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The Teaching Portfolio of Krysten M. Whitney

Table of Contents        Philosophy of Education………………………………………………………………………………………..1  Growth as a Teacher……………………………………………………………………………………………..3  Teaching Related Talents and Experiences…………………….........................................................5  Special Needs………………………………………………………………………………………………………..8  Classroom Management……………………………………………………………………………………….10  Unit Plan Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………..12  Unit Plan……………………………………………………………………………………………………………....13  Lesson Plan Example and Student Work………………………………………………………………..17  Unit Plan Assessment and Student Work……………………………………………………………….32  Unit Plan Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………………..47  Alternative Assessment Example and Student Work………………………………………………49  8th Grade Student‐Centered Learning Project…………………………………………………………57  A.P. U.S. Government & Politics Student‐Centered Learning Project…………………………81  Administrative Observations…………………………………………………………………………………..90  

Philosophy of Education Being a social studies teacher does not simply mean that my job is to transmit important events, dates, and people. Learning about social studies should permeate much deeper than simple rote memorization. To achieve the deep understanding about why social studies is important, the students must be actively engaged in the material, and discover how learning about history is relevant and pertinent to our lives today. I believe in the idea that history is cyclical and not linear. If we look back throughout history, one can see numerous examples of this idea. For instance, let us consider World War I and World War II. Perhaps if the world had learned from the mistakes that were made during and immediately following World War I, then World War II would not have occurred, nor have had such a devastating effect on those involved. I believe that the idea of learning from our past, especially our past mistakes can help society make more educated decisions that will more positively impact our future. The students I teach will be lawyers, doctors, politicians, teachers and blue collar workers of society that will be making important decisions in the future. It is my responsibility as a teacher to give my students the knowledge and skills to make well educated decisions. In order to teach my students the knowledge and skills important for life, I find ways to make what they are learning about social studies relevant to their lives. I do this by continually making connections between the past and present. For example, when I discuss the Progressive Era with my students, I am sure to have them read an excerpt from Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle. I then make the connection between the passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 and the Meat Inspection Act to the condition that their


food is in today. After reading The Jungle, most students are quite thankful for Sinclair’s ability to expose the problems of the meat packing industry so that we can all rest easy knowing our food is much safer today. Being an effective teacher requires both flexibility and consistency. Students crave routines and respond well to a teacher who is reliable and fair. At the same time, within that safe learning environment, utilizing different teaching styles and techniques are the only way to create meaningful lessons that students can walk away from and remember many years down the road. My experience thus far has shown that students have the ability to learn much from one another.

For this reason, I incorporate

cooperative learning frequently. Research states that students, and even adults, lose their attention span after ten minutes. To keep my students attention throughout the entire class, I plan lessons that incorporate different activities. I also incorporate student-centered learning activities whenever possible during my lessons. By doing so, students are able to construct their own knowledge in ways that will help them to remember it years later. For example, my students completed a studentcentered learning project about World War II. They were given the freedom to choose from a variety of projects.

The projects that they completed demonstrated their

knowledge and interest of the material. To be a successful teacher, one must be flexible, consistent, and creative. By utilizing different mediums that apply to different learning styles and varying the activities in class, students will have a much better understanding about our past, present and future.


Growth as a Teacher As with any career, it is imperative that teachers continue to grow and hone their skills. As I reflect on my two years of teaching thus far, I feel that as a teacher, I have definitely transformed from my first day in the classroom almost two years ago. When I first started teaching, I was extremely excited, but also a bit nervous. I had been placed in eighth grade social studies at Greenwich Central School District and I was under the guidance of Dawn Slater, a veteran teacher and a great mentor. When asked which periods I wanted to teach, I decided to teach second and third period, so that I could observe my mentor first period every day. I remembered how helpful it was for me to observe various teachers at different schools throughout the area, and it proved to be just as helpful when I was student teaching. During my first year teaching, I had great days and difficult days. But each day as I drove home and reflected on the day, I always walked away learning something more about myself as a teacher and my students. This time of reflection inspired me to go back the next day and use what I had learned the previous day, and apply it. Throughout my first year teaching, I was fortunate to have many great resources that were offered to me by my mentor. I was also fortunate because my mentor gave me the freedom and flexibility to be who I wanted to be as a teacher. I learned how to write lesson plans, unit plans, student materials, and assessments. I also learned how valuable it is to develop student-centered learning activities because students find the activities both engaging and fun. One of my greatest achievements was developing a student-centered learning project about World War II. I gave the students the freedom to choose their World War


II topic and project type, which included ideas such as write a movie script, write diary entries, create drawings, write and illustrate a children’s book, and other various ideas. I was especially excited when students that habitually did not complete required assignments actually turned in well-done projects! I am proud to say that this project was implemented again this year with my former mentor and her classes. I have spent my second year teaching as both a daily substitute teacher and as a long term substitute teacher for my former mentor while she was caring for her baby on maternity leave. I continued to grow and transform as a substitute teacher. Subbing has given me the opportunity to work on perfecting my classroom management skills. I have worked with a variety of students in grades seven through twelve, and learned that each grade level and individual student is unique. I have learned the importance of respecting all students and their individual situations in life. Respect cannot be demanded, it can only be earned. Substitute teaching has also given me the opportunity to explore many different classrooms. I take time to analyze each teacher’s classroom setup, lesson plans, materials, resources, and classroom procedures. I write down the various ideas I obtain from each classroom so that I can include them in my own. I am a different teacher now than I was at the start of my student teaching internship. I am more confident, more flexible, and more experienced with a variety of students. I understand the value of always learning, accepting a challenge, and rising to the occasion. These are all attributes that I will bring with me into my own classroom.


Teaching Related Talents and Experiences I have had many different experiences and developed many talents that have helped to shape who I am and my style of teaching. The most important talent that I have that has influenced my teaching is my ability to ride horses, and the most important experience that I have had thus far that is important to my teaching is my trip to Guatemala. When I was about six years old, I asked my mother if she would take me to a riding lesson. After that initial lesson, I knew that riding horses was something that I was going to love to do for the rest of my life. After a few years of riding, my parents bought me a horse and enrolled me in the local county 4-H program. Little did I know that being a part of 4-H would help me to realize my desire to teach. Once I became an older member in 4-H, I began to take on more responsibilities. I was often the club president and was in charge of meetings. I was also someone who many of the younger members of 4-H looked up to as a role model and as a teacher. I spent many hours during my time in 4-H helping others and trying to teach them important lessons about riding and caring for their horses. While teaching someone how to ride a horse, the teacher must employ many different intelligences to be effective. Some people are unable to learn how to ride without a visual representation. Other people learn better from reading a book that gives step by step directions as to what to do when you are on a horse. Other people learn best by actually riding the horse and physically learn by doing. After learning how to ride a horse, I realized that I am a visual and bodily kinesthetic learner. I often needed to observe and try for my self what my instructor wanted me to do. This example represents


how each person learns in a very unique way and as a teacher I try to incorporate as many different intelligences as possible. The most important experience in my life thus far that has helped to shape my teaching was a field study trip to Guatemala during my senior year at Siena College. I went to Guatemala for two weeks with my political science class. During the trip, we traveled throughout the country and went to many important places that helped us to learn about society and life in Guatemala. Prior to leaving for the trip, I was a bit nervous and frightened about what to expect. I had never been out of the United States before and had never experienced life in a tumultuous third world country. Once I arrived in Guatemala and began traveling throughout the country, I realized how amazing my experience there was going to be. I climbed ancient Mayan ruins, hiked through the rainforest, visited a school and a coffee plantation, and traveled into one of the most gang ridden areas of Guatemala City. Often times, I felt a bit uncomfortable in my new surroundings. Little did I realize, at that point, how important it is for students to feel a little uncomfortable. Doing so encourages students to learn and be problem solvers. Being immersed in a different culture can be an adjustment from what a person is comfortable with, but it creates wonderful opportunities to learn about a different way of life, and it creates experiences that will last a lifetime. I realize the importance of bringing these unique experiences into the classroom for my students to learn from. Thus far, in my first year of teaching, I have recognized how the dynamics of the class discussion change when personal experiences are factored into the equation. I also encourage my students to bring into the classroom their own


unique experiences as well. It helps to keep the information relevant to the students’ lives. Bringing individual experiences into the classroom teaches a wonderful lesson that we can all learn from each other.


Special Needs: Mary Many students are diagnosed and labeled with a learning disability every year. Along with the learning disabilities come special needs that must be addressed in the classroom. It is the responsibility of every teacher to be aware of each student’s needs and properly address when planning the curriculum of the class. Mary is a fourteen year old female student in my eighth grade social studies class. She is a pleasant student with whom to work. She is very cooperative and is never disruptive. Unfortunately, she has a difficult time keeping her attention on the task at hand, and as a result lacks the ability to comprehend the material she is learning about. She has been labeled with a learning disability. Her lack of focus and attention has been a concern of her teachers’ in the past and now has an IEP and receives services for her needs. It is apparent in my classroom that Mary struggles with staying attentive. She also falls behind in writing her notes and must be reminded to continue writing. She requires more time to complete the writing, because after writing a few words or a short sentence, she has typically lost her focus and cannot remember what to write next. She is also unable to read for a prolonged period of time. Most times, within thirty seconds, she has lost her attention and focus on the reading. My responsibility as Mary’s teacher is to find ways to address her needs. The most important action I can take in the classroom is to be attentive to her inattention and constantly remind her to focus and stay on task. I have seated Mary in the front row and this allows me to be near to her and assess whether or not she is focused. Throughout class, I routinely check her note packet to be sure that she is on the correct page and


completing the notes. I often repeat directions and notes quietly with her at her desk while the rest of the class continues on. Her IEP also calls for a modified curriculum. Unfortunately, as a new teacher, it took some time figuring out what assignments Mary could successfully complete, but now that I have a better understanding of Mary’s needs, her grades have risen. I modify Mary’s essay tasks. For example, if the students are completing a Document Based Question and essay, I shorten her task so that she is only required to give one or two examples of something rather than three. I also modify her homework assignments. I have given Mary a review book to read and work in. The readings are shorter which allows her to finish them in one night. I also assign Mary one broad question for her to answer from the reading to be sure that she understands the main ideas. This type of assignment is feasible for Mary to complete. Lastly, I remain in constant contact with the special education teacher who is in my classroom during Mary’s class. I discuss the different assignments with him first before I give them to Mary to be sure they are in her ability level. Together, we assess her progress regularly to be sure that we are doing everything we can to help Mary be a successful student. Working with a student with special needs can be both a challenge and a reward. It forces teachers to think about the material we teach in different ways so that the student with special needs will understand it. Once a new approach is constructed for the student with special needs, it is placed in our “tool box” and can be used in the future if other students have difficulty understanding a concept.


Classroom Management In my opinion, one of the most difficult aspects of teaching is classroom management. Fortunately, my experience with student teaching and substitute teaching gave me the opportunity to develop effective classroom management and discipline procedures. First and foremost, it is important to make the students aware of my procedures and expectations. This includes explaining them to the students on the first day of school and clearly posting them in the classroom. Establishing a working relationship rooted in a foundation of mutual respect is also imperative. I firmly believe that a teacher cannot demand a student’s respect; it must be earned. The same idea applies to students. They, too, must earn a teacher’s respect. Learning about each student’s background and life situation has helped me to better understand his or her actions and behaviors in my classroom. Establishing a consistent plan to deal with classroom management issues must be done prior to stepping foot in the classroom. This plan will surely need amending along the way, but every teacher must have a plan in place at all times. I have outlined a stepby-step procedure that I use in every classroom. First, if a student is engaging in any undesirable behavior, such as talking, I try to get his or her attention by simply making eye contact. Eye contact typically makes the student aware of my dissatisfaction with his or her behavior. If eye contact is unsuccessful and does not stop the behavior, then I will walk by the student or stand in close proximity to the student’s seat. Being physically close to the student will usually curb any unwanted behavior.


After moving closer to the student, I will address him or her quietly at their desk. If all of the above actions were unsuccessful, then I will address the student one final time with an out loud verbal warning. If the behavior continues, I will issue a referral to the student, call their parents to explain the issue, and depending on the severity of the behavior, I will send the student to the office. One of my goals as a teacher is to create a classroom environment that prevents any classroom management issues from arising. I prefer to be a proactive rather than a reactive teacher. Unfortunately, though, some classroom management issues will arise. I believe that my structured plan eliminates undesirable behavior quickly. Another important goal that I have is to do everything possible to keep a student in my classroom. Only in the direst circumstances will I send a student to the office. By developing lesson plans that incorporate multiple activities, I am better equipped to prevent classroom management problems. I can often “hook� a student with one of my various activities which then dispel any undesirable behaviors. If I asked all students with discipline issues to leave, then they would not have the opportunity to learn valuable information in my classroom.


Unit Plan Introduction I have included my Great Depression unit plan in my portfolio. The Great Depression was a significant time in not only the history of the United States, but also around the world. I will present this unit plan and the daily activities to my class after we complete the World War I unit and before the World War II unit. During the World War I unit, the students learned about how the economy shifted due to wartime production needs. I will help guide the students to make observations about how the economy changed after World War I ended, how the economy went through various cycles, and how the economy eventually resulted in the Great Depression. I chose this unit for my portfolio for a variety of reasons. Most importantly, relevance can easily be established with the Great Depression and the lives of the students today, due to our current economic situation. While most of my students do not work, most of their parents do and have the responsibility to care for their families. During every newscast on television there is undoubtedly a story about the current downward trend that our economy seems to be taking. I feel that there is no better an opportunity than now to seize upon “teachable moments� in my classroom to help the students compare and contrast today and the Great Depression.


The Great Depression Unit Plan Unit Objectives: TSWBAT:  Explain the causes of the Great Depression  Seek information about the current state of the U.S. economy  Compare and Contrast the strategies employed by Herbert Hoover and Franklin Roosevelt to help pull the U.S. out of depression  Investigate elements of the New Deal Program that are still employed today  Describe how people’s lives were affected by the Great Depression throughout America

Unit Skills:  read a map  examine photographs  reading comprehension  write an essay  answer questions based on primary/ secondary sources Day Day 1 Causes of the Great Depression

Day 2 Hoover’s Response to the Great Depression

Objectives Create a timeline that examines the U.S. economy between the years of 1914 and 1929 Summarize the main causes of the Great Depression

Explain Hoover’s response to the Great Depression and discuss possible solutions Analyze a Newsweek article about the proposed economic stimulus package and discuss whether or not it would help our economy

Activities The students will work in groups to create a timeline of events specific to the U.S. economy between the years 1914-1929 on the board, the groups will then explain their assigned event stating how it affected the economy, and lastly, they will complete notes on the causes of the Great Depression. Resources: Dawes Plan reading, index cards, text books, and packet. The students will briefly review the main causes of the Great Depression, take notes about President Hoover’s response, discuss whether or not the students agree with his belief of the role of the government, read a Newsweek article about the proposed economic stimulus package, and discuss how this will affect their lives and the economy. Resources: Newsweek article, discussion questions, and packet. 13

Assessment Closure: State the main causes of the Great Depression through class discussion.

Closure: Answer a multiple choice question together as a class on overhead transparency that asks about Hoover’s response to the Great Depression.

Day 3 FDR and the New Deal

Summarize FDR’s New Deal through words and pictures

Day 4 Super Tuesday

Categorize the candidates by their political party affiliation Create a collage using Newsweek articles and pictures that represent one of the candidates running for president in 2008 Explain and evaluate five criticisms of the New Deal Summarize why the Supreme Court ruled on the side of Schechter in the “Sick Chicken” court case

Day 5 Criticisms of the New Deal

 

Day 6 FDR’s Second

Compare and contrast FDR’s first and second terms as president.

The students will be shown a picture or FDR and the teacher will briefly discuss his life with polio, his home, and his treatment of the Bonus Army in Washington, D.C. while explaining how that led to the G.I. Bill. The students will then take notes on specific programs of the New Deal and then draw a picture to represent one of the programs. Resources: picture of FDR, exit sheets, and packet. The students will work together to list and categorize the candidates running for president in 2008. They will then work with a partner to create a collage using Newsweek articles and pictures that represent a candidate. Resources: large paper, scissors, glue, and Newsweek magazines.

Closure: Complete an exit sheet that asks students to describe what they learned today and how it connects to yesterday’s lesson.

The students will review the three “R’s” of FDR’s New Deal and give examples of programs. They will then take notes on criticisms of the New Deal. The students will be assigned a critic and will need to write a letter to them stating whether or not they agree with the criticism. They will then read the “Sick Chicken” Supreme Court case. Resources: exit sheets, loose leaf paper, and packet. The Students will begin by looking at this statement on the board: FDR’s first term as president was more successful than his second term in respect to passing New Deal legislation. The students will then work together to list elements of his first term. They will then complete a guided notes packet while viewing a Power Point

Their letters will be collected and assessed.


Successful completion of the collage will be assessed.

Closure: During which term was FDR more successful as president in getting legislation passed?

Day 6 continued

Day 7 Surviving the Great Depression

Day 8 Review

  

Day 9 Assessment

Describe how different groups of Americans were affected by the Great Depression. Read maps and analyze photographs as well as primary and secondary sources.

Recall information learned during the Great Depression unit. Create visual representations of the material. Analyze what has been learned in order to create study questions.

Using the information they have learning about the Great Depression, complete an assessment that contains multiple choice, matching, and short answer questions.

presentation on his second term. They will then compare and contrast his first and second terms as president. Resources: advance organizer, PowerPoint presentation, guided notes packet. The students will participate in a stations activity. They will be given time at each station to answer study packet. They will need to read maps, analyze pictures, and read primary and secondary sources during the activity. Resources: primary and secondary documents for each station and question packet The students will review the material presented during the Great Depression unit. They will complete a puzzle graphic organizer that asks them to assign words and pictures to different elements from the Great Depression. They will then complete a review sheet individually. Lastly, they will be asked to create at least five test questions from the material and ask them to a partner or group. Resources: graphic organizers and review sheets The assessment for this unit is composed of multiple choice, matching, short answer, and a DBQ essay question. The first part of this test (multiple choice, matching, and short answer) will ask students to recall and summarize information about the Great Depression. The last part of the test, the DBQ question, requires students to analyze different primary sources and 15

Closure: Ask students to summarize how different Americans were affected by the Great Depression.

Their five test questions will be handed in for assessment.

Completion of part I of the assessment and their answer box outline for the essay question.

Day 10 Completion of Assessment


Analyze primary documents and graphs to complete a DBQ essay about the Great Depression.

graphs that relate to the Great Depression in order to complete a written essay question. Resources: Great Depression test The students will complete part II of the assessment today, the DBQ essay. Resources: Great Depression test


The answer box outline and DBQ essay will be collected and assessed at the end of class.

Krysten Whitney Grade 8: Social Studies The Great Depression

Lesson Overview: Today the students will complete notes on FDR’s second term and then participate in a stations activity about how different groups were affected during the Great Depression.

Standard: Standard 1: Use a variety of intellectual skills to demonstrate their understanding of major ideas, eras, themes, developments, and turning points in the history of the United States and New York. Key Idea: Important ideas, social and cultural values, beliefs, and traditions from New York State and United States history illustrate the connections and interactions of people and events across time and from a variety of perspectives.

Objectives: TSWBAT: Describe how different groups of Americans were affected by the Great Depression and read and analyze maps, photographs, and secondary sources that depict the Great Depression.

Materials: Stations activity worksheet 8 textbooks 2 Eleanor Roosevelt Readings 2 Dorothea Lange Readings 2 Migrant Mother Photographs FDR’s Second Term notes Packets Ipod Speakers “Arizona” song lyrics

Procedures/Activities: 1) Complete notes on FDR’s 2nd term and the “Sick Chicken” Supreme Court Case 2) Play song “Arizona,” by Jack Bryant. Hand out song lyrics, and ask students to listen to it. Their job will be to figure out how this song relates to the material they are learning about today 3) Assign students to partners/groups 4) Explain directions of stations activity  They will be given approximately 6-7 minutes at each station. They will move through all four with a partner and will need to complete question packet. This will be collected. 5) Ask students to repeat directions 6) Have students move throughout stations and answer questions in packet


7) Assessment/Closure Activity: Ask students to summarize how different groups of Americans were affected by the Great Depression and ask how the song “Arizona� fits with what they learned today.

Announcements/Reminders: Homework: pages 19-20 in packet.



Jack Bryant Firebaugh, 1940 We were out in Arizona On the Painted Desert ground We had no place to call our own home And work could not be found. We started to California But our money, it didn't last long I want to be in Oklahoma Be back in my old home. A way out on the desert Where water is hard to find It's a hundred miles to Tempe And the wind blows all the time. You will burn up in the day time Yet you're cold when the sun goes down I wanna be in Oklahoma Be back in my home town. You people in Oklahoma If you ever come west Have your pockets full of money And you better be well dressed. If you wind up on the desert You're gonna wish that you were dead You'll be longing for Oklahoma And your good old feather bed.


Name_____________________________________ Date_______________ Period_____

The Great Depression: The Human Factor Directions: Move through the different stations with your partner and complete the questions on this worksheet. You be given approximately 6-7 minutes at each station so be productive and use your time wisely!

Station #1: Women in the Depression 1) True or False: By the end of the Great Depression, fewer women were working outside of the home than the start. (See page 782 in textbook)

2) What struggles did women face in the work place? (See page 782 in textbook)

3) How did women save money? (See page 782 in textbook)

4) Describe who the first lady of the first lady of the world was. What types of things did she do? Why was she known as the first lady of the world? (See First Lady of the World reading)

Station #2: The Dust Bowl 1) According to the map, what region of the United States was affected by dust storms? Which states specifically was affected? (See page 788 in textbook)

2) Describe the dust bowl and its causes. (See page 785)

3) Who were the Okies? (See page 786) 20

4) Compare the dust storms to a type of storm we occasionally experience in the Northeast. How would your lives be similarly affected? How would they be affected differently?

Station #3: African, Mexican, and Native Americans 1) What happened to jobs traditionally done by African Americans in Southern cities? (See page 783 in textbook)

2) Why were Mary McLeod Bethune and Marian Anderson important? (See page 784 in textbook)

3) Describe what happened to many Mexican Americans during the Great Depression. How would you feel if this happened to you? (See pages 784-785 in textbook)

4) Describe the Indian New Deal. (See page 785 in textbook)

5) Do you think the federal government did enough to help African, Mexican, and Native Americans during the Great Depression?


Station #4: The Arts and Media of the Depression 1) What famous book did John Steinbeck write and what was it about? (See page 786 in textbook)

2) What were some popular movies during the Great Depression? (See page 787 in textbook)

3) Your textbook states that going to the movies and listening to the radio provided escapes from everyday life. What kinds of things does your generation do today to escape everyday life?

4) How was Dorothea Lange connected to the Great Depression? (See The Art of the Depression reading)

5) Analyze the photograph Migrant Mother, Nipomo, California, by Dorothea Lange. Write a brief diary entry that depicts what a day in her life would be like.


Unit Plan: Sample of Student Work The following worksheet was completed by a student during a stations activity about how different groups of people were affected by the Great Depression. They were assigned groups of either two or three students and were given roughly ten minutes at each station to complete their work. The stations were composed of readings from the text book, A History of Us, by Joy Hakim, maps, and photographs of people affected by the Great Depression. Each station asked basic recall questions, and then moved up through the different levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy. Most questions at the end of each station asked the students to analyze information, evaluate information, or synthesize a response using the information they had learned from the station.


Unit Plan Assessment I used a conventional assessment to conclude the unit on the Great Depression. I decided to use a conventional assessment rather than an alternative assessment for this unit because I try to vary the types of assessments used in my classes, and I had recently used an alternative assessment for a previous unit. I find it important to vary the assessments because different types address different students’ needs. When designing the test, I decided to use twenty multiple choice questions, five fill in the blank questions with a word bank, five short answer questions, and a short essay question. I decided to use the four different types of questions in order to develop a test that asked questions that incorporated all of my learning objectives for the unit, and also to address different learning needs. I have students that excel at multiple choice questions, but have a difficult time completing short answer questions and essays. Also, I have students that have a difficult time choosing the correct multiple choice answers, but do a wonderful job at answering a question in essay form. Overall, the test was relatively effective. There were two questions on the test that nearly every student answered incorrectly and as a result, I felt that I should eliminate those questions and go revisit the material after the tests had been graded and handed back to clear up any confusion. Many students did not read all of the directions for each section of the test. As a result they lost points on some questions, negatively impacting their grades. If and when I administer this test again in the future, I would reword the questions that most students answered incorrectly and be sure to clearly address the material that my students found confusing this year during the Great Depression unit. Also, in the


future I intend to create mini-quizzes or tests that teach the students how valuable it is to read directions. If all of my students had read the directions and questions in their entirety, the class average would have been much higher.


Name___________________________________Date___________Period____________ Chapter 23: The Great Depression Test

Directions: Choose the best answer for each multiple choice question and mark it on the scantron. (Worth 1 point each=20 points) 1) October 29, 1929, is known as Black Tuesday because it was the day of a a. destructive dust storm b. stock market crash c. collapse of the banking system d. nationwide electricity blackout 2) What did Roosevelt do the day after he was inaugurated? a. He repealed prohibition b. He instituted a minimum wage c. He closed America’s banks for four days d. He campaigned for women’s right to vote 3) Which of these was NOT a part of the New Deal program? a. Old-Age Insurance b. Laissez-Faire c. Minimum wage laws d. Welfare 4) What were homeless communities often called in the early 1930s? a. Little Toledos b. Hoovervilles c. Roosevelt Towns d. Jobless villages 5) How did the Great Depression affect women? a. More of them entered the workforce b. More of them bought stocks c. More of them left the workforce d. More women had fewer children 6) In response to the Great Depression, African Americans in the South were most likely to a. buy a farm b. Be hired by a local factory c. Move North d. Move West


7) In 1932, Hoover formed the Reconstruction Finance Corporation to a. pay each World War I veteran $1,000. b. fund critical businesses and public-works projects c. provide direct unemployment relief d. send a relief check to each family affected by the Great Depression 8) What of these did NOT contribute to the Dust Bowl? a. High winds b. Removal of the sod layer c. A surplus of migrant workers d. New farming methods 9) Which New Deal law established a system of unemployment insurance and pensions for retired workers? a. Fair Labor Standards Act b. National Labor Relations Act c. National Recovery Act d. Social Security Act 10) In which area of the United States did the Dust Bowl of the 1930s occur? a. Northeast b. Great Plains c. Southeast d. Pacific Northwest 11) A major cause of the stock market crash of 1929 was a. buying stocks on margin b. using stock certificates as currency c. restricting bank loans d. outlawing installment buying 12) Which New Deal program still exists today? a. Works Progress Administration b. Federal Emergency Relief Administration c. Civilian Conservation Corps d. Social Security Administration 13) The Great Depression was caused in part by a. increasing government support of big business b. the overuse of credit and installment buying c. high wages and low unemployment d. the scarcity of farm products


14) He used the radio as a means to broadcast criticisms of FDR. a. John Jakob Raskob b. Francis Townsend c. Huey Long d. Charles Coughin 15) He proposed a pension of $200.00 be paid to people over the age of 60 who agreed to spend it in order to stimulate the economy. a. Francis Townsend b. FDR c. Woodrow Wilson d. Huey Long 16) She became known as the first lady of the world. a. Francis Perkins b. Mary McLeod Bethune c. Marian Anderson d. Eleanor Roosevelt 17) Conservatives called FDR’s plan to appoint up to six new Supreme Court justices a. justice filling b. court packing c. justice expansion d. court meddling 18) Many Okies left their homes in the hard-hit dust bowl areas and migrated a. north to New York b. south to Mexico c. north to Canada d. west to California 19) Which “R” does NOT belong? a. Relief b. Recovery c. Reconstruct d. Reform 20) This organization helped workers to organize and bargain collectively. a. NLRB b. WPA c. AAA d. SSA


Directions: Place the answer that best fills in the blank on your scantron. (Worth 1 point each=5 points) a. Bonus Army b. Laissez-Faire c. Overproduction d. Franklin Roosevelt e. Francis Perkins 21) A situation in which the supply of manufactured goods exceeds the demand is ____________________. 22) President _________________________ program was known as the New Deal. 23) ____________ was the first woman to hold a cabinet position. 24) President Hoover believed in a ____________________ policy in response to the economic problems during the Great Depression. 25) ___________________ marched to Washington D.C. and camped in front of the Capitol while petitioning for their military bonus from WWI.

Directions: Answer the following short answer questions on this test booklet using complete sentences. (2 points each=10 points) 26) List and explain four causes of the Great Depression.

27) What did the WPA stand for and what did the program do during the Great Depression?


28) Why did power companies in the area of the Tennessee River Valley object to the government production and sale of power?

29) What did the AAA stand for and what did the program do during the Great Depression?

30) Circle the shape that best describes the economy between the years of 1914 and 1929 and explain why chose that shape.


Directions: Answer the following essay question using complete sentences. Remember to include separate paragraphs for your introduction, body, and conclusion. Please write your answer on this test booklet. (Worth 10 points) Compare and contrast Herbert Hoover and Franklin Roosevelt’s responses to the Great Depression.


Unit Plan Conclusion After each lesson taught, I learn much about my own style of teaching. While teaching the Great Depression unit, I found that the study of economics can often be a difficult concept for eighth grade students to understand. When discussing possible solutions to the economic problems during the Great Depression, one major misconception seemed to arise among the students: they believe that if the government had printed more money, all of our economic problems would have melted away. My job as the teacher at that point was to address this misconception and help the students to understand the concept of inflation and how by printing more money, our problems still would not have been solved. I presented economic concepts in different ways. For example, I had a discussion about economics and incorporated student input in order to clarify the misconception. I also gave examples of how inflation affected other countries, such as Germany, hoping that the students would make the observation that the United States would have been similarly impacted. In the future, I intend to include simulation exercises to help students grasp the concept of economics more effectively. By including simulations that teach the students about the stock market crash and the loss of wealth, students can better understand that time in history. Also, using simulations is another form of student-centered learning. This approach using simulations would help the students construct and internalize their own knowledge about the Great Depression. I also intend to include an alternative assessment project using a student-centered learning approach. Teaching this unit about the Great Depression has taught me the importance of incorporating many different approaches to address the same concepts so that all learners


can understand. It was an interesting time to teach about the Great Depression because of the current state of our economy. I look forward to recreating my unit plan by including simulations and alternative assessments, and teaching it again in the future.


Alternative Assessment This alternative assessment was used after the students had completed the rise of big business and immigration units. After both units were completed, we spent four days in class watching the Disney film, The Newsies. This web quest was designed as a culmination of the completion of the units and film on immigration and big business. I decided to develop a web quest for the students to complete because I wanted the students to apply what they had learned from watching The Newsies to the actual Newsboys’ Strike of 1899. While developing this web quest, my goal was to incorporate as many levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy as possible. The questions begin by asking the students to find and recall factual information about the Newsboys’ Strike of 1899. The last questions of the web quest ask students to evaluate the actions of Pulitzer, Hearst, and the newsboys, as well as synthesize or create their own newspaper headlines using what they had learned about the strike and yellow journalism. The web quest was worth twenty points, and each question was worth one point. In the future I would change the grading schema of this web quest. I think it would be more appropriate to weigh the questions at the end of the web quest more, because they require more creative thinking and analysis than the questions at the beginning of the web quest. Also, in the future I would reserve the media center for two days rather than one, because most students were unable to finish it in only one day. Lastly, I would save the various websites to a folder that the students could access on the school’s server. Many students were easily frustrated with typing in each web address and it took much longer for most students to navigate to the correct websites.


I found the assessment to be effective. It was also a good opportunity to include technology in the classroom. Alternative assessments are important to include because they tend to meet a variety of students’ needs that perhaps conventional assessments do not.


Name_____________________________________ Period________ Date_______________

Web Quest: Newsboys’ Strike of 1899 Directions: Follow along with this worksheet and answer the questions using the websites provided for you. This will be collected at the end of class and will be graded. Go to and answer the following questions. 1) In what area of the United States did the Newsboys’ Strike of 1899 occur?

2) When did the strike begin?    Now go to and answer the  following questions.  3) Describe the typical newsboy during the mid 19th century.      4) Summarize the living conditions of the Newsboys as described by the reformer Charles Loring Brace.   Be sure to use your own words.      5) How much money did the average newsboy make per day?      6) Which newspaper owners did the newsboys refuse to handle during the strike?          Use this website to answer the following questions about the fictional character Finn, who is a newsie  in New York City:  51   

7) Why do you think Finn’s family had to use their savings after his father was injured on the job?    8) Why do the newsboys go on strike?      Now go to  Type in newsboys’ strike in as your search.  Use the arrow to the left of  the search bottom and select NYT Archive 1851‐1980. Click search.  Now click on the word advanced  to perform an advanced search.  Again, type the Newsboys’ Strike, and set the dates to January 1,  1899 and December 31, 1899.  This will bring you to a list of archived articles about the actual  Newsboys’ Strike of 1899.  Your job is to read through the first article (“The Strike of the Newsboys…”)  article and answer the following questions.  9) On what day was this article published?    10) What do you think the word “scab” refers to in this article?    12) Describe why the newsboys did not bother the women.    13) What other strikes were discussed in this article?    14) In your own words, write down three important facts or ideas you can take from this article.   






Now go to and answer the following  questions about Joseph Pulitzer.  15) In your own words, describe who Joseph Pulitzer was.      16) What is the Pulitzer Prize awarded for?    52   

Now go to and answer the following  questions.  17) In your own words, describe who William Randolph Hearst was.        18) Describe how both Hearst and Pulitzer were involved in the Newsboys’ Strike of 1899.        19) If you were alive during the Newsboys’ Strike of 1899, would you support Hearst and Pulitzer or the  Newsboys?  Please include an argument that explains the side you support.              20) Now it is your turn to create the headlines!  Using what you know about yellow journalism, write 3  newspaper headlines about the Newsboys’ Strike of 1899 that you think would sell your “papes.”                


8th Grade Student-Centered Learning Project During the World War II unit, I developed and implemented a student-centered learning project. This assignment was used to measure the amount of knowledge each student gained from the World War II unit and their creativity. I created a list of options for the students to choose from. Their options included writing poems, writing songs, writing a movie screenplay, drawing pictures, writing and illustrating a children’s book, writing a biographical essay, writing diary entries, and writing letters. I also included an “other” category that gave my students the ability to suggest a different option. My goal for this project was to give my students the freedom to choose a topic from the World War II unit that interested them, research the topic to learn more, and then display their knowledge in a creative way. Upon completion of this project I gave each student an evaluation form. I found their feedback to be extremely helpful. They reported on the aspects that they liked as well as aspects they did not like. The evaluation forms will help me to construct better projects in the future.


World War II Project Objectives:   

Research different aspects of World War II Construct your own knowledge of World War II Creatively present what you have learned about World War II through a variety of mediums

Description of Project: You will have the choice of several different projects. It is your decision as to which project you would like to do, but remember, this project will be worth 20% of your grade, so pick one that can display your creative talents and strengths. You will be given limited class time to work on your projects, and will be expected to continue working on your projects at home throughout the WWII unit. My goal is for you to take something interesting that you have learned in class, independently research and construct more knowledge about it, and then represent what you have learned through your project. I will be available to help guide you through the research, but the bulk of it will need to be carried out by you. Project Choices: 

Biographical essay of person o If you choose to write a biographical essay, you will need to choose a person from the World War II era. If you need help choosing someone, come to me, and I will help you. You will then need to write at least a five page essay. You have the option to type it, but you are not required to do so.

Diary entries o If you choose to write diary entries, you will need to complete at least ten, three quarter page diary entries that explain what is happening in a person’s life on a daily basis. You may either choose an historical figure from World War II, or you can create your own character to write from the perspective of.

Letters o If you choose to write letters, you will need to find a partner to write to. You will need to use your imagination in order to complete at least ten, three quarter page letters each. For example, if one student was assigned a female character, and one student was assigned a male character, they could write to each other as if they were married. The woman should


Children’s book o If you choose to write a children’s book, you will need to create a story line that incorporates either an historical figure from the World War II era, or someone you create from your imagination. o You will need to write a story and provide illustrations in a book format. You may type it, but it is not a requirement. It should be at least ten pages long and contain an illustration on each page.

Drawings o If you choose drawings, you will need to complete ten historically accurate drawings that represent the life of either an historical figure from World War II, or a person you create from your imagination. You can choose from different mediums to use such as colored pencils, markers, etc.

Songs o If you choose songs, you will need to research the music of the World War II era and write a report that describes the songs, musicians, and their intended message. Your report should be at least three pages long. You will then need to write your own song lyrics describing World War II.

Play o If you decide the play, you will be responsible for writing a play about World War II. Your play will need to be at least three acts long and you will need to develop characters, plot, themes, and settings. You may work together with another student and act it out in class for your peers.

Other o If there is a project that you would like to do instead of the ones listed above, let me know so that we can try to work out the details together.

Length of Project: This project will be explained and assigned on the first day of the World War II unit. The project will be collected at the end of the unit. You will be given limited class time to work on your projects. During the class time given, each student’s progress with be monitored. You must work on this at home as well! 59

Grading/Assessment: This project will be graded using a rubric. It is imperative (important) for you to be creative and use your imagination. And remember, projects are worth 20%

of your grade! Project Timeline: Friday, 2-15-08: Hand in a sheet of paper stating which project you will choose. Winter Break: Begin working on project, bring any questions you may have to class on Monday, 2-25-08. Monday, 3-10-08: Final project is due. *I will also be checking your progress during class time!


World War II Project Rubric

Category Creativity

3 points

2 points

1 point

0 points

Project is very creative. Project is completely original and unique to the student Project is historically accurate Student showed much effort in project, selected project that displayed talents and strengths Student met all submission deadlines on time

Project shows some creativity Project shows some originality, but some ideas taken from elsewhere Project contains 13 historical inaccuracies Student showed some effort, selected projected to showed limited talents and strengths Student missed one submission deadline, but all others were met

Project shows little creativity Project shows little originality and most of the ideas are taken from elsewhere Project contains 4 or more historical inaccuracies Student showed little effort, selected a project that did not display their talents and strengths Student missed two or more submission deadlines, but others were met

Project shows no creativity Project lacks any originality


Bibliography was well organized and included detailed information about sources

Bibliography had organizational flaws and lacked information


Met length criteria stated in project description

Met 75% of criteria stated in project description


Used class time well and worked diligently on project

Had to be reminded at times to stay on task, but did use class time to work on project

Bibliography was not well organized and lacked enough information to identify sources used Met 25-50% of length criteria stated in project description Constantly had to be reminded to stay on task, completed very little work during class time


Historically Accurate Effort

Submission Deadlines

Points Earned Total points earned for project__________ Comments:


Project is not historically accurate No effort was put into project

Deadlines were not met by the student

No bibliography was included

Did not meet any length criteria stated in project description Did not use class time to work on project, and as a result, produced no work in class

AP U.S. Government and Politics Student-Centered Learning Project I began substitute teaching for my former mentor about one week prior to the 2008 Presidential Election. Before my arrival, my former mentor and her AP U.S. Government and Politics class had discussed the importance of conducting exit polls and had actually created their own. On the day of the election, the AP U.S. Government and Politics class administered their exit poll to the student population after all of the students voted in a school-wide mock election. After the mock election, my AP Government and Politics class, along with myself, analyzed the exit poll data. To start, I asked the students what areas of interest they wanted to look into using the exit poll data. Many were interested in what influenced the student population’s voting. They also wanted to analyze where the student population received their information from for each candidate. Other topics of interest included which political party the students identified with, and which issues were especially important to them. Analyzing the data was both interesting and tedious. We all worked together to sort through the data and organize it according to which area of interest we were analyzing. After they had been sorted, the students would then count the exit polls in the pile and compute the percentage of students that fell into each category. After sorting and counting, the students worked on graphing the results using Microsoft Excel. To conclude this project, I asked the students to work together to write an article for the school newspaper explaining how they analyzed the data and what they learned from the project. They were also asked to submit the graphs that were most important to their article.


Name_________________________________________________ AP U.S. GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS Directions: Using the data provided, create a graph for each of the 10 components that best show how the data is broken down. You should use Microsoft Excel to create your graphs. After you have graphed all of the exit poll data, you will need to write a newspaper article for the Witches’ Brew describing what your class ultimately learned by analyzing this data. The best article will be chosen and published in the school newspaper.

Exit Poll Analysis 1) Who voted for each candidate: a. Obama-297 votes (66%) b. McCain-143 votes (32%) c. Other-13 votes (2%) 2) Who voted for each candidate broken down by party affiliation: a. Obama democrats-194 votes (65%) b. Obama republicans-32 votes (11%) c. Obama “other”-71 votes (24%) d. McCain democrats-11 votes (7.6%) e. McCain Republicans-111 votes (77.6%) f. McCain “other”-21 votes (14.6%) 3) Who voted for each candidate broken down by grade/class: a. Grade 7- 54 votes for Obama, 29 votes for McCain (65 % Obama, 35% McCain) b. Grade 8- 57 votes for Obama, 20 votes for McCain (74% Obama, 26% McCain) c. Grade 9- 45 votes for Obama, 25 votes for McCain, 1 vote for other (63% Obama, 35% McCain, 2% Other) d. Grade 10- 42 votes for Obama, 24 votes for McCain, 4 votes for other (60% Obama, 34% McCain, 6% Other) e. Grade 11- 45 votes for Obama, 12 votes for McCain, 6 votes for other (71% Obama, 19% McCain, 10% other) f. Grade 12- 45 votes for Obama, 32 votes for McCain, 2 votes for other (57% Obama, 41% McCain, 2% Other) 4) Issues broken down by grade: a. 7th Grade i. Economy-17 votes (19%) ii. Defense-0 votes (0%) iii. War in Iraq-44 votes (49%) iv. Abortion-0 votes (0%) v. Gun control-6 votes (7%) 83






vi. Immigration-1 vote (1%) vii. Environment-17 votes (19%) viii. Education-4 votes (5%) 8th Grade i. Economy-20 votes (31%) ii. Defense-1 vote (2%) iii. War in Iraq-22 votes (34%) iv. Abortion-5 votes (8%) v. Gun control-8 votes (12%) vi. Immigration-0 votes (0%) vii. Environment-5 votes (7%) viii. Education-4 votes (6%) 9th Grade i. Economy-20 votes (29%) ii. Defense-0 votes (0%) iii. War in Iraq-26 votes (38%) iv. Abortion-1 vote (2%) v. Gun control-5 votes (7%) vi. Immigration-1 vote (2%) vii. Environment-11 votes (16%) viii. Education-4 votes (6%) 10th Grade i. Economy-37 votes (54%0 ii. Defense-0 votes (0%) iii. War in Iraq-12 votes (17%) iv. Abortion-3 votes (4%) v. Gun control-6 votes (9%) vi. Immigration-1 vote (2%) vii. Environment-5 votes (7%) viii. Education-5 votes (7%) 11th Grade i. Economy-38 votes (60%) ii. Defense-1 vote (2%) iii. War in Iraq-12 votes (20%) iv. Abortion-2 votes (3%0 v. Gun control-2 votes (3%) vi. Immigration-2 votes (3%) vii. Environment-2 votes (3%) viii. Education-4 votes (6%) 12th Grade i. Economy-51 votes (65 %) ii. Defense-1 vote (1%) iii. War in Iraq-10 votes (13%) iv. Abortion-2 votes (3%) v. Gun control-4 votes (5%) vi. Immigration-3 votes (4%) 84

vii. Environment-6 votes (7%) viii. Education-2 votes (2%) 5) Percentage of issues 7-12: a. Economy-183 votes (43%) b. Defense – 3 votes (1%) c. War in Iraq-126 votes (30%) d. Abortion-13 votes (3%0 e. Gun Control-31 votes (7%) f. Immigration-8 votes (2%) g. Environment-36 votes (9%) h. Education-23 votes (5%) 6) Percentage of males and females that voted for each candidate: a. Females Obama-148 votes (34%) b. Females McCain-62 votes (14%) c. Females Other-0 votes (0%) d. Males Obama-132 votes (31%) e. Males McCain-76 votes (18%) f. Males Other-13 votes (3%) 7) News source by party affiliation: a. Democrat i. CBS-36 votes (21%) ii. ABC-19 votes (11%) iii. NBC-22 votes (12% iv. FOX-15 votes (9%) v. CNN-27 votes (16%) vi. Daily Show-12 votes (7%) vii. Internet-22 votes (12%) viii. None-17 votes (10%) ix. Other-3 votes (2%) b. Republican i. CBS-31 votes (21%) ii. ABC-14 votes (9%) iii. NBC-16 votes (11%) iv. FOX-35 votes (25%) v. CNN-16 votes (11%) vi. Daily Show-8 votes (5%) vii. Internet-14 votes (9%) viii. None-8 votes (5%) ix. Other-6 votes (4%) c. Other i. CBS-7 votes (8%) ii. ABC-8 votes (9%) iii. NBC-10 votes (12%) 85

iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix.

FOX-14 votes (16%0 CNN-7 votes (8%) Daily Show-4 votes (5%) Internet-13 votes (15%) None-23 votes (27%) Other-0 votes (0%)

8) Percent of students that identify with parents’ party affiliation: a. Republican i. Percent that identify with 1 parent-34 votes (25%) ii. Percent that identify with 2 parents-83 votes (60%) iii. Percent that identify with neither parent-21 votes (15%) b. Democrat i. Percent that identify with 1 parent-49 votes (28%) ii. Percent that identify with 2 parents-76 votes (42%) iii. Percent that identify with neither parent-53 votes (30%) c. Other i. Percent that identify with 1 parent-19 votes (26%) ii. Percent that identify with 2 parents-28 votes (38%) iii. Percent that identify with neither parent-26 votes (36%) 9) Influences broken down by grade/class: a. 7th Grade i. Parents-26 votes (33%) ii. School-8 votes (10%) iii. Church-0 votes (0%) iv. Friends-8 votes (10%) v. Television-36 votes (47%) th b. 8 Grade i. Parents-25 votes (34%) ii. School-10 votes (14%) iii. Church-2 votes (3%) iv. Friends-13 votes (18%) v. Television-23 votes (31%) th c. 9 Grade i. Parents-22 votes (39%) ii. School-1 vote (2%) iii. Church-3 votes (5%) iv. Friends-5 votes (9%) v. Television-25 votes (45%0 d. 10th Grade i. Parents-22 votes (30%) ii. School-5 votes (7%) iii. Church-2 votes (3%) iv. Friends-8 votes (11%) v. Television-35 votes (49%) 86

e. 11th Grade i. Parents-20 votes (34%) ii. School-4 votes (7%) iii. Church-1 vote (2%) iv. Friends-5 votes (8%) v. Television-29 votes (49%) f. 12th Grade i. Parents-19 votes (28%) ii. School-8 votes (12%) iii. Church-3 votes (4%) iv. Friends-14 votes (20%) v. Television-25 votes (36%) 10) Percentage of influences 7-12: a. Parents-134 votes (33%) b. School-36 votes (9%) c. Church-11 votes (2%) d. Friends-53 votes (13%) e. Television-173 votes (43%)


Administrative Observations An important part of becoming a skilled teacher requires routine observations by school administrators and veteran teachers. Observations provide teachers with different perspectives and ideas about how we teach and what we do in our classrooms. During my time as a student teacher, I was routinely observed by both my mentor and my supervisor. After each observation we would all meet together and discuss my progress and any areas of my teaching that could be strengthened. During my two years of teaching thus far at Greenwich Central School District, I have been observed by the superintendent, the high school principal, and the assistant principal. The following pages are descriptions of each administrator’s observation.


Intermediate Social Studies Exam Test Analysis 2009 Passing Rate- School Wide Passing Rate – Slater

93.3% 95.5% (includes student on suspension)

4- Mastery 3- Meeting Standards 2-Not Fully Meeting standards 1-Not meeting the standards 2009 1’s 0 2’s 6 3’s 46 4’s 38


0% 6% 51% 42%

1 12 41 40

2008 1% 12.7% 43.6% 42.5%

Multiple Choice – average on the MC section was an 80% (36 OF 45) Students had trouble with the following topics: Mercantilism Native American Indian Rights Movement End of Cold War Students did well with the following topics: Pearl Harbor Holocaust Iroquois Vocabulary issues: Generalization, act (meaning act as in law or action), Communism v. Nazism Students did well on the Constructed response and scaffolding questions. The wording of the DBQ task was confusing for some students.

Krysten Whitney Teaching Portfolio