Hydrofarm Hydro International National Garden Wholesale / Sunlight Supply Nickel City Wholesale Garden Supply R&M Supply Tradewinds CANADIAN DISTRIBUTION Brite-Lite Group Biofloral Eddis Wholesale Greenstar Plant Products Inc. MegaWatt Quality Wholesale UK DISTRIBUTION Direct Garden Supplies Growth Technology Future Harvest Development Europe Nutriculture UK Dutch Pro Maxigrow AUSTRALIAN DISTRIBUTION Dome Garden Supply House N Garden Futchatec Growth Technology Hydraspher

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012



Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012



I am starting a grow in an indoor closet, which is 30 inches wide by six feet long by five feet tall. I don’t know what type of reflector I should use. Do I need two for that length? What do you think about a 60 inch cool tube? What ballast is best? I was looking at the dual bulb 600 watt. Or, should I just do one 1,000-watt? Help me out! Thanks Karen Catalino

Casey Jones Fraser

PS. Can you suggest any OMRI organic products or hydro stores in the South Bay area of Los Angeles, CA that might carry such products?

So your closet is 30 inches wide by six feet long by five feet tall. The good news is that I have grown in a similar closet; the bad news is that a five foot ceiling doesn’t give you much vertical space. The best HID lighting for that space is either a pair of 600 watt lights in a long glass tube, like you described, or a 1,000 watt light on a mover. I personally prefer the 1,000 watt on a mover, and I suggest you get a high-end mover that pauses at each end. This will give you more even growth and stronger plants. Heat is another issue, and the pair of 600 watt lights in a cool tube might be the better option if high temperatures are a problem. If you can keep it in the upper 70s with a light mover, go with the 1,000 watt light. Digital ballasts are a great option, and they have continued to improve in recent years. For two 600 watt lights, I prefer two ballasts over one dual ballast. A dual ballast doesn’t save any electricity; it is simply one enclosure with two ballasts inside. If one of the internal


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

ballasts fails, you’ll have to shut down both lights for repair or replacement. If you go with that option, I recommend keeping a spare magnetic ballast for emergencies. If you get a 1,000 watt light, you might want to start with a digital ballast and buy a spare magnetic when you can. Then you will be able to use a top-notch ballast with a low-cost backup ballast in case of lighting failure. Regarding retail stores and organic nutrients, you will need to do some legwork. There are tons of great stores in your area, so start shopping around. Find a knowledgeable sales clerk who grows with organics. You can build a friendly relationship and exchange information each time you stop in. This type of interaction will give you access to expertise and troubleshooting, but you must find a reliable source with a deep understanding of organic plant science. If he or she doesn’t know much about beneficial bacteria and fungi, you’ve got the wrong clerk. One more thing: keep your plants short! With a five foot ceiling, your plants will need to finish at about 2.5 feet or shorter. Start flowering them at about eight inches, keeping night temperatures above 65°F and day temperatures below 80°F. Give them B vitamins and carbohydrates along with low nitrogen base nutrients. These suggestions are key to growing short, stout plants with excellent quality. Dread Out, Casey Jones Fraser

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012



hydroponic news, tips and trivia

New Aquaculture Model Advocated Researchers at the University of Massachusetts Amherst have put together a model for would-be aquaponic systems operators to help them produce good-quality local seafood with low initial cash investment, modest energy use and minimal environmental impact. The “building-integrated aquaculture” model advocates purpose-built structures incorporating recirculated wastewater for growing crops, a solar water-heating system and package refrigeration and condensation units to control humidity and warm the atmosphere. Aquaculture entrepreneurs typically attempt to convert existing structures such as old chicken barns, the UMass Amherst Building-Integrated Aquaculture Working Group study reported, but concluded that “…continuing to ignore the design of the building envelope will result in inefficiencies and higher costs.” (Source:

MAXFACTS hydroponic news, tips and trivia

Grafted Melons Accumulate Pesticides A study published in the American Chemical Society’s Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry has reported that melons grafted onto squash plant rootstocks in order to make them more disease-resistant can accumulate certain pesticides at levels of up to 140 times higher than ungrafted fruit. Although the elevated pesticide levels are still six to 12 times lower than accepted United States limits, the study urges commercial farmers to exercise caution when grafting melons to squash or pumpkin rootstocks. (Source:

Greenhouse Cuttings Need More Light! A Purdue University study suggests that greenhouse bedding plant growers can increase profits significantly by providing more light to spring bedding plants started in greenhouses during winter and early spring. The study found that plants rooted faster with more light and the plants were of a higher quality, both factors that could increase profits for greenhouse growers. It was previously thought that using too much light would stress delicate cuttings and disrupt root development. (Source:


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012



hydroponic news, tips and trivia

New Plant Hardiness Zone Map Released by USDA A new version of the Plant Hardiness Zone Map (PHZM) has been released by the USDA, bringing this useful reference standard for growers and researchers up to date for the first time since 1990. Plant hardiness zone figures represent the average lowest winter temperatures for various locations over a specified time, crucial information for the roughly 80 million American gardeners estimated to rely on the USDA’s Agricultural Research Service publication. Although the map is no longer available for purchase in a poster-sized version it will be made available at no charge for downloading on the Internet. (Source:

Photovoltaic Greenhouses Tested Rosemary Garlic Potatoes Could Make You Smart and Happy Researchers working at the Brain, Performance and Nutrition Research Centre at Northumbria University in the UK have discovered that the aroma of rosemary can improve both cognitive performance and mood in human subjects. The scientists found that the concentration of 1,8-cineole—one of rosemary's main chemical components—in the blood is linked to cognitive performance and that increased levels improve both mood and the speed and accuracy with which subjects could perform cognitive tasks. (Source:


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

A Spanish research consortium in the Basque region has been testing a new photovoltaic greenhouse project that allows light to reach crops during the critical winter growing months and diverts more intense solar radiation to electrical production in the summer. The electricity produced is stored in photovoltaic cells and used to cool the greenhouses, according to co-developers ULMA Agrícola and Tecnalia. A product incorporating the new technology is scheduled to hit the market later this year after field testing is completed. (Source:

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012



hydroponic news, tips and trivia

Photosynthesis A Hot Topic Scientists from the United States and the United Kingdom presented papers detailing their work toward engineering or enhancing photosynthesis to benefit food and fuel production at the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Annual Meeting. Some ideas presented at the meeting included an artificial leaf capable of converting the sun’s energy to liquid fuel, a ‘biological turbocharger’ that might allow more efficient photosynthesis and a study that looked into ways to harness excess solar energy collected by cyanobacteria by transferring it to a fuelproducing cell. Professor Douglas Kell—chief executive of BBRSC, the funding agency behind the research—explained that funding work of this nature is vital: “We are facing global challenges in food and energy security that must be addressed. Improving photosynthesis within plants, or externally using synthetic biology, would bring huge benefits.” (Source:

New Food Source Found in Toxic Seeds A team of Norwegian scientists has discovered how to genetically reprogram toxic seeds to make them edible for humans, possibly revealing an important new food source. Biology professor Atle Bones of the Norwegian University of Science and Technology and his research team has figured out how a canola plant can be genetically programmed to reduce the toxic substances it produces in its seeds, thus making the protein-rich flour pressed from them more palatable. The study suggested that such genetically modified seeds could become a major food source in the future. “The principle could be used with other plant species and plant parts,” said Bones. (Source:

Very Old Flower Russian scientists have used growth hormones to coax an ice-age flowering plant to bloom after it had been buried in a fossilized squirrel burrow in Siberia for almost 32,000 years. Researchers from the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow found the plant, Silene stenophylla, buried in sediments 38 meters underground and are now calling its flowers "the most ancient, viable, multicellular living organisms." (Source:


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012



hydroponic news, tips and trivia

Green Home Chicago As part of a wider initiative called Decarbonize Chicago, architecture firm Influx_Studio are looking at retrofitting an existing block—the Marina City’s Tower—with a whole range of sustainable technologies that would include solar panels, windfarms, hydroponics bays and an algae bioreactor. Gardens will form a semicircular balcony on each of the hydro bays, allowing building residents the opportunity to raise their own produce. The company estimates that around 75 per cent of CO2 emissions in Chicago originate from office blocks and other downtown buildings and believes that establishing vertical farms, hydroponics systems and other green initiatives would provide a practical solution. (Source:

Compost Gold Composting has proven to be a gardener’s best friend for a woman in Sweden who found her lost wedding ring wrapped around a carrot growing in the backyard. The woman initiated a desperate search when she lost the ring in 1995, even tearing up the kitchen floor, but eventually came to believe the ring was lost forever. The ring is now thought to have fallen into the sink and been mixed with potato peelings that were later composted and added to the vegetable garden. (Source:


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012



hydroponic news, tips and trivia

Public Food Forest Planned for Seattle Seven rising acres of hillside in Jefferson Park in Seattle's Beacon Hill neighborhood will soon be home to the nation’s largest public food forest. The large public park will be filled with edible food plants of every description, including chestnuts, walnuts, apples, mulberries, persimmons, Asian pears, Chinese haws, herbs and vegetables. Seattle City Council allowed the park to go ahead after three years of lobbying by local green activists and the hope is that it will lead to more initiatives like it—and a chance for residents to enjoy truly locally grown food. Food scientists estimate that most cities produce less than one per cent of the food their residents consume. (Source:


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Roots Under the Microscope A team of researchers from the schools of biosciences and computer science at the University of Nottingham has unveiled new image analysis software based on the X-ray technology used in hospital CT scans to allow scientists to look for the first time at the shape and branching pattern of roots in soil. The researchers believe the revolutionary technique—which has already been tested on the roots of maize, wheat and tomato plants—will improve the chances of breeding better crop varieties and increasing future yields. (Source:

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012




HOTTEST ITEMS Ask for them at your local indoor gardening store.

One Product, Myriad Benefits—Age Old Organics’s Ca-Libur 20 If your garden lacks calcium, Ca-Libur 20 from Age Old Organics is what you need. A high concentrate of suspended liquid calcium, Ca-Libur 20 corrects calcium deficiencies and strengthens cell walls. Calcium is essential for good growth and structure in plants. Ca-Libur 20 is formulated from organically-certified materials. It can be used for the prevention of bitter pit and blossom-end rot, and can be applied for soil pH modification. Repeated applications of Ca-Libur 20 might act as a deterrent for crawling and egg-laying pests. Ca-Libur 20 is a product that every gardener will need and use. Visit your favorite indoor gardening shop for more information.

Vital Earth’s® All-Purpose Seabird Guano 8-4-4 This superior blend of 100 per cent seabird guanos is yet another perfect fertilizer to use for all of your vegetating flowers, fruits, herbs and vegetables. Vital Earth’s® All-Purpose Seabird Guano is excellent for making compost tea and liquid fertilizers by itself or in conjunction with our other bucket products. Available in 4.4 pound buckets, 22 pound bags and 44 pound bags. Use it in outdoor gardens and for landscaping; use it for transplanting and pre-mixing soil for potted plants and planter boxes; use it as a top dress; or use it for tea mix. For more information visit your favorite hydroponics shop.

Keep Plants in the Light With DarkStreets DarkStreet II grow tents are highquality, extremely effective, and now exclusive to BWGS retailers. DarkStreets are specially lined with 95 per cent reflective Mylar fabric to increase light intensity and improve light distribution. Lightproof, waterproof and preequipped for ventilation, these tents come with equipment bars to support lamps, carbon filters and other accessories. They feature strong zippers with improved lightproofing, a waterproof tray and ports for intake, exhaust and cords. DarkStreet II units can be assembled quickly and easily, and both the inside and outside can be washed. Find DarkStreet grow tents at the BWGS retailer nearest you.

Nutradip pH Meter by Future Harvest Nutradip pH Meters are the reliable way to measure acidity in your nutrient solution. They offer continuous pH monitoring with automatic temperature compensation and dc power built-in for portability. Nutradip meters are engineered for accuracy and durability, and have been helping growers measure and monitor their success for over 15 years. Main features: • Wall mount or hand held • AC /DC • Lightweight and splash-resistant • Easy to read • Nine volt battery included • Plant-friendly display • Nutradip Calibration Solution included Contact your favorite hydroponics shop to learn more.


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Maximum Yield USA | October 2011



Good for Plants, Good for Growers— Apache Tech’s AT120WR White/Red LED Combo Apache Tech’s stunning new LED array incorporates ideal spectrums of white and red LEDs. The AT120WR performs like the combination red and blue LEDs without interfering with the grower’s vision. While the red and blue LED combinations have proven themselves as ideal for plants, growers have found themselves struggling to see pest problems, and many have suffered from dizzy spells and headaches because these spectrums are not appropriate for human vision. Apache Tech’s AT120WR maintains growth rates while providing the grower a comfortable environment to work in. This is the LED array of the future! Find it at a hydroponics shop near you.

Garden Science Plant Accelerator From the makers of Actinovate comes a new natural way to increase the blooms and yield of plants. Garden Science™ Plant Accelerator rapidly speeds up the growth, bloom and yield of ornamental plants, trees, shrubs and vegetables. The active ingredient in Garden Science Plant Accelerator is an all-natural patent-pending microorganism that enhances fertilizer applications and greatly reduces the quantities of fertilizer needed by plants. Plants in poor condition can benefit from a monthly application of Plant Accelerator. Garden Science Plant Accelerator concentrate for indoor and hydroponic gardening is available in a convenient eightounce bottle and a larger 16.7-ounce bottle. Visit your local indoor gardening shop for more information. 34

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012



6” Lil’ Hood Reflector Don’t underestimate the power of this six inch Lil’ Hood Reflector. With all the features you look for in a quality reflector, like hinged glass, an air-tight rubber seal, steel locking clamps and a pre-installed adjustable E39 6KV 2,000 watt socket with 15 foot power cord, this lil’ reflector packs a punch in a small package, making it great for saving space and fitting in those nooks and crannies. The adjustable socket design allows you to customize the vertical position of your socket and bulb to achieve optimum light reflectivity no matter what size bulb you use. This reflector measures 26 inches long by 13.5 inches wide by seven inches high. Universal hanging clips included. Visit your favorite indoor gardening retailer for more information.

Root Rally With Mycorrhizae for Healthy, Organic Plant Growth Mycorrhizae are crucial for providing organically-derived nutrients for healthy plant growth. Age Old Organics’s Root Rally is a complete blend of endo- and ecto-mycorrhizae spores with vitamins and minerals. When supplemental spores are added to the root zone the biological activity at the root mass increases and will help restore the natural biological system in the soil. Root Rally provides nutrient support for trees, shrubs, flowers, fruits and vegetables. Applied to the plant’s root system, this 100 per cent organic blend will reduce transplant shock, encourage root growth and increase water and nutrient uptake. Root Rally is a must for the indoor and outdoor soil gardeners. Visit your favorite indoor or outdoor garden shop for more information.

Rootbastic for Massive Root Production Atami presents the one and only Rootbastic, a versatile nutrient booster that will create explosive root production with unprecedented speed. Rootbastic is perfect for making roots stronger and healthier and is ideal for after planting stem cuttings when the first roots are visible. The high concentration gives Rootbastic its punch. Beneficials have been replaced with our next generation formulation. This booster is ideal for helping plants increase their resistance to root disease and preventing environmental stress during the growing and flowering stage. Rootbastic is suitable for all substrates—hydro, soil, coco—and irrigation systems and is available in various sizes. For more details visit your favorite indoor gardening shop.

New and Improved 16-inch Wall Mount Oscillating Fan From Hydrofarm Hydrofarm’s new and improved oscillating wall mount fan will blow you away. This easy-to-mount unit has three-speed settings and oscillates 90 degrees to give you ultimate control of air flow in your area. It has two pull chains that allow for easy adjustments of speed or direction, and the quiet operation means that the only evidence of its presence will be the gentle breeze in the room. For more information visit an indoor gardening shop near you.


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012



Reflect With Ease The Sunleaves Parazontal Reflector is the answer for gardeners seeking even light distribution in their growing spaces. With an extra-wide 39 inch span, the Parazontal Reflector can cover small- to medium-sized areas thoroughly. It features a high-quality European (German Alanod) aluminum reflector and the ability to position the lamp vertically or horizontally, depending on the gardener's needs. The Leviton-brand 2,000 watt, 600 volt pulse-rated socket is compatible with both metal halide and high-pressure sodium bulbs, and comes with a 15 foot cord and industry-standard common plug. Hanging hardware is also included, and the reflector is easy to assemble with its detailed step-by-step instructions. Find the Sunleaves Parazontal Reflector at a Sunleaves retailer near you.

Vital Earth’s® All-Purpose Guano Mix 7-7-2 Vital Earth’s® All-Purpose Guano Mix is an all-natural organic fertilizer featuring a balanced mix of 100 per cent seabird and bat guano. It is the perfect fertilizer to use for all of your flowers, fruits, herbs and vegetables and is excellent for making compost tea and liquid fertilizers. Like all our other guanos, Vital Earth’s® All-Purpose Guano Mix 7-7-2 promotes intense growth and improves yields. Available in 4.4 pound buckets, 22 pound bags and 44 pound bags. For more information visit your favorite hydroponics shop.

New Vermicrop Organics Bulk Compost Tea System— VermiFeast VermiFeast is a mixture of premium food sources for compost tea. These food sources consist of a proprietary blend of specific simple and complex carbohydrates. VermiFeast is conveniently packaged and mixed specifically for compost tea. Give your compost tea the feast it deserves. VermiFeast is available in a two gallon bucket. Visit your favorite indoor gardening shop today for more information.

Link4 iPonic 600 Environmental Controller Now Available Link4 iPonic Controllers are the latest in greenhouse environmental automation. Control and integrate a variety of equipment in your grow room with one easy-touse system. Manage your heating, cooling, humidity, lighting needs and more from just one controller. Precision controls allow you to improve crop quality, reduce equipment usage and lower energy costs. The iPonic 600 gives complete monitoring and control from outside the grow room via optional PC software, smartphone applications and Internet connectivity. For more information visit an authorized Hydrofarm retailer near you.

Continued on page 42 38

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012



Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012


PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT Continued from page 38

Root Royale™ Hydro Clay Pebbles Root Royale™ Hydro Clay Pebbles are an environmentally-friendly grow medium that can be reused over and over again. These clay pebbles have been fired in super-heated kilns causing them to expand and become extremely porous. The tiny holes and crevices inside each pebble hold and transmit extremely high amounts of air and water to your plants’ roots, helping them grow bigger and faster, and making them perfect for hydroponic systems. And since these clay pebbles are pH stabilized, they won’t release any additional minerals into your plants’ nutrient stream. Root Royale™ Hydro Clay Pebbles are the most ecologically and economically sustainable choice for your growing needs. Available in 13 gallon bags. Visit your local indoor gardening shop for more information

Introducing the Newest GrowLab Horticultural Room For those who want to grow indoors but don’t have a lot of room, Everest Garden Supply offers the GrowLab 100. The newest model in the GrowLab line is the most convenient for small spaces—measuring 3’3” wide by 3’3” long by 6”7” high. The GrowLab 100 utilizes thermal film on the interior, which is highly reflective, waterproof and extremely insulated (offering 97 per cent thermal protection). This film is non-toxic and won’t release any harmful gasses that can damage sensitive plants. All of the zippers are extremely durable. Small rooms can yield big results and the GrowLab 100 is up to the challenge. Visit your local indoor gardening shop to learn more.


Forever Flowering Introduces Hobby Greenhouses

Strata International SOS Beneficial Bacteria Now Available

Forever Flowering Greenhouses has just released a whole new line of hobby-style greenhouses. Starting at six by six feet, they are perfect for a home aquaponics system and all your home veggie and herb needs. The barn-style units have been tested at 1,100 pound snow loads and 80 mph winds. Not to mention they are a perfect height to pull one of our blackout fabric tarps over to control your light cycle for light deprivation early harvest gardening. Visit an indoor gardening shop near you for more information.

SOS (Super Organic Stimulator) is a revolutionary new product from Strata International for use in both hydroponic and soil applications. SOS contains 19 species of naturallyoccurring beneficial bacteria. The microbes contained in SOS will promote stronger and faster roots, stalks, flowers and fruit development. It also breaks down salts into bioavailable nutrients, remediates toxins present in soil and water, and speeds the breakdown of dead organic material into bio-available nutrients. Works great for both hydroponic and soil applications. Grow your plants bigger, stronger and faster. For more information visit an indoor garden retailer near you.

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012



Lightspeed Digi-Pak Special Edition by Lumz This special edition combo includes a premium digital SL ballast powered by Lumz and a high-quality digital HPS bulb. The digital SL ballast by Lumz provides true 1,000-watt output, dimmable to 600 or 750 watts with the Super Lumens switch. This lightweight ballast is compatible with high pressure sodium and metal halide bulbs. It is anodized for heat dissipation and lights bulbs up to 60 feet away. The digital HPS bulb delivers 25 per cent more energy in the red and orange spectrums; as well as 25 per cent more energy in the blue, violet and green spectrums. The combo comes in an elegant wooden collector’s box. Buy it today at your local hydroponics shop.

Vital Earth’s® Granular Neem Concentrate

New Vermicrop Organics Bulk Compost Tea System—VermiBrix

Vital Earth’s® Granular Neem Concentrate is derived from the herbal extract of the neem seed oil. It’s great for roses, works well on fruits trees and vegetable gardeners love it. Plants, trees and herbs look healthier. It’s also great for lawns, outdoor gardens and container growing. Works indoors and out. To use, mix one teaspoon per one gallon of water, let it sit for 10 minutes to dissolve and then add one teaspoon of wetting agent, apply every five to seven days. Can also be applied as a root drench. For more information visit an indoor gardening shop near you.

This powdered molasses alternative is easy to use, 100 per cent soluble, all-natural and GMO-free. VermiBrix has all the benefits of readily-available carbs in sugar form as well as rare earth minerals. These minerals slowly release silicon and humates to help protect the plant from nutrient fluctuations and stress. Use VermiBrix by top dressing around the plant stem, adding it directly to nutrient solutions or as an additional food source in compost teas. VermiBrix will work with any organic or synthetic fertilizer and in hydro or soil. VermiBrix is available in a two gallon bucket. For more information visit your favorite hydroponic shop.

Insulated Electrical Taps Heavy-duty Insulated Electrical Taps are available in two different sizes and can accept wire sizes from 6/0 to 300MCM. These taps are great for wiring complete greenhouse electrical panels and lighting controllers. Your electrician can now do a clean wiring job on your next electrical project. These will save the hassle of cutting and splicing wires. And since our taps are fully insulated, they can be installed on live wires, allowing you to keep your power on. Only experienced electricians should install electrical taps. Visit an indoor gardening retailer near you for more information.


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012



Amazingly Versatile Earth Recharge From Progress Earth Earth Recharge can be used to make instant compost tea, to add soil characteristics to hydroponic systems, to enhance the compost pile or as a recharge for raised beds or spent soil. Earth Recharge is so powerful, many growers reuse their potting soil over and over, with reports that it gets better every time. Earth Recharge is genuine biodynamic compost created on a certified organic farm that has been in the same family for over 350 years. The strength and diversity of the trillions of microbes contained within is unparalleled. Earth Recharge is just the food your soil or growing media needs to produce the healthiest roots, leaves, flowers and fruit you’ve ever seen. Visit a biodynamic-friendly gardening shop near you to get started today.

Root Pouch Introduces the Deep Green Vertical Tomato Grower by Vee Garden The Deep Green is perhaps the best tomato container on the market. Tomatoes can be planted (root and stem) to a depth of 30 inches. The increased surface area of the soil column (made from Root Pouch fabric materials) warms up earlier in the season. The built-in composter provides a constant source of nutrients and moisture. Now you can grow any vegetable just about anywhere. Visit your local gardening shop to buy the Deep Green Vertical Tomato Grower today.

AgroLED® The Hangover™ Announcing the arrival of the new AgroLED® The Hangover™. It is a custom-made lamp holder created to accommodate the AgroLED® 12 watt LED lamps with medium base. With a Sun Grip™ suspension pulley (included), The Hangover™ is designed to be hung vertically. Simply adjust the height of the fixture as your plants grow. The compact design of The Hangover™ allows supplemental lighting throughout your garden area without taking up valuable growing space. AgroLED® 12 watt lamp sold separately. ETL Listed. Visit your favorite indoor gardening shop for more information.

Introducing Liquid Yucca Extract Liquid Yucca Extract is a 100 per cent natural wetting agent derived from the cactus Yucca Schidegera. Adding Liquid Yucca Extract to a fertilizer program improves soil structure and the soil’s water holding capacity, and permeability in the soil. Creating water permeability in your soil allows the soil microbes and essential nutrients to survive and be transported through the soil. Liquid Yucca Extract is a 100 per cent organic and is cold-pressed for maximum biological activity. Liquid Yucca is also a food source for the microbes living in your soil. Yucca can also be added to a foliar application to help absorption of other products. Visit your local indoor gardening shop for more information.


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012


PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT Hurricane™ Inline Fans Announcing the arrival of the new Hurricane™ Inline Fans. Extremely reliable and whisper quiet, these commercial-grade, high CFM fans are in a class of their own. The Hurricane™ is encased in steel housing with a durable powder coated finish and manufactured with quality UL components. Installs in just minutes with easy to follow instructions and simple to use mounting brackets. Recommended for use with: Phresh® Carbon Filters, Ideal-Air™ Ducting and Clamps, and Titan Controls® Fan Speed and Ventilation controllers. Five year manufacturer warranty. Visit an indoor gardening shop for more information.

New Vermicrop Organics Bulk Compost System—VermiLife VermiLife is the foundation of any good compost tea. VermiWorm Premium Worm Castings are combined with Alaskan humus at a specific ratio tested by industry leaders. We then fortify the mixture with fossilized kelp to increase calcium levels. Finally a proprietary method of inoculation is used to add liquid compost concentrate to the blend. Scoop VermiLife into your extraction bag as indicated and go get your bucket of VermiFeast. VermiLife is available in a five gallon bucket. Visit your nearest hydroponic shop for more information.


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT Presenting UNO Horticulture Lighting VHO You know UNO, or at least you will! Nickel City Wholesale Garden Supply and UNO Horticulture Lighting VHO collaborated to bring a new line of affordable lighting systems to gardeners across America. High Intensity Discharge (HID) and Very High Output (VHO) solutions are available to meet customers’ indoor gardening illumination needs. Units are made from high-quality components while still keeping unit costs within reach of the consumer. The elegant white components are designed to provide years of reliable use, and each is marked with the UNO logo to ensure authenticity. Visit your local hydroponic shop for more information.

Black Castings From Mother Nature Black Castings are Mother Nature’s purest form of slow release natural organic plant food produced by earthworms. What makes our OMRI listed Black Castings different is the controlled vermiculture feeding process and microbial enhancement. Being fed an organic grain in an indoor climate-controlled facility, our worms produce castings that are consistently bio-diverse and teeming with micronutrients and living microorganisms. Providing an essential NPK of 1.0-0.5-0.2, Black Castings will never burn your plants. Black Castings will improve fertilizer efficiency and make slow release and inorganic nitrogen more available for your plant. They have a water holding capacity of 300 per cent. Visit an indoor gardening shop for more information.


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012


OMRI Listed VermaPlex® VermaPlex is a plant probiotic designed to promote vigorous plant growth, flowering, brix and fruit production in all plants. Derived from our pure Black Castings and micro life and recently OMRI Listed, VermaPlex leads the field in organic microbial soil inoculants. As a foliar spray VermaPlex is an instant source of plant food with a 0.48-0.01-0.016 NPK that will never burn your plants, and will create a natural competitive exclusion to plant diseases. VermaPlex® is 100 per cent organic and all-natural with a two year shelf life. It will not leach or contaminate the water table. It is also totally non-toxic so adults, children and pets can safely use treated areas immediately. Visit an indoor gardening shop near you for more information.

Introducing the New HydroStar™ Premium Diamond Films Exclusive to Authorized Greenstar Retailers Greenstar Plant Products is proud to introduce the new HydroStar™ Premium Diamond films. Fifty per cent more reflective than black and white poly, these films eliminate hot spots while the diamond pattern diffuses and spreads light evenly. These films contain no head-conducting metal and feature a high performance PET coating for easy cleaning and wear resistance. Available with either black or white backing, each four foot wide roll is wrapped with protective plastic and sold in an individual cardboard box. For more information visit your favorite authorized Greenstar retail shop today.


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012


article title


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012


by Dr. Lynette Morgan

ORGANIC hydroponics When is an organically-grown hydroponic tomato not organic? When it’s Canadian, apparently…

Is organic hydroponics even possible? The answer to this question is rather complex and strangely enough depends on which country you live in. We often think of ‘organic’ plant production as being strongly tied to the soil—with composts, manures and other ‘natural’ products the sole source of nutrients—which is a long way from the advanced technology of soilless production.


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

organic hydroponics

However, if you are growing plants in the United States then a soilless hydroponic system can most certainly become organically certified and be considered officially and legally organic if it uses the correct and allowable organic inputs. If you live in Canada, though—or most other countries around the world—then no form of hydroponic system can be labeled as organic, as soil is considered the cornerstone of crop production. A hydroponic system using allowable inputs such as coco fiber or perlite for a substrate and acceptable organic liquid nutrients can be legally certified as organic under the USDA National Organic Program, while the National Organic Standard of Canada clearly states that growers must “abstain from using hydroponics and aeroponics.”1 This is where the confusion over whether hydroponic methods can be considered organic or not arises—since the exact same soilless

system would be considered organically certifiable in one country and totally non-organic in another adjacent country, it all depends which country you live in. It is the interpretation of the term ‘organic’ that leads to these discrepancies—different countries and different organic certification agencies have varying ideas about what organic actually means. To some, an organic growing system must incorporate soil—which excludes hydroponics—to others, so long Coconut fiber or coir is considered an acceptable organic as the plant is growing in a ‘natural’ hydroponic substrate for organic growers in the United States. soilless substrate such as compost or coco fiber or organic liquid nutrients organic hydroponics. The USDA Nathen soil is not required in order for tional Organic Program sets the standards the system to be considered organic. Of for what is allowable in organic systems and provides lists of allowable inputs. For course, for those not involved in comhydroponic growers, the easiest way of mercial crop production this dispute over what organic means probably finding out what they can and can’t use doesn’t matter so much—most of us in an organic hydroponic system is to just want to take a natural check out the OMRI website.2 OMRI and sustainable approach (the Organic Material Review Institute) to producing healthy, provides a list of the allowable prodchemical-free fruit, vegucts—fertilizers, growing media, pest etables and herbs for our and disease control products and so on— own use. which can be used under organic production. There are hydroponic products that are “If you live in Canada, though—or OMRI-listed as most other countries around the being organiworld—then no form of hydroponic cally acceptable system can be labeled as and usually this organic, as soil is considered the information is cornerstone of crop production.” displayed on the product label or on advertising. Since fully certified orSome products that are OMRI-listed ganic hydroponic systems were not specifically designed for hydroare legally recognized in ponics, but can be incorporated into a the United States—and soilless system anyway. many productive organic greenhouses are currently in The basics of organic hydroponics operation—we really need The basic principal of true organic to take a look at how these hydroponics is nutrient conversion—that United States growers manis, the conversion of organic compounds age their systems to get an In many countries only soil-based cropping can be considered organically certifiable; in others, soilless organics is possible. idea of what is involved in into plant-usable nutrient ions via the 58

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012


Organic hydroponics

action of microbes. Whether a plant is obtaining nutrients from a traditional non-organic nutrient solution or via organic fertilizers makes no difference to plant uptake—the root system absorbs the exact same mineral ions in both systems. However, in the organic system the nutrient ions first have to be released from organic materials, while in hydroponics we supply the nutrient ions directly via fertilizers dissolved into a solution. Although this microbial conversion process occurs naturally in soil, in soilless systems it requires a helping hand to speed up the process and keep it ticking over so that rapid plant growth will always be supplied with sufficient nutrients at the right time. Most commercial organic hydroponic growers use an OMRIlisted liquid fertilizer blend—there are huge numbers of these to choose from and larger growers often need to blend two or more to get the balance of nutrients just right for the crop they are growing. Liquid fertilizer products might also require some amendment— and organic production does allow for the use of some fertilizer salts—so organic hydroponic plants are not totally reliant on organic compounds alone. These allowable fertilizers have to be ‘naturally Nitrogen deficiency can be a common problem in occurring’ and organic hydroponic systems if microbial nutrient the OMRI list conversion doesn’t occur rapidly enough. contains a good range of salts that can be used to boost the mineral content of organic nutrient solutions. Some of the allowable fertilizer salts include: boron (borax and solubor), calcium carbonate, copper sulfate, dolomite, iron sulfate, magnesium sulfate, manganese sulfate, potassium sulfate (the non-synthetic kind) and potassium chloride. Fertilizers that are considered ‘synthetic’ such as calcium nitrate, potassium nitrate and monopotassium phosphate—which make up much of the volume of a standard hydroponic nutrient solution—are not allowable. Nutrient additives and boosters for organic production are widely available in various forms and humic and fulvic acids are also considered to be organically allowable. 60

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012


Organic Hydroponics

Substrates and systems

While organic solution culture systems do exist, smaller growers are advised to start out with a basic system that incorporates an organically-allowable substrate. This substrate will give you a good degree of buffering capacity and will provide an ideal environment for the nutrient conversion microbes, which form the basis of the system. Organically-allowable

The substrate forms the basis of any organic system and to make sure it is going to perform well with organic nutrients it can also be inoculated with one of the many microbial products, which are considered organically allowable. This inoculation process should be continued throughout the plant’s life. Beneficial microbial products for addition to the nutrient solution or drenched into the

hydroponics. Drip irrigation is advised, as the root zone should never be oversaturated—only a small volume of leachate from the base of the growing containers is required. The root zone in organic systems is finely balanced between the requirements of the nutrient conversion microbes and the root system itself. Both require high levels of oxygenation and overwatering will prevent much of the aeration that should occur in the pores of the growing medium. Organic

“While organic solution culture systems do exist, smaller growers are advised to start out with a basic system that incorporates an organically-allowable substrate.”

Natural and sustainable materials make up the basis of organic growing.

growing substrates are listed by OMRI— many growers have found coconut fiber to be ideal and it is a substrate many hydroponic gardeners are already familiar with. Coco fiber for use in organic production can’t have had any synthetic materials added to it—including conditioning fertilizers or surfactants—and there is a list of OMRI-certified coco products provided. Some brands of peat, perlite and vermiculite are also listed as OMRI-certified, which will allow you some flexibility in terms of blending your own growing medium and using these as propagation materials. Many commercial organic growers blend coconut fiber with other materials such as compost or vermicast (worm castings) as these materials not only provide a small amount of readily available nutrients but also a wide range of microbial species—which can immediately start the nutrient conversion process when fed organic nutrient solutions. 62

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

root zone have become common additives in hydroponics anyway, but they are even more essential when using organic solutions. New organic substrates incorporated into a hydroponic system should be conditioned before use—that is, fully moistened, inoculated with microbes, fed a small amount of organic nutrient and left to sit in a warm growing area for at least a week or two before planting out. This will give the microbial communities time to get established and build up their numbers before starting to break down organic compounds into plant-usable nutrient ions—all ready for the first plants to go in. Once your plants are in place your irrigation system will need to be run a little differently than it would be in traditional non-organic

systems have a higher requirement for oxygenation in the root zone due to the heavy populations of microbes, which are required and many organic crop failures are directly attributable to overwatering or poor aeration. EC and pH control in hydroponics is also different in organic systems—many organic nutrients don’t conduct electricity, so EC readings might not provide a true indication of the concentration of an organic solution. Levels of pH also tend to run higher in healthy organic systems than many growers are used to maintaining in standard hydroponics. Since pH-lowering acids like nitric and phosphoric commonly used in hydroponics are not organic, your pH is best

organic hydroponics

left to stabilize on its own. Some organic nutrient products naturally have a very high pH, so growers should try to select

entrances, close inspection of planting material coming into the growing area, sticky indicator traps and monitoring of plant health are all important steps you can take to either prevent or catch an infestation early on. Of the organically allowable pest control products, many

Organic hydroponic problems

Many of the problems growers new to organic hydroponics encounter originate from a lack of understanding of their new growing system, which—although soilless—is still quite different from standard non-organic hydroponics in terms of plant nutrients and many other factors as well. Finding suitable nutrient sources is the biggest hassle many will face as most organic fertilizer products are designed for soil use and often products need to be blended or boosted with allowable fertilizer salts to get a well-balanced nutrient with “For those completely all the essential elements for new to organic plant growth in hydroponics the ideal soilless sysplants to start with tems. Nutrient are those with lower deficiencies can nutrient requirements.” be common in organic hydroponic systems, with calcium often being difficult to indoor gardensupply in plant-usable form without the ers are already use of calcium nitrate—which is not familiar with Growers wanting to try organic hydroponics are advised to start with low nutriconsidered organic. Growers using a hard neem oil and ent demanding crops such as lettuce and other salad greens. water supply containing some naturallyextracts, which those with a more suitable pH range for occurring calcium have a distinct advanare derived from the Indian neem tree. use in their soilless systems. tage, which many greenhouse growers Many neem spray products are OMRIhave discovered. Nitrogen can also be a listed as organic and they can give you Organic pest and good control over a wide range of insect problematic element, as organic nitrogen disease control pests. Beneficial and predator insects as sources are reliant on microbial action Once growers have established a healthy part of an integrated pest management to break down organic compounds root zone and are feeding their plants program are also widely used by organic fast enough to supply all the nitrogen with a suitable organic blend of nutrients, growers and there is also a range of required for plant growth. Hydroponic the next issue with organic production microbial spray products available, such plants are heavy feeders of nitrogen and tends to be pest and disease control. as BT for caterpillars. Disease control sometimes growth can outstrip supply, Under organic production standards can be little more complicated, although so—with common hydroponic nitrogen the range of sprays for common plant there are biological controls availfertilizers such as calcium nitrate and problems is rather restricted—synthetic able such as Beauveria treatments and potassium nitrate not permitted under or chemical pesticides and fungicides other non-synthetic fungicides based on organic production—nitrogen nutricannot be used, which eliminates some microbial species. Copper and sculpture tion can sometimes limit growth. This all of the more effective controls many sprays for bacterial and fungal infections means that organic hydroponic growers hydroponic growers are reliant on. With can be used in some cases and hydrogen need to have a good understanding of organic production, prevention of pest peroxide is allowable under United States what healthy plants should look like as and disease problems becomes even more organic standards for cleaning and well as being able to recognize the early essential—screening vents, double-door disease control. signs of any nutrient deficiencies.


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

For those completely new to organic hydroponics the ideal plants to start with are those with lower nutrient requirements. Crops like lettuce, salad greens and many herbs can usually be grown in a coco fiber/vermicast mixture with a dilute liquid nutrient—carefully drip-irrigated to prevent saturation of the root zone—with good rates of success. From there your system can be upgraded to produce more nutrient-demanding crops such as tomatoes, cucumbers and capsicum. With a little skill and experimentation using the wide range of organically allowable products and materials listed by OMRI, organic hydroponics is certainly achievable—but whether or not your crops will be recognized as organic will depend entirely on which country you live in! MY

Commercial organic hydroponic greenhouse crop of young tomato plants.

1 Organic Production Systems General Principles and Management Standards, National Standard of Canada, CAN/ CGSB-32.310-2006 2 OMRI (Organic Materials Review Institute),

Sources and links: USDA National Organic Program, “Organic Greenhouse Container Herb Production in South Florida: Fertilizer and Potting Media”, “Organic Greenhouse Production Resources”, where-find-organic-information

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012


Phytoremediation & The Next Revolution in Interior Plantscaping by Chris Pianta

It might sound like something from science fiction—but in the very near future most skyscrapers will probably incorporate greenwalls in their design to reduce heating and cooling costs and provide fresh, healthy air for the people inside. The use of greenwalls and phytoremediation in interior landscape design is not a new or revolutionary concept—since the earliest civilizations, gardens and plantings have been used to visually enhance interior walls and provide places for growing value-added plants. In our own time the use of plantings on vertical spaces has been found to provide aesthetic and economic value and to promote the improved health and mental well-being of building occupants as well.


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

The historic challenge with trying to use greenwall systems has been the difficulty of growing on a vertical plane versus a horizontal one. In order to deal with this issue most early designs (dating from the 1970s) incorporated a step system to go vertical, basically using a series of offset planter boxes stepping back one on top of the other to allow light and service access. The problem with this system is that although the plants are going up the wall, the visual appeal is lost once the line of sight is above the height of the viewer.Verticallygrowing plants can’t be seen, so plants with low-growing vine habits like ivy were typically used to grow over the edge of the boxes and cascade down the sides for visual effect. Maintenance of these systems was pretty daunting—with limited access to the highest steps, the plants were difficult to access for pruning,

Few systems in the ‘70s or ‘80s included automated watering systems, either, so crews had to be sent in regularly to water and clean the plants.

fertilizing or watering. Few systems in the ‘70s or ‘80s included automated watering systems, either, so crews had to be sent in regularly to water and clean the plants. A box two stories up a wall was just not feasible to maintain—typical atrium plantings of potted or raised bed-planted tropicals on a horizontal format became common and unless vertical plantings were in easy proximity for maintenance these systems were usually eventually replaced with artificial treatments.

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012


Phytoremediation and greenwalls

Phytoremediation only began to gain credibility in the last 25 to 30 years. In the 1970s, NASA conducted studies on the use of plants to clean air in confined spaces—the idea was that as the plant

The development of phytoremediation systems as a process to reduce VOCs (volatile organic compounds) and CO2 in the air of enclosed buildings like skyscrapers has been an exciting new frontier for architects and horticulturalists. These systems combine the aesthetic appeal of a greenwall plant system with the useful function of plant transpiration to absorb

require the introduction of fresh outside air into a building’s HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) network and the venting of old air out. The ‘fresh’ air—which is sometimes actually dirtier than interior air—then has to be either heated or cooled, depending on the season. If stale interior air could be remediated and recirculated, though, building operators could save significantly on the costs of heating and cooling fresh air. In addition, studies have shown that ‘sick building syndrome,’ thought to be caused by dirty air, is deleterious to the health and mental well-being of building occupants—with the use of phytoremedia-

These challenges are currently being addressed by a number of companies attempting to enter the relatively new and burgeoning building phytoremediation market.

transpired, it would take in carbon dioxide (CO2) and other airborne volatile compounds and respire oxygen (O2), thereby ‘remediating’ stale air. The studies gave birth to a ‘plants for clean air’ campaign, promoting the use of indoor plants to help clean the air in old buildings with limited air-exchange capabilities—and the term ‘phytoremediation’ was coined to describe the process.


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

and break down airborne contaminants while reducing energy use. The process of using plants as a biofilter—where old air passes through plant leaf and root systems and is cleansed, then is recirculated into the building space—provides a number of benefits. Regulations

tion systems, however, worker sick days and medical claims decrease and worker productivity actually increases, both from the health benefits of breathing clean air and the comfort of having plants in the workplace. So how do you build a plant bio-filter? The engineering challenges related to this task start with having a system that can integrate into the buildings HVAC system. Much like an air handler in a home’s central air system, a bio-filter system would require old air to be drawn into a common area, forced through the bio-filter and then recirculated through the building. Under this model, the best candidate for the location of the bio-filter would be the building lobby. The next challenge is to design a bio-filter that will maximize the surface area of both leaf and roots so the air can pass

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012


Phytoremediation and greenwalls

over and easily flow back into the building. One solution is to build a wall, with plants growing on the vertical plane. Imagine a multistory honeycombed structure where the holes in the honeycomb have plant chambers installed and the surface of the growing medium is actually on a vertical plane. Old air could

pass through the leaves, into and through the medium, over the roots and be channeled back into the HVAC system. While this sounds like a simple solution, growing plants successfully in this manner presents a number of challenges. For instance, it requires a plant stabilization system—including a removable container that allows air movement—as well as a growing medium that allows high air-filtration without decomposition and irrigation that works effectively on a vertical plane. Fertilization, maintenance, light, airflow and several other variables need to be considered too, along with choosing appropriate plant varieties to use in the wall. These challenges are currently being addressed by a number of companies attempting


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012


Phytoremediation and greenwalls

to enter the relatively new and burgeoning building phytoremediation market. Although there are more than 20 varieties of plants that perform well at capturing VOCs and other air-based compounds, not all will work well in a vertical format and some are not aesthetically pleasing. The growing medium needs to be lightweight and very stable with no decomposition, good waterholding capacity, high porosity for air movement and the ability to harbor beneficial bacteria and microbes. Plant stabilization is required to hold the plant in place vertically and the medium must be contained as well so it does not fall out of the container or the front. The plant containers themselves need to be structurally rigid enough to hold 30 to 40 pounds of plant irrigation system and growing medium, but have to be open enough to allow airflow. They also have to be easily removable (plug-and-play, if you will) so individual containers can be installed, replaced or maintained without too much difficulty.

Irrigation is a big issue as well—water will flow down, pool or puddle and it can harbor mold, algae and mildew as well as promote humidity in the recirculation system. A vapor system will deliver water in a warm vapor, allowing it to rise through the growing medium and condensate for plant availability, but its delivery must be frequent enough to prevent the media from drying out. Lighting must also be addressed—not all systems will face the existing lighting, so supplemental lights will be required. All in all, the benefits of integrated phytoremediation systems for buildings far outweigh the challenges scientists must face in developing them. There are a number of companies and researchers with systems in the development and pre-launch stages now, with clients ready and waiting to install them into their facilities when all the bugs are ironed out. The health advantages to be gained from breathing better-quality air as well as the long-range economic returns from saving on heating and cooling costs make these systems very attractive to building owners and managers. From skyscrapers to mobile homes, phytoremediation systems can be scaled to any size of facility and should eventually be affordable for any budget. MY 72

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012


by Bill DeBoer

Electrical Conductivity and Monitoring Plant

Nutrition We all know it’s important to monitor the EC—but what are we really looking at when we do this? William DeBoer gives us a quick chemistry lesson…


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012


Electrical Conductivity and Monitoring Plant Nutrition

The electrical conductivity test (EC) is a quick and inexpensive way to determine the salt concentration of a solution. For growers, it provides a reliable method of nutrient monitoring. But what exactly is EC? How does temperature affect it? How does fertilizer application correlate to EC values? And why does EC even matter to a grower? To answer these questions, first we must discuss four things: • The formula for electrical conductivity and electrical current, what each component means and how an EC probe works • What ionization is and what ions are present in water • Fertilizers and how they contribute to EC • Nutrient deficiencies and the effect of high and low EC values Electrical conductivity is the measure of a material’s ability to conduct an electrical charge, measured in Siemens per meter. An electrical current (measured in amperes) is the movement of electrons over time across a medium such as water. Put simply, EC gauges how a current moves in solution. The link between EC and fertilizers will be discussed later—first, let’s look briefly at how an EC probe works and how temperature affects EC. An EC probe is comprised of two electrodes to which voltage is applied. The voltage reading is the resistance (ρ) of the solution. The instrument calculates the reciprocal of this value, allowing

electrical conductivity to be calculated. The resistance is calculated based on the distance between the two electrodes. The relationship between temperature and EC is direct, in that with a one degree increase (33.8°F) there is a two per cent increase in electrical conductivity— therefore, EC readings must be adjusted relative a standard of 25°C or 77°F. Most EC probes that also measure temperature should have a built-in adjustment so that no correction is necessary—if in doubt, be sure to check the specifications of the EC probe. Next, the elements and compounds that act as electrical conductors—ions—and the action of ionization will be examined. An ion is an element that has gained or lost an electron. This gain or loss of electrons occurs because water breaks the ionic bond of certain compounds in a process known as ionization. For example, let us examine a compound such as magnesium chloride (MgCl 2). When this compound is added to water, the affinity of water for electrons breaks the bond between the magnesium and the chloride, forming Mg 2+ and Cl -. Since these are charged ions, they are now able to act as electrical conductors and will contribute to electrical conductivity. What is important about this chemical process for growers to understand is the relationship between EC and fertilizers.

What is important about this chemical process for growers to understand is the relationship between EC and fertilizers.


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Synthetic fertilizers are made from (among other things) soluble salts of nitrates or ammonia, phosphates, potassium, calcium, magnesium or sulfates. Organic fertilizers are not high in salts and will often have a very low EC, so proper nutrient monitoring using standard guidelines is problematic. Fertilizer salts will ionize (in water) into individual components; for calcium nitrate, for example, into a cation (Ca2+) and an anion (NO31 ). Since ionized water sources will have an EC value due to the rock-derived minerals surrounding the watershed, the water will contain a variable amount of cations (Mg+2, Ca2+, K+ and so on) and anions (CO3-2, Cl-, SO4-2 and so on). This will be an important consideration when attempting to mix appropriate fertilizer solutions for plants that will account for

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012


Electrical Conductivity and Monitoring Plant Nutrition

the ions in the water. An EC reading will provide not only a measurement of the fertilizer content prior to incorporation with the plant, but also the salt content in a saturated substrate—a high EC value indicates high electrical conductivity and thus a high level of salt. EC measurement does not differentiate between individual nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium and so on), but simply provides the sum total of all salt content. Also, EC measurements cannot determine whether one macro or micronutrient is being absorbed at a higher rate than another. Measuring the EC of the saturated rooting substrate allows the grower to gauge the nutrient needs of the plant. For instance, if the EC value is high in the substrate, there is no need for further fertilization—if it is too high, then flushing with water might be necessary. Likewise, if the reading is low, this is an indicator that the plant needs some supplementation of nutrients. Make sure that when using an EC probe the substrate is wet as there must be a solution for the current to travel through. One final consideration with EC monitoring is the relationship between salt and water content. As the substrate dries out, the nutrient (salt) content increases—at this point, the salt


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Nutrient deficiencies are caused by poor watering regimes, improper fertilizer rates and improper pH levels.

concentration might be high enough to damage the roots of the plant. Likewise, if the substrate is constantly flushed with water, the nutrients will be removed completely. Next, we’ll discuss the concept of watering regimes and the ideal watering temperature. Consider the analogy of having boiling hot or freezing cold water poured onto your skin. Not a pleasant thought! Plants too respond unfavorably to extremes in temperature—that’s why it is recommended that all watering should occur at a temperature range of 70 to 80°F. Low water temperature—from 40 to 60°F—leads to a decrease in water and nutrient absorption via a decrease in root

permeability (the passage of materials in and through the roots). This is especially true with tropical or warm-season plants whose roots are not acclimated to colder temperatures. While watering with cold temperatures might not kill your plants, it could cause root stress and will reduce the absorption of water and nutrients, leading to a slow decline in health. With regard to watering regimes, avoid the pitfall of establishing a daily routine. Let the plant—via the rooting substrate—tell you when watering is necessary. Monitor moisture by touching the top third of the substrate surface—if it feels moist, delay watering; if it is dry, watering is appropriate. It is important to note that plants will only use enough water to meet their physiological demands. Generally, plants will not utilize excess water and too much moisture in the substrate forces air out of the interstitial spaces, leading to anaerobic conditions. Over time, this will lead to roots rotting due to insufficient oxygenation. While there are some plants adapted to these conditions, most common plants do not benefit from ‘waterlogging.’ Finally, let’s discuss the plant response to substrates having low or high EC values and the ideal EC range. Properly monitoring EC levels can contribute significantly to sustainable or ‘green’ practices. Essentially, maintaining the proper EC levels prevents overfertilization. Excessive amounts of nutrient runoff from lawns, greenhouses and backyard gardens can enable algal populations to grow

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012


Electrical Conductivity and Monitoring Plant Nutrition

exponentially, drastically changing the ecosystem of a waterway. For example, surface algae can cover the top of a body of water, blocking the path of light to the benthic (bottom) plants and eventually killing them. Algae will also impact dissolved oxygen levels at night when they respire and—more dramatically—when crashes occur due to the bacterial count being so high it causes hypoxia (no oxygen). This can kill off the fish and other aquatic life that are dependent on varying levels of dissolved oxygen, which in turn impacts terrestrial predators that rely on that aquatic food source. There is a direct and critical correlation between EC and plant growth performance. The response of plants to either

low levels of fertilizer salts (EC <1) or high fertilizer salts (EC >1) will ultimately result in stunted growth and poor health. This means that for most plants an ideal EC range should be between one and three milli Siemens per centimeter. Plants subjected to low nutrient levels (low EC) will present nutrient deficiencies. Nutrient deficiencies are caused by poor watering regimes, improper fertilizer rates and improper pH levels. Some nutrient deficiencies (a lack of nitrogen, for example) can result in the yellowing of leaves—especially older leaves—and a very pale green coloration to newer growth. Other signs of a nutrient

Monitoring your EC will remove most of the guesswork in meeting the nutritional needs of your plants, resulting in a happier, healthier garden.


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

deficiency include the yellowing of leaf margins and veins, burnt leaf tips and irregular leaf shape. Fertilizer solutions with a high EC (above three) can cause burning of the roots due to excessive salt buildup in the substrate. In addition, this accumulation of salts in the substrate and subsequent uptake by the plant roots can result in salt stress. A plant’s sensitivity to salt is highly variable—some are very sensitive, while others are very tolerant of salt. Symptoms of salt stress include necrosis (death) of the roots and yellowing and wilting of the leaves. Thus, even though nutrient levels might be high the plant might show signs of nutrient deficiencies and drought stress. Depending on the type of plant, the salt concentration and the duration of exposure, a very high EC can quickly lead to plant death. If overfertilization occurs and the EC is too high, you should immediately flush the substrate with copious amounts of water to remove the salt. It is important to note that signs of salt stress and nutrient deficiencies can be very similar, so proper monitoring of your substrate salt content and moisture is essential for optimal plant health. In conclusion, electrical conductivity (EC) is an effective way to estimate the fertilizer content via salts in your growing substrate. Monitoring your EC will remove most of the guesswork in meeting the nutritional needs of your plants, resulting in a happier, healthier garden. The recommendations set forth in this article are by no means set in stone—personal research will give you the most complete understanding of the ideal growing conditions (temperature, lighting, nutrient and water requirements, salt tolerance and so on) of each particular plant species. Hopefully this article has provided enough basic information for you to appreciate the importance electrical conductivity has on monitoring the nutritional needs of your plants. Happy growing! MY See sources at

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012


Aquaponics: The Key to a More Sustainable Future? by Matt LeBannister

It’s becoming increasingly evident that we’re going to run out of sustainable fish stocks in the years ahead—is aquaponics really a viable solution?

The world is always changing around us and the face of agriculture and food production is changing as well. A constantly increasing world population means more urban sprawl is taking over what was once fertile farm land—how are we going to manage to grow enough food to keep up with our ever-growing numbers, especially the millions who live in drought-stricken, arid climates? Fish numbers are also dropping throughout the world’s oceans, leading experts to predict increasingly severe global shortages.


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012


Aquaponics: The Key to a More Sustainable Future?

How about aquaponics? Aquaponics is an ingenious growing system that merges edible fish production with hydroponics. In aquaponics an artificial ecosystem is created in which fish are fed, their waste is broken down into more absorbable forms by beneficial bacteria and the converted waste is then pumped through the system, where it feeds the plants. The plants act as a natural filter, cleaning the water—which is then recirculated through the system. Aquaponics is looking more and more like it’s going to be one of the best solutions for future generations seeking sustainable ways to produce healthy organic food.

Making aquaponics work Aquaponics is a blending of two important ideas, combining fish farming with hydroponics (soilless gardening). Edible fish that do well in closed environments


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012


Aquaponics: The Key to a More Sustainable Future?

are required—tilapia, white bass, crappie and barramundi are species that are used in many commercial and home aquaponic systems. These fish will feed and their urine and feces will be a waste product. In normal fish tanks or fish farming systems the waste builds up and makes the water toxic to the fish—the waste-filled water then needs to be purified and would normally be either filtered or disposed of. In aquaponic systems this is not the case, however—the fish waste actually makes great plant food. The waste-filled water is recirculated throughout the system instead of being flushed away. One very important aspect of aquaponics that needs to be understood is that it is not just a symbiotic relationship between fish and plants—there is another system of organisms operating within every aquaponic system that is crucial to success. This is the network of benefia lot of surface area to thrive—raft and cial bacteria that needs to exist in every deepwater culture systems have enough aquaponic set-up. The beneficial bacteria surface area for the beneficial bacteria to nitrosamonas sp converts ammonia from grow but systems such as NFT (nutrient fish urine and feces into nitrite and the film technique) do not. In NFT systems beneficial bacteria nitrobacter sp then you have to help the bacteria by creating converts the nitrite into nitrate—a form a biofilter, which can be accomplished by of nitrogen that plants can absorb and adding a separate chamber to the system fish can tolerate in their water at low levels. that the waste-filled water will have to pass through. In this chamber a piece of Without the mesh should be strung from side to side, action of this providing adequate surface area for the network bacteria culture.You could buy bacteria of beneficial and add them to your system but this is bacteria the water not really necessary as they will develop would develop toxic and grow naturally if allowed to. levels of nitrite (even small amounts are For beneficial bacteria to thrive a toxic) and both the fish and plants would neutral pH balance of seven should be eventually die. maintained, unlike hydroponic systems This network of beneficial bacteria where the pH should be kept slightly is fragile and must be cared acidic at a level of 5.8 to 6.8. for as carefully as your fish or plants. This means that you can’t use any chemicals—including “Edible fish that do well in closed hydrogen peroxide or pesticides environments are required— (chemical or organic)—that could harm the beneficial tilapia, white bass, crappie and bacteria. If you stick to these barramundi are species that are rules you can create a healthy used in many commercial and system of ‘good’ bacteria in your aquaponic system. Bacteria need home aquaponic systems.” 86

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Environmental benefits There are many reasons to choose commercial and small-scale home aquaponic systems over traditional methods of farming fish and vegetables separately. Environmental concerns are one big reason that aquaponic systems are being looked at seriously as an important future source of food—aquaponics will eliminate the need for the costly synthetic nutrients that are often used in hydroponic systems. These synthetic nutrients are made using fossil fuels and many experts believe that we have reached the peak level of oil production. This is a controversial topic and is very debatable, but either way these fossil fuels could be better used in other ways, such as heating and powering homes. Another environmental benefit aquaponic systems have over other farming options is that you don’t use pesticides when farming with aquaponics. Pesticides that are normally used to control and eliminate insects are harmful to the fish in aquaponic systems. Although most pesticides in use today are considered relatively safe, there are many that are not—and not all coun-

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012


Aquaponics: The Key to a More Sustainable Future?

“Aquaponics could also be established on a large scale outdoors in warmer climates to utilize the sunlight.” tries enforce the same strict pesticide laws that protect us in North America. Aquaponics is also advantageous in that it conserves water. Fish farms must either use expensive filters to purify water before it is recirculated, or—more likely—dirty water is just flushed and fresh water is then used to replace it. Water used in hydroponic systems must be replaced often as well—salts and minerals that are not absorbed by the plants can build up, reaching toxic levels quickly. In aquaponic systems plants absorb the fish waste, acting as a natural filter. In this way water can be continuously recirculated, only occasionally needing a top-up to make up for evaporation and plant transpiration. The capability of aquaponic systems to recirculate water efficiently could be very beneficial in arid regions of the world


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

where so many countries are now facing drought and food shortages. Aquaponics looks like it could be a great solution to those problems—by recirculating water, aquaponics systems should allow people to grow more food with less water. Since aquaponics doesn’t require synthetic nutrients or pesticides either, it can be a very cost-effective means of feeding many people. Aquaponics could also be established on a large scale outdoors in warmer climates to utilize the sunlight. People love fish—it is highly nutritious and at one time the supply of most species was so plentiful as to appear inexhaustible. Now, due to overfishing, climate change and lax regulations the world’s stocks are rapidly dwindling and it seems more and more likely that fish farming will have to become the way of the future. If we are serious about finding a sustainable way for future generations to acquire the

nutrition that fish can provide, we must take a long look at aquaponics. The world continues to change and the population is going to keep growing. Climate change and ever-expanding urban sprawl are taking away fertile land that was once used for agriculture. Fish stocks are plummeting, while large-scale farming on land reduces the natural habitats of animal species. We are at a vital crossroads and the well-being of future generations depends on which road we take—it’s beginning to seem more obvious every day that aquaponics could be a very important part of the solution to our planet’s impending food shortages. MY References: Aquaponic Journal #49, “Jade Perch, Rich in Omega-3 Fish Oil, Has Great Potential in Aquaponics”, Geoff Wilson, 2008, Nelson & Pade Inc. Aquaponic Journal #48, “Aquaponic Equipment: The Bio Filter”, Rebecca L. Nelson, 2008, Nelson & Pade Inc.


Irrigation Management of

Soilless Culture by Guy Sela

Regular weekly analysis of emitter water and drainage water is essential for monitoring the normal growth of container plants. In this article, the necessary steps for planning and monitoring irrigation and fertilization are outlined.

Sampling irrigation water and drainage

It is advised to sample water from at least one location per irrigation valve. The sampling location should represent the plot controlled by the valve, but choosing the right sampling location can be difficult if the plot is heterogeneous (for example a plot that contains plants with different water

consumption or plants that are in different growth stages). Sampling from a location that represents the average water consumption might not be the answer, and it is important to take into account the sensitivity of specific plants to water excess or to salinity. For better monitoring, it is recommended to sample from the same locations every week. This allows you to follow trends and changes. After choosing the sampling location, the irrigation should be scheduled according to two parameters: the irrigation interval and water amount, in this order.

Irrigation interval

Irrigation interval is determined based on water consumption of the plant, container volume and substrate properties, considering the plant sensitivity to moisture. Here are two examples: Plant

A consumes two quarts per day, the container volume is 0.4 quarts and the substrate can hold 60 per cent available water. Therefore, the interval between irrigations should not exceed three days: 0.6 x 2 / 0.4 = three days. Plant B also consumes two quarts per day, but the container size is one quart and the substrate can hold 30 per cent available water. The longest irrigation interval for plant B is 0.3 x 1 / 0.4 = 0.75 days. Therefore, more than one irrigation per day is required.

Determining the water amount to apply In order to prevent salt accumulation in the substrate, it is very important to let water drain from the bottom of the container. Too little drainage will cause salinity buildup in the substrate, while too much drainage might cause leaching of nutrients from the substrate and nutrient depletion.

Here is a convenient table for tracking the data: Valve

Drip EC

Drain pH

A B C 90

Maximum Yield USAâ&#x20AC;&#x201A;|â&#x20AC;&#x201A;April 2012









For practical reasons, the drainage is expressed as percentage of the volume of water applied to the container. For example, if you apply one quart of water and drainage volume is 10 ounces, the percentage of drainage is 30 per cent. Fifteen to 60 per cent drainage is an acceptable range in most growing media and the appropriate percentage is determined according to the plant’s tolerance to salts, growing media properties, applied fertilization schedule and the grower’s experience. Practically, the drainage percentage is determined by simple field tests, such as testing EC, pH, nitrate and chlorides both in the irrigation water and drainage water. Once the drainage percentage is determined it can be used as a working premise. The amount of water that should be applied in each irrigation is the amount of water that will result in this percentage of drainage. The parameters mentioned should be tested at least once a week in order to get indications of the processes taking place in the substrate, such as changes in the pH, salinity buildup, deficiencies, etc. MY

About the Author: Guy Sela is an agronomist and a chemical engineer for his innovative software company, Smart Fertilizer ( that provides fertilizer management solutions. Applying his background in water treatment, he has lead a variety of projects on reverse osmosis, water disinfection and water purification, providing high quality water for irrigation.

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012



Toilet to Tap Some Dirty Truths About Your Drinking Water by

Jennifer Casey


Richard Gellert

We’re all concerned about climate change, air pollution and greenhouse gases, but what do we know about the state of our water supply? Are you concerned about your water? You should be! Let's discuss why water quality is an issue for everyone, how your choices affect the water supply and what you can do to help. What are some of the contaminants in our water? How do they get there? What can you do about it?


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Down the drain Some contaminants found in water are accumulated naturally during the hydrologic cycle. Minerals such as calcium and magnesium are present in the ground and when water passes over rocks and bubbles up from springs it comes in contact with these two common minerals. Even though excessive amounts can cause problems in your garden, these two minerals are generally harmless for drinking and bathing. Although more sinister substances like arsenic can enter the water supply from natural deposits that erode and enter the water, these contaminants usually come from manufacturing and agriculture after being washed down the drain along with many other dangerous substances which are used in commercial applications. Unfortunately, many contaminants wind up in our water supply because of people like you and me. Cadmium is

Unfortunately, many contaminants wind up in our water supply because of people like you and me.

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012


From Toilet to Tap: Some Dirty Truths About Your Drinking Water

an ingredient in paint that can have a detrimental effect on our kidneys—and who hasn’t rinsed a paintbrush out in the kitchen sink? Unused prescriptions frequently wind up in the toilet, where they not only become part of the water supply but can go on to adversely affect wildlife in streams, lakes and ponds. In Colorado, researchers found male fish with both male and female sex organs in streams downriver from sewage treatment plants and scientists suspect that estrogen levels in the water are the culprit. Some of the estrogen found in sewage and water is

caused by ‘estrogen mimickers’—chemical compounds found in laundry soap and other products—but estrogen is also present because prescription hormones and birth control pills are being consumed and passed into the sewers and unused prescriptions are being flushed down the toilet. Even most household cleaners contain harmful chemical compounds— the surfactants in laundry soap are not usually biodegradable and are harmful to both plants and wildlife. And where does all this harmful waste go? Straight down the drain.

One of the largest contributors to water pollution is agriculture. From fertilizer and animal feed additives to herbicides and pesticides, these products not only go down the drain but trickle down into the groundwater. Some common agricultural pollutants are pesticides and nitrates— nitrates bond with the hemoglobin in

One of the largest contributors to water pollution is agriculture.

our red blood cells and can cause serious sickness in infants as well as damage to wildlife and plants. When water runs from the crop and into the ground, it isn’t filtered or processed in any way, so all of those agricultural pollutants enter the environment unchecked. Closer to home, most nutrients used in hydroponics aren’t organic and every time a hydroponic reservoir is changed the used nutrient water and its harmful pollutants, including nitrites and phosphates, is flushed straight down the drain—and that’s not the end of the story.


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012


From Toilet to Tap

Then what happens? Water that goes down the drain flows into sewers (assuming you aren’t on a septic system) where it’s collected by your local municipality. Once at the treatment center, the water is mechanically filtered—meaning particulate matter is physically removed from the water and disposed of. After everything is physically removed, biological organisms such as bacteria need to be neutralized. For decades, chlorine was the go-to chemical to facilitate this neutralization, but more often these days water treatment centers are turning to chloramines, chemicals that are similar to chlorine, but in a more stable form.

That doesn’t sound so bad... Doesn’t sound too bad at this point, does it? Stuff goes down the drain, gets treated and comes back to us clean— no big deal, right? But here’s the thing—remember the fish with both lady and man parts? You might be wondering how pharmaceutical-laced water is ending up in lakes and streams and here’s where the problem is—when it rains, sewers overflow. The extra runoff flows into lakes, rivers and oceans without being filtered. This means that herbicides, pesticides, industrial chemicals, household products, paint, pharmaceuticals and human waste—which also contains some of these same pharmaceuticals—are all just going straight into the environment to be absorbed by helpless plants and animals alike.

They strain the chunks and they neutralize bacteria with chlorine and chloramines— that’s it.

Furthermore, the chlorine and chloramines added to water during treatment protect us from bacteria and disease, but not without cost.You are probably well aware of the damage that chlorine and chloramines can do to your plants and those expensive beneficial biologicals. Chlorine will dissipate eventually, so a pitcher of water left uncovered for a while will no longer taste or smell like chlorine as the molecules break down. Chloramines, however, are composed of a chlorine molecule bonded to an ammonia molecule—which makes a more stable


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012


From Toilet to Tap: Some Dirty Truths About Your Drinking Water

compound. Although ‘more stable’ sounds like a good thing, what it actually means is that chloramines last much longer in water than chlorine does. This is troubling because these compounds are hard to get out of your water, usually requiring a specialized filter—such as a KDF—for effective removal. Chlora-

mines effect on the human body has not been studied extensively, but what few studies there are indicate a relationship to cancer and respiratory problems. Chloramines efficacy as a disinfectant has been called into question and some believe that plain old chlorine is actually the superior water treatment solution.

. On a day-to-day basis, choosing organic foods and fabrics and being a smart consumer will eventually show companies that what they do matters to you.


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Just for something else to worry about, remember the part about your water getting cleaned at water treatment plants? Well, that’s not the whole story because check this out—your municipal water treatment facility can’t really do a whole lot. They strain the chunks and they neutralize bacteria with chlorine

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012


From Toilet to Tap

and chloramines—that’s it. All that arsenic? Still in there. Cadmium? Hello, still there. Nitrites, phosphates—heck, even naturally-occurring pollutants like radium and boron are all still present in your water. And guess what else? Every time water runs through the cycle and more contaminants are added, it all gets more concentrated, so your tap water is getting more and more contaminated every day. Although fresh water from rain and snow runoff can help to mitigate this increasing concentration of harmful chemicals to some degree, some of the chemical pollutants also evaporate into the atmosphere, causing acid rain.

What can I do? Even though there isn’t much you can do about things like overflowing sewers, there is a lot you can do to decrease your impact on our water. As a hydroponic gardener, you can utilize organic nutrients whenever possible. As a consumer, you can choose organic, biodegradable cleaners—many of these cleaners are not only better for our water and the planet, they work as well or better than the traditional kind, are easier on your skin and clothes and smell much better too! Additionally, never flush an unused prescription. Cap the bottle and dispose of it in the garbage—half an eternity in a landfill just might be long enough for the chemicals to break down 102

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Ultimately the first step toward a solution is awareness.

completely. Although your dirty paintbrushes, extra-strength detergent and hydro reservoir dumps are part of the problem, they are a mere trickle into the veritable ocean of chemical effluent that is our water—agricultural and industrial runoff is the main culprit where water contamination is concerned. A good reverse osmosis filter for your home will protect your body from most of the nasties and garden reverse osmosis is practically a must for hydroponics. Choosing to invest in companies that are environmentally responsible also helps immensely. On a day-to-day basis, choosing organic foods and fabrics and being a smart consumer will eventually show companies that what they do matters to you. Checking out organizations like 1% for the Planet is an excellent way to get a better look at companies that care about the environment. Learning how to deal with these contaminants on a municipal level is a step toward solving the problem, but the biggest step we could take would be to find a way to limit the contaminants going into our water in the first place. Is regulation the answer? Should polluting companies be fined? How about the companies that make the billions of gallons of everyday products that are slowly (and not so slowly) poisoning or water and our planet? Can this be allowed to continue until it’s too late? Answering these questions is beyond the scope of this article and any discussion about them would inevitably lead to a discussion about money and freedom and of course our freedom to make money—which has proven to be the most difficult of American values to legislate against time and time again! Some countries—like Germany and Switzerland—already regulate certain chemicals to ensure the safety of their water and I personally hope the United States follows suit. If your government can’t regulate what goes down the drain, they can’t guarantee what comes out of the tap! Ultimately the first step toward a solution is awareness. Air pollution, carbon emissions and greenhouse gases are all part of our everyday vernacular now and constantly hearing about these problems encourages people to think about the issues and sometimes even find ways to help out—like finding alternatives to driving and investing in alternative fuel sources. Let’s start working to bring this sort of awareness to the issue of our water quality as well. MY References Maximum Yield USA | April 2012


by Frank Rauscher

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Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

‘Going green’ is a popular concept and there are a number of practical benefits to be gained from incorporating a new concern for the environment into your home or business.You don’t have to install a wind turbine in your backyard to make a difference—there are all kinds of ways you can help protect and sustain the environment that don’t cost a lot of money. It’s all about looking at the waste and overconsumption of modern life in a different light and starting to think of ways you can leave the world a better place for the next generation. Far too often we are so focused on paying our bills that we forget to spend time creating habits that could benefit our environment and help to make our communities a better place to live. Natural turf lawns produce oxygen and create lovely green spaces in our landscapes. They feel wonderful to the touch of our feet and make great places for our kids to play. But you

“You don’t have to install a wind turbine in your backyard to make a difference—there are all kinds of ways you can help protect and sustain the environment that don’t cost a lot of money. “

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012


Going Green: What Can You Do?

“Many parts of the country are currently laboring under drought conditions—clean potable water is a critical and limited resource.“

need more than grass—try planting some trees and shrubs around your property and you’ll achieve a nice balance that helps the environment and attracts birds to your property. Creating a better habitat for birds in our yards and gardens is a great way to make our homes more inviting while reducing our need to use insecticides. Birds are probably the best insect control agents we could ever employ. They might go after our fruit when the peaches are ripe, but if we get right to picking as soon as the crop is ready we can make sure that we don’t lose too much—and sharing a little of our bounty with these beautiful creatures seems only fair. Birds need places to hide and nest as well as a food source.You don’t necessarily need to put up bird feeders to attract birds—you can plant shrubs with open structures where the birds can hide and play. They like shrubs that flower and produce seeds. A cotoneaster, silverberry


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

or Pyracantha bush will provide great cover for your bird population and a good source of food. When selecting new shrubs make sure they are compatible with your climate and that they aren’t invasive or toxic. Plants and trees consume carbon dioxide, produce oxygen and help anchor the soil. If you don’t have much time to spend on landscaping, there are lots of plants and trees that require very little maintenance—just make sure you do a little research before you get started or hire a good landscape designer to help you find the best fit for your yard and lifestyle. Another way to go green is to use less energy. We pay dearly for the energy we use and it’s all a drain on our dwindling resources. How about producing or collecting some energy on your own? Electric solar units are constantly developing and improving and there are many new options available today. The

technology has advanced to the point where even smaller solar panels can provide more than enough electricity to run the pumps necessary for a hydroponic garden. Because of these advances, many people are now turning to solar-powered hydroponics as an eco-friendly way of gardening. Wondering whether all the fuss of building a solar set-up is really worth it? Consider this—if you live to be 85 and use an average amount of electricity (around 400 kilowatt hours per month per person) you will have paid for around $48,000 worth of electricity in your lifetime. Employing solar technology is not just a nice green idea—this is one investment that can save you real money. Individual solar panels are not too large and now there are micro-inverters that couple independently to them. With these installed your system can now be easily portable and their modularity will also let you to start out small and expand as your finances allow. A 240 watt unit costs around $1,300—these ‘start small’ and

‘add-to’ systems are ideal if you’re just getting started. See the resources at the end of this article for further information. Is recycling potting mix when starting new plants a good idea? New potting mix can be expense and in the spirit of conserving things, we certainly don’t want to waste money. Although recycling your mix could have its benefits, potting mix is a medium for growing all kinds of things—insects, bacteria, fungi and weeds, as well as plants. Old potting mix might contain nematodes that feast on roots. Though some fungi and bacteria are beneficial, there are many that are harmful and they might very well be lurking in your old potting mix. Even new potting mix might harbor pests, although the higher-quality mixes—having been thoroughly sterilized— are generally pretty safe. Proper control of the composting method for producing potting mix creates internal temperatures in excess of 160°F—at this temperature the mix will be disinfected and rendered sterile. So how about sterilizing your old potting mix yourself? There are techniques for sterilizing your old soil and making it safe for use with new plants. Covering the soil with plastic and using the sun to create sufficient heat can work—when ambient air temperatures are high enough it’s generally pretty easy to raise the soil temperature to above 160°F. If the soil is moist it helps the heat to penetrate throughout the soil structure. If you’re attempting to do this on the ground, the temperature of the ground below the soil being sterilized is also critical—you should try to completely insulate your soil mix from the ground and air temperatures. Remember, you’re trying to get to 160°F and stay there for awhile. One inventive gardener has put together a number of great green gardening ideas and been kind enough to put them on YouTube. One video in particular will show you how to build your very own little soil mix sterilizer unit. It’s a great idea and just watching the video will provide a good learning opportunity—you’ll find additional information at the end of this article. Another way to go green is by saving water. Many parts of the country are currently laboring under drought conditions— clean potable water is a critical and limited resource. Plants

frank rauscher

“The technology has advanced to the point where even smaller solar panels can provide more than enough electricity to run the pumps necessary for a hydroponic garden.“

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012


Going Green: What Can You Do?

generally don’t need or benefit from daily watering—root systems need to breathe in order to convert sugars from photosynthesis into energy and they can’t do this if they are waterlogged. One very efficient way to save water is to use automated drip irrigation for your landscape plants. Drip irrigation provides a slowly administered water supply to your plants that soaks deeply into their root zones. Indoors or out, drip systems provide deep water that plants can use as they require over the course of several days. Landscapes can be kept green, lush and beautiful without using a lot of water. Drought-tolerant plants can often go for weeks without watering and will suffer no stress or damage. If you water these varieties too frequently, though, they can fail quickly, so don’t waste precious water on daily soakings for your cacti! Spray irrigation in general is responsible for a higher per cent of water waste and evaporation, while well-designed drip systems are far more efficient. Use water wisely—it’s a responsibility we all share. Growing more of your own veggies is another worthwhile green initiative you can implement that will reduce transportation costs and the use of chemicals. It can also be a wholesome family project and will make your meals that much more healthy, delicious and economical. There are so many ways to go green. Think about what you can do—discuss it with your family, do some reading, ask for tips at your local hydro store or garden center—and remember that if you take a little time each week to make new green habits, you, your family, your community and your world will start to reap super benefits. Additional information: • Tony Buck is the inventor and gardener from YouTube I mentioned. His ideas for green gardening are practical and basic. • Wholesale Solar manufactures solar equipment and produces micro108

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

“It can be a wholesome family project and will make your meals that much more healthy, delicious and economical.“

inverters that make it possible to start small and expand your solar electricity system as you go. Their website provides lots of product options and costs to consider. The USDA Forest Service published Effects of Urban Trees on Air Quality, a very informative article in PDF format on the subject.

Visit for active links to all these resources. MY

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012



Indoor Tree Trends

by Nikki Phipps

Caring for a Kaffir Lime Tree The Kaffir lime tree (Citrus hystrix) is commonly grown for use in Asian cuisine. While this dwarf citrus tree—which can reach up to five feet tall—can be grown outdoors (year-round in zones nine to 10), it is best suited for indoors. The Kaffir lime tree thrives in potted environments and would benefit from placement out on the patio or deck; however, its container needs to provide adequate drainage.


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Kaffir lime trees are generally not bothered by many pest problems but might become susceptible to mites or scale if left near infected plants. Although it is possible to grow Kaffir lime trees from seed, this method is often difficult to achieve. Likewise, grafted trees tend to bloom and bear fruit earlier than seedlings.

Kaffir Lime Tree Care Despite the fact Kaffir lime trees are tolerant of less than ideal conditions, there are specific needs that should be met for optimal growth. Kaffir limes prefer full sun in moist, well-drained soil. If grown indoors, keep near a sunny window. The Kaffir lime tree appreciates water and somewhat humid conditions during the growing season. Keep in mind, however, that this tree is prone to root rot if kept too wet so allow the soil to dry out some between waterings. Regular misting helps with humidity levels. Kaffir lime trees are cold sensitive and need to be protected from frost. Therefore, these plants should be brought indoors during winter if they are grown outside. They enjoy indoor temperatures around 60°F or above, especially during winter months. Prune Kaffir lime trees while young to encourage branching and a more bushy plant.

Kaffir Lime Leaves The glossy, dark green leaves of the Kaffir lime tree are quite distinctive. Kaffir lime leaves look like two leaves joined together, as one appears to grow from the tip of the other. Kaffir lime leaves are most often used as an essential ingredient for flavoring many Asian dishes such as soups, curries and fish. They can be used fresh off the tree or from dried leaves. Kaffir lime leaves can also be frozen to retain their freshness. Picking the leaves every few weeks might help encourage growth. Crushing Kaffir lime leaves will release their fragrant oils, which emit an intense citrus aroma.

Kaffir Limes Kaffir limes are about the size of Western limes. They are dark green with a bumpy surface. In order for the Kaffir lime tree to produce any limes, be sure to provide plenty of light for flowering. Because they produce very little juice, the juice and flesh of Kaffir limes is rarely used, but the sour-tasting rind can be finely grated and used for flavoring dishes. Fresh Kaffir limes can be frozen using freezer bags and used as needed. Kaffir limes have many household uses as well, including cleaning and hair conditioning. MY (Source: Maximum Yield USA | April 2012



Horticultural Lighting - The Future is Here

by Eric Hopper

Things are looking brighter than ever in the field of horticultural lighting—and it’s going to take a lot less energy to get the job done in the future. We are in the midst of an ecological movement stemming from a heightened sense of awareness that our current path of over-consumption is unsustainable and detrimental to our planet. This global movement affects every industry and technology and challenges manufacturers to not only produce ‘green’ products but to do so in a manner that is eco-friendly. To this end the horticultural industry has been making significant progress in developing new, energy-efficient light fixtures, its main goals being to produce light technologies that consume less energy, produce more photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and contain fewer hazardous materials. Products designed under this multifaceted approach will reduce pollution created as a byproduct of electricity production—most of the CO2 emissions in the United States are caused by the generation of electricity—and reduce harmful waste that eventually contaminates our soil and water. 112

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012


Eco-friendly Horticultural Lighting—The Future is Here

The future of horticultural lighting Two lighting technologies stand out in my mind as being ‘the future’ of eco-friendly horticultural lighting: LEDs and induction lighting technologies. Neither technology is new; in fact, induction lighting has been around since the 1890s—although the more advanced sulfur-plasma technology was developed in the 1990s—and LEDs were introduced in the 1960s. The expanded use of these forms of lighting in future horticultural applications will be due to advancements we’re now beginning to make in our understanding of plant physiology, combined with improvements in production methods that will lower costs.


Two lighting technologies stand out in my mind as being ‘the future’ of eco-friendly horticultural lighting: LEDs and induction lighting technologies.


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Light-emitting diode or LED technology is gaining huge popularity in the horticultural industry. This is due mainly to NASA, which continues to conduct plant-growth experiments under LED lighting. LEDs show immense potential as horticultural lighting fixtures due to low energy consumption, cool operation and the capability to customize their spectral output to emit the specific wavelengths most usable by plants. All of these factors—combined with their longevity and durability—make LEDs the most viable eco-friendly solution for horticultural lighting. LEDs are also solid state devices that do not depreciate in their output of usable plant energy (PAR) like their HID and fluorescent counterparts—in fact,

Maximum Maximum YieldYield USA | December USA | April 2012 2011


Eco-friendly Horticultural Lighting—The Future is Here

LEDs can be used for horticulture for up to 10 years without a substantial decline in PAR output. LEDs emit light in a very unique and efficient way that produces much less heat than standard lighting fixtures. In most indoor gardens heat is considered waste and is generally removed by a fan or air conditioner, but LEDs are able to reduce the energy consumption associated with the removal of excess heat by not producing so much in the first place. LEDs contain no mercury, but due to the presence of other compounds these bulbs should still be recycled after their long lifespan.

Induction lighting Induction lighting illuminates without the use of an electrode, instead using an electromagnetic field to stimulate compounds found within the bulb. Electrodes are generally the limiting factor in lamp life and efficiency, so it makes sense that induction lighting would be a great choice for a long-lasting, efficient lighting source. There are also certain higher-efficiency substances that can be used in electrode-less lamps that would react poorly with the metal electrodes used in standard lamps. For horticultural purposes, there are two types of induction lighting currently showing the most potential: sulfurplasma lamps and fluorescent magnetic induction lamps.

What makes sulfur-plasma so exciting for the horticultural industry is the truly full-spectrum output it can emit and its long lifespan.


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Sulfur-plasma Sulfur-plasma lamps consist of a small fused quartz sphere (or bulb) containing

a mixture of argon gas and sulfur powder. The sulfur and argon gas are excited by microwaves produced by a magnetron—which heats the sulfur, causing it to illuminate. What makes sulfur-plasma so exciting for the horticultural industry is the truly full-spectrum output it can emit and its long lifespan. A sulfurplasma bulb is rated for 60,000 hours

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012


Eco-friendly Horticultural Lighting

(five to seven years of continuous use) with virtually no depreciation of photosynthetically active radiation. Although sulfur-plasma lamps are realistically years away from practical use in horticultural applications, their long life—combined with the absence of mercury and other hazardous waste— makes them a strong candidate to be a leading eco-friendly choice for the future.

Magnetic induction fluorescent As with standard fluorescent lighting, magnetic induction fluorescents use electricity to excite mercury vapor, which excites phosphors—thus producing light. The difference lies in the way the mercury vapor is excited. Magnetic induction fluorescents, like their name suggests, use electromagnetic induction to transfer energy through the glass envelope of the bulb to excite the mercury within. The absence of any electrode in the fluorescent light tube creates a multitude of ecologically friendly benefits. Electrodes found in standard fluorescents create an escape route for the gases in the tube— the escape of these gases decreases light output and requires more mercury to be used. Induction fluorescents require half the mercury content of comparable standard fluorescents, making them a much better choice for the environment. Although standard fluorescents need to be replaced about once a year because the usable light energy for plants diminishes as the bulb’s internal compounds break down or escape, magnetic induction fluorescents can be used continuously for five to seven years with little or no reduction in PAR. It should also be noted that the mercury used in induction lighting is in a solid form, which reduces contamination in case of accidental breakage and makes full recovery during recycling simpler. Magnetic induction fluorescents—just like LEDs— also produce much less heat than high-intensity discharge lighting, which reduces overall energy consumption.

Proper disposal of fluorescents, metal halides and high-pressure sodiums Many growers do not realize they can reduce the amount of toxic material entering our soil and water by simply recycling (versus throwing out) their old bulbs. Almost every recycling facility accepts bulbs and will actually salvage some of the components and compounds that can be reused. Contact your local recycling center to find out the proper procedures for your area—recycling unwanted bulbs is a useful contribution to our planet’s bright future. MY 118

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Maximum Yield USAâ&#x20AC;&#x201A;| April 2012


Tips and Tricks

by Casey Jones Fraser

Flip Me

ON, Flip Me OFF

The following story is based on actual events.


A friend of mine, we'll call him Dave, was looking to increase the size of his garden. He had been occasionally growing a few plants under a 1,000 watt HPS light with some good results. Dave's basement is quite large, about 20 by 20 feet with nine


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

foot ceilings. It would be easy to set up four 1,000 watt lights over two four by eight foot tables, and that is exactly what Dave wanted. After procuring the additional lights, Dave set them up and turned them on. Heat is always a concern, so Dave uses a

digital thermometer in the garden. With the lights on for a few hours the temperature was almost 90°F. With the lights out at night temperatures would drop into the upper 50s. These numbers are outside of the ideal range of approximately 77°F during the day and 65°F at night. No

problem. Dave stopped by my shop for suggestions on a heater for the night hours and an air conditioner for the daytime. "I think we can save you some cash here." I grabbed a catalog for a quick price check. "Get one of these lighting flip relay systems and two grow tents." For those of you who don't know: you can buy a device that will run two lights off a single ballast at different times. One light will be on for a set number of hours (usually 12), then the ballast's power is "flipped" to a different reflector. One light goes out, the other comes on. So, Dave set up two large grow tents, each big enough to hold a four by eight foot table. He runs one pair of lights for 12 hours, then his new relay system flips the power to the other tent for 12 hours of light. Both gardens get a 12 hour light cycle and a 12 hour dark cycle at opposing times. Because Dave only runs two lights at a time, the heat never gets above 80°. In fact, temperatures are usually in the mid 70s, day and night. The regulated temperatures help the plants grow fast yet compact.


Dave was going to buy an air conditioner and a heater, but instead he bought a ballast flipping relay system. There are many different brands available. I have heard rumors that some grow stores have tried to make these systems themselves. Because these units transfer thousands of watts of power, there is a chance of failure or even fire. Please purchase your flipper from a reputable horticulture control company. In this scenario, Dave was able to buy less equipment, save money on his power bill and still run four grow lights. This level of efficiency is better for the environment and easier on the budget. Now that's green! MY

Maximum Yield USAâ&#x20AC;&#x201A;| April 2012


Fertilizers —What’s for Dinner? by Dr. J. Benton Jones, Jr.

What exactly is a fertilizer and how do you know what’s in it? There are so many conflicting claims and so much confusing information out there, but Dr. J. Benton Jones, Jr. can help you sort it all out… What constitutes a fertilizer is variously defined—one source has it being “a substance by Jennifer Casey Richard Gel(as manure or chemical mixture) used to makeand a soil fertile.” (Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 10th Edition, 1994) Another definition reads, “Fertilizer is any organic lert or inorganic material of natural origin (other than liming materials) that is added to a soil to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.”


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Maximum Yield USAâ&#x20AC;&#x201A;| April 2012


Fertilizers—What’s Article Title for Dinner?

More specifically, a fertilizer generally contains one, two or all three of the designated fertilizer elements nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Chemical fertilizers consist of both generated and naturally-occurring substances. Chemical fertilizer nitrogen is derived from a fossil fuel (usually natural gas), phosphorus from acidified rock phosphate and potassium as potassium chloride, a naturally-occurring mineral. The percentages of the elements N, P and K in a fertilizer are expressed for N in its elemental form, P as its pentaoxide (P2O5), and K as its oxide (K2O)—which is why on a fertilizer label you will see three numbers, expressing the percentage of N to P2O5 to K2O in the product. Sometimes there is also a fourth number, which notes the percentage content of sulfur (S). Frequently the term complete is used to identify a fertilizer that contains something other than just the three basic fertilizer elements—usually one, several or even all of the micronutrients boron (B), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo) and zinc (Zn). Inclusion of these micronutrients actually limits the use of such fertilizers to those situations where there is a probable deficiency, however—if there is no deficiency, then using a mixture that includes these extra elements could lead to excess or even toxicity. In some instances the amount of the included micronutrient in the complete fertilizer mix might also be insufficient to meet the plant’s requirements—that’s why it is recommended that the inclusion of any micronutrients in a fertilizer be based only on specific determined need. Since many of the commonly used rooting media—such as soilless organic mixes containing peat moss or pine bark, composted milled pine bark, composted wood byproducts, perlite, rockwool or coir—are naturally-occurring products, they will also contain various levels of these micronutrients, sometimes in sufficient quantities to meet the plant’s needs. This is another reason why including micronutrients in an applied fertilizer mix could lead to excesses and possible toxicity. The form of the fertilizer you use—whether it’s a solid, a liquid (either completely soluble or in slurry form) or a gas, such as anhydrous


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Maximum Yield USAâ&#x20AC;&#x201A;| April 2012


Fertilizers—What’s for Dinner?

ammonia (NH3)—will determine its use as well as its ease of handling as a fertilizer material. Solubility of ingredients can be a significant factor in a fertilizer’s interaction with the rooting environment (particularly in soil), affecting the availability of the essential plant nutrient elements that it contains. This is particularly important for the fertilizer element P, since the orthophosphate

"Most organic substances that have been identified as being fertilizers have low essential nutrient element levels and are therefore not suitable for use when growing plants with high nutrient element requirements."


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

anion is a highly reactive ion, forming complexes that can significantly reduce the availability of P in the ionic form necessary for root absorption. An organic fertilizer is a substance that consists of combined carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O). Unfortunately, what designates a substance as an organic fertilizer has not been well defined and there might be some question about the use of the term fertilizer for identifying substances that do not contain substantial quantities of any of the fertilizer elements (NPK) sufficient to meet the requirements of a growing plant. Most organic substances that have been identified as being fertilizers have low essential nutrient element levels and are therefore not suitable for use when growing plants with high nutrient element requirements. Being low in elemental content, a large quantity of organic fertilizer would be required to meet the demands of even a low nutrient

element requirement plant. In addition, being an organic substance, the fertilizer must undergo decomposition in order for any plant-essential elements to be released into the rooting medium solution in the ionic form necessary for root absorption. The use of most common organic fertilizers can result in excesses or insufficiencies when used for meeting the nutrient element requirement for just one element—for example, animal manures are a good source for N, but they contain other elements that can become present in excess with continued manure applications. Composted chicken litter is another organic material that can result in elemental imbalances between the elements K and Ca and Mg, leading to either an induced Mg or Ca deficiency. A determination of the ‘fertilizer value’ of an organic material can be reached by performing a total elemental content determination or a water equilibrium analysis. A total elemental determina-

Maximum Yield USAâ&#x20AC;&#x201A;| February 2012


Fertilizers—What’s for Dinner?

tion can be performed by a plant analysis laboratory, while the water equilibrium test is available from some soil testing laboratories. A water equilibrium test will determine the level of ‘plant available’ elements and will not only include the fertilizer elements but the other essential elements as well—such as Ca, Mg, S and some of the micronutrients. A total element analysis will identify those elements potentially available upon decomposition. Organic compost that is the end product of microbial decomposition is a stable substance, resistant to further decomposition. Some of these organic composts are suitable for use as rooting media due to their stable physical structure—worm castings, for example, depending on the source material, can be an excellent potting medium. In general, though, organic composts are not suitable sources for the fertilizer elements—or the other elements plants sometimes require—so they should not really properly be considered as fertilizers at all. An inorganic substance can be classified as being organic, based on the fact that it is a naturally-occurring substance—not on the basis of being a compound of combined carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. This designation applies to those substances that can be used in the production of food plants or products in order to meet state or federal regulations for designation as being ‘organically grown.’ The challenge for the grower, whether using a chemical, organic or organic-inorganic fertilizer, is to provide the nutrient elements necessary to meet the plant’s requirements without insufficiency or excess. To this end you should try to understand the plant’s nutrient element requirements and balance them with the nutrients being supplied by the fertilizer and those which already exist in the rooting medium. MY


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Maximum Maximum Yield Yield USA | USA | February April 2012



Growing for Health

Garden by Matt LeBannister


Grow Your Own Vitamin

Vitamin C is one of the most important nutrients in the human diet. Unlike many animals, humans cannot synthesize vitamin C and must consume it. It is vital to the proper function of the immune system, cardiovascular system, skin care, teeth and gum care, hair care and more. Without enough vitamin C in our diet these systems can become compromised and even fail. You probably are aware of how much vitamin C there is in oranges and other citrus fruit but there are many plants that have just as much vitamin C content and can be easily grown indoors.

Kale One such vitamin C-rich plant is kale, from the cabbage family. There are different varieties of kale: some have green leaves while other types produce white, purple or bluish leaves. Some varieties have smooth leaves while others are ruffled. Kale has a delightful earthy flavor with nutty notes. It can be consumed raw as part of a salad or steamed to preserve the rich nutrients contained within. Maximum USA | March 2012 130 Yield Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Kale is considered somewhat of a super plant because of how nutritionally rich it is. Just one cup of kale contains 88.8 per cent of our recommended daily amount (RDA) of vitamin C, 1327.6 per cent of our RDA of vitamin K and 354.1 per cent of our RDA of vitamin A. Kale also contains an abundance of trace elements, folate and dietary fiber. Eating kale two to three times per week can lower your cholesterol.

Kale can be grown indoors in a sunny windowsill or under fluorescent light bulbs in either soil or soilless mediums or hydroponic systems.

Chives Chives are herbs related to garlic, onions and leeks. Chives are bulb-forming perennials. The stems (or scapes) grow above ground and are thin hollow leaves that grow between eight to 15 inches

high. The stems have a mild onion flavor that makes them great for cooking. Chives do not retain their flavor when dried so they are best enjoyed either fresh or frozen. Chives can be harvested gradually as the leafy part will grow back if the bulb is left undamaged. Chives are extremely nutritious; they are high in vitamin C, vitamin A, calcium, iron, manganese and other trace elements. Not only are chives known for boosting the immune system, they are also known to aid in digestion. Chives can easily be grown indoors under fluorescent light bulbs or in a sunny windowsill. Bulb-forming plants are not always suited to hydroponic systems and tend to do best in soil or soilless gardening mediums.

Rosehips Rosehips are the fruit of rose plants and are extremely high in vitamin C, containing more than many citrus fruits. Rosehips are small elliptical orbs that are usually orangey-red, but can be darker, almost purple or black. They are edible fresh (avoid the hairs inside of the fruit), cooked or dried. Rosehips are commonly used in jellies, tea, pies, syrup (for sore throats) and they have a sweet, pleasant flavor. Rosehips not only boost the immune system, they can be used to soothe nausea and diarrhea and to help with urinary tract infections. Roses can be grown indoors easily. Many people find that the roses grown indoors or in greenhouses can produce more luscious and beautiful blooms than their outdoor counterparts. Roses, which produce rosehips as fruit, require HID light bulbs to thrive. They need the intense light to grow large flowers and lots of rosehips. To produce the rosehips indoors you must pollinate the flowers yourself. This can be done with a paintbrush by transferring pollen from one flower to another. Vitamin C is so important to human health. Sailors on long voyages would not get enough vitamin C in their diet and would contract scurvy (vitamin C deficiency), a potentially fatal disorder. Eating a healthy complete diet that is rich in vitamin C will keep us healthy and help prevent illness. A bountiful source of this vital diet component is no further away than oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s garden, a living pharmacy.

Sources: by Winston Craig MPH, PhD, RD., What Are the Health Benefits of Rosehip Tea? Maximum Yield USAâ&#x20AC;&#x201A;| April 2012



garden starts in the by Casey Jones Fraser

Every little bit helps—and Casey Fraser explains how you can help preserve the environment by using just a little bit less of everything in your garden. If you watch television, you’ve seen ads that urge you to do your bit to protect the environment—their theme is usually based on creating less waste and conserving valuable resources in an effort to save the planet. Considering the state of our global economy, you might wonder why anyone would bother to incorporate ‘green’ policies into corporations whose primary goal is profitability. The truth is, though, that many environmental initiatives lead to greater profits. Simply put—if you use less, you’ll spend less. 132

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Maximum Yield USAâ&#x20AC;&#x201A;| April 2012


Conservation Starts in the Garden

When you look at your indoor garden space, you might see empty bottles, used growing medium, plastic pots and other waste products filling up your trash cans.You will most likely also see an array of non-disposable products: fans, pumps, trays, reservoirs, buckets, CO2 equipment, pruning shears and so on. It’s obvious that growers are serious consumers—after all, if you want to grow a huge crop, you have to use supplies. So how do we go about conserving resources without reducing yields?

The right light for the space One of the most common mistakes growers can make is establishing too many plants in the garden, or not using enough light for the space. This happens when an eager grower tries to fill his large space with plants while skimping on total wattage or the number of lights. If this sounds like you, it might be time to provide more lights—or reduce your garden space. Ideal lighting coverage for a high-output indoor flowering garden: • 1,000 watts = four foot by four foot area, or 50 to 70 watts per square foot • 600 watts = three foot by three foot area, or 60 to 80 watts per square foot • 400 watts = two foot by two foot area, or 70 to 100 watts per square foot Light levels higher than this are not recommended for most gardens, while lower light levels are acceptable for leafy crops such as lettuce or vegetative plants.

After harvest, hydro media can be added to compost piles or raised bed gardens.


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Maximum Yield USAâ&#x20AC;&#x201A;| February 2012


Conservation Starts in the Garden

‘Old school’ charts might suggest you can effectively light larger areas than this with these recommended wattages, but advanced growers know that the rules for matching garden area to light have changed since these charts were written. Many older lighting charts are based on the use of greenhouses, where you have sunlight beating down on the plants. Sure, a 1,000 watt HPS light will cover an eight foot by eight foot area in a sun-soaked greenhouse. But in your basement or closet, your grow lights are the only source of spectral radiation—the sun is taken out of the equation and your plants will require a higher level of manmade light. I have seen uninformed growers fill an eight foot by eight foot space with plants and only use a single 1,000 watt HPS lighting system. These growers will use four times the plants, pots, soil, nutrients and water that growers using the same light to cover a four foot by four foot garden will require and guess what—the yields achieved will be roughly similar in both scenarios! The eight foot by eight foot garden requires the reflector to be raised too high above the garden canopy in an effort to spread out the light—overall light intensity is reduced and the plants will grow in weak and scrappy. In the four foot by four foot space, though, the light can be kept at an optimal 18 inches above the canopy, allowing the plants to grow stronger and therefore more resistant to pests and disease. As a result, yields are much higher per plant in the four foot by four foot garden. The quality is also better, as individual fruits and flowers will grow larger and heavier and be more evenly ripened. If I’m going to be harvesting five pounds of tomatoes either way, I’d certainly rather have a few large fruits than dozens of wimpy specimens! Lighting your garden using this system will increase quality while decreasing labor, cost and overall waste.

The nutrient challenge

I’m one of those perfectionist weirdos who obsesses over subtle improvements. I always want a perfect crop with big yields and high quality and I’ve been fortunate enough to meet many nutrient experts in this industry who’ve been able to help me out. After years of side-by-side trials I now

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Be careful what you pour down the drain.


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Maximum Yield USAâ&#x20AC;&#x201A;| April 2012


Conservation Starts in the Garden

find myself using 10 to 15 products in a single batch of nutrient solution.You might think that a grower who uses this many nutrients and supplements is using too much, but I have selected products that will give my plants specific benefits, improving both quality and quantity. Again, conservation is the key—I never overuse any single product, often using half-rate or even lower application levels. I always use a digital nutrient meter to prevent over-fertilization as well. I have seen growers who constantly attempt to administer higher-than-recommended nutrient levels (ppm or EC) to plants in their garden. Their thinking is simple enough—if plants take in more food, they should get bigger. Unfortunately, there is a tipping point. Plants will indeed get bigger when fed high-quality nutrients, but—just like humans—they will get sick if fed too much. While

" The easiest way to reduce waste is to reuse products in our gardens." plants that are slightly underfed will only lose about 10 per cent of their total potential yield, overfed plants will be burned and their output can be reduced by as much as 50 per cent. Keep in mind that many of the liquids and powders you administer are intended to improve flavor and aroma. If you overuse fertilizers and supplements, however, the nutrient burn will actually reduce flavor, aroma, quality and yield. Plants given appropriate amounts of high-quality inputs will always outperform overfed crops.

CO2 enrichment

It’s no secret that plants take in carbon dioxide while releasing oxygen—you probably learned that in grade school. 138

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Indoor gardeners often supplement CO2 into their garden for improved results. What is the main source of global warming? Many experts blame CO2 emissions. If we release CO2 into our gardens, we might be contributing to melting ice at the poles. The key to using CO2 responsibly is keeping it Use water and enzymes to recycle your soil or soilless mix. in place—if you have a sealed garden with ideal daytime temSoil and soilless mixes are easy to reuse. peratures in the upper 70s, CO2 enrichAfter harvest, remove the central root ball ment is great! Your plants will take up of each plant. Run clean water through as much of the valuable gas as they can the medium until the runoff is less than and none of the emissions will leave the 350 ppm. Let the soil dry for a day or space. When CO2 is taken up and turned two. Then, soak the substrate with water into biomass, there are no ill effects on and an enzyme concentrate at twice the the environment or the ozone layer— label rate and the enzymes will break this is called sequestering and environdown the dead root matter. Till your mix mental scientists rely on sequestering to once a day for two or three days and it turn atmospheric CO2 into solid carbon will be ready for your next crop. (C) and gaseous oxygen (O2). The money you’ll spend on enzymes is If your garden is vented (or otherwise less than you would spend on new soil, unsealed), however, then CO2 suppleand tilling is less work than bringing mentation is not the way to go.Your in heavy bags of potting mix for every vent fans will pull the CO2 out of your cycle. This process also allows benefigarden along with hot air and there’s no cial microbes to increase over time— point in supplementing carbon dioxide many growers report better yields with if your blowers are going to immediately recycled soil because of the increased pull the gas outside—that is just straight microbial populations. up air pollution. Organic waste such as leaves, stems and If you want to supplement CO2, you root balls should be composted. For tips should use a sealed garden environment. on composting, check out articles from If you vent your garden, fresh air will Emma Cooper, Grubbycup and other bring in carbon dioxide and no suppleMaximum Yield contributors—they’ll mentation is required. tell you how to do it and how it can help

Reusing, recycling and composting The easiest way to reduce waste is to reuse products in our gardens. Plastic pots, net cups and fabric containers can all be washed and reused.You might be tempted to throw them away, but rinsing and reusing them is often less hassle than driving to the grow store and spending more money. Plastics that cannot be reused should be rinsed and placed into the recycling bin.

with future harvests.

Look around Are you pouring gallons of old reservoir solution down the drain? Go feed the stuff to your lawn. Do you throw away empty nutrient bottles? Recycle them. There are plenty of ways for us to conserve resources in our gardens. Take the time to review your consumption and always look for ways to use less—you’ll save money on supplies and Mother Nature will be grateful for your efforts. MY

Maximum Yield USAâ&#x20AC;&#x201A;| April 2012


Beginner’s corner

Root Zone Temperatures

Don’t Get Cold Feet! by Alex Rea


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Often overlooked in today’s technology-driven indoor garden is root zone temperature. We have a dial, button or machine for every condition in our rooms it seems: thermostats for air temperature, expensive CO2 equipment, timers for fans and water pumps. But how many of us have any idea what our root zone temperature is, let alone a way to control it? So why has root zone temperature been so overlooked by today’s indoor gardener? The answer, it seems, is because we are so busy trying to keep the air cool from hot lights, we assume our roots are cool too! Not so fast. In a room that has a good temperature, say 78°F, the root zone could be up to 15 degrees cooler. The reason for this is because the transfer of heat from air to water is not very efficient. Also, the root zone can be shielded from the infrared heat from HID lights by the plant canopy. If you are using rockwool on tables, this effect will be most noticeable. Just feel your cubes and they will be cold to the touch in an otherwise warm environment. In a situation like this, the roots will have trouble moving water and thus reduce the amount of nutrients they bring to leaf tissues. This causes slow growth and reduced yields.You will notice that the root zone stays wet and takes a while to dry out, leading to soggy waterlogged roots. The best remedy for cold roots is to use a large heat mat and heat mat thermostat under the entire area or flood table. This will allow the roots to constantly transpire water and nutrients up the plants stem, as well as encourage healthy root growth. The ideal temperature of your root zone is 68 to 74°F, about 10 degrees warmer than the cool 60 or so degrees you plants are currently enduring. At this temperature, the ion exchange is at its very best, getting the most macronutrients, micronutrients and oxygen up to the tissues of your plants. So get it right people! The way to healthy yields is through healthy root zone temperatures. Reference: About the Author: Alex Rea is part of the Homegrown Hydroponics Inc. team in Toronto Ontario. After studying politics at McMaster University, Alex went back to his true calling, which was hydroponic product development and marketing. With over 10 years experience and study time in the hydroponic field, Alex spends his free time as an ambassador for hydroponics in his local community. Maximum Yield USA | April 2012



Composting Made Easy by Grubbycup

It’s all going to turn into compost eventually— but Grubbycup can show you how to speed up the process and start making your own compost pile right in the backyard…


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Maximum Yield USAâ&#x20AC;&#x201A;| April 2012


Backyard Composting Made Easy

Gardeners can make compost at home in a corner of the garden. It is a very forgiving process—and as long as only things that should go into the compost pile do, eventually it will work. As long as the pile does not have too much highnitrogen ‘green’ material in it, it should not smell bad or be a nuisance, either. In an untended forest or jungle, leaves and other plant materials fall to the ground and decompose—this creates a rich and fertile layer of compost and humus for future growth and is all accomplished without any human intervention. It is not neat, fast or pretty, but it has worked in nature for a very, very long time! If you took a bag containing leaves, lawn clippings and ripped up newspapers and spread it out on the ground, eventually it would decompose just as it would on a forest floor. It would also be messy and the neighbors might complain if you made a habit of it, so a tidier solution would be to put the material into a pile. Ideally, the pile should measure at least a yard or so on each side—this not only keeps things neater around the garden but also helps facilitate the composting process. This mound of decomposing vegetation is referred to as a ‘cold’ compost pile and—depending on what’s in it—in anywhere from a few months to a couple of years it will become compost. Nature will do all the work if given enough time and some occasional rainfall. One very simple form of composting involves taking leftover leaves, stems and roots


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

after a fall harvest, putting them in a pile and then digging out the compost that develops over the winter for use in the spring. Depending on local conditions, this method might have to be modified to include a few different piles—each pile can then be allowed to sit for a year or longer. Ideally, each compost pile should measure about a yard or more on

processed by either air-loving (aerobic), or air-hating (anaerobic) bacteria. A wet pile of dark green spinach leaves (green material) will quickly become host to anaerobic bacteria and start to rot, giving off an unpleasant smell. If that same pile was mixed with fall leaves (brown material), then the moisture would be better distributed and the mixture would have better aeration. Aerobic bacteria would dominate and the resulting mixture would give off a sweet earthy smell while it converted into compost. If too much brown material is added, however, decomposition will slow and the process will take longer. When in doubt, keep in mind that too much brown smells better than too much green! Brown materials generally have a carbon-to-nitrogen ratio of greater than 30 to one. Leaves, newspaper, cardboard, sawdust, straw and anything tree- or sugar-related are usually considered brown materials and they will all take a long time to decompose if left in a pile without green materials. If too much brown material is added to a pile composting will slow, but brown materials do help with structure and odor control. If your compost pile starts to smell, add more browns and stir the pile. Green materials generally have a carbon-to-nitrogen ratio of less than 30 to one. In other words, they contribute more nitrogen for the amount of carbon

If you took a bag containing leaves, lawn clippings and ripped up newspapers and spread it out on the ground, eventually it would decompose just as it would on a forest floor. each side, because piles that are too small don’t heat up as well. Large piles are hard to stir but they need to be stirred more often than small piles because it is important that the material at the core be rotated with the material on the outside for even composting. There are ways to make the process faster and to avoid unpleasant aromas. While decomposing material in the forest can stink and no one will care, if you smell up your backyard you might have a problem. If too much ‘green’ material is added, the pile can start to smell. When plant material decomposes, it can be

N E TO W A PL D AC E Maximum Yield USA | April 2012


Backyard Composting Made Easy

that they contain than brown materials do. Grass clippings, vegetable or fruit food scraps, coffee grounds and green leafy material are all greens. These will decompose quickly if left in a pile without brown materials, but they also tend to stink and rot in the process. Be careful not to put too much citrus in a pile at once, as the acid can hinder microbial action. Putting a layer of browns over a new layer of greens will help keep the pile from smelling unpleasant. Ideally, the compost pile should have a light earthy aroma—foul odors are an indication that something isn’t right. Add browns and stir to help correct this kind of imbalance. Leaves, stems, roots and used potting soil can all be put into the compost pile, but you should avoid any plant material that has had problems with insects or disease or that has been treated with pesticides. A cup of diluted molasses or any other sugar syrup can boost microbial growth, but it should be supplied to the center of the pile and buried to avoid attracting ants and other pests. Eggshells and coffee grounds are two leftovers from the breakfast table that can be composted and gardeners can often pick up used coffee grounds for free from local coffee shops. Do not put any fatty, oily or greasy food scraps

If your compost pile starts to smell, add more browns and stir the pile. or material into the compost and avoid meat and meat products. Dog, cat and human waste can all carry dangerous pathogens and should not be used either. To speed up the composting of brown material and to keep green material from stinking, use approximately equal amounts of each and mix well. Smaller pieces compost faster than large pieces do, in part because of the increase in surface area for the bacteria to work on—this is why even though a log and sawdust are made from the same material, sawdust can be composted in weeks or months while a decomposing log can take years or decades. A pile of 50/50 brown-to-green material will compost faster and more pleasantly than a mix containing too much of one or the other. Due to differences in density and carbon values the ratio might need to be adjusted to some degree depending on what materials are being used—as a rule of thumb, if it starts getting funky, add browns and stir. If it isn’t doing anything, add greens and stir. The biological agents involved in this process need air and moisture—the pile should be kept damp but not wet and to give the bacteria air you should stir the compost pile occasionally. Light watering and stirring will speed up the composting process.


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Maximum Yield USAâ&#x20AC;&#x201A;| April 2012


Backyard Composting Made Easy

If the pile doesn’t start to heat up in the next couple of days, it is an indication that something is off. It could be that there isn’t enough material in the pile, the composition of the pile is off, it isn’t moist enough, it’s too moist or it needs stirring. A compost pile that doesn’t heat up is called a ‘cold’

Once the compost is ready, it should be a dark, earthysmelling material. compost pile—it will still make compost, but it will take longer than a ‘hot’ one will. When in doubt stir the pile, as stirring corrects a multitude of problems and is an easy fix. If the compost mix, moisture content and air supply are all okay (or at least close), a new pile should start to heat up and become a ‘hot’ compost pile. A pile with an internal temperature between 120 and 140°F is ideal, but temperatures might reach as high as 160°F. As composting continues the temperature will drop as more material converts into compost. Hot composting does have some advantages over cold composting—it is faster and some pathogens will be killed from the heat generated—but temperatures that are allowed to become too high can kill beneficial bacteria and microorganisms as well, so hotter is not always better. Once the compost is ready, it should be a dark, earthysmelling material. To remove any debris (or walnuts—my compost pile is a favorite burying spot for the local squirrel population), the compost can be run through a piece of grating. The finished product should be very similar to commercially bagged compost. If there are still identifiable pieces in the mix the compost is still immature (or at least those pieces are). Eventually compost will complete its decomposition and convert into its stable form, which is known as humus. Humus is so stable that it can remain unchanged for hundreds, if not thousands of years. However, since decomposition is complete humus contains little nutrient value, although it still provides for a less compact soil density and general soil improvement. Humic acid, fulvic acid and humin are all humus extracts. Making compost is not difficult—nature does it all the time. If you help the process along by using a properly aerated and moistened mix of the correct proportions, a compost pile can easily be set up in your backyard. Making your own compost will certainly save you money on purchasing and transporting bags of store-bought product. A hot compost pile is a gardening accomplishment to be proud of, but even if it doesn’t heat up nature will eventually turn it into cold compost—it will just take a bit longer. MY 148

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Maximum Yield USAâ&#x20AC;&#x201A;| April 2012


Trellises, Super-cropping or Ladybugs Increase Your Yield by All Means Necessary! by

Lee McCall

Lee McCall talks about increasing yields with trellis systems and super-cropping and preventative pest control maintenance without toxic pesticides or poisons Increasing the yield is always the key goal at the end of the day in any type of crop production. I always try and explain this in terms of space when gardening under lights, as opposed to talking about how many plants you can fit in the garden. Basically, understanding how to efficiently produce the optimum amount of fresh weight per square foot of surface area under each light will allow you to achieve the maximum possible yield and production. For example, when you grow a plant outdoors there isn’t really any space restriction because the plant has virtually unlimited root space and equal light penetration from the sun throughout the day.


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Trellises, super-cropping or ladybugs

This allows a plant to grow full and thick, without the sparse wispy straggler growth resulting from lack of light or restricted root development that you might see in an indoor plant receiving only overhead light from reflectors. Under normal circumstances, this wispy growth is always underdeveloped come harvest time and should be removed prior to initiating the flowering cycle—if not, the result is wasted time and plant energy that would have been better utilized in the primary tops, fruit or blooms on the plant. Indoors, using artificial lighting, a single lamp can cover only so much available surface area effectively—opposed to the sun, which covers the entire circumference of an

“Trellising techniques and super-cropping can really benefit the grower in terms of maximizing production surface area with fewer plants." outdoor plant. My personal translation of this logic is that outside plants can most definitely reach their maximum possible yield without pruning, trellising or training if they are given a sunny location and adequate water and nutrients and protected from things like pests and mold. Indoors, though, each grow lamp can only cover ‘X’ amount of surface area, most commonly on a horizontal platform; it’s up to us as growers to determine the most efficient way

to produce a full canopy under this available surface area and turn wispy growth into primary growth. Trellising techniques and super-cropping can really benefit the grower in terms of maximizing production surface area with fewer plants. Trellising utilizes a nylon or plastic monofilament grid sectioned out in specific increments of length and width. These nets—comprised of multiple 152

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Maximum Yield USAâ&#x20AC;&#x201A;| March 2012


Trellises, super-cropping or ladybugs

squares—will allow you to train a plant from having what were once only a few tops (primary shoots) into dozens of tops, each one occupying an individual square in the trellis net. Common trellising techniques might include wooden or PVC custom frames that serve to hold and spread the trellis flat or parallel with the canopy. Trellis systems are usually applied to mature vegetative crops prior to the flowering cycle, so that each plant has enough time to train itself into the grids of the trellis.You should build your trellis supports in ways that will allow you to maximize the footprint of your available light. Traditionally, the common understanding is that a 1,000 watt light will support approximately a 16 square foot footprint; with a trellis this might be increased up to double the size, as long as there is enough plant mass to sufficiently fill in the surface area of the trellis. This technique will also encourage shorter finishing heights, as the plants will grow out horizontally instead of vertically. Currently, this is definitely the most popular way of maximizing yield without increasing the number of plants in the garden. This kind of trellising— sometimes called SCROG or ‘screen of green’—might be conducted with many plants or few. Personally, I feel that fewer are generally better; otherwise, what is the point of the trellis? A downside to this technique is that longer vegetative growth periods are required in order to grow a larger plant capable of filling in a big trellis grid, but at least you’ll only have one plant to tend, as opposed to the


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Maximum Yield USAâ&#x20AC;&#x201A;| April 2012


Trellises, super-cropping or ladybugs

many single plants you would need to produce the same yield. Outdoors—and in indoor grows that utilize vertical lighting—trellises can also be spread vertically to function as sturdy supports for tall, longer-season varieties. Super-cropping is not a new technique, but it has continued to be a popular

twist-ties. This super-cropping technique works well on most types of soft-stem plants that have a tendency to grow tall—you can employ it in any situation where trellis grids are not available and plant training is required. Tomatoes, basil and pepper plants are all great candidates for the use of super-cropping strategies to increase yields. In order to “Super-cropping involves increase yields taking primary branches and benefit of a plant and creasing from trellising or bending them in such and supera way that it not only cropping, shortens the plant, plant health must be also but promotes a denser be carefully canopy over a larger maintained. surface area." Bugs always seem to be a big probsolution as the gardening industry has lem for most gardeners across the board, evolved. Super-cropping involves taking no matter what their level of expertise primary branches of a plant and creasing might be. This is a part of gardening or bending them in such a way that it that I always recommend approaching not only shortens the plant, but promotes with extreme caution, though, as many a denser canopy over a larger surface area. products use harmful ingredients and Rather than having several tall primary plants usually don’t respond in a positive tops on a plant, these are creased over manner to them. For example, Abamto the side between the nodes of the ectin is a systemic insecticide that many plant and either tied down, trellised or commercial or large-scale growers have left to heal as is. Over time, the crease used in their rooms in an attempt to will form a thick, callused, elbow-like control infestations of spider mites, thrips knot and permanently fix the branch in or whiteflies. This scheduled group six place without the need of bamboo or insecticide is extremely toxic to humans,


Maximum Yield USA | April USA | March2012 2012

animals and the environment and should be reserved for use only on ornamental and non-consumable crops. The extreme danger associated with this product is enough for me to never recommend it for use to anyone! Imidacloprid is another pesticide ingredient that is beginning to gain some popularity among those who run into

root-dwelling insect infestations. Root aphids, thrips and fungus gnats stand absolutely no chance against this systemic toxin and even though it is registered for use on vegetable crops I would still caution against it. Many countries have banned this product due to the huge numbers of native insects it has killed off. Although not ‘kill-on-contact’ effective, ladybugs are an excellent preventative measure that will work full time in your garden so you won’t have to. Ladybugs are predatory in nature and their favorite foods are plant-dwelling insects—including spider mites, aphids, whiteflies, fungus gnats and thrips. Ladybugs are most effective once their breeding colonies start to flourish—the larvae will feast on smaller pests like mites while adults prefer fat juicy aphids. By no means are ladybugs the cure to a major pest problem in the garden, however—if you are struck by a serious infestation you’ll need

Maximum Yield USAâ&#x20AC;&#x201A;| March 2012


Trellises, super-cropping or ladybugs

to employ a spray that will kill bugs on contact in order to effectively reduce their population. The reason for this is that plant-sucking pests breed much faster than most beneficial insects, so trying to curb large infestations with ladybugs will usually prove ineffective. They’re more of a maintenance measure—you can put ladybugs in vegetative rooms and clones to ensure clean, pest-free starts and they will even burrow down into the growing medium in order to retrieve tasty root aphids and fungus gnats.

“Although not ‘kill-on-contact’ effective, ladybugs are an excellent preventative measure that will work full time in your garden so you won’t have to."

Try using these tactics to improve your crop production. For me, gardening is all about trial and error—in order to become better, you must first fail. Trellising and supercropping are grower-devised techniques used to improve crop yields by manipulation of plant growth patterns. Some failures are inevitable in order to achieve success using these techniques—don’t freak out if you break a branch off your first time trying to super-crop your plant. As with anything, practice makes perfect, so throw up a grid and get started—soon you’ll begin to see maximized yields in your own garden. MY


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Maximum Yield USAâ&#x20AC;&#x201A;| March 2012


by Stephen Keen

Creative Control Out-of-the-Box Cooling Solutions for Your Summer Garden There isn’t always just one solution to every problem. Given a little ingenuity, even the big ones—like dealing with excessive summer temperatures in your garden—can be approached from many different angles…


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Maximum Yield USAâ&#x20AC;&#x201A;| April 2012


creative control

Summer brings with it so many wonderful things—lake and beach time, fireworks and barbecues, sunshine and of course… heat. Summer can present quite a challenge for most indoor gardeners, as skyrocketing outdoor temperatures affect temperatures in the garden significantly. Recently, we discussed all of the sources of heat in your garden—one of them being the temperature outdoors—and the ways of accounting for them when you choose a cooling solution. In another issue we’ll talk about total, ground-up, year-round solutions for entire cooling and climate control systems for your garden. Right now, however, our focus is on short-term help for those gardeners whose cooling systems work well enough for most of the year, but who might need some help during the hot summer months. We’re going to focus on inexpensive and creative solutions for gardeners experiencing seasonal cooling difficulties. No one likes to shut down their garden for any reason, but unfortunately


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

many of us are forced to scale back during the hotter Any months—luckily, there are short-term soluheat-generating tions out there! equipment that As we mentioned can be moved in a previous should be moved— article, you need small changes can to consider every sometimes make all source of heat in your garden when the difference when you’re trying to your heat problems address temperature are minor and control. Removing seasonal. heat sources is always going to be your most cost-effective solution, so think about the equipment that is in your garden now that could be moved outside. We know that ballasts are a big contributor, but external pumps can add a lot of heat to a room as well. Any heat-generating equipment that can be moved should be moved—small changes can sometimes make all the difference when your heat problems are minor and seasonal.

creative control

One very helpful and inexpensive solution is the radiant barrier, a heatblocking cover available from most major reflector manufacturers for their air cooled hoods. They’re marketed under different brand names—depending on which reflectors you have—but they are pretty much the same when it comes to construction, featuring an insulating inner layer with a radiant barrier outer layer. Air cooling your reflectors is a lot more effective in cooler weather because the outside air passing through them is cool—and as long as the air passing through the reflectors is cool, the amount of radiant heat escaping from them is minimized. However, if the air passing through your reflectors is hotter than the desired garden temperature, a significant amount of heat is still going to radiate out of the reflector and into the garden. These radiant barriers do an excellent job of keeping radiant heat from escaping into the room, boosting the efficiency of air cooling dramatically—they will actually boost air-cooling efficiency year-round, but the difference is most notable in the summer months when the air is warmer. Infrared images of reflectors without the covers are typically in the range of 120° F after a 1,000 watt bulb has been burning for a couple of hours. Once the covers are installed, though, the infrared image of the same reflector will show it to be room temperature. This amounts to a major reduction in heat—in my experience, overall


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

cooling needs can drop by seven to 10 per cent when these covers are in use. Other excellent solutions for summer cooling are the ducted water-to-air heat

Heat “ exchangers will

require a fan to pass air across them, but the cold water can come from many sources.

exchangers available at most hydroponics stores. These are available in both six and eight inch ducting sizes (when used optimally, the six inch version is capable of removing 5,500 BTU of heat—approximately half a ton—and the eight inch version is capable of removing 8,000 BTU, or approximately two thirds of a ton). Many people use these for their complete a/c system year-round, but they can be used in so many ways and are so simple to install that they’re a great shortterm solution as well. The concept is simple: cold water is circulated through

the copper coils of the heat exchanger and garden air is ducted over the coils and back into the garden—warm air enters and cold air exits. They’re extremely versatile and because the air in the garden is simply recirculated over the heat exchanger and not exchanged outside the room, they help to maintain a sealed environment—which has significant benefits in any season. If desired, they can be mounted to reflectors to absorb bulb heat directly, which is the way you would use them if you were not exhausting air from your reflectors outside the garden. Obviously the colder the water circulating through the heat exchangers the more cooling will be achieved, but water even a few degrees colder than the desired garden temperature will still have some effect. Heat exchangers will require a fan to pass air across them, but the cold water can come from many sources. Most people pair an equivalent BTU water chiller with their heat exchanger, but this is usually when it’s intended as a long-term solution or for use as a complete a/c system. Many people recirculate water from wells because this water maintains a consistent cool temperature, or even use a drain-towaste system with city water for the hottest parts of their lights on cycle. Of course, if you choose the drain-to-waste method, you should always reuse the water for another purpose after it’s used to cool the garden. Some gardeners have even kept their gardens cool with heat exchangers by adding a bag of ice to the cooling reservoir every day—it’s difficult to quantify exactly how much cooling you’d get in this kind of circumstance,

Maximum Yield USAâ&#x20AC;&#x201A;| April 2012


creative control

but some folks with very small gardens have reported success with this method. No matter what you end up using for a cold water source this method of cooling can be very affordable and has the added bonus of providing extreme energy efficiency. We promised you creativity in this article, but first there is something mundane that we’d be remiss not to mention. Boring as they might be, window-mounted a/c units can be an affordable solution for extra cooling in the garden. They tend to be energy hogs as cooling systems go and we’d never recommend them as a permanent, complete, or long-term solution. However, if your primary concern is your budget and all you need is a short-term crutch, they might be worth looking into—just understand that the BTU specs and room-size ratings on most windowmounted a/c units will not apply in your garden. Average figures for home a/c units are based on insulated homes, with typical home appliances only occasionally in use.Your garden is a much different environment, with far more heat sources than the average home— the square footage of your garden is less important to consider when it comes to cooling than the equipment it contains. Also remember that when you use an a/c like this some air will be exchanged with the outside—and that of course you’ll have to have a window available in which to mount it. It’s widely understood that elevated CO2 levels in your garden will allow you to run it a few degrees warmer


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

without adverse effects on your plants. However, a big source of CO2 in the garden—your CO2 generator—also creates a lot of heat

“ Boring as

they might be, windowmounted a/c units can be an affordable solution for extra cooling in the garden.

in the process of creating CO2. When summer heat is factored in, you’ll often find that you are dealing with far more heat than can possibly be offset by the generator. One good option in the summer is to switch to bottles only for the hottest couple of months. Using CO2 bottles can be a pain as they have to be changed out more often than propane bottles, but for a lot of gardeners the temporary trade-off is worth it and as soon as temperatures cool off they go right back to their burners. Other gardeners

have chosen to go with a water-cooled CO2 generator—which removes heat from the burner before it can escape into the garden by circulating water above the flame. Water-cooled generators are affordable, but remember that a source of cool water will need to be available. Generally speaking, water in the 75 to 85° range is optimal for a water-cooled generator, as the water doesn’t need to be too cold to effectively remove excess heat. Any of the methods described above for use with a heat exchanger can be effective, but the CO2 generator provides the added option of using a swimming pool or small pond for cooling as well, for those gardeners who have a feature like this available. If you and your plants have been dreading the heat of summer, perhaps one of these solutions will prove to be helpful for you. Traditional cooling systems aren’t always feasible in every situation, so just remember there is a solution for every problem, big or small—and that creative thinking always yields results! MY

you tell us

t s e u q Climate control and gardening haven’t always gone hand-in-hand— Cliff Tomasini but the explosive boom of indoor growing has changed all that. Maximum Yield recently sat down with Cliff Tomasini, product manager for the industry-leading climate control company QUEST to learn more.

Maximum Yield (MY): Tell us about your product lines. What kinds of products do you sell? Cliff Tomasini: QUEST manufactures a complete line of industrial-grade dehumidifiers for indoor gardening and hydroponic applications. QUEST dehumidifiers are the highest-quality and most energy-efficient products available in this market. Every unit is manufactured in the United States and available for immediate delivery. MY: What is the connection to hydroponics? Can you explain how your products are used by indoor growers? Cliff: Today’s indoor gardener is very different from growers 10 years ago—the progressive gardener of today is looking for high-quality products like QUEST dehumidifiers that will last for years. QUEST dehumidifiers promote healthy gardening environments by helping prevent mold, mildew, pests and disease.


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

MY: How important is ‘green’ technology in your part of the industry? Do your product lines feature a lot of innovations in this area? Cliff: QUEST, a division of Therma-Stor, was founded on green technology back in the late 1970s, when we first developed a heat-recovery water heater to help dairy farmers recapture waste heat and sanitize their farming equipment. Today, QUEST dehumidifiers are the industry leader in terms of green technology. In simple terms, we remove more water (up to 205 pints) than our competition, with less energy (up to 8.88 pints per kilowatt hour). MY: What kinds of ‘green’ initiatives have you made in your offices, warehouses and shipping departments? Cliff: A few years ago we moved into a new production facility, an old paper factory that had been abandoned.

Since acquiring this facility, we have made many modifications to reduce our carbon footprint. One noteworthy example is lighting—every fixture was replaced with energy-efficient T5 or T8 fixtures and bulbs. In areas like the offices and the warehouse, the lights are on motion sensors and timers to save energy, whereas the factory lights have been lowered to require fewer fixtures and less wasted light. MY: When your company began, did anyone know you would be moving into hydroponic applications, or has this just been a fortunate development for you? Cliff: We had no idea, but it didn’t surprise us. As a technology-rich company with an innovative engineering team of 17—including nine dedicated and fully qualified product engineers—we have learned that people value great products and hydroponic customers are no different. Great products are the result of great

people with great ideas and a desire to help others. In our case, these great people are the engineering team—their ideas and the performance of QUEST equipment amaze me more than anything. MY: Tell us a bit about your company. Where are you located, how many employees do you have and what do your facilities look like? Cliff: QUEST, a division of Therma-Stor, is located in Madison, Wisconsin. We are a United States-based manufacturing company with over 200 employees. Though we could have shipped many of our jobs to China, the principles of our leaders have kept us right where we started. We believe that people value great products and we strive to support each other and every customer we serve. MY: Where is your focus of operations right now? Do you plan to expand into other regions or into foreign markets? Cliff: We are always looking for a new idea or an undiscovered market to service. If we are able to provide a highquality solution that customers need and value, we will! MY: What is the ‘next big thing’ in your industry? What new product are you most excited about? Cliff: We recently completed the launch of our most energy-efficient line of large dehumidifiers, the QUEST Dual 105, Dual 155 and Dual 205. All three units have multiple patents and the QUEST Dual 105 and Dual 155 are the two most energy-efficient refrigerant dehumidifiers ever made. Since these products are very competitively priced, we believe that the QUEST Dual Platform line will be a huge hit with indoor gardeners. We also plan to launch a new website dedicated to indoor gardening in March— MY

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012


talking shop

AT A GLANCE Company: KP Indoor Garden Store Owners: Josh Turner, Jesse Darnell, Monica Rakowski, Owen Mansfield Location: 8912 Key Peninsula Hwy. N Suite #2 Lakebay, Washington Phone: 1-253-88-4SURE (7873) E-mail: Website: Motto: “Why Cross the Bridge?"


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Why Cross the Bridge? Stop in for some compost tea or hydro advice or just to chat— the folks at KP Indoor are always glad to see you and you never know when a barbeque might break out! Happy Expo Season from the KP Indoor hydro business and to build relationGarden Store—they are located on the ships with wholesalers, write out the beautiful Key Peninsula in Washington business plan, set up all the proper State and they recently celebrated their business accounts and start an astonishone year anniversary. Their first year in ing advertising campaign. the industry for owners Monica RaThe shop doubled in size after only kowski, Jesse Darnell, Owen Mansfield four months in business. The four partand Josh Turner was like growing in ners learned so much in those first few hydro: fast, with vigorous growth, develmonths and found that with their powers opment and change. combined they made the perfect team. They were feeling the toll (it was literJesse Darnell was like having their own ally a $4—hence their motto) of having garden doctor with his degree in horto cross the Tacoma Narrows Bridge ticulture, a background in commercial to reach the nearest hydro store. As the agriculture and years of nursery work— four partners saw more and more people he was knowledgeable about all types of looking to grow their own food and in perennials, vegetables, fruits and more search of a healthier, more sustainable and the locals all knew him from being and natural way of living, they started to feel like opening up a grow shop might be their destiny. The lights had come on! Within weeks, they had obtained a business license, started negotiations with banks and wholesalers, and secured their location in the town of Key Center in Lakebay, Washington. "We came up with the idea last fall harvest, thinking if we don't do it someone else will," says co-owner Josh Turner. An in-store experiment: the green pepper on the left uses our The next steps were to store-made compost tea, The Salmon Guy's King Slammin, remodel the location for the while the right one gets none. The proof is in the pudding!

A look at the shop’s Vortex Brewers and tent display.

Photos by Robert Eggleston

the familiar face at the local nursery for interests of the business and has been ballast repair, system set-up informafive years. working on the shop's online store. tion and general maintenance issues Owen Mansfield had loved indoor With the nearest hydroponic shop a 30 around the shop. Josh has a high level of gardening for 18 years. With a lifelong minute drive and a $4 bridge toll away, productivity and a wide range of talents: dream of opening a hydro shop and it wasn't difficult for the KP Indoor he’s always doing something beneficial creating his own nutrients, he’s found KP group to gain marketshare and recognifor the business, whether it’s writing Indoor Garden Store to be a canvas for tion in their small community. Even so, an article or hunting down customer his creative side. He created the store's they made advertising and promotion a requests from new vendors. very own living compost tea and the priority from the beginning and their Monica's influence on the store is cruSalmon Guy's King Slammin' and Big highway signs have become a comcial. She has a background in real estate, Bada Bloomz, brewed on the premises, mon sight in their neck of the woods... marketing and small business and was a have been among the store's perfect fit for organizing the paperwork look for one on a tree near you! The major attractions. four partners also take advantage of the side of the startup and creating an ad"In 18 years, I've yet to see anything Internet quite a bit with a professional vertising and marketing campaign. She work as well as our living teas," says website—— designed the shop’s logo, flyers, signs, Owen. "Hands down, no matter what a Facebook page, Twitter account and newspaper ads and pretty much everytype of plant, I guarantee it will thrive soon-to-be YouTube channel. thing else. Monica is a very motivated with the Salmon Guy's King Slammin' "The most important element of our spirit with a strong interest in healthy and Big Bada Bloomz! If you want a advertising and promotional campaign living and dreams of opening a fitness lush garden that looks like it belongs in is the experience a person has once they studio—she also loves teaching people the forest, The Salmon Guy will put you walk through our door—we aim for a about the possibilities of sustainable and on the fast track." comfortable environment, a friendly and healthy living. She handles the financial Owen's one-of-a-kind negotiating knowledgeable staff and a wide seskills were also essential to the store's lection of quality products to keep early success—he was instrumental in them coming back. We have to rely building relationships with wholesalon positive word-of-mouth as our ers, negotiating the lease and organizbest advertising tool, especially being the remodel of the store. ing in a small community." Josh Turner is invaluable to the With the goal of opening up a team and he loves putting together sister store within the next two state-of-the-art indoor gardens. years, KP Indoor is here to stay, Having a background in glass art, so come in today and save yourhe found that his attention to detail self a trip over the bridge. The and talent for construction have led four friends who make up the to an obsession for putting together KP Indoor team encourage you the perfect indoor hydro site.You to come in any time—even if it’s will often see Josh drawing up garjust for a chat—and to treat your den schematics and troubleshooting plants with their compost teas, The KP Indoor Garden team from left: owners Jesse Darnell, construction issues with customthe Salmon Guy's King Slammin Josh Turner, Owen Mansfield and Monica Rakowski; the shop dogs from left: Kaya, Hydro and Lola. ers and he is also the go-to guy for or Big Bada Bloomz. MY Maximum Yield USA | April 2012



Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Maximum Yield USAâ&#x20AC;&#x201A;| April 2012




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Greenhouse Issue Greenhouses are incredibly versatile in that they offer an easy way to grow crops on a commercial scale and can also be scaled down for hobbyists. They come in a variety of shapes, sizes and styles; they can be purchased as a kit and set up with ease; they are DIY-friendly for gardeners wanting a custom building. Whatever you want to know about greenhouses you can expect in the May issue.

• • • • • • •

Root zone heating for greenhouse grown crops Environmental control and ventilation Greenhouse designs around the world Basic principles of cold frame greenhouses Tomato and ghost chili greenhouse— a local tale Grow tents as the new greenhouses More! Maximum Yield USA May will be available next month for free at select indoor gardening retail stores across the country and on Subscriptions are available at


Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

MAXIMUM YIELD distributors

ALABAMA Alabama Organics 3348 Bethel Road, Hammondville, AL 35989 256-635-0802

ALASKA Brown’s Electrical Supply

365 Industrial Way, Anchorage, AK 99501 907-272-2259

Far North Garden Supply

2834 Boniface Parkway Anchorage, AK 99504 907-333-3141

Southside Garden Supply AK

12870 Old Seward Highway, Unit 114, Anchorage, AK 99515 907-339-9997 Holmtown Nursery Inc.


Gonzo Grow 10297 W Van Buren Street, Suite 8 Tolleson, AZ 85353 623-780-GROW ____________________________ Natural Pools & Gardens

2143 North Country Suite C, Tucson, AZ 85716 520-323-2627 402 North 4th Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85705 520-622-6344 ARKANSAS Mickey’s Mercantile

1303 Highway 65 South, Clinton, AR 72031 501-412-0214

Ground Control Landscape ServicesHydroponic & Garden Supplies

Old Soul Organics and More

Northern Lights Greenhouse & Garden Supply

Suite 105-9737 Mud Bay Road Ketchikan, Alaska 9901 907-225-GROW (4769)

Alaska Jack’s Hydroponics and Garden Supply

1150 S. Colony Way, Ste.9 Palmer, AK 99645 (907) 746-4774 Anuway Hydroponics

Suite #1 2711 W Walnut Rogers AK 72756 USA 479 631 0099

1771 Crossover Road, Fayetteville, AR 72701 479-444-6955

Growfresh Organics & More

2900 Zero St, Ste 106 Fort Smith, AR 72901 479-648-8885

3915 Crutcher Street, N. Little Rock, AR 72118 501-758-6261 Anuway Hydroponics

2711 W. Walnut Street, Rogers, Arkansas 72756 479-631-0099 CALIFORNIA ____________________________

44224 Sterling Highway, Suite 4, Soldotna, AK 99669 907-420-0401 300 Centaur Street, Wasilla, AK 99654 907-376-7586 ARIZONA Sea of Green Flagstaff

204-C E. Route 66 Flagstaff, AZ 86001 928-774-SOGF(7643) The Hydro Closet

5826 West Olive Avenue #106 Glendale, Arizona 85302 02-361-2049 ____________________________

Growtown Horticulture Supply 1945 E. Indian School RD. Phoenix AZ 85016 602-277-0121 ____________________________ Homegrown Hydroponics 2525 West Glendale Ave

Phoenix AZ 85051 602-368-4005

Greenleaf Hydroponics 1839 W Lincoln Avenue, Anaheim, CA 92801 714-254-0005 ____________________________ Grow It Yourself Gardens

401 Sunset Drive, Suite L, Antioch, CA 94509 925-755-GROW

High Desert Hydroponics

13631 Pawnee Road, #7 Apple Valley, CA 92308 760-247-2090

American Hydroponics

286 South G Street, Arcata, CA 95521 800-458-6543

Humboldt Hydroponics

601 I Street, Arcata, CA 95521 707-822-3377 Let it Grow

160 Westwood Center, Arcata, CA 95521 707-822-8733 ____________________________

ACI Hydroponics

1325 South Park Lane, Tempe, AZ 85282 800-633-2137 Homegrown Hydroponics

601 East Broadway Road, Tempe, AZ 85282 480-377-9096

Sea of Green Hydroponics

1301 E. University Dr. Tempe AZ, 85281 800-266-4136

Tell 2 Friends Indoor Gardening

62 Sutherland Drive, Auburn, CA 95603 530-889-8171 Bakersfield Hydroponics Bakersfield , CA 1 (661) 808-4640 ____________________________

Northcoast Horticulture Supply 639 6th St., Arcata, CA 95521 707-826-9998 ____________________________ Sweet Harvest Hydroponics & Organics

1041 E. Grand Ave. Arroyo Grande,CA 93420 (805) 473-0004 Auburn Organic

4035 Grass Valley Highway, Auburn, CA 95602 530-823-8900 High Street Hydro

180 Cleveland Avenue, Auburn, CA 95603 530-885-5888

Myron L Company

2450 Impala Drive, Carlsband, CA 9210-7226 760-438-2021 661-299-1603 ____________________________

San Diego Hydroponics North County Coastal 6352 Corte Del Abeto #J Carlsbad CA, 92011 760-420-8934 ____________________________ The Greenhouse Garden Supply

Stop N Grow 5455 Rosedale Hwy Bakersfield, CA 93308 (661) 859-1988 ____________________________

7619 Fair Oak Blvd. Carmichael, CA 95608 1 (916) 515-9130

5554 Bandini Boulevard, Bell, CA 91106 323-510-2700; 877 640 GROW ____________________________

Super Starts PO Box 732, Bellmont, CA 94002 650-346-8009 ____________________________ Berkeley Indoor Garden

844 University Avenue Berkeley, CA 94710 510-549-2918

Berkeley’s Secret Garden

921 University Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94710, 510-486-0117 Hydroponic Connection, The

2816 San Pablo Ave Berkeley, CA 94702 510 704-9376

Brentwood Hydroponics & Organics

560 Valdry Ct #85, Brentwood, CA 94513 925-634-6704 Good To Grow & Global Garden Supply

1350 Rollins Rd, Burlingame, CA, 94010 (650) 733-4420 3113 Alhambra Drive, Unit F, Cameron Park, CA 95682, 530-676-2100 Precision Hydroponics

132 Kennedy Avenue, Campbell, CA 95008 408-866-8176

Elite Horticulture Supply

22330 Sherman Way, C13, Canoga Park, CA 91303 818-347-5172 Hydro International

7935 Alabama Avenue Canoga Park, CA 91304 Advanced Hydroponics

17808 Sierra Highway, Canyon Country, CA 91351

Pacific Coast Hydroponics

4147 Sepulveda Boulevard, Culver City, CA 90230 310-313-1354

566 San Ramon Valley Blvd. Danville, CA 94526; 925-314-9376 123 D Street, Davis, CA 95616 530-756-4774 Constantly Growing

6200 Enterprise Drive, Suite A Diamond Springs, CA 95619 530-642-9710

Hydro King

2540 South Whitman Place, Chico, CA 959282 530-893-GROW (4769)

Harvest Hydroponics

Grow4Less garden Supply & Hydroponics

Better Grow Hydro Los Angeles

1070 Highway 101 North, Crescent City, CA 95531; 707-465-3520

Constantly Growing - Davis

Kern Hydroponics

The Hydro Shop 3980 Saco Road Bakersfield, CA 661-399-3336 ____________________________

Seaside Hydrogarden

Garden Connection, The

2145 Park Avenue, Unit 2 Chico, CA 95928 530-342-7762

2408 Brundage Lane, Suite B, Bakersfield, CA 93304 661-323-7333 ____________________________

Northcoast Horticulture Supply 1070 Highway 101, Crescent City, CA 95531 707-464-1200 ____________________________

Dr. Greenthumbs Hydroponic Garden Supplies

Green Leaf Hydroponics

3903 Patton Way #103 Bakersfield CA 93308 661-245-2616


NorCal Creations

PO Box 28, Cedar Ridge, CA 95924

Advanced Garden Supply

Sea of Green West

2340 W. Bell Road, Suite 116, Phoenix, AZ 85023 602-504-8842

230 Palm Ave, Auburn, CA 95603 530-889-2390


Peninsula Garden Supply AK

Far North Garden Supply

Quail Mountain Ranch

Sea of Green Hydroponics

1301 - 30th Avenue, Fairbanks, AK 99701 907-451-8733

1067 Ocean Dr. Homer, Alaska 99603 907-235-1521

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

320 Trousdale Dr., Suite L Chula Visa CA 91910 619-425-GROW

6650 Merchandise Way Suite B, Diamond Springs, CA 95619 530-622-5190 Victory Garden Supply

Citrus Heights Hydrogarden

8043 Greenback Lane Citrus Heights, CA 95610 916-728-4769

1900 N Lincoln St #100 Dixon CA 95620 707 678 5800 ____________________________

Conrad Hydroponics Inc.

14915 Unit E, Olympic Drive, Clearlake, CA 95422 707-994 3264 Under The Sun 12638 Foothill Boulevard, Clearlake Oaks, CA 95423 707-998-GROW (4769) ____________________________

The Lucky Garden Dublin Hydroponics 7071 Village Parkway Dublin, Ca 94568 925-828-GROW (4769) ____________________________ Grow A Lot Hydroponics, San Diego

1591 N. Cuyamaca Street, El Cajon, CA 93612; 619-749-6777 Gro More Garden Supply 2937 Larkin Avenue, Clovis, CA 93021 559-348-1055 ____________________________ G & G Organics and Hydroponics

901 W. Victoria Street Unit D, Compton, CA 90220 310-632-0122

Indoor Garden Solution Inc.

12424 Exline Street, El Monte CA 91732, 626-453-0443

Go Green Hydroponics

15721 Ventura Boulevard, Encino, CA 91436 818-990-1198 ____________________________

Concord Indoor Garden

2771 Clayton Road, Concord, CA 94519 925-671-2520

A Fertile World (Eureka) 6th Street, Eureka, CA 95501 707-444-0200 ____________________________

Hydroponics Plus

2250 Commerce Avenue, Suite C Concord, CA 94520 925-691-7615

Bayside Garden Supply

Hydrostar Hydroponics & Organics

1307 W. Sixth Street, #211, Corona, CA 92882 951-479-8069

4061 Highway 101 Ste 6 Eureka, CA 95503 1 (707) 826-7435 Humboldt Hydroponics

1302 Union Street, Eureka, CA 95501 707-443-4304 ____________________________

The Hydro Spot

21785 Temescal Cyn Rd Corona Ca, 92883 A+ Hydroponics & Organics

1604 Babcock Street, Costa Mesa, CA 92627 949-642-7776 The Hydro Source 671 E. Edna Place Covina, CA 91723 877 HYDRO 82; 626-915-3128

Northcoast Horticulture Supply 60 West 4th Street, Eureka, CA 95501 707-444-9999 ____________________________

Let it Grow

Constantly Growing

1228 2nd Street, Crescent City, CA 95531 707-464-9086

4343 Hazel Avenue, Fair Oaks, CA 95628 916-962-0043

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012


MAXIMUM YIELD distributors

Fallbrook Hydro

208 E Mission Rd Ste B Fallbrook CA 92028 1 (760) 728-4769 ____________________________

Tulare County Growers Supply 435 W. Noble Avenue, Unit A, Farmersville, CA 93223 559-732-8247 ____________________________

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

Golden Gecko Garden Center, The

Dutch Garden Supplies


Probiotic Solutions

West Coast Hydroponics, Inc.

Green Coast Hydroponics 2405 Mira Mar Avenue, Long Beach, CA 90815 562-627-5636 ____________________________

4665 Marshall Road, Garden Valley, CA 95633 530-333-2394

20889 Geyserville Avenue, Geyserville, CA 95441 707-354-4342 South Valley Hydroponics 320 Kishimura Drive, #3 Gilroy, CA 95020 1-866-848-GROW ____________________________

Park Circle Suite 12 Irvine CA 92614 949-748-8777

27665 Forbes Road, Unit 10 Laguna Niguel, CA 92677 949-348-2424 La Habra Hydroponics

1301 S Beach Blvd, Suite O. La Habra, CA 90631 562-947-8383 ____________________________

Grow Light Express

5318 East Second Street suite 164, Long Beach, CA 90803 888-318-GROW ____________________________

Santa Cruz Hydroponics & Organics - North

6241 Graham Hill Road, Felton, CA 95018; 831-335-9000 ____________________________

Eel River Hydroponics & Soil Supply 164 Dinsmore Drive, Fortuna, CA 95540 707-726-0395 ____________________________ The Shop

6542 Front Street, Forestville, CA 95436 707-887-2280

Grass Roots Hydroponics 31875 Corydon, Suite 130 Lake Elsinore, CA 92530 951-245-2390 ____________________________ South County Hydroponics

Stop N Grow 340 Pine Avenue, Goleta, CA 93003 805-685-3000 ____________________________

22511 Aspan Street, Suite E Lake Forest, CA 92630 949-837-8252

Clover Hydroponics & Garden Supply

43 Soda Bay Road, Lakeport, CA 95453 707-263-4000 ____________________________

Hydrogarden Mendocino County

All Seasons Hydroponics 17614 Chatsworth Street, Granada Hills, CA 91344 818-368-4388 ____________________________ AG Natural

Northcoast Horticulture Supply 357 Main Street, Fortuna, CA 95540 707-725-5550 ____________________________ Nature’s Secret Garden and Supply

41469 Albrae Street, Fremont, CA 94577 510-623-8393 ____________________________

Roots Grow Supply 1330 North Hulbert, #101 Fresno, CA 93728 559-840-0122 ____________________________ Tower Garden Supply & Organic Nursery

403 W. Olive Avenue, Fresno, CA 93728 559-495-1140

12506 Loma Rica Drive, Grass Valley, CA 95945 530-477-2996 ____________________________

Vital Landscaping Inc. 12817 Loma Rica Drive, Grass Valley, CA 95945 530-273-3187 ____________________________

Total Hydroponics Center Inc 4820 Paramount Blvd Lakewood, CA 90712 562-984-GROW (4769) ____________________________ 44901 Harmon Drive, Laytonville, CA 95454 707-984-6385 ____________________________

13481 Colifax Highway, Grass Valley, CA 95945 888-924-4769 Joy's Green Garden Supply 340-A Elm Ave, Greenfield, CA 93927 831-674-1416 M.G.S.

22540 D Foothill Boulevard, Hayward, CA 94541; 510-582-0900 Thrive Hydroponics

70 A West North Street, Healdsburg, CA 95446 707-433-4068 Bear Valley Hydroponics & Homebrewing

SB Hydro

Surf City Hydroponics

13325 South Highway 101, Hopland, CA 95482 707-744-8300 7319 Warner Street, Suite B Huntington Beach, CA 92647 714-847-7900

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012


1501 W. Main St Merced, CA 95340 (209)580-4425

The Urban Farmer Store

653 E. Blithedale Avenue, Mill Valley, CA 94941 415-380-3840

Green Door Hydro and Solar

Mission Viejo Hydroponics

Hardman Hydroponics

Coca’s Central Valley Hydroponics

Hollywood Hydroponics and Organics

Year Round Garden Supply

3350 Glendale Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90039; 323-663-8881 830 Traction Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90013 212-625-1323

5109 1/2 Hollywood Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90027-6105 323-662-1908

24002 Via Fabricante Suite 502 Mission Viejo, CA 92691 949-380-1894 116 West Orangeburg Avenue, Modesto, CA 95350 209-567-0590

11000 Carver Rd. #20 Modesto, CA 95350 Tel: 209 522 2727 ____________________________


2643 S. Fairfax Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90232 888-355-4769 10912 S. La Cienaga Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90304; 310-337-6995 Nirvana Hydroponics

340 South San Pedro Los Angeles, CA 90013; 310-795-2914 ____________________________

Green Light Hydroponics 2615 Honolula Ave. Montrose, CA 91020 818-640-2623 ____________________________ South Bay Hydroponics and Organics - Mtn. View

569 East Evelyn Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94041 650-968-4070 Sunland Hydroponics 4136 Eagle Rock Blvd, Los Angeles, CA 90065 323-254-2800 ____________________________

Redwood Garden Supply

55 Myers Avenue, Myers Flat, CA 95554 707-943-1515 ____________________________

Green Giant Hydroponics

West Coast Growers Hydroponics

Emerald Garden


PO Box 1301, 44720 Maint Street (at Hwy. 1), Mendocino, CA 95460 707-937-3459

Atwater Hydroponics

Weather Top Nursery

Grow Wurks Hydroponics 765 S. State College Boulevard. Suite J Fullerton, CA 92831

1109 W. 190th Street, Unit #F, Gardena, CA 90248 310-538-5788

Long Beach Hydroponics & Organics 1772 Clark Avenue, Long Beach, CA 90815 562-498-9525 ____________________________

LAX Hydro

Grass Valley Hydrogarden

17455 Bear Valley RD. Hesperia CA 92345 760 949 3400

714-253-Grow (4769)

San Diego Hydroponics East County 11649 Riverside Drive, Suite 141, Lakeside, CA 92040 619-562-3276 ____________________________

403 Idaho Maryland Road, Grass Valley, CA 95945 530-274 0990

Valley Hydroponics

207 E. Sierra Ave. Fresno, CA 93710; 559-449-0426

Mendocino Garden Shop

1004 W. 15th St. Suite B & C, Merced, Ca 95340; 209-723-1300

3511 Youree Dr., Shreveport Los Angeles 71105 318-865-0317

17975 H Highway 1, Fort Bragg, CA 95437; 707-964-4211

A Fertile World (Fortuna) 610 7th Street, Fortuna, CA 95540 707-725-0700 ____________________________

Northcoast Horticulture Supply 1580 Nursery Way McKinleyville, CA 95519 707-839-9998 ____________________________

Hooked Up Hydroponics

Zen Hydroponics 1801 Victory Blvd. Glendale, CA 91201 877 ZEN Grow; 818 806 4500 ____________________________

Dirt Cheap Hydroponics

1240 North Main Street, Fort Bragg, CA 95437 707-962-9252 ____________________________


CNG Garden Supplies 22 Ricknbacker Circle, Livermore, CA 94551 925-454-9376 ____________________________ DL Wholesale

6764 Preston Ave. Suite D Livermore CA 94551 510 550 0018 ____________________________

National Garden Wholesale/ Sunlight Supply 6485 Brisa Street, Livermore, CA 94550 888-570-4678 (Southern CA) ____________________________

7183 Hwy 49 Unit B Lotus CA 95651; 530 622 4465

California Green Hydroponics

16491 Road 26, Suite 101 Madera, California 93638 559-674-1400 grow

22333 Pacific Coast Hwy., Ste. 101 Malibu, CA 90265; 310-456-2910 Deep Roots Garden Center & Flower Shop

207 N. Sepulveda Blvd. Manhattan Beach, CA 90266 310-376-0567

B & S Gardening Supplies

592 Commerce Court, Manteca, CA 95336 209-239-8648

Garden Depot, The

Monterey Bay Horticulture Supply

Valley Rock Landscape Supply

Two Chix Garden Supply

203 Commerce Street, Suite 101 Lodi, CA 95240 209-339-9950 2222 N H Street; Lompoc CA 93436 805 736 0841; 805 735 5921

218 Reindollar Avenue Suite 7A, Marina, CA 93933 831-38-HYDRO 1230 Yuba Street, Marysville, CA 95901 530-923-2536

Endless Green Hydroponics 25 Enterprise Court,Suite 3 Napa, CA 94558 707-254-0200 ____________________________ Wyatt Supply

4407 Solano Ave. Napa, CA 94558; 707-251-3747 Conejo Hydroponics

3481 Old Conejo Road #106 Newbury Park, CA 91320 805-480-9596 ____________________________

Stop N Grow 640 S. Frontage Road, Nipomo, CA 93444 805-619-5125 ____________________________

Valley Garden Solutions Inc.

15650 Nordhoff Avenue, Suite 104, North Hills, CA 91345 818-336-0041 ____________________________

Foothill Hydroponics 10705 Burbank Boulevard, N. Hollywood, CA 91601 818-760-0688 ____________________________

Palm Tree Hydroponics

2235 E 4th St,Suite G Ontario, CA 91764 909-941-9017 ____________________________

RH Distribution 1751 S. Pointe Avenue Ontario, CA 91761 888-545-8112 ____________________________

One Stop Hydroponics

12822 Victory Boulevard North Hollywood, CA 91606 818-980-5855 Lumatek Digital Ballasts

33 Commercial Boulevard, Suite B Novato, CA 94949 415-233-4273 Marin Hydroponics

55 Frosty Ln Novato, CA 94949 (415) 233-4104

Marin Hydroponics

1219 Grant Avenue, Novato, CA 94945 415-897-2197

Roots Grow Supply

40091 Enterprise Dr. Oakhurst CA 93644 559 683 6622

Bloom Hydro 1602 53rd Ave. Oakland CA 94601 707 980 0456 ____________________________ Medicine Man Farms

1602 53rd Avenue, Oakland, CA 94601 707-980-0456 Plant-N-Grow

1602 53rd Avenue, Oakland, CA 94601 707-980-0456 Hydrobrew

Green Coast Hydroponics 496 Meats Avenue Orange, CA 92865 714-974-4769 ____________________________ Natural Pest Controls

8320 B Hazel Avenue, Orangevale, CA 95662 916-726-0855

Greenback Garden Supply

9341 Greenback Ln., Ste C Orangeville, CA 95662 (530) 391-4329 ____________________________

Advanced Soil & Garden Supply 350 Oro Dam Boulevard, Oroville, CA 95965 530-533-2747 ____________________________ Igrow Hydro

5250 Olive Hwy Ste 1 Oroville, CA 95966 530-589-9950

US Orchid & Hydroponic Supplies

1621 South Rose Avenue, Oxnard, CA 93033 805-247-0086

Socal Hydroponics

(650) 355-5100 ____________________________

90 Eureka Square Pacifica, CA 94044

1751 S Pointe Avenue, Ontario, CA 91761 213-596-8820 GreenCoast Ontario

Unit 102-103 1920 South Rochester Avenue Ontario, CA 1 (909) 605-5777 ____________________________

National Garden Wholesale/ Sunlight Supply 1950 C South Grove Avenue, Ontario, CA 91761 888-888-3319 ____________________________

34150 123rd Street, Parablossom, CA 93553 661-944-2226 Alternative Hydro

3870 East, Colorado Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91107 888-50-HYDRO Better Grow Hydro Pasadena

1271 E. Colorado Boulevard, Pasedena, CA 91106 626 737 6612 365 Hydroponics

2062 Lincoln Ave Pasadena, CA 91103 1 (626) 345-9015


GreenLeaf Hydroponics 2212 Artesia Boulevard, Redondo Beach, CA 90278 310-374-2585 ____________________________ Radiant Roots Gardening & Hydroponics

1394 S Pacific Coast Hwy Redondo Beach, AB 90277 1 (310)540-2005 75 Kimick Way, Red Bluff, CA 96080 530-526-0479

Bear Roots Hydroponics

1615 East Cypress, #5 Redding, CA 96002 530-244-2215 Dazey’s Supply

Humboldt Hydroponics

2010 Tunnel Road, Redway, CA 95560 707-923-1402

Hydro Depot

Redway Feed Garden and Pet Supply

Foothills Hydrogarden

1151 Evergreen Road, Redway, CA 95560 707-923-3606 ____________________________

House of Hydro

224 Weller Street, #B, Petaluma, CA 94952 707-762-4769 Wyatt Supply

Sylvandale Gardens

America’s Best Hydroponics & Gardening Center 641 W. Palmdale Blvd. Unit D Palmdale, CA 93551 661-266-3906 ____________________________

Turbo Grow

1889 San Pablo Avenue, Pinole, CA 94564 510-724-1291 Hillside Hydro & Garden

4570 Pleasant Valley Road Placerville CA 95662 530-644-1401

Best Yield Garden Supply

Hydroponics Unlimited 641 W. Palmdale Blvd. “D” Palmdale, CA 93550 661-266-3906 ____________________________ Palm Springs Hydroponics

4651 Ramon Road, Palm Springs, CA 92264 760-327-ROOT

1215 Striker Avenue, Suite 180, Sacramento, CA 95834 916-419-4394

Green Thumb Hydroponics

Humboldt Hydroponics 2174 Pine Street, Redding, CA 96001 530-241-7454 ____________________________

35 Quinta Court, Suite B, Sacramento, CA 95823 916-689-6464 ____________________________

Hydro King

105 Hartnell Avenue, Suite C and D, Redding, CA 96002 888-822-8941 Orsa Organix

111 Willow Street, Redwood City, CA 94063 650-369-1269 ____________________________

KY Wholesale 8671 Elder creek Rd. #600 Sacramento, CA 95828 916 383 3366 ____________________________ Mystic Gardens

8484 Florin Road, #110, Sacramento, CA 95828 916-381-2464 Sac Hydroponics

9529 Folson Boulevard, Suite C Sacramento, CA 95827 916-369-7968 Mendocino Greenhouse & Garden Supply 960 East School Way, Redwood Valley, CA 95470 707-485-0668 ____________________________ EZ Green Hydroponics

7017 Reseda Boulevard, Reseda, CA 91335 818-776-9076

Hydro Hills Hydroponics

Mission Hydroponics

Box Of Rain Inc.

Emerald Garden

Hi-Tech Gardening

8249 Archibald Avenue, Ranch Cucamanga, CA 91730 909-466-3796

Green Acres Hydroponics

3230 Auburn Boulevard, Sacramento, CA 95821 916-485-8023

3503 West Temple Avenue, Unit A, Pomona, CA 91768 909-839-0505 1236 East Mission Pomona CA 91766 (909) 620 7099

Igrow Hydro

Greenfire Sacramento

1016 Lakeville St. Petaluma, CA 94952 707-762-3747 4774 Phelan Rd. Suite 2 Phelan CA 92371 760 868 0002

5665 Redwood Drive, #B, Rohnert Park, CA 94928 707-584-2384 9000 Atkinson Street, Roseville, CA 95678 916-773-4476


Funny Farms Hydroponics 963 Transport Way, #12 Petaluma, CA 94954 707-775-3111 ____________________________

Discount Hydroponics 4745 Hiers Avenue, Riverside, CA 92505 877-476-9487 ____________________________

Calwest Hydroponics 11620 Sterling Avenue, Suite A Riverside, CA 92503 800-301-9009 ____________________________

3082 Redwood Drive, Redway, CA 95560 707-923-3002

290 Briceland Road, Redway, CA 95560 707-923-2765

3133 Penryn Road, Penryn, CA 95663 916-270-2413

2121 San Joaquin Street, Richmond, CA 94804 510-524-1604 ____________________________

All Ways Hydro 2220 Eastridge Ave. Suite C Riverside CA 92507 888-HYDRO98 ____________________________

Supersonic Hydroponic and Organic Garden Supply

3850 Ramada Drive, Unit D2 Paso Robles, CA 93446 805-434-2333

The Urban Farmer Store

Shadow Valley Aquatics

JNJ Hydroponics

Cultivate Ontario


1236 East Mission Pomona CA 91766 (909) 620 7099

Orville Organic Gardens

1319 South Coast Highway, Oceanside, CA 92054 760-966-1885; 877-966-GROW

2000 Grove Ave #a110 Ontario, CA 91761 909-781-6142

Mission Hydroponics

2280 Veatch Street, Oroville, CA 95965 530-534-4476

Pacifica Hydroponics

1727-B Oceanside Boulevard, Oceanside, CA 92054 760-439-1084

DNA Hydroponics Inc 19345 North Indian Canyon Drive, North Palm Springs, Suite 2-F CA 92258 760-671-5872 ____________________________

New Leaf Hydro

3rd Street Hydroponics

636 3rd Street Oakland, CA 94607 510-452-5521 ____________________________


19320 Vanowen St. Reseda CA 91335 Po Box 302, Rexford, CA 59930 406-755-7245

5327 Jacuzzi Street, #282, Richmond, CA 94804 510-524-4710

Skywide Import & Export Ltd.

5900 Lemon Hill Avenue, Sacramento, CA 95824 916-383-2369

Tradewinds Wholesale Garden Supplies

1235 Striker Avenue #180, Sacramento, CA 95834 888-557-8896 Green Joint Ventures

61 Tarp Circle, Salinas, CA 93901 831-998-8628 ____________________________

Reforestation Technologies International

1341 Daton Street, Unit G Salinas, CA 93901 800-784-4769 ____________________________

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012


MAXIMUM YIELD distributors



Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

____________________________ UrbanGardens advanced hydroponics and gardening

704 Filbert Street, San Francisco, CA 94133

Xtreme Gardening

1341 Dayton St. Annex B Salinas CA 93901 800-784-4769 ____________________________

National Garden Wholesale / Sunlight Supply 1900 Bendixsen Street , Bldg. 1, Samoa, CA 95564 800-683-1114 (Northern CA) ____________________________ Greenmile Hydroponic Garden Supply

1480 South E. Street, Suite D, San Bernardino, CA 92408 909-885-5919 Garden Shed, The

1136 El Camino Real San Carlos, CA 650-508-8600

Miramar Hydroponics & Organics 8952 Empire Street San Diego CA 92126 858-549-8649 ____________________________

Oracle Garden Supply 5755 Oberlin Drive, Suite 100 San Diego, CA 92121 858-558-6006 ____________________________ Pacific Beach Hydroponics

1852 Garnet Avenue, San Diego, CA 92109 858-274-2559 ____________________________

Green Gopher Garden Supply

679 Redwood Avenue, Suite A, Sand City, CA 93955 831-899-0203 Modern Gardens

26620 Valley Center Dr. Santa Clarita, CA 91351 661-513-4733 Best Coast Growers

4417 Glacier Avenue Suite C, San Diego, CA 92120 800-827-1876 City Farmer’s Nursery

4832 Home Avenue, San Diego, CA 92105 619-284-6358

Green Lady Hydroponics

4879 Newport Avenue, San Diego, CA 92107 619-222-5011

Home Brews & Gardens

3176 Thorn St San Diego, CA 92104 619 630 2739 ____________________________

123 Tenth Street, San Francisco, CA 94103 The Urban Farmer Store

US Garden

417 Agostinio Rd San Gabriel Ca 91776 626 285-5009 Inland Empire Hydrogarden

1301-C South State Street, San Jancinto, CA 92853 Hahn’s Lighting

260 E. VA Suite 1, San Jose, CA 95112 408-295-1755 Plant Life

32 Race Street, San Jose, CA 95126 408-283-9191 San Diego Hydroponics Beach Cities 4122 Napier Street, San Diego, CA 92110 619-276-0657 ____________________________

South Bay Hydroponics and Organics - San Jose

Wai Kula Hydrogardens

17-130 Doolittle Drive San Leandro, CA 94577 510-430-8589

5297 Linda Vista Road, San Diego, CA 92110 619-299-7299

Direct Hydroponics Wholesale

1034 W. Arrow Hwy#D San Dimas, CA 91773 888-924-9376 Liquid Gardens

1034 West Arrow Hwy.#D San Dimas, CA 91773 888-924-9376 Extreme Hydroponics

11479 San Fernando Road C, San Fernando, CA 91340 818-898-0915 Plant It Earth

1185 South Bascom Avenue, San Jose, CA 95128 408-292-4040 D&S Garden Supplies

Hydrogarden Delight

13762 Doolittle Drive, San Leandro, CA 94577 510-903-1808

Central Coast Hydrogarden

1951 Santa Barbara Street, San Luis Obispo, CA 93401 805-544-GROW

1 Dorman Ave. San Francisco, CA 94124 (415) 970-2465


Planet Earth Hydroponics

102 East Haley St. Santa Barbara, CA 93101 P. 805 899 0033 ____________________________

2958 S. Higuera St. San Luis Obispo, CA 93401 805.596.0430 ____________________________

Santa Rosa, CA 95404 707-578-3747) Santee Hydroponics

7949 Mission Gorge Road, Santee, CA 92071 619-270-8649 Gardening Unlimited

Pro Gardening Systems

Urban Grow Systems 204 N Quarantine Street Santa Barbara, CA 93103 1 (805) 637-6699 ____________________________ Santa Clarita Valley Hydroponics

25835 Railroad Ave. #26 Santa Clarita CA 91350 661 255 3700 661 255 3701

California Hydroponics

310 Coral Street, Suite C Santa Cruz, CA 95060 831-423-4769

Hydro-Logic Purification Systems

370 Encinal St, Suite 150, Santa Cruz, CA 95060 888 H2O LOGIC

Santa Cruz Hydroponics & Organics - West Side

815 Almar Avenue, Unit K, Santa Cruz, CA 95060 831-466-9000 Full Sun Supply

3535 Industrial Drive, Unit B-3 Santa Rosa, CA 95403 877-FULL-SUN

765 Petaluma Avenue, Sebastopol, CA 95472 707-829-7252

Better Choice Hydroponics

610 S. Washington Street, Senora, CA 95370 209 533 2400 Go Big Hydroponics

4501 Van Nuys Boulevard, Sherman Oaks, CA 91403 818-789-3341 Bloom Brothers Garden Supply, Inc.

3293 Industry Dr. Signal Hill, CA 90755 562 494-0060

We Grow Hydroponics

3350 East Los Angeles Avenue, Simi Valley, CA 93063 805-624-4566 Abundant Hydroponics LLC

1611 Shop Street, #1-A, S. Lake Tahoe, CA 96150 530-54 HYDRO ____________________________

Gonzo Grow

2550 Guerneville Road,Suite C, Santa Rosa, CA 95401 707-546-1800 Gottagrow Garden Supply

769 Wilson Street, Santa Rosa, CA 95404 707-544-7782 ____________________________

Advanced Garden Supply 2660 Lake Tahoe Boulevard, Building C, Unit 9, S. Lake Tahoe, CA 96150 530-541-4769 ____________________________ Farm Hydroponics, The

1950 Lake Tahoe Boulevard #3, S. Lake Tahoe, CA 96150 530-541-3276 Green Logic Garden Supply 860 Piner Road, #38, Santa Rosa, CA 95403 707-843-3156 ____________________________ Organic Bountea

San Diego Hydroponics North 802 N. Twin Oaks Valley Road #108 San Marcos, CA 92069 760-510-1444 ____________________________

Wyatt Supply 747 Yolanda Ave.

60 Old El Pueblo Road, Scotts Valley, CA 95066 831-457-1236

Healthy Harvest Hydroponics and Organics

661 Divisadero San Francisco, CA 94117 (415) 626-5082 Plant It Earth Warehouse

204 N Quarantina Street, Santa Barbara, CA 93103 805-687-6699

San Francisco Hydro

2833 Vicente Street, San Francisco, CA 94116 415-661-2204

Pure Food Gardening/Microclone

830 H Bransten Rd. San Carlos,CA 94070-3338

Urban Gardens Unlimited 704 Filbert Street, San Francisco, CA 94133 415-421-4769 ____________________________

Nutes Int’l

1919 Dennis Lane, Santa Rosa, CA 95403 800-798-0765 ____________________________

Valley Hydro and Organics

19230 Sonoma Hwy. Sonoma CA 95476 707 396 8734

Santa Cruz Hydroponics & Organics - East Side

4000 Cordelia Lane Soquel, CA 95073 831-475-9900 ____________________________

H20 Gardening

355 West 7th Street, San Pedro, CA 90731 310-514-1416 Indoor Garden Depot 1848 Commercial St. San Diego CA 92113 619-255-3552 ____________________________ Innovative Growing Solutions (IGS)

5060 Santa Fe St. Ste.D San Diego, CA 92109 858-578-4477 ____________________________

Mighty Garden Supply 4780 Mission Gorge Pl. #A-1, San Diego, CA 92120 619-287-3238


Marin Hydroponics

Grow Your Own 3401 Traval Street, San Francisco, CA 94116 415-731-2115 ____________________________ Hydroponic Connection Warehouse, The

1995 Evans Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94124 415-824-9376 Nor Cal Hydroponics 4837 Geary Boulevard, San Francisco, CA 94118 415-933-8262 Plant It Earth

2279 Market Street, San Francisco, CA 94114 415-626-5082

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

721 Francisco Blvd East San Rafael, CA 94901 415-482-8802 Pacific Garden Supply

128 H Carlos Drive, San Rafael, CA 94903

San Rafael Hydroponics

1417 Fourth Sreet San Rafael, CA 94901 415 455 9655 ____________________________

Green Coast Hydroponics 3560 State Street, Santa Barbara, CA 93105 805-898-9922 ____________________________

Pro Gardening Systems 3715 Santa Rosa Avenue #2, Santa Rosa, CA 95407 707-585-8633 ____________________________

Orange County Hydroponics 12797 Beach Boulevard, Stanton, CA 90680 714-893-9493 ____________________________

Sun-In Hydroponics 1257A Cleveland Avenue, Santa Rosa, CA 95401 707-578-5747 ____________________________ HomeGrown Indoor Garden Supply 681 A Grider Way, Stockton, CA 95210 209-477-4447 ____________________________ Sweet Leaf Hydroponics 1611 Sebastobol Road, Santa Rosa, CA 95407 707-575-GROW (4237) ____________________________

Golden Harvest Hydroponics & Garden Supply

8626 Lower Sacramento Road #48, Stockton, CA 95210 209-951-3550

2509 West Lane, Suite B Stockton, CA 95205 209-939-0664 Pacific Ave Indoor Garden Supply

4633 pacific Ave Stockton , CA 95207 209-955-0945

City Farm Hydroponics

8903 Laurel Canyon Boulevard, Sun Valley, CA 91352 818-767-2076 ____________________________


Anthony’s Garden & Lighting Supply

30 Ridge Road, Suites 8 & 9 Sutter Creek, CA 95685 209-267-5416 Tahoe Garden Supply

645 Westlake Boulevard, Suite 2, PO Box 487 Tahoe City, CA 96145 530-581-3200 The Otherside Hydroponics

19425 Ventura Blvd Tarzana CA 91356 818 881 hydro (4937)

Hydroponics 4 Less

41669 Winchester Avenue, Temecula, CA 92590 800-A1-HYDRO

HydroPacific - Hydroponics & Garden Supplies 351 C Hastings Av., Ukiah, CA 95482 707-467-0400 ____________________________ Northcoast Hydrogardens

3450 North State Street, Ukiah, CA 95482 707-462-7214 2200 N. State St. Ukiah, CA 95482 707-462-7473

Atlantis Garden Supply

2851 A Whipple Road, Union City, CA 94587 510-487-8007

Evergreen Hydroponics

923 N. Central Avenue, Suite B, Upland, CA 91786 909-946-7100 9490 Main Street, P.O. Box 763 Upper Lake, CA 95485 707-275-9565

3007-3009 W. Artesia Blvd. Torrance, CA 90504 310-323-4937 Anything Grows

10607 W. River Street, Building 3 Suite C, Truckee, CA 96161 530-582-0479

Emerald Garden

307 East Perkins Street, Ukiah, CA 95482 707-463-2510

7543 Santa Monica Boulevard, West Hollywood, CA 90046 323-845-9874 Hydronation

2491 Boatman Drive, Suite B West Sacramento, CA 95691 916-372-4444 Flower Hut Nursery

603 4th Street Wheatland, CA 95692 530-633-4526


GreenWay Hydroponics

15816 Arminta St Van Nuys, CA 91406 818-305-6261 886-72-HYDRO


11510 Whittier Boulevard, Whittier, CA 90601 Lazy Gardeners Hydroponics ‘N’ More

14626 East Whittier Boulevard, Whittier, CA 90605 562-945-0909 Garden Spout, The

260 Margie Dr Willits, CA 95490 707-456-0196

Sparetime Supply

The Green Shop

66420 Mooney Boulevard, Suite 1 Visalia, CA 93277 559-688-4200

Greentrees Hydroponics Inc.

2581 Pioneer Avenue, Unit D Vista, CA 92081 760-598-7551

Home Life Hydroponics and Organics

1745 East Vista Way, Vista, CA 92084 760-643-2150 ____________________________

208 E. San Francisco Avenue, Willits, CA 95490-4006 ____________________________

Hydromagic Supply 40 N. East St. Suite F Woodland,CA 95776 530-661-0117 ____________________________ Urban Gardens

22516 Ventura Boulevard, Woodland Hills, CA 91364 818-876-0222 ____________________________

Ultra Lo Hydro 937-252-8224 ____________________________ Garden Highway Garden Supply

598 Garden Highway #22 Yuba City, CA 95991 530-755-2877

Golden Valley Hydroponics

870 W. Onsott Rd. Ste F Yuba City, CA 95993 (530) 763-2151

Southern Humbolt Garden Supplies

34919 Yucaipa Boulevard, Yucaipa, CA 92399 909-797-6888 707-459-6791 Specialty Garden Center 1970 East Vista Way, Suite 10, Vista, CA 92084 760-758-4769 ____________________________

Indoor Garden Warehouse

8100 S Akron St., Suite 322, Centennial, CO 80112 720-496-2110 Garden Tech

737 Garden of the Gods Road, Colorado Springs, CO 80907 719-278-9777 Greenhouse Tech

917 East Fillmore, Colorado Springs, CO 80907 719-634-0637

Nick’s Garden Center 2001 S. Chambers, Aurora, CO 80014 303-696-6657 ___________________________

Hydro Grow Supply

The Big Tomato Indoor Garden Supply 14440 E. 6th Ave. Aurora, CO 80011 (303) 364-4769 ___________________________ Family Hydroponics-Boulder

2125 32nd Street Boulder, co 80301 303-996-6100

644 Peterson Road, Colorado Springs, CO 80915 719-596-2600 Purple Mountain Hydroponics LLC

Yucca Valley Hydroponics

56825 Twentynine Palms Hwy. Yucca Valley, CA 92284 760 369 0300

Room To Grow LLC

422 South 8th Street Colorado Springs CO 80905 719 633 8682 Roots and Rocks Hydroponic

and Organic Garden Supply 1014 S. 21st Street Colorado Springs, CO 80904 719-634-1024 ____________________________

Polar Ray

5171 Eldorado Springs Dr. Boulder, CO 80303 303 494 5773

High Tech Garden Supply 5275 Quebec St. Commerce City, CO 80022 720-222-0772

Way To Grow

6395 Gunpark Drive, Boulder, CO 80301 303-473-4769


Deep Roots Garden Supply

1790 Airport Road, Unit 1 Breckenridge, CO 80424 970-453-1440


37 Strong St. Brighton, CO 80601 303 637 0069

Brighton Hydroponics

839so.Kuner rd., Brighton CO 80601 303-655-1427 ___________________________

Kaweah Grower Supply

1106 1/2 N. Ben Maddox Way, Visalia, CA 93293 559-625-4937

3225 I-70 Business Loop Unit A10 Clifton, Colorado 81520 970-434-9999 ____________________________

Mile High Hydroponics

BWGS-CA 7530 W. Sunnyview Avenue Visalia, CA 93291 888-316-1306 ____________________________

Indoor Gardener. The

1530 S Nevada Avenue, Colorado Springs, CO 80906 719-635-5859

Hydroponics Market

Hooked Up Hydroponics

339 S. Golden State Boulevard, Turlock, CA 95380 209-668-1300

No Stress Hydroponics

National Garden Wholesale/Sunlight Supply 3550 B Odessa Way, Aurora, CO 80011 866-877-4188 (Northeast) ____________________________




ACME Hydroponics 300 Nickel St Suite 3 Broomfield, CO 80020 720.524.7306 ___________________________ Colorado Grow

3400 Industrial Lane, Unit 10A Broomfield, CO 80020 (303) 465-GROW (4769) Hydrofarm CO

400 Burbank St Broomfield, CO 80020 800-634-9990



Los Angeles Hydroponics and Organics

42 E Buckskin Rd. Alma CO 80420 719 836 1533 ____________________________


1647 W. Sepulveda Boulevard, Unit 5, Torrance, CA 90501 888-326-GROW

1043 South Glendora Avenue, Suite A West Covina, CA 91790 626-813-0868

1650 Lewis Brown Dr. Vallejo, CA 94589 707 647 0774

Stop N Grow 4160 Market Street, Unit 11 Ventura, CA 93003 805-639-9489 ____________________________

Green Thumb Lighting & Garden


California Hydro Garden

Green Coast Hydroponics 11510 Whittier Boulevard Whittier, CA 90601 562-699-4201 ____________________________

Everything Green

28822 Old Town Front St. #206 Temecula, CA 92590 886-74-HYDRO ____________________________

Art of Hydro 2636 E. Thousand Oaks Blvd. Thousand Oaks, CA 91362 805-230-2227 ____________________________

1131 Main Street Weaverville, CA 96093 1 (530) 623-2884

COLORADO South Park Hydroponics

TNC Supply

Inland Empire Hydrogarden

805 Hydroponics & Organics 1785 E. Thousand Oaks Boulevard Thousand Oaks, CA 91362 805-494-1785 ____________________________

7 Hangar Way Ste B Watsonville Ca 95075 831-768-0420

Evergreen Farm Feed and Garden

Wyatt Supply

Sunland Hydroponics 8300 Foothill Boulevard, Sunland, CA 91040 818-352-5300 ____________________________

Specialty Garden Supply


M&M Garden Supply


I F E R, C


R-n-B Horticultural Supply 25797 Conifer Rd #a-8 Conifer, Co 80433 303-838-5520 ____________________________

Roll-N-Green Farms Horticultural Supply 25797 Conifer Rd #A-8 Conifer, Co 80433 303-838-5520 ____________________________

Global Organics & Hydroponics 11 N Broadway Cortez CO 81321 970 564 8100 ____________________________

J&D Organic Growing Solutions

217 1/2 Clayton Street Brush, CO 80723 970-310-5408 BIG BloomZ

1011 Caprice Drive, Castle Rock, CO 80109 303-688-0599

BWGS-CO 11685 E. 55th Avenue Denver, CO 80239 888-316-1306 ____________________________

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012


MAXIMUM YIELD distributors


Hydro Planet

711 Washington Avenue, Golden, CO 80401 303-279-6090 Rocky Mountain Hydroponics and Organics

Chlorophyll 3801 Mariposa St. Denver CO 80211 303-433-1155 ____________________________ Denver Hydroponic & Organic Center

6810 North Broadway, Unit D Denver, CO 80221 303-650-0091

Rocky Mountain Lighting and Hydroponics

7100 N. Broadway, Suite 3D Denver, CO 80221 303-428-5020 The Grow Outlet

4272 Lowell Boulevard Denver, CO 80211 303-586-5543 Way To Grow

301 East 57th Ave. Denver, CO 80216 303-296-7900 ____________________________

15985 S. Golden Road Golden, CO 80401 720-475-1725

Desert Bloom Hydroponics

445 Pitkin Avenue, Grand Junction, CO 81501 970-245-6427 970-668-0359 ____________________________

Pueblo Hydroponics and OrganicsSouth

Absolute Hydroponic Garden Center Inc


Pueblo Hydroponics and Organics

Organic Grow Hut 2

High Tech Garden Supply 2975 West New Haven Avenue, Melbourne, FL 32901 321-821-0853 ____________________________

2704 S Prarie Ave Suite C Pueblo CO 81005 719 564 2660 609 E Enterprise Dr Pueblo West CO 81007 709 647 0907

Salida Hydroponic Supply

1242 C Street Salida, CO 81201 (719) 539-4000 ____________________________

Primo Gardens 1600 North Ave. Suite B Grand Junction, CO 81501 970-241-1209 970-668-0359 ____________________________ Greeley Nutrients

700 11th Street Unit 101 Greeley CO 80631 970 673 8302 Your Grow Bud

6801 South Emporia St. Suite 106 Greenwood Village, CO 80112 Tel: 303-790-2211 3225 S. Wadsworth Boulevard, Lakewood, CO 80227 303-986-2706 Grow Store, The

8644 W. Colfax Avenue, Lakewood, CO 80215 888-510-0350 ____________________________

Cultivate Hydroponics & Organics 7777 W. 38th Avenue, A120A, Wheat Ridge, CO 80033 303-954-9897 ____________________________  CONNECTICUT Grow Crazy

11 Berlin Rd. Unit 2 Cromwell CT 06416 203 660 8486 Harvest Moon Hydroponics

775 Silver Lane, East Hartford, CT 06118 860-568-4067 LiquidSun® CT

10C South Main Street, East Windsor, CT 06088 860-254-5757 ____________________________

Blue Sky Hydroponics

1301 Florida Road Unit C Durango, CO 81301 970-375-1238 DHL Garden Supply

178 Bodo Dr.Unit B Durango, Co 81303 970-247-1090

Grow Store South, The

5050 S. Federal Boulevard, #37, Englewood, CO 80110 303-738-0202


355 S. Harlan St. Lakewood CO 80226 303-935-4769 ____________________________ Ever Green Hydroponics Inc.

1131 Francis Street, Suite A, Longmont, CO 80501 303-682-6435 ____________________________

Alpenglow Garden Supply

2000 E. Prospect, Fort Collins, CO 80525 970-484-5022

Rogue Hydroponics 160 Broadway Hamden, CT 06518 866-277-4432 ____________________________ Organix Hydroponics

749 Saybrook Road, (Tradewinds Plaza) Middletown, CT 06457 860-343-1923 Delaware Sunny Day Organics

2712 South College Ave Fort Collins, CO 80525 970-266-8888

Bath Nursery & Garden Center

1607 Old Daytona Steet Deland, FL 32724 386-734-0696

780 Deltona Blvd. #107 Deltona, Florida 32725 1-888-574-grow 386-259-5777 Gold Coast Hydroponics

1539 SW 21st Avenue, Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33312 1-800-780-7371



All Seasons Gardening 434 Turner Drive, Suite 2B Durango, CO 81303 (970) 385-4769 ____________________________

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

Ultra Lo Hydro 937-252-8224 ____________________________

1867 Coastal Hwy. Rehoboth Beach, Delaware MD 19917 302 703 2538

Biofloral 6250 NW 27th Way, Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33309 877 735 6725 ____________________________ Green Thumb Hydroponics Supplies

13482 North Cleveland Avenue, Fort Meyers, FL 33903 239-997-4769

Gardener’s Edge Gainesville

5000 NW 34th Street, Suite 13, Gainesville, FL 32605 352-375-2769 ____________________________

Indoor Paradise Hydroponics

Florida Garden Supplies 2692 W 79 Street, Hialeah, FL 33016 1-800-931-5215 ____________________________ Hydro Terra Corp.

924 North Federal Highway, Hollywood, FL 33020 954-920-0889 Simply Hydroponics & Organics (North)

3642 South Suncoast Boulevard, Homosassa, FL 34448 352-628-2655

Hydroponics International Inc.

309 S. Summit View, Unit 17, Fort Collins, CO 80524-1462 970-221-3751 Way To Grow

3201 E. Mulberry Street, Fort Collins, CO 80524 970-484-4769 ____________________________

Victory Hydro Gardening

1387 E. South Boulder Rd. Louisville, CO, 80027 Tel: 303-664-9376 ____________________________ Lyons Indoor Gardening 138 Main Street, Lyons, CO 80540 720-530-3828 Head Start Hydroponics & Organic Gardening Emporium

Hydro Shack, The 220 Main Street, Suite E Frisco, CO 80443 970-668-0359 ____________________________ GWS Hydroponics

7025 Highway 82 Building 4B, Glenwood Springs, CO 81601 970-384-2040


34500 US Highway 6, Unit B-9, North Edwards, CO 81632 970-569-313 Grow Depot

1434 W. 104th Ave. Northglenn, CO 80234 303-459-7878 Pueblo Hydroponicss and Organics - Downtown

113 W 4th St, Pueblo CO 81003 719 542 6798

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Best Hydro

4920 Lena Road, Bradenton, FL 34211 941-756-1928 Palm Coast Hydroponics

4490 N Hwy US1 Ste. 108 Bunnell FL 32110 386 246 4119 ____________________________

7207 NW 54th Street, Miami, FL 33166 866-452-4769

Florida Garden Supplies 9545 Sunset Drive, Miami, FL 33173


Future Farms Inc., The

14291 SW 120th Street, Suite 105 Miami, FL 33186 305-382-2757 Gold Coast Hydroponics

4241 SW 71st Avenue, Miami, FL 33155 1-800-780-6805

Growing Garden Inc., The

12811 SW 42nd Street, Miami, FL 33175 305-559-0309 7921 NW 67th St Miami, FL 33166 786 845 8633

3D Hydroponics and Organics

7139 US Highway #19, New Port Richey, FL 34652 727-847-3491 ____________________________

Florida Garden Supplies 8442 Tradeport Drive, Unit 200, Orlando, FL 32827 ____________________________

Urban Sunshine 6100 Hanging Moss Rd ste 50 Orlando, FL 32807 407-647-4769 ____________________________ Grower’s Choice & Hydroponics 11855 North Main Street, Jacksonville, FL 32218 904-683-4517 ____________________________ Urban Organics & Hydroponics

5325 Fairmont Street, Jacksonville, FL 32207 904-398-8012

Simply Hydroponics & Organics

7949 Ulmerton Road, Largo, FL 33773 727-531-5355

GrowSmart Indoor Garden Centers

14587 Southern Boulevard, Loxahatchee, FL 33470 561-429-3527

East Coast Hydroponics & Organics 461 Forrest Avenue, Suite 105 Coca, FL 32922 321-243-6800 ____________________________

Palm Beach Discount Hydroponics – West

GreenTouch Hydroponics Inc.

430 Count Street, Melbourne, FL 32901 321-821-1535

5011 S State Road 7, Suite 104 Davie, FL 33314 954-316-8815

Blossoms Experience, The

7029-10 Commonwealth Avenue, Jacksonville, FL 32220 904-693-6554 ____________________________


Urban Sunshine 1420 E. Altamonte Dr. Altamonte Springs, FL 32701 407-830-4769 ____________________________

4960 NW 165 Street, Suite B-4, Miami, FL 33014 866-97-HYDRO


Gold Coast Hydroponics West

8101 S.W. Frontage Road Suite 300 Fort Collins, Colorado 80528 970-232-3220

Advanced Hydro Gardens

Urban Sunshine 6142 S. Orange Ave Orlando, FL 32809 407-859-7728 ____________________________ Green Winters Inc.

147 Tomoka Avenue, Ormond Beach, FL 32174 386-235-8730 800-931-5215 The Healthy Harvest

Ste. 126 21113 Johnson St. Pembroke Pines, FL. 33029 954-538-1511 Eden Garden Supply

14703 Southern Blvd. Loxahatchee, FL 33470 561 296 8555

5044 N. Palafox Street, Pensacola, FL 32505 850-439-1299

Atlantic Hydroponics

Healthy Gardens and Supply of Florida, Inc.

196 East Nine Mile Road, Suite F, Pensacola, FL 32534 850-912-4545



National Garden Wholesale/ Sunlight Supply 455 S. Andrews Avenue, Pompano Beach, FL 33069 877-649-3567 (Southeast) ____________________________

Florida Garden Supplies 8020 Belvedere Road,Unit 4, West Palm Beach,FL 33411 800-931-5215 ____________________________

Hydroponic Depot II

2395 S Tamiami Trail #19 Port Charlotte FL 33952 941 255 3999t EZ Grow Green

604 S.W. Bayshore Blvd. Port St. Lucie, Fl 34983 772-807-7755

Palm Beach Discount Hydroponics – East

968 North Congress Ave. West Palm Beach, FL 33409 561 296 6161

GEORGIA ____________________________

Urban Sunshine Organic & Hydroponic Gardening

2841 South Nove Rd., Ste. 5 South Daytona, FL 32119 386-236-9989 386-492-6978

Mr. Nice Guy Hydroponics

1800 NW. Federal Hwy., Stuart, FL 34994 772 934 6785

Esposito Garden Center

Atlantis Hydroponics 1422 Woodmont Lane, #4, Atlanta, GA 30318 404-367-0052 ____________________________ Flora Hydroponics, Inc.

Evershine Hydroponics

Flora Hydroponics Inc.

Grace’s Hydro-Organic Garden Center

8877 North 56th Street Tampa, FL 33617 813-514-9376

1239 Fowler St. NW Atlanta, GA 30318

2475 Jefferson Road, Suite 600 Athens, GA 30607 866-404-0551 Flora Hydroponics, Inc.

195 Paradise Blvd. Athens, GA 30607 ____________________________

14414 N. Florida Avenue, Tampa, FL 33613 813-264-7101 120 W. Bougain Villea, Tampa, FL 33612 813-333-6828

Stoney Hydro @ Schiro’s Barn n Garden Supplies

7812 Causeway Boulevard, Tampa, FL 33619 813-626-0902 ____________________________


IDAHO 614 North Orchard Street, Boise, ID 83706 208-344-3053 Greenthumb Greenhouses

5895 Ensign Avenue, Boise, ID 83714

Gardinside 618 S. Rt. 59 suite 104 Naperville, IL 60540 630-276-9885 ____________________________


Green Fields

8137 N. Milwaukee, Niles, IL 60714 847-965-5056 ____________________________

Aerostar Global

824 South Kay Avenue, Addison, IL 60101

Let it Grow - Carbondale West Main Street, Carbondale, IL 62908 573-450-5401 ____________________________ Alternative Garden Supply

615 Industrial Drive, Unit A Cary, IL 60013 800-444-2837 Brew and Grow

Fertile Ground

Atlantis Hydroponics 2561 West Point Avenue, College Park, GA 30337 678-510-0032 ____________________________ Alpha Hydroponics and Garden Supply Inc.

3904 N Druid Hills Rd. Suite 247 Decatur GA 30033 404 590 4769 4107 Eighth Street, Suite C Garden City, GA 31408 912-349-4030

463 West MacArthur Drive, Cottage Hills, IL 62018 618-259-5500 Brew and Grow- Crystal Lake

176 W. Terra Cotta Ave. Crystal Lake, IL 60014 1 (815) 301-4950 ____________________________

Atlantis Hydroponics

5182-B Brook Hollow Parkway, Norcross, GA 30071 770.558.1346

Midwest Hydroganics 20647 Renwick Road, Crest Hill, IL 60403 815-838-0100 ____________________________

HAWAII Eco-Island Supply

Monkey Hydroponics 940 West Oakland Ave. Unit A1 407 574 8495 ____________________________

810 Haiku Road, #394 Haiku, HI 96708 808-575-9171 Aqua Plant Hawaii / Kahala Hydroponics

4224 Wailae, Suite 1A, Honolulu, HI 96816 808-735-8665


Goldman’s Grow Shop 910 Greenwood Road, Glenview, IL 60025 847-657-7250 ____________________________

Green Hands of Aloha

Happy Planet Hydroponics

11433 U.S. HWY 441 Tavares FL, 32778 352-253-1001 ____________________________ Winter Garden FL 34787

13054 W Colonial Drive Winter Garden, FL 34787 407-656-GROW(4769)

Cultivating Eden Hydroponic Supplies

946 18th Avenue SW, Vero Beach, FL 32962 772-564-8880

7854 North State Road 37, Bloomington, IN 47404 888-464-9676 ____________________________

Worm’s Way Indiana 7850 North State Road 37, Bloomington, IN 47404 800-598-8158 ____________________________

181 Crossroads Parkway, Bolingbrook, IL 60194 847-885-8282 ____________________________

Autumn Bloom Alternative Indoor Gardening 1020 Derby Street Pekin, Illinois 61554 309-642-6943 ____________________________ Aerogro

502 N Prospect suite 18 Bloomington, IL, 61704, 127 N Main St E Peoria 61611 Prairie House Garden Center

15151 South Harlem Avenue, Orland, IL 60462 708-687-3131

1713 Mary Street, Honolulu, HI 96819 808-847-4263

Ohana Greenhouse & Garden Supply

300 Hukilike Street, #2M, Kahalui, HI 96732 808-871-6393 Aiyah’s Garden

4558 kukui st. kapa’a, Hi. 96746 Aiyah’s Garden

3-3122 Kuhio Hwy. unit B-2 Lihue, Hi. 96766 808 245 2627

Grow Masters 4641 Old Grand Ave. Gurnee, Il. 60031 (224) 399-9877 ____________________________

Worm’s Way Mail Order 7850 North State Road 37 Bloomington, IN 47404 800-274-9676 ____________________________ Frogs Lilly Pad, The

706 Citation Road, Carmel, IN 46032 317-846-4610 Hops & Harvest

4616 E. DuPont Road, Suite Q, Fort Wayne, IN 46825 260-918-3035 Harvest Moon Hydroponics

Brew and Grow

1336 East Washington St. Indianapolis, IN 46202 317-780-8020

Brew and Grow

6229 Allisonville Road, Indianapolis, IN 46220 317-202-2852

3224 South Alpine Road, Rockford, IL 61109 815-874-5700

Magic Bulb Garden Center

359 W. Irving Park Road Unit E, Roselle, IL 60172 630-894-4885 Organic Garden Center 9223 Skokie Blvd.

Skokie, IL 60077 (847) 675-2722 ____________________________

Savannah Hydroponics & Organics

Worm’s Way Florida 4412 North 56th Street, Tampa, FL 33610 800-283-9676; 813-621-1792 ____________________________

Sunleaves Garden Products

Boise Hydroponics

3625 N. Kedzi Avenue, Chicago, IL 60618 773-463-7430

Harvest Time Hydroponics

Hydroponics of Tampa

15-2754 Old Government Road, Pahoa, HI 96778 808-965-9955

Brew and Grow

2743 Capital Circle NE, Tallahassee, FL 32308 850-386-2114

1519 Capital Circle NE Unit #35 Tallahassee FL 32308 850-765-0040

Pahoa Feed & Fertilizer

Kreation’s Indoor Gardening Center 3427 Old Chatman Road, Springfield, IL 62704 217-341-0821 ____________________________ Water Works Indoor Gardening

1900 South Dirksen Parkway, Springfield, IL 62703 217-553-6929 ____________________________

Maximum Grow Gardening

6117 E Washington Street, Indianapolis, IN 46219 317-359-GROW (4769)

Next Generation Gardening & Hydroponics

6805 Madison Ave Indianapolis, IN 46227 317-786-0066 ____________________________

Five Point Gardens 56555 Oak Road, South Bend, IN 46619 574-287-9232 ____________________________ KANSAS Green Circle Hydroponics

6890 W. 105th Street, Overland Park, KS 66212 913-642-3888 KENTUCKY

Midwest Hydroganics 949 W Irving Park Rd. Streamwood IL 60107 630 483 1600 ____________________________

Garden Grove Organics

29 East 7th Street, Covington, (Cincinnati Metro), KY 41011 859-360-1843 ____________________________

INDIANA ____________________________

Big Grow Hydroponics

9225 Trinity Drive, Lake In The Hills, IL 60156 847-854-4450 Grow Big Hydroponics 7817 B North 2nd Street, Manchesney Park, IL 61115 815-637-4769

BWGS-IN 1400 Hancel Pkwy., Mooresville, IN 46158 800-316-1306 ____________________________

Worm’s Way Kentucky 1360 Donaldson Hwy. Suite A, Erlanger, KY 41018 800-669-2088 ____________________________

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012


MAXIMUM YIELD distributors

Grow Shop, The of Lexington

2320 Palumbo Drive, Suite 130, Lexington, KY 40509 859-268-0779 Louisville Hydroponics

3471 Taylor Boulevard, Louisville, KY 40215 502-366-4000

New Earth Garden Center

9810 Taylorsville Road, Louisville, KY 40299 800-462-5953

The Wine-N-Vine Inc.

1524 East McGalliard RD. Muncie IN. 47303 (765) 282-3300 Bluegrass Organic Grow Shop

125 Quinn Dr., Nicholasville, KY 40356 859 887 0677 LOUISIANA Geaux Hydroponics!

2126 O’Neal Lane, Baton Rouge, LA 70816 225-751-4769 Laughing Buddha Nursery

4516 Clearview Parkway, Metairie, LA 70006 504-887-4336 Urban Organics 285 St. Claude Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70117 504-352-4709

Ourcrazydeals Hydroponics

201 Angus Drive, Yungsville, LA 70592 337-303-6146 MAINE

The Urban Garden Center

600 Wilson St. Brewer, ME 04412 1-207-989-2020

LiquidSun of Maine

51West Gray Rd. Gray, ME 04039 207-657-8033

Natures Palate Indoor Garden Store

1321 Mercer Rd ( rte2) Mercer, Maine 04957 877-587-4150 207-587-4150 ____________________________

Urban Garden Center

235 Lewiston Road, Topsham, ME 04086 207-373-0990

Greenlife Garden Supply

611 US Rt. 1 York, ME 03909 207-363-0844

MARYLAND East Coast Organics

2800 Sisson Street, Baltimore, MD 21211

Healthy Gardens and Supply

5001-F Harford Road, Baltimore, MD 21214 443-708-5144

Maryland Hydroponics Inc.

10051 North 2nd Street, Laurel, MD 20723 301-490-9236

Meadowview Feed & Garden Center

1202 Meadowview Road, Pasadena, MD 21122 443-817-0018

Maryland Hydroponics Inc.

12130 Nebel Street, Rockville, MD 20852 240-551-4625

MICHIGAN Hydro Vision

11820 Belleville Belleville, MI 48111 (734) 325-6210 Growers Outlet

7720 Clyde Park SW Byron Center, MI 49513 616-878-4444 A Plus Hydroponics of Michigan LLC

9750 Cherry Valley Ave SE Caledonia MI 49316 (616) 891-0706 Hydro Vision

The Urban Garden Center

659 Warren Ave Portland, ME 04103 1-207-347-2350


36345 Groesbeck Hwy Clinton Twp, MI 48035 586-792-0277 Hydro Grow Room

15201 N. Holly Road, Unit B Holly, MI 48442 248-369-8333 ____________________________

100-7010 Westmoreland Avenue, Takoma Park, MD 20912 877-538-9901 MASSACHUSETTS Greenlife Garden Supply

481 Boston Road, Unit 4, Billerica, MA 01821 978-262-9966

Aric’s Indoor Garden Supply

611 Main st. Norway, Michigan 49870 (906)563-1518 ____________________________

Green Thumb Indoor Gardening

19 Stage Road, St. Albans, ME 04971 207-938-5909



Van Hydro

7480 N State, Davison, MI 48423 810-653-8267 The Grow Station

5670 Telegraph Rd. Dearborn, MI 48127 313-406-5147 800-797-4769 (GROW) ____________________________

Hydro Giant 14455 Ford Rd, Dearborn, MI ____________________________

Synthetic Sun Hydroponics, LLC 799 S. Wisconsin Avenue Gaylord, MI 49735 989 731 8800 ____________________________

Growco Garden Supply 1042 Michigan Street, NE, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 877-939-6900 ____________________________ Home Grown Hydroponix

5333 Plainfield Suite C, Grand Rapids Michigan 49525, 616-361-2924 ____________________________

Cultivation Station – Eastern Market, The 2518 Market Street, Detroit, MI 48207 313-394-0441 ____________________________

GYOstuff – Grow Your Own

Harvest Moon Hydroponics

29 Washington Street, Route 1 Foxboro, MA 02035 800-660-6977 Here We Grow 123 Russell St. (Rt. 9) Hadley, MA 01035 413-584-FARM (3276) LiquidSun® MA

8 Lynwood Avenue, Holyoke, MA 01040 413-539-6875 Green Path Garden Supply

Cultivation Station of Michigan Inc., The 6540 Allen Road, Allen Park, MI 48101 313-383-1766 ____________________________ Gro Blue Indoor Gardening Supplies

270 W. Liberty Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48104 734-913-2750 Grow Show, The


5245 Jackson Road, Suite F Ann Arbor, MI 48103 734-761-5040; 877-893-0716

Worm’s Way Massachusetts 121 Worc-Providence Turnpike, Sutton, MA 01590 800-284-9676 ____________________________

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Hydro Heaven 73647 W 8th Mile Road, Detroit, MI 48235 313-861-0333; 877-823-2076 ____________________________

Ultra Lo Hydro 937-252-8224 ____________________________

3471 S. Huron Road, Bay City, MI 48706 989-922-0088

15201 N Holly Rd Unit B Holly MI, 48430 248-369-8333 ____________________________

Flower Factory, The 2223 East Highland Road Highland, MI 48356 248-714-9292 ____________________________ Hydro Vision 2858 E Highland rd Highland, MI 48356 (248) 714-5556 Holland Hydroponic Outlet 587-40 East 8th Street, Holland, MI 49423 616-298-7395 ____________________________

J&L Growco

206 S. Michigan Avenue, Big Rapids, MI 49307 231-796-1528 916 W 13th St Cadillac, Mi,49601 231-775-7075

New England Hydroponics 15 D College Hwy. (Rt. 10), Southampton, MA 01073 888-529-9025 ___________________________

Hydro Giant 21651 W. 8 Mile Rd. Detroit, MI (8Mile & Lahser) 313-387-7700 313-216-8888 ____________________________

4095 Stone School Rd. Ann Arbor, MI 48108 (734)-677-0009 (734)-677-0509

Homelight Gardens

High Tech Garden Supply 560 Boston Turnpike (Rt.9) Shrewsbury, MA 01545 508-845-4477 ____________________________

Horizen Hydroponics 1614 Leonard Street, NW, Grand Rapids, MI 49504 866-791-1664 ____________________________ Hydro Grow Room

2400 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02140 617-945-1654

Urban Gardening Center, The 2520 22nd Street, Detroit, MI 48216 313-898-0200 ____________________________

Hydro Vision

303 W 14 Mile Rd. Clawson, MI 48017 (248) 435-2250 ___________________________

Here We Grow

30 Parsons St. Presque Isle, ME 04769 207-SOY-BEAN (769-2326)

3364 Arent Ct Coloma, MI 49038 269-468-3890

5844 N. Shelton Rd. Canton, MI 48187 (734) 335-6818

Greenway Gardens

High Tech Garden Supply Maine178 Rand Rd. Portland, ME 04102 Phone 207-899-4387 ____________________________

H2O Grow Supply

Purple Mountain Organics

276 West Main Street, Northborough, MA 01532 508-393-4181 ____________________________

Evergreen Garden Center 301 Forest Avenue Portland, ME 04101 207-761-2800 ____________________________

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

Cultivation Station 3 Inc.

46912 Gratiot, Chesterfield, MI 48051 586-949-7453 ___________________________

Superior Growers Supply 4870 Dawn Avenue, East Lansing, MI 48823 517-332-2663 ____________________________ Sunnyside Hydroponics 24930 Gratiot Avenue, Eastpoint, MI 48021 586-777-2528 Hydro Vision

495 Fenway Dr. Fenton, MI (810) 714-1719

Synthetic Sun Hydroponics, LLC 705 S., Loxley Houghton Lake, MI 48629 989-422-2800 ____________________________ Hydro Vision 1247 e Grand River Howell, MI 48843 (517) 552-4965


Superior Growers Supply, Inc.

2731 East Grand River Howell, MI 48843 517-376-6843 ____________________________


Super Grow 288 W. MONTCALM PONTIAC, MI 48342 248-24SUPER (78737) Green Earth Hydroponics

Horizen Hydroponics

4646 W. Main Street, Kalamazoo, MI 49006 269-567-3333 Kalamazoo Indoor Garden 450 W. Maple, Kalamazoo, MI 49001 269-344-2550 ____________________________

2708 14th Ave. Port Huron MI, 48060 810-982-4769 Hydro Vision

66783 Gratiot Ave. Richmond, MI 48062 (586) 430-1956 Hills Hydro

896 S. Rochester Rd. Rochester Hills, MI 48307 (248) 650-4937 Green Thumb Hydroponics and Organic Indoor Supply

8460 Algoma Suite G Rockford MI 49341 616 884 5500

Hills Hydro

1290 S. Lapeer Rd., Lake Onion, MI 48360 (248) 693-5747

28000 Groesbeck Highway Roseville, Michigan 48066 (586) 435-2335

Horizen Hydroponics

5425 W. Saginaw Highway Lansing, MI 48917 517-323-ROOT ____________________________

Superior Growers Supply Inc.

3928 West Saginaw Highway Lansing, MI 48917 517-327-1900 ____________________________ Hills Hydro

700 Main St. Ste III Lapeer, MI 48446 (810) 245-8687 ____________________________

Northern Lights Hydroponic and Garden Supply

29090 Campbell rd. Madison Heights, MI 48071 248-439-6269

5716 South Pennsylvania Avenue South Lansing, MI 48911 517-393-1600 ___________________________

19363 Eureka Rd, Southgate, MI 734.281.8888 ___________________________ Hydro Vision

22180 Pontiac Trail South Lyon, MI 48178 (248) 435-2268 ____________________________

Growing Consultant

2260 Apple Avenue, Muskegon, MI 49442 231-773-5600

Sunshine Supply Co.

5800 East Pickard Street, Mt. Pleasant, MI 48858 989-775-3700 Flo-N-Grow.

214 N. 2nd Street, Niles, MI 49120 269-683-1877

2570 Dixie Highway, Waterford Twp., MI 48328 248-673-2200; 877 22 HYDRO ___________________________

Light Green Water 3661 Highland Road, Waterford, MI 48329 248-681-0001 ___________________________ ___________________________

Hydrospot 34236 Michigan Avenue, Wayne, MI 48184 734-722-1285 ___________________________

MINNESOTA 26 W 1st Street Duluth, MN 55802 218-341-7253 ____________________________

Indoor Gardening

10 NE 3rd Street, Faribault, MN 55021 507-209-1546 ___________________________ Brew and Grow

757 S. U.S. Highway 131 Three Rivers, MI 49093 269-278-130

HYDROGARDENS Heartland Hydrogardens

705 Vandiver Drive, Suite G Columbia, MO 65202 573-474-4769 ____________________________

Green Circle Hydroponics

12 East Missouri, Kansas City, MO 64106 816-421-1840 ____________________________ Grow Your Own Hydroponics

3617 Saint John Avenue, Kansas City, MO 64123 816-241-2122 ____________________________

8302 Highway 65 NE., Minneapolis, MN 55432 763-780-8191 Interior Gardens

115 -1620 Central Avenue NE, Minneapolis, MN 55413 800-498-4178; 612-870-9077 ____________________________ Let It Grow - Springfield

Midwest Hydroponics

5825 Excelsior Blvd., St. Louis Park,MN 55416 888-449-2739 ____________________________ 831 Highway 75 North Moorhead, MN 56560 218-477-EDEN (3336) ____________________________

American Garden Supply

2519 E. Kearney Street, Springfield, MO 65803 417-862-GROW ____________________________ U-Grow

1724 North, 13th Street, St. Louis, MO 63106 314-452-6368 ____________________________

Still-H2O Inc.

Whitehall, MI 49461 231-893-2400

14375 North 60th Street, Stillwater, MN 55082 651-351-2822


Eco Garden Supply

1006 E. Colby St. Suite A Whitehall, MI 49417 231-893-2400 22 50th Street Wyoming, MI 49504 616-249-8338 ____________________________

Cultivation Station – Grand Rapids, The 4907 S. Division Ave., Wyoming, MI 49548 616-855-4440 ____________________________

1225 North Warson Road, St. Louis, MO 63132 800-285-9676 ____________________________

601-6th Avenue, North, Princeton, MN 55371 763-631-0543Q ____________________________ Green Thumb Organics

800 Transfer Door 25 in rear St. Paul, MN 55114 651-647-1896 MISSISSIPPI Indoor Garden Shop LLC

1310 Bienville Boulevard, Ocean Springs, MS 39564 228-875-3725 ____________________________

Hydro Grow, The

Great Lakes Green Horticultural Supply

879 S. Kings Highway, Cape Girardeau, MO 63703 573-803-0628 ____________________________

Worm’s Way Missouri

AAA Hydroponics LLC

8210 Telegraph Road, Taylor, MI 48180 313-633-0641

Let It Grow - Girardeau

Duluth Hydroponics

Eden Indoor Organic Gardens

Indoor Eden 11090 Hi Tech Dr. Whitmore lake MI 48189 810-355-1465 ____________________________


High Tech Garden Supply 7889 Telegraph Road. Taylor, MI 48180 313-908-7554 ____________________________

MISSOURI ____________________________

Indoor Garden Superstore

Synthetic Sun Hydroponics, LLC 3218 W. Houghton Avenue West Branch, MI 48661 989-345-8800 ____________________________ Cultivation Station of Michigan Inc., The 23529 Little Mack Avenue, St. Clair, MI 48080 586-775-9485 ____________________________

Stealth Hydro 15 E. Cross Street, Ypsilanti, MI 48198 866-998-1916 ____________________________

21410 Schoenherr Warren, MI 48089 586 776-1794

Hydro Giant

BIg Creek Hydroponics

555 Old Little Lake Road, Marquette, MI 49855 906-249-5297

Beste's Indoor/Outdoor Garden Supply

Superior Growers Supply, Inc.

Superior Growers Supply

292200 Seven Mile West Livonia, MI 48152 248-473-0450 ____________________________

24500 Dequindre, Warren, MI 48091 800-461-8819

Home Grown Hydroponics

8075 Gratiot Road, Unit C, Saginaw MI 48609 989-781-1930 ____________________________


Wild Child

Hydroponics Highway Inc.

Portage, MI 49002 269-342-4190

High Tech Garden Supply

High Tech Garden Supply 2815 East Grand River Ave. Lansing, MI 48912 (517) 580-0555 ____________________________

90 N U.S. Highway 31 South , Traverse City, MI 49685-7923 231-421-5191 7740 M 72 East, Traverse City, MI 49690 866-711-GROW Hydro Vision 1910 West rd Trenton, MI 48183 (734) 301-3745

8127 Portage Rd.

Green Forest Indoor Garden Supply, LLC. 2555 N. State(M-66) Rd. Ionia, MI 48846 616-523-6111 ____________________________

Grow Store, The

249 Mid Rivers Mall Drive, St. Peters, MO 63376 636-397-4769 (GROW) ____________________________ Beste's Indoor/Outdoor Garden Supply

21410 Schoenherr Warren, MI 48089 586 776-1794 MONTANA

Heightened Harvests

2018 Main Street #4, Billings, MT 59105 406-252-4311

Magic City Organic & Hydroponic Supply 812 Central Sunrise Garden Center

5173 W. 4th St., Hattiesburg, MS 39402 (601) 264-9300 ____________________________

Billings, MT 59102 (406)-245-LEAF(5323)

One World – Life Products

906 Broadwater Billings MT 59101 406 839 9969

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012


MAXIMUM YIELD distributors

Heightened Harvests

3103 Harrison Avenue, Suite B


1051 San Mateo Blvd. SE, Albuquerque, NM 87108 505-255-3677 ___________________________ Advanced Gardens Hydroponics

3111 South Valley View, (on Desert Inn West of Valley View) Suite V103 Las Vegas, NV 89102 702-257-4769 ____________________________ Advanced Gardens Hydroponics


127 Main Street, Butte, Montana 59701 1-406-782-8476 ____________________________ Big Sky Garden Supply

528 West Idaho, Kallispell, MT 59901 406-755-1465

Box of Rain Indoor Garden Center

860 N. Meridian Road B-19, Kalispell, MT 59901 406-755-RAIN (7246)

Cornucopia Grow Your Own

127 Stoner Creek Road Lakeside, MT 59922 406-709-1076 Dr. Green Thumbs

1106 West Park, Livingston, MO 59047 406-222-7440 Bizzy Beez LLP

5875 Highway 93 S, Whitefish, MT 59937 406-863-9937 NEBRASKA Bodhi Organic Garden Supply

1438 S1 St. Ste 6

Lincoln, NE 68502 402 438 6785 Patio-Ponics

3255 Cornhusker Highway, Suite 4 Lincoln, NE 68504 402-466-9218 ____________________________

7850 Dean Martin Dr. Suite 506 Las Vegas,NV 89139 702-247-4769 All American Hydroponics

2675 East Patrick Lane, Unit 8, Las Vegas, NV 89120 702-894-9888

Hydro Store, The

Nevada Hydroponics

4700 B Maryland, Suite 1, Las Vegas, NV 89119 702-798-2852

821 W. San Mateo Road, Suite 4, Santa Fe, NM 87505 505-467-8454 

Anything Grows

190 West Moana Lane, Reno, NV 89509 775-828-1460


Everything Green Hydroponics

P.O Box 34869 Reno, Nevada 89533

296 Delaware Ave., Albany, NY 12209 518-618-7666

The Hydro Store

The Grow Room


Saratoga Organics & Hydroponic Supply

Natural Roots Hydroponics

24 Crown St. Nashua, NH 1 (603) 204-5528

290 Spear Court, Fernley, NV 89408 775-575-7757 Hydro Store, The

1014 W. Sunset Road, Henderson, NV 89014 702-434-7365 AAA Indoor Organic Garden SuperCenter

2101 S. Decatur Boulevard, #21, Las Vegas, NV 89102 702-450-4769


19 Front Street, Ballston Spa, NY 12020 518-885-2005; 800-850-4769 The Grape Vine

Bergen County Hydroponics

70 Essex Street, Hackensack, NJ 07601 201-342-2001 ____________________________

4020 Hempstead Turnpike Bethpage,NY,11714 516-731-1100 Bronx Hydro & Garden

39 Bruckner Boulevard, Bronx, NY 10454 718-993-3787

Bklyn Hydro & Garden

316 McGuiness Blvd Brooklyn NY 11222 718-383-0095 Brooklyn Farms

51Hicks Street St. Brooklyn, NY 11231 347-725-3491 INC.

Green Touch 2 Hydroponics Inc. 888 Route 33, Unit 1, Hamilton, NJ 08619 609-570-8829 ____________________________

Indoor Outdoor Gardener

8223 5th Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11209 718-836-2402

Hydroponics of Buffalo

1497 Hertel Avenue, Buffalo, NY 14216 716-838-3545

East Coast Horticultural Supply

1652 Hurffville Road, Sewell, NJ 08080 856-228-5290 ____________________________ 77HYDRO

37 Fairfield Place, West Caldwell, NJ 07006 877-774-9376 Claraqua

4 Redwood Court, West Windsor, NJ 08550

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Healthy Harvest Organics and Hydro

163 Broadway, Fort Edwart, NY 12828

10 Saratoga Ave S. Glen Falls, NY 12803 (518) 798-820 Greentree Nursery

308 Elmira Road, Ithaca, NY 14850 607-272-3666

Mike’s Nursery and Grower Supplies

199 E. Fairmount Ave, Lakewood, NY 14750 (716) 763-1612 181 S. Plank Rd. Newburgh, NY 12550 845-561-GROW

Hudson Valley Hydroponics

2045 Niagara Falls Boulevard, Suite 13, Niagara Falls, NY 14304 888-GROWBOX The Grow Room 8 Bridge Street,

Olean NY 14760 716.373.Grow (4769)

55 Shiloh Road #6 Asheville, NC 28803 1 (828) 277-3488

Fifth Season Gardening Company

21 B Westside Dr. Asheville NC 28806 828-225-5007

Fifth Season Gardening Company

45 Banks Avenue, Asheville, NC 28801 828-253-4112

Fifth Season Gardening Company

106 South Greensboro Street, Carrboro, NC 27510 919-932-7600

Be Well Hydroponics & Urban Gardening

4732 Monroe Road, Charlotte, NC 28205 704-344-8010 ___________________________


4045 Perimeter West Drive,Suite 400, Charlotte, NC 28214 800-316-1306 ___________________________

High Tech Garden Supply

Mor Gro Hydroponics

2712 B Freedom Drive Charlotte, NC 28208 704-697-0911 ___________________________

Environmental Gardens

Flow & Grow Hydroponics & Organic Garden Center

5680 State Route 104 E Oswego , NY 13126 315-877-8725

8 John Walsh Boulevard, Suite 310 Peekskills, NY 10566 800-254-0507; 914-736-6676 Harvest Moon Hydroponics

Henrietta Townline Plaza, 3047 West Henrietta Road, Rochester, NY 14623 716-865-7353 Hydro Garden Center

1069B Lyell Avenue, Rochester, NY 14606 1-800-277-1322

Sunset Hydroponics & Home Brewing

1590 West Ridge Road, Rochester, NY 14615 866-395-9204 KG Garden Supply

4575 Commercial Drive New Hartford, NY 13413 877-KG-HYDRO

4521 Cumberland Road, Fayetteville, NC 28306 910-423-FLOW (3569)

Fifth Season Gardening Company

1616 D-3 Battleground Avenue, Greensboro, NC 27408 336-271-3373

Good Harvest Garden Center

629 Oakridge Farm Hwy. Mooresville NC 28115 704-658-9136

Fifth Season Gardening Company

5619-A Hillsborough Street, Raleigh, NC 27606 919-852-4747 New Age Gardens

2236A US Highway 70, Swannanoa, NC 28778 828-299-9989 ____________________________

LiquidSun of New York

2606 Erie Boulevard, Syracuse, NY 13224 315-251-2516 ____________________________

2026 Lake Rd unit B Elmira, NY 14903 607 483 9199 ____________________________

59 Central Avenue, Farmingdale, NY 11735 516-420-0884 ____________________________

Advanced Hydroponic Garden

Revolution Hydroponics 309 West State St.

Hydroponics Shops of America

FutureGarden Inc.


Nyack, NY 10960 800-449-9630

California Hydroponics

Upstate Hydroponics

147 Fourth Street, Troy, NY 10960

Sunlight Solutions Hydroponics

1702 Fiero ave Rotterdam, NY 12150 518-952-4654

27 Corporate Circle, East Syracuse, NY 13057 315-432-9387

Harvest Moon Hydroponics

217 Route 32 North, New Paltz, NY 12561 845-255-3633

Harvest Moon Hydroponics

340 West at 59, Central Nyack, NY 10960

Carson Valley Hydroponics

Lorraine Ink

Organica: Garden Supply & Hydroponics

32-32 49th Street Astoria, NY 11103 718-218-GROW (4769)

121 Woodland Ave #160 Reno NV 89523 775 787 2760

NEVADA 2520 Empire Ranch Road, Carson City, NV 89701 775-884-4769

1319 San Mateo N.E., Albuquerque, NM 87110 505-255-6463 ____________________________

Santa Fe Hydroponics

greentouch2 8949 J Street, Suite 5, Omaha, NE 68127 402-339-4949 ____________________________

Common Shaman

All Seasons Gardening 1228 Parkway, Suite E Sante Fe, NM 87507 505-438-GROW ____________________________

7145 W. Ann Road, Las Vegas, NV 89130 702-434-9376


14649 Horace Harding Exp, Flushing, NY 11367 718-762-8880

Crossroads Hydroponics & Organics

511 Avenel Street, Avenel, NJ 07001 888-300-8711

Paradigm Gardens

All Seasons Gardening 3600 Osuna Road, Suite 406 Alburquerque, NM 87109 505-508-4292 ____________________________

6818 W Cheyenne, Las Vegas, NV 89108 702-750-9300

Garden State Hydroponics

10711 Mockingbird Drive, Omaha, NE 68127 (108th and L-Q) 402-991-6630 ____________________________

East Coast Hydroponics

518-480-4698 Saratoga Organics & Hydroponic Supply

Best Hydroponic Supply


Advanced Hydro-Ponics

NEW MEXICO AHL Year Round Garden Supply

Butte, MT 59701 Alpengrow Nursery Supplies

238 Highway 93 S., Eureka, MT 59917 406-882-4496 ____________________________

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

All Season Hydroponics

890 South Kerr Avenue, Wilmington, NC 28410 ____________________________ Progressive Gardens

6005 Oleander Drive, Wilmington, NC 28403 910-395-1156 Green Zone Hydroponics

2148 Niagara Falls Blvd. Tonawanda, NY. 14150 716-693-9663 ____________________________

OHIO Akron Garden Center

434 W Wilbeth Road, Akron, OH 44314 330-724-2700

Summit Hydroponics


Campbells Indoor Gardening Supplies

USA Hydrogarden

1030 Kenmore Boulevard Akron, OH 44314-2114 330-753-5222 1721 Greenville Road Bristolville, OH 44402 330-889-0049

Magic Home Gardens

209 Cemetery Road, Canal Winchester, OH 43110 614-837-2440 ___________________________

134 West Drive, Lodi, OH 44254 330-302-4203 7450 Industrial Pkwy, Ste. A Lorain, Ohio 44053 440-282-4880 The Grow Shop 165 Davids St. Marion OH 43302 740 223 7467 ___________________________

OREGON ____________________________

Vital Organix

932-B SE “M” Street Grants Pass, OR 97526 541-226-9283 ____________________________


Dumont Seed Co.

619 30th ST. N.W. Canton, ohio 44709 330-492-0204

Dayton Hydroponics

4920 Provident Drive Cincinnati, Ohio 45246 513-942-7111

Eastside Hydroponics

550 Ohio Pike #136 Cincinnati, OH 45255 513-528-GROW

Kissed by the Sun Hydroponic

10740 Reading Road, Cincinnati, OH 45241 513-769-0159

Urban Gardens

671 E. Center Street Marion, OH 43302 740-375-2800 ____________________________

Grow Wizard, The

5700 Denison Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44102 216-961-2500 Herb-N-Garden Center

14901 Puritas Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44135 216-252-2001

Garden Indoors of Ohio

4720 Indianola Avenue, Columbus, OH 43214 800-833-6868 Magic Home Garden

4538 Indianola Avenue, Columbus, OH 43214 614-263-2440 Garden Connections

3341 Centerpoint Dr. Grove City OH 43123 614 871 0707

Advanced Hydrorganics Indoor Garden Center

5204 Darrow Road, Hudson, OH 44236 234-380-1287 Sweet Greens

5540 Brecksville Road Independence, OH 44131 800-421-7084 ____________________________

Hydro Gardens and Lights

1144 N Memorial Drive Lancaster, OH 43130 705-65 Hydro ____________________________ Carefree Garden Center

134 West Drive, Lodi, OH 44254 330-302-4203

Rogue Silicates Inc.

POB 21, Azalea, OR 97410 541-837-8590 B.I.G.S.

Green Garden Indoor Garden Center

Herb N’ Jungle Hydroponics

1664 North Main St. N. Canton, OH 44720 330-494-1234 Indoor Gardens

1222 Hill Road, North, Pickerington, OH 43147 614-866-6065 ____________________________

155 SW Century Drive, Suite 401, Bend, OR 97702 541-385-5222 930 SE Textron Drive, Bend, OR 97702 541-382-4010

Northern Light and Garden Beaverton

9290 SW Beaverton-Hillsdale Highway, Beaverton, OR 97005 503-297-7331 Westcoast Organic and Hydroponic Supply

12410 SE 282nd Avenue, Unit C Boring, OR 97009 503-766-4106

Cleveland Garden Center Inc.

727 East 185th Street, Cleveland, OH 44119 216-481-7868

1343 Duane St. Unit C Astoria OR 97103 503 468 0606 ____________________________

Top Garden Products

8600 East Avenue Suite C. Mentor, OH 44060 440-290-8773

The Good Earth Organics Trinity Hydro Organics

465 Woodman Drive Riverside, OH 45431 937-252-GROW ____________________________ Toledo Hydroponics Ltd.

855 S. Holland-Sylvania Road, Suite 2 Toledo, OH 43615 1-877-893-0716 Greenleaf Hydroponics

1805 Elm Road, Warren, OH 44483 330-372-1039

30088 Redwood Highway, Cave Junction, OR 97523 541-592-4496

Garden Supplies

Oregon Rainforest Co.

19949 E. Burnside Street, Gresham, OR 97233503-465-9909 ____________________________

93779 B Troy Lane, Coos Bay, OR 97420 541-266-8822

Corvallis Hydroponics & Organics

5490 SW Philomath Boulevard, Corvallis, OR 97333 541-738-2820 ____________________________

Harvest Moon

9215 Market Street, Youngstown (North Lima), OH 44452 800-776-8399 Indoor Garden Worx

In & Out Gardens

93484 Hwy 99 South Junctin City OR 97448 541-234-2342 ____________________________ Basin Indoor Gardening

Aqua Serene

Green Zone Garden Center &

1664 North Main St. N. Canton, OH 44720 330-494-1234

American Agriculture

9220 Southeast Stark Street, Portland, OR 97216 800-433-6805 518 NE 20th Ave. Portland, OR 97232 (971)255-1336

Hydroponic Supplies 1845 S W Hwy. 101 Ste. 3 Lincoln OR 97367 USA 541 994 7070


H2organic LCC

Everybody’s Garden Center

Green Thumb Hydrogarden and Organic Supply

Garden Spout, The

18201 NE Portal Way, Ste. 104 Portland, OR 97230 (888) 316-1306 2701 SE 14th Avenue, Portland, OR 97202 800-669-5483

620 NE 3rd Street, McMinnville, OR 97128 503-434-6107 2021 West Main Street, Medford, OR 97501 541-779-8600

Growing Crazy (Hooked On Hydroponics)

817 W. 2nd Street, Medford, OR 97501 ____________________________

In & Out Gardens

1574 Skypark Drive Medford, OR 97501 541-858-3333 ____________________________ Ladybug Indoor Gardens

4532 South East 63rd Avenue, Portland, OR 97206 503-788-4769 Homegrown Garden Supply

7112 NE Gilsan Street, Portland, OR 97213 877-EZ2-GROW

Island Flowers & Indoor Garden Center

909 N. Tomahawk Island Drive, Suite 103, Portland, OR 97217 503-546-3185 Lights Distributing

9843 SW 55th Avenue, Portland, OR 97219 Rain or Shine

13126 NE Airport Way, Portland, OR 97230 503-255-1981

3960 W. Main Street, Medford, OR 97501 541-618-4459

290- B Merlin Avenue Merlin, Oregon 97532 541-659-1466 ____________________________

Roots Garden Supply

5426 North Gay Avenue, Portland, OR 97217 503-285-4768 Urban Flora

2865 South East, Portland, OR 97214 503-236-3344 BIGS Warehouse

906 Blue Avenue, Zanesville, OH 43701 866-900-9679

OKLAHOMA Tulsa County Hydro-Organics 1928 W. Albany, Broken Arrow, OK 74012 918-259-HYDRO AAAAHA! Hydroponics Unlimited P.O. Box 74, Oakhurst, OK 74050 Organics OKC Garden Supply 3620 N Pennsylvania Avenue, Oklahoma City, OK 73118 405-528-GROW The OKC Urban Gardener 3711 N. Western Ave. Oklahoma City, OK 73118 405-521-9300 Urban Garden 3141 E. 15th Street, Tulsa, OK 74104 918-289-0018

2011 Union Ave, North Bend, OR 97459 541-756-5005 ____________________________

Bloom Garden Supply

417 N. Spring St. Klamath Falls, OR 97601 541-273-2023

Advanced Organics & Garden Supply

2836 W. 11th Avenue, Eugene, OR 97402 541-302-9073 ____________________________

Gorilla Garden Supply

Green Garden Indoor Garden Center

Anthony’s Garden & Light Supply

Dayton Hydroponics

3856 Miamisburg-Centerville Road, West Carrolton, OH 45449 937-859-3999

Hydroponic Supplies 454 S.W. Coast Hwy Newport OR 97365 USA P: 541-265-8252 ____________________________

Aqua Serene

465 Applegate Way, Ashland, OR 97520 541-482-7600 ____________________________

Astoria Indoor Garden Supply

3314 Harrison Ave. Cincinnati, Ohio 45211 513-661-3886 ___________________________

Green Zone Garden Center &

Aurora Innovations

PO Box 22041, Eugene, OR 97402 866-376-8578 ____________________________ SunInside Gardening Co.

665 Conger, Unit F, Eugene, OR 97402 541-686-9966

Advanced Indoor Gardens

17831 se 82nd drive Gladstone, OR 97027 503 305 6341

Indoor Garden Depot

15828 SE McGloughlin Boulevard, Milwaukie, OR 97267 503-786-2445 ____________________________ H2organic LCC

620 NE 3rd Street, McMinnville, OR 97128 503-434-6107 ____________________________

Paradise Supply LLC

560 NE. “F” Street, Unit C, Grand Pass, OR 97526 541-955-7293

Indoor Garden Supply

536 SW 6th Street (rear alley), Redmond, OR 97756 541-504-7750 DC Hydroponics & Organics

7275 Green Siding Rd. Roseburg, OR 97471 541-679-3700

Roseburg Hydroponics

853 SE Stephens Street, Roseburg, OR 97470 541-229-1420

Indoor Garden Center 1697 SE 25th Street,

Northern Light and Garden Grants Pass

1203 Rogue River Highway, Grants Pass, OR 97527 541-474-1700

2606 SW 4th Street, Unit B Redmond, OR 97756 541-504-8886

Salem, OR 97302 503-566-7888 Wizard’s Garden, LLC

621 Spruce Street, Unit C, Myrtle Point, OR 97458 541-572-2333 ____________________________

Northern Light and Garden Salem

1915 Lancester Drive, Salem, OR 97305 503-364-4769

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012


MAXIMUM YIELD distributors

Cascade Horticulture

39570 Pioneer Boulevard, Sandy, OR 97055 503-668-8242


J-N-B Hydro 2 Go

155 West Central Avenue, Sutherlin, OR 97479 541-459-9211 Samurai Greenhouse Supply

32067 Old Hwy. 34 Tanget, OR 97389 541-928-3431

Grow America Garden Supply LLC

11511 SW Pacific Highway, Tigard, OR 97223 503-841-6868 Pharmer Hydroponics

11135 SW Industrial Way Bldg 10-4 Tualatin, OR 97062 (503) 486-5751 PENNSYLVANIA Pocono Hydroponic Solutions

25 Route 611 Bartonsville, PA 18321 Tel: 570-730-4544

Green Solutions Hydroponics

1700 Orange Street Berwick, PA 18603 570-752-1530

Garden Indoors of Pennsylvania

208 Route 13, Bristol, PA 19007 800-227-4567 422 GROW

1775 North Main Street Extension Butler, PA 16001-1327 724-561-3777 ___________________________

RH Distribution

PO 1417, Lansdale, PA 19446 888-545-8112 ____________________________ Esbenshades Greenhouses

546A East 28th Div Hwy Lititz Pa 17543 717-626-7007

Hydro Ponics of Harrisburg

310 South 10th Street, Lemoyne, PA 17043 877-684-3808

Always Green Garden Supply

4400 Old William Penn Hwy Ste. 106 Monroeville PA 15146 412 646 1243 New Stanton Hydro

150 Post Ave. New Stanton, PA. 15672 724-635-0297

20232 Route 19, Unit 6, Cranberry Twp., PA 16066 724-473-1113 ___________________________ New Moon Indoor Garden Supply

Esbenshades Greenhouses

546A East 28th Div Hwy Lititz Pa 17543 717-626-7007

Full Bloom Hydroponics

84 South 24th Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15203 888-872-3602

Home Hydroponics of Pittsburgh

2008 Smallman Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15222 412-232-7030

Healthy Gardens and Supply

1012 Lincoln Avenue, Prospect Park, PA 19076 866-32-HYDRO

221 Scranton Carbondale Hwy. Scranton PA 18508 570 209 7924

Organic Garden Center

1177 Pittsburgh Road, Suite 103 Valencia, PA 16059 724 - 903 - 0800

800 Washington Blvd. Williamsport, PA 17701 570-322-3120 ____________________________

830 Route 119, Greensburg, PA 15601 724-836-1118

509 Orchard Avenue Kennett Square, PA 19348 484-860-8056 ____________________________

363 E. Main St Kutztown, PA 19530 1 (610) 683-9676 ____________________________ Flairform

POB 1417, Lansdale, PA 19446 215-395-6353


South County Hydroponics

51 Old Tower Hill Road, Wakefield, RI 02879 401-783-1733

1230 Rutherford Road, Greenville, SC 29609 864-271-8830 ____________________________

LiquidSun® RI

1179 Central Avenue, Pawtucket, MA 02861 401-722-2724 ____________________________

Greenspirit Hydrogardens

3600 Unite 1 Hwy.17 S. North Myrtle Beach, SC 29582 843-361-7777 ____________________________ SOUTH DAKOTA ____________________________

Good To Grow

Growin’ Crazy

93 Kingston Road Wyoming, Rhode Island 02898 401-284-0810 SOUTH CAROLINA GreenSpirit Hydrogarden 1864 Meeting Street,

5700 Highway 79 S.,Unit 1, Rapid City, SD 57702 605-342-1307 ____________________________

Third Coast Horticulture Supplies

7010 Burnet Rd., Ste.A Austin, TX 78757 512 459 4353 Happy Harvest Hydroponics & Organic 1500 C rescent Drive, Suite 202

Carrollton, TX 75006 972-466-1300

4015 Main Street, Dallas, TX 75226 214-370-9984 ____________________________

TENNESSEE Innovative Hydroponic Supply Inc.

Atlantis Hydroponics

1800 Rossville Avenue, #3, Chattanooga, TN 37408 423-752-5400 Advanced Hydroponic Garden

783 French Mill Road, Dandridge, TN 37725 800-521-1643 Perpetual Harvest

75 Riverport Drive, Jackson, TN 38301 877-422-3391

Advanced Hydroponic Garden

Charleston, SC 29405 843-225-1GRO;

6912 Clinton Highway, Knoxville, TN 37921 866-938-3318

247 Garden Supply

Sun City Hydroponics

535 D Clemson Road, Columbia, SC 29229 803-788-4445 ____________________________

Texas Hydroponics & Organics (South Austin)

GroGreen Hydroponics Green Earth Products Inc.

3286 North Park Blvd. Unit G Alcoa TN 37701 865 984 0280 34 Nooseneck Hill Road, West Greenwich, RI 02817 401-392-3100 ____________________________

5126 Burnet Road, Austin, TX 78756 512-459-4769

2125-A Goodrich Avenue, Austin, TX 78704 512-440-4769

Mother Nature Hydroponics

1268 Post Rd. Warwick RI 02888 401 780 0600

Texas Hydroponics & Organics (Central Austin)

2235 Whitten Road, Suite 104, Memphis, TN 38133 901-372-8100 ____________________________

Jolly Green Hydroponics (Greenhouse Horticultural Supplies)

13628 Neutron Road, Dallas, TX 75244 (866) WE-JOLLY; 469-341-5555 ____________________________ Lone Star Hydroponics and Organics

1302 Motor Circle, Dallas, TX 75207 214-634-9376

Texas Hydroponics & Organics (Dallas)

3400 Elm Street, Dallas, TX 75226 214-744-4769 ____________________________

Organic Garden & Feed

3801 N Interstate Hwy 35,Suite126, Denton Texas 76207 940-381-9890 ____________________________ Earth Organics

National Garden Wholesale/ Sunlight Supply

All Good Hydroponics & Gardening

6729 Two Notch Road, Columbia, SC 29223 803-708-4819 ____________________________

126 Belinda Parkway, Mt. Juliet, TN 37122 888-265-9005 ____________________________ All Seasons Gardening and Brewing Supply Co.

924 8th Avenue, South, Nashville, TN 37203 800-790-2188 ____________________________

1360 Lee Trevino Drive,Suite 105 El Paso, TX 79936 915-591-9500 Airline Hydroponics

P.O. Box 980904, Trader’s Village #363, Houston, TX 77098 713-942-0484 Botani Garden

15120 Bellaire Blvd Houston, TX 77083 281-575-1999 Houston Discount Hydroponics

National Garden Wholesale/ Sunlight Supply

450 Grim Lane, York,PA 17406 877-779-7111(Northeast) ____________________________ PA Hydroponics & Home Gardening Supply

20 Quaker Church Road, York Springs, PA 17372 717-528-4175 The Companion Plant


9 North Main St. Washington, PA 15301 724-222-0200

Easton Hydroponcis

Buds to Blooms Garden and Supply Co., LLC

The Organic Grow Hut 375 Putnam Pike- Ste 13 Smithfield, RI 02828

Green Thumb Unique Gardening & More

Home Hydroponics of Pittsburgh

Western Pennsylvania Innovative Gardening

Home Hydroponics of Pittsburgh

1243 Mineral Springs Avenue, North Providence, RI 02904 401-305-5520

363 E. Main St Kutztown, PA 19530 1 (610) 683-9676

20550 Route 19 Perry Highway, Cranberry Twp., PA 16066 724-591-8086 437 N. Hampton St. Easton, PA 18042 484-373-3232

768 Atwood Ave Cranston, RI 02920 401-944-0549

The Companion Plant

Northeast Hydroponics & Homebrewing High Tech Garden Supply

Organically Grown


Moonshine Park Farm

135 South East 62nd, Unit F South Beach, OR 97366 541-444-2298

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

6729 Two North Road, 10B Columbia, SC 29223 803-708-4819 ____________________________ The Urban Garden Hydroponics

9557 Two Notch Rd. Ste. E Columbia, SC 29223 803-788-9313 ____________________________

Oakworld Garden Center

Solar Seed Hydroponics, Inc.

2406 Putman Pike, Chepachet, RI 02814 401-710-9010

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Hydroponic Nation Worm’s Way Tennessee

901 Main Street, Nashville, TN 37072 800-397-4153 ____________________________ TEXAS Abundant Harvest Hydroponics & Organics

RHODE ISLAND 39 West Street, Barrington, RI 02806 401-245-5705

9384 Richmond Avenue, Houston, TX 77063 713-464-9406

All Season Hydroponics

All Season Hydroponics

1350 Hwy. 501 Business, Store 3&4 Conway, SC 29526 843-347-9266 ____________________________

3101 Avenue E East, Marshall, TX 76011 817-649-0100

Brite Ideas Hydroponics & Organics

4360 S.Congress Avenue, #310, Austin, TX 78745 512-444-2100

9700 Almeda Genoa Road, Suite 108, Houston, TX 77075 281-501-9636 In-N-Out Garden Supply

11011 S Wilcrest Drive Ste K Houston, TX 77099 1 (281) 568-5265 Texas Hydroponics & Organics (Houston)

7730 A Park Place Boulevard, Houston, TX 77087 713-641-4769 Ultimate Hydroponic Garden Supply

6125 West Sam Houston Parkway, North Suite 206 Houston, TX 77041 713-856-8425

Texas Growers Supply

Hydroponics & Growlights

Field of Dreams Indoor Growing Supplies


5990 N. Sam Houston Pkwy. E. #602, Humble, TX 77396 281-441-3739 5302 Slide Road Unit B,Lubbock, TX 79414 806-793-2901 Hydro Mart

3841 Main Street, Rowlett, TX 75088 972-475-6114 ____________________________

13400 Occoquan Road, Woodbridge, VA 22191 703-490-0700

800 East Moler Ave. Martinsburg, WV 25401 304-240-7587

WASHINGTON ____________________________

1634 Babcock Road, San Antonio, TX 78229 210-366-9082 ____________________________ Innergrow Hydroponics

24451 Interstate Highway 20, Wills Point, TX 75169 866-475-4769 UTAH Wasatch Hydroponics

4050 South Howick, Suite 11E, Salt Lake City, Utah 84107 801-716-4133 __________________________

8608 S March Point Rd. Anacortes WA 98221 360 293 0000 ____________________________ Mike’s Indoor Garden Supply

6121 172nd Street NE #A, Arlington, WA 98223 (360) 474-1900

Northern Lights Gardening

4159 Hannegan Road, Bellingham, WA 98225 360-715-8585

Liquid Sunshine Hydroponics Salt Lake Plant & Hydro 60 West 3300 S. #6

,South Salt Lake, UT 84115 801-488-3200 ____________________________ VERMONT Greenthumb - Vermont

394 Route 15, Jericho, VT 05465 802-899-4323

5087 Lincoln Road, Blaine, WA 98230

Green Thumb Gardening

P.O. Box 235, Route 15, Underhill, VT 5489 800-564-9376

InDoor Gardening

1158 Commerce Longview WA, 98632 360-353-3851 ____________________________

Indoor Tropics 5930 Sunburst Lane #B Cashmere, WA 98815 509-470-7782


20505 Highway 99,, Lynnwood, WA 98036 425-673-2755 ____________________________

Spokane Organic and Hydroponic Supply

615 South Fir DeerPark WA 99006 509-276-GROW

Clean & Green Technologies

Healthy Grow Indoor Garden Supplies

Mike’s Indoor Garden Supply

Blue Ridge Hydroponics & Home Brewing Company

The Williamson Road Plaza, 5327 D Williamson Road Roanoke, VA 24012 540-265-2483

2808 W Sprague Spokane WA 99202 509-456-GROW

Green Acres Indoor Garden & Lighting

900 Preston Ave. Charlottesville VA 22903 434-293-2332

Lucky Roots

Grow Center, The

River City Hydroponics

1241 State Ave Suite #102 Marysville, WA 98270 (360)386-8230

Island Hydroponic & Supplies

10 SE Everett Mall Way Suite B Everett WA 98208 425-374-2227 ___________________________

2718 N Division Spokane, WA 99207 509-327-GROW(4769)

Go-N-Green Hydroponics

Grow Center, The

612 North Sheppard St. Richmond, VA 23221 804-377-3020

Sodo Hydro 1727 1st Ave. South, Seattle, WA 98134 206-682-9377 888-90HYDRO (904-9376) __________________________

509 Grow Indoor Garden & Lighting

1515 5th Street #B, Marysville, WA 98271 425-299-5855

1514 East Francis Avenue, Spokane, WA 99208 509-464-0246 4823 East Sprague Avenue E., Spokane Valley, WA 99212 509-534-4055

Green Tree Hydroponics and Garden

12316 Pacific Ave South Tacoma, WA 98444 253-536-1791

M & R Lighting

Northern Lights Gardening

Indoor Garden Depot 1401 S. 324th Street, Federal Way, WA 98003 253-874-1112 ___________________________

1524 Riverside Dr #2 Mt. Vernon, WA 98273 360-982-2217 ___________________________

North West Hydro Supply 1355Pacific Pl Unit 117 Ferndale WA 98248-7824 360-778-3254 ___________________________

Indoor Garden & Lighting 8606 Preston Fall City Rd. SE Preston WA 98050 425 222 9661 ___________________________

5408 NE 88th Street, Building A, Vancouver, WA 98665 888-478-6544 ____________________________

2903 NE 109th Ave Ste. D Vancouver, WA 98682 P: (360) 256-2933 ____________________________ Indoor Garden Supply LLC

1250 Atlantic Ave, Woodland, WA 98674 360-841-8055

Aric’s Indoor Garden Supply

1104 West Wisconsin Avenue, Appleton, WI 54914 920-574-3258

____________________________ Grow BIG Hydroponics 954 S. Westland, Appleton, WI 54914 920-749-4769 H2oGrow 1150 Madison rd Beloit WI 53511 608-289-1852 Brew and Grow 285 N. Janacek Road, Brookfield, WI 53045 262-789-0555 Garden Supply Guys 752 Memorial Drive - Suite A Green Bay, WI 54303 920-857-9493 Brew and Grow 3317 Agriculture Drive, Madison, WI 53716 608-226-8910 ____________________________


1204 East Wheeler Road, Moses Lake, WA 98837 (509)766-5856 17238 Memorial Drive, Mt. Vernon, WA 98273 360-848-1080

4525 NW Fruit Valley Road, Vancouver, WA 98660 888-478-6544 (Northwest) ____________________________

WISCONSIN ____________________________

161 Hooker Road, #1, Sequim, WA 98057 360-582-0702

Fifth Season Gardening Company

612 N. Sheppard Street, Richmond, VA 23221 804-377-3020

12316 32nd AVE NE #103 Seattle, WA 98125

M & R Lighting

Unit C 22914 Highway 410, Buckley, WA 98390 253-891-4190 ____________________________

National Garden Wholesale / Sunlight Supply

VM Indoor Garden Supply

Grogro Hydro

Northwest Horticulture Supply

2130 6th Street, Bremerton, WA 98312 360-377-1277

514 State Ave Suite #102 Marysville, WA 98270 360-658-GROW (4769)

I Love Hydroponics

Aqua Serene 3839 Stone Way North, Seattle, WA 98103 206-547-GROW (4769) ___________________________

KP Indoor Garden Store

8912 Key Peninsula HWY N Lakebay, WA 98349 253-884-SURE (7873) ___________________________


National Garden Wholesale / Sunlight Supply

2121 Aurora Avenue, North, Seattle, WA 98103 206-547-2202 ___________________________

500 Bond Drive, Castlerock, WA 98611 360-274-7960

196 Corning Drive, Christiansburg, VA 24073 866-694-1628

1240 NE 175th Street, #B Shoreline, WA 98155 800-426-6937 ____________________________


Garden Smart


Renton Indoor Garden Center

Kitsap Garden & Lighting

Peak Hydroponic Garden Supplies

20 School Street, Plainfield, VT 05667 802-454-8000 LiquidSun® VT 1 Bellows Falls Road, (Route 5 North) Putney, VT 05158 802-387-1100

Indoor Garden & Lighting 714 South Central Avenue, Kent, WA 98032 253-373-9060 ____________________________ Kent Garden Supplies Ltd. 18817 East Valley Highway, Kent, WA 98032 425-251-9299 Grogro Hydro 12403 NE. 124th Street, Kirkland, WA 98034 888-7-GROGRO 425-820-6200 ___________________________

24090 NE State Route 3 #F Belfair,WA 98528 360-275-2130 12738 Bel-Red Road, Bellevue, WA 98005 425-454-5731

11522 Canyon Road East, Puyallup, WA 98373 253-531-9641

Eco Enterprises

Belfair Garden & Lighting

Green Gardens Distributing

Linda’s Gardening & Hydroponics

207 Sunset Blvd. N, Building A, Renton, WA 98055 425-917-9000

Panhandle Hydroculture

Island Horticulture Supply

Sol Organics & Hydroponics

Good 2 Gro 3507 W Clearwater Ave. Kennewick WA 99336 509 737 1313 ____________________________

Indoor Garden & Lighting 3839 6th Avenue, Tacoma, WA 98406 253-761-7478 ___________________________ Solar Shop

306 West 4th Street, Tonasket, WA 98855 509-486-4508 ___________________________

Paradigm Gardens 4539 Helgesen Drive, Madison, WI 53718 608-241-3800 ____________________________ Brew and Grow 2246 Bluemound Road Ste. B Waukesha, WI 53186 1 (262) 717-0666 PUERTO RICO ____________________________

Inside-Out Garden Supply

6517 Backlick Road, Springfield, VA 22150 703-451-3259 I Love Hydroponics

368 Newtown Road, #105, Virginia Beach, VA 23462 757-490-5425

Indoor Garden Depot 6400 NE Highway 99, Suite H, Vancouver, WA 98665 360-993-7779 ___________________________

Tecno-Hydro Ave Campo Rico GJ17, PO Box 1450 Carolina, PR 00982 787-752-8252 ____________________________

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012




Bacteria need a lot of surface area to thrive—raft and deepwater culture systems have enough surface area for the beneficial bacteria to grow but systems such as NFT (nutrient film technique) do not.



Chemical fertilizer nitrogen is derived from a fossil fuel (usually natural gas), phosphorus from acidified rock phosphate and potassium as potassium chloride, a naturally-occurring mineral.

Humus is so stable that it can remain unchanged for hundreds, if not thousands of years.


Induction lighting illuminates without the use of an electrode, instead using an electromagnetic field to stimulate compounds found within the bulb.

5. 6.

A hydroponic system using allowable inputs such as coco fiber or perlite for a substrate and acceptable organic liquid nutrients can be legally certified as organic under the USDA National Organic Program, while the National Organic Standard of Canada clearly states that growers must “abstain from using hydroponics and aeroponics.”


If you live to be 85 and use an average amount of electricity (around 400 kilowatt hours per month per person) you will have paid for around $48,000 worth of electricity in your lifetime.

8. 10. 190

Unused prescriptions frequently wind up in the toilet where they not only become part of the water supply but can go on to adversely affect wildlife in streams, lakes and ponds.

A successful indoor gardener can easily produce seven to 10 times more food than a traditionally farmed plot of the same size outdoors


The beneficial bacteria nitrosamonas sp converts ammonia from fish urine and feces into nitrite and the beneficial bacteria nitrobacter sp then converts the nitrite into nitrate—a form of nitrogen that plants can absorb and fish can tolerate in their water at low levels.

EC measurement does not differentiate between individual nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium and so on), but simply provides the sum total of all salt content.

Maximum Yield USA | April 2012


A sulfur-plasma bulb is rated for 60,000 hours (five to seven years of continuous use) with virtually no depreciation of photosynthetically active radiation.

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Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Maximum Yield USAâ&#x20AC;&#x201A;| April 2012



Maximum Yield USA | April 2012

Maximum Yield USA April 2012  

Hydroponics gardening resources by Maximum Yield, a free how-to hydroponics gardening and indoor gardening bi-monthly magazine that is distr...

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