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C ontents

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9


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10

Two Worlds by Helen Everett-Camplin


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&efukefpD;yGm;a&; wuúodkvf ygarmu©\ &ufpufrI &efukefpD;yGm;a&; wuúodkvf (&GmomBuD;)wGif Zlvkdifv 29 &ufaeYu rkd;&moD opfyifpdkufyJG usif;y cJhonf/ rkd;onf;xefpGm&Gmojzihf tenf;i,fom pkduf ysdK;jzpfonf/ Zlvkdif 30 &ufaeYwGif ygarmu© OD;uHaZmfrS aemuf&ufrsm;wGif &GmomBuD; e,fajr&Sd ynma&; 0ef xrf; ta,muf 30 tm; usef&Sdaom opfyif 2000 udk wpftdrfaxmifvQif tyif 80 EIef;jzihf pkdufysdK;&efrSm Mum;onf/ 0efxrf;tdrf,mae rdom;pkrsm;wGif e,fajrXme rS tvkyform;rSL;&JU om;jzpfolwpfa,mufrSm v,f uGif;xJ opfyifpdkuf&if; a>rudkufcHcJh&onf/ xkda>r udkufcH&ol 0efxrf;rdom;pk0if vli,ftwGuf tcsdefrSD aq;½kHydkY&ef ausmif; um;rsm;&Sdaomfvnf; cGihfrjyKaom aMumifh aq;½kHydkY aemufuscJhNyD; Mo*kwfv 2 &ufaeYwGif uG,fvGefoGm;cJhonf/ Mo*kwfv 4&ufaeY a&a0;okomefwGif oN*ÐK[f pOf tcef;iSm;c? a&cJwkdufxm;c? tavmif;o,f,lc? rD; oN*dKvfc pkpkaygif; ukefusonf/ vli,ftokbtwGuf a&a0;oGm;&ef ausmif;rSum;wpfpD;om ay;cJhonf/ um; rvkHavmufojzihf jyifyrS um;wpfpD;vQif usyfwpfaomif; 16

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xkdif;tu©&m rGeftoHxGuf pmoifMum;rI ausmif;om;rdbrsm; qE´jy xkdif;EkdifiH? uefcseyl&Dc½dkif? pHcavyl&DNrdKUe,f? 0if; u&Gmausmif;wGif xkdif;tu©&mjzihf rGefpum;toHxGuf pmoifMum;rIudk rauseyfMuaom ausmif;om;rdb 300 eD;yg; qE´jycJhMuonf/ ]uREkfyfwkdY om;orD;rsm;onf <uufrsm;vdk tprf; oyfcH rjzpfvkdyg}tp&Sd xkdif;bmomjzihfa&;om;um uef cseyl&Dc½dkif xkdif;ynma&;Xme0efxrf;rsm;odkY aqG;aEG; wifjycJhMuonf/ odkYaomf vufaxmufc½dkifynma&;rSL; pkyDwdcGefzwf'Du ,ckynma&;tpDtpOfrSm xkdif;tpdk;& ay:vpDjzpfNyD; vkH;0zsufodrf;r&aMumif;? vuf&SdoifMum; a&;pepfudkom jyefvnftokH;jyK&rSmjzpfaMumif; qE´jy acgif;aqmifrsm;udk &Sif;vif;ajymqkdcJhonf/ qE´jyyGJavhvmol xkdif;-jrefrm bmomjyefq&m udkwifOD;u ]qE´jyolawGu xkdif;tmPmydkifawGudk &Sif;

&Sif;vif;vif; rajymEkdifcJhbl;? trSefu rGeftu©&meJY rGef pmay oifMum;aewm r[kwfbJ xkdif;tu©&meJYa&;NyD; rGefvdk toHxGufwJhpepf jzpfaewmudk xkdif;tmPmydkif awG oabmaygufatmif rwifjyEkdifcJhbl;/ 0if;u&Gm[m xkdif;ajray:rSm&SdwJh rGef&Gmjzpfw,f/ xkdif;tpdk;&u rGefpm oifMum;cGihf jyKvkdufayr,hf xkdif;tu©&meJY jzpfaew,f} [k ajymonf/ 0if;u&Gm tv,fwef;ausmif;wGif yxrwef;rS wwd,wef;txd xkdif;tu©&m rGeftoHxGufpepfjzihf 2008-2009 ckESpfrS pwifcJhonf[k oifMum;a&;wm0ef cH EkdifpGrf;axmifuvnf; &Sif;jyonf/ ]xkdif;tu©&m rGef vdktoHxGufzwfcdkif;wm obm0rusbl;? rGefpmayvnf; ysuf? xkdif;pmayvnf; ysufr,fhudef;yJ/ rdbawGvnf; oabmrwlMubl;} [k xkdif;-rGef pmayuRrf;usihfol 17


Ekdifatmifydkifu okH;oyfonf/ jrefrmjynfzGm; rGefwkdif;&if;om; trsm;pk aexkdifMuNyD; 0if;u&Gm tv,fwef;ausmif;wGif ausmif;om; tdrfajc wpfaxmihfig;&mausmf &Sdonf/1 OD;a& wpfaxmihfig;&mausmf &Sdonf/ tqdkyg aus;&GmwGif (10 pufwifbm 2010) xkdif;EkdifiH w&m;0ifaexkdifcGihf rSwfykHwifvwfrSwf&Sdol

ppfawGNrdKUwGif ausmif;raeEkdifaom uav;ta&twGuf rsm;jym;vm &ckdifjynfe,f? ppfawG qifajczkH;&yfuGufrsm;&Sd tpdk;&ausmif;rsm;wGif rdbrsm; qif;&Jusyfwnf;rIaMumihf ausmif;EIwfxGufoGm;&aomuav;i,fta&twGuf wdk;yGm;vmaeovdk teD;tem;&Sd bkef;awmfBuD;ausmif; rsm;wGif ausmif;tyfESHaom uav;ta&twGufrSm txl;ojzihf rsm;jym;vmaeonf/ ppfawGNrdKU? qifajczkH;&yfuGufrsm;jzpfaom t aemufqwf½dk;us? ta&SUqwf½dk;us? atmifcsrf;omESihf rif;'&m;csdwfaus;&Gmrsm;wGif tpdk;&rS zGifhvSpfxm;aom rlvwef;ausmif;rsm; &Sdaomfvnf; ausmif;0ifaMu; t ygt0if tjcm;ausmif;aMu;rsm; ay;aqmif&aomaMumihf uav;rsm;ausmif;rS EIwfxGufcJh&Nyd; teD;tem;&Sd bkef; awmfBuD;ausmif;rsm;odkY ajymif;a&TUtyfESHMuonf/ ausmif;om;rdbwpfOD;u ]usaemfwkdY qwf½dk;us acsmif;wavQmuf&Sd &yfuGufawGrSm vufvkyfvufpm; awG rsm;Muw,f/ tvkyftudkifvnf; tqifrajywJht wGuf tvkyfvufrJh t&rf;rsm;aew,f/ xrif;eyfrrSef wJholawGvnf; tm;BuD;yJ/ 'Dawmhom; orD;awG ausmif; xm;zkdYudpöxuf xrif;eyfrSefatmifpm;zkdYu ydkta&;BuD; w,fav/ uav;awG trsm;pkvnf; ausmif;raeEkdifwJh

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tajctae a&mufoGm;Muwmayhg}[k ajymonf/ ZrÁL&wem bkef;awmfBuD;ynmoifausmif;rS q &mi,fwpfOD;u ]tckbkef;BuD;ausmif;rSm uav;ta& twGuf 300 eD;yg;awmif &SdaeNyD/ ausmif;&yfwnfa&;u awmh ppfawGNrdKUay:u tvSL&SifawG xnhf0ifwJhaiGeJY &yf wnfaewm/ q&m q&mrawGtwGuf ausmif;om;wpf OD;pDu vpOf 500 usyf aumufygw,f/ trsm;pkuawmh rxnfhEdkifygbl;} [k ajymjyonf/1 (14 pufwifbm 2010)


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19


wkdif;&ifom;vli,frsm; tvkyftudkifESihf ynmoiftcGifhtvrf;twGuf NrdKUBuD;rsm;odkY ajymif;a&TU jynfe,ftoD;oD;&Sd wkdif;&if;om; vli,frsm; onf rdrdwdkYaexkdif&m NrdKUESihf aus;vufrsm;udk pGefYcGmNyD; NrdKU BuD;rsm;odkY ajymif;a&TUrI ,ckESpfrsm;wGif ydkrdkrsm;jym;vm onf/ t"dutaMumif;rSm tvkyftudkif tcGihftvrf;? pDyGm;a&; tcGihftvrf;ESihf ynmydkrdk oif,lEkdifa&;twGuf rdrdZmwda'orsm;udk pGefYcGmcJhMujcif; jzpfonf/ ]wkdif;&if;om;awGajymif;wm ausmif;ynma&; twGufyg/ e,fausmif;awGrSm q&mawGu rNrJbl;/ aemufjyD; vli,fawG aq;okH;pJGwmvGwfatmif rdb awGu ajymif;Muwm/ pD;yGm;a&;udkvnf; a'ocHawG xuf w½kwf? ukvm;awGu ae&m,lvmMuvkdYyg}[k &efukef&Sd awmifBuD;toif; Ouú| OD;pdkif;pHtkdufu ajymcJh onf/ &efukefwkdif;twGif; &Srf;? u&if? &cdkif? ucsif? csif;? rGefpwJh vlrsdK;rsm;rSm rdom;pkvdkuf ajymif;a&TU rI ta&t wGuf rsm;jym;vmonf/ tcsdKUrSm wpfOD;csif; t&ifajymif; a&TUNyD;? aemufrS rdom;pkudk ac:,la&TUajymif;cJhMuonf/ Ekdif iH&yfjcm; xGufvkdaom vli,frsm;twGuf BudKwifjyif qifrIrsm;vkyfzkdY &efukefudk a&muf&Sdvmjcif;vnf; jzpf

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rkd;n§if;NrdKUrS ausmif;tkyfq&mBuD; "m;xkd;cH& ucsifjynfe,f? rkd;n§if;NrdKUwGif rl;,pfaq;0g; okH;pJG ol vli,fwpfa,mufrS trSwf(2) txufwef;ausmif; ausmif;tkyfq&mBuD;udk "m;eJYxkd;vkdufwmaMumifh rdk;n§if; aq;½kHBuD;wGif twGif;vlemtjzpf aq;ukocH,lae &onf/ ausmif;tkyfq&mBuD; OD;oef;xGef;rSm olY&JUausmif;a&SUrSmyif rl;,pfaq;0g; okH;pJGwJh vli,fwpfa,mufrS "m;eJYxkd; jcif;udk atmufwkdbmv 18 &uf? wevFmaeY rGef;vJGydkif;wGif cHvdkuf&onf/ xkd;oGm;wJhvli,frSm ausmif;om;rsm;qDrS vdkufvH aiGn§pfaeol jzpfonf/ "m;eJYxkd;oGm;wmudk udk,fwkdifrsufjrifawGUcJhol rkd; n§if;NrdKUcHwpfa,mufu ]"m;eJYxkd;oluawmh *sif;azmwl; vdkYac:wJh rwl; jzpfygw,f/ ausmif;0wfpkHeJY vmvmNyD;rS ydkufqH&SdwJh uav;awGudk Ncdrf;ajcmufNyD; aiGawmif;yg w,f/ olu rl;,pfaq;0g;okH;pJGzkdY aiGn§pfwmyg/ tJ'D t

20

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21


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w½kwfr,fNydKifyJGwGif yavmifausmif;ol wwd,qk& w½kwfe,fpyf a&TvDNrdKUü atmufwkdbmv 1 &ufaeYrS 3&ufaeYtxd usif;ycJhonfh 10Budrfajrmuf w½kwfjrefrm aqGrsdK;aygufazmf tvSr,fNydKifyJGü oQrf;jynf (ajrmufydkif;)rS yavmiftrsdK;orD;av;u wwd,qk &&SdcJhonf/ touf 22 ESpft&G,f uGwfckdifol rpdk;aEGonf a&TvDa&muf jrefrmukefonfrsm;tm; udk,fpm;jyKí ,ckv 2&ufESihf 3&ufaeYrsm;u erfharmif; (ac:) a&Tv jrpfab;wGif usif;yonfh tvSr,fNydKifyJGü jrefrmtvS r,f 5OD; tygt0if pkpkaygif; tvSr,f 44 OD;ESihftwl onf vm;½dI;wuúodkvf wufa&mufaeonfh jrefrmpm ,SOfNydKifcJhjcif;jzpfonf/ 'kwd,ESpf ausmif;oljzpfaMumif; od&onf/ ,ckv 10&ufaeYu a&TvDNrdKU? [def;&Sif;a[mf (15 atmufwdkbm 2010) w,fwGif qkay;yJGtcrf;tem; usif;ycJhNyD; olronf qkaiGtjzpf w½kwf,GrfaiG 20000 qGwfcl;&&Sdonf/ olr 22


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23


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Nuclear Power

,la&eD,H owåKacsmif;rsm; - EsL;uvD;,m; "gwfaygif;zdktwGuf avmifpm 33


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Lesson Planning Democracy Education 1

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37


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38

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twk,l avhvmp&m zGJU EGJU a&;oD - jrefrm pmpDpmuHk;

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wpfaeYwmukefqkH;í wpfnodkY ul;ajymif;oGm; awmhrnfh tcsdefumvonf naeqnf;qmcsdef jzpfyg onf/ a'gif;zvf0gaerif;BuD;onf ta&SUrdk;ukyf puf0kdif; BuD;rS pwifxGufay:vmNyD; MoumoavmuBuD;udk wpf aeYwm tvif;a&mifay;onf/ ta&SUrdk;ukyfpuf0kdif;rS t aemufrdk;ukyfpuf0dkif;qDodkY wjznf;jznf; wa&GUa&GU c&D; ESifonf/ MoumoavmuBuD;ukd wpfaeYwm tvif; a&mifay;NyD;aemuf taemufrkd;ukyfpuf0kdif;atmuf epf jrKyfaysmufuG,fNyD; wpfnwm tem;,lawmhrnf jzpf onf/ wpfenf;tm;jzihf tvif;a&mifrsm; uG,faysmufí tarSmifodkYa&mufawmhrnfh tul;tajymif; tcsdefumv onf naeqnf;qmcsdef jzpfygonf/ þuJhodkYaom tul;tajymif;umv naeqnf;qm\ obm0½Icif; rsm;um; MunfEl;vGrf;armp&m aumif;vSygonf/ naeqnf;qmcsdef\ tprSm a'gif;pMuFmaerif; BuD; taemufbufawmpOfawmwef;uav;rsm;odkY edrfh qif;a&muf&Sdvmcsdefjzpfonf/ wpfenf;tm;jzihf ae0ef; BuD;udk rsufpdjzihfwnfhwnhfMunhfí puf0dkif;ykHo@mef jrif&csdef jzpfonf/ aejcnfwpfaxmif tvif;a&mifwkdY azsmhawmhvmonf/ aerif;BuD;\ tvif;a&mifonf aMu;0ga&mifrS aMu;eDa&mif? aMu;eDa&mifrS vdar®mfa&mif odkY wjznf;jznf; rodrom ajymif;vmonf/ aepuf0kdif;

BuD;\ t0ef;onfvnf; ao;&mrS BuD;BuD;vmonf/ taemufodkY edrhfíedrfhíqif;av ae0ef;BuD;\ t&G,f yrmPu BuD;íBuD;ívmav jzpfonf/ a&Tvifyef; t&G,frS paum0dkif;? a&Tpaum0dkif;rS a&TvSnf;bD;t&G,f yrmPodkY wkd;wkd;vmonf/ þtcsdefwGif ae0ef;BuD;qDrS tvif;wef;wdkYonf MoumoavmuBuD;udk a&T&nf oGef;avmif;ay;onf/ wpfaeYwm wm0efxrf; aqmifNyD; aemuf wpfnwm cJGcGm&rnfhtcsdefwGif aerif;BuD;u EIwf qufvufaqmiftjzpf MoumoavmuBuD;tm; a&T0wf&nf NcKHvTrf;ay;ouJhodkY &Sdonf/ þuJhodkY naeqnf;qmcsdefwGif taemufbuf rkd;aumif;uifü vIyf&Sm;ajy;vTm;aeaom wdrfwkduf? wdrfawmif? wdrfpOf? wdrfrQifwkdY\ ½Icif;rSm yef;csDqef vSygonf/ vIyf&Sm;aeaom wdrftrsdK;rsdK;udk naeqnf; qm ae0ef;BuD;u ta&miftrsdK;rsdK; qifoay;aeonf/ wpfcgwpf&H wdrfrnf;ndKwkdufwdkYu &Sifaerif;BuD;udk ydwfuG,fwm;qD;í avmuBuD;ESihf jcm;ypfonf/ xkdtcg aerif;BuD;u wdrfrnf;ndKwkdufwkdYudk a&Tem;uGyfí avmutjrifwGif tvSqifay;onf/ wdrftxltyg; tenf;trsm; ykHo@mef trsdK;rsdK;udkvkduf í ta&miftrsdK;rsdK; qifayonf/ wdrfawmifpOfwef; BuD;jzpfvdkuf? awmwef;BuD;jzpfvkduf? wdrfO,smOfjzpf vkduf? wdrfa&tkdifBuD;jzpfvkdufESihf rdk;jyma&mifaumif;uif aemufcHwGif toGiftrsdK;rsdK; awGU&onf/ wdrfwkdY\ ta&mifwkdYuvnf; ndKvdkuf? jymvdkuf? &Dvdkuf? rIefvdkuf? vdar®mfa&mifajymif;vkduf? r&rf;a&mifajymif;vkduf? c&rf; a&mifajymif;vkdufESihf a&mifrsdK;pkHjc,foaeonf/ rkd;jym a&mifaemufcHwGif naeqnf;qma&mifu qvkdufxkd; ay;aeaom vIyf&Sm;aeonfh wdrfwdkY\ jrifuGif;onf vIyf&Sm;touf0ifaeaom yef;csDum;BuD;ESihfyif wlao; awmhonf/ þodkY naeqnf;qmcsdef wdrfjrifuGif;wkdY udkMunfh&if; &SifOwårausmf\ awmvm;yg wdrfzGJUudk owd&rdygonf/ &SifOwårausmfu ...

uav;u@

39


]wdrfndKrdv’m? wdrfqlumESihf wdrfjyma&m,Suf? r&rf;zufí wdrfoufwHYa&mif? t0gabmifwGif arSmifcJhwcg? jymcJhwcsdKU ndKcJhwvD? &DcJhwzkH rIefcJhwcsuf? ,k*efxufu av;bufvkH;NcKH? wdrf*VKefvnf; e*g;½kHa<uU? &efcsif;awGUaomf cdk;aiGUvTwfNydKif? *kPfcsif;qkdifcJh} [k a&;zJGUcJhygonf/ naeqnf;qmcsdef wdrfjrif uGif;udk touft0ifqkH; zJGUqkdEkdifaom uAsmjzpfygonf/ naeqnf;qmcsdef\ ½Icif;rsm;wGif awmpOfawm wef;uav;rsm;\ jrifuGif;onfvnf; ½IarmzG,fjzpf onf/ aea&mifwdkuf½dkufusa&muf&m ta&SUbuf&Srf;½dk; rawmifwef;BuD;u jymjymvGifaeonf/ ae0ef;aemuf cHaMumifh aea&mifuG,faeaom taemufbuf awmif pOfwef;uav;rsm;u rdIif;rdIif;ndKUaeonf/ awmifpOfawmifwef;uav;rsm;\ xdyfwGifum; xkH;jzLazG;azG;ESihf apwDuav;rsm; nae&D aejcnfwGif zl;jrif Ekdifonf/ naeqnf;qmcsdefwGif awmifwef;ndKU ndKUqDrS awmrD;avmifNyD; xGufay:vmaom rD;cdk;rD;aiGUwkdYonf txufodkY wvlvlwufaeonf/ awmifckd;awmifaiGU? awmrD;cdk;awmrD;aiGUwkdYonf aumif;uif&Sd wdrfwdkufwdkY ESihf a&m,Sufaygif;pyfoGm;onf/ aemufcHae a&mifjcnf aMumifh rD;cdk;aiGUwkdYonf a&Tckd;a&TaiGUrsm;tjzpf jrifawGU& onf/ ]awmifcdk;ESifh wdrf? a&m,Sufvdrfí wdrfESihfawmif cdk;? awmifudkrdk;í} wdrfcarmuf aqmifxm;aom awmif pOfawmifwef;jrifuGif;rSm naeqnf;qm\ yom'½I cif;wpfck jzpfygonf/ naeqnf;qmcsdef awmifwef;ndKUndKU jrifuGif;rSm vnf; MunfEl;vGrf;armzG,f aumif;vSygonf/ nae&D aejcnfatmufwGif awmwef;ndKU ndKUqDrS awmaumif rsm;\ wGefusL;oHrsdK;pkHudk Mum;&onf/ awmwef;buf qDrS .. ]orifuawmuf? acsua[mufESihf arsmufuBudK;acG? a'gif;tkd;a0} [k wGefusL;oHwdkYudk Mum;&onf/ awmwef;pyf uav;qDrS ]wul;ul; .. wul;ul;}[laom csdK;uloHom 40

omudkvnf; Mum;&onf/ xkdtcsdef awmwef;ndKUndKU aemufcHwGif tdyfwef;wuf&ef jyefvmaom aiGAsdKif;jzL wpftkyfudkvnf; tpkvdkuf wa&GUa&GU ysHoef;aeonfudk jrif&onf/ awmwef;ndKUtxufodkY jrihfwufoGm;aom tcg qnf;qma&mif aiGAsdKif;jzLrsm;tjzpf jrif&onfrSm MunfEl;zG,fjzpfonf/ wpfaeYwm 0rf;pma&;twGuf pm;usuf&Sd&modkY oGm;a&muf&SmazG pm;aomufNyD;aemuf tcsdefwefí tdrfjyefvmaom jrifuGif;yif jzpfonf/ tcsdefwefvQif rdrdtodkuf? rdrdttkH&Sd&mokdY jyefvmavh &Sdaom aus;iSufwkdY\oabmudk tm;usrdao;awmh onf/ naeqnf;qmcsdef½Icif;rsm;wGif woGifoGifpD; qif;aeaom jrpfa&jyif jrifuGif;uvnf; wpfrsdK;tvS qifvsuf &Sdonf/ wNidrfhNidrfhpD;qif;aeaom jrom;a& jyifwGif naeqnf;qm\ aea&mifqifovkdufaom tcg a&TjrpfjyiftoGifokdY ajymif;oGm;onf/ nae&Dae jcnf wkduf½dkufusa&mufí jrpfjyifrS a&TwHvQyfrsm; NydK;NydK;jyufjyuf awmufyvmonf/ tnmqefarmf awmf MuD;u jrpfaMumif;wpfavQmuf txufodkY qefoGm; onf/ atmufjynfpke f &GufavSBuD;wpfpif;u jrpf atmufodkY pkefoGm;onf/ armfawmfBuD;ESifh avSBuD;jzwfoGm; &m vrf;wpfavQmuf a&,ufyef;yGm; jzLjzLazG;azG;x oGm;NyD;? vdIif;vkH;rsm; vIyf&Sm;usef&pfonf/ iSuforÁmef uav;rsm;uvnf; jrpf\ [kdbufurf;ESihf onfbuf urf;? vl;vmacgufwkHYul;oef;aeonf/ udkwHigwkdYonfvnf; a&,mOftvdkufpD;í ydkufuGefrsm; jzefYMuufí ig;zrf;aeonfrSm yef;csDqefvSaom jrifuGif;yifjzpfonf/ ]tkd .. ig;Muif;awGqef ig;wefawG aomifajcOD;rSmv udkwHig a&,mOfpD;ygvkdY ydkufBuD;udk a&csvm} aom jrifuGif;onf nae qnf;qmudk tvSqifay;vsuf&Sdygonf/ jrpfjyiftxuf naeqnf;qma&mifwGif [oFm? pifa&mf? iSufuav;rsm; ysHoef;jrL;wl; aeMuonfrSm vnf; MunfEl;zG,fjzpfonf/ jrpfjyifESihf qufpyfaeaom ae&mwGif oJaomifjyif? oJaomifjyifxufwGif wHigwJ uav;tcsdKUudk jrifawGU&onf/ oJjyifonf a&Ta&mif awmufí? wHigwJukyfonf a&Twif;ukyftoGif jrif&


tay: ar;wifaecsdef jzpfygonf/ aepuf0dkif;BuD;onf urÇmBuD;ESihf wpfnwm cJGcGmcgeD; EIwfqufvuf aqmif tjzpf a&Tjcnfa&mifrsm;udk tpGrf;ukef ydkYvTwfay; aecsdef jzpfonf/ 0kdif;pufaeonfh ae0ef;BuD;onf awmifpOf awmwef; ndKUndKUatmufodkY tpu av;wpfponf epfoGm;onf/ tpuav;wpfprS wpfpdwf? wpfpdwfrS wpf0uf? wjznf;jznf;csif;epfí 0ifoGm;onf/ aerif; BuD;onf wpf0ufrSwpfpdwf? wpfpdwfrSwpfp? aemufqkH; tvif;a&miftpGef;av; awmifpOfawmwef;xdyf use f aecsdefonf MunfEl;vGrf;armzG,f taumif;qkH;tcsdef jzpfygonf/ ae0ef;BuD; awmifpOfawmwef;ndKU ndKUatmuf epfjrKyfí vkH;0uG,faysmufoGm;aomfvnf; aumif;uif wGif aea&mifu jzefYMuufqJ? rkd;aumif;uifjymjymvGifrS a&mifjyefjzihf avmuBuD;udk wwfpGrf;orQ tvif;a&mif ay;í tvSqifqJ? ae0ef;BuD;udk rjrif&awmhaomfvnf; ae0ef;BuD;\ vufaqmifa&mifpOfrsm;udkum; rkd;aumif; uifjymaemufcHwGif awGU&qJyif/ wjznf;jznf;ESihf t vif;a&mifNcKHvTm ½kwfodrf; ½kwfodrf;ívmawmhonf/ tvif;a&mif ½kwfodrf;oGm;onfESihftrQ r[l&ma&mifu vTrf;NcKH vTrf;NcHKí vmonf/ MoumoavmuBuD;onf wjznf;jznf;ESihf vif; &mrSrSdef? rSdef&mrSrIef? rIef&mrSrdIif;? rdIif;&mrS ndKU? ndKU&mrS ndKvmonf/ aumif;uifwGif Mu,fpifuav; wpfvkH; ESpfvkH; NydK;jyufvif;vufonfudk jrif&csdefonf nae qnf;qm\ ed*kH;urÜwf tqkH;owfyif jzpfygonf/ þn aeqnf;qm\ obm0½Icif;rsm;tm; MunfEl;vGrf;arm zG,f aumif;vSyg ownf;/ /

uav;u@

onf/ naeqnf;qmcsdef aea&mifonf Moumo avm uBuD;udk a&Ta&mifzsef;í tvSqifay;aeonf/ awmif ukef; rkdYrdkYESihf awmndKUndKUawmndKUndKUESihf oJaomifjyif? oJaomifjyifESihf jrpfa&,mOf qufpyfaeaom nae qnf;qm½Icif;um; Munfhr0 ½IrqkH;awmhyg/ &Sif Owårausmf\ ... ]oJcif;om0,f? oDwmMunfvJh iSufoHEJGUESihf vGrf;zG,YfNrdKifajc? jrLcdk;a0cJh} [laom uAsmwpf yk'fudkyif owd&rdao;awmhonf/ naeqnf;qmcsdef obm0½Icif;rsm;udk pmzJGUí ukefEkdifzG,fr&Sdyg/ aEG&moD jrLrIefqkdif;aeaom nae qnf;qmcsdefonf a&TrIefrsm;? vTrf;NcKHxm;aom avmu BuD;tjzpf vSypGmjrif&onf/ aqmif;&moD ESif;rIefrsm; tkHYqkdif;aeaomnaeqnf;qmcsdefonfvnf;jyma&TrIef 0wf½kHNcKHxm;aom MoumoavmuBuD;tjzpf vSypGm jrif&onf/ rkd;&moD? rkd;wdrfrsm;? rkd;pufrkd;yef;rsm; oGef;cs aeaom a&mifpkHum;BuD;ozG,f awGUjrifEkdifonf/ nae qnf;qmcsdefonf &moDra&G; &SdorQobm0avmu BuD;udk tvSqifay;xm;onfom jzpfonf/ xkdY aMumihfqnf;qmcsdefudk ]tusnf;wefvScsdef}[kvnf; wifpm;wwfMuao;onf/ tusnf;wefrsm;yif tvS qifEkdifvQif e*dkrlv vSNyD;om; t&mwdkYum; qkdzG,f&m r&Sdawmh/ naeqnf;qm\ tvSo&zlum; bmPk&mZm ac: a'gif;zvf0gac: &xm;,mOfom aepMuFmac: aerif; BuD;yif jzpfygonf/ tvSqkH;tcsdefum; vdar®mfa&mif ae0ef;BuD; taemufbuf awmifpOfawmifwef;rsm;

ynm tvkyfNrJol tvkyfudk tNrJvkyfolonf tvkyfudkpJGí tvkyfüaysmfojzihf tvkyfrvkyf&vQif raeEkdifouJhodkY jzpfav&m? xkduJhokdYaom yk*d¾KvfrsdK;onf vlowå0gwkdY rSD0JaomufokH;&ef rukefcef;Ekdifaom tvdr®mprf;a&wGif;BuD;rsm;ESihf wlMuavonf/ v,fwDq&mawmf

41


English Essay for High School students Herbal medicine Threat Experts on climate change have recently suggested that around a quarter of the world's land plants and animals may be wiped out in 50 years' time if something is not done to constrain the damaging effect of global warming. This is perturbing news, but climate change, with the resultant change to habitats, is not the only threat to their survival that animals and plants face. In some cases, the behaviour of human beings is imperilling their existence. We are probably more aware of the damage done to animals than to plants. Even the very earliest of human beins were hunters, relying on animals for food and clothing. Later, some animals were hunted for commercial gain, as elephants for ivory. In time, the scale of this hunting got out of hand and there began to be a number of endangered species. Legislation is often in place now to delimit or proscribe such hunting, but it is difficult to implement this effectively. Less attention has been paid to the effect of human activity on plants. Yet, for many years people have been plundering and raiding woods, fields and river banks for wild flowers, such as snowdrops and daffodils, to take home and transplant to their gardens. A boost in popularity in gardening has seen as corresponding increase in wild-flower gathering, roots and all. Most viewers rush to garden centres for material for their instant garden, but some rush to the countryside. It is not only gardeners who pose a threat to plants. According to environmentalists, thousands of species of wild plants are being wiped out because of an increase in the popularity of herbal medicine. The plants are being over-harvested. The statistics are alarming and many proponents of herbal medicine will be shocked to hear that their favoured form of healing is having such a devastating effect on the world's flora. It has been reported that up to one-fifth of the species which are used in the herbal medicine industry are being harvested to the point of extinction. Two-thirds of the plants used in herbal medicine are still harvested in the wild, rather than being specially cultivated. The problem is likely to get worse unless mass cultivation of some of these plants begins. More and more people are turning to herbal medicine as an alternative to conventional medicine, partly because of the side effects associated with some of the treatments involved. But our plant life is paying a terrible price for this. Constrain uefYowfonf? csKyfcs,fonf/ This is a formal word meaning to limit or restrict. Either of these simpler words or a synonym for them can be used instead of the formal word: • The architect's design for the new building is bound to be constrained by the tightness of the building budget. • The architect's design for the new building is bound to limited by the tightness of the building budget. • It is important that format art lessons do not constrain the natural creativity or imagination of the children.

42

• It is important that formal art lessons do not

restrict the natural creativity or imagination of the children.

delimit abmifcwf uefYowfxm;onf/ This is a formal word meaning to fix the limits of something: • Residents feel that the polices should take more vigorous action against the teenage thugs, but the law delimits the power of the police in such circumstances. • Residents feel that the police should take more vigorous action against the teenage thugs, but the law establishes the limits of police power in such circustances.


pdwftaESmihft,Sufjzpfaom perturbing This is a formal word meaning giving rise to worry or concern. It can be replaced by a simpler word such as worrying, disturbing or alarming. • It is perturbing that there is still no news of the missing climber. • It is worrying that there is still no news of the missing climber.

hand, get out of hand xdef;rEkdif? odrf;r&tajctae This is cliche which indicates that a situation is no longer manageable. The cliche can be replaced by an expression such as get out of control or become unmanageable: • Some of the marchers were using violence and police were concerned that the protest was getting out of hand. • Some of the marchers were using violence and police were concerned that the protest was getting our of control.

proponent axmufcHtm;ay;ol This is a formal word meaning someone who supports an idea or course of action. It can be replaced by a simpler word, such as supporter, backer, advocate or promoter, or the sentence can be reworded using a verb: • The MP is proponent of free further education for all. • The MP is a supporter of free further education for all. • The MP promotes free further education for all.

imperil tEÅ&m,fjzpfaponf/ This is a formal word meaning to put in danger. It can be replaced by an expression such as endanger, put in danger or put at risk: • People who drink and drive imperil other people's lives. • People who drink and put at risk other people's lives. Implement taumiftxnfazmfaqmif&Gufonf/ This is a formal word meaning to put something into effect or action: • The school authorities have drawn up a bullying strategy, but it has yet to be implemented. • The school quthorities have drawn up a bullying strategy, but it has yet to be put into effect. • We do not plan to implement the suggested changes to the timetable until next term. • We do not plan to put the suggested changes to the timetable into operation until next term.

uav;u@

flora a'ocHopfyifrsm; This is a formal or technical word meaning plants and it can be replaced by the simpler word, or by the phrase plant life, in non-technical contexts: • Mike is interested in botany and is looking for a book on the flora of Australia. • Mike is interested in botany and is looking for a book on the plant life of Australia.

proscribe w&m;0if ydwfyifwm;jrpfonf/ This is a formal word meaning to forbid something. It can be replaced by a simpler word such as forbid or ban: • This is a list of the drugs which have been proscribed by the Athletics Federation. • This is a list of the drugs which have been banned by the Athletics Federation. • This dictator has proscribed all political meetings. • The dictator has forbidden all political meetings.

43


aqmif;yg;

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45


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46

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48

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aZmfxufwpfa,muf csJxdk;wwfaeNyD xifukefMua&m/ [kdwGuf'DwGuf vkyfvdkufawmh uRefawmfu av;wpfvkH; BudKufa&m/ 'geJY ] uHxrf;vmNyD;&if vSHxrf;vmwm quf jrif&r,f ajymygw,f q&mBuD;} vdkY owif;ydkYvdkufa&m/ tJ'D nae xdkom;awGu tukefidkNyD; 'dkif;pm;ygw,f/ r aeYnaeu *Pef;ESpf&Spfudk &SpfESpfvdkY jyefxGufw,f av/ aemufaeY ausmif;a&mufawmh q&mBuD;u aygufjyefNyDwJh/ [m b,fvdk jzpfygvdrfh? uRefawmfu av;xifvdkY vSrf;ajymw,f ? xGufwmu&SpfESpf ? bmrSr qkdif/ tJ'geJY q&mBuD;u b,fvdkaumufNyD; b,fvdk aygufwmvJ ar;awmh ] rif;bdk;awmfeJY igeJY tusKd;ay; w,fuG? 'gaMumifh igaumufwm rSefwm? tJ'Dbdk;awmf ig udk;uG,f&r,f}/ ] Asm}qdkawmY.. ][kwfw,fuG? waeYu wnfhwnfhMuD; ay;xm;NyD;NyD;av? 'gaMumifh aemufaeY 'DavmufvG,frSm r[kwfawmhbl;/ vSHqkdav;vdkY vlwkdif;odaewm? tJvdk r[kwfavmufbl;/ vudkAk'¨[l; taeeJY r,l&if &m[kt aeeJY ,l&w,f/ &m[ku&SpfuG? av;jrif&if &Spfjyif&w,f tqkd&dSw,f/ 'gaMumifh ig &SpfyJywfvdkufawmh ? bdk;awmf udk vÈbdkY uefawmhzdkY aumif;aeNyD/ igYudk rif; bkd;awmfqD vdkufydkYuGm} wJh/ Aka'¨g tJ'grS jyóem/ r&dSwJh bdk;awmfudk b,ffvdk jy&ygY? wwfEkdifbl;/ 'Dvkd &TD;&OD;rSmyJ? ] tm -tJ vdk vkyfvdkY r&bl; q&mBuD;? tarwdkYu bdk;awmfukd uwd ay;xm;w,f? b,folrS rodap&ygbl;? b,folrS rac: vmygbl;vdkYav? uwdazguf&if pdwfqdk;oGm;ygr,f} ] at; [kwfw,fuG? tJ'golawmfpif ppfwm? ol awmfpifawGu xifay:rSm rvdkvm;bl;? at;aygYav? tif; 'DvdkvkyfuGm q&mhtpm; rif;uefawmhay; q &m aemufaeY vSIzG,fypönf;awG ay;vdkufr,f/ aemuf wjznf;jznf; udk;uG,fcsifwJh q&m&dSw,fqdkwm ajym ay;} wJh/ tJ'DaeY aeYcif;usawmh bmtwdwfay;&rSef; vJ rodawmhbl;/ ESpfem&Dxdk;vdkYom zkef;qkdifrSm zkef;cGuf udkifvdkufw,f? bmajymr,f rpOf;pm;&ao;bl;/ q&m BuD;u ][vdk [vdk aZmfxufvm;} vkyfaeNyD/ tJ'Dtcsdef zkef;ajym&atmif avQmufvmaewJh pkHwJGudkMunfhNyD; jzwf


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51


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ygr,f/ q&mqdkwJh ae&m[m wynfhawGudk oGefoif qkH;rvrf;jy&rnfhae&mudk a&mufaewmyg/ ] Do as I say, don't do as I do} ]igajymovdkvkyf igvkyfovkd r vkyfeJY}qkdwJh ykHpHrsdK; vkyfvdkYr&ygbl;/ zJ½dkufaeus zcifu ½kyfykHum;csyf zJxyfwwfwJh olYom;udk tJ'DvkdraqmhzkdY wm;jrpfqkH;rEkdifyghrvm;/ t&ufpJGaewJh zcifu olYom; udk t&ufraomufzdkY qkdqkH;r&if 'Duav; vkdufemEkdifygh rvm;/rdbeJq Y &mqkw d mrdro d m;wynfu h kdwk;d wufatmif ajrawmifajr§mufay;wJh pnf;urf;&SdwJh vl,Ofaus;jzpf apa&;twGufudkyg xnhfoGif;pOf;pm; tajz&Sm&r,fh ol awGyg/ aumif;&mvrf;ñTefzkdY rdrdukd,fwkdif pHjyaumif; wpfa,muf jzpfaeygap/ q&mqkdwm udk,fhwynfhawGudk ausmom;&if om;rcJGjcm;bJ? qufqHoGm;&r,hf ckHobmywd wpfOD;yg/ 'Duav; igeJYcifvkdY trSwfwkd;ay;w,f/ ighudk vmuef awmhoGm;vkdY olYudk ykdapmihfa&Smufw,f/ OD;pm;ay;w,f qkdwmrsdK; rjzpfoifhygbl;/ jynfwGif;u q&mwcsdKU&JU vkyf &yf erlemav; ay;yg&ap/ 'Dq&mru usL&Sifay;w,f/ olYtwef;u u av;awG olYqDrSm usL&Sifwwfw,f/ olYqDusL&Sifwwf wJh uav;xJuyJ? yxr? 'kwd,? wwd, &w,f/ rwwf wJhol r&bl;/ olYqD rwwfwJh uav;u wu,fawmfay r,fh r&bl;/ tvGefqkH; pwkw¬avmuf tJ'Dvkd/ 'gayr,fh ausmif;wpfausmif;eJY wpfausmif; NydKifMuwJh xl;cRefpm ajzNydKifyJGawG &Sdvmw,f/ tJ'Dvdk ausmif;udpöjzpfvm awmh olYqDusL&Sif,lwJh uav;awG tomxm;vkdY ckeu wu,fawmfwJh uav;udk tokH;csNyD;? ausmif;udk,fpm; xl;cRefNydKifyJGudk 0ifapw,f/ twef;wifvkd pmar;yJGrsdK;ukd olYqDu usL&SifwwfwJh uav;udkay;NyD;? tjcm;olqD r wwfwJh uav;awGudk oGm;rjyzkdYudkvnf; tBudrfBudrft xyfxyf rSmMum;Budrf;armif; wwfygao;w,f/ awmfwJh uav;u ar;cGef;r&vJ ar;cGef;&wJh uav;xuf ajz EkdifwmygyJ/ udk,fhuav;u[kwfwmr[kwfwmtyxm;/ ESpfpOfq&mqDu usL&Sif,l? ESpfpOfqk&vkdY *kPf,lauseyf aeMuwJh rdbawGuvnf; &Sdao;oAsm/ teEÅ*kdPf;0if rdbeJY q&mrsm;&JU tjzpfudkvnf; MunfhMuygOD;/ aemuf 56

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jynfhvdkY vIyf&Sm;pdwf 'emotion' rSm raumif;wJh wkefY jyefcsufawG cHpm;cJh&wmawGaMumifh jzpfygw,f) wJhtjyif ynma&;eJY ywfoufvdkYvnf; rdbawGu vrf;nGefMuyfrwf ray;EdkifMuygbl;/ NyD;awmh ausmif; 0wfpHkwdkY? ausmif;oHk; pma&;u&d,m wdkYudkvnf; trsm; eJY wlwlwefwef jznfhqnf; ay;EdkifMuwm r[kwfygbl;/ 'DaeYvdk umvrsKd;rSmqdk&if qif;&Jom;awGtzdkY yrmP renf;vSwJh ausmif;0ifaMu;eJY tjcm; aMu;trsKd;rsKd;udk wwfEdkifzdkY qdkwmuvnf; {&mr tcuftcJ BuD;yg/ 'Dvdk eJY olwdkY rdbawGeJYtwl eif;jym; jzpfaewJh uav;awGcrsm rlvwef; tqifhudkawmif rausmf jzwfEdkifMuwJh tjzpf[m &dk;aeygNyD/ taMumif; aygif;oifhvdkY wOD;wav rlvwef; tqifhudk vGefcJhwmawmif tv,fwef; txufqifh(7-wef;? 8-wef;)udk ausmfEdkifw,f qdkwm cRif;csuf oabmavmufyg/ txufrSmqdkcJhwJh qif;&JwJh v,form;eJY v,fulvD om;orD;awGxJqdk&if rlvwef; tqifh atmif uav;awGtzdkY tv,fwef;tqifhudk qufwufzdkYqdkwm rjzpfEdkifwJh udpöBuD;yg/ bmaMumifh vnf;qdkawmh? NrdKUwufausmif;om; wa,muf&JU ausmif;ae pm;p&dwf[m wESpfvHk;aevdkYrS pyg;ay: csdefav;rSmom ydkufqHav; tenf;tusOf;avmuf vHk;ueJcJueJ jrif&wJh v,fulvDeJY qif;&Jtqifh v,form; rdom;pkwpkvHk;&JU pm;p&dwfxuf rsm;ae vdkYygyJ/ rdrdwdkY&GmeJY teD;qHk;&GmBuD; w&GmrSm&SdwJh

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pOfqufrjywf oif,la&; tajymif;tvJjrefonfh acwfBuD;wGif ,cifuvkd ynm&yfwpf &yfjzihf woufwmynm&Sd rjzpfEdkifawmhyg/ bJGUvufrSwfwpfckonf w oufwm xrif;pm;vufrSwf r[kwfawmhyg/ þtajctaewGif tqifh jrifhynmoifMum;a&;e,fy,f us,fjyefYvmygonf/ wuúodkvfrsm;tae jzihf bJGU&rsm;? bJGUvGefrsm; arG;xkwfay;½kHESihf wm0efraus/ pOfqufrjywf ynmoifMum;a&; (continual learning)twGuf vrf;zGihfay;rIrSm ta&; wBuD;wm0efjzpfvmonf/ Mary Louise Kearney (Director of the UNESCO)

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Special Feature

art education

A*sDatmifpdk; ormorwf odef;Edkif acsmtdEG,f 0ifhxef; tEkynmbmom oif&dk;nTef;wrf; tifwmAsL; - q&mra'g0f pwl'D,dkZif; olYtjrif? olYtawGY 64


½kd;&myef;csD ta&SUurÇmwvTm;wGifaomfvnf;aumif;? taemufurÇmwGifaomfvnf;aumif;? yef;csDavmuwGif ½dk;&myef;csD (Traditional) ESihf ½kd;&mvGefyef;csD (NonTraditional) [lí u@ydkif; cJGjcm;í &Ekdifygonf/ ESpfrsdK;ESpfpm;pvkH;yif pdwf0ifpm;zG,f&m aumif; vSygonf/ usaemhftaeESihfvnf; ESpfrsdK;pvkH;udk ESpfNcdKuf í vufvSrf;rDoavmuf ESpfrsdK;pvkH;udk avhvmrdyg\/ ½kd;&mvGefyef;csDoabmrSm awmfvSefaom t awG;tac:rsm; vGwfvyfpGm pOf;pm;a&;qJGaom oabm rsm;? yk*¾vdu t,ltqrsm; jyif;xefwwfí a&;enf;a&; [ef? a&;p&mtaMumif;rsm;rSmvnf; rsm;jym;axGjym;vS ojzihf usaemf wrifcsefvSyfíxm;cJh&NyD;? ½kd;&myef;csD t aMumif;avmufom a&;om;vdkygonf/ ]tb,fhaMumihf cifAsm; ½dk;&myef;csDukd a&;om;vdkoenf;}[k wpfpkHwpf a,mufu usaemfhudk ar;vmcJhaomf ]vlwkdif;ESihf eD;pyfvkdY ygcifAsm}[kom ajzMum;vdkygonf/ taMumif;rlum; ½dk; &myef;csDonf omrefjynfolwkdY\ tokdif;t0dkif;rS xGuf ay:vmaom vlwkdif;twGuf zefwD;rI tEkynmypönf;jzpf í jzpfygonf/ (A traditional art is the creative expression of a society) &Sif;pGmqkd&vQif ½dk;&myef;csD

onf ½dk;om;onf/ vlwkdif;ESihfqkdifonf? vlrsdK;udk ukd,f pm;jyKonf/ *syefjynfrSmqkdvQif *syef ½dk;&myef;csD? w&kwfjynfrSmqdkvQif w½kwf ½dk;&myef;csD? jrefrmjynf rSmqkdvQif jrefrm½dk;&myef;csD &SdouJhokdY urÇmay:&Sd wkid ;f jynftoD;oD;wGif rdrw d v Ykd rl sKd ;bmomp½ku d t f vku d f ½dk;&mrsm; tcdkiftrm&SdMuavonf/ ½dk;&myef;csDonf vlrsdK;\ ,Ofaus;rI tpOfBuD; ESihf wom;wnf;ygvmNyD; wkdif;jynf\ a&ajrobm0? bmomtawG;tac:wkdY\ taiGUtoufrsm;jzihf xkHrTrf;í aeayonf/ xkdYjyif ½dk;&myef;csDonf vufrItwwfynm (Craftsmanship)ESifhvnf; uif;uGmír&ay/ xkdYaMumifhvnf; ½dk;&myef;csDonf (Art) tEkynmESifh (Crafts) vufrIynm ESpfrsdK; aygif;pyf xm;jcif;[k qdkMuayonf/ pifppf Traditional &dk;&m[k qdk&mwGif yef;csD? yef;yk? ydokumwdkYudk yl;wJG awGYjrif wwfzkdYvnf; vkd ygonf/ a&S;a&S;tcguqkdvQif þtwwfokH;rsdK;pvkH; udk ½dk;&morm;wkdif;u wwfuRrf;avh &Sdygonf/ ½dk;&mjrwf 65


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Ekd;olwdkYonf tao;i,fqkH;aom vlwdkif;okH;pJGaeonfh yef;uefcGufa,mufrsm;rStp? tBuD;us,fqkH;aom t aqmuftODrsm;txd jyKvkyfzefwD;Mu&mü ESvkH;om;u tEkynmapwem tjynfht0 cGeftm;&&Sdygonf/ bm omw&m; udk;uG,f,kHMunfrIü apwemxufoefoljzpf NyD;? bmomw&m;\ wefcdk;awmf teEÅ (Spritual and the power of divine) pdwfydkif;qkdif&m ,kHMunfrIrsm;jzihf tvkyfvkyfoGm;Mu&ygonf/ xkdYtwGuf ESvkH;om;u apwemaMumifh ÓPf qef;Mu,f&ygonf/ ÓPfqef;Mu,fojzihfvnf; uHqef; Mu,fonf[k ½dk;&morm;wkdY qkd½dk;&Sdygonf/ ½dk;&myef;csDonf urÇmOD;tp a&S;ya0oPD ESpf aygif;ajrmufjrm;pGm *latmif; vlrsdK;&SdpOfuyif vufqifh urf;vmaom oabmudk aqmifygonf/ (Primitive Man) a&S;ausmufeH&Hrsm;ay:wGif a&;qJGcJhaom yef;csDrsm;? xkdvlrsm; xkvkyfcJhaom yef;yk rsm;udk avhvmygu ½dk;&m\oabmudk awGU&SdEkdifayrnf/ 4if;wkdY ,kHMunfudk;uG,f&mtaejzihf wef;cdk; awmf&Sifrsm;? ewfrsm; ponfwkdY\ ykHyef;oP²mefudk oauFw trsdK;rsdK; xkvkyfudk;uG,fxm;Muonfudkvnf; aumif;? odkYwnf;r[kwf 4if;wkdYaeYpOf zrf;qD;pm;aomuf Muaom om;½kdif;wd&pämefwdkY\ ykHyef;oP²mef trsdK;rsdK;udk ,ckacwf aq;pD&ifonfhoabmrsdK;jzifh ,Mwmacs "mwf ½dkufbdouJhokdY ausmufeH&Hrsm;ay:wGif a&;qJGxm;cJhMu onfrsm;udk awGU jrifjcif;tm;jzihfvnf;aumif;? (Traditional Art) ½kd;&myef;csDonfvnf;aumif;? (Primitive 66

onf[k qkdEkdifayrnf/ þwGif ½kd;&myef;csDü (Symbolism) oauFw oabmtrsm;qkH; yg0ifvQuf&Sdonfudkum; usaemfwdkY owdjyK&ayvdrfhrnf/ xkdYjyif ½kd;&myef;csDü apmifhpnf;tyfonfh abmif rsm;? pnf;rsOf;Oya'rsm;? jy|mef;csufrsm; owfowfrSwf rSwf &Sdonfudkvnf; awGU&ayonf/ tawG;opf? tjrif opf (Non-Traditional)orm;rsm;twGufrl þtcsuf onf rsm;pGmrS zDvmusaeayonf/ ½kd;&myef;csDq&monf obm0udk avhvmonf/ obm0rS em,lonf? qnf;yl;onf/ odkY&mwGif obm0 udk ykHwlul;csjcif; r[kwfbJ yef;csDq&m\ pdwfwGif xif [yfvmonfh cHpm;rI tm½kH½kyfudk tEkynmoabm ouf 0ifvmatmif oauFwrsm;jzihf wifjya&;qJGavh &Sdyg onf/ okdYwifjy&mü rdrdvlrsdK;? rdrdywf0ef;usif? rdrd bmom"avhxkH;wrf;rS jy|mef;xm;aom taiGUtouf? taoG;ta&mif? tuGefYtñTefY? t,ltqwkdYjzihf a0qm aeatmif wifjyjcif; jzpfayonf/ wkdif;jcm;ESihf tquftoG,frsm;vmaom , aeY EkdifiHwumwGif ½kd;&myef;csDppfppfwkdY\ae&mrSm wpfp wpfp EGrf;e,faeayonf/ Oyrm-a&S;u *syef ½kd;&myef; csD[kqkdvQif jrif½kHrQESihf *syefyef;csD[k odEkdifcJhaomfvnf; ,ckwjznf;jznf; taemuf,Ofaus;rI tjzmjzmwkdY\ vTrf;rkd;jcif; wpfpwpfp cHpm;&aomtcgwGif taemuf wdkif;[efrsm;om *syef yef;csDum;rsm;wGif awGU &wwfNyD; *syef yef;csDum;rsm;[lí qkd&efcufcJívmacsNyD/ þenf;ESifESif wkdif;jynftoD;oD;wdkYwGifvnf; rdrdwkdY ½kd;&m,Ofaus;rI"avhrsm;rSm ysufjym;pjyKvmwkdif;? wkdif;wpfyg;\ ,Ofaus;rIrsm; vTrf;rkd;jcif;udk cH&vQuf&Sd onfudk awGU jrifEkdifayonf/ a&S;acwfESihf ,ckacwfwGifvnf; rwlEkdifyg/ a&S;vlrsm;onf rdrdaexkdif&m wkdif;jynf\ jy,k*f vu©Pmrsm; jzpfMuaomfvnf;? ,ckacwfonf rdrdbm vlrsdK; qdkonfudkyif rdrdukd,fwkdif rajymEkdifaom acwf yif jzpf onf/ rnfodkYyifjzpfap ½dk;&myef;csD? ½dk;&mtEkynmudk


jrwfEkd;olrsm;urlrsdK;cspfpdwfjzihftepfemcHxdef;odrf;oGm; aeMurnf[k xifygonf/ jrefrmh½dk;&myef;csDukdpdwf0ifpm;rdolrsm;twGuf ]vrf;½dk;a[mif;wGif qifhumxGif} qkdbdouJhodkY acwf ESihf,SOfaom tawG;tac:jzihf ½dk;&mudk avhvmEkdifMuap &ef tcsuftcsdKUudk wifjy&ayonf/ jrefrmh½dk;&myef;csDudk avhvm&mwGif (u) a&S;q&mwkdY\ tu©&ma&;enf; ( c ) a&S;q&mwkdY\ rsOf;a&; aq;jc,fenf; xkdYjyif uacsonfwkdY\ [eftrlt&mrsm;ESihf a&S;yef;&H? yef;ykq&mwdkY\ enf;rsm;udkyg twk,kavhvm &ygonf/ avhusihfcef;rsm;taejzihfvnf; vl½kyfykH (tcsdK; tpm;)udk ususee avhvm&ayonf/ jrefrmonf jref rm tcsdK; a&S;uyif &Sdygonf/ Oyrm - rsufESmqkdvQif rsuf ESmwpf0uf? abmifwpf0uf qkdouJhodkYyifjzpfNyD;? qHxkH; ykH? t0wftpm; tokH;taqmifrsm;rSpí tajccHAdokum ynm&yfrsm;udkyg avhusihfcef;,lí vuf[ef? ajc[ef? rk j' trsdK;rsdK;? udk,f[eftaetxm;rsm;yg tao;pdwf avh vm&ygonf/ 4if;yif a&? ajr? av? rD; "mwfBuD;av;yg;wkdYjzihf zJGUpnf;xm;tyfaom a&ajrawmawmif? opfyifyef;ref rsm;vnf; olYrlESihfol &Sdaeojzihf avhvmqnf;yl;tyf onf/ jrefrm'DZkdif;rsm;udkrl (1) ausmufpm (2) aypm (3) ,Gef;xnf (4) rSefpDa&Tcs (5) yef;wdrf? yef;wOf; (6) yef;yk (7) yef;&H (8) a&Tcsnf? aiGcsnfxkd; tEkynmwdkYwGif avh vmEkdifayonf/ Zmwfedygwfawmf? &mZ0ifwkdYrStp ,if;wkdYESifh pyfvsOf;aom xD;okH;? eef;okH;[efrsm;udkvnf; ywfywf eyfeyf avhvmtyfayonf/ xkdYjyif [efopfudkvnf; wnfaxmif&ef [efa[mif;udk &SmazGavhvm pDppfMu&

avonf/ xkdokdY &SmazGavhvmpDppfMuaomtcg yk*Hjynf rS aq;a&;um;rsm;? rEÅav;acwfqDu qif;oufvm aom yk&ydkufjzLrsm;wGif&Sdonfh rifa&;t½kyf? aq;a&;t ½kyfrsm;? ,Gef;xnftrsdK;rsdK;wGifyg&Sdaom aus;iSufwd&pämef rSpí Zmwfedygwf½kyfpkHrsm;? wefaqmif;jyóm'fwkdYwGif 67


]] t&yfom; tEkynm&yfonfomvQif uGsEkfyfwdkY vlrsKd;\ vlrsKd;pkqdkif&m wu,fY ,Ofaus;rSI jrefrmYp&dkufudk ay:apEdkifvdrfYrnf/ xkdt&yfom; ynmrS trsKd;om;yef;csD[efopfudk wl;azmfjyif qifEdkifvQif...

xkvkyfqif,ifxm;aom yef;qJGyef;awmif; twGefYt wufuEkwfcsufrsm; ponfwkdYukd tvG,fwulyif awGU &jrif&avonf/ tqkdyg a&S;uvuf&mtppfrsm;ESihf a&S; vuf&mppfrS aygufyGm;vmaom tpOftvm raysmuf uG,fao;onfh vuf&mrsm;udk tajcjyKum trsdK;om; [efopfudk wnfaxmifvQif jzpfEkdifzG,ftaMumif; &Sd onf[k ynmonftrsm;u ,kHMunfudk;pm;Muav onf/ odkY,kHMunfudk;pm;Muonfhtwkdif;vnf; yef;csD um; trsm;udk trsdK;om;yef;csD[efopftjzpfESihf a&;qJG NyD; a&;qJGqJ? a&;qJGvwåHU jzpfonfudk awGU&ayonf/ t rsdK;om;wkdY tm;&ESpfoufzG,f udpöBuD;wpf&yfaywnf;/ þt&mwGif ta&SUwkdif;,Ofaus;rI tEkynm &yfBuD;rsm; ul;vl;qufoG,f aygufyGm;ysHUESHYcJhaom orkdif; udk okH;oyfoifhayonf/ tdE´d,\ ,Ofaus;rI tEkynm &yf trsdK;rsdK;onf ajrmufodkYvm;aomf wdAufjynf? yg upöwefjynf? rGef*kdvD;,m;jynfwkdYodkYvnf;aumif;? ta&SU odkYvm;aomf w½kwfjynf? *syefjynf? udk&D;,m;jynf? jref rmjynf? xkdif;jynf? uarÁm'D;,m;jynf? tif'dkeD;&Sm;uRef;pk rsm;odkYvnf;aumif;?awmifodkYvm;aomfoD&dvuFmuRef; odkYvnf;aumif; ysHUESHYoGm;cJhNyD;? wpfzef w½kwfjynfrsm;rS

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tEkynm&yfrsm;udk tdE´d,om;rsm;u jyefvnfxlaxmif ,lMuí w½kdwao avhvmvkdufpm; jyKpkMujyefonfudk vnf; awGU&onf/ 4if;aemuf Oa&mywkdufom;rsm; ta&SUwkdif;odkY vma&muftkyfpdk;MuaomtcgwGifrl NAdwdoQ,Ofaus;rI tEkynm&yf tenf;i,fonf tdE´d,jynf? jrefrmjynf? oD&dvuFmuRef;? yoQL;uRef;qG,fwdkYokdY ul;vmvTrf;rkd; vmavonf/ jyifopftEkynmonf jyifopfydkif tif'dk csdKif;em;udk vTrf;rkd;onf/ 'wfcsfvlrsdK;wkdY\ ,Ofaus;rI t Ekynmonf tif'dkeD;&Sm; uRef;pkrsm;udk vTrf;rkd;onf/ xkd okdY tdE´d,tEkynmü Oa&mytEkynmrsm; 0ifa&muf vTrf;rkd;cdkufwGif wkdif;&if;om; rd½dk;zvm tEkynm&yfBuD; rsm;rSm uG,fywdrfaumoGm;&ravmuf cHvkdufMuay onf/ xkdokdY wkdif;&if;om; tEkynm&yfrsm; wkdif;&if; jynf&if;wGif wdrfaum&ravmuf cHae&cdkufwGif Oa&my wkdufom; yef;csDynm&SiftcsdKUonf w½kwfyef;csD? *syef yef;csw D u Ydk kdavhvmMuumolw\ Ydk Oa&mytEkynmvuf &mwkdYwGifta&SUwkdif;tm&Svuf&mwdkYudkBudKMum;BudKMum; xnhfoGif;um vuf&mopfudk zefwD;Muonf/ Oa&my


wkduf rsufarSmufacwf yef;csDum;rsm;udk avhvmvQif t a&SUwkdif; tEkynmESihf tvGefeD;pyfonfudk awGU&í ta&SU wkdif;tEkynm\ tawG;tac: t,ltqrsdK;udkvnf; t rsm;tjym; awGUEkdifonf[k qkdMuavonf/ þodkYjzihf tEkynmrsm;onf wpfjynfu wpf jynfudk vTrf;rkd;í ½kd;&mvuf&mrsm; wdrfaumyaysmuf& onftxd jzpfcJhMu&aomfvnf;? rnfonfh EkdifiHjcm; y a,m*rsdK;\ taESmihft,SufrsdK;udkrQ rcHpm;&bJ rdrdbm om wpfbmomwnf; qdwfqdwfNidrfNidrf tpOfrjywf p cef;ac:onfh t&yfom; tEkynm&yfrsdK;um; ae&mwkdif; wGif &Sdayonf/ tdE´d,emrnfausmf yef;csDq&mBuD; wpfOD;jzpf ol *sifreD½dGKif; (Jamini Roy)\ yef;csDum;rsm;rSm 4if; (Folk Art)udk trsdK;om;[efopfjzihf xkwfazmfa&; qJGjcif;jzpfí rsm;pGmemrnfausmfMum; ESpfoufol rsm;av onf/ jrefrmjynfwGif t&yfom; tEkynm&yfudk bk &m;aps;ü awGU jrifEkdifayonf/ a&Twd*kHapmif;wef;&Sd ukef pkHqkdifrsm;wGif zkd;0½kyfuav;rsm;udk awGU&rnf/ xkdt½kyf uav;rsdK;udk uREkfyfwkdY\ bkd;ab;bDbifrsm;vnf; awGU cJh&NyD? cspfcJh&NyD? upm;cJh&NyD/ opfom;ESihfvkyfaom aZmf*sD ½kyfuav;rsm;vnf; &Sdao;\/ tusÐeDeDuav; 0wfí EIwfcrf;arT;? rkwfqdwfarT;rsm;udk xm;onf/ BudK;qJGwwf vQif awmifa0S;uav;xrf;um ujyEkdifonf/ yg;pyfNyJ um udkufrnfh[efjyifaeaom usm;½kyfudkvnf; uREkfyf wkdY cspfcifwkef;yif/ ajcav;bufESihf ZufudkvIyfEkdifonfh jrif;½kyfuav;vnf; &Sdao;onf/ xkdt½kyfrsm;atmufü cif;usif;xm;aom uwfaMu;? uGrf;n§yf? zvm;? cGuf? Zm *emwkdYudk MunfhygOD;/ olwkdYtay:rSm yef;cufyef;EG,f t ajymuftpuftrsm;udk vSypGm azmfxm;onf/ þonf vnf; t&yfom; tEkynm&yfjzpfonf/ tqif;o@mef tajymuftuGuf ta&;tcif;wdkYudkom awGU&onf r [kwfao;/ aq;a&mif pyfykH[yfykHudkvnf; awGU jrifEkdif ao;onf/ jrif;½kyfrSm tjzL? twGefYtvdrf? tauGUt aumuf? rsufvkH;? rsufqefponfwkdYudkum; tpdrf;a&mif? tjyma&mif? teufa&mifwkdYESihf jc,foxm;onf/ jrif;\ obm0ta&mif wpfckrQrygay/ odkYaomf uREkfyfwkdY\ rsufpdwGifudk;½dk;um;,m;rEkdif/bmaMumifhvJpOf;pm;zG,f

&Sdonf/ wpfaxmifhwGif csdwfqJGxm;aom EGm;pnf;ukef;? jrif;pnf;ukef;wkdYu aq;a&mif teD? tjymwdkYudk Munfhyg OD;/ aeom;wus&Sdonf[k qkd&ayrnf/ xkdbk&m;aps;u qkdifrSxGufvmí A[ef;aps;u tkd;qkdifudk0ifMunfhygOD;/ tEkynm\ tpdwftydkif;rsm; jzpfMuayonf/ tkd;BuD;rsm; udk MunfhygOD;/ twGefYtpdwf? tpif;taMumif;? tuGuf tajymuf ½dkufESdyfxm;aom 'DZkdif;ykHpHtrsdK;rsdK;rSm t&yf om; tEkynmyifjzpfonf/ þodkY a&wGufjy&vQif rsm; pGm&SdayOD;rnf/ xkduJhodkYaom opfom;jzifhvnf;aumif;? 0g;jzihf vnf;aumif;? &TUH jzihfvnf;aumif;? aMu;oHowåKwkdYjzihf vnf;aumif; t&yfom; tEkynmvuf&mrsm;udk vSnf; aeavSatmif;jrif;aZmif;rusef t&yfwkdif;wGif aeYpOf ESihf trQ awGU&ayonf/ a&SmifírvGwf[kyif qkd&ayrnf/ þvuf&mwdkYum; uREkfyfwkdYvlrsdK;\ yifudk,fpGrf;&nf? yif udk,ftBudKufrS xGufay:vmMuonfjzpfí EkdifiHjcm; ,Of aus;rI MoZmtawmfuif;onfudk awGU&ayrnf/ vlrsm; pk vlxk\ tonf;pJGvuf&mrsm; jzpfayrnf/ vlxkESihf teD;pyfqkH; jzpfonf[k qkd&ayrnf/ xkdvuf&mrsm;wGif aq;a&mifESihf aumufaMumif;wkdYrSm ½dk;om;ay:vGif &J&ifhayonf/ eDeD&J&J? 0g0gxdefxdef paom a&mifpkHvGif rsm;ESihf vlxk\pdwf "mwfudk qJGaqmifayonf/ xkdYaMumifh trsdK;om; yef;csD[efopfudk wnf axmif&ef BuHpnfBudK;pm;Mu&mwGif tpOftvmrysuf qufvufvkyfudkifvQuf&Sdaom uREkfyfwkdY\ (Folk Art) ac: t&yfom;tEkynm&yfudkvnf; txl;avhvmvkduf pm;oifhonf[k ,kHMunfygonf/ t&yfom;tEkynm&yf onfomvQif uREkfyfwkdYvlrsdK;\ vlrsdK;pkqkdif&m wu,hf ,Ofaus;rI jrefrmhp½dkufudk ay:apEkdifvdrfhrnf[k xifpm; rdygonf/ xkdt&yfom;ynm&yfrS trsdK;om;yef;csD[ef opfudk wl;azmfjyKjyif jyifqifEkdifvQif aumif;jrwfaom okckr tvS&wemwpfyg;onf urÇmhtv,fwGif trsm; \ av;pm;jcif;udk cH,lum xGufay:vmEkdifvdrhfrnf[k arQmfvihfrdygonf/ A*sDatmifpdk; (&dk;&mrSonf acwfopfodkY-'kwd,tMudrf pmtkyfrS aumuf EIwfazmfjyygonf/)

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yef;csD? yef;yk? pmay? &dk;&m*Dw? &kyf&Sif ponfh tEk&owkdYonf wkdif;jynfwjynf? vlrsKd;wrsKd;\ orkdif;? ,Ofaus;rI? vlrIwefzdk;? "avhp&kdufESifh vlom;zHGYNzdK;wdk; wufrItm; udk,fpm;jyKaom pHcsdfef pHñGef;rsm; jzpfonf/ ¤if;wdkYonf vlYtzJGYtpnf;\ vl rIa&; jyóemrsm;ESifh EkdifiHa&; pdefac:rIrsm;udk rSefuef pGm azmfxkwf&ifqdkifjcif;jzifh w&m;rQwrI udkay;Ekdifonf/ Nidrf;csrf;a&;ukd azmfaqmifay;Ekdifonf/ xdkYjyif tEk&o

w&mudk wnfaqmufay;onfh ud&d,mwck jzpfygonf/ a0zefydkif;jcm; pOf;pm;qifjcifÓPf Critical Consciousness udk tokH;jyKí urÇmYEkdifiH BuD;om;rsm; jzpf maomtcg vli,frsm;onf ¤if;wdkYEdkifiH\ EkdifiHa&;ESifh vlrIa&; zHGYNzdK;wkd;wufrI u@rsm;wGifomru urÇmh tcif; tusif;wGifyg yg0ifaqmif &GufEkdifrnf jzpfonf/ a0zefydkif;jcm; pOf;pm;qifjcifÓPf Critical Consciousness qdkonfrSm urÇmhavmu taMumif;

tEk&oynma&; wwfyGefrI acsmtdEG,f

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ta&;BuD;onfhtcsufrSm uav;wdkif;\ xif jrif,lqcsufrsm;ESifh wifjy aqG;aEG;rIwdkYudk em;axmif ay;Mu&ef jzpfonf/ uav;rS ajymqkdaeonfh tcsufudk ñGefwHjzifh axmufjyjcif;? q&mq&mrrsm; taejzifh csJUxGif&Sif;vif; ajymqdkay;jcif;wdkY jyKvkyfEkdifonf/ ] 'Dvdkvkyfjcif;tm;jzifh ausmif;om;awG r Munfh? rjrifrdwJh tydkif;awGudk Munfhjzpfatmif zefwD; &mvnf; a&mufw,f/ olwdkYajymqdk wifjywmudk em;axmif aeygw,fqdkwJh oabmvnf; ygw,f/ tjriftm&kH usufpm;jcif;eJY tjyeftvSef wifjyrIawG jzpfvmw,f/} a':yef;{u&DrS qdkygonf/ ]vlawG? uav;awG ajymwmudk jyefvnf 79


ajymqdkay;jcif;[m olwdkYwifjy ajymqkdrIawGudk vufcHw,f qdkwm&,f? em;vnf oabmaygufygw,f qdkwm&,fudk od&dSapr,f/ olwdkYajymwJh pum;twdkif; twdtus jyefajym&if em;axmifygw,f qdkwJh t"dyÜg,fyg/ tjcm;pum;vkH;awGeJY jyefjyifNyD; ajymwJh tcgusawmh em;vnfoabm aygufygw,fqdkwJh t"dyÜg,fyJaygh/ wu,fvkdY em;vnfrI vJGoGm;&ifvnf; olwdkYu q&mukd jyefjyifay;Ekdifao;w,f/} Mum;&onhf pum;rsm; tay:rSm tjcm;pum;vkH; okH;NyD; jyefvnf ajymqkdrI\ tusKd;aus;Zl;&dSykHukd uav;oli,f jyKpkapmifha&Smufol yef;csD q&mrBuD;u ajymjycJhonf/ bufvdkufrIr&dSbJ jyefvnf ajymqdkjcif;udk qdkvdkygonf/ aumufcsufcs? a0zefrIrsm;udkvnf; BudKqkd vufcHoifhonf/ wef;wl wefzdk;xm; oifhygonf/ aumufcsufcsrIwkdYudk jyefvnf jyifqifay;jcif;ESifh jznfhpGufjcif;rsm; rjyKvkyfoifhyg/ odkYrSom ausmif;ol ausmif;om;rsm; taejzifh olwkdYtay:wGif wefzdk; xm;rIudk em;vnfcHpm; Ekdifygvdrfhrnf/ uRrf;usifaom q&mq&mrrsm; taejzifh ausmif;om;rsm;\ tajzrsm; &Sif;vif; wdusap&ef vrf;ñGef ulnDEkdifyg vdrfhrnf/ trSm;jyifqifay;jcif;rsm;udk tpOftjrJ rvkyfjcif;jzihf ausmif;om;rsm;onf vGwfvGwfvyfvyf ajymqdkwifjycGihf &&Sdapygonf/ bmompum;pGrf;&nf zGHU jzdK;ap&ef rsm;pGm taxmuftuljyKygvdrfhrnf/ q&mrS ausmif;om;rsm;\ rwlnDaom pOf; pm; awG;awmcsufrsm;\ tquftpyfwdkYudk axmufjy ay;Ekdifygonf/ pOf;pm;awG;awmcsuf wpfckrSaeí tjcm;aom awG;awmcsuf wpfckodkY qifhuJ ajymif;vJ EkdifNyD; t"dyÜg,frsm; ay:xGuf &&dSvmykHudkvnf; &Sif;jy Ekdifonf/ ]t"dutcsufuawmh pdwful; pdwf oef;awG&JU ta&GU oabm? qifhuJ jzpfwnfrIo abmudk oifMum;ay;Ekdifwmyg/ 'Dvdkqdk&if yxr qkH;pdwful;? pOf;pm;rIrSmwif &yfwefYraebJ tjcm;aom jzpfEkdifacsawGudk wGufqrdvdrfhr,f/ olrsm;awG&JU aqG;aEG; wifjycsufawGudk em;axmifjcif;[m rdrd&JU avhvmrIudk ydkrdk tm;aumif;apEkdifNyD; pOf;pm;csuf awGudkvnf; ydkrdk a0qm aprSmyg} a':yef;{u&DrS tMuHjyK vrf;ñGefxm;onf/ 80

tjriftm&kHcHpm;rIjzifh pOf;pm;awG;awmrIenf;vrf;rsm; VTS \ wefzdk;rsm; ausmif;oif&kd;ñGef;wrf;\ tpdwftydkif;ESifh oifMum;enf;vrf; wpfc kjzpfonff/  tEkynm zefwD;csuf vuf&mwdkYudk tokH;jyKNyD; a0zefydkif;jcm; pOf;pm;awG;awm rIpGrf;&nf critical thinking? qufqHa&; pGrf;&nf communication? ESifh tjriftm&kH cHpm;wwfrI pGrf;&nf visual literacy wdkYudk avhusifh ysKd;axmifjcif; jzpfonf/  tEkynm&kyfykHvTmrsm; visual art tay:wGif

]] ..'Dvdkqdk&if yxrqHk;pdwful;?pOf;pm;rIrSmwif &yfwefYraebJ tjcm;aom jzpfEdkifacsawGudk wGufq rdvdrfhr,f/ olrsm;awG&JU aqG;aEG;wifjycsufawGudk em;axmifjcif;[m rdrd&JU avhvmrIudk ydkrdk tm;aumif;apEkdifjyD; ...

}}

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ausmif;ESifh &yf&Gm vlYtzJGUtpnf;rsm;twGif; a&&Snf tusKd;oufa&mufrIrsm;ESifh vdkvm;tyfaom 'Drdkua&pD pHwefzdk;rsm;udk &&dSaprnf/  EIwfajympGrf;&nf ysKd;axmif avhusifhrI? pOf;pOf; pm;pm; ajymqdkwwfrI? wuf<upGm yg0ifvkyfaqmif rIESihf ajymqdk wifjyrIrsm;udk pDukH;a&;om;jcif;jzifh EIwf ajymrSwqifh ta&;pGrf;&nfodkY ul;ajymif; avhusifh ay;Ekdifonf/  ausmif;okH; bmompum;rSm rdcifbmompum; r[kwfaom uav;i,frsm;ESifh oif,l avhvmrI txl; tcuftcJ&dSolrsm; twGufvnf; atmifjrif EkdifpGrf;udk arQmfrSef;Ekdifonf/  ausmif;om; vli,frsm;\ b0ESifh jycef;? jy wdkufrsm;ESifh tEkynm vuf&mypönf;wdkYudk qufpyf EkdifpGrf;? tav;xm;vdkpdwf? tokH;jyK vdkpdwfrsm; &&dSapNyD; olwdkY\ &SifoefrIwGif ydkrdkt"dyÜg,f &dSvmaponf/

aemufqufwGJ tokH;csEkdifrIrsm;

odef;Ekdif

Isamu Noguchi (Japanese)

tjriftm&kHjzifh pOf;pm;awG;awmrIpGrf;&nfwdkYudk avh usifhoifMum;jcif; (ADGwDtufpf)rSm tEkynm bmom&yfudk oif Mum;jcif; (odkYr[kwf) jywdkufwpfckck (odkYr[kwf) tEkynmjycef; wpfckckodkY vnfywfjcif;wdkY jzifhomvQif abmifcwf rxm;oifhyg/ q&mq&mrrsm;taejzifh tjcm;aom bmom&yf toD;oD;wGifvnf; tcGifhtcg oifhovdk aygif;pyf xnfhoGif; tokH;jyK Ekdifygonf/ odyÜH? vlrla&;? bmompum; ponfh ausmif;oif&kd; bmom&yf

toD;oD;wGifvnf; oifMum;enf; wpfck taejzifh tokH;jyKoifhonf/ Oyrmtm;jzifh &moDOwk ajrykHydkpwm? av`yGefxJwGif ESHaumif\ awmifyH cwfaeonfh "gwfykH? awmifukef;av;ay:wGif wnfxm;udk;uG,faom apwD jzLjzLav;rsm; ponfwdkYjzifh ADGwDtufpf VTS oifMum;enf;udk aygif;pyf tokH;jyKEkdifonf r[kwfyg avm/ txufyg tEkynmjycef;wGif ar;jref;cJhonfh ar;cGef; 3 ckudk ar;jref;jcif;jzifh wpfwef;vkH; yg0ifaqG;aEG; Ekdifygrnf/ uAsmwpfyk'f? odkYr[kwf tjcm;aom zwfpm wpfckckudk zwf½IMuNyD;onfh aemufwGifvnf; txufyg enf;vrf;wdkYudk toHk;jyK oifMum;Ekdifyg onf/ csKyfíqdk&aomf ausmif;om;rsm;tm; tEk ynmvuf&m? ypönf;wpfckckudk Munfh½IapNyD; tEkynm ykHpH? pwkdif? tokH;jyKonfhenf; (wufued)? ESifh acwfouú&mZf? tcsdefumv ponfwdkYudk ar;jref;jcif; tjyif tjriftm&kH cHpm;rIjzifh pOf;pm; awG;awmrI enf;vrf; VTS udk tokH;jyKNyD; oifMum;jcif;yif jzpf onf/ &ocHpm;rIESifh tEkynm ordkif;aMumif;tjyif ydkif;jcm;a0zef pOf;pm;awG;awmrIpGrf;&nf? qufqHa&; pGrf;&nf? tjriftm&kHqkdif&m cHpm;wwf odEkdifpGrf; wdkYudk vnf; zHGU NzdK;apEkdifygonf/ þodkYqdkvQif jrefrmEkdifiH ausmif;ynma&; oif&dk;ñGef;wrf;rsm;wGif tEk&o ynma&;bmom&yf\ tcef;u@ ydkrdkxif&Sm;? xda&muf ay:vGif vmEkdifrnf [kvnf; arQmfvifh rdygownf;/ /

81


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,Ofaus;rI 0daoo wefzdk;rsm;ESifh

,ck aqmif;yg;rSm csLvmavmifaumif; w uúodkvfrS ygarmu© trf;zdkif; wD;&efpef (Ampal Tiran asar) u tm&Sydpdzdwf tEk&o ynma&; nDvmcHwpfck wGif xdkif;&dk;&m tEkynm? xdkif;vlxk\ vl aerIb0? tjyKtrl p&kdufvu©Prsm;? xdkif;tEkynma&;ESifh xkdif;,Ofaus;rI wefzdk;rsm;taMumif; wifjyrSIrS xkwf ESIwfcsuf jzpfonf/ aemufcH xdkif;EkdifiH&JU pD;yGm;a&;ESifh vlrIzHGY NzdK;rIwdkYrSm taemufwkdif; todynmay: trsm;BuD; wnfrSDxm; 82

tEk&o ynma&; 0ifhxef; onfh pufrIvkyfief;ESifh enf;ynmwdkY tay:wGif txl; jyKxm;onf/ xdkvrf;vJGaeaom zHGY NzdK;a&;ykHpHu cRwf acsmfaom NrdKU jyjzpfxGef;rIESifh obm0ywf0ef;usif ysuf qD;rIwdkYuJhodkY BuD;rm;aom jyóemrsm;udk tusKd; quf jzpfvmapNyD; vlxk&JUb0 t&nftaoG;udkyg xd ckdufvmcJhonf/ xdkYaMumifh ,cktcg xdkif;wdkY\ udk,fydkif 'óe? udk,fydkif ,Ofaus;rIESifh yifudk,fa'ocH tody nmudk jyefvnf apmaMumMunfhzdkY tcsdefusaeNyD jzpf onf/ ,Ofaus;rIwpfckonf tjrJ tvIyftcwfrsm; ESifh 'dkif;erpf jzpfaeNyD;? ordkif;qdkif&m vkdtyfcsuf tajct aeopfrsm; ay:xGufvmwdkif; jyefvnf teufzGifhqdkMu zdkY vkdtyfygonf/ tajctaeopfwdkYtay: rlwnfí vl om;wdkYonf ,Ofaus;rI &if;jrpfwdkYudk jyefvnfzGifhqdkjy o ae&ygrnf/ &dk;&mtpOftvm ,Ofaus;rIwdkYudk wD xGifzefwD; tokH;csEkdif&rSm jzpfovdk? wpfzufuvnf; pdefac:rI topfrsm;ESihf &ifqkdif&wJh tcgwdkif; ,Ofaus;rI wdkYudk qufvuf &Sifoefatmif BudK;pm;&rnf jzpfonf/ ordkif;wavQmuf jyifyMoZmvTrf;rdk;cH&rI? Ncdrf;ajcmufcH&rI rnfrQyif &dSapumrl rddrdwdkY&JU yifudk p &dkufoGifjyif vu©P&yfrsm;udk xkdif;trsKd;om; 0daoo tjzpf xdef;odrf;xm;jrJ jzpfonf/ 1880 rS 1925 txd tkyfpkd;cJhonfh bk&if 0csd&m0wfu trsKd;om; wefzdk;t wGuf tajccH a'gufwkdiftjzpf ] EkdifiHESifYvlrsKd;? bmom a&;? oufOD;qHydkifbk&ifpepf } qdkonfh tifpwD usL;&Sif; oHk;ckudk csay;cJhonf/ xdktifpwDusL;&Sif; okH;ck atmuf wGif acwftqufquf xdkif;EkdifiH\ pnf;vkH;rI? vkHjcHKrI? wm0ef,lrIESifh zHGHYNzdK;rIrsm; txdkuftoifh &&dScJhNyD;?


,ckaemufydkif;wGif 'Drdku&ufwpf tpdk;&pepfudkyg pwk w¬ajrmuf tifpwDusL;&Sif;tjzpf aygif;xnfhcJhonf/ acwfNydKif xdkif;trsKd;om; Oy"d&kyf jr§ifhwifa&; twGuf 1976 ckESpfwGif 0efBuD;csKyf ygarmu© xm;eifu vdkif;0dcsrf;u xkdif;,Ofaus;rI tarGESihf *kPfodu©mudk u av;ESifh vli,fvl&G,frsm; wef;zdkod&dSatmif IdentityProject wpfckjzifh pwifcJhonf/ ya&m*suf&JU t"du vkyfief;rSm twdwf ESifh vuf&dS awmf0if bk&ifh rdefYcGef;rsm; jyefYESHapzdkY? vlrI a&;vkyfief;rsm;ESifh zHGYH NzdK; a&; vkyfief;rsm; us,fjyefY apzdkY? ] ,lY,efxdkif;} vdkYac:aom xkdif;vlrsKd;wdkY b0aeenf;xdkifenf; tpD tpOfrsm; jyefYESHapzdkYyif jzpf onf/ 1977 ckESpfwGif National Identity Board tzJGYu awmf0ifbk&ifh zHGYNzdK;a&; vkyfief;rsm;taMumif;? xdkif;EkdifiHESifh xdkif;vlxk\ tjyKoabmaqmifNyD; aumif;rGefonfh oGifjyifvu©P&yfrsm;taMumif;? vlrI zHGYNzdK;a&; vkyfief;rsm; twGuf bmoma&;rS tjyKoabm aqmif tusKd;jyKEkdifrnfh tcsufrsm;taMumif; jynfoludk w&m;0if xkwfjyefay;cJhonf/ xdkif;,Ofaus;rI udpörsm;twGuf ta&;ygqkH; tzJGY rSm ynma&;0efBuD;Xme jzpfvmNyD;aemuf jynfwGif; ESifh EkdifiHwum tqifhrsm;wGif tpdk;&? yk*¾vdu yl;aygif; NyD; ,Ofaus;rIqkdif&m vIyf&Sm;rIrsm; zHGY NzdK;a&;ESifY jr§ifhwif a&;rsm; qufwkdufvkyfvmcJhonf/ xdkif;trsKd;om; ynma&; rl0g' csrSwfonfh The Office of the National Education Commission (ONEC)

uvnf; xdkif; vlrsKd;wdkY&JU todynmudk okawoe vkyf NyD;? ynma&;pepfwGif xkdif;tawG;tac: tjrJ&Sifoef aeapzdkY oifwef;rsm;? tpdk;& taxmuftyHhrsm; ay;vmcJhonf/ ,Ofaus;rI trSwf0daoo zGifhqdkcsuf ,Ofaus;rI (culture) qdkwJh a0g[m&tay: tjrif½Iaxmifh trsKd;rsKd;jzifh zGifhqdkcsufrsm; &dSaomfvnf; ynma&;wGifrl rEkóoaA'ESihf ZD0aA' tjrifESpfcku ae zGifhqdkMuonf/ rEkóaA' t"dyÜg,ft& ,Ofaus;rI qkdonfrSm ] b0aexdkifrIudk rQa0jcif;} (a shared way of life) jzpfonf/ ZD0aA'qkdif&mt& ,Of aus;rIudk ] BuD;xGm;ap aomt&mrsm; twGuf Mum;cH}

(a medium for growing things) tjzpf

&nfñGef;xm;ygonf/ tJ'D zGifhqdkcsuf abmifrsm;t&qdkvQif ,Of aus;rI udk owfrSwfxm;aom vltkyfpk (okdY) vlxkt Mum;&dS &SifoefaexdkifrI ykHp(H the pattern of living) tjzpf jrifMunhf Ekdif ygonf/ xdk&SifoefaexdkifrI ykHpH twGuf oufqkdif&m vltkyfpkrS tarGtjzpf vufcHxm;aom pHwefzdk;rsm;? ,kHMunfcsufrsm;? tjrif rsm;? t,ltqrsm;jzifh &S,f,mvkyfNyD; zHGYNzdK;vmaponf/ ,ck avhvmcsufwGif wpfEkdifiHvkH;&dS vltrsm;pku twkdif;twm wpfcktxd vufcHxm;onfh wefzdk;rsm;ESifh ,kHMunfcsufrsm; tygt0if trsKd;om;a&; tqifh&dS ,Of aus;rIudk zGifYqdk wifjy oGm;ygrnf/ wqufxJyif nation qkdaom pum;&yfrSm t"dyÜg,fqdkvdk&if; 'dG[ jzpfaeonf/ ,Ofaus;rI? &dk;&mt pOftvm? ordkif; ponfhwdkYESifh qufpyfxm;onfh ] vlrsKd;} udk qdkvdkwm jzpfovdk? wpfzufwGifvnf; EkdifiHa&;? pD;yGm;a&;? ppfa&; tiftm;wkdYESifh wnfaqmufxm; onfh ]trsKd;om; EkdifiH} (nation- state) twGuf okH; EIef;wm jzpfaejyefonf/ wpfenf;tm;jzifh 'kwd,t"dyÜg,fwGif ] vlrsKd;} oabmu ygNyD;om;vnf; jzpfaewwfjyefonf/ tvm;wl ] trsKd;om;a&;0g'} (nation lism) onfvnf; vlrsKd;wpfrsKd;\ Zmwdykn *kPfrme udk ajymwmjzpfovdk? trsKd;om;EkdifiH wpfEkdifiH\ tif tm; *kPfj'yfBuD;jrifhrIudk trTef;wifjcif; jzpfaejyefonf/ owdxm;zdkY&mrSm taemufESifh ta&SU rS EkdifiHawmftif tm; jr§ifhwifvdkaom armf'ef trsKd;om;a&;0g'onf t pOftvm &dk;&m,Ofaus;rIrsm; twGuf tEÅ&m,f &dSae onfqdkaom tcsufyif/ ] &dk;&mtpOftvm} [laom tokH;EIef;onf vnf; ] armf'efEkdifaZ;&Sif;} [laom pum;ESihf tjrJajzmifhajzmifh qefYusif aewwfonf/ &dk;&mtpOftvmudk ta[mif;tjrif;oabm ? t EIwfoabm jrifNyD;? armf 'efEkdifaZ;&Sif; twGuf &dk;&mtpOftvm 0ifpGufp&m r&dS[k xifrSwfMuonf/ trSefu &dk;&mtpOftvmESifh armf'efEkdufaZ;&Sif;tMum; qufEG,frIudk [mrdkeD jzpfap &rSm jzpfNyD;? 'dkif,m vufwpfusus a0zefqef;ppf tokH; cs&rSm jzpfonf/ ,Ofaus;rIqdkif&m trSwf0daoo 83


(cultual identity) udk xdef;odrf;zdkYtwGuf azmfjyyg

qkdvkdcsuf tm;vkH;rS b0ykHpHudk t[wfnDnD Munfh jrifzdkY vdkygrnf/ b0aexkdifrIESifh p&dkufobm0 xkdif;vlrsKd;wdkY&JU b0rSm arG;zGm;onfrS aoqkH; onftxd Ak'¨bmomu xdkif;,Ofaus;rIESifh vlrIzJGYpnf; rSItwGuf trsm;BuD; xnfh0ifay;xm;NyD;? xkdif;vlrsKd;\ identity ESifh ,Ofaus;rIudk qufvuf o,faqmifzdkY jzpfaponf/

xkdif;vlrIqufqHa&;wGif wnfNidrfat;aq;rI udk *½kjyKonf/ tjyifyef;tm;jzihf a'go? rESpfNrdKUrI?taESmuft,Sufay;rI azmfjyjcif;udk r,Ofaus;? r&ifhusufrItjzpf jrifwwfMuonf/ pdwfcHpm;csufudk csufjcif; zGihfrcsbJ xdef;csKyfNyD; tNyKH;jzifh azmfjyEkdifzkdY oGefoifxm;onf ...

xkdif;vlrIb0 vlrIqufqHa&;wGif wnfNidrf at;csrf;rIukd *&kjyKonf/ tjyifyef;tm;jzifh a'go? rESpf NrdKUrl? taESmuft,Sufay;rI azmfjyjcif;wdkYudk r,Ofaus; rI? r&ifhusufrItjzpf jrifwwfMuonf/ pdwfcHpm;csufwdkY udk csufcsif;zGifhrcsbJ xdef;csKyfNyD; tjyHK;jzifh azmfjyEkdifzdkY xdkif;,Ofaus;rIu oGefoifxm;onf/ yk*¾dKvfa&; wkduf &dkuf y#dyu© jzpfrI? t&Suf&aprIwdkYudk a&Smif&Sm;NyD; Ekdifvkd rif;xuf jyKrlrIESifh &kefY&if;Murf;wrf;pGm qufqHrIudk t xiftjrif ao;wwfonf/ txufatmuf qufqHaom bk&ifpepfykHpH jzpfaomfvnf; wpfOD;csif; vGwfvyfpGm aexdkifawG;ac: rI individualism p&kdufvu©Prsm;udk xdkif;wdkYwGif trsm;BuD; jrifawGYEdkif onf/ xdkwpfOD;csif; 0g'ykHpHu vlYtzJGYtpnf; tiftm; MuHckdif BuD;rm;apzdkYtwGuf 84

tm;enf; csufvnf; jzpfay: apwwfonf/ txl;ojzifh EkdifiHa&; vlrIa&; pD;yGm;a&; vIyf&Sm;rIwGif rdrdESifhrqdkifovdk zmod zmom pdwf"gwfukd jzp fay: aponf/ odkYESifhwkdif ,Ofaus;rIESihf &kd;&mtpOftvmudk ,kH, kHMunfMunf jrwfjrwfEkd;Ekd; udkifpJGxm;onfh xkdif;vl rsKd;wkdYrSm xdkif;0g' (Thai-ism) jzpfvmNyD; EkdifiHa&; t usyftwnf;ESifh obm0ab;rsm; usa&mufonfh t cgwkdif; tcsif;csif; &dkif;yif;ulnDpdwfrsm; jywwf Muonf/ xdkYaemuf xkdif;vlrsKd;wdkY\ vlrIb0 oGifjyifrsm; xJwGif eufeuf½Idif;½Idif; pJGepfaeonfh vu©P&yf wpf ckuawmh wkywwfaom tavhtusifhyif/ txl;ojzifh xdkif;&kd;&m tEkynmrsm;wGif taemufwkdif; vuf&m wkrSD;xm;rIudk trsm;BuD; awGY&dSEkdifonf/ ynma&; taemufynma&;pepf rusifhokH;rDtxd xdkif; ynma&;rSm ] tdrfoifynma&;? bkef;BuD;ausmif; ynm a&;ESifh eef;wGif;ynma&;} qdkonfh tifpwD&Sif;okH;ck ykHpH jzpfonf/ rdbawGu uav;rsm;ukd tdrftvkyf? vlrI wefzdk;ESifh &dk;&mtpOftvmrsm; oifay;onf/ bkef;BuD; rsm;u pma&;pmzwf? usifh0wfeDwdESifh Ak'¨bmomukd oif Mum;ay;onf/ eef;wGif;wGifrl trsKd;om; *EÅ0iftEkynm bmom&yfrsm;tm;vkH; zHGYNzdK;apzdkY? xdef;odrf;zdkY enf;em aygif;pkHudk oifMum;ay;onf/ rsufarSmufumv xdkif;EkdifiH&JU ta&;BuD;wJh ynma&;vIyf&Sm;rI wpfckudkawmh 1999 ckESpfwGif pwif cJhonf/ Zlvkdifv 1&ufaeYwGif atmufvTwfawmfrS t wnfjyKcsuf rlMurf;udk Mo*kwfv 19 &ufaeYwGif xkdif; bk&ifrif;jrwf blrdabmvfrS eef;wGif; trdefYxkwfjyef csuftjzpf tcrJh roifrae& udk;ESpfoif ynma&;udk aMujimcJhonf/ trsKd;om;ynma&;pepf Oya'\ ta&;BuD; aom tcsufrsm;xJrS wpfckrSm tydk'f 17 &Sd? udk;ESpfwm roifrae& ynma&;wGif tEk&o (Art) udk t"du t odynm e,fy,fBuD; ig;ckxJrS wpfcktjzpf xnfhoGif; xm;jcif; jzpfonf/ Art todynmacgif;pOf atmuf wGif yef;csD *Dw paom tEkynmrsm;? bmoma&;? ,Of aus;rI? tm;upm;? xkdif;todÓPfynmESifh xdkt odÓPfynm


tokH;csrIwdkY yg0ifonf/ oif&kd;ñGef;wrf;wGifvnf; tEk&oudk bm om&yfBuD; wpfcktjzpf owfrSwfxm;onf/ tEk&o bmom&yfwGif tjriftm&kH tEkynm (Visual art )? o&kyfwifqufrSItEkynm (performing arts)ESifY *DwwdkY oHk;ck yg0ifonf/ xkdokH;ckpvkH;rSm ,Ofaus;rI tarGtESpfwdkYtay: tav;uJrIESifh wDxGifzefwD;rIwdkY aygif;pyf xm;onf/ visual art rSm tjriftm&kHtEkynm? ordkif;ESifh ,Ofaus;rIwdkY qufEG,fcsufudk em;vnfcHpm; wefzdk; jzwfwwfapzdkY jzpfonf/ rlvwef;ESifh tv,fwef; tEk&oynma&; oifMum;rIwGif tEkynm zeffwD;rIESifh qufqkdifaom pwl 'D,dk vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;udk t"duxm; oifonf/ pmoifcef; ywf0ef;usifwGif tEkynm vIyf&Sm;rIrsKd;pkH wifquf EkdifzdkY jzpfonf/ odkYaomf vlYtzJGYtpnf;&dS a,bl,s tajc taeESifh ausmif;om;&JU vufawGYb0Mum; uefYowfrI xm;&dSonfh tEkynm vIyf&Sm;rI jzpfonf/ tEk&o oif &dk;ñGef;wrf; &nf&G,fcsufwGif tEk&oudk aeYpOf vlrIb 0wGif tokH;csEkdifa&;? wefzdk;tuJjzwfEkdifa&;udk OD;pm; ay;xm;onf/ odkYESifhwdkif xdkif;pmoifcef;rsm;wGif ausmif; om;trsm;pkrSm tm&SEkdifiHrsm;rS ausmif;om;rsm;vdkyif tjyKcHykHpHESifh EIwfqHGYtaewwf onf/ q&mu bmñTef Mum;rvJ bmzwfckdif;rvJ rnfonfhtdrfpm ay;rvJqdk wmudk apmifhaewwfjrJ jzpfonf/ ar;cGef;ar;zdkYESifh pmoif cef; vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;wGif yl;aygif; yg0ifzdkY tjrJ csDwkHcswkH jzpf aewwfonf/ tEkynm xkdif;EkdifiH\ tEkynmykHpHrsm;rSm &Snfvsm; aom ordkif;aMumif;ESifhtwl xif&Sm;vSonf/ xdkfif;tEk ynmwGif rGef? crm? tdEd´,? w&kwfwdkYESifh taemufwdkif; MoZmrsm; vTrf;rdk;vsuf&dSNyD;? rdrdudk,fydkif tEk&o zHGY NzdK; a&;twGuf tajccHrsKd;pkH &,lxm;onf/ tEkynm ykHpH rsKd;pkHudk jyKjyifrGrf;rH&if; udk,fydkif xkdif;tEkokckr &oy nm tjzpf zefqif;xm;onf/ xdkif;&JU xl;jcm;aom tEkynmykHpH trsKd;rsKd; wGif yef;yk? ausmufqpf&kyf aMu;&kyfpaom owåKykHoGef; vkkyf

ief;? ydokumvkyfief;? yef;csD? vufrIynmtrsKd;rsKd; ESifh yef;twwfwdkYrSm xif&Sm;onf/ &dk;&myef;csDwGifvnf; trsKd;om;,Ofaus;rI identity udk o&kyfazmf a&;qJG wwfMuonf/ xkdif;yef;csDa&;qJGrIwGif ykHo@eftrsKd;rsKd;&dS aomfvnf; tqifhav;qifh cJGjcm;xm;onf/ tdkif'D&,fvpfZif? tkdif'D&,fvpfZifESihf &D&,fvpfZif aygif;pyfrI? &D&,fvpfZif? qm&D&,fvpfZif wdkYjzpfonf/ yxrtqifhtwGuf tjrifhqkH;ykHpH a&;qJGrI wGif jrwfpGmbk&m;ocif? ewfjynfajcmufxyf ponfESifh

bk&ifrsm;taMumif;udk pdwful; a&;qJGMuonf/ 'kwd, tqifhwGif tqifhjrifh vlwef;pm;ESihf bmoma&; 'óersm;udk azmfjyzdkY twdwfrS ul;ajymif; vmwJh &dk;&m aemufudk yef;csDq&mrsm;u vdkuf Muonf/ wwd, tqifhwGifrl yef;csDq&mrsm;u om refvlxkESihf olwdkYywf0ef;usif vlYtzJGYtpnf; tajctae wdkYrS &&dSvmaom tawGY tMuKHrsm;udk cHpm; a&;zJGYMuonf/ xkdtqifhwGif pdwfcHpm;csufrsm;? ywf0ef;usiftm0go (artmosphere)? ordkif;? b0ae xkdif[efrsm;? "avh xkH;pHrsm;? twdwfrS &dk;&m tpOftvmrsm;udk o&kyfazmf Muonf/ pwkwåtqifhwGifrSm;,Gif;aomvkyf&yfrsm;udk owday;onfh taejzifh aMumufrufzG,f pdwfajcmu fjcm;zG,f jrifuGif;rsm;? i&JbkHom;rsm;ESihf avmui&J 85


taMumif;rsm; a&;qJG Muonf/ xkdif;&dk;&m yef;csD t,ltqrsm;wGif Ak'¨bm om? obm0ywf0ef;usifwdkYESifh qufpyfaeaom vl om;tjyKtrl? b0aexdkif[efwdkYjzifh ywfoufaeonf/ &dk;&m yef;csDudk t,ltqtm;jzifh ig;rsKd; cJGjcm;xm;onf/ (1) vlom;tjyKtrlrsm;ESifh olwdkY twGif;pdwf obm0/ xkda&;om;csufwGif tcspf? trkef;? avmb? a'goESihf oem;MuifemrIwdkY yg0ifonf/ Oyrm? wdkufyJG jrifuGif; wpfckwGif pdwfcHpm;csuf tDrdk;&Sif; trsKd;rsKd;udk xif[yf aponf/ (2) vlom;xktMum;u tjyKtrlrsm;/ Ak'¨ bmomay: tajccHonfh &dk;&myef;csDa&;qJGrIwGif vlY tzJGYpnf;&dS vlxk&JU tppftrSef b0udkvnf; a&;qJGMu onf/ bk&if? eef;wGif;? omref vlxkwdkYMum;rS trsKd;rsKd; aom qufqHa&;ykHpHudk azmfjy Muonf/ tcsKdU yef;csDum; rsm;wGif omrefvlxk&JU aysmf&TifrI 0rf;enf;rI p&dkufvu© Pmrsm;? ya&my&nfvkyfaeykHrsm;? uav;rsm; aqmh u pm;aeykHrsm;udk azmfjywwfMuonf/ (3) vlxkESihf olwdkY ywf0ef;usifMum;rS tjyK trlrsm;/ obm0 ½IjrifuGif;rsm;ESihf vlzefwD;aom t aqmuftOD; vuf&mrsm;udk azmfjyonf/ (4) i&JBuD;&SpfxyfESihf avmui&J tygt0if vufawGYvGef vlom;tjyKtrlESihf ,kHMunfcsufrsm;/ (5) vlYtzJGYtpnf;twGif;&dS vlom;&JU pm&dwå weffzdk;rsm;? tjyKaqmif&Gufcsufrsm;/ Ak'¨bk&m;&Sif\ b0 a[mif;rsm;udk azmfjyxm;onfh aumif;rI raumif;rI rSwfwrf;rsm;/ txufyg tcsufwdkYudk MunfhvQif xkdif;&dk;&m yef;csDtay: Ak'¨'óeESifh ,kHMunfrIo'¨gpdwfu vTrf; jcHKxm;onfudk awGYjrifEkdifonf/ acwfNydKiftEkynm 1993 ckESpf xdkif;EdkifiHwGif tvuFmqdkif&m tEkynm Fine Arts Academy xl axmif cJhcsdef rSpí rsufarSmufacwf tEkynm pwif cJhonf[k qdk&ygrnf/ tEkynm oifwef;twGuf tajccHrlrsm;uawmh obm0 w&m;eJY &kd;&m tEkynmwdkYudk avhvmjcif;jzpfonf/ ajz&Sif;zdkY tcuftcJqkH; jyóemrSm tu,f'rD 86

ausmif;twGuf oif&kd;ñGef;wrf; a&; JGjcif; jzpf\/ &dk;&mtwGuf ykHaotxyfxyf avhusifhae vdkYvnf; topfxGufvmrSm r[kwfovdk? xkdif;tEkynm 0dnOfuae xGufajy;NyD; taemufwkdif;ykHpH tvGwfwkrSD; aevdkYvnf; rjzpfyg/ xdkYaMumifhyif tEkynma[mif;udk okawoevkyf&if;? obm0w&m;ESihf vufawGYe,fy,f uae vwfqufaom zefwD;rIrsm; ay:xGufzdkY qkH;jzwf csufcscJhMuonf/ twdwfu &dk;&m yef;csDrsm;rSm yef;csDq&mawG &JU bmoma&;,kHMunfcsuftay: a&mifjyef[yfxm;onf/ twdwfwGif yef;csDq&mrsm;ESihf vlxk\ vdktifawmifhw rIrsm;rSm enf;yg;vSonf/ ,aeYacwfwGif &kyf0 w¬K vdktifqE´ESifh wdk;wufvIyf&Sm;rIrsm;u jrefqefvGef; aeonf/ yef;csDum;wpfcsyfudk yef;csDq&mu pufESifh vSnfhxkwfvdkufovdk NyD;ajrmufapNyD;? vuf&mzef;wD; csufwGifrl touf0dnmOfu aysmufqkH; aewwfonf/ twdwfvuf&mrsm;vdkyif rsufarSmufacwf tEkynmrsm;wGifvnf; jzwfoef;aeaom acwfvlom; xk&JU touf0dnmOfudk zefqif; xnfhoGif;ay;EkdifzdkY vdkyg rnf/ tEkynm&Sifwpfa,mufonf rdrdMuHKawGY jzwf oef;ae&aom ywf0ef;usifu vIHYaqmfvmwJh tDrdk;&Sif; rsm;udk omrefvlxuf tm&kHEl;nHhcHpm; wwf&rnf/ t xl;ojzifh NrdKU jyrsm;? armf'efEkdufaZ;&Sif;rsm; tay: cHpm;rI wGif twdwfu EkdifiHjcm; MoZmvTrf;rdk;rIudk txifao; rIrsm;rS vrf;cJGxGuf&rnf jzpfonf/ taemufwkdif; OyrmvdkygyJ? armf'efoifMum; enf;pepfwGif vli,frsKd;qufopfrsm;udk tajccHusNyD; urÇmavmuwpfckvkH; jcHKikHrdaomtcsufrsm; wwf ajrmufap&rnf/ xkdtcsufu xkdif;wdkY\ pdwfydkif;qdkif&m tajymif;tvJudk eufeuf½Idif;½dIif; ykHazmfay;aeonf/ armf'eftekynm oifMum;a&;wGif yef;csDq&mvufopf wdkYtzdkY twdwf*EÅ0ifo&kyfazmfa&;abmifwdkYrS vGwf ajrmufap&ygrnf/ todynm us,f0ef;rIu pdwf ul;pdwfoef; e,fy,fudk csJU xGif Ekdifap&rnf/ &v'ftjzpf xdkif;vli,f tEkynm&SifwdkYwGif rdrdudk,fydkif t,ltqrsm;ESifh oufqkdifaom zefwD;rIt opfrsm; qmavmifrGwfodyfvmzdkY jzpfonf/ vlxk&JU vufiif; wefzdk; tuJjzwfcsufrsm;udk ausmfvGef zefwD;


Ekdifrnfh &J0Hhaom vuf&mopfrsm; ay:xGufvmzdkY jzpf onf/ xkdif;EkdifiH&dS vlwdkif;wGif pdk;rdk;xm;aom udk,fydkif ordkif;opfudk xif[yfaprnfh r&dSrjzpf vuf&mrsm; ay:xGufapzdkY jzpfonf/ ynma&;rsufESmpmwGifvnf; taemufrS vmaom odyÜHenf;us okawoe vkyfxm;onfh tEky nm oif&dk;pmtkyfrsm; wefzdk;udkvnf; avQmhrwGufoifh yg/ ta&SU wkdif;om;wdkYtaejzifh twdwfu olwdkY pdwf xJwGif &dSdxm;aom 'óe tjrifrsm;udkom tokH;cs a&; qJGavh &dScJhonf/ ynma&;qdkonfrSm vlxkpdwfzJGYpnf;rI twGuf t"dutcsuf jzpfjcif;aMumifh? ,cktcg t aemufESihfta&SU tkdif'D,mrsm;udk orrQwpGm oifMum; ay;zdkY vkdtyfaeonf/ tEk&o ynma&; xdkif;EkdifiHwGif vlom;xkrSm ,Ofaus;rItarG udk xdef;odrf;apmifha&SmufzkdYom ta&;ygwmr[kwf?t rsKd;om; ,Ofaus;rIudk jyefvnfcHpm;wifjyrI? a0zefydkif; jcm;rIrsm; twGufvnf; ta&;ygonf/ armf'efacwf&JU

pdefac:rIrsm;udk t[yfrSDzdkYtwGuf vlxkudk,fwkdifu tEk ynm cHpm;zefwD;EkdifpGrf; &dSMu&rnf/ xkdif;trsKd;om; idintity ykHazmfzJGYwnf&mrSm ,Ofaus;rI tiftm;tjzpf Ak'¨bmomESifh Ak'¨&JU udk,fusKd;rzuf tepfemcHrIrsm;udk pHerlem ,lMuzdkY jzpf onf/ tMurf;zufrI avsmhyg;apa&;? obm0 ywf0ef; usifrsm;udk wefzdk;xm; apmifha&Smufa&; ?yk*¾dKvfa&; quf qHrI? tjrifoabmxm; rwlrItay: onf;cHEkdifpGrf;&dSa&; wdkYudk bmoma&; tajccH &dk;&m tpOftvmrS ,lNyD; acwf opfykHpHESifh jyefvnfzGifhqdk wifjyvmMuonf/ ausmif;oif tEk&oynma&; twGuf t,l tqrSm uav;awGudk vlaerIb0ykHpHtoD;oD;&dS tEky nm vuf&mrsm;udk cHpm;wwf? wefzdk; tuJjzwfwwfap zdkYESifh vlYtzJGYpnf;wGif tEkynm tcef;u@ ta&;BuD;ykH udk tav;*&kjyKMuapzkdY jzpfonf/ tEkynm tarGtESpfrsm;udk avhvm oif,l jcif;jzifh ausmif;ol ausmif;om;rsm;onf twdwfypöKyÜef&dS ,Ofaus;rI tarGrsm;ESifh qufpyfaeaom tEky nm tm;xkwfrIrsm;udk wefzdk;xm; xdef;odrf;csifpdwf &dS vmMurnf/ ppfrSefaom tEk&otod &&dSoGm;vQif udk,fydkif zefwD;csifpdwfrsm; udef;atmifvmrnf/ vlYtzJGY tpnf;&dS tEkynm tcef;u@udk avhvm od&Sdvdkuf &aomtcg tEkynmqdkwm omrmefjzpf&yfrQ r[kwfbJ? &ifqdkifMuHKawGY&aom b0enf;vrf; wpfcktjzpf jrif wwf? tm&HkcHwwfvmrnf/ ,Ofaus;rI tm;vkH;wGif yg0ifaeonfh vl awGY&JU cHpm;csufrsm;udk uav;awG owdjyKvmatmif tjriftm&kH ykHpHrsm; (Visual forms) udk oifMum;ay; &rnf/ tjriftm&kH cHpm;rIrsm;rSwqifh rdrdonf vlYt zJGYtpnf;0if jzpfaMumif;? vlYtzJGYtpnf;&JU identity udk wefzdk;xm;zdkY vdkaMumif;ESifh rdrdudk,fydkif identity rsm; vnf; zefwD;xnfh0if ay;zdkYvdkaMumif; uav;rsm; em; vnfvmatmif ulnDay;&rnf/ uav;rsm; ,Ofaus;rItay: em;vnf od&dS vmjcif;u tEkynmtwGuf olwdkYqDrSm jcm;em;aom wkefYjyefcsuf trsKd;rsKd; &&dSvmaprnf/ olwdkY &if;ESD; ESpf oufaom &kyfykHrsm;? oauFwrsm;? 'DZkdif; t&nftaoG; rsm; xGufvmrnf/ tkyfpkA[kdjyKpdwfESifh rdrdA[kdjyKpdwf ESpf 87


rsKd; pvkH;aom pdwftm;wuf<urIrsm; ay:xGufvmrnf/ ,Ofaus;rI tajymif;tvJtwGuf i,fpOfuwnf;u rddrdudk,fwkdif yg0ifcsifpdwfrsm; udef;atmif vmrnf/ ,Ofaus;rI identity eJY ywfoufwJh tEk&o oifcef;pma&;qJGa&;rSm uav;awGqDrS pdwf0ifpm; wkefYjyefrI trsKd;rsKd; &&dSzdkY wJced trsKd;rsKd;udk okH;Ekdifygonf/ (1) oauFw0g'ESihf *,ufteuf &SmazGrI ( exploring symbolism and connotation) / /o auFw&JU qdkvdkcsufuawmh tjriftm&kHjzifY vufcHod&dSwJh t&m&mwdkif;tay: oauFwxkwfwwfzdkY/ uav;awG i,fpOfrSm MuHKawGYae&wJh taMumif;t&mawG? rdom;pk jzpf&yfawG? bmoma&; xkH;wrf;pOfvmawG? a'oESifh EkdifiH&dS &dk;&mtpOftvmawGudk oauFw eJY odjrifcHpm;wwf zefwD;wwfzdkY jzpfonf/ (2) tquftpyf taMumif;t&m tajct ae (context) udk owdjyKrdapzdkY/ /tajctae wpf&yf&JU aemufcH oGifjyifvu©Pmrsm;udk od&dSapzdkY jzpfonf/ context wGif tcsdefjy (temporal context) ? ae&mjy (spatial context)? vlrIYjy (social context) wdkYyg 0ifonf/ umv? tcsdef? ae&m? qufqHa&; ?wefzdk;? vufawGYusrI pwJh taMumif; tquftpyfrsm; aemuf uG,frS vlrsm; jzpf&yfrsm; t&m0w¬Krsm;udk jrifwwfMu &rnf/ (3) xyfwlcHpm;Munfhjcif;ESifh pdwftuGmt a0; xdef;xm;jcif;(empathizaing and maintaing psychic distance)/ / tajctaersm;tay: rdrdtm&kH tm;vkH;udk ypfvTwfxm;jcif; jzpfonf/ tajctaewpfck udk rdrdzmom pdwful; ykHazmfMunfhNyD; rdrdtm&kH wGif t&m&mudk toufoGif;Munfhjcif; jzpfonf/ empathy vkyfief;wGif oufrJht&m0w¬K wpfckudk rdrdudk,fwdkifu olYae&m0ifNyD; vdkufvH cHpm;Munfhjcif;rsKd; jzpfonf/ oifhwifh avsmufywfaom pdwfydkif;qkdif&m tuGmta0; xlaxmifrIrsm;yg vdktyfvmonf/ "r®"dXmefusrIESifh yk*¾v"dXmefusrIwdkY tMum; csdefcGifvQm nDrQatmif (a

rsm;udk pdwful;jzifh ajc&mcHMunfhaom jzpfpOf jzpfonf/ r wljcm;em;aom qdk'ft&G,ftpm;? tokH;jyK ypönf;rsm;? wJ cedrsm; pwmawGudk a&G;cs,fNyD; rdrdcHpm;csufESihf tvkyf udk &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; wifjyEkdifzdkY &SmazGMunfhjcif; jzpf onf/ xdkYtjyif tEk&o q&mrsm; taejzifh ausmif; ol ausmif;om;ESifh q&mtMum; qufEG,fcsufudkvnf; pOf;pm;oifhonf/ q&mrsm;a&m ausmif;om;yg olwdkY &dSaewJh ynma&; ywf0ef;usifudk nd§EIdif;qufpyf ,lwwf zdkYvdkrnf/ wcsKdU q&mrsm;u xdkif;vlrI obm0,Ofaus; rIrsm;udk tuJay;vGef;aomtcg tEkynma&; yef;wdkif jzpfonhf avmu obm0&orsm; cHpm;wwfzdkY twGuf t[efYtwm; jzpfap wwfonf/ 'Dae&mwGif owdxm;zdkY wpfckrSm txuf atmuf tpOftvm ykHpH&dSaom xdkif;q&mwynfh quf qHa&;udk jyefvnf okH;oyfzdkY jzpfonf/ tay:,H q&m wynfh vkyf&dk;vkyfpOf 0wfaus wef;aus trlt,m jy&kH ESihf r&/ wynfhrsm;u q&mudk &kyfykdif; pdwfydkif; av;pm;rI jy&rSm jzpfovdk? q&muvnf; olwdkYtjyKtrlwkdif;twGuf av;pm; wm0ef,lrI &dSae& ygrnf/ wynfhrsm;&JU av;pm;rI&&dSzdkYtwGuf q&mrsm;&JU aumif;jrwfaom t&nftcsif; (merit) rsm;u ta&; ygvSonf/ tEk&o oifMum;a&;wGif q&mwynfh tjyeftvSef av;pm;rIu tEkynmopf ,Ofaus;rI opfrsm; zefwD;ay:xGef;apzdkY tc&m usaeonf/ aemuf xkdif;,Ofaus;rI&JU tm;omcsuf t rSwf wpfckrSm ] at;jraom ESvkH;om;} (cool heart) p&dkufobm0 &dSrIjzpfonf/ xdktcsufonf oifhwifh avsmufywfaom tajctae zefwD;zdkY tjrJtokH;us onf/ tEkynm vkyfief;wpfckwGif ppfrSefaom cHpm; csuf azmfjyEdkifzkdYtwGuf? jyify aexdkifrIwGif rdrd&JU t vG,fwul pdwfvIyf&Sm;rIrsm;udk csKd;ESdrfzkH;zd orm"dxm;Ekdif&rnf/ 'gaMumifh q&mawGu olwdkY ausmif;om;awGudk tEkky nm tvkyfrsm;rSmawmh cHpm;csufESifh tdkif'D,mawG vGwf bala nace between total objectivity and tatal vGwfvyfvyf azmfxkwfzdkY tm;ay;&rnf/ subjectivity) xdef;nd§ xm;&rnf/ ] jidrfoufaom ESvkH;om; } xm;&dSrI t,ltq (4) rSef;qjcif; (speculating)/ /tjriftm onf tEk&o oifcef;pmtwGuf ta&;BuD; vSonf/ &kHykHpH&JU ta&;ygrIudk aumif;aumif; ykHazmfEkdifzdkY oJvGefp pmoifcef;twGif; tkyfpkzJGY vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;wGif ausmif; 88


om;rsm;tMum; oifhwifhavsmufywfaom tjyeft vSef vlrIqufqHa&; &&dSzkdY ta&;BuD;onf/ rdrdt,lt qESifh tdkif'D,mrsm;udk wnfwnfNidrfNidrf azmfjyEkdifpGrf;&dSzdkY vdk tyfovdk? tjcm;olrsm;&JU tjrift,ltqrsm;udk vnf; av;av;pm;pm; oif,lzdkY vdkrnf/ jidrfoufaom ESvkH;om; xm;&dSaom? xdyfwdkufwdk;vmrnfh vlrIa&; jyóemrsm; twGuf pdk;&drfylyefrIr&dSaom? tvG,fwul a'goxGufjcif; r&dSaom wefzdk;BuD; tEkynmESihf ,Ofaus;rI vkyfief;opf rsm; ay:xGuf vmrnf jzpfonf/ jidrfoufaom ESvkH;om; p&dkufvu©PmESifh twl xkdif;vlxk&JU wpfOD;csif; todpdwf (individua listic sence) rsm;udkvnf; tEk&o ynma&;xJ tusKd;&dS&dS xnfhoGif; EkdifzdkYvkdrnf/ wpfOD;csif;&JU vGwfvyfaom pdwf0dnmOfonf 'Drdkua&pD vlYtzJGYt pnf;twGuf aumif;rGefaom tajccH tkwfjrpf jzpfonf/ xdkY aMumifhyif tEk&o q&mq&mrrsm; taejzifh ausmif; om;rsm;&JU wdk;wufrIudk jr§ifhwif&mrSm xkdif;,Ofaus;rI trSwfvu©Prsm; (traits) rS oifhavsmfrI rSeforQudk a&G; cs,f tokH;jyK&rnf jzpfonf/ xdkif;&JU ajrmufrsm;pGmaom tEkynmrsm; t

euf eH&Haq;yef;csDonf ta&;ygvSonf/ cE¨mudk,f t jyKtrl [efyeftaetxm;? &dk;&m"avhxkH;pHESihf t0wf tpm;? &dk;&mtu paomo@efawGrS eH&Haq;yef;csDudk ajymifajrmufpGm a&;qJGazmfjyMuonf/ eH&Haq;yef;csD&JU xl;jcm;csufwpfckrSm [efyeftrlt&mudk azmfjyjcif;jzifh pdwfcHpm;csuf p&kdufobm0 wdkYudkyg wifjyEkdifpGrf; jzpf onf/ cE¨udk,f vuf[efajc[ef bmompum;onf bJav;urS pddwfcHpm;csuf tajctae azmfjyrIrsKd;ESifh wlvSonf/ xdkYaMumifhyif xkdif;,Ofaus;rI tEkynmtrsKd; rsKd; us,fus,fjyefYjyefY ydkrdk½IjrifEkdifrIudk OD;wnfapzdkYESifh trsKd;om;,Ofaus;rI identity jrifhrm; ckdifrmvmapzdkY twGuf tEk&oynma&;udk t&dSeft[kefjr§ifh aqmif&Guf zdkY vdktyfaMumif; wifjyvdkuf&ygonf/ rl&if;pmwrf; &nfnGef; Cultural Identity and Art Education in Thailand by Ampai Tiransar , Ph.D

acwfa[mif;acwfopf ynma&;pepf acwfa[mif;ynma&;pepf\ tBuD;rm;qkH;aom qkd;usdK;wpfckrSm vlwkdif;twGuf udkufnDrI&Sdjcif;? r&Sdjcif;udk rpOf;pm;bJ tm;vkH;twGuf wajy;nD owfrSwfxm;jcif;yif jzpfavonf/ acwfopfynma&; pepf rsm;onf xkdtm;enf;csufudk jyKjyifzdkY trsdK;rsdK; BudK;pm;Muygonf/ acwfopfudkom OD;pm;ay;aom ynma&;pepfwGifvnf; qkd;usdK;rsm;&Sdygonf/ txif&Sm;qkH; qkd;usdK; wpfckrSm tjrifusOf;ajrmif;NyD; ta0;odkY rjrifjcif;jzpfonf/ ynma&;\ &nf&G,fcsufwpfckrSm ypöKyÜefumvwpf ckwnf;ay:wGifom pdwftm½kHudk xm;&Sdjcif;tm; y,fzsufypf&ef jzpfonf/ acwfopf\ 0g'jzefYrIrsm;udkom ,kHMunfNyD; udk,fhudk,fukd txifBuD;pdwfrsm;? wukd,faumif;pdwf rsm; jzpfvmMuonf/ udk,fhacwfudk tjcm;acwfrsm;ESihf EdIif;,SOfavhvmcGifh r&&Sdojzihf udk,fhacwfudk a0zefEkdif pGrf; r&SdMuyg/ qm &pfcsufvpfAif;pwkef; t*Fvdyf tEkokckrynm&Sif

89


tEkynma&; oif½dk;nTef;wrf; tEkynm bmom&yf The Arts

tEkynmbmom&yfqkdonfrSm tEkynmbmom&yf The Arts wGif oif,lavhvm&rnfhe,fy,frsm;rSm atmufygwkdYjzpfMuonf/ (1) *Dw (2) tu (3) yef; (10)rsdK;ESifh 'DZkdif;ynm (4) tdrfwGif;rI? b0wGufwmuRrf;usifp&m (5) pmMunfhwkduf tokH;jyKjcif; (6) rD'D,m ta&;BuD;ykH þtEkynmbmom&yf\ tcsdKUaom oif,lavhvm&rnfhe,fy,frsm; (acgif;pOfBuD;rsm;) udk ,cifumvrsm; wGif wJGzufoif½dk;taejzihf xnhfoGif;í avhusihfoifMum;jcif;rsm; &SdcJhonf/ okdYaomf jrefrmEkdifiH\ tajccHynma&; wGif xda&mufatmifjrifpGm vkyfaqmifEkdifjcif; r&Sdonfudk avhvmawGU&Sd&ygonf/ þbmom&yfrSm tjcm;aom bm om&yfrsm;ESihf oif,lavhvmrIe,fy,frsm;enf;wl ynm&yfwefzkd;rsm;ESihf vufawGUtokH;0ifjcif;rsm; rsm;jym;vSay onf/ oufarG;0rf;ausmif; tvkyftudkifrsm;txdvnf; ykHazmfxm;&Sdonfudk avhvmawGU&SdEkdifonf/ txl;ojzihf ausmif;ol ausmif;om;rsm;\ pGefYOD;wDxGifzefwD;vkdpdwf (Creativity)ESihf a0zefydkif;jcm; pOf;pm;awG;ac:jcif; (Critical Thinking)\ pGrf;&nfrsm;udk þbmom&yfe,fy,fwGif rsm;pGmavhusihfysdK;axmif ay;Ekdifygonf/ odkYjzpfygí þbmom&yfudk txifu& bmom&yfBuD;wpfck (t"duoif,l avhvm&rnfh e,fy,fwpf&yf)t aejzihf oif½dk;ñTef;wrf;zJGUpnf;rIwGif xnhfoGif;xm;&Sdonf/ rlvwef;atmufqihfrsm;wGif tcsdefrsm;rsm;jzihf avhusihf oifMum;ay;oihfygonf/ rlvwef;txufqifhESihf txufwef;atmufqifhwkdYwGif ykHrSefyif&if;bmom&yf tqifht wef;jzihf tcsdefZ,m;wGif txifu& xnhfoGif;í oufqkdif&m txl;jyKq&m q&mrrsm;jzihf avhusihfoifMum;ay;& rnf/ tcsdKUaom ausmif;ol ausmif;om;rsm;twGuf txufwef;txufqifhwGif bmomwJGrsm;jzihf txl;jyKaom oifwef;rsm;? oufarG;0rf;ausmif; aumvdyfrsm;wGif 0goemESihf pdwfyg0ifpm;rIt& qufvufavhvmqnf;yl;EkdifMu rnfjzpfonf/ 90


ausmif;ol ausmif;om;rsm; oif,lavhvm&rnfh e,fy,frsm; (1) *Dw ed'gef; *Dw[lonf toHjzifhvnf;aumif; (odkYr[kwf) wl&d,m oHpOfrsm;jzihfvnf;aumif;? pdwfcHpm;rIrsm;udk ,SOfwGJ aygif;pyfvQuf oHpkHrsm;? ykHo@mefrsm;jzifh azmfjyaom vSyonfh tEkynmwpf&yfyif jzpfonf/ &nfrSef;csuf *DwtEkynmoifMum;&jcif;jzihf uav;rsm;onf *DwtEkynmESihf aeYpOfvlrIb0&SifoefrItMum; qufpyfrI udk odem;vnfNyD; wkdif;&if;om;wkdY\ ½dk;&m*DwESihf EkdifiHwum*DwwkdYudk xdawGUcHpm;jrwfEkd;wwfvmap&ef &nf&G,fjcif; jzpfonf/ xkdrSwpfqifh uav;wdkY\ *Dwqkdif&mtjrifESihf wDxGifzefwD;rIwkdY us,fjyefYvmap&rnf jzpfonf/ &nf&G,fcsuf 1 *DwzefwD; wDxGifrI pGrf;&nf&&Sdvmap&ef/ 1 *DwtEkynm\ wefzkd;udk od&Sdem;vnfí jrwfEkd;wwfvmap&ef/ 1 wpfOD;csif;pD\ cHpm;csufudk azmfxkwfwifjywwf&ef/ 1 *DwtEkynmudk tzJGUvdkuftwlwuG pkaygif;zefwD; wDxGifwwf&ef/ 1 EdkifiHwumtqihfrD *Dwtjzpf pepfwus zefwD;Ekdif&ef/ 1 wkdif;&if;om;tvkduf ½dk;&m,Ofaus;rIrsm;rS qif;oufvmaom aw;*Dw ykHo@mef trsdK;rsdK;udk od&Sdem;vnf NyD; udk,fwkdifujy oDqkdwifqufwwf&ef/ 1 *Dwt*Fg&yfrsm;\ tajccHa0g[m&rsm;ESihf *DwoHpOftrsdK;rsdK;udk A[kokwtjzpf od&Sdap&ef/ 1 tajccH*DwoauFwrsm;udk em;vnfNyD; a&;wwf? zwfwwf&ef/ 1 wkdif;&if;om;½dk;&m wl&d,mrsm;ESihf EkdifiHwumokH; wl&d,mrsm;udk tjrif? tMum;jzihf cJGjcm;od&Sd&ef/ 1 ½dk;&mtpOftvm aw;*Dw\ aemufcHorkdif;ESihf ,Ofaus;rIudk odjrifNyD; tjcm;aom *DwykHpH Style rsm;jzihf qufEG,faerIudk pl;prf;&SmazGwwf&ef/ 1 oDcsif;qkdjcif;? wl&d,mwD;rIwfjcif;ESihf uckefvIyf&Sm;jcif;rsm;twGuf tajccHenf;emrsm;udk wwfajrmuf&ef/ 1 *DwoHpOfrsm;udk pepfwus cJGjcrf;pdwfjzmNyD; em;axmifwwf&ef/ 1 *DwwifqufrIrsm;udk tao;pdwf okH;oyfwwf&ef/ 1 vlrIb0twGif; *Dwukd ESpfoufjrwfEkd;wwfNyD; cHpm;aysmf&Tifwwf&ef/ 1 uGJjym;jcm;em;aom ,Ofaus;rItoD;oD;&Sd aw;*Dwrsm;udk &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif;? us,fus,fjyefYjyefY em;vnf cHpm; wwfvmap&ef/ 1 q&m q&mrwkdY\ uGyfuJrIjzihf *DwoHpOfrsm;udk tcsufusus zefwD;zJGUqkdwwf&ef/ (c) tu pnf;csufudkufnDaom udk,fum,vIyf&Sm;rIjzihf t"dyÜg,fwpfrsdK;rsdK;udk azmfaqmifNyD; ykHoP²meftrsdK;rsdK;ESihf

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ujywifqufjcif;jzpfonf/ vlrIa&; yJGvrf;obifrsm;? Zmwfobif? vlrsdK;pkrsm;ESihf oufqkdif&m bmoma&; yJG awmfrsm; wGif ,Ofaus;rItvdkuf tuya'omrsm;jzihf wifqufMuavh&Sdygonf/ ausmif;ol ausmif;om;rsm; onf tuudk wDxGefzefwD;csufrsm;? qef;opfcsufrsm;? wifqufcsufrsm;? jyefvSefavhvmcsufrsm;jzihf rdrd\ vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;? tjcm;olrsm;? tjcm;aom (wkdif;&if;om;ESihf EkdifiHwum) ,Ofaus;rIrsm;\ tursm;udk pkHpkHnDnD avhvmMuyg onf/

1

1 1 1 1

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yef;csD- ykHqJG? aq;a&; twwfynm yef;yk- ½kyfvkH;azmf? tajymufxk twwf ynm yef;yJ - oHxnfvkyf twwfynm yef;wdrf- a&Txnf? aiGxnfvkyf twwfynm yef;&H - tkwfpD twwfynm yef;awmh- t*Faw twwfynm yef;warmh- ausmufqpf twwfynm yef;yGwf- yGwfcH twwfynm yef;wOf;- aMu;oGef;? aMu;cuftwwfynm yef;,Gef;- ,Gef;ajymufxkd; twwfynm

(C) yef;q,frsdK;ESihf 'DZkdif;ynm yef; 10 rsdK; twwfynmoifMum;jcif; yef; 10 rsKd;rSm jrefrmwkdif;&if;om;wkdY\ ½kd;&mtpOf tvmt& ,Ofaus;rItwGif; wnf&SdaecJhonfrSm ESpf aygif;axmifESihfcsDí MumjrifhcJhNyDjzpfonf/ EkdifiHawmf\ a'otoD;oD;wGif þynm&yfrsm;jzifh ,Ofaus;rIudk xdef;odrf;jcif;ESihf b0toufarG;0rf;ausmif; tvkyft udkiftrsdK;rsdK; vkyfudkifaeMujcif;rsm;udk txift&Sm; awGU jrifEkdifonf/ ausmif;ynma&;\ tEkynmbmom&yf wGif þyef;q,frsdK;udk oifMum;oihfonfh e,fy,f &yfrsm;taejzihf xnhfoGif;jcif;rSm rsm;pGmoifhavsmfvS ayonf/ rlvwef;tqifhrSpí tqifhwkdif;wGif oifh awmfudkufnDrnfh oifcef;pmrsm;udk zefwD;Ekdifygonf/ xkdYtjyif e,fajra'otvdkuf xif&Sm;onfh tvkyf tudkifrsm;\ tajccHtaejzihfvnf;aumif;? ½dk;&m,Of aus;rIudk xdef;odrf;jcif;taejzihfvnf;aumif;? pGefYOD; wDxGif zefwD;vdkpdwfudk ysdK;axmifjcif;taejzihfvnf; aumif;? tajccHynma&;wGif xnhfoGif;jcif; jzpfyg onf/ obm0xGufukefypönf;rsm;udk tokH;jyKNyD; qef;opf wDxGif &onfjzpf&m o,HZmwrsm;\ tokH;0ifrIESifh twwfynm&yfrsm;tvkduf aygif;pyfí vlrItodkif; t0dkif;\ tajccHvkdtyfcsufrsm;udk jznhfqnf;ay;jcif; oabmobm0udk xJxJ0if0if odjrifcHpm;em;vnfEkdif ap&efvnf; jzpfonf/ zefwD;rI tEkynm\ tpdwftydkif;jzpfaom yef; 10 rsdK;twwfynmonf zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpk jrefrmEkdifiH&Sd wkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK;wkdY\ 0daoo½dk;&m twwf ynm jzpfonf/ 4if;wkdYrSm 92

yef; 10 rsdK; (odkYr[kwf) zefwD;rI tEkynm bmom&yfrsm;\ ta&;ygrI ausmif;om;vli,frsm;tm; todynm? uRrf; usifrI? pm&dwåESihf &ocHpm;wwfrI? wefzkd;xm;wwfrI wdkYtwGuf jyKpkysdK;axmif&mwGif zefwD;rI tEkynm\ tcef;u@rSm txl;ta&;BuD;ygonf/ jrefrmEkdifiH&Sd wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;\ rd½dk;zvm zefwD;rItEkynm vkyfief;jzpfaom yef; 10 rsdK; twwfynmudk wynfh ausmif;ol ausmif;om;rsm;tm; oifMum;ay;jcif;? 'DZdkif; ykHpHtrsdK;rsdK;udk udk,fwkdif wDxGifzefwD;apjcif;jzihf ausmif;om;rsm;onf wDxGifBuHqrI t&nftaoG; wkd;wufjrihfrm;apNyD; twwfynmrsm;ESihf &if;ESD;uRrf; 0ifrIudk &&Sdapygonf/ Oyrm - wynfhausmif;om;rsm; onf yef;csDynmoifMum;ay;jcif;jzihf pdwful;ÓPfudk


aeYpOf0wfpm;qif,ifrIESihf tokH;taqmifrsm; t wGuf txnftvdyfESihf ukefMurf;rsm;/ 1 pm;? 0wf? aea&;twGuf vdktyfonfh tajccHvlokH; ukefypönf;rsm;\ tokH;0ifrIwefzkd;rsm;udk od&Sd em; vnfí rdrdESihfrdom;pk\ vdktyfcsufrsm;ESihf aMumfjim rsm;\ 0g'jzefYcsDjcif;rsm;ukd od&Sdem;vnfap&ef/ rdom;pk0ifrsm; pkaygif;aexkdifMuaom tdrfwpf tdrftwGif;ü pm;0wfaea&;? ynmoifMum;a&;? usef; rma&;? oma&;ema&;paom vlrIudpörsm;udk vlom;wdkif; rvJGraoG BuKHawGUMu&ygrnf/ rdrdwdkY\ b0&Sifoef &nf&G,fcsufrsm; &nfwnfa&;udk ajz&Sif;aqmif&GufEkdif&eftwGuf tdrf 1 ausmif;ol ausmif;om;rsm; bufpkHynm wwf wGif;rI bmom&yfrsm;udk oifMum;ay;&ayrnf/ om"u ajrmufap&ef/ tm;jzihf rkefYrsdK;pkHjyKvkyfjcif;? [if;rsdK;pkH csufjyKwfjcif;? 1 tajccHypönf;rsm;jzpfaom opfom;? oHxnfESifh t0wftxnfrsm;csKyfvkyfjcif;? yef;tvSjyifjcif;? vuf aMu;xnfypönf;rsm;jzihf tuRrf;0ifrI &Sdap&ef/ rIxnfrsm;jyKvkyfjcif; ponfwkdYonf vufawGUb0 1 omrmeftao;pm;pufESihf pufypönf;rsm;? vuf wGifvnf; tokH;0ifonfh oufarG;0rf;ausmif;ynm&yf vkyfud&d,mwefqmyvmrsm;udk udkifwG,ftokH; rsm;jzpfojzihf tdrfwGif;rIynmudk ausmif;wGif bmom&yf jyK&mwGifuRrf;usifrI pGrf;&nf&&Sdap&ef/ wpfcktaejzihf xnfhoGif;oifMum;jcif; jzpfonf/ xdkY 1 ausmif;jyify&Sd &yf&Gma'oESifh aetdrw f w Ydk Giv f uf tjyif þbmom&yfonf uav;rsm;\ wDxGif zefwD; awGUvkyfudkifaqmif&Gufaeonfh vlrIpD;yGm;a&; vdkpdwfESihf yl;aygif;aqmif&GufvkdpdwfwkdYudk ysdK;axmif b0 wGif qufpyftokH;jyKoGm;Ekdif&ef/ ay;Ekdifavonf/ (C) tdrfwGif;rI bmom&yf? b0wGufwm uRrf;usifp&m &nf&G,fcsufrsm; &ifhoefapNyD; rSwfÓPfudkvnf; ydkrdkzHGU NzdK;apygonf/ zefwD;rI tEkynmoifMum;jcif;jzihf odrIe,fy,fwGif yg0ifaom taMumif;tusdK;qyfpyfí pOf;pm;EkdifrIESihf &oe,fy,fwGif yg 0ifaom &ocHpm;rIrsm; jynfhpkHaom tcg uRrf;usifrIe,fy,fwGif yg0ifaom ouf0ifvIyf&Sm; jcif;? OD;pD;OD;aqmifjyKvkyf jcif;? wDxGifzefwD;jcif; (creativity)? vkyfief;aqmif&Gufay;jcif;wkdYudk aqmif&Guf vmEkdifapygonf/

1

t"dyÜg,fzGihfqkdcsuf tdrfwGif;rIynm&yfonf ausmif;ol ausmif;om; rsm; (rdef;uav;rsm;ESihf a,musfm;av;tm;vkH;)twGuf wefzkd;&Sdonfh bmom&yfwpfckjzpfygonf/ twdwfum vrsm;wGif rdef;uav;rsm;ESihfom oufqkdifonf[lí t,ltq rsm;&SdcJhaomfvnf; ,cktcgwGifrl rdef; uav;rsm;twGufomrubJ a,musfm;av;rsm;t wGufyg tm;vkH;twGuf oifMum;ay;oihfonf[lí vufcHvmMuygonf/ þbmom&yfonf uav;rsm;\ A[kokw? pGrf;&nfrsm;ESihf tjrif oabmxm;rsm; zHGU NzdK;wkd;wufapí olwdkY\ b0&Sifoefa&;? rdom;pk b0&Sifoefa&;ESihf vlrItodkif;t0dkif;\ &Sifoefa&;wkdY twGuf taxmuftulrsm;pGm jzpfapygonf/ þbmom&yfwGif 1 usef;rmaomb0twGuf tpm;tpmESihf tm[m& wefzkd;rsm;ESihf pDrHcefYcJGwwfrI/

(1) ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;onftdrfrIudpöqkdif&m twwfynm? todynm&yfrsm;udk acwfESifh avsmf nDpGmavhvmod&Sd uRrf;usifwwfajrmuf&ef/ (2) rlvwef;? tv,fwef;ausmif;rsm;wGif tdrfwGif;rI ynm&yfqkdif&m oifcef;pmrsm;udk pmawGU vuf awGU oifMum;jyoEkdif&ef/ (3) ausmif;jyify ynma&;vkyfief;rsm;ESifh toufarG;0rf; ausmif;vkyfief;rsm;twGuf taxmuftuljyK&ef/ (4) uav;rsm;onf vkyftm;wefzkd; cspfjrwfEkd;í tm; vyfcsdefudk tusdK;&SdpGm tokH;cswwf&ef/ (5) ,Ofaus;rI tpOftvmaumif;rsm;udk xdef;odrf; apmihfa&Smufwwfaom rsdK;qufopfvli,frsm; arG;xkwaf y;&ef/ (6) rdrd wwfajrmuf uRrf;usifaom todynmt wwfynmrsm;jzihf a&muf&mt&yfa'owGif us&m wm0efudk aus>yefpGm xrf;aqmifwwf&ef/ 93


(7) ausmif;ol ausmif;om;aumif; yDoí wkdif; jynf\ tusdK;udk wwyfwtm; yg0ifulnDumurÇmh t qifhrD wufvSrf;Ekdif&ef/ xkd&nf&G,fcsufrsm;jzihf ausmif;rsm;wGif bmom &yfwpfcktaejzihf xnhfoGif;oifMum;Ekdif&ef vkdtyf onf/ oifMum;&jcif; OD;wnfcsufrsm; (1) rdom;pk0ifwkdif; usef;rma&;ESihf nDñGwfpGm aexkdifpm;aomuf? 0wfpm;qif,if&ef vdktyfonfudk em;vnfoabmaygufap&ef/ (2) ausmif;om; ausmif;olrsm;onf wkdif;&if; om;tpm;tpmrsm;udk tm[m&jynfh0wpGmESihf odyÜHenf; usNyD;acwfrDwkd;wufaom tajccHcsufjyKwf enf;ynm rsm;udk em;vnfí wwfajrmufuRrf;usif&ef/ (3) vlwpfa,muftwGuf aeYpOfvkdtyfaom tpm;tpmESihf tm[m&jynfhpGm csufjyKwfjcif;taMumif; od&Sd&ef/ (4) tajccHcsKyf½dk;rsm;ESihf tvScsKyf½dk;rsm;udk cJG jcm;csKyfvkyfwwfí tcsdefrDcsKyftpkwfoufomykHudk em; vnf&ef/ (5) tdrfwGif;rIbmom&yfwGif yg0ifaom tcsuf tjyKwf? tcsKyftvkyf Zmxkd;yef;xkd; ynmrsm;rS 0goemyg onfudk OD;pm;ay;oifMum;wwfajrmufjcif;jzihf touf arG;0rf;ausmif;rI jyKEkdifap&ef/ (6) pufjzihf wDxGifjyKvkyfxm;aom vlokH;tdrf okH;ypönf;rsm;xuf vufjzifhwDxGifvkyfudkifxm;aom vufrItEkyynmypönf;rsm;\ wefzkd;udk ydkrdkod&Sdem; vnfí uRrf;usifpGm aqmif&Gufvkyfudkifwwf&ef/ (7) td r f w G i f ; rI v uf r I y nm&yf r sm;onf ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;\todÓPfzHGUNzdK;wkd;wufrI? wDxGifBuHqrI? jzwfxkd;ÓPfrsm;udk jzpfay:aponfh tjyif? rdrdywf0ef;usif wkd;wufrIudk jzpfap&ef/ (8) jrefrmwkdif;&if;om;wdkY\ ½dk;&mtpm;tpm rsm;? tokH;taqmifrsm;ESihf tdrfwGif;rI ynm&yfrsm;udk avhvmcGifh&&Sdjcif;jzihf ½dk;&m,Ofaus;rIudk wefzkd;xm;í rsdK;cspfpdwf"mwfrsm; udef0yfaeap&ef/

94

oifMum;&rnfh taMumif;t&mrsm; (1) tm[m&jynfh0pGm csufjyKjcif;ynm (2) tyfcsKyf yef;xkd;ynm (pufcsKyf? vufcsKyf trsdK;rsdK;) (3) vufrItEkynm (4) uGefysLwm twwfynm (5) arG;jrLa&;? pdkufysdK;a&; tajcH tm[m& jynfh0pGm csufjyKwfjcif;ynm 1 [if;csufenf;trsdK;rsdK;/ 1 taMumfaMumfenf; trsdK;rsdK;/ 1 tokyfokyfenf; trsdK;rsdK;/ 1 rkefYvkyfenf; trsdK;rsdK;/ 1 azsmf&nfazsmfenf; trsdK;rsdK;/ 1 rD;vGwftpm;tpm pDpOfenf; trsdK;rsdK;/ tyfcsKyfyef;xkd;ynm 1 tyfcsKyfpufjzihf t0wftxnftrsdK;rsdK; csKyfjcif;/ 1 vufjzifh t0wftxnftrsdK;rsdK; csKyfjcif;/ vufrItEkynm 1 puúLacgufjcif;ynm 1 ta&mifcs,fjcif;ynm 1 tvSwefqmqifjcif;ynm 1 yef;tdk;xkd;jcif;ynm 1 ydkYpu'fjyKvkyfjcif;ynm 1 odk;arT;xkd;jcif;ynm 1 vnfqJG? em;uyf? vufaumufjyKvkyfjcif; ynm 1 tavtvGihfypönf;rsm;jzihf vlokH;? tdrfokH;ypönf; rsm; jyKvkyfjcif;ynm 1 a'oxGuy f pön;f rsm;jzihf vlo;Hk tdro f ;Hk ypön;f rsm; jyKvkyfjcif;ynm 1 jcif;? awmif;&ufvkyfief;ynm 1 yef;csD? aumuf½dk;yef;csDynm 1 uGefysLwmynm 1 arG;jrLa&;twwfynm 1 pdkufysdK;a&; twwfynm


twef;ESihf tqifhtvkduf tywfpOf pmoifcsdef wGif xnhfoGif;í oifhavQmf&mtaMumif;t&mrsm;udk vkdtyfonfh uRrf;usifol q&m q&mrrsm;cefYtyfí avhusihfoifMum;ay;Ekdifygonf/ touft&G,fESihf twef;tvkduf oifcef;pmrsm;udk a&G;cs,fí tajccH rsm;udk oifMum;ay;jcif;onf wDxGifzefwD;jcif;pGrf;&nf udk zHGU NzdK;apygonf/ ywf0ef;usifESifh a'owGif; &&SdEkdif onfh ypönf;rsm;? ykHpHwljyKvkyfEkdifonfh ypönf;rsm;? tokH; jyKEkdifonfh pGefYypfypönf;rsm;ESihf tjcm;aom tvG,fwul &&SdEkdifonfh oifaxmufulypönf;rsm;udk tokH;jyKí oif cef;pmrsm;udk zefwD;&rnfjzpfonf/ (i) pmMunfhwkduf tokH;jyKjcif; 21 &mpk todynmacwfwGif pmMunfhwkdufrsm;\ tcef;u@rSm vGefpGm us,fjyefYívmonf/ pmMunfh wkdufrsm;udk tokH;jyKí rdrdbmomavhvm qnf;yl;Ekdifonfh tavhtusihfjzihf b0wpfoufwm ynma&; tawG;tac:rSm vGefpGmacwfpm;vQuf&Sdonf/ þtavhtusihftajccHudk i,f&G,fonfh rlvwef;rS p wifumjyKpkysdK;axmifay;oifhygonf/ ausmif;wkdif; wGif pmMunfhwkdufxm;&Sdí vdktyfonfh pmtkyfpmwrf;rsm;udk tpOfjznhfqnf;ay;&rnf/ ausmif;ol ausmif;om;rsm; udk wpfwef;vkH;taejzihf pmMunfhwdkufodkY tygwfpOfac: aqmifí pmtkyfiSm;&rf;apjcif;? tdrfwGifrdom;pkESihf twlwuGzwf½Iapjcif;? rdrdavhvmzwf½IcJhonfrsm;udk twef;wGif;üjyefvnfajymjyjcif; ponfh tpDtpOfrsm;udk jyKvkyfay;oihfygonf/ xkdYtjyif oifcef;pmtvkduf vdktyfonfh tcsuftvufrsm;ESihf taMumif;t &mrsm;udk &&Sdap&ef pmMunfhwkduftokH;jyKjcif;udk ulnDtm;ay; oifhonf/ ausmif;pmMunfhwkdufomrubJ &yf&Gm a'otwGif;&Sd pmMunfhwkdufrsm; tokH;jyKjcif;udkvnf; wkdufwGef;oifhygonf/

taxmuftuljyKygonf/ rD'D,m[k qkd&m0,f a&'D,kd? ½kyf&Sif? w,fvDaA;&Sif;? pmay? uGefysLwmenf;ynmESihf "gwfykHynmponfh ykHo@mefrsm;udk qkdvdkonf/ vuf awGUzefwD;jcif;? avhvmjcif;rsm;jzihf uav;oli,f rsm;udk,fwkdif rD'D,mtrsdK;rsdK;\ tajccHoabmw&m; rsm;udk od&Sdem;vnfap&ef ulnDay;&rnf/ uav;rsm; tm;þrD'D,mtrsdK;rsdK;udkcJGjcrf;pdwfjzmavhvmEkdifap&ef ESihf olwkdYudk,fwkdif zefwD;wwfap&ef tcGihftvrf;rsm; xm;&Sd&rnfjzpfonf/ twdwfumvrsm;ESihf ,ckrsuf arSmuf? ypöKyÜefumvrsm;&Sd rD'D,mrsm;\ zefwD;csuf rsm;? jzefYa0jcif;rsm;ESihf vlxktay: rD'D,m\ tusdK;ouf a&mufrIrsm;udk avhvmMuonf/ rsufarSmufacwf\ rD'D,mrsm;tokH;jyKrI? tusdK; aus;Zl;? oufa&mufrIrsm;tygt0if trsm;jynfol\ vlrIb0rsm;tay: ykHazmfcs,fvS,fjcif;rsm;\ oabm obm0udk od&Sdem;vnfap&ef oifcef;pmrsm;udk zefwD; &rnf/ i,f&G,fonfh touft&G,frsm;rS pwifum oifhavsmfudkufnDonfh ½dk;pif;vG,fulaom oifcef;pm rsm;jzihf pwifrdwfqufí twef;BuD;vmonfhtcgwGif ydkrdkí eufeJonfh rD'D,moabmw&m;rsm;? a0zefcsuf rsm;? zefwD;csufrsm;udk avhusihfoifMum;ay;&ef jzpfyg onf/ (oif½kd;ñTef;wrf;pHEIef;rsm; tñTef;abmif NHEC 2006 rSaumufEIwfazmfjyonf/)

(p) rD'D,m rD'D,mqkdonfrSm vufawGU jzpfysufaerIrsm;udk jzpfapESihf pdwful;pdwfoef;jzihf zefwD;xm;rIrsm;udkjzpfap cHpm; odjrif&aom tawGUtBuKHrsm;udk pDpOfwifquf jcif;jzpfonf/ rD'D,mbmom&yfonf ausmif;ol ausmif;om;rsm;udk pGrf;&nftrsdK;rsdK;&&Sdap&ef rsm;pGm 95


tifwmAsL;

awGYqHkar;jref;jcif; ' q&mrwdkY&JU tzGJ Y&JU aemufcHtaMumif;udk t&ifOD;qHk; ajymjy ay;ygvm;/ usrwdkY tzGJYudk 2002 ckESpfrSm csif;rdkifjrdKUrSm pwifzGifhvSpf cJh ygw,f/ visual arts vdkYac:wJh tjriftm&HktEkynm oifwef;awGay;wJhtzGJYyg/ jrefrmuav; 10 OD;eJY pwif cJhwmyg/ Bamboo Garden rSm paeaeY reufydkif;awGrSm oifay;wmyg/ tckawmh 2010 rSm oifwef; 13 ck &Sdae ygjyD/MAPFoundation urdkuf*&efYuav;i,fawG ydkjyD;awmh oifwef;wufvmEdkifzdkYudk tultnDay;yg w,f/ tywfpOf oifwef;awGrSm uav;awGudk tdrf awGuae oGm;ac: jyD; oifwef;ay;w,f/ jyD;&if tdrfudk jyefydkYay;w,f/ txl;ojzihf a&TUajymif; jrefrmtvkyf orm; rdom;pkawG aexkdifMuwJh aqmufvkyfa&; qdkuf awG? tvkyform; pkjyHKaexdkifMuwJh wef;vsm;awGrSm uav;awGudk oGm;ac:&wm? oifwef;udk tJ'Dae&m awGrSmvnf; ay;ygw,f/ FPB tzGJUeJY IRC wdkYu ynm a&; vkyfief;awG wdk;csJU vkyfaqmifEkdifzdkYtwGuf tult nDawG ay;cJhygw,f/

oifMum;ay;wmwJh bmom&yfe,fy,fawGuawmh (1) yHkqGJjcif; (2) ta&mifjc,fjcif; (3) 3D zefwD;rI (4) printing (5) vufrItEkynm craft (6)rsufvHk;? udkf,fvuft*Fgtpdwftydkif;awGudk toHk;jyK jyD; zefwD;&wJh tEkynm wdkYjzpfygw,f/ tjriftm&HkcHpm;rI xufoefapjyD; tEk&oynm zGYHjzdK;rI? wwfodrIwdkY &&Sdapygw,f/

'tckvdk visual art oifwef;awGay;&jcif;&JU &nf&G,fcsuf rsm;udkvnf; ajymjyay;ygOD; q&mr/ usrwdkYtzGJY&JU t"du &nf&G,fcsufawGuawmh uav;oli,fzGHYjzdK;rIeJY uav;oli,frsm;&JU pGrf;aqmifEdkif pGrf; jrifhrm;vmzdkYjzpfygw,f/ uav;i,fwdkif;&JU zGHYjzdK;rI yHkpHawGrSm tqifhtvkduf wlnDwJh tqifawG &Sdygw,f/ cE¨mudk,fvuft*Fg MuD;xGm;zGHUjzdK;rI? todynmeJY pdwfydkif; qdkif&m zGHYjzdK;vmrIawGrSm zGYHjzdK;rI tqifhqihfawGudk twl tckaemufydkif;rSmawmh q&mtwwfynm oifwef;awG wl jzwfoef;Mu&wmudk qdkvdkygw,f/ tEkynm oif eJY child development uav;oli,fzGHU jzdK;a&; wef;awG? avhusihfay;rIawG[m 'Dvdk tqifhqihf zGHYjzdK; vkyfief;awGeJY twlwGJzufjyD;awmh oifwef;awG ay;ae vmjcif;twGuf taxmuftul trsm;MuD; ay;Ekdifyg w,f/ tEkynm avhusihfrIawG[m uav;zGHUjzdK;rI yg w,f/ e,fy,f (7) &yf pvHk;twGuf wefzdk; jrifhrm;vSygw,f/

'Visual art vdkYac:wJh tjriftm&Hk tEkynmqdkwm bmvJ 'uav;zGHUjzdK;rI e,fy,f (7) ckudk &Sif;jyay;yg/ q&mr/ 'D visual art oifwef;awGrSm avhusihf uav;zGHUjzdK;rI e,fy,f (7) ckuawmh 96


Ms. Dao Coordinator Studio Xang (AMCP)

(1) ½kyfydkif;zGH YjzdK;rI Physical - vuftxdef;todrf;? pma&;EdkifrI t&nftaoG;? rsufvHk;ESihf vufndSEIdif; aqmif&GufrI/ (2) pdwfcHpm;rI zGHYjzdK;rI Emotional - rdrdudk,fudk azmf jyEdkifpGrf;ESihf ,HkMunfrIwdk;yGm;apjcif;/ (3) vlrIqufqHa&;zGHUjzdK;rI Social - tjcm;uav;rsm; ESihf aqG;aEG;? tjrifzvS,f? yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufwwfjcif;/ (4) odrIzGHU jzdK;rI cognitive - tawG;? a&G;cs,frI? usKd;aMumif; qifjcifrI/ (5) tm½HkcHpm;jcif; zGHUjzdK;rI perception - tm½Hk ig;yg;udk qufpyfaqmif&GufwwfrI/ (6) tvS&ocHpm;wwfjcif; zGHU jzdK;rI Aesthethic - rdrd ESihf tjcm;olrsm;\ MudK;pm;zefwD;rItay: wefzdk;xm; cHpm;/ (7) zefwD;rI pGrf;&nf zGHUjzdK;rI Creativity - rdrdtjrif? cHpm;csufrsm;udk enf;pepfrsm;ESihf aygif;pyfjyD; zefwD;jcif;/ 'gawG[m uav;i,f&JU udk,f&nfudk,faoG;awG bufpHk zGHY jzdK;apjcif;jzpfygw,f/ 'tekynmbmom&yf art education u ae 'De,fy,f 7 ck zHGY jzdK;rItwGuf b,fvdk ulnDay;ygovJ/ txl;ojzihf tEkynm bmom&yf[m 'De,f y,f 7 ck pvHk; wjydKifeufwnf; [efcsufnDpGm zGHUjzdK;vm apzdkYulnDavhusihfay;jcif;jzpfygw,f/uav;i,fawG&JU tEkynmpdwf? tEkynm pGrf;&nfawGudk zGHUjzdK;apjcif;? &ocHpm;wwfodrItwGuf avhusihf ysKd;axmifay;yg w,f/ 'DpGrf;&nfawG &&SdrSomvQif e,fy,f 7 ckzGHU jzdK;zdkY

tvm;tvm ydkaumif;ygw,f/ tekynm bmom&yfxJ avhusihfcef;awG[m uav; zGYHjzdK;rI e,fy,f 7 ckpvHk; wjydKifeuf zGHU jzdK;vmEkdifapwJhtjyif ausmif;oifyifr bmom&yfawGjzpfwJh bmom pum;? ocsFmeJY todynm zGHU jzdK;rIwdkYtwGufvnf; trsm;MuD; taxmuftul jzpfwmudk awG Y&ygw,f/ 'tJ'Dawmh i,fpOfumvrSm tEkynmbmom&yfudk avhvmoif ,lcGihf &&SdwJhuav;eJY oif,lavhvmcGifh r&&SdcJhwJh uav;awG tMum;rSm b,fvdk uGmjcm;rI &SdEdkifygovJ/ trsm;MuD;udk uGmjcm;aewm awGY&ygw,f/ txl;ojzihf tEkynmbmom&yfudk avhusihfcGihf r&&Sd bl;qdk&if uav;i,f&JU zGHU jzdK;rIrSm wGJzufygvm&r,fh pGrf;&nfawG[m wpfOD;csif;tvdkuf tjrifhrm;qHk; zGHU jzdK;zdkY tcuftcJ&Sdw,f/ i,f&G,fpOfuwnf;u avhusihf ysKd; axmifay;rS &&Sdr,fh pGrf;&nfawGtwGuf trsm;MuD; vnf; epfemEdkifygw,f/ 'D pGrf;&nfawG[m txufu aqG;aEG;cJhwJh zGHYjzdK;rI e,fy,f 7 &yfpvHk;eJY wdkuf&dkuf oufqkid af ewmyg/'Dawmhuav;i,f&JUpGr;f &nftrsK;d rsKd; zGHUjzdK;rItwGuf jyóem&SdaejyD/ rdrfd cHpm;csufudk azmfjy EdkifpGrf;eJY rdrdudk,fudk ,HkMunfrIawG &&SdzdkYvnf; tcuftcJ &Sdaew,f/ tjcm;olrsm;eJY vlrIqufqHa&;rSmtzktxpf awGydkjzpfwwfw,f/ olrsm;awGqDuvnf; oif,lavh vm&rSmjzpfw,fqdkwJh todw&m;&zdkY cufr,f/ zefwD; rIpGrf;&nfzHGU jzdK;rItwGuf tuefYtowf &Sdaeygvdrfhr,f/

97


aemuf ta&;MuD;wJh tcsufwpfckuawmh tEkynm[m udk,fydkifae&mi,f? urÇmi,fav;wpfckudk ydkifqkdifcGifhay;w,f/ 'g[m 'Drdkua&pD tcGihfta&; wpf &yfvdkyg/ tpdk;&jzpfjzpf? rdbjzpfjzpf? q&mq&mrjzpfjzpf 0ifa&mufpGufzufvdkY r&wJh udk,fydkif oD;oefY urÇmi,f av;/ tJ'Dae&mrSm uav;i,f[m udk,fydkif &SifoefrIeJY? ukd,fydkif tawG;tac:eJY? vGwfvyfaew,f/ aysmf&Tifcsrf; ajrhcGihf &w,f/ b,folYudkrS taESmuft,Sufray;ovdk? olYudkvnf; b,folurS taESmuft,Suf ray;EkdifwJh ukd,fykdif urÇmi,fav;/ tJ'DurÇmi,fav;[m uav; wdkif;rSm &Sdoihfw,f/ tEk&oynmudk avhvmcGifh? qnf; yl;cGihf r&&SdwJh uav;i,ftwGuf tJ'D udk,fydkif ae&m? urÇmi,fav;udk ydkifqkdifcGifh r&Sdbl;aygh/ 'Dawmh uav;i,fwdkif;[m tEk&o ynm bmom&yfudk oif,lavhvmcGifh &&Sdoihfygw,f/ 'q&mrwdkY&JU pwl'D,dk Zif; u b,fvdk avhusihfay;ygovJ/ uav;rsm;&JU udk,fydkif wDxGifzefwD;rI? cHpm; csufawGtay:rSm t"du tav;xm;ygw,f/ vGwfvGwf vyfvyf zefwD;cGihfudk ay;xm;w,f/ pdwful;pdwfoef; awGudk rydwfqdkYxm;bl;/ tzGihfoabmeJY xm;Muw,f/ q&mawGuvnf; vTrf;rdk;rI? csKyfcs,frI r&Sdbl;/ uav;&JU pGrf;aqmif&nfeJY udk,fydkif tawG;twkdif; zefwD;ap wmyg/ uav;&JU tEkynmzefwD;rItay:rSm rSm;w,f? rSefw,f &,f vdkY rqHk;jzwfbl;/ ]rif;[mu rvSbl;} }rif; [m rSm;aew,f} vdkYvnf; rajymMuygbl;/ zefwD;rI? MudK;pm;rI? a&;qGJrI? udk,fydkiftawG;awGtay:rSm wefzdk; xm;ay;w,f/ csD;usL;pum;qdk&w,f/ tm;ay;w,f/ rdrdudk,fudk ,HkMunfrIeJY zefwD;vdkpdwfudk wdk;yGm;apzdkY ta&;tMuD;tqHk;yg/ uav;tcsif;csif;vnf; EdIif;,SOf wmrsKd;rvkyftyfygbl;/ odrfi,fpdwf? tm;avsmhpdwf? t zsufpdwfawG uif;EkdiforQ uif;apzdkY vdktyfw,f/ tjyK pdwf? taumif;jrifpdwf? MudK;pm;vdkpdwfeJY ,HkMunfrIudk avhusihfay;jcif;yg/ tEkynmeJY enf;pepfawGuawmh Mum;cH ud&d,mrQomjzpfw,f/

tao;pdwfawmh usr rajymjyEdkifygbl;/ rdb awGeJY usr&JU vkyfazmfudkifzuf enf;jyq&m q&mrawGu tjrJwrf; ajymjyMuw,f/ jrefrmjynf ausmif;oif&dk; nTef;wrf;rSm tEk&oynmbmom&yfeJY ywfoufvdkY wduswJh oif&dk;nTef;wrf;r&Sdao;bl;wJh/ tcsdefvnf; ray;Mubl;/ oifMum;ay;r,fh q&mq&mrvnf; r&SdMu wmrsm;w,fvdkY ajymMuygw,f/ 'g[m tifrwefrS 0rf; enf;p&myg/ pHEIef;awG tMuD;tus,f vGJaeovm;vdkY xifrdygw,f/ ynma&; udk t"dyÜg,f zGihfqdkrIrSm abmif odyfusOf;vGef;w,f vdkY vnf; usr cHpm;rdw,f/ rdbawG? q&mq&mrawGtaeeJY 'D tEk ynmbmom&yfudk wefzdk;xm;Ekdifvmatmif&,f? ta&; MuD;yHkudk odjrifvmatmif&,ftwGuf yHhydk;rIawG? ulnD rIawG trsm;MuD;vdktyfaew,fvdkY aqG;aEG;Muygw,f/ tEk&obmom&yfudktrsm;jynfoleJYynma&;orm;rsm; em;rvnfMuao;wJh e,fy,fvdkY vnf; ajymMuygw,f/ t"dutcsufuawmh ausmif;oif&dk; nTef; wrf; &JU rjynfhpHkrIygyJ/ ausmif;ynma&;rSm txifu& xnfhoGif; avhusihf oifMum; ay;EkdifzkYdtwGuf q&mtwwf ynma&; oifwef;awGrSm avhusihfay;&r,f/ oif&dk; nTef;wrf;eJY udk;um;pmtkyfawG? uav;pmtkyf awGudk jyKpkoifhygw,f/ tEk&obmom&yfudk avhusihfoifMum; ay;jcif;[m uav;&JU odrIpGrf;&nfeJY cHpm;rIpGrf;&nf? ÓPf&nfawGudk xufoefapvdkY tjcm;aom; bmom &yfe,fy,ftoD;oD;? ocsFmeJY bmompum;awGudk avh vm&mrSmvnf; taxmuftuljyKw,f/ usKd;aMumif; qifjcifÓPf wdk;wufvmr,f/ rQwwJh pdwfxm;udk jzpfay:apr,f/ta&;MuD;wJh tcsufuawmh ydkrdk vlom; qefvm apjcif; jzpfygw,f/

'tjcm;aom bmom&yfawGeJY qufpyfrIeJY taxmuftuljyKyHkudk aqG;aEG;ay;ygOD;/ Oyrm-orkdif;oifcef;pmqdkMuygpdkY/ uav; i,fawG[m ordkif;xJu tjzpftysufwpfckudk tEkynm bmom&yfxJu o&kyfaqmifoifMum;jcif; enf;vrf;eJY 'vuf&Sdausmif;awGu jrefrmoif½dk;nTef;wrf;tay:rSm q&mr Zmwfudk jyefvnfqef;opfEdkifMuw,f/ pmoifcef;xJ b,fvdk jrifygovJ/ rmyg/ ae&ma'owpfckckudk a&G;cs,fMur,f/ bk&if 98


vkyfr,fhol? rdzk&m;vkyfr,fhol? ppfolMuD;vkyfr,fhol? oHwrefvkyfr,fhol? 0efMuD; vkyfr,fholawGudk a&G;cs,f jyD; tjzpftysuftwdkif; jyefvnf o&kyfaqmifMur,f/ ordkif;xJu pum;awGudk jyefajymMur,f/ tjzpftysuf aemufcHpum;ajymjyD; oifcef;pmudk rodrom rdwf qufvdkufwmygyJ/ [efygyg? rmefygygeJY uav;awG[m odyfudk vkyfcsifMuwm/ pmoifrSef;? ordkif;oifrSef; rodvdkufyJeJYudk olwdkY ordkif;tjrifawG? em;vnfrIawG & oGm;Mur,f/ ydkta&;MuD;wmu twdwforkdif;[molwdkY b0xJ? &ifbwfxJudk 0ifa&mufcGihf&&Sdjcif;yg/ odjrifcHpm; EkdifpGrf; &&Sdjcif;yg/ ]upm;&if;yif ynmoif} qdkwJh ynm a&; oabmw&m;vnf; &Sdw,fr[kwfvm;/ uav;awG [m tkyfpktvdkuf ordkif;tjzpftysufawGudk t&kyfawG zefwD;Edkifao;w,f/ &THUaysmhawGeJY yHkpHi,fawG zefwD; Ekdifjyefw,f/ 'Dvdkqdk&if orkdif;oifcef;pmawG[m ydkjyD; aysmf&TifzG,f&,f jzpfvmr,f/ tjcm;aom bmom&yfawGwdkif;udkvnf; tEk ynmtajccHjyD; oifMum;oifhygw,f/ bmompum;? ocsFm? odyÜHeJY vlrIa&;bmomawG tm;vHk;rSm tcgtm; avsmfpGm tEkynmenf;pepfeJY aygif;pyfjyD; oifMum;ay; Ekdifygw,f/ i,f&G,fwJh uav;i,fawGtwGuf pma&;& wmxuf yHkqGJ&wm ydkvG,fulwmudk ajymjycsifygw,f/ tJ'g uav;obm0jzpfw,f/ abstract qefwJh pma&; jcif;[m uav;twGuf rdrdukd,fukd azmfjy&mrSm tcuf tcJ&Sdygw,f/ 'gayr,fh yHka&;qGJjcif;? aumufaMumif; jcpfcsif;rSmawmh rdrdtawG;? pdwful;eJY odjrifrIudk vGwf vGwfvyfvyf azmfxkwfcGifhay;Edkifw,f/ tckvdkaqG;aEG;ay;wm q&mrudk aus;Zl;trsm;MuD; wifygw,f/

Isamu Noguchi, Humpty Dumpty, 1946. Ribbon slate, 59 × 21 1/2 × 19 1/2 in. (149.9 × 54.6 × 49.5 cm).

99


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100


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rnfjzpfNyD; vlom;q&m&JU rsufESmu ½dkabmhzefom;jyif ay:wGif ay:aernfjzpfonf/ MopaMw;vs? tar&du wkdY vdk a0;uGmaom ae&mrsm;&Sd vlq&mrsm;rS oifMum;ay;zkdY udkvnf; ½dkabmhrsm;u qufoG,faqmif&Gufay;oGm; rnf/ udk&D;,m; odyÜHESihfenf;ynmtifpwDusLUrS 'g½dkuf wm rGefwufcRwfu ]½dkabmhawGu vlom;q&mawGudk vkH;0tpm;xkd; z,f&Sm;oGm;zkdY r[kwfygbl;/ wu,fhq&m awGudk tultnDay;NyD; oifMum;a&; xda&mufapzkdY &nf&G,fwmyg/ uav;awGuvnf; ½dkabmhudk olwdkYol i,fcsif;vkd oabmxm;Muw,f}[k &Sif;jyonf/ ½dkabmhonf vlq&mrsm;udk tem;&apNyD;? ausmif; om;rsm;twGuf oifcef;pmrsm; txyfxyf avhusihfEkdif rnf/ ukefusp&dwf oufomNyD; t*FvdyftoHxGuf em; &nf0aprnf/ *smeDbkdac: puf½kyfacG;uvnf; uav; i,frsm;udk tuESihf tm;upm; oifMum;ay;OD;rnf jzpf onf/ CNN (23 October 2010)

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tar&duefq,fausmfouf&JU ajrmufudk&D;,m; rpf&Sif ajrmufudk&D;,m; ppfrJhZkefwGif uav;rsm;t wGuf Nidrf;csrf;a&;opfawm (childrens' peace forest) xlaxmifzkdY BudK;pm;aeonfh tar&duef q,fausmfouf ausmif;om;av;u olYya&m*suf taumiftxnf azmfEkdifzkdYtwGuf a'owGif; &efvkd rIrsm; t&ifqHk; tqkH;owfrS jzpfrnf[k ajrmufudk&D;,m;rStjyef w½kwfjynfwGif owif; axmufr sm;udk ajymjycJhonf/ rpöpyDjynfe,frS touf 13ESpft&G,f Jonathan Lee u ajrmufudk&D;,m;onf awmifudk&D;,m;? tar&duefjynfaxmifpkwkdYESihf &efjzpfaeorQ umv ywfvkH; ppfrJhZkefwGif olY&nf&G,fcsuf Nidrf;csrf;a&; opf awm pdkufzkdY cufcJaMumif; ajymjyonf/ ]uav;rsm; Nidrf;csrf;a&; opfawmrvkyfcif ajrmuf udk&D;,m;ESihf tar&dueftMum; Nidrf;csrf;a&;pmcsKyf t&if qkH; csKyfqkdxm;&r,f/ usaemfhc&D;pOf&JU ratmifjrifEkdif ao;wJhtwGuf tenf;i,f pdwfysufp&mawGawmh &Sdyg w,f/ 'gayrJY qufBudK;pm;ygOD;r,f/ 'Dc&D;pOfu opf yifrsdK;aphpkdufovkdygyJ}vkdY ajymonf/ ajrmufudk&D;,m; t&m&Sdrsm;&JU pdwf0ifpm;rI jyorIaMumihf a&SUqufvkyf aqmifcsifao;aMumif;? ajrmufudk&D;,m; t&m&Sdaygif;pkH eJY olawGUcGihf&ayr,fh or®w uif*sKHtD;ESihf awGUcGihfr&vkdY pdwfraumif;aMumif; &Sif;jyonf/ *sdKeoefu ajrmufudk&D;,m;ausmif;rsm;udk ol0if a&mufavhvmcGihf&cJhaMumif;? ajrmufudk&D;,m;? awmif udk&D;,m;? tar&duefwkdYrS uav;rsm;tcsif;csif; awGUqkH

Ekdifrnfh ae&mzefwD;ay;zkdY olpOf;pm;aMumif;? taumif; qkH;uawmh uav;rsm;twGuf Nidrf;csrf;a&;opfawm jzpfaMumif; ajymonf/ *sdKeoefu obm0ywf0ef;usif jyóemrsm;udk pdwf0ifpm;aMumif;ESihf olU&JUuav;rsm; opfawmtwGuf aqmifyk'fu ]y#dyu©wdkYtxufrSm? e,fedrdwfwkdY txuf rSm? t,ltqwkdYtxufrSm}(above conflict, above borders, above ideology)[kqkdonf/ ]'gu wurÇmvkH;&Sd uav;awGeJY vlom;awGudk arQmfvifhcsufay;zkdY? obm0ywf0ef;usifudk u,fwifzkdY? pGefYypfypönf;awG &Dqkdufu,f vkyfMuzkdY? tokH;jyKaewJh zefrD;oD;awG? uGefysLwmawG cPrSdwfxm;MuzkdYaygh} [k ausmif;om;av; *sdKeoefu olYyef;NcHopfawm&JU &nf &G,fcsufukd ajymjyonf/1 CNN(23 August 2010)

zDvpfydkif vufwGef;vSnf; ausmif;q&m CNN ol&Jaumif;qk &&Sd zDvpfydkifEdkifiHrS qif;&Jom; uav;i,frsm;udk pmoif Mum;ay;zdkY pmtkyfrsm;? oifykef;ESifY oifMum;a&; t axmuftul ypönf; tenf;i,fudk vufwGef;vSnf;jzifY wifjyD;? ]a&TUajymif; vufwGef;vSnf; pmoifcef;} (mobile pushcart classrooms) rsm; zefwD;cJYol vli,f ausmif;q&m yefemzvdk&D tm; CNNowif;XmerS 2009 ckESpftwGuf wpfESpfwm ol&J aumif;qk (CNN's Hero of the Year) csD;jrSifYvdkuf onf/ 1997 ckESpfuwnf;u yefemzvdk&D'gESifY q,f 104

ausmfouf vkyftm;ay; oli,fcsif; 12000 wdkYu zDvpfydkif vrf;MudK vrf;Mum; &yfuGufBudKMum;? blwm½kHESihf aus;vufrsm;&Sd uav;rsm;pGmudk tajccH pma&;pm zwfrsm; vdkufvHoifay;cJhonf/ olY&JUvufwGef;vSnf; pmoifcef;ESifY uav;rsm;pmoifrIudk NGO wpfck tultnDjzihf pwifcJhjcif; jzpfonf/ a[mvd0k'fwGif tcrf;tem;jzihf qkvufcH,lcJh aom touf 29ESpf&Sd yefemzvdk&D'gu ]'Dqk[m usaemf wkdY tvGwfoifausmif;q&mrsm;twGuf tvGefta&;yg


ygw,f/ vrf;ay:u q&mawG&JU pdwf"mwf udk jr§ifhwifay;wmyJ}[k ajymcJhonf/ olYudk csD;usL;*kPfjyKrIonf &yfwefYroGm;yg/ zDvpf ydkifEkdifiHtjyef reDvmNrdKUvrf;rsm;wGif vuf wGef;vSnf;aygif;rsm;pGmjzihf csDwufBudKqkdcJh Muonf/ or®w tm½dk,dkuvnf; wkdif;jynf &JU tjrihfqkH; vlrIxl;cRefqkudk tyfESif;ay;cJh onf/ ,ck zdvpfydkifEkdifiH ae&mtESHYtjym; wGif vufwGef;vSnf; pmoifcef;rsm; ysHUESHY vsuf&SdNyD; urÇmtESYHrS tm;ay;ulnDrIrsm;& &Sdaeonf/ q&mav; yef'gzvkd&D'g&JU udk,f vufwGef;vSnf; ausmif;q&mi,f tkyfpktwGuf vSL'gef; usdK;rzufynma&; vIyf&Sm;rIrSwfwrf; wDAGDrsm;udk *syef? vdkuo f nf/ udk&D;,m;? *smreD? pydef? uae'gEkdifiHwkdYwGif vlBudKuf CNN (18 September 2010) rsm;vQuf &Sdonf/CNN rS qkaMu; aiG 125000 a':vm tjyif uGefysLwmcef;? pmMunfhwkduf? aq;cef;wdkYudkyg

rdcifbmompum;twGuf wdbuf ausmif;om;rsm; qE´jy wdbufa'o? vmqmNrdKU&Sd ydkw,fvmeef;awmf a&SUwGif w½kwf&Jrsm; uif;vSnhfaeonf/ w½kwftpdk;&&JU ynma&;jyKjyifajymif;vJrI tpDtpOftay: wdbuf ausmif;om;rsm; ,ck&ufydkif;twGif; qE´jyaejcif; aMumihfjzpfonf/ tpdk;&&JU w½kwfbmompum; twif;tusyf oif ,lckdif;rItay: ausmif;om;axmifaygif;rsm;pGmu a'go xGufNyD; usif[kdif;jynfe,fwGif qE´jyMujcif;jzpfonf/ rauseyfrIrsm;rSm NrdKUawmfayusif;txd ul;qufoGm;NyD; aomMumaeYwGif ayusif;&Sd rifZkwuúodkvfrS wdbuf ausmif;om; 400ausmfyg qE´jyyJGwGif yg0ifvmcJhonf/

qE´jyyJGjzpfyGm;&jcif; t"dutaMumif;rSm pmoif cef; bmom&yf oifMum;rIrsm;wGif w½kwfbmompum; udkt"duxm;Ny;D ?wdbufbmompum;udkab;z,faom ynma&; jyKjyifajymif;vJrI pwifjcif;aMumihfjzpfonf/ wdbufausmif;om;rsm;u usif[kdif;jynfe,f wdbuf a'oESihf tjcm;ae&mrsm;wGif rdcifbmompum;twGuf wkdufyJG0if umuG,foGm;zkdY jyifqifaeMuonf/ 2008ckESpf? rwfvwGifvnf; usif[kdif;jynfe,f ae&mawmfawmfrsm;rsm;wGif w½kwfqefYusifa&;rsm; jzpf yGm;cJhonf/ Bangkok Post (25 October 2010)

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zefjyGefoaE¨om; pxGifol aq;ynm Edkb,fqk&&Sd zefjyGefoaE¨om; pwifwDxGifol jAdwdoQvlrsKd; Robert G.Edwards udk 2010 ckESpftwGuf aq;ynm Edkb,fqk csD;jrSifYaMumif; Edkb,fqkaumfrwDrS xkwfjyefaMujimcJY onf/ ]zefjyGefxJwGif rsKd;yGm;jcif;} (in vitro fertilization-IVF) udk zGHYjzdK;atmif Edwards u vkyf EdkifcJYjcif;rSm acwfopfaq;ynmtwGuf atmifjrifrSI ordkif;rSwf wdkif wpfckjzpfonf[k azmfjycJYonf/ 1950 ckESpfawGuwnf;u rsKd;ryGm;EdkifbJ jrHKae olrsm;udk ukozdkY IVF enf;vrf;udk toHk;jyKEdkifw,fvdkY Edwards u ,lqxm;cJYonf/ urÇmay: &Sd pHkwGJ 100 rSm 10 a,mufESIef;u tjrHKawG jzpfaejyD;? tJ'D 10 &mcdkifESIef;t wGuf tm;wufzG,f aq;ynmopfjzpfonf/ Edwards onf vlom;rsKd;yGm;rSItwGuf ta&;yg wJY vrf;aMumif;opfudk &SmazGcJYjyD;? zefjyGefxJwGif vlom; rsKd;OqJvfawGudk atmifjrifpGm rsKd;azmufEdkifcJYonf/ 1978 Zlvdkif 25 &ufaeYwGif yxrqHk; zefjyGefoaE¨om;udk arG;zGm;ay;cJYonf/ olarG;zGm;ay;cJYwJY vl;0pfba&mif;

qdkolrSm ,ck tdrfaxmifusum om;wpfa,mufzcif jzpfaejyD; t*Fvef ajrmufydkif;wGif aexkdifvsuf&Sdonf/ Edwards udk 1925 ckESpfwGif arG;zGm;jyD;? ,ck t*F vefEdkifiH uif;b&pfcsf wuúodkvfwGif aq;ynm ygarm u© wm0ef xrf;aqmifvsuf &Sdonf/ olY MudK;pm;rSIaMumifY uav; 4 oef;ausmf arG;zGm;EdkifcJYjyD;? Edkb,fqk aumf rwDrS a':vm 1.5 oef; csD;jrSifYrnf jzpfonf/ CNN (05 October2010)

xkdif;uav;vli,fESpfoef;cefY tajccHynma&; vJGacsmfae xkdif;EkdifiHwGif uav;vli,fESpfoef;cefYrSm wkdif; jynf vlrIa&;? pD;yGm;a&;? EkdifiHa&; tusdK;qufrsm;aMumihf ynmNyD;ajrmufatmif roif,lEkdifbJ ausmif;pmoifcef; rsm;udk ausmckdif;cJh&onf/ ausmif;aet&G,f vlOD;a&&JU 11 &mcdkifEIef;&Sd touf 3ESpfESihf 17tMum; uav;oli,frsm;rSm ynma&;pepf jyify wGef;ydkYcHae&aMumif; xkdif;ynma&;aumifpD rl0g' tBuHay;a[mif; Juajan Jongsathiyouu u ajymMum; cJhonf/ ,ckvkd qdk;&Gm;0rf;enf;zG,f tajctaeudk &ef*f ppf wuúodkvfrS azmfxkwfcJhonf[kvnf; qkdonf/ ausmif;ynma&;pepf tjyifzufa&mufaeaom uav;rsm;udkMunhfvQif aiGaMu;tcuftcJ&Sdjcif;? tdrf axmifa&; rajyvnfaom rdbrsm; tusdK;qufcHpm;& jcif;? usef;rma&;raumif;jcif;ESihf ausmif;pm&v'f r aumif;jcif;wkdYaMumifh jzpfonf/ ausmif;pmoifcef;xJ wGif xdyfqkH;a&mufaeaom uav;rsm;rSmvnf; ynm wwfcsrf;omaom vlrvkdifrdom;pkrsm;rSjzpfNyD;? qif;&J 106

csrf;om uGm[csufrSm wkdif;jynfwGifaMumufp&m t aumif;qkH; tajctaewGif&SdaMumif; ajymqkdonf/ ynmrJh ynmedrfhaom? vli,frsm;rSm xkdif;EkdifiH t em*wfuRrf;usifvkyfom;tiftm;pk vkdtyfcsuftwGuf BuD;rm;aom jyóemjzpfvmrnf/ vuf&Sdta&twGuf rSm 21.6oef;&SdaeNyD;? wkdif;jynfwGif t&G,fa&muf vky fom; tiftm;pk&JU 60&mcdkifEIef; &Sdaeonf/ a&&SnfwGif


t&nftaoG;rD xkwfukefrsm;jzihf rNydKifqkdifEkdifbJ ydkYukef OD;wnfaeaMumif; ynma&;t&m&Sdu okH;oyfonf/1 vkyfief;rsm; usqif;aprnf/ ausmif;jyifya&muf uav; Bangkok Post (26 August 2010) rsm;rSm rl;,pfaq;0g;okH;pJGrIESihf &mZ0wfrIrsm;qD

touf 6 ESpft&G,f pma&;q&mi,f pmtkyf 23 tkyftwGuf pmcsKyfcsKyfqkd [,f&Day:wm Zmwfvrf;rsm;udk BudKufESpfouf ol touf 6ESpft&G,f pma&;q&mi,fwpfOD;jzpfonfh NAdwdefEkdifiHom; vD,kd[efwmu pmtkyf 23tkyf a&;om; &ef ukrÜPDwpfckESihf pmcsKyfcsKyfqkdvdkufonf/ [,f&Day: wmZmwfvrf;wJGrsm; a&;om;ol urÇmausmf pma&;q&m r a*sau½kdvif;xufyif ydkdausmfaZmvkdonf[k olu ajymqkdonf/ vD,kdu olYacG;i,fav;ESihf ywfoufaom ]us aemfESihf usaemhftaumif;qkH;oli,fcsif;}pmtkyfudk a&; om;cJhonf/ vD,kd&JU rdcifjzpfol pma&;q&mr a*srDu om;i,fpma&;q&mudkxkwaf 0olrsm;ESifhqufoG,af y; cJhNyD;? tar&duef Strategic Book Publishing rS aemuf xyf 23 tkyfxkwfa0&ef pmcsKyfcsKyfqkdcJhonf/ uav; yk*¾vvGwfvyfcGihfumuG,f&ef pmtkyf rsm; a&;om;rnfh vD,kdu ]usaemf Harry Potter pmtkyf awGudk ESpfoufygw,f/ usaemhfpmtkyfawGudkawmh ydk BudKufw,f/ pma&;ae&&if odyfaysmfwmyJ? pdwf0ifpm;p

&mvnf; aumif;w,f}[k ajymonf/ vD,kd&JU atmifjrifrIudk ausmif;rS q&m q&mrrsm; u auseyf*kPf,laomfvnf; pma&;om;&ef avhvm&OD; rnfjzpfaMumif; &DydkYu'fwGif rSwfcsufay;xm;onf/ p? v,f? qkH;ykHpHjzihf a&;om;&ef vdktyfonf[k rSwfcsufjyK cJhMuonf/1 Indo-Asia News Service (29 August 2010)

w½kwfa'gufwmrsm; trsm;tjym; arG;xkwf rMumcifu Ph.D 47 a,muf wNydKifwnf; BuD;MuyfcJhaom q&mwpfa,mufudk owif;axmufrsm; u ar;jref;Munhf&m rsm;jym;vSaom olYwynfhrsm;udk olr rSwrf ad Mumif;?olBu;D Muyfay;cJah ompmwrf;acgi;f pOfrsm; udk olrodawmhaMumif;? ausmif;om;rsm; twef;r0ifvkdY oltwef;rS xGufcJh&wJh aeYawGrsm;aMumif; ajymjyonf/ 2000 rS 2006 ckESpftwGif; w½kwf Ph.D ta&t wGufrSm 40&mcdkifEIef; rsm;jym;vmaMumif;ESihf zHGU NzdK;NyD; tdk tD;pD'DEkdifiHrsm;xuf 10&mcdkifEIef; ydkrsm;aMumif;azmfjy xm;onf/ xdkodkY Ph.D ta&twGuf azmif;yGaeaomf w½kwfjynfwGif Ph.D a'gufwmrsm; aygaygaom vnf; a'gufwmwpfa,muf&Sd&rnfht&nftcsif;tqifh aom arG;xkwfaeaomfvnf; oufqkdif&me,fy,f t twef;udk wif;wif;usyfusyf xdef;csKyfEkdifpGrf;r&SdaMumif; oD;oD;wGif taumif;qkH; uRrf;usifolrsm; r[kwfao; a0zefcHae&onf/ aMumif; China Daily owif;pmu azmfjyonf/ 107


2009ckESpftwGuf Ph.D bGJUtyfESif;cH&ol 62000 vuf&SdtcsdefwGif t&nftcsif;xuf t&nftwGufudk &SdNyD; w½kwfonf urÇmheHygwfwpf bmom&yfqkdif&m qufvufOD;pm;ay;aeOD;rnf[k owif;pmacgif;BuD;rS a'gufwmbJGUtyfESif;onfh wkdif;jynfjzpfvmonf/ rnf a&;om;xm;onf/ 1 odkYyifjzpfap w½kwftpdk;&ESihf w½kwfwuúokdvfrsm;tzkdY China Daily (10 September 2010)

touf 100 ü pmoifaeqJ tdE´d,tzkd;tdk pmoif,l avhvmjcif;rSm rnfonfhtcsdefrS aemufusjcif;r&Sd[k cH,lcsufjzifh tdE´d,EkdifiHrS touf 100&SdaeNyDjzpfonfh tbkd;tkdwpfOD;onf Oya' ynm &yfudk wuúodkvfü qufvufoif,lvsuf&Sdonf/ ]pmayoifMum;jcif;eYJ A[kokw&&SdzdkY pmayzwf ½Iavhvm&mrSm touft&G,f uefYowfcsuf r&Sdyg}[k bDtdkvm&rf'wfpftrnf&Sd tqdkyg tbdk;tdku attufzf yDowif;XmeodkY ajymMum;vkdufonf/ bDtv kd m&rf'wfpo f nftdE, d´ Ekid if w H Gifw&m;a&; qkdif&m t&m&SdwpfOD;tjzpf 39ESpfMum wm0efxrf;aqmif cJholjzpfNyD;? ,cktcsdefwGif yifpifcHpm;aeol wpfOD;jzpf arG;aeYrSm 1911 ckESpf? atmuf wdkbmv 16 &ufjzpf&m onf/ bDtkdvm&rf'wfpfonf tdE´d,EkdifiH *l0g[mwDNrdKU touf 100 jynfhcJhNyD jzpfonf/ wGif aexkdifvQuf&Sdonf/ AFP (21 October 2010) olYwGif om;orD;ig;OD;&SdNyD; om;av;OD;ESihf orD; wpfOD;? ajr;ESihfjrpf 10OD;&SdaMumif; od&onf/ ol\

q,fausmfouf ukd,f0efaqmifrsm;twGuf pmoifausmif; q,fausmfoufudk,f0efaqmifrsm;twGuf oD; oefYpmoifausmif;udk rav;&Sm;EkdifiH? rvuúm;jynfe,f wGif zGihfvSpfvkdufonf/ vufrxyfbJ udk,f0efaqmif xm;aom q,fausmfoufrdef;uav;rsm;&JU *kPfodu©m xdef;odrf;ulnD&eff &nf&G,fcsufESihf pufwifbm 16&uf aeYwGif zGihfvSpfvkdufNyD;? udk,f0efaqmifausmif;ol 30 OD;udk abmf'gaqmifjzihf pwifvufcHrnfjzpfonf/ jynfe,f tpövmrfa&;&mXmerS wm0efcH zGifhvSpf NyD; ocsFm? odyÜHESihf tjcm;bmom&yfrsm;tygt0if bm oma&; tBuHjyKcsufrsm;vnf; yg0ifrnf/ xkdtpDtpOfrSm ausmif;olrsm; udk,f0ef&&SdNyD; aemufydkif; ausmif;xGuf Mu&onfh udpörsm;jym;vmrIudk pdk;&drfNyD; zGihfvSpf&jcif;jzpf onf/ 108


vufrxyfbJ vdifqufqHaomudpöudk rav;&Sm; rlqvifrsm;tMum;wGif vufrcHEkdifaomaMumihf ausmif; olrsm;rSm udk,f0ef&NyD;aemufydkif; ausmif;xGufMuonf/ ,ckESpftwGif; vufrxyfbJ arG;zGm;aomuav;i,f 170a,muf&SdNyD;? 70ausmfrSm q,fausmfoufrsm;rS arG; zGm;cJhjcif;jzpfonf/ rdcifi,ftcsdKUrSm uav;rsm;udk trdIuf ykH;rsm;? awmtkyfrsm;ESihf tdrfomrsm;wGif pGefYypfcJhonf/ ,ckESpf uav;arG;uif;p 50txd pGefYypfcJhNyD; trsm;pkrSm

aoqkH;Muonf/ rvuúm;jynfe,f 0efBuD;csKyfu rlqvifvli,f rsm;taejzihf vdifqufqHvdkygu vufxyf,lMuyg&ef wkdufwGef;NyD; rdom;pkb0 pwifxlaxmif&ef aiGaMu;yHhydk; ulnDrnfjzpfaMumif; uwdjyKcJhonf/1 Indo-Asia News KL (14 September 2010)

pMum0�mudk zefqif;olrSm bk&m;ocif r[kwfaMumif; pwDzifa[mhuif;ajym bk&m;ocifonf pMum0|mwpfckvkH;tm; zefqif; cJholr[kwfaMumif; urÇmausmfodyÜHynm&SifpwDzifa[mh uif;u ajymMum;vdkufonf/ bmoma&; t,ltqrsm; udk qefYusifonfh tqdktm; NAdwdoQ\tausmfMum;qkH; odyÜHynm&SifBuD;u 4if;\ a&mif;tm;taumif;qkH; pm&if; 0if The Grand Design pmtkyfwGif a&;om;azmfjycJh onf/ a[mhuif;u acwfopf½lyaA'wGif zifqif;&Sifqkd aom a0g[m&twGuf ae&mr&Sd[k a0zefokH;oyfjyonf/ rdrdwkdY touf&Sif&yfwnfaejcif;ESihf pMum0|mBuD; wnf &Sdaejcif;onf tvdktavsmufay:aygufvmjcif; jzpf aMumif; a[mhuif;u a&;om;xm;onf/ touf 68ESpf &Sd a[mhuif;onf bk&m;ociftay: ,kHMunfjcif; &Sdr&Sd qkdaom ar;cGef;tm; tNrJa&SmifvJTajzqkdavh&Sdaomfvnf; ,ckazmfjycsufrSm bmoma&;wkdufckdufrIwpfck[k,lq& zG,f&Sdonf/

a[mhuif;u aewpfckudk N*dKvfrsm;uvSnfhywfrI oDtkd&Dtm; udk;um;NyD; taMumif;wkdufqkdifojzihf rdrdwkdY onf aetzJGUtpnf;&Sd urÇmN*dKvfwGif &Sifoefaejcif;jzpf aMumif; axmufjyonf/ olYtt,ltqrSm M-theory tay:tajccHaMumif;? M-theory qkdonfrSm t&m&m wdkif;twGuf oDtkd&D (a theory of everything) jzpf onf/ a[mYuif; tjrifu ]pMum0VmawG[m bmrSr&Sd wmawGxJu xGufvmwm/ tajccHudku bmrSr&Sdwm jzpfwJYtwGuf wpHkw&m &Sdygw,fvdkY ajymr,fY a*gY'f rvdkawmY? a*gY'f 0ifygp&mrvkdawmY} [kqdkonf/ olY pmtkyfopfrSm y&dwfowfrsm;tMum; yGJqlaejyD;? ,ckvdk c&pf,mefESifYtpövrfbmoma*gY'ftm;jydKifrSIMuD;aeaom umvwGif odyÜHynmu rnfonfh a*gY'frS rvdkaMumif; wifjycsuf jzpfonf/ CNN (10 September 2010)

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112


yk*¾v t"dyÜg,f zGihfqkdcsufawGaMumihfyg/ 'Djiif;ckHrI&JU t"duyifr tcsufuawmh zefqif;rI0g' (Creationism) eJY qifhuJjzpfxGef;vmrIoDtkd&D (Evolution) wkdY jzpfygw,f/ tajccHtm;jzifh tpövmrf? c&pf,mef? [dE´Lbmom w&m;rsm;eJY tjcm;aom yifrudk;uG,f,kHMunfrIrsm;rSm ouf&SdrsdK;EG,fpkawG rsdK;pkH? axGjym;qef;Mu,f&jcif;eJY ywf oufvYdk &Si;f vif;csuu f , kd pf D&SMd uygw,f/t"duuawmh bk&m;ocif jzpfw,f/ 'grSr[kwf&ifvnf; jrifhjrwfaom wefckd;&Sif wpfyg;yg;uaeNyD;awmh owå0gawG tm;vkH;udk zefqif;cJhw,f/ ouf&SdawG axGjym;pkHvifrItay:rSm 'D bmomw&m;rsm;&JU oufaotaMumif;jycsufawGu awmhjzihf ½dk;pif;vSygw,f/ a&SmifwcifjzpfrI chance eJY rsdK; pdwfrsm;&JU ADZ"gwfawG jzpfcsifovdk ,SufEG,f qufpyfjzpfxGef;rI random mutation awGaMumifh urÇmay:rSm axGjym;pkHvifvSwJh ouf&SdawGjzpfay:vm& w,fqdkwmuawmh vkH;0 udk ryg&Sdygbl;/ odyÜHtjrift&awmh ouf&SdawGtm;vkH;[m quf pyfvdkY wnf&SdaeMuw,fqkdwmyg/ ynm&Sif csm;vfpf'g0if (Charles Darwin)&JU qifhuJjzpfay:rI evolution oDtkd&D t& rsdK;EG,fpkawG axGjym;vmw,f/ pkHvifvmw,f/ ]BuHh cdkifEkdifpGrf;t&SdqkH;u t&SifoefqkH;jzpfw,f/} survival of the fittest qdkwJh tcsuf uawmh tcsKdUaom rsKd;EG,fpkawG&JU xl;jcm;wJh rsKd;&dk;qdkif&m trSwftom;o&kyfeJY ZmwdaMumihf OD;a&wdk;yGm; vmap wmvdkYqdkw,f/ 'Dxl;jcm;wJh Zmwdo&kyfawG wdk;yGm; vmjcif;aMumihf rlvrsKd;&dk;eJY rwlawmhwJh rsKd;EG,fpk topfwpfck qif;ouf jzpfxGef; vmawmhw,f/ 'Djiif;cHkrI&JU yifrtcsufuawmh vlom;&JU rlvtpeJY ywfoufvdkYyg/ vlom;[m arsmufuae qif;oufvmw,f (rsKd;&dk;vkdif;cGJvmw,f) qdkwJh tMuHjyK csuf[m bmomw&m; udk;uG,f ,HkMunfolawG twGuf [m;wdkuf &,farmp&mjzpfw,f/ vlom;&JU ra&rwGufEkdifwJh oD;oefYjzpfwnfaewJh p&dkuf? oGifjyif vu©PmawG[m zefqif;&SifaMumihf jzpf&w,f qdkwm udk jyozdkY vHkavmufwJh oufaotaxmuf txm;vdkY olwdkYu qdkMuygw,f/ tjcm;wpfzufrSmawmh ausmufjzpf&kyf<uif;

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tjcm;aom tawG;tac: wdkufyGJrsm; odyÜHeJY bmomw&m;wdkY&JU tjcm;aom jiif;cHk aqG;aEG;csufawGxJrSm pMu0VmBuD;&JU rlvtpvnf; tygt0if jzpfw,f/ c&pf,mefbmom? *sL;bmom pwJh tcsKdUaom bmomw&m;awGrSm &Sif;jycsufawG[m jrifh 113


'Dtwkdif;om trSefw&m;qdk&ifawmh odyÜHe,fy,fxJu blrdaA'? ZD0aA'eJY tmumoodyÜHqkdif&m BuD;rm; us,fjyefYwJh ynm&yfqdkif&m awGY&SdcsufawG[m jzpfEkdif p&m r&Sdygbl;/ usihf0wfeDwdeJY vlom;tjyKtrludk bmom w&m;uae wqifh &Sif;jyavh&SdMuygw,f/ bmomw&m; r&Sdjcif;? ,HkMunf&m uif;rJhjcif; (bk&m;r&Sdjcif;0g') udk raumif;qdk;0g;? rdpäm'dXdt,lqdkNyD; pGyfpGJwwfw,f/

jrwfaom usrf;pmawmfxJrSm yg&Sdw,f/ bk&m;ocif[m pMu0Vmudk OD;pGmzefqif;cJhNyD;wJhaemuf 6 &uftwGif;rSm tJ'DtxJu t&mtm;vHk;udk zefqif;awmfrl cJhw,f qdk wJh &Sif;jycsufyg/ 'g[m t"dyÜg,fzGihfqdkrIawG tajrmuf trsm;twGuf vrf;pvnf; jzpfw,fav/ odyÜHzufuMunfh&ifawmh pMu0VmBuD;&JU jzpfxGef;vmrIudk ,HkMunfvufcHxm;wJh oDtdk&Duawmh ] bpfbefoDtkd&D Big Bang theory} ]r[m aygufuGJrIBuD;} jzpfygw,f/ vGefcJhaom ESpfoef; axmifaygif; 13.5 avmufwkef;u 'D ]r[m aygufuGJrIBuD;} jzpfay:cJhw,f/ qlygEkdAmwpfckaMumihf tmumorSm trIeftrTm;? tmumo t&m0w¬Kypönf; awGeJY pkpnf;NyD;awmh ajrurÇm[m ESpfoef; 4 axmif ausmf (4.5 billions years ago) avmufrSm jzpfay:vmcJhw,f/ tar&duef c&pf,mef toif;awmfBuD; wpfck&JU BuD;rm;wJh vIyf&Sm;rI wpfck&Sdygw,f/ olwdkY udk,folwdkY ]toufi,fao;wJh urÇmBuD;&JU zefqif; &Sifrsm; Young Earth Creationists} vdkY uif;yGef; wyfxm;Muw,f/ olwdkYu 'Dvdkqdkygw,f/ urÇmBuD;[m tESpfajcmufaxmif (6000) om oufwrf;&Sdao;w,f/ okdYayr,fh 'guawmh trsm;pkBuD;&JU tjrifr[kwfygbl;/

114

bmomw&m;rJh0g' usaemfhtaeeJYawmh 'gudk jyóem&,fvdkY rjrifygbl;/ usaemf[m bmomw&m;rJh 0g'DwpfOD;yg/ 'gayrJY usaemfYukd,fudk usaemf usihf0wfeDwdt& aumif;jrwfjcif;&Sdol? tcgtm;avsmfpGmrSm ay;urf; pGefYMuJvSL'gef;olvdkY jrifygw,f/ 'DtajccHw&m; awG udkawmh rdbawGu oifMum;ay;cJhwmyg/ bk&m;o ciftay:rSm olwdkY ,HkMunf Muayr,fh bmomw&m; udkif;&Idif;olawGawmh r[kwfMuygbl;/ vlawG[m wpfOD;eJYwpfOD; jyKrIqufqH yHkawGuawmh udk,fcsif;pmw&m;? u&kPmw&m; aMumihfeJY ESpfOD;ESpfzufpvHk;twGuf ydktusKd;&SdwJh ukd,fusKd;pGefYrI? ay;urf;rIawGaMumihfvdkY xifrdygw,f/ bk&m;ocif&JU trsufa'goeJY jypf'Pfcwfjcif;udk aMumufvdkYawmh r[kwfygbl;/ jrihfjrwfaom bmoma&; pmtkyfawGuawmh ]tjcm;olawGu udk,fhudk qufqH apcsifovdkrsKd;udk udk,fuvnf; tjcm;olawGtay: jyKrlqufqHyg} qdkNyD; oGefoif a[majymMuayr,fh 'g[m yHkrSef&dk;&dk;tawG;eJYwif em;vnf,lvdkY&wJh udpöjzpfw,f/ bmomw&m;awGu Ncdrf;ajcmufrIeJY oGefoifp&m&,f awmhvnf; rvdktyfygbl;/ usaemhf&JU tjrifyg/ ouf&Sdrsm; qihfuJajymif;vJ jzpfxGef;vmrI (tDaAmfvl;&Sif;) ZD0aA'ynm&Sif &pfcswfa'guifpf Richard Dawkins [m bmomw&m;rhJ wpfa,mu f jzpfygw,f/ pmaya&;om;olvnf;jzpfNyD; olu bmom w&m;awGudk r,HkMunfaMumif; yGifhvif;pGm xkwfazmf ajymcJholyg/ olutckvdk aoaooyfoyf? vdrfrm,Of aus;pGm ajymjycJhzl;w,f/ ]vlYtzGJYtpnf; toD;oD;rSm ,HkMunfouf0ifaeMuwJh bk&m;ocifawG? ewfbk&m;


awGeJY ywfoufvm&ifawmh usaemfwdkY vlom;tm; vHk;[m bmomw&m;rJholawG jzpfygw,f/ tJ'DxJu vlwpfcsKdUuawmh ewfbk&m;wpfyg;yg;? bk&m;ocif wpfyg;yg;aemufudk tqHk;txd vkdufygoGm; Muwm ygyJ/} 'DurÇmajrjyifay:rSm bmomw&m; tajrmuf trsm;eJY bk&m;ocifawG trsm;BuD; &Sdaew,f/ olwdkY tm;vHk;awmhvnf; rrSefuefEkdifbl; r[kwfvm;/ 'g aMumihfrdkvdkY bk&m;ocifwpfyg;yg;? ewfbk&m;wpfyg;yg; tay:rSm ,HkMunfouf0ifrI&SdNyD; tjcm;aom bk&m; ocifawG? ewfbk&m;awGudk r,HkMunfjcif;[mvnf;yJ oif[mvnf; bmomrJhwpfOD;vdkY qdk&if&w,fav/ vHk;0udk bmomrJhwJh olawGuawmh b,fbk&m;ociff urS rSefuefw,fvdkY r,HkMunfMubl;/ jyóemvm; acwftqufquf xGef;awmuf xif&Sm; cJhMuwJh odyÜHynm&SifawG[m bmomw&m;awG tay:rSm r,HkMunf cJhMuolawGyg/ rsufarSmufacwf odyÜH ynm&SifawG[mvnf; bmomw&m;awG tay:rSm r,HkMunfMuygbl;/ ynm&Sif tkdifqufe,lwef[m t xifu&aygh/ ZD0aA'ynm&Sif csmvf;pf'g0if&JU r[m awGY&SdrIBuD;upvdkY bmomw&m; ukd;uG,f,HkMunfol odyÜHynm&SifawG enf;yg;vmayr,fh tifrwef t a&;BuD;vSwJh odyÜHvkyfief;awGudkvnf; bmomw&m; wpfckckudk ouf0if,HkMunfol od y Ü H y nm&S i f a wG [ m vkyfaqmif aeMuwkef;ygyJ/ bmomw&m; wpfckckudk udk; uG,fonfjzpfap? rudk;uG,fonfjzpfap? odyÜHed,m rawGudk avhvm? awGY&SdMuw,fqdk&if &v'fawGuawmh twlwlyg/ urÇmhodyÜHtjrif[m vlom;awG&JU onf;cHEkdif pGrf;tm;? pmempdwfudk wdk;jr§ihfay;vdrfhr,fvdkY usaemfu ,lqygw,f/ wu,fvdkY oif[m odyÜHynmu avhvm awGY&Sdxm;wJhtwkdif; vlom;wdkif;[m rsKd;EG,fpk wpfck xJuom jzpfw,f? rsKd;EG,fvkdif;aMumif; wpfckxJu twlwl qif;ouf vmMuw,fvdkY pOf;pm;Munhf rdr,fqdk&if vlrsKd;a&;cGJjcm;rIawG? txl;ojzihf bmom a&; onf;rcHEkdifrIawG yaysmufoGm;rSm taotcsmygyJ/

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}}

wpfenf;r[kwfwpfenf;eJYawmh odyÜHeJY bm omw&m;wdkY&JU wdkufyGJ rjzpfoihfygbl;/ zefqif;rIeJY tDaAmfvl&Sif;qdk&ifawmh jzpfEkdifygw,f/ 'gawGu oufqkdif&m e,fy,fawGxJu oD;oefY acgif;pOfawGyg/ 'gayrJY odyÜHeJY bmomw&m;udk acsmufwGef;NyD; &ef wdkufay;r,f qdk&ifawmh vHk;0udk rw&m;wmyg/ wpf ckcsif;pDudk rSefrSefuefuef (yHkrSef&dk;&dk;av;) om pOf; pm;Munfh oihfw,f/ tJ'D ESpfck[m ,SOfwGJvdkY? EIdif;,SOfvdkYrS r&wm/ tJ'guvnf; t"dyÜg,fzGifhqdkrI&JU tvS wpfckygyJ/ olwdkYvkdcsifovdk? vdktyfovdk vlawG[m ,HkMunf udk;uG,fEkdifygw,f/ usaemfYtaeeJYuawmh wdkufwGef;csifwm 'Dvdkyg/ jyóem? jiif;ckefcsuf ESpfzuf pvHk;uaeNyD;awmh udk,fukd,fudk ynmay;rI? udk,fwkdif avhvmrIawG jyKvkyfNyD; udk,fwdkif qHk;jzwfMuzdkYygyJ/ arG;zGm;vmuwnf;u t,ltq wpfckwnf; udkom wpfzufouf? twif;tusyf em;axmifckdif;wmxuf pm&ifawmh tcsuftvuf cdkifvHkpGmeJY qHk;jzwfcsufcs EkdifMuygr,f/ / ynma&;okawoDwpfOD; (David Canavan [m r[modyÜHbGJYudk tjyKtrl a*[aA'

eJY &&SdcJhw,f/ befaumuf? *g;'ef; EkdifiHwum ausmif;? txufwef; odyÜHausmif;tkyfwpfOD;jzpfygw,f/)

&nfnGef; BKK post Aug 2009

115


xkdif;EkdifiH? ynma&;0efBuD;Xme\ ausmif;oif½dk;ñTef;wrf;? ausmif;oifbmom&yfrsm; wpfESpfwm tcsdefcJGa0rI .. Learning Time Structure

The Basic Education Core Curriculum prescribes the framework for learning time as follows Learning Time (in hours) Learning Areas/ Activities

Primary Education Level

Lower Secondary Upper Secondary Education Level Education Level Gr 7 Gr 8 Gr 9 Gr 10-12

Gr 1 Gr2

Gr 3

Gr 4 Gr 5

Gr 6

200

200

200

160

160

160

120 (3crs)

120 120 (3crs) (3crs)

240 (6 crs)

200

200

200

160

160

160

120 (3crs)

120 120 (3crs) (3crs)

240 (6 crs)

80

80

80

80

80

80

120 (3crs)

120 120 (3crs) (3crs)

240 (6 crs)

120

120

120

120

120

120

160 (4crs)

160 160 (4crs) (4crs)

320 (8 crs)

40

40

40

40

40

40

40 (1 cr)

40 (1 cr)

80 (2 crs)

Religion, Morality and Ethics, Civics. Culture and Living in Society, Economic, Geography

80

80

80

80

80

80

120 (3crs)

120 120 (3crs) (3crs)

240 (6 credits)

Health and Physical Education

80

80

80

80

80

80

80 (2crs)

80 80 (2crs) (2crs)

120 (3 credits)

80

80

80

80

80

80

80 (2crs)

80 80 (2crs) (2crs)

120 (3 crs)

40

40

40

80

80

80

80 (2crs)

80 80 (2crs) (2crs)

120 (3 crs)

40

40

40

80

80

80

120 (3crs)

120 120 (3crs) (3crs)

240 (6 crs)

Total Learning Time (Basic Level)

840

840

840

840

840

840

880 22crs

880 880 22crs 22crs

1640 (41 crs)

. Learner Development Activities

120

120

120

120

120

120

120

.learning Areas Thai Language Mathematics Science Social Studies Religion and Culture History

Art Occupations and Technology Foreign Languages

. Additional courses/ activities provided by schools, depending on their readiness and piorities Total Learning Time

116

120

40 (1 cr)

120

360

Not more than 40 hours for each year.

Not more than 200 hours for each year.

Not Less than 1600 hours

Not more than 1000 hours for each year

Not more than 1200 hours for each year

Not less than 3600 hours for a total of 3 years


AD,uferf uGefjrLepf ygwDtwGuf tu,f'rpf ynma&; &Jjrifhausmf

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117


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119


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120

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Developmental Tasks For Childhood Birth to 6 years

6 to 12 years

• • • •

• Learning physical skills necessary for or-

Learning to walk Learning to take solid foods Learning to talk Learning to control the elimination of body

dinary games

• Building wholesome attitudes toward oneself as a growing organism

• Learning to get along with age-mates • Learning sex differences and sexual mod- • Learning an appropriate masculine or femwastes estly

• Achieving physiological stability • Forming simple Concepts of social and physical reality

• Learning to relate oneself emotionally to parents, siblings, and other people

• Learning to distinguish rignt and wrong and developing a conscience

142

inine sex role

• Developing fundamental skills in reading, writing, and calculating.

• Developing concepts necessary for everday living

• Developing conscience, morality, and a scale of values

• Achieving personal independence


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a&;qJGay;w,f/ 'gayrJY Guideline yJay;wmaemf/ Curriculum u ausmif;toD;oD;u q&mawG rdrdukd,fwkdif a&;qJG&wm} }tJ'gudk 2005 ckESpfrSm pwifcJhw,f/ NyD;awmh q&m q&mrvkyfwJholu omreft&nftcsif;eJYawmh r&bl;/ t&nftaoG;jynfh0oludkyJ a&G;cs,f&w,f/ q&mwpf a,muf[m Master Degree &xm;NyD;ol jzpf&r,f/ NyD;&if Grade-5 eJY Grade-9 twef;awGrSm Special ppfaq;rIawGvnf; jyKvkyfao;w,f/ t&nftcsif;jynfh 0wJh q&mawGarG;xkwfw,f/ t&nftcsif;eJY xkdufwef wJh tcGihfta&;awGay;NyD; q&mawGudk EkdifiHawmftpdk;& u *kPfjyKay;aewmayhg/ 'Dvkd *kPfjyKrIawGaMumihf q&m awGvnf; auseyfMu&w,f/ q&mtvkyfudk ydkNyD;auseyf *kPf,lMuw,f/ ,ck om;wkdYorD;wkdYacwfu ynmacwf urÇmBuD;[mqkd&ifvnf; t&Sdeft[kefeJY wkd;wufajymif; vJvmNyD? enf;ynmawG rsm;vmNyD} }tJ'DaemufrSm trSD vkdufEkdifzkdY vdktyfvmNyD? tJ'DrSmyJ q&mawG&JU tcef;u@u twkdif;rod us,f0ef;vm awmhwmyJ/ a&S;tcguqkd&if q&mwpfa,muf[m udk,f usihfodu©m&Sdjcif;? aumif;aomtawG;tjrif t,lt q&Sdjcif;? aumif;pGmoif,lNyD;aom q&mtwwf &Sdjcif;qkdwJh ]t&SdokH;rsdK;}ESihf q&mb0 q&mtjzpfudk odjcif;? rdrdwynfhrsm;udkodjcif;? rdrdoif Mum;&rnfh t aMumif;t&mbmom&yfudkodjcif;qkdwJh ]todokH;rsdK;} &SdaevQif jynfhpkHvkHavmufNyDvkdY qkdEkdifw,f/ ,ckacwf rSmu odyÜHeJYenf;ynmwkd;wufaewJhtwGuf a&SUu todokH;rsdK;eJY rvkHavmufawmhbl;/ 'DacwfrSm o wif;rD'D,m?jyefMum;a&;?qufoG,fa&;awGt&Sdefaumif; wJhacwfrSm uGefysLwmudk aumif;pGmtokH;jyKwwfzkdYvnf; vdktyfvmNyDav? ,ckacwfrDEkdifiHBuD;jzpfwJh tar&duef jynfaxmifpkrSmyJ ausmif;q&mOD;a&&JU 50&mcdkifEIef;u uGefysLwm ynm&yfawGrSm tawGUtBuKHr&SdMuaMumif;ukd azmfjyxm;cH&w,f/ 'gaMumifh q&mwkdYukd,füuvnf; BudK;pm;aeMu&NyD? ynmqkdwmu ukefoGm;w,f? NyD;qkH; oGm;w,fvdkYrS r&SdwmuG? 'gaMumihf wynfhwkdYvnf; a&SU quftrsm;BuD; BudK;pm;oGm;&r,fvkdY q&mowdxyfay; csifw,f? tm;vkH;q&majymwmudk em;vnfMuvm;} ][kwfuJhyg q&m BudK;pm;yghr,f} (twef;om;tm; vkH; NydKifwlajzqkdMuonfh toH[m MunfEl;zG,faumif;


rpGefYjcif;[lonf t*Fg (2) yg; taygif;toif;udkodjcif;t*Fg (4) yg; ppfaq;0efcHjcif;t*Fg (4) yg; xda&mufpGm oifay;jcif;t*Fg (6) yg; rarhavQmhjcif;t*Fg (2) yg; csD;jr§ifhjcif; t*Fg (3) yg; tajctaeudkodjcif; t*Fg (4) yg; qkdNyD; pk pkaygif; 25 yg;&Sdw,f/ tJ'DvkdyJ t*Fvdyfvdk Teacher qdkwJh t"dyÜg,fudkvnf; zGihfqkdxm;w,f/ T = Teaching

E = Education

A = Active

C = Clever

H = Honest

E = Expret

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150

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177


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a&cyfqdyfab;em;u ajcwH &Snf&Snf eJYtdrfu q&mBuD; tdrfyJ/} &Gmom;rsm;\ tqihfqifh vrf; ñTefrIrsm;t& ausmif;tkyf BuD;tdrfokdY rdrdwdkYa&mufcJhMuonf/ tjyeftvSef rdwfqufMuNyD; pum;vufqkHusrd &mrS q&mBuD;ESihf rdrdwdkY wom;wnf; jzpfoGm;\/ bmompum; wxyf wnf; jzpfaejcif;aMumihf[k qkd&rnf xifonf/ ]ESpfwkdif;awmh q&m q&mr awG ESpfa,muf? oHk;a,mufa&muf vmMuwmygyJ/ 'gayr,fh odyfrMum ygbl;/ tarbmjzpfvkdY? tazbmjzp f vkdYeJY taMumif;jyNyD; jyefjyefoGm;Mu wm 'DrSmawmh xkH;pHvdkjzpfaeygNyD/ 'D &GmrSmu tpm;taomuf? taet xkdifu tpp qif;&Jw,f r[kwf vm;/ aemufqkH;awmh usaemfwpf a,mufwnf;yJ ausmif;wpfausmif; vkH;udk wm 0ef,l&jyefwmayhg/} ]usaemfvnf; Ekdifoavmuf (3) awmh wm0efausatmif BudK;pm; ]ausmif;tkyfBuD;tdrf b,fem; ygw,fAsm/ 'gayrJh wpfa,muf rSmvJAs/} wnf;eJY wpfausmif;vkH;udk b,fvdk ]'Dvrf;av;twkdif;qif; oGm;? rS EkdifEkdifeif;eif; roiffEkdifbl;av/ &yfum ../ ]usaemfwkdY&GmawGrSm tdrfom r&Sdwm rSefygw,f/ 'gayrJh tcke ajymovkd a&m*g&w,fqkdwmawmh rjzpfEkdifygbl;/ bmvdkYvnf;qkd&if NrdKUrSm tdrfomawG tdrfwkdif;&SdMuay r,fh aq;½kHrSm vlemawG tjynfhyJ av/ usaemfwdkY&GmrSm&SdwJh vlemu enf;enf;av;} ]aemufwpfcku NrdKUrSmtdrfom awG&Sdayr,fh vlwifrubl;? 0ufem? Muufem? acG;emawGyg jzpfMuw,f/ usaemfwdkYqDrSm wpfcgrS 'DvdkrsdK; r jzpfzl;bl;/} usaemfwkdYtm;vkH; jyef&Sif;jyzkdY yif qHGUtcJhMu&onf/ tao;pdwf jyef&Sif;jyzkdY vdkaomfvnf; tcsdefudk iJhuGufí r&Sif;jyjzpfcJh/ odkYaomf xdk tjzpftysufESihf xkdvl\ pum;rsm; rSmum;? rdrdwkdYESifhtwl ygvmEkdif oavmufatmifudk trSwfw&/

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}} 180


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193


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202

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204


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}} 205


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Maukkha Education Magazine No. 4