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AUSTRALIA September-October 2010





TDS AND EC METERS Essential tools for the grow room





Prepare for the revolution!



Indoor gardenING expo

long beach california, usa

october 16-17

CONTENTS september / october 2010 FEATURES 16

Effective Micro-organisms


LED Technology: Paving the Way for a Spectral Revolution

by Luis Bartolo

by Brian Chiang and Josh Puckett



TDS and EC Meters for Hydroponics Explained


Pest Control: Organics, Chemicals and Biological Controls


For Peat’s Sake: The Peat Problem and Alternatives

by Rob Samborn by Matt LeBannister by Micheal Bloch




From the Editor


Letters to the Editor



Simon Says


MAX Facts


Product Spotlight


You Tell Us - House & Garden Van De Zwaan




Retail Directory


Coming up in November/December


Do You Know?

40 Maximum Yield Australia  |  September/October 2010


FROM THE editor

jessica raymond

The “Green” phenomenon is everywhere; in the way we shop, the way we eat and the way we grow our food. With this in mind we’ve compiled a green selection of articles, because there’s no better place to start putting sustainability into action than in the grow room. This issue opens with “Effective Micro-organisms” by Luis Bartolo, followed by “LED Technology.” In addition, we feature environmental medium alternatives, organic pest control and instrumentation to help reduce wasted nutrients. The Australian Conservation Society’s (ACS) “Sustainable Cities Index” for 2010 assessed how Australia’s 20 largest cities faired on the sustainability scale. According to the

ACS, “no Australia city can yet be held up as a real champion in sustainable urban development.” To find out if your hometown made the ACS list of Australia’s most sustainable cities, flip to page 10. Follow upcoming Maximum Yield issues to discover new, greener ways to grow and remember is filled with over 13 years of informative green growing tips. Check us out online today! Jessica Raymond, Editor

To further help you grow green all year, we invite you to attend the Long Beach Indoor Gardening Expo in California, USA—the final stop on our 2010 Expo Tour. Sure you will need to cross an ocean to get there, but trust me it will be worth your while, with over 200 exhibitors showcasing the latest and greatest products and technologies our industry has to offer. Visit for all show details.

letters to the editor Evolving Standards

Lifelong Learning

via E-Mail After reading the last issue of Maximum Yield Australia from cover to cover online, I picked up the hard copy at my local hydro shop so I could add it to my collection. It was the cover title that drew me in—“Cool Toys and Tools”—and I was pleasantly surprised to find the feature article lived up to the standards set by that title, a rare occurrence in magazine publishing. Many of the other articles were fascinating as well, particularly the piece by Donald Lester on Trichoderma fungi and Noucetta Kehdi’s Stevia article. Great work on this publication. Keep it up.

via E-Mail I enjoy your magazine and website. They are both awesome! I am a horticulturist and have always enjoyed growing. It started when I was a small child. I would help my father plant and maintain the vegetable garden and help my mother with her flowerbeds. A few years ago I connected with my local indoor gardening centre. They introduced me to your magazine and I was very impressed. The articles are extremely valuable to me. I really enjoy the depths at which your authors discuss every topic. I have learned so much and particularly admire that there are actual articles and not just advertisements. I find it hard to keep up with the hydroponic world as it is constantly changing; however, your magazine and website sure make it easier. I hope that Maximum Yield prospers for many years to come.

Sam Moffett

Compare and Contrast via E-News I appreciate your Win Big…Grow Big contest, and I hope to win something. I liked the article on growing the herb Arnica Montana published last year. The results showing the active ingredients doubled were interesting. I would love to see other unique crops trialled, like the Purple Dragon variety of carrots available from Digger’s Seeds ( or from Eden Seeds in Queensland. You could also do a comparison trial of amaranth plants in soil versus hydroponics to see the difference in yields. A student from the University of Melbourne agricultural science course might be interested in conducting tests. This would be very exciting, and it is something that I really want to see in Maximum Yield’s Australian edition.

Thanks again Vicki 4

Maximum Yield Australia  |  September/October 2010

Respectfully, Trevor J. Svingen (Grow Guy)

Maximum Yield reserves the right to edit for brevity.

We want to hear from you! Write us at: Maximum Yield Publications Inc. 2339A Delinea Place, Nanaimo, BC V9T 5L9 or Email us at:

Maximum Yield Australia  |  September/October 2010


Coming up on the Web Featured Articles Fungi And The Ecosystem Fungi in our ecosystem called mycorrhiza assist the natural processes of life and decay, transforming base materials into sustainable food.



VOLUME 8 – NUMBER 3 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2010 PRINTED IN AUSTRALIA Maximum Yield is published bi-monthly by Maximum Yield Publications Inc. 2339A Delinea Place, Nanaimo, BC V9T 5L9 Phone: 250.729.2677; Fax 250.729.2687 No part of this magazine may be reproduced without permission from the publisher. If undeliverable please return to the address above. The views expressed by columnists are a personal opinion and do not necessarily reflect those of Maximum Yield or the Editor. Publication Agreement Number 40739092

Chelated Micronutrients The chelated micronutrients are becoming popular because of their high efficiency. Knowing a bit about the various types of chelated micronutrients can help you choose the one that is right for you. The Modernized Gericke System Hydroponics is more high-tech than ever but it pays to look back into history and revisit old ideas, like the Gericke system, which offer us creative growing options.

Expert Advice Connect with Maximum Yield’s new resident expert Simon hart by clicking on the Simon Says button on Submit your growing questions instantly and watch for his reply in the upcoming Simon Says column.

UPCOMING EVENTS Maximum Yield welcomes you to the Long Beach, CA (USA) Indoor Gardening Expo on the Pacific coast, October 16-17, 2010. This event will feature exhibitors from around the world showcasing the latest indoor gardening products and technologies. Visit for full event details.

Connect with Maximum Yield

Tell us what you think at We’d love to hear from you.



PRESIDENT/PUBLISHER - Jim Jesson GENERAL MANAGER - Don Moores BUSINESS MANAGER - Linda Jesson SALES DIRECTOR - Lisa Lambersek EDITOR - Jessica Raymond ADVERTISING SALES 250.729.2677 Linda Jesson - Lisa Lambersek - Ilona Hawser - Gaby Morin - Ashley Heppell - PRODUCTION & DESIGN Wes Cargill - Daniel Peters - Nicole Tennison - ACCOUNTING - Lee Anne Veres AUSTRALIAN DISTRIBUTION Dome Garden Supply Futchatec Growth Technology Holland Forge Hydrogarden Hydraspher UK DISTRIBUTION Growth Technology Hydrogarden Northern Hydroponic Wholesale Nutriculture UK CANADIAN DISTRIBUTION Brite-Lite Group Biofloral Eddis Wholesale Greenstar Plant Products Inc. Hydrotek MegaWatt Quality Wholesale USA DISTRIBUTION Aurora Innovations BWGS BWGS East BWGS West General Hydroponics Hydrofarm Hydro International National Garden Wholesale / Sunlight Supply R&M Supply Tradewinds

Brian Chiang has worked for DiCon Fiberoptics, Inc., an advanced technology company based in California, for the last 13 years. Brian received his bachelor’s degree in physics from UC Berkeley and master’s degree in physics from UC Davis. He is currently the managing director for Kessil Lighting, a DiCon business division

Matt LeBannister developed a green thumb as a child, having been born into a family of experienced gardeners. During his career, he has managed a hydroponic retail store and represented leading companies at the Indoor Gardening Expos. Matt has been writing articles for Maximum Yield since 2007.

Rob Samborn is the director of sales and marketing for HM Digital, a manufacturer of water testing instruments, including handheld testers, inline monitors and controllers for TDS, EC, pH, ORP, temperature and volume. He can be reached at rob@

Jose Luis Pinheiro Bartolo is the president of Biobizz Worldwide Inc., a global leader in the production of hydroponic organic fertilizers and soil mixtures. He is passionate about the organic market and providing the highest service and perfectionism that comes direct from his heart and is projected to all aspects of his life

Michael Bloch is the owner and

Josh Puckett earned his bachelor’s degree in biology with an emphasis on plant biology from Sonoma State University. He currently works at the UC Davis Foundation Plant Services. He has years experience in the horticulture and agriculture industries. He also serves as an advisor for the Kessil Research team.

Maximum Yield Australia  |  September/October 2010

editor of, an online resource powered by renewable energy. The site offers a wide variety of earth friendly tips, green guides, advice and environment-related news to help consumers and businesses reduce costs, consumption and environmental impact.

Maximum Yield Australia  |  September/October 2010


SIMON says

Hello Simon, I grow about 30 tomato plants each year hydroponically and have employed cloning techniques using the plant’s laterals as new plant starters. This ensures that I am growing the best plants all season long by selecting the best specimens. I have to replace plants regularly as the vines become somewhat unmanageable after a while. My question is why don’t commercial tomato growers use cloning techniques? Is it because of the resultant: root structure, plant longevity, premature fruit formation, authenticity of the clone or some other reason that I have not considered here? A clone can be developed between five to 10 days and takes about half the time of a seedling to produce without the cost of the seed, which is very high for hybrid varieties. Thanks Gerald Rim

Great Question Gerard, As you no doubt are aware, tomatoes root easily from cuttings. For the home gardener this can be a great way to use unwanted vegetative growth to stagger production times. Remember to take off this suckering material on indeterminate (vining) tomatoes or the plant will focus on foliage production and not tasty fruit. In commercial greenhouses there are other considerations at work beyond a new batch of plants to grow. First this would increase the production costs for the grower. There would have to be space set aside for the facilities required for this stage in growth and also workers would have to be trained with new skill sets. Most growers will start from plugs or small plants that have been shipped in. It is also difficult to the uniformity of plant material that growers want from young plants when using asexual reproduction. Seedlings are generally much more consistent to work with because foliage and root development is generally quite homogenous throughout the crop.

As you alluded, there is also the issue of breeder’s rights. Unlicensed propagation is a serious issue in horticulture. Working to develop new varieties is a long and expensive process. Once tested and positioned in the market breeders need to recover their costs. The lifespan of a new variety in mainstream production is a limited window of three to five years before being replaced by a new variety. As an organic grower, I would also mention that breeding of new varieties isn’t necessarily geared towards things the home gardeners are looking for. Taste and texture are generally far less important than vigour and shelf life when commercial breeders are developing new varieties for market. Although the newest varieties are never available for home gardeners, remember that heirloom options can sometimes offer better attributes than the latest and greatest hybrids in seed catalogues. Good luck in the garden.

MY Do you have a question for Simon? Send it to with the words “Simon Says” in the subject line, and your answer will be printed in an upcoming edition.


Maximum Yield Australia  |  September/October 2010

Maximum Yield Australia  |  September/October 2010




hydroponic news, tips and trivia from around the world

Sustainable Oceans ____________________________________ The Australian Marine Conservation Society (AMCS) is a charity devoted to conservation of marine resources and creating sustainable fisheries. Despite often repeated claims that Australian fisheries are some of the most sustainable in the world, this myth has been blown out of the water by a recent study which ranked Australia 31st out of the 53 major fish producing countries in terms of the sustainability of our fisheries. AMCS's Sustainable Seafood Guide, the first of its kind in Australia, sparked a consumer revolution when it was first published six years ago. With imported fish now making up more than half of the seafood we eat, consumers need to make informed choices when purchasing. (Source:

Fresh Tomato Growers Meet to Discuss National Issues and Levies __________ A group of tomato growers from all around Australia met in Sydney to discuss a number of issues facing the industry, particularly whether the industry was missing out on national levies to support research and development, promotion and security. Several presentations focused on the supply chain to ensure better quality fruit reaches the consumer and better returns come back to growers. Rodney Turner, general manager of Plant Health Australia (PHA) outlined how biosecurity cost sharing arrangements between industry and Commonwealth and State governments are now possible when an industry signs up to PHA. Industry can now be involved in biosecurity policy making and be active in managing any incursion of an exotic pest and disease. More importantly, there is opportunity for grower reimbursement for destroying affected crops. Market information, consumer research and promoting tomatoes were seen as high priorities that national research and promotion levies could support. The next step is for the field growers to have another meeting among themselves to discuss options to progress national levies. (Source:

Where Are Australia's Most Sustainable Cities? ___________________________________ Over 80 per cent of Australia’s 23 million inhabitants live within 100 kilometres of the coast. This makes it one of the most urbanized nations in the world. So the Australian Conservation Foundation (ACF) set out to investigate which of the country's 20 largest cities is the greenest. The ACF used a detailed project methodology—which included 15 performance indicators—to determine the results. Those indicators included: environmental performance (air quality, biodiversity, ecological footprint, green building and water); quality of life (density, employment, health, subjective wellbeing and transport); and resilience (climate change, education, food production, household repayments and public participation). Crunching the numbers yielded by such indicators gave a final ranking thus: 1. Darwin; 2. Sunshine Coast; 3. Brisbane; 4. Townsville; 5. Canberra-Queanbeyan; 6. Hobart; 7. Melbourne; 8. Gold Coast-Tweed; 9. Cairns; 10. Bendigo; 11. Toowoomba; 12, Sydney; 13. Launceston; 14. Adelaide (equal 14th); 14. Ballarat (equal 14th); 15. Albury-WodongaWollongong; 16. Wollongong; 17. Newcastle; 18. Geelong; 19. Perth. (Source:


Maximum Yield Australia  |  September/October 2010

Hydro Masta's PNG Project: From Seed to Supermarket ______________ Starting in March 2010 Australian Hydro Masta—suppliers of hydroponics products and services—began a new hydroponic venture for a forward thinking, publicly listed company in Papua New Guinea (PNG) that wishes to supply fresh salad greens for their supermarket chain. Hydro Masta installed an NFT pilot system, initially for lettuce and herbs, with a capacity of 4,000 plants. Later expansions will see a wide variety of salad greens and herbs grown on-site in Port Moresby, picked and packed fresh for daily distribution to their stores. In addition to installing the equipment, Hydro Masta will take the produce from seed to the market shelf. This involves training staff and liaising with local suppliers to make this a turnkey project for the PNG company. The first fresh harvest was picked, packed and delivered to Central, Port Moresby in July, proving crops can be grown hydroponically with success in high temperatures and high humidity. (Source:

Luteolin Stars in Study of Healthful Plant Compounds ______________ Natural compounds in plants may protect us against unwanted inflammation. Certain kinds of inflammation can increase risk of cancer and of some other disorders, including heart disease and insulin resistance. Ongoing studies built upon earlier research suggest luteolin, quercetin, chrysin, eriodicytol, hesperetin and naringenin act as anti-inflammatory agents. All six plant compounds target an enzyme known as "TBK1." Each compound inhibits, to a greater or lesser extent, TBK1's ability to activate a specific biochemical signal. If unimpeded, the signal would lead to formation of gene products known to trigger inflammation. Of the six compounds, luteolin was the most effective inhibitor of TBK1. Luteolin is already known to have anti-inflammatory properties. The approaches that the researchers developed to uncover these compounds' effects can be used by scientists elsewhere to identify additional anti-inflammatory compounds present in fruits and vegetables. (Source:

Nutrient Retention of Safer Salads Explored ____________ Irradiating salad leaves after washing reduces harmful and non-harmful micro-organisms. Scientists have looked into the effect of various levels of irradiation on concentrations of four vitamins and four carotenoids in two popular baby-leaf spinach cultivars. For the study, two spinach cultivars were grown, harvested, sanitized and packaged according to industry practices. Each cultivar was packaged in either air or nitrogen gas to extend shelf life. The cultivars then were exposed to up to 2.0 kiloGrays (kGy) of radiation in 0.5 kGy increments. Following irradiation the four nutrients—folate, E, K and neoxanthin— exhibited little or no change in concentration with increasing levels of irradiation. Levels of lutein/zeaxanthin, and B-carotene were reduced on average by 12 per cent at the 2.0 kGy level, which is within the range of natural variation. In addition, irradiation decreased ascorbic acid levels by 42 per cent, mainly due to irradiation converting vitamin C to an oxidized form called dehydroascorbic acid. (Source: Maximum Yield Australia  |  September/October 2010


PRODUCT spotlight

See it. Want it. Find it at your favourite indoor gardening shop.

Biobizz Starters Pack ________________________________ Are you a person with strong organic beliefs? Do you choose quality above quantity? Do you wish to grow green but don’t know how? If you answered yes to these questions, Biobizz has an easy answer for you. The Biobizz Starters Pack is fully loaded with everything you need to initiate your own organic growing adventure. The rooting, growing and blooming phases will be taken care of and you will be rewarded with the most amazing harvest as a result. You don’t need to be an expert, just follow our quick and easy guide and see for yourself. For more information, visit your favourite organic gardening shop.

Humboldt Nutrients’ Myco Madness Now Available in Australia ___________ Myco Madness is a high-powered, soluble powder containing a bio-stimulant package well suited to a variety of media, soil conditions, climates and plants. Myco Madness contains beneficial mycorrhizal fungi that colonize plant roots and extend the root system into the surrounding media. Root systems grow faster, larger and more vigorous with Myco Madness, greatly enhancing the absorptive surface area of root systems. The beneficial bacteria are responsible for the breakdown of organic and inorganic matter. The by-product from these micro-organisms is excreted as elements crucial for plant health. The beneficial bacteria also play a huge role in attacking and eliminating pathogenic organisms. Myco Madness helps form a link between plant roots, organic matter and fertilizers of all types. Efficient nutrition creates large, lush and flavourful fruits, vegetables and herbs. For more information, visit your local hydroponics retail store.

Award Winning Reflective Foils from Easy Grow _______________________ Produced exclusively for the hydroponic and horticultural market, Easy Grow Ltd. is proud to announce the creation of eight and 15 metre rolls of their famous food grade, reflective foils in Lightite and Eco. The Diamond Diffusion and Silver/White Lightite foils are over five millimetres thick and the Eco foils are three millimetres thick. All Easy Grow foils offer the same guarantee of non-gassing, food grade material and are produced to the same standards, with only clean virgin (non-recycled) polymers used in the production process. For more information visit your favourite indoor gardening shop.


Maximum Yield Australia  |  September/October 2010

GGL Illuminator Air Cooled Reflector _______ Just as the sun rises over the mountains illuminating everything in sight, Global Greenhouse Lighting’s Illuminator evenly distributes light over your entire garden. Built by gardeners for gardeners. The Illuminator maximizes light coverage in large grow areas. Incorporating premium components, pebbled aluminium, a socket with 4.5 metre cord and compatible with HPS and MH lamps, you can’t go wrong. GGL Illuminator 15 centimetre air cooled reflector offers optimum light distribution and maximum canopy penetration. Ask your local indoor gardening shop to carry the GGL Illuminator today.

GGL Regulator Pebbled Wing Reflector ____ Simple design and great performance makes the GGL Regulator a favourite of indoor growers. The super reflective pebbled aluminium design of the Regulator provides optimum light distribution, bathing your garden in what it needs to produce the fattest flowers out there. Take it from the master growers. The regulator optimizes your dollar while still bringing you the best results! Quality inspected and including a socket with a 4.5 metre cord, the Regulator work with both HPS and MH lamps. Use this classic to regulate your garden. Ask your local hydroponic shop to carry the GGL Regulator today.

Humboldt Nutrients DeuceDeuce Now Available in Australia ___________________ Think of potassium as the great equalizer in your plants. The process of osmosis allows plant cells to share water and nutrients among each other to attain a healthy equilibrium. When one plant cell needs to obtain water from another cell, potassium ions are pumped, causing the exchange to occur. Studies have shown that potassium is especially important during the flowering stage, increasing the plant’s ability to carry out numerous interactions quickly and effectively. Humboldt Nutrients DeuceDeuce 0-0-22 is the ultimate organic potassium additive for all your favourite plants. When you feed your garden naturally derived potassium, harvested from trusted domestic sources the quality shines through in your crops’ flavours and aromas. Try DeuceDeuce as a stand alone additive or as a part of our complete organic program and see the results of superior nutrition. Ask for it by name at your local grow shop.

Maximum Yield Australia  |  September/October 2010


PRODUCT spotlight

See it. Want it. Find it at your favourite indoor gardening shop.

Green Growing Solutions _____________________________ The Ultimate Plant Cage™ (UPC) from Global Garden Friends, Inc. is a green certified innovation, made from EcoPure. EcoPure is a 100 per cent organic, non-destructive, biodegradable plastic. UPC opens up the plant allowing light to penetrate all the way to the base so fruit grows large and healthy from the top of the plant to the bottom. The UPC reduces mould, fungi and pests and increases airflow to the entire plant. You can also visit an indoor gardening shop for more information.

GGL Penetrator High Intensity Reflector __________________________________ Like the sun’s light reaches through the depths of space, Global Greenhouse Lighting’s Penetrator high intensity reflector has a unique design focusing high intensity light for deep canopy penetration. Designed in Holland and tested by master gardeners, GGL Penetrator reflectors are built by gardeners for gardeners. Using premium components GGL created a reflector that works with both HPS and MH lamps, includes a socket with 4.5 metre cord, universal plug and is available in both conventional and 15 centimetre air cooled. Ask your local indoor gardening shop to carry the GGL Penetrator today.

SunPulse Splitter ____________________

CubeCap® Introduces Their Long Awaited DripCap® ____________________

Every grower would like to make more money and spend less on the cost of operations. Why make more heat and The new DripCap® has a list of attributes and features pay money to cool? Now there is a tool to inexpensively including an innovative hose holder and dripper control your grow room that operates cool; that tool is the technology that accommodates a SunPulse Splitter. A 1,000 watt magnetic ballast drives host of propagation hose sizes two 600 watt fixtures that use SunPulse Lamps. This ranging from four to 7.6 millimetres. device delivers about 1,200 watts of energy for around The new DripCap allows for an even 1,000 watts. distribution of water and nutrients Reduce the costs of operating your HVAC systems to saturate the block and root zone. running fewer ballasts and lower wattage SunPulse lamps. This technique increases root mass Too much light causes photo-inhibition and shuts down and plant yields and minimizes or photosynthesis. Use eliminates algae, fungus gnats, the same number of shore flies and their root eating, fixtures with half the crop damaging larva. The DripCap magnetic ballasts. eliminates the need for pesticides, The SunPulse Splitter larvacides, bacticides and fungicide. is exclusively for use It acts like a vapour barrier slowing with SunPulse brand the evaporation rate of moisture lamps. For more so you water your plants less. For information contact more information on the DripCap® your local indoor and CubeCap® visit a hydroponics gardening shop. shop near you.


Maximum Yield Australia  |  September/October 2010

Humboldt Nutrients Honey Carbohydrates for Every Type of Garden Now in Australia Beneficial microorganisms thrive on carbohydrates. Sugars allow multiple biochemical processes to take place effectively by supplying free energy to this microscopic world. The sugars, which are left over once these processes take place, are then utilized by the plant to increase the brix and sugar levels of fruits and flowers. Humboldt Nutrients has developed two high quality carbohydrate additives to increase the yield and quality of your crop. Humboldt Honey ES is an extra strong formula developed for use in soil gardens. Humboldt Honey Hydro supplies the same high quality sugars along with calcium in a thinner formula designed for use in hydroponic gardens. Try Humboldt Nutrients Honey today and see what the buzz is about. Ask for it by name at your local hydro shop.

SunPulse Element Controllers The SunPulse Element Controllers give the user consistent conditions that remove stresses, and increase plant metabolic function. Real time functions interact with indoor and outdoor environmental conditions to give you a solution under any circumstances. Proper control of interior conditions for your plants will give you optimal results. No CO2 is required with this system. The Element Controller monitors and maintains the environment, so you don’t have to. For more information, visit your local indoor gardening shop. MY

Maximum Yield Australia  |  September/October 2010


Effective Micro-organisms

by Luis Bartolo

Have you noticed that an increasing number of people are opting to use organics in their gardens? A global awareness is taking shape, which has led many researchers to seek out alternatives to the excess of chemical products at our disposal. Effective Micro-organisms (E.M) are one of the newest alternatives available to growers to help them achieve some form of sustainable agriculture.


Maximum Yield Australia  |  September/October 2010

A Brief Introduction to Micro-organisms

Micro-organisms are tiny units of life too small to be seen with the naked eye and they exist everywhere in nature. Microorganisms are crucial for maintaining ecological balance. They carry out chemical processes that make it possible for all other organisms, including humans, to live. The friendly guys of the microbial world are known as beneficial micro-organisms and

“The uniqueness of micro-organisms and their often unpredictable nature and biosynthetic capabilities, has made them likely candidates for solving particularly difficult problems in the life sciences fields.”

the not-so-friendly group is called pathogens; pathogens are harmful and capable of producing disease, decay and pollution. The uniqueness of micro-organisms is their often unpredictable nature and biosynthetic capabilities, which has made them likely candidates for solving particularly difficult problems in the life sciences fields. The different ways in which micro-organisms have been used over the past 50 years to advance technology provide a most impressive record of achievement. These effective uses have been seen in the fields of human and animal health, food processing, food safety and quality, genetic engineering, environmental protection, agricultural biotechnology and more effective treatment of agricultural and municipal wastes. Many of these technological advances would not have been possible using straightforward chemical and physical engineering methods, or if they were, they would not have been practical or economically feasible. Maximum Yield Australia  |  September/October 2010


Effective Micro-organisms

Changing World, New Growing Methods

“Sustainable agriculture addresses many environmental and social concerns [and] it offers innovative and economically viable opportunities for growers.”


Agriculture has changed dramatically, especially since the end of World War II. Food and fibre productivity soared due to new technologies, mechanization, increased chemical use and specialization and government policies that favoured maximizing production. These changes allowed fewer farmers with reduced labour demands to produce the majority of the world’s food and fibre. Although these changes have had many positive effects and reduced many risks in farming, there have also been significant costs associated. Prominent among these are topsoil depletion; groundwater contamination; the decline of family farms; continued neglect of the living and working conditions for farm labourers; increasing costs of production; and the disintegration of economic and social conditions in rural communities. A growing movement—sustainability— has emerged during the past two decades that questions the role of the agricultural establishment in promoting

Maximum Yield Australia  |  September/October 2010

practices that contribute to these social problems. Today this movement for sustainable agriculture is garnering increasing support and acceptance within mainstream agriculture. Not only does sustainable agriculture address many environmental and social concerns, but also it offers innovative and economically viable opportunities for growers, labourers, consumers, policymakers and many others in the entire food system. Often engineers have attempted to solve these problems using established chemical and physical methods. However, they have usually found that such problems cannot be solved without using microbial methods and technologies in coordination with agricultural production.

E.M as in Effective Micro-organisms For many years, soil microbiologists and microbial ecologists have differentiated between soil micro-organisms that are beneficial or harmful according to their functions and how they affect soil quality, plant growth and yield and plant health.

. .E M

The concept of effective microorganisms (E.M.) was developed by Professor Teruo Higa, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan (Higa, 1991; Higa and Wididana, 1991a). E.M. consists of mixed cultures of beneficial and naturally-occurring micro-organisms that can be applied as inoculants to increase the microbial Professor Teruo Higa diversity of soils and plant. Current research indicates that E.M. cultures can suppress soil-borne pathogens; accelerate the decomposition of organic wastes; increase the availability of mineral nutrients and useful organic compounds to plants; enhance the activities of beneficial micro-organisms (e.g. mycorrhizae and nitrogen fixing bacteria); and reduce the need for chemical fertilizers and pesticides. E.M. helps to increase beneficial soil microorganisms and suppression of harmful ones. So basically, we could sum up the E.M as follows: • E.M. is the trademark used to identify this particular mixture of beneficial organisms. • E.M. is a combined culture of aerobic micro-organisms (requiring oxygen to survive) and anaerobic (requires no oxygen to survive) that co-exist together to the mutual advantage of both (symbiosis). • E.M. combines with the existing micro-organisms within the soil. They work together to build a healthy living soil. • E.M. is not toxic or pathogenic and is safe for humans, animals and the environment E.M. is not a substitute for other management practices. It is, however, an added dimension for optimizing our best soil and crop management practices such as crop rotations, use of organic amendments, conservation tillage, crop residue recycling and biocontrol of pests. If used properly, E.M. can significantly enhance the beneficial effects of these practices.

Maximum Yield Australia  |  September/October 2010


Effective Micro-organisms

. M E.

Effective Micro-organisms and Sustainable Agriculture

For a sustainable environment and agriculture, conceptual design is important in developing new technologies for utilizing beneficial and effective micro-organisms. The basis of this is to first conceive an ideal or model and then devise a strategy and method for achieving the reality. However, it is necessary to coordinate and carefully observe the materials, environment and technologies constituting the method. Moreover one should adopt a philosophical attitude in applying microbial technologies to agricultural production and conservation systems. There are many opinions on what an ideal agricultural system is. Many would agree that such an idealized system should produce food on a long-term sustainable basis. Many would also insist that it maintain and improve human health, be economically and spiritually beneficial to both producers and consumers, actively preserve and protect the environment, be self-contained and regenerative and produce enough food for an increasing world population.

"Most organics including animal manures and composts have populations of micro-organisms." 20

Maximum Yield Australia  |  September/October 2010

Effective Micro-organisms

Applications and Usage of E.M. Most organics including animal manures and composts have populations of micro-organisms. Many of these are beneficial upon introduction to the soil; however, they are soon overwhelmed by the existing soil micro-organisms. Thus, the beneficial effects of micro-organisms introduced with the application of composts are often short lived. On application E.M. cultures are subject to the same fate when applied to the soil environment. But the advantage of E.M. is that beneficial micro-organisms are in much greater numbers, and in optimally-balanced populations when introduced, so they remain dominant in the soil for a much longer time. The effectiveness of E.M. can be extended in soils by three applications of E.M. at eight to 10 day intervals during the first three to four weeks after planting a crop. This will ensure that E.M. populations remain high throughout the critical period when young seedlings and plants are vulnerable to environmental stresses (drought, heat, weeds and pathogens). It is at this stage when the greatest loss in crop yield and quality occurs. E.M. has been used on many different soils and crops over a wide range of conditions. Results show that in most cases E.M. gives positive results. E.M. is not a substitute for other management practices. E.M. technology is an added dimension for optimizing our best soil and crop management practices such as crop rotations, use of composts, crop residue recycling and biological control of pests. If used properly E.M. enhances soil fertility and promotes growth, flowering, fruit development and ripening in crops. It can increase crop yields and improve crop quality as well as accelerating the breakdown of organic matter from crop residues. The population of beneficial micro-organisms in the soil is also increased helping to control soil diseases through competitive exclusion. Pests and pathogens are suppressed or controlled through natural processes by enhancing the competitive and antagonistic activities of the micro-organisms in the MY E.M. inoculants.


Maximum Yield Australia  |  September/October 2010


Maximum Yield Australia  |  September/October 2010

Maximum Yield Australia  |  September/October 2010


by Brian Chiang and Josh Puckett

LED Technology

Paving the Way for a Spectral Revolution Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are cause for excitement in the indoor gardening world. Growers are ecstatic about energy savings and big returns on electricity and air conditioning bills. They are elated by the longevity of LEDs and the prospect of never having to change light bulbs. However, most people don’t realize that with LEDs, reduced operating costs and extended lifetimes are just the beginning of a long list of advantages for the horticulture industry. LEDs possess the ability to shape spectrums, and thus, will fundamentally alter how grow lights are used, in the same way that fertilizers changed farming.

Light and Nutrition Two of the most important factors that contribute to a plant’s wellbeing are light and nutrition. Plants thrive in fertile soil and under bright light. Healthy farmlands are found in areas where both are in abundance. Over time, humans have accumulated knowledge on how to provide plants with better and more nutrients. The science behind nutritional additives for plants has become a huge and very specialized field, spanning the traditional approach of composting to creating complex chemical compounds that are injected. The advancements in nutrient development continue to provide better plant growth and higher yields. In contrast, progress in lighting has been very limited. Farmers still rely heavily on the sun in open spaces, which can be unreliable as weather is capricious. When gardens moved indoors, people applied their knowledge of how plants respond to light. For example, most growers know that plants are more responsive to red light in the flowering stages of growth, and blue light for the vegetative phases. However, artificial sunlight options for indoor growers are fairly restricted to high pressure sodium (HPS), metal halide (MH) and fluorescent lamps. These are all broadband sources, meaning they emit a full spectrum of light, from the usual red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet to more harmful rays, like UV and IR. Some lights, such as HPS, contain more red, while others, like MH emit more blue. These limited choices mean that growers have to be 26

Maximum Yield Australia  |  September/October 2010

satisfied with the spectrum offered, because there are no means to obtain the desired wavelengths.

Spectrum Selection Advancements in lighting, particularly in LED technology, have proven that artificial sunlight is not restricted to standard broadband sources anymore. With LEDs, better spectrums can be developed. LEDs have been around since the early ‘60s, used mostly in indicator lights, but only recently has the technology progressed to the point where it can be used as general illumination. LEDs are made with different semiconductors, and when electricity is applied to the compound, they emit a particular colour, depending on the chip. Already LEDs have permeated our everyday lives: LEDs are in traffic lights; LEDs are in cell phones; finally, LEDs are lighting up our indoor gardens. The ability to produce particular wavelengths is the biggest advantage of LEDs. Because they can emit specific wavelengths, growers can now optimize lights for plant growth. By mixing various LED chips, a complex light spectrum can be created for different growth conditions. LEDs are opening up a brand new dimension for growers to accelerate or slow down growth, improve yields and morph the shape of their plants by offering blue light, red light or a combination of different colours.

Less Heat, More Light LEDs actually allow more useful light to be projected onto plants. Broadband sources are generally larger and require bigger reflectors to make efficient use of the light. On the other hand, the light from LEDs is directional, so it only takes a simple

reflector to direct the light to where you need it to go. Broadband sources, including the sun, also emit more than what is required for photosynthesis. Much of this light results in heat, which is crippling to plant’s performance if the temperature of the environment is elevated beyond what plants can tolerate. Another added nuisance to the indoor grower is that artificial sunlight sources create heat on their own, due to their inefficiency in converting energy from electricity to light. Although plants could benefit from having more light, the heat from these broadband sources has long limited the amount of light supplied to plants. Place them too close and the plants will burn, whether from convection or radiation. With LEDs, users can now pick out specific red and blue wavelengths ideal for photosynthesis, thereby eliminating the excess light that produces unwanted heat. This combined with cleverly designed optics allows growers to project more light onto plants than ever before, while still keeping the environment cool.

Plants and Light The portion of the light spectrum utilized by plants falls within the range of 400 to 700 nanometers, referred to as Photosynthetically Active Radiation. Aside from chlorophyll and the photo pigments that drive photosynthesis, plants contain a variety of photoreceptors that sense and utilize light. These include crytochromes, phytochromes and phototropins. Each react to different wavelengths and the ratio of their active and

Typical PAR action spectrum shown beside absorption spectra for chlorophyll-A, chlorophyll-B and carotenoids

Maximum Yield Australia  |  September/October 2010


LED Technology inactive forms cause different reactions in plants. At various stages of plant development, different light conditions are required for different lengths of time. By studying the effects of particular wavelengths and combinations of wavelengths on the various cycles of plant development, we can combine them in such a way that we promote maximum vegetative growth and crop yield.

Experiment 1: Single Colour Spectrum Test Experiments were conducted with the effects of isolated red and blue wavelengths on plants, primarily tomatoes, using innovative high power LED grow lights with a custom spectrum formula as the source. Research in the field of artificial light for the promotion of plant growth and production has traditionally used tomatoes as an indicator of light performance because they are day neutral—meaning the length of photoperiod has little effect on their growth and development—and they reach the fruiting stage relatively quickly. Tomatoes also serve as an ideal candidate crop due to their indeterminate growth, which exaggerates and facilitates the analysis of qualitative results. The tomatoes grew for four weeks from when they were small plants with few leaves. This initial experiment focused on the wavelengths associated with photosynthesis, one red light spectrum (625 to 650 nanometers), R1 and two different blue light spectrums (425 to 470 nanometers), B1 and B2, centering on vegetative growth, without which crop yield would be limited. A variety of tomatoes grew under isolated blue and red LED treatments and tracked light performance on the parameters of plant

The tomatoes under the first blue light (B1) had rapid elongation and few leaves. The second blue light (B2) showed shorter stems and more leaves. Peak wave lengths = 15 nanometers


Maximum Yield Australia  |  September/October 2010

Under a red light (625 to 650 nanometers) the tomatoes produced few leaves and few flowers.

height, internode length, leaf number, leaf area/plant and days to flowering. Without disturbing the plants, daily measurements were taken from the date of transplant, at four to five leaves, to early fruit development. Red light promotes flowering in plants. It is commonly associated with the elongation of internodal lengths, a function driven by phytochromes. This elongation was dramatic in both the stems and the petioles of the tomatoes grown under the Red LED treatment. The tomatoes under this treatment produced fewer leaves, and as a result were less photosynthetically capable. Flowering was expedited under this light treatment, but the number of flowers produced by each tomato was relatively few. These results coincide with expectations for tomatoes grown under a primarily red light treatment. Blue light encourages vegetative growth in plants. It often increases leaf production and vegetative density. For this reason, plants are grown under lights high in blue wavelengths during the initial stages of development. A high leaf number count and low internodal lengths are expected in plants grown under blue light treatments. This was not the case in the tomatoes under the first blue light, B1. Instead rapid stem elongation and a relatively low leaf number was observed. However, the second blue light, B2, with only a 15 nanometer difference in peak wavelengths as demonstrated in the spectrum graph, showed a shorter stem and higher leaf count. The slight variation in spectrum resulted in drastically different performances. The plant under B1 continued to stretch as though it was straining to find more light. B2 on the other hand, had a stronger vegetative growth. To the eye, the two blues looked the same, but the 15 nanometer difference caused a huge disparity between the performances of the two plants. Just like how two liquid fertilizer solutions may look identical,

but their separate chemical contents will result in variations in plant performance, two LED lights with the same colour may seem no different from the other, the actual “spectral content” of the LED will determine plant performance.

B2 from the previous blue light experiment, plus M1 and M2, red/blue spectrums, clearly show the progression from blue to red spectrum.

Experiment 2: Red Blue Mix Test In response to the above experiment, two red-blue mixed spectrum lights, M1 and M2, were created and the performance of combinations of red and blue light were analysed. M1 treatment contained a higher degree of blue light than M2. The experiment tested the performance of M1 and M2 in promoting vegetative growth. Pictured are three plants grown under B2 (from the previous experiment), M1 and M2, from the left to right. As stated before, B2 demonstrated strong stems and closely set leaves. The tomatoes grown under M1 treatment also displayed a denser pattern of vegetative growth with higher leaf area and some stem and petiole elongation. With the added red spectrum, M1 had better growth overall when compared with B2. M2 demonstrated taller stems, but more scattered leaf development than the other two. The progression from blue to red spectrum is clearly observed in this side-by-side comparison.

The Spectral Revolution With the ability to tune spectrums, a completely new dimension of possibilities has opened. Though there is still much knowledge to pursue, a huge lighting revolution for the growing industry is anticipated. Countless groups will search for the optimal spectrum recipe. Indoor gardening will quickly leap forward at lightning speeds with advancements that have MY never been seen before. It’s a spectral revolution! Maximum Yield Australia  |  September/October 2010


TDS and EC Meters

for Hydroponics Explained

by Rob Samborn

Due to the rapid growth of the hydroponics and indoor gardening industry, it is important for growers to be familiar with the technology, in this case instrumentation. There is a myriad of nutrients and fertilizers available to help you cultivate the best plant yields, but what is consistent among all of them is they need to be measured to ensure proper dosage. Equally important is the measurement of water to know what you’ll be mixing with, and there is no better way to measure nutrient solution or water than with a digital TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) or EC (Electrical Conductivity) meter. There are times when the instructions for a nutrient don’t correspond with the instructions for a meter. This can certainly be frustrating, but refrain from pulling out your hair just yet. This article will help you navigate the challenges.


Maximum Yield Australia  |  September/October 2010

Maximum Yield Australia  |  September/October 2010


TDS and EC Meters for Hydroponics Explained

These meters can be found under the following names: nutrient meters, “ppm” meters, TDS meters or conductivity meters. Let’s get to the facts. These meters are either TDS meters or conductivity meters. There is no such thing as a “ppm meter,” so strike it from your lexicon immediately. PPM is an acronym for “parts per million,” a scale used for parameters, including TDS, chlorine, carbon dioxide, etc. These meters are really measuring substances in water, whether a beneficial nutrient or a harmful metal. Most instrument companies will often refer to the meters by their true names: TDS or conductivity meters.

Open any cookbook and you’ll find that some ingredients call for teaspoons, others call for ounces and others call for cups. You nutrient mixture is a recipe, so it’s important to use the right measuring tool.

What’s the deal with EC and TDS? What are they and is there a difference?

TDS and EC, while related, are two different parameters. TDS stands for Total Dissolved Solids, and is essentially any inorganic, dissolved substance in water, other than pure H2O. TDS includes salts, minerals or metals dissolved in water. As mentioned above, TDS is most commonly measured in ppm on an ascending scale. The higher the ppm, the more TDS there are in the water, with pure water being zero ppm. Pure water can be obtained through filtration, purification or distillation. TDS Parameters and Scales does not include particles that are floating in water. (These are Water testing is scientific. The majority of known as suspended solids). Conductivity, or electrical conductivity (EC), is the ability of us would rather be harvesting our bountiful a substance to conduct electricity. Most elements other than crops than remembering our high school science, but if you’re spending your hardhydrogen and oxygen will conduct electricity to a certain degree, no matter how minute that conductance might be. earned cash on an expensive instrument, Therefore, since water is two parts take the time to hydrogen and one part oxygen, learn the basics of “Our industry lacks standardization, measuring conductivity is an easy the science. the fault resting on the A parameter is and quick method of determining the characteristic the purity level of water. instrument manufacturers and the of a substance that nutrient companies.” is being measured. How is TDS measured? For the purpose of TDS is measured as weight (mg/L) this article, it’s either TDS (Total Dissolved or quantity (ppm). As discussed above, ppm stands for parts per Solids) or EC (Electrical Conductivity). million, so if you add 2,000 ppm of nutrients to pure water, that Other parameters you could be testing for means that out of 1,000,000 parts of water, 2,000 of those parts are pH, temperature, light and humidity. are the nutrients. For the mathematically inclined, that’s 0.2 per A scale is a particular range applied to the measurement of that parameter. For example, temperature is a parameter. Fahrenheit or Celsius is a scale. TDS is most commonly measured in ppm (parts per million), PPT (parts per thousand) or mg/l (milligrams per litre). EC is most commonly measured in µS (micro-Siemens) or mS (milli-Siemens). If your nutrient mix is calling for 1.0 EC, this is an incorrect determination, and you may find this confusing when using a meter. What this is most likely referring to is an EC reading of 1.0 mS; 1.0 mS equals 1000 µS.

Why are there so many ways to measure nutrients? Our industry lacks standardization, the fault resting on the instrument manufacturers and the nutrient companies. There is a movement to standardize everything, but until then, the best way to look at it is as a cooking recipe.


Maximum Yield Australia  |  September/October 2010

Maximum Yield Australia  |  September/October 2010


TDS and EC Meters for Hydroponics Explained

cent. The only true method of measuring TDS is to weigh a water sample, evaporate the water and then weigh the remains. Not only is this very difficult to do, evaporation would defeat the purpose of measuring nutrients in a solution. Therefore, companies have developed TDS meters that determine the nutrient content and display that amount on a digital screen for ease-of-use.

What are TDS meters and how do they work? A TDS meter works by measuring the electrical conductivity of the water. As mentioned above, most elements, other than the hydrogen and oxygen, will conduct electricity to a certain degree. A TDS meter will measure the EC and convert that electrical charge to an estimated TDS level, thereby telling you the nutrient quantity. EC is measured by determining the amount of electrical charge between two sensors. The greater the charge, the higher the EC (and the higher the TDS level).

What’s a conversion factor and why are there so many of them? Since TDS meters work by first measuring the EC level, that EC level needs to be converted to a TDS level (hence a conversion factor). A conversion factor will allow the meter to make the best possible estimate of the true TDS level. Since there are different types of water in the world that are more or less conductive than others, it’s necessary to use different conversion factors for different water. For example, due to the abundance of salt, seawater will be far more conductive than fresh water.

So then should I use a TDS meter or an EC meter? Technically, when measuring nutrients, it’s better to measure the TDS level, but don’t forget that the true method of measuring TDS is very difficult and TDS meters are actually measuring the EC and then converting that EC to TDS. Confusing? Perhaps. The answer to this question is: use the meter (and conversion factor) that is recommended by the nutrient company. If your preferred brand of nutrients recommends you measure the nutrients using EC, then buy an EC meter.You’ll have much more accurate results than if you purchase a TDS meter and attempt to do the math.


Maximum Yield Australia  |  September/October 2010

The lowdown Nutrient solutions are best measured with TDS or EC meters. TDS meters will give you an accurate nutrient level in water, expressed in ppm (parts per million). Ideally, a grower should filter his or her water down to a pure or near-pure level, prior to adding the nutrients. Pure water will be zero ppm. Therefore, you will know what you’re starting with when adding the nutrients and have the perfect solution. If you don’t have access to a water filtration or purification system, you can use tap water, but you will need to add the appropriate TDS level of the nutrients to the TDS level of the tap water. For example, if your blooming stage nutrient calls for adding 1,500 ppm of nutrients and your tap water is 250 ppm, you should be looking for a nutrient solution level of 1,750 ppm.  MY

Common Misperceptions 1. Confusing a parameter with a scale. 2. Calling a TDS meter a “ppm meter.” 3. Quantifying a nutrient by EC.

“Due to the abundance of salt, seawater will be far more conductive than fresh water.”

Maximum Yield Australia  |  September/October 2010


Pest Control: 36

Maximum Yield Australia  |  September/October 2010

Organics, Chemicals and Biological Controls by Matt LeBannister Insects and pests are a big concern for indoor gardeners, their populations often exploding in the pristine, climate-controlled grow environment.There are many ways to combat these garden invaders before they destroy precious crops. Once insects, fungi or other pests have infiltrated the grow room, your first line of defence could be organic pesticides, sprays or homemade recipes. Pyrethrum and its active ingredients, pyrethrin, cinerins and jasmolins, are a common organic pesticide. A contact pesticide kills pretty much every insect that is exposed to it.These pesticides should never be used with beneficial predator insects, because they will also be killed. Pyrethrum-based insecticides are usually in aerosol sprays or “bug bombs.” Aerosol sprays should be applied to the plant from a distance of about 0.5 metres from the leaves. If sprayed too close the leaves will burn.These pesticides are non-systemic meaning they won’t be absorbed by the plants and cannot be used on edible crops.They break down quickly and can be used up to three days before harvest. Another very popular product for pest control is neem oil. Neem oil is generally applied as a spray to the entire plant. Don’t forget to spray the underside of leaves, because many insects hide there. Neem oil should be mixed at a rate of one to two teaspoons per litre of water.To facilitate mixing, try adding a couple drops of hand soap; make sure the soap is not antibacterial. When the neem oil comes in contact with the garden pests, the active ingredient, azadirachtin, confuses the insect’s growth hormones. On young garden insects or eggs this contact will cause the insect to never reach sexual maturity, meaning that no offspring will be produced. Neem oil is effective against spidermites, aphids, scales and fungus gnats. Neem can also effectively remove powdery mildew and rust. Because neem oil is systemic, it shouldn’t be used on edible plants. If used on an edible plant, make sure none of the oil comes into direct contact with fruits or vegetables. Diatomaceous earth is an excellent organic choice for specifically removing either aphids or slugs from the garden. Diatoms can be dusted on plants and soil.When they come into contact with aphids, the sharp particles damage their waxy coating, resulting in a fatal wound.When ingested by the slugs, the sharp particles cut their

pests - fungi - m

insides and cause death. Diatomaceous earth is safe to use on all plants, although one should wear a dust mask when applying.The little particles can damage airways and lungs if inhaled. Another pest control product is insecticidal soap.This is a relatively mild form of insecticide made from the fatty acids of plants and animals. It’s most effective against spidermites, thrips, mealy bugs, aphids and any other soft-bodied insect.The fatty acids will clog an insect’s membranes, killing the insect. Insecticidal soaps are safe to use on edible plants as they dissipate in about a day or so.They are a biodegradable and an environmentally safe product.

“Pyrethrum-based insecticides...are non-systemic meaning they won’t be absorbed by plants.” Baking soda can be used to treat outbreaks of powdery mildew. When applied to affected leaves, the baking soda will alter the pH levels of the leaf surface and kill the mildew as a result. Plants should be dusted or sprayed with a diluted baking soda/water solution for three days for an effective treatment. A variety of different homemade pesticide recipes are available and most will contain one or more of the following ingredients: chilli powder, hot pepper sauce, garlic juices and soap.The soap will clog the membranes of soft-bodied insects, while the other ingredients like garlic juice and chilli powder will confuse insects and make the plant’s taste less desirable. Most homemade mixes are safe to use on fruiting and flowering plants and are non-systemic. Homemade mixes should be sprayed on the underside and topside of leaves twice a week. To control the adult population of winged insects, gardeners can use coloured sticky traps.The cards are usually either yellow or blue and covered in glue.The insects are attracted to the colour and when they land, they become trapped.With no escape, it is only a matter of time before the pests die.To effectively trap adult winged insects, the sticky traps should be hung just above the tops of plants; this is where most insects fly. Using predator insects to combat a pest problem is the safest method and the most natural for controlling insects. Every pest has another pest that feeds on it. Predator bugs are harmless to plants and humans.When using these biological controls, one should never use any other pest control such as sprays or dusts, because any other method will most likely harm the good bugs as well as the bad ones. There are so many options for removing insects from the indoor garden. Use any pesticide improperly and you and your plants can be at risk. So be smart and be safe—your plants will thank you. MY

Underside of a leaf with aphids

mildews - insects

Maximum Yield Australia  |  September/October 2010



House & Garden Van De Zwaan Almere, Flevoland, The Netherlands

by Andrew Higgins, Technical Support Director

Maximum Yield discusses flower boosters, key ingredients for great results in hydroponics and the incredible history of House & Garden Van De Zwaan with their technical support director, Andrew Higgins.

Maximum Yield (MY): Who is House & Garden Van De Zwaan? Andrew Higgins: House & Garden (H&G) Van De Zwaan is a Dutch nutrient company based in Almere, Holland and owned by William Van De Zwaan, H&G’s leading chemist and product developer. All research and development for our products is conducted in our laboratories and greenhouses to ensure quality. A state-of-the-art factory enables us to control the production process from start to finish. These are just a few of the reasons why H&G is an international industry leader in nutrient manufacturing. MY: What’s the history behind House & Garden’s incredible growth? Andrew: The Van De Zwaan family has been producing and selling hydroponic and soil grown flowers for 50 years. William Van De Zwaan grew up with plants; working in his family’s greenhouses, 38

Maximum Yield Australia  |  September/October 2010

millilitres per litre. At this rate, a 250 millilitre bottle mixes up over 830 litres at full strength. MY: What products in the H&G range are you excited about right now? Andrew: DripClean is the dark horse of the H&G range. Developed in our Holland laboratories for capillary drip irrigation, Drip Clean works like a magnet, binding with old, unused salts as it he developed a For over 50 years, the Van De Zwann family has flows through the deep passion for been producing hydroponically grown roses. system, thereby plants and eagerly ensuring clean, delved into exploration of plant nutrient clear hosing and feed systems. Additionmanipulation to achieve optimal health, ally Drip Clean keeps substrates free from quality and yields. salt build-up and helps keep the root William designed award-winning nuzone perfectly balanced. At a dilution of trients for many years before developing 0.1 millilitres per litre, a little bottle goes his own line, branded under his family name. After great success in the European a long way. Shooting Powder has proven successmarket, House & Garden expanded to the ful in achieving record breaking yields world stage, first entering the US market repeatedly. The secret is in its ability to and then Australia. Today H&G is sold in more than 15 countries around the world. trick the plant into starting a new flowering process in the final three weeks. There isn’t a product like it on the market and MY: So, what’s so special about the increase in yield surprises even the House & Garden products? most seasoned growers. Andrew: Product quality is the key Bud XL manipulates the transfer of sugpriority at H&G. Only the highest quality ars and carbohydrates within the plant and liquid based elements are used in H&G redirects the energy to the flower, delivernutrients. Liquids are more expensive ing increased essential oil production and than powders—because they require less ensuring a top quality finished product. attention—but they are also more easily Top Booster is a basic PK13-14 with absorbed by the plant. H&G nutrients the added benefit of iron. The iron have a unique composition, structure and keeps leaves green at this crucial stage method of preparation. All our products when the flower is absorbing increased are designed, manufactured and bottled in amounts of nutrients. our facilities in Holland. Our production process is state-of-the-art and guarantees MY: In your opinion, what are the top quality, batch tested hermetically key ingredients that help hydrosealed products every time and every ponic growers achieve results? product has a three year shelf life. Andrew: Hydroponics is all about Our entire range is highly concentratcontrol and in an indoor environment, ed—we are not interested in selling or total environmental control is possible. shipping watered. For example, Roots The four key ingredients to a successful Excelurator has a dilution rate of 0.3

hydroponic harvest are: airflow, temperature, light and nutrients. I believe sufficient airflow is the number one factor in successful indoor gardening.You can spend money on the best of everything but if you don’t have airflow, you won’t get the best results. Airflow affects everything; temperature is directly related to air exchange and the plant’s ability to photosynthesize the available light and process the nutrients is related to the air exchange around the plant itself. Choice of substrate is really a matter of individual preference. If you really love control, rockwool/perlite recirculating systems could be best as they respond well when the grower is adept at fine tuning. Coco systems are more forgiving and a coco medium is kinder to root systems especially when high quality, RHP grade Cocos is used. We market three base nutrients: Cocos A&B, Hydro A&B and Aarde A&B for anyone growing in peat. MY: What’s the difference between your Hydro and Cocos nutrients? Andrew: Our hydro nutrients are designed for aeroponics, DWC systems and recirculating and run-to-waste systems using rockwool, perlite and clay balls. They are tailored for completely inert substrates. Cocos A&B is designed for any system running with more than 40 per cent coco in the mix. The nutrient is buffered for coco and has a lower potassium level to account for the naturally derived potassium in the Cocos substrate. Our base A&B formulas are all that’s needed for general plant growth. MY: How can our readers find out more about H&G? Andrew: I invite all readers to check out for more information, feed charts and a nutrient calculator. MY

Maximum Yield Australia  |  September/October 2010



Peat’s Sake The Peat Problem and Alternatives by Michael Bloch

Peat, which forms in wetlands, is a deposit of partially decayed vegetation matter. Peat moss (sphagnum) commonly grows in peat bogs. Peat and peat moss is sought after by gardeners for adding nutrients to poor soil and to assist with water retention. Peat moss is used in some hanging basket liners and as biodegradable pots for seedlings. Peat is also used as a solid fuel once dried in many places around the world.

The problem with peat

The wetlands (also known as peatlands) where peat is formed are unique ecosystems, so when it is dug up, those ecosystems are disrupted. As peat can take anywhere from a couple hundred to thousands of years to form, the wetlands are almost irreversibly damaged. In some parts of the world, most peatlands have are destroyed and the government is taking action to preserve what remains. Peat deposits in Southeast Asia could be destroyed within the next few decades Peatlands are also massive carbon sinks estimated to store anywhere up to 455 petagrams of carbon, which is 5 × 1011 short tons—in other words, a lot. When peat burns, it’s like burning coal; much of the carbon content in the peat is released as carbon dioxide— the greenhouse gas of primary concern in relation to global warming. The burning of peat unlocks carbon that has been sequestered for centuries and by burning it faster than peat can be produced, we’re just adding to our climate change woes. The harvesting of the peat moss is simply unsustainable. It’s a slow growing plant and so much of it is needed to form the bricks that are favoured by gardeners.

“The wetlands where peat is formed are unique ecosystems, so when it is dug up, those ecosystems are disrupted.”


Maximum Yield Australia  |  September/October 2010

Peat alternatives

For the gardener, there’s some environmental and economical alternatives to peat and peat moss. The most popular choice is coconut coir, which is a waste-product from coconut processing. It can be used as hanging basket liners, a potting medium, mulch cover or as a soil conditioner. Some research has also been concluded that coconut coir is actually superior to peat moss and it retains more water. Bricks of coconut coir will expand up to 10 times their original size once soaked in water. Seed pots made from coconut coir are also available. A replacement for peat itself is simple—compost.You can buy it (e.g composted manure) or make compost yourself and save some cash. Compost made from your kitchen refuse, bark chips or leaves are a good replacement. Another alternative mulch material is cocoa-shell, which is a waste product from the production of chocolate. It has an added benefit of repelling cats. Yet another alternative is dried alfalfa. Like peat moss and coconut coir, it retains a great deal of water and adds nutrients to the soil. For an ultra-rich soil conditioner, consider starting up a worm farm (aka vermicomposting) as the castings are prize fertilizers. Worms will eat all sorts of household waste including cardboard and egg shells. If you have children, they’ll most likely love getting involved too.

Maximum Yield Australia  |  September/October 2010




Maximum Yield Australia  |  September/October 2010

long beach expo full

Maximum Yield Australia  |  September/October 2010




ACT South Pacific Hydroponics #2 - 84 - 86 Wollongong St., Fyshwick ACT 2609 South Pacific Hydroponics 70 Oatley Court , Belconnen ACT 2617

(02) 6239 2598 (02) 6251 0600

NEW SOUTH WALES ABC Aquaculture 54 Wahroonga Road, Kanwal NSW 2259 (61) 2 4393 3131 ASE Hydroponics Factory 10/45 Leighton Pl., Hornsby NSW 2077 (02) 9477 3710 Ballina Hydro 3 Ray O’Niell Crescent, Ballina NSW 2478 (02) 6686 7321 Brunswick Hydro & Aquarium Supplies 19 Booyun Street, Brunswick Heads NSW 2483 (02) 6685 1552 Criscete Hydroponics and Organics Unit 2/15 Kam Close, Morisset, NSW 2264 (02) 4973 5779 Dr. Van Der Bloom’s Hydroponics Supplies 5/5 Forge Drive, Coff’s Harbour, NSW 2450 (02) 6651 9992 Dubbo Hydro & Tobacconist 42c Victoria Street, Dubbo West NSW 2830 (02) 6885 1616 Ezi Grow Hydro 177 Mt Druit Road, Mt Druitt NSW 2770 (02) 9832 1610 Ezi Grow Hydro 1B/340 Windsor Street, Richmond NSW 2753 (02) 4588 5826 Ezi Grow Hydro 56 Fish Parade, Bathurst NSW 2795 (02) 9832 1610 Ezi Grow Hydro - Head Office 18 Part Street, Eglinton NSW 2795 (02) 6337 1485 Favgro Hydroponics Growers 107 Glenella Road, Batehaven NSW 2536 (02) 4472 7165 Felanza - Hydroponics 140 Princess Highway, Arncliffe, NSW 2205 (02) 9556 1494 General Hydroponics 7/14 Sunnyholt Road, Blacktown NSW 9676 (02) 9676 8682 Grow Australia Factory 1/5 Sefton Road, Thronleigh NSW 2120 (02) 9473 5000 Grow Your Own Unit 6/34 Alliance Ave, Morisset NSW 2264 (02) 4973 5179 Happy Grow Hydro 15/The Crescent Street, Penrith NSW 2750 (02) 4732 2870 Hobby Grow 25 Skinner Street, South Grafton NSW 2460 (04) 2283 8069 Home Harvest 423 Princess Highway, Rockdale NSW 2216 (02) 9567 8841 Hyalite Moorebank 6/376 Newsbridge Road, Moorebank NSW 2170 (02) 9824 3400 Hyalite Villawood 2/21 Birmingham Avenue, Villawood NSW 2163 (02) 9723 7199 Hydro Masta 100 Station Road, Seven Hills, Sydney NSW 2147 (02) 8812 2845 Hydro Masta Pty Ltd 76 Beecroft Road, Epping NSW 2121 (02) 9869 3011 Hydro Net 2/14 Aific Street, Long Jetty NSW 2261 (02) 4334 6955 Hydro Place 1/68 Nelson Street, Wallsend NSW 2287 (02) 4965 6595 Hydro Shop and Reptile Supplies 2/390 The Esplanade, Warners Bay NSW 2282 (02) 4958 1489 Hydro Shop Pty Ltd Unit 1/5-7 Channel Road, Mayfield West NSW 2304 (02) 4960 0707 Hydro Supplies 57 Flinders Street, Darlinghurst NSW 2010 (02) 9326 0307 Hydro Wise B/385 The Entrance Road, Long Jetty NSW 2261 (02) 4333 5700 Hydroponics Grow All Year 14 Fitzmaurice Street, Wagga Wagga NSW 2650 (02) 6921 5911 Hygrow Horticulture (Greenlite) 252 Oxford Street, Bondi Junction NSW 2022 (02) 9369 3928 Indoor Sun Shop 745 Victoria Road, Top Ryde NSW 2112 (02) 9808 6511 Indoor Sun Shop Unit 2/109 Junction Road, Moorebank NSW 2170 (02) 9822 4700


International Fans PO Box 120, St. Mary’s NSW 2760 Kyper’s Tools and Hydroponics Stuart & Tincogan Sts, Mullumbimby NSW 2482 Lismore Hydro 1/106 Canway Street, Lismore NSW 2480 Lismore Hydroponics rear of 28 Casino St., South Lismore, NSW 2480 Northern Nursery Supplies Pty Ltd 14-16 Nance Road, Kempsey NSW 2440 Nowra Hydro 68 Bridge Road, Nowra NSW 2541 Nutriflo Hydroponic Systems 19/5 Daintree Place, Gosford West NSW 2250 Parkview Plants 250 Princess Highway, Nowra South NSW 2541 Port Pumps and Irrigation 20 Uralla Road, Pt Macquarie NSW 2444 Quik Grow 510a Great Western Hwy., Pendle Hill NSW 2145 Quick Grow 823 King Georges Road, S. Hurstville NSW 2221 Quik Grow Pty Ltd 490 Parramatta Road, Petersham NSW 2049 Simple Grow Hassall Street & Windem, Wetherill Pk NSW 2164 Tweed Coast Hydroponics 2/58 Machinery Dr., Tweeds Head South NSW 2486 Uncle Wal’s Gardenland 31 Crescent Avenue, Taree NSW 2430 Home Grown Aquaponics 13/8a-8b Hartley Drive, Thornton NSW 2322 Westside Lighting & Electrical (Ezi Range) PO Box 274, Mascot NSW 1400 Wollongong Hydroponic Center 318 Crown Street, Wollongong NSW 2500 NORTHERN TERRITORY Katherine Hydroponics Centre 17 Rundle Street, Katherine NT 0850 QUEENSLAND A Happy Medium Hydroponics Unit2/10 Central Court, Browns Plains QLD 4118 Allgrow Hydro 13 - 58 Bullock Head St., Sumner Park QLD 4074 Aquatic Oasis Unit 2/33 Smith Street, Capalaba QLD 4157 Billabong Hydroponics Lot 1, Billabong Court, Childers QLD 4660 D-Bay Hydroponics Shop 5/404 Deception Bay Road, Deception Bay QLD 4508 E.T. Grow Home Unit 1/4 Windmill Street, Southport QLD 4215 Eye Lighting Australia Pty Ltd PO Box 306, Carole Park QLD 4300 Green Power Hydroponics 2/80 Beerburrum Road, Caboolture QLD 4510 Grow Hydro 22 Mining Street, Bundamba QLD 4304 Hyalite Varsity 5/11 John Duncan Crt.,Varsity Lakes QLD 4227 Hydroponic Roots & Shoots Lot 3 Herberton Road, Atherton QLD 4883 Hydroponics & Garden Supplies 93 Cook St., Portsmith QLD 4870 Hydroponics Today PO Box 785, Stanthorpe QLD 4380 Indoor Solutions Unit 2 / 79 Oxford Tce., Taringa QLD 4068 J&K Hydroponics 10 Wacol Station Road, Wacol, Brisbane QLD, 4076

Maximum Yield Australia  |  September/October 2010

(02) 9833 7500 (02) 6684 4928 (02) 6621 3311 (02) 6621 3311 (02) 6563 1599 (02) 4423 3224 (02) 4323 1599 (02) 4423 0599 (02) 6581 1272 (02) 9636 7023 (02) 9546 8642 (02) 9568 2900 (02) 9604 0469 (07) 5524 8588 (02) 6550 0221 (02) 4028 6388 1 800 661 475 (02) 4225 8773

(08) 8972 1730

(07) 3809 3322 (07) 3376 7222 (07) 3245 7777 (07) 4126 3551 (07) 3204 8324 (07) 5591 6501 (07) 3335 3556 (07) 5428 1133 (07) 3816 3206 (07) 5593 7385 (07) 4091 3217 (07) 4035 5422 (07) 4683 3133

(07) 3271 6210

KY Garden 3/31 Argyle PDE, Darra Brisbane QLD 4076 Nerang Hydroponic Centre 27 Lawrence Drive, Nerang QLD 4211 North Queensland Hydro Supplies Shop 2B/20-22 Fleming St., Townsville QLD 4810 Northern Hydroponics 383 Mulgrave Road, Cairns QLD 4870 Pioneer Hydroponics 194 Doyles Road, Pleystowe QLD 4741 SA Hydroponics Shed 3, 1191 Anzac Avenue, Kallangar QLD 4503 Simply Hydroponics Gold Coast 42 Lawrence Drive, Nerang QLD 4211 Sunstate Hydroponics 1137 Ipswitch Road, Moorooka QLD 4105 Sunstate Hydroponics 67 Aerodrome Road, Maroochydore QLD 4558 The Hydroponic Warehouse Shop 3/73 PIckering Street, Enoggera QLD 4051 Tumbling Waters Hydroponics 2 Clarkes Track, Malanda QLD 4885 Walsh’s Seeds Garden Centre 881 Ruthven Street, Toowoomba QLD 4350 SOUTH AUSTRALIA Amazon Aquariums & Gardening Unit 5, 16 Research Road, Pooraka SA 5095 Ascot Park 753 Marion Road, Ascot Park SA 5043 Barry’s Hardware Saints & Main North Rd., Salisbury Plains SA 5109 Bolzon Home & Garden 103 Tolley Road, St Agnes SA 5097 Chocablock Discount Variety Store 15-17/1220 Grand Junction, Hope Valley SA 5090 Complete Hydroponics 1581 Main North Road Salisbury East SA 5109 Country Hydro 434 Saddleback Road, Whyalla SA 5600 D & W Dependable Hardware 45B Kettering Road, Elizabeth South SA 5112 Festive Hydro 2 Kreig Street, Evanston Park SA 5116 Fulham Gardener Nursery 597 Tapleys Hill Road, Fulham SA 5024 Futchatec Distribution 4 Symonds St. Royal Park, 5014 Glandore Hydroponics 644 - 646 South Road, Glandore SA 5037 Greener then Green 52 - 54 Cliff Avenue, Port Noarlunga South SA 51 Greenhouse Superstore Lonsdale 35 to 37 Aldenhoven Road SA 5160 Greenhouse Superstore Royal Park 4 Symonds St. Royal Park SA 5014 Ground-Up Service Nursery 3 Copinger Road, Pt. Pirie SA 5540 Harvest Time Hydroponics Shop 3/146-148, Findon Road, Findon SA 5023 Hindmarsh Hydroponics 39a Manton Street, Hindmarsh SA 5095 Highland Hydro 14/1042 Grand Junction Road, Holden Hill SA 5088 Hong Kong Hydro 13 Research Road, Pooraka SA 5095 Hydro Heaven Kane Motors-Hunt Road, Mount Barker SA 5251 Hydro Sales & Service 1 Salisbury Crescent, Colonel Light SA 5041 Hydro Technics 321 South Road, Croydon SA 5008 Hydro Warehouse 181 Seacombe Road, South Brighton SA 5048

(07) 3375 9098 (07) 5527 4155 (07) 4728 3957 (07) 4054 5884 (07) 4959 2016 (07) 3285 1355 (07) 5596 2250 (07) 3848 5288 (07) 5479 1011 (07) 3354 1588 (07) 4096 6443 (07) 4636 1077

(08) 8359 1800 (08) 8357 4700 (08) 8281 4066 (08) 8265 0665 (08) 8396 3133 (08) 8258 4022 (08) 8645 3105 (08) 8287 6399 (08) 8523 5100 (08) 8235 2004 (08) 8447-1122 (08) 8371 5777 (08) 8386 2596 (08) 8382 0100 (08) 8447 5899 (08) 8264 9455 (08) 8244 0222 (08) 8346 9461 (08) 8395 4455 (08) 8260 2000 (08) 8391 1880 (08) 8272 2000 (08) 8241 5022 (08) 8377 1200



Hydro World 40 Folland Avenue, Northfield SA 5085 (08) 8262 8323 Koko’s Hydro Warehouse Unit 2/2 McGowan Street, Pooraka SA 5095 (08) 8260 5463 Larg’s Bay Garden Supply 239 Victoria Road, Largs Bay SA 5016 (08) 8242 3788 Martins Road Hydro # 5- 353 Martins Road, Parafield Gardens SA 5107 (08) 8283 4011 Mitre 10 Drive In 152 Hanson Road, Mansfield Park SA 5012 (08) 8445 1813 New Age Hydroponics 135-137 Sir Donald Bradman Dr., Hilton SA 5033 (08) 8351 9100 Owen Agencies 17-19 Railway Terrace, Owen SA 5460 (08) 8528 6008 Professional Hydro 4/522 Grange Road, Fulham Gardens SA 5024 (08) 8353 0133 Professional Hydro Shop 5/645 Lower North East Road SA 5075 (08) 8365 5172 Professional Hydroponics 113 Maurice Road, Murray Bridge SA (08) 8532 3441 Soladome Aquaculture & Hydro 44 Chapel St., Norwood SA 5067 (08) 8362 8042 South Coast Hydroponics 6/25 Gulfview Road, Christies Beach SA 5165 (08) 8384 2380 State Hydroponics 174 Semaphore Road, Exeter SA 5019 (08) 8341 5991 Tea Tree Gully Hydro 32 Famechon Cresent, Modbury North SA 5092 (08) 8264 9455 Two Wells Hardware 86 Old Port Wakefield Road, Two Wells SA 5501 (08) 8520 2287 Urban Grow Solutions 1/111 Main Sth Rd, O’Halloran Hill, S.A 5189 (08) 8322 0040 West Garden Centre Peachey Road, Elizabeth West SA 5113 (08) 8255 1355 TASMANIA Advanced Hydroponics 26 Mulgrave Street, South Launceston Tas 7249 Ezy Grow 625 East Derwent Highway, Lindisfarne Tas 7015 Garden World 717 West Tamar Highway, Legana Tas 7277 Green Acres Hydroponics Unit 1 46-48 Bingalong Rd, Mornington, TAS 7018 Growers Choice 225 Main Road, Derwent Park Tas 7009 Hydroponics Systems 131 Main Rd, Moonah, TAS 7009  Hydroponic World 322 Bass Highway, Sulphur Creek Tas 7316 Organic Garden Supplies Tas 17 Don Road, Devonport Tas 7310 Tas Hydroponic Supplies 99 Lampton Avenue, Derwent Park Tas 7009 The Hydroponic Company 69 Charles Street, Moonah Tas 7009 The Hydroponics Company 289 Hobart Road, Kings Medow Tas 7428 VICTORIA Albury Hydroponics 62 Thomas Mitchell Drive, Springvale Vic 3171 All Seasons Hydroponics 3 Springvale Road, Springvale Vic 3171 Banksia Greenhouse and Outdoor Garden 530 Burwood Highway, Wantirna Vic 3152 Barb’s Hydro and Nursery 15 Wallace Avenue, Interverloch Vic 3196 Bayside Hydroponics Factory 2/8 Rutherford Road, Seaford Vic 3196 Belgrave Hydroponics 1642 Burwood Highway, Belgrave Vic 3160 Brew ‘N’ Grow 4 - 479 Nepean Highway, Edithvale Vic 3199

(03) 6344 5588 (03) 6243 9490 (03) 6330 1177 (03) 6245 1066 (03) 6273 6088 (03) 6278 3457 (03) 6435 4411 (03) 6424 7815 (03) 6272 2202 (03) 6273 1411 (03) 6340 2222

(03) 9540 8000 (03) 9540 8000 (03) 9801 8070 (03) 5674 2584 (03) 9775 0495 (03) 9754 3712 (03) 9783 3006

Casey Hydro 12 The Arcade Street, Cranbourne Vic 3977 (03) 5996 3697 Casey Hydro 78 Spring Square, Hallam Vic 3803 (03) 9796 3776 Chronic Hydroponics 31 Anderson Street, Templestowe Vic 3106 (03) 9646 8133 Complete Garden Supplies 580 Ballarat Road, Sunshine Vic 3020 (03) 9311 9776 Discount Hydroponics 752 Waverley Road, Chadstone Vic 3148 (03) 9568 1860 Echuca Hydroponic Nursery & Supplies 23 Ogilvie Avenue, Echuca Vic 3564 (03) 5480 2036 Echuca Pump Shop 128 Ogilvie Avenue, Echuca Vic 3564 (03) 5480 7080 Excel Distributors Pty Ltd 2/41 Quinn Street, Preston Vic 3072 (03) 9495 0083 F.L.O.W. Plants and Environments 66B Chapel Street, Windsor Vic 3181 (03) 9510 6832 Gardensmart 810-834 Springvale Road, Keysborough Vic 3173 (03) 9769 1411 Global Hydroponics 10 Knight Avenue, Sunshine Vic 3020 (03) 9356 9400 Greenleaf Hydroponics 9a Church Street, Traralgon Vic 3844 (03) 5176 0898 Greenleaf Hydroponics Factory 7, Industrial Park Drive, Lilydale Vic 3140 (03) 9739 7311 GreenLite - Ringwood 291 Maroondah Highway, Ringwood Vic 3134 (03) 9870 8566 Grow 4 XS Rear 24 Simms Road, Greensborough Vic 3088 (03) 9435 6425 Holland Forge Pty Ltd. 5 Hi-tech Place, Rowville Vic 3178 (03) 9764 1372 Hydroware 59a Lara Way, Campbellfield, Vic, 3061 (03) 9357 8805 Hyalite Airport West Unit 4/504-506 Fullarton Road, Airport West 3042 (03) 9331 5452 Hyalite Bayswater 4/19 Jersey Road, Bayswater Vic 3153 (03) 9720 1946 Hyalite Global 10 Knight Avenue, Sunshine North Vic 3020 (03) 9356 9400 Hyalite Westend 3 Third Avenue, Sunshine Vic 3020 (03) 9311 3510 Indoor Garden Company 29 Glasgow Street, Collingwood Vic 3066 (03) 9416 1699 Impact Distribution PO Box 2188, Salisbury Downs 5108 (08) 8250-1515 JB Lighting 492 - 500 Neerim Road, Murrumbeena Vic 3163 (03) 9569 4399 Just Hydroponics Deer Park Unit 11 29-39 Westwood Drive, Deer Park, VIC 3023  (03) 8390 0861 Just Hydroponics Geelong Unit 7 36-38 Saunders street, North Geelong, VIC 3215  (03) 5278 6478 Latrove Valley Home Brew Supplies PO Box 802, Morwell Vic 3804 (03) 5133 9140 Living Jungle 345 Sommerville Road, Footscray West Vic 3012 (03) 9314 0055 Melton Hydroponic Supplies 18/10 Norton Drive, Melton Vic 3194 (03) 9746 9256 Midtown Hydroponics Factory 1, 821B Howitt St., Wendouree Vic 3355 (03) 5339 1300 One Stop Sprinklers 1 Burwood Highway, Wantirna Vic 3152 (03) 9800 2177 Pam’s Home Brew & Hydroponics 61 McArthur Street, Sale Vic 3850 (03) 5143 1143 Palms & Plants 175 Salisbury Highway, Salisbury S.A. 5108 (08) 8285 7575 Shepparton Hydroponics 87A Archer Street, Shepparton Vic 3630 (03) 5831 6433 Simply Hydroponics 5/ 411-413 Old Geelong Rd., Hoppers Cros. 3029 (03) 9360 9344 Simply Hydroponics 8, 59-61 Miller St., Epping 3076 (03) 9408 4677

Sunlite Hydroponics 1/104 Shannon Avenue, Geelong West Vic 3281 Sunray Hydro 157 Tenth Street, Mildura Vic 3500 Supply Net International P/L PO Box 171, Highbury Vic 5089 The Hydroponic Connection 397 Dorset Road, Boronia Vic 3155 Waterworks Hydroponics Unit 1, 5 Brand Drive, Thomastown Vic 3074 WESTERN AUSTRALIA Accent Hydroponics Unit 2/141 Russell Street, Morley WA 6062 Aqua Post Unit 2B 7 Yampi Way, Willetton WA 6155 Aquaponics Lot 12 Warton Road, Canning Vale WA 6155 Creative Hydroponics 1/95 Dixon Road, Rockingham WA 6168 Great Southern Hydroponics Shop 1, 21 Hennessy Road, Bunbury WA 6230 Greenfingers World of Hydroponics Albany Hwy & Kelvin Rd.,Maddington WA 6109 Greenfingers World of Hydroponics Unit C 14-16 Elliot Street, Midvale WA 6056 Greenlite Hydroponics 4/91 Wanneroo Road, Tuart Hill WA 6060 Growsmart Hydroponics 47768 South Coast Highway, Albany WA 6330 Hydro Nation 41A Rockingham Road, Hamilton Hill WA 6163 Hydroponic Solutions 1/1928 Beach Road, Malaga WA 6090 Hydroponic Warehouse Unit 7/627 Wanneroo Road, Wanneroo WA 6065 Hydroponica 317 Guildford Road, Maylands WA 6051 Isabella’s Hydroponics 66 Jambanis Road, Wanneroo WA 6065 Johnson’s Nursery Garden Centre 30 Blencowe Road, Geralton WA 6530 Neerabup Organic & Hydroponic Supplies Unit 1, 21 Warman St. Neerabup WA 6031 One Stop Hydroponics 947 Beaufort Street, Inglewood WA 6052 Perth Hydroponic Centre Shop 4, 171-175 Abernathy Road, Belmont WA 6104 Reptile and Grow Store Unit 7 - 117-119 Dixon Road, Rockingham WA 6168 Southwest Hydroponics Lot 29, Pinjarra Road, Mandurah WA 6210 The Grow Room 1/1451 Albany Highway, Cannington WA 6107 Bloem PO Box 1816, Subiaco WA 6008 The Watershed Water Systems 150 Russell Street, Morley WA 6062 The Watershed Water Systems 2874 Albany Highway, Kelmscott WA 6111 The Watershed Water Systems 1/146 Great Eastern Highway, Midland WA 6210 Water Garden Warehouse 14 Drake Street, Osborne Park WA 6017

(03) 5222 6730 (03) 5023 6422 (88) 264-3600 (03) 9761 0662 (03) 9465 1455

(08) 9375 9355 (08) 9354 2888 1800 640 222 (08) 9528 1310 (08) 9721 8322 (08) 9452 0546 (08) 9274 8388 (08) 9345 5321 (08) 9841 3220 (08) 9336 7368 (08) 9248 1901 (08) 9206 0188 (08) 9371 5757 (08) 9306 3028 (08) 9921 6016 (08) 9404 7155 (08) 9471 7000 (08) 9478 1211 (08) 9527 2245 (08) 9534 8544 (08) 9356 7044 (08) 9217 4400 (08) 9473 1473 (08) 9495 1495 (08) 9274 3232 (08) 9443 7993

Maximum Yield Australia  |  September/October 2010



November-December 2010


Red light promotes flowering in plants. It is

Pass the Parsley

Save your money and grow fresh parsley year ‘round in a kitchen or container garden. The two main types and tips on growing them are detailed. Testing and Trialling Accurate testing and trialling in hydroponics and indoor gardening applications is possible with good planning, knowledge of the correct scientific method and some basic math.

1 commonly associated with the elongation of internodal lengths, a function driven by phytochromes. The friendly guys of the microbial world are known

2 as beneficial micro-organisms and the not-so-friendly group is called pathogens, which are harmful and capable of producing disease, decay and pollution.

Foliar Feeding Why should you foliar feed your plants? What should you foliar feed your plants? What is the proper foliar feeding technique? The answers to the questions are revealed.

3 used in conjunction with beneficial predator insects,

Exotic Orchids at Home Got an obsession with beautiful, exotic orchids but can’t grow them? The three types introduced in this article are easily grown at home.

4 meters, there are really only two: TDS meters or

5 drive photosynthesis, plants contain a variety of

Maximum Yield Australia November/December will be available November 1 for FREE at selected indoor gardening retail stores across Australia. Subscriptions are available by contacting or visiting


July/August 2010 quiz

1) a, b, c 2) a, b 3) d 4) a, b, c 5) plant and microbial derived sources: the molecules are more familiar to the plant due to evolution and environment 6) b



Pyrethrum and its active ingredients should never be because these pesticides will kill them also. Although many names exist for nutrient conductivity meters. Aside from chlorophyll and the photo pigments that photoreceptors that sense and utilize light. These include crytochromes, phytochromes and phototropins.


Effective Micro-organisms (E.M.) are not a substitute for other management practices. E.M. technology is an added dimension for optimizing the best soil and crop management practices.


Maximum Yield and Erik Biksa wish to thank you for your faithful readership of "Check your Growing IQ" these past few years. We will no longer be running this special feature in the pages of Maximum Yield, however, the fun won't stop here. Stay tuned to future editions of Maximum Yield where we will feature fun hydroponic trivia for all levels of growers.

Maximum Yield Australia  |  September/October 2010

Maximum Yield Australia  |  September/October 2010


nutrifield full page


Maximum Yield Australia  |  September/October 2010


FREE AUSTRALIA September-October 2010 long beach TECH-TALK ESSENTIALS october 16-17 S E E I N S I DE ! MASTER CLASS california, usa Essentia...

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