Volume 8. Issue 5. Sep/Oct 2015
Shining a light on heritage
new Lighting Guide 7: the key changes
Secretary Brendan Keely MSLL firstname.lastname@example.org SLL Coordinator Juliet Rennie Tel: 020 8675 5211 email@example.com Editor Jill Entwistle firstname.lastname@example.org Communications committee: Iain Carlile (chairman) MSLL Rob Anderson Jill Entwistle Chris Fordham MSLL Wiebke Friedewald Mark Ingram MSLL Stewart Langdown MSLL Gethyn Williams All contributions are the responsibility of the author, and do not necessarily reflect the views of the society. All contributions are personal, except where attributed to an organisation represented by the author.
When news of the International Year of Light first trickled into people’s consciousness at the end of last year, there were doubtless numerous discussions, not a few in bars, on what it might entail and what respective companies, consultants and lighting bodies might do about it. No doubt a few grandiose plans bit the dust for various reasons, not least the scale of their ambition. Which is one of the reasons I take my hat off to the Night of Heritage Light event (see Making history, p5) which at first glance seemed wholly admirable but somewhat optimistic. Lighting a dozen or so Unesco World Heritage sites throughout the UK and Ireland all on one night seemed if nothing else a massive logistical undertaking. First there is the red tape involved. The heritage fraternity tends to get a bit touchy about people clambering over important monuments clutching cables and bits of electrical kit. Then there’s the coordination of people and equipment (particularly as all schemes have to be installed and dismantled on the same night). And while some sites, such as the Tower of London or Blenheim Palace, might have some infrastructure to tap into, Giant’s Causeway might prove rather trickier. One thing that could be relied on, of course, was the enormous reservoir of enthusiasm, dedication and determination in the lighting industry and profession. It has a great resource of people who are passionate about
what they do and like nothing better than a chance to share that passion. While the aim is not to attract hoardes of people (crowd control and potential damage prohibits that), relying instead on photography for the subsequent publicity, this is an opportunty to involve lay people from local communities, and spread the lighting message more widely. There will be people who question the point of the IYL and it will perhaps be difficult to properly quantify its effects. However, if nothing else, it has been a catalyst for thinking on a grander scale. And that can’t be a bad thing. Jill Entwistle email@example.com
Copy date for NL6 2015 is 25 September Published by The Society of Light and Lighting 222 Balham High Road London SW12 9BS www.sll.org.uk ISSN 1461-524X © 2015 The Society of Light and Lighting The Society of Light and Lighting is part of the Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers, 222 Balham High Road, London SW12 9BS. Charity registration no 278104
Current SLL lighting guides SLL Lighting Guide 1: The Industrial Environment (2012) SLL Lighting Guide 2: Hospitals and Health Care Buildings (2008) SLL Lighting Guide 4: Sports (2006) SLL Lighting Guide 5: Lighting for Education (2011) SLL Lighting Guide 6: The Outdoor Environment (2015) – available later this year SLL Lighting Guide 7: Office Lighting (2015) – available later this year SLL Lighting Guide 8: Lighting for Museums and Galleries (2015) SLL Lighting Guide 9: Lighting for Communal Residential Buildings (2013) SLL Lighting Guide 10: Daylighting – a guide for designers (2014) SLL Lighting Guide 11: Surface Reflectance and Colour (2001) SLL Lighting Guide 12: Emergency Lighting Design Guide (2015)
SLL Lighting Guide 13: Places of Worship (2014) Guide to Limiting Obtrusive Light (2012)
Printed in UK
Guide to the Lighting of Licensed Premises (2011)
We’ve all been very busy planning for the 2015-2016 Masterclasses and we are hoping that at least one new sponsor will join Philips, Trilux and Thorn for the new series, Light and Architecture. The Masters participating this year will be focusing on lighting exterior and interior architecture, and all papers will be new and peer reviewed. The Masters will also deliver their presentations in reference to the upcoming changes in both LG6: The Outdoor Environment and LG7: Office Lighting. The guest speakers throughout the series will be RIBA architects delivering their thoughts on light and architecture, and how collaboration between all parties delivers a successful project. At the end of each event we will have a scheduled time to meet the Masters and ask any questions regarding their presentations or project specifics. See box (right) for the preliminary dates and locations of all venues across the UK. We will confirm all dates and final locations through emails to members and host the information on the society’s website, but this series will be of great interest to all members of the SLL, RIBA and other light-related organisations. In November we will be launching the results of the Building Research Establishment (BRE) research on daylight metrics and Public Health England (PHE) research on the health impacts of LEDs. The launch will be held at the Building Performance Conference and Exhibition at QEII Centre, Westminster, which takes place on 3-4 November. The work of both BRE and PHE was funded by the CIBSE Research Fund and the results will be of interest to all. To attend the launch at the QEII please visit the CIBSE website homepage. We’re delighted to confirm that the new LG12: Emergency Lighting is now available for members to download free from the CIBSE Knowledge Portal. In the coming months we can expect to see both LG6: The Outdoor Environment and LG7: Office Lighting (see Working progress, p8). Plans are afoot for the second Jonathan Speirs Memorial Lecture at the Trades Hall, Glasgow. The event will take place on the evening of Wednesday 21 October. Lighting designer Carrie Donahue-Bremner of Speirs and Major, and architect Neil Gillespie of Reich and Hall will focus on Maggie’s Centre, Lanarkshire, which was recently shortlisted for the RIBA Stirling Prize and swept the board at the Scottish Design Awards.
2015-16 Masterclasses: preliminary dates and locations 29 October 26 November 21 January 18 February 31 March 13 April 26 May
Cardiff Leicester Manchester York Belfast Edinburgh London
We welcome Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT) to our Sustaining Members Programme and are delighted to maintain the link with SLL past president Kevin Kelly. As we build our image library we ask you all to send us images of stairs and staircases. We all know that stairs are tricky to light in relation to access and maintenance so if you’ve had a good or bad experience of stair lighting let me know and you can help direct our next Lighting Factfile. Continuing the appeals, please note that CIBSE has put a call out for abstracts for its Technical Symposium 2016 at Edinburgh’s Heriot-Watt University in April. The theme is Integration for Whole-Life Building Performance (see News, p4 for details). Finally, are you interested in the work of the society? We have committees, including technical and publications, London events, communications and marketing, council and executive, all of which could benefit from your knowledge, experience and enthusiasm. And I’m sure even our regional lighting representatives would appreciate some help. If you wish to know more about the work of the committees and how to get involved please do contact me.
Making history Night of Heritage Light event
Constructive change Cath Bone gives a brief outline of the updates in CMD2015
Working progress Simon Robinson discusses the key changes in the new LG7
Controlling interests John Ashton looks at future directions for lighting control
Discover the feminine side 2 12 Helen Loomes introduces several more women with successful careers in the lighting industry First impressions 14 Iain Carlile singles out papers on the perception of light in the latest editions of LR&T From theory to practice 15 What happened next to YLOTY winner Christopher Knowlton Cover The Jurassic coast: one of the sites for the Night of Heritage Light event (p5)
Lanterns report not green light for switch-off The conclusions of the longawaited Lanterns report should not be seen as a green light to switch off street lights, ILP president Mark Cooper (pictured) has said. The research, published in July in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, concluded that reduced street lighting in England and Wales is not associated with road traffic collisions or crime. The study, led by researchers from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in partnership with UCL, analysed 14 years of data from 62 local authorities across England and Wales which had implemented a range of reduced street light strategies.
These included switching lights off permanently, reducing the number of hours that lamps are switched on at night, dimming lights, and replacing traditional sodium lamps with LEDs. Lead investigator Dr Phil Edwards of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, commented that the study’s conclusions suggest that local authorities can safely reduce street lighting at night, saving energy costs and reducing carbon emissions. ‘An estimated £300m is spent every year on street lights in the UK. At a time when local authorities need to make spending cuts, our findings show that by carefully assessing risks, street lighting can be reduced without an increase in car crashes and crime,’ he said. However, the ILP said in response that the findings in the report are based on limited data and that, as stated by the researchers, ‘changes to lighting should be managed carefully’. ‘The institution has long advocated the implementation by local authorities of holistic lighting strategies, which may include investment in new lighting and technological controls,’ said Cooper. ‘Switch-off may be deployed as part of such strategies providing that each area is carefully analysed by qualified and competent lighting professionals using risk-based analysis based on ILP guidance,’ he concluded.
High turn-out for UK CIE Session
Nearly 500 delegates from 36 countries attended the first CIE conference to be held in the UK for 40 years. The 28th Session took place from 28 June to 5 July at University Place, Manchester University, and began with a reception at the town hall with the mayor. A wide variety of papers covered topics as diverse as the vision system of bees through to visual perception, colour science, lighting control and lighting measurement. The occasion is also an opportunity for technical panels to meet to review current guidance and for new reports to be generated. The gala dinner was held at Old Trafford, home of Manchester United FC.
On the lighter side... It has been suggested that hydrogels, such as the one pictured, have huge potential in biomedicine for everything from generating new heart tissue to fighting off superbugs. Bioengineers at Brigham and Women’s Hospital (BHW) in Boston, US, have now developed a hydrogel – tiny polypeptide chains – that mimics the elasticity of human tissue and can be activated by exposure to light. The light would replace chemical compounds – which can degrade into harmful substances – in giving the
hydrogels strength and stability. This could therefore offer a safer means of repairing wounded tissue, among other uses. As the gel is exposed to light, its molecules bind together to create a mechanical stability, to the point that it can apparently endure more stretching than that experienced by arterial tissue in the body. Full paper is at http://onlinelibrary. wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ adfm.201501489/abstract
CIBSE has called for abstracts, including on lighting, for its Technical Symposium 2016 – Integration for Whole-Life Building Performance. The theme was inspired both by the discussions at the 2015 Symposium and the concern of CIBSE president Nick Mead that the industry avoid ‘short-term, siloed thinking’. Mead has called for the industry to pull together and ‘put its head above the parapet’ by working collaboratively across the supply chain and considering the whole life cycle of the building. The sixth annual Technical Symposium takes place at HeriotWatt University, Edinburgh, from 14-15 April 2016. Abstracts should be emailed to firstname.lastname@example.org no later than 14 September. The deadline for submissions to the CIBSE Building Performance Awards 2016 is 10 September. The awards now include lighting (www.cibse.org/ building-performance-awards).
Events: Masterclass IYL2013/14 Events
Making history Plans are hotting up as the SLL prepares for one of its most ambitious undertakings – illuminating Unesco World Heritage Sites around the UK and Ireland for one momentous night Plans and preparations for the SLL’s Night of Heritage Light (NoHL) were gathering pace as the Newsletter went to press. So far 10 Unesco World Heritage Sites in the UK and Ireland have been confirmed for the ambitious event which takes place on the night of 1 October.
Celebrating the Unesco International Year of Light, the aim is to display the sites in a ‘new light’, showcasing the talents of SLL members and the lighting community in the UK and Ireland, says president Liz Peck, ‘demonstrating to the world the power of good lighting design’. The sites themselves will also be highlighted bringing recognition to these internationally acclaimed locations. While places such as Blenheim Palace, the Tower of London, Ironbridge Gorge and the Giant’s Causeway are among the more well-known locations selected, other less prominent sites are also in the mix. Among them are the Pontcysyllte Aqueduct, designed by Thomas Telford, a navigable aqueduct that carries the Llangollen Canal over the valley of the River Dee in Wrexham, north-east Wales. Another less familiar location is Blaenavon. A town north of Pontypool in south-east Wales, it grew around an ironworks that opened in 1788, part of which is now a museum, and subsequently spawned steel and coalmining industries. The exercise is a complex one logistically, and detailed design and site briefs have been drawn up. At the core will be the SLL Central Team: SLL president Liz Peck (project lead), SLL secretary Brendan Keely, SLL coordinatior Juliet Rennie, plus Rhiannon West of BDP (marketing lead), Dan Lister of Arup (technical lead) and Simon Fisher, founder and director of design consultancy F Mark (equipment coordinator). The SLL team is responsible for the selection and coordination of sites, and introduction of teams to the appropriate contact for the site.
Confirmed sites so far
It will also support teams with technical queries, coordination of equipment (both selection and delivery to site) and help with method statements for approval by the site representative. The team will be available to organise technical support, such as an electrician and generator where required. As safety is paramount, the SLL will be providing a qualified electrician to ensure all wiring and power provision is of an appropriate standard. A number of suppliers will make a range of suitable equipment available for the event. There will be a ‘guerilla lighting’ element to the event in that the aim is to install and dismantle the scheme in one evening. The creative requirement for the lighting design teams is schemes that are creative and imaginative, and that will showcase the work of SLL members; lighting designs must be respectful of and appropriate for the context of the site and surrounds; they must also be photogenic – because of the remote nature of some of the sites, and a deliberate desire to avoid attracting large crowds, the event will be documented photographically. The society has teamed up with the Royal Photographic Society (RPS) to support the documentation and dissemination of the event. Final lighting schemes had to be submitted by 28 August. ‘Unesco is dedicated to preserving our historic sites across the world,’ said Peck. ‘This event is an opportunity to show how lighting transforms our landscapes and brings history to life.’ n Details and updates can be found at the specially established website (www.nohl-sll.org) where the final images will remain as a legacy of the event
Confirmed sites so far:
Among the lighting designers who have signed up:
Edinburgh Old and New Towns Fountains Abbey
Malcolm Innes David Battersby and Adam Glatherine Andrew Bissell
Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City Pontcysyllte Aquaduct Ironbridge Gorge Blenheim Palace Blaenavon industrial site Jurassic Coast (Dorset and East Devon) Tower of London Giant’s Causeway
‘A look into the unknown’ is a design proposal submitted by Cundall Light4 for the Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City site. ‘As you approach the dock from the museum, a subtle soft glow of light will rise from the depths of the dock,’ says lighting director Andrew Bissell. ‘The colourful mist of light will entice you to look over the edge and into the unknown.’ At time of publication the proposal was still in its early stages, and the team at Cundall was designing a battery-powered installation with a series of recycled water bottles
Faye Robinson Tim Pink and Simeon Kay Michael Curry Stuart Green and University of South Wales Laurie Socker Iain Ruxton and Colin Ball Jim Patton
Iain Ruxton (left) and Colin Ball – Tower of London
Michael Curry – Blenheim Palace
Stuart Green – Blaenavon
SLL Central Team
SLL president Liz Peck (project lead)
Rhiannon West (marketing lead)
Dan Lister (technical lead)
Simon Fisher (equipment coordinator)
SLL secretary Brendan Keely
SLL coordinatior Juliet Rennie
Constructive change Cath Bone outlines the updates introduced in the Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 2015 and their effect on lighting designers The Construction (Design and Management) Regulations (CDM) have been in force in the UK for more than 20 years, the first being introduced in 1994. Despite the length of time that CDM has been around, there has been comment that the regulations have not worked well (even though understanding of health and safety in construction has increased, with a reduction in accident rates, including fatalities). Hence the latest Cath Bone is health reiteration, CMD2015. and safety manager The intention of this article for property consultant is simply an overview: of what Lee Wakemans has changed, the roles of the designer and principal designer, and its application for M&E/ lighting designers. So what has changed? The simple answer is very little: CMD2015 still applies to all projects, and requirements and duties are broadly the same. However, who does what has been changed, with clarification on when the duties apply, and the situation involving domestic clients has now been included (appointment triggers change slightly for domestic clients and are therefore not considered here). Further, the Approved Code of Practice has been removed – we now have tailored guidance. The notification requirements have been brought in line with the EU Directive, and are no longer the trigger point for enhanced duties. The trigger point for enhanced appointments – that of a principal designer (PD) and principal contractor (PC) – is if a project should have two or more contractors on site. Contrary to popular belief, competency has not been removed – rather, it’s been ‘rebranded’. Similarly, the requirements for appointments and documentation remain – but with more emphasis on proportionality. By now, we should all be aware that there is no longer a requirement for the appointment of a construction design management coordinator (CDMC) – projects started after 6 April must have a PD. First, who is a designer? Under the guidance, much as with the previous iteration, it is any person who in the course or furtherance of a business prepares or modifies a design; or arranges for, or instructs, any person under their control to do so. Designers’ duties have not seen significant change: there
This is what the majority of ‘fuss’ has been about – very few designers actually have any health and safety technical capability in order to be able to manage this phase to the necessary level has been much publicity about the general principles of prevention but, let’s be honest, they were there before. The actual ‘newbie’ is under Regulation 8: General duties (which apply to everyone). This states that a person working on a project under the control of another must report to that person anything they are aware of in relation to the project which is likely to endanger their own health or safety or that of others . So we know who a designer is, and we are aware of his or her duties. This means that there will be minimal changes for M&E personnel. On the majority of projects, they will be a designer, as they were previously, working to the CDM Regulations as before, and still having to produce the same information – risk assessments and method statements (RAMS), operations and maintenance manuals (O&Ms) and information for the health and safety file (HSF) – for the PC and clients. So who is the PD? This is a designer who is in control of the pre-construction stage of the project in order to manage the health and safety requirements. He or she must have a technical knowledge of the construction industry relevant to the project, and the understanding and skills to manage and coordinate the pre-construction phase, including any design work carried out after construction begins. This is what the majority of ‘fuss’ has been about – very few designers actually have any health and safety technical capability in order to be able to manage this phase to the necessary level. A PD’s duties are largely what the CDMC did, but they do have enhanced responsibilities during the design phase in terms of managing the design team. It must be noted that the role of the PD is different to that of the lead designer appointed under contract. Their roles are complementary, but this may cause confusion for clients at this early stage. A key word in CDM2015 is control. When will M&E/lighting designers ever be in control of this phase? Apart from the immediate ‘rarely’ answer, there are a number of projects where they may well be the only designer involved – such as relamping. If as a designer you have the required technical knowledge to fulfil the duties of the PD, and you’ve got the insurance cover, great. If not, what should you do? Many of the ex-CDMCs offer an advisory service, and can perform the tasks they used to do – they’ll ensure the risk management process is undertaken and disseminate information. You will be left to carry out your normal design function, ensuring your general duties are met. n References 1. SI 2015/51 HEALTH AND SAFETY The Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 2015: Regulation 8(5) A person working on a project under the control of another must report to that person anything they are aware of in relation to the project which is likely to endanger their own health or safety or that of others. 2. And if an organisation, the organisational capability
Working progress Simon Robinson discusses the key changes and considerations in the newly updated Lighting Guide 7 on office lighting For many of those who work in an office environment, their workspace is more than just somewhere to carry out a task. The space has to try and meet a number of requirements. It has to be safe, comfortable, visually stimulating, efficient and productive. Lighting plays a large part in trying to achieve those goals and some of the demands on the lighting installation have changed considerably in the past 10 years. The current version of LG7 was released in 2005 and the intervening 10 years has seen a significant change in the technology we use as well as how many of us use our office space. While the move to technology such as smartphones and tablets has changed our understanding of how to provide a suitable lighting installation, the ever-increasing need to reduce energy has added to the challenges for the lighting designer and installer. Lighting design is an integral part of a holistic approach to providing spaces that people want to occupy and it is more
important than ever for designers and building owners to discuss how the lighting design should be developed. The 2015 revision of LG7 seeks to address these issues as well as provide guidance on associated and emerging technologies within the built environment. Key areas of revision and newly introduced guidance include: A new chapter on the approach to design A greater emphasis on energy use and how to get the best
out of lighting designs while being mindful of the need to reduce energy A revision to guidance on how to approach speculative offices Guidance on how to deal with the ‘hot desk’ approach to office use A new chapter discussing the interaction with mechanical systems and their effect on lamp colour and efficiency Guidance for new and refurbishment projects How to approach cylindrical illuminance and the application of modelling ratios A new chapter on how to deal with tablets and touchscreen use in offices A new chapter which gives some practical examples of how lighting could be considered for an office space The chapter on the approach to design gives a basic overview of the issues to be considered when designing a lighting installation for an office. It can be used for quick reference on a number of topics and is supplemented by more detailed later chapters. Lighting in offices accounts for around a quarter of total energy use within a building and as we move closer to the day when buildings will be carbon neutral as a matter of course, lighting designers will need to consider energy use and how to be creative while maximising the benefits for the amount of energy used. With this in mind, the guide now considers energy use more prominently. Localised lighting solutions are favoured where possible as this gives a good opportunity to reduce energy use by concentrating the highest illumination level on the task area, allowing it to be decoupled from the general lighting. This can also allow the lighting designer more freedom when designing circulation space lighting. Speculative office accommodation usually refers to a space which is being developed for a future tenant or owner and so there is unlikely to be any desk layout to consider when providing a lighting design. Providing a general lighting design to cover all eventualities can be wasteful of both energy and resources, particularly if the lighting is significantly changed once an owner or tenant takes up residence. LG7 encourages lighting designers to consider these aspects in discussion with the developer or building owner. Fluorescent lamps have become particularly sensitive to temperature and the guide now discusses the impact that overcooled lamps can have on colour temperature and efficiency. Fluorescent lamps are likely to be with us for some years to come and the relationship between artificially cooled spaces, air flow patterns and fluorescent luminaires needs to be carefully considered. Perhaps the biggest single change in how we use offices is the introduction of touchscreen displays, tablet computers and smartphones. Rather than being tied to a specific desk, people increasingly work where they feel comfortable and with screens in any orientation, so designing lighting to minimise reflections is now becoming much more difficult. LG7 now addresses this problem and makes suggestions about the appropriate
Hoare Lea’s award-winning lighting scheme for its own offices at the Tramshed, King’s Cross, made extensive use of daylighting, dynamic colour-change lighting and a carefully orchestrated control system
use of both indirect and direct light, depending on the situation. Smart devices are increasingly being used for video calling and video conferencing, which has increased the need for good vertical illumination in the office environment, and therefore cylindrical illuminance is now considered in the guide.
‘LG7 is often used by those not working regularly in lighting design or installation and its interpretation has in some cases been different to that intended by the society. To help in this area, a number of practical examples are included’
LG7 recommends a cylindrical illuminance of 150 lux with a modelling ration of 0.3 to 0.6, which should cover the majority of office environments. LG7 is often used by those not working regularly in lighting design or installation and its interpretation has in some cases been different to that intended by the society. To help in this area, a number of practical examples are included covering open-plan offices, sub-divided open-plan workplaces, single offices, meeting rooms and break-out spaces. The examples are intended to be informative and give ideas to the reader rather than act as exemplar designs for a given type of space. While some may argue that it is not related to lighting design, the increasing interest in direct current (dc) electrical distribution systems should bring a great deal of flexibility to the lighting industry. LED as a lighting source has allowed dc to be considered for lighting applications and, in particular, Power over Ethernet (PoE) with a number of installations already up and running as demonstration sites. LG7 considers this new source of supply and the advantages it can bring, particularly in control and energy use. Lighting Guide 7 (LG7): Office Lighting is scheduled for publication later this year n
International Year of Light
Controlling interests John Aston looks at future directions for lighting control – and the new issues that are now arising, such as cybersecurity
The Edge in Amsterdam, billed as the world’s most sustainable building (with a BREEAM score of 98.36 per cent) is also the first building to use Philips’ Ethernet-powered LED connected lighting, which enables employees to use an application on their smartphones to regulate the climate and light over their individual workspaces
Light and photonic technologies are key enablers of the devices we rely on in everyday life: smartphones and the Internet to name but two. But can lighting itself become smart so that lighting systems become more than illumination, and deliver data and communications to benefit consumers and businesses alike? While considering this article I was not entirely sure that I would be able to carry on developing subjects for my series featuring the International Year of Light themes addressed at the Paris launch. I thought I might produce one on lighting controls instead. Then it became obvious that I needed to return to the IYL theme that light and photonics are the foundation of much of our modern technology. Why did this happen?
The theme I was going to tackle related to the fact that if you visit the centre of any major UK city at night – Manchester, Leeds, Belfast, Glasgow to name just a few – you will notice the common occurence of many modern offices having their lights still on when the staff have probably gone home. And yet most of these buildings are equipped with automatic lighting control systems that should be making sure this does not happen. What is going on? Well there are several reasons for this situation and it does make a good story about how we fit technology and then we fail to fully understand all aspects of its successful application and use. Many of the failings relate to costs, some to lack of ownership and even to a lack of relevant education and
International Year of Light
‘We thought that LED lighting technology was a seriously disruptive challenge for the lighting industry to rise to, but the potential changes to the lighting controls industry are only now emerging’
training for the staff involved. Rather than look at what has led to this situation it was more interesting to look forward to see if anything was happening that might mitigate this apparent poor performance in the future. And this is when one of the IYL themes came back into focus. In Paris the importance of photonics as an enabling science was put forward frequently and forcefully. One of the most prevalent and important beneficiaries of light is, of course, the Internet – which is where we come back to lighting and controls. Recent research into the current world of lighting and controls reveals a number of disruptive technology steps that may alter the way we look at, and use, lighting in the future. At the moment many lighting control systems are not being used optimally because they are too complicated, costly or difficult to adapt to changes in building layouts, occupancy and tasks undertaken. In the future, though, this may change if the user controls become more familiar and accessible, something that might be brought about by the Internet of Things. The other major influence on lighting technology is the realisation that lighting is the most pervasive service in any building; virtually every space in a building is equipped with a light. As your lighting installation becomes more intelligent it is possible that it can take on new roles in data gathering and enterprise-based services. There are already working examples of lighting systems that are capable of monitoring not only the lighting energy use but are also able to provide a detailed data model of the occupation of the building at any given time of day. This is made possible by smarter sensors and better controls, and the development of solid state (LED) lighting can take things further, allowing the lighting system to interact with building occupants and visitors through their smart devices. Even some stand-alone (or room-based) controls are now offered that will talk to your phone through an app and let you (the occupant) determine the detailed functionality of your own lighting; if the controls are networked then the opportunities become much wider. The lighting system in a major retail store might, for example, draw your attention to a special offer that is tailored to your personal preferences. These developments are giving rise to a new lexicon of lighting words and phrases such as Li-Fi, location-based services, and ‘lighting as a service’ (LaaS). And with these new ideas comes a whole new set of companies taking an interest in the world of lighting. A quick look at recent corporate activities reveals the interest that some major IT companies now have in smart sensors and controls. Google acquired smart sensor company Nest for $3.2bn in 2014, Cisco is working with Innovate UK on lighting as a service, Apple is collaborating with Philips and its Hue
lighting and so on. With this sort of trend future lighting systems might even be installed by IT companies. Certainly the growth of sensors and luminaires that may be directly connected to the Internet has confirmed the belief that intelligence is moving towards the light sources and the control sensors. Much of this is currently done using wireless technologies, but there are also many that contain an RJ45 socket that would permit direct connection to an IT network – or ethernet. With the reduced loads of much LED lighting it is now also possible to power the fitting from the network cables using power over ethernet (PoE), which can address the fact that one large power supply for many small fixtures can be more efficient than having individual power supplies (or drivers) for each luminaire. We thought that LED lighting technology was a seriously disruptive challenge for the lighting industry to rise to – which, to its credit, it has done – but the potential changes to the lighting controls industry in the long term are only now emerging. In the meantime, perhaps the industry can return to the more immediate problem of making sure that users with lighting controls have understandable systems that allow them to be readily changed to meet both corporate and individual needs and not leave all the lights on when no one is home. If more and more people are familiar with smartphones and devices – a recent Ofcom survey, for instance, revealed that 37 per cent of respondents now mostly used phones to get online compared with 26 per cent for laptops – then it is logical to make these the entry points using clear graphics and robust software to set and configure their lights. Let’s not be afraid to pass more control to those who need the lights and so rely less
‘We have to consider the wider implications of the Internet of Things. Every IP address is a potential door to the rest of the network and hence an entry point for hackers’
on the facilities team. Almost like returning to those old lighting control systems of the 1980s where everyone had a pull switch on their light – and the lights did not stay on after hours. In the longer term the whole lighting industry has an opportunity to develop lighting systems that become an essential part of a business enterprise, forming a core service network that creates useful data, links systems and delivers greater productivity and efficiency. We do, however, have to be mindful that this move will also oblige us to consider the wider implications of the Internet of Things. Every IP address is a potential door to the rest of the network and hence an entry point for hackers; look at the recent headlines where a passenger vehicle was halted by a hacker entering its control systems via its mobile phone system. If the lighting systems of the future are developing in this direction then cybersecurity design will need to be another skill that we employ. n
Women in lighting YLOTY
Discover the feminine side 2 In the second of a two-part feature, Helen Loomes, who has established an informal group for women in lighting, invited several more members to relate how they arrived at their current career As with the first part of this article, most of the women who are featured here have entered lighting by accident and certainly by a variety of routes. This has resulted in slightly different approaches and varying points of view. Happily this meant that our second meeting was a lively and informative gathering with some very original ideas.
n Mary Rushton-Beales Throughout school I had always wanted to teach, but postponed going to university, planning to go when I was over 21. When I first left school I worked as a secretary in Harlesden CID (yes, just like Life on Mars), then joined the Metropolitan Police. Although I enjoyed policing I was a bit too young for the responsibility. I left after a year and in 1981 joined the Philips Group. In 1982 I joined the lighting division. My further education came from in-house training at Philips Lighting, practical experience, and teaching interior and 3D designers about lighting since 1989. So I did end up being a teacher. I also believe that my further education has never stopped – there is so much still to learn about light, how it affects our bodies, and the need to understand all the technical and aesthetic aspects of new light sources and scientific studies. I was very lucky; I was surrounded by inspiring people at Philips in the early 1980s, and there was a policy of encouraging the team to learn. I was hooked very quickly and curiosity grew. Being female meant that it took me a few years to get out on the road talking to architects and designers. Hard to believe now, but at the time there wasn’t one female ‘on the road’. Lighting has enabled me to have the best of both worlds, but only because I’ve had my own business, Lighting Design House, from 1990. I think it would have been far harder to combine a career and motherhood if not. I am constantly inspired by clients, architects and designers who give us difficult problems to solve. A more fundamental inspiration is the changing quality of natural light and lighting phenomena, from dark starry skies to rainbows.
n Alma Cardzic My journey towards the lighting design profession began as an electrical engineer, although I had wanted to be an architect. Unfortunately my label of electrical engineer inhibited the development of my lighting ideas and I was not taken seriously by architects. In the beginning, for instance, my talk about the relationship between lighting and glass, and the importance of using the right type of glass, was falling on deaf ears. I realised I needed to make a decision on whether to stay as an electrical engineer or move into lighting design. I chose lighting and the world became my oyster. After completing my Masters in Lighting at the Bartlett, I was introduced as a lighting designer and suddenly all the problems that I had as an engineer disappeared. Now I could say, ‘I am really sorry, but light does not bend around the corner’ . At the beginning of my career, the industry lacked proper representation of female engineers and subsequently lighting designers. However nowadays, we see that changing; being a female in the industry makes you work harder, which I found to be very true at the beginning of my career. Once I proved myself, it was easier to work in what is a male-dominated industry, even with contractors. I love visual art and that is what inspires me every day. Janet Turner was an inspirational designer – someone who really affected the world of lighting. But what really gets me going is releasing the passion and creativity that comes to me – bringing every project to life for the client. I love the fact that lighting design has both creative and analytical aspects. Add to this the psychological aspect of light and you get a great overall, wellrounded piece of art. n Ellie Coombs I suspect that like many lighting designers it took a while for me to pinpoint where my passion lay and that there was actually a vocation out there that would be perfect for me. But looking back now all the signs were there. At school my art was all about stained glass and silhouettes. Drama classes were about avoiding going on stage so I started doing the lighting for the shows, teaching myself how to patch in the lights and use the ancient control desk – I got a lot of hands-on health and safety experience and probably learned more about what not to do than anything else. Against everyone’s advice I studied science, psychology and art at college because I couldn’t understand how they could be separated, each affected the other and therefore I needed to understand them all. I often wish I could go back and tell them that art and science do mix – it’s called lighting design. I went on to get a BAHons in museum and exhibition design at Hull School of Architecture and worked in a number of design roles within TV, theatre and film before finally discovering architectural lighting design, subsequently starting at BDP. I consider myself extremely lucky to have found myself doing a job I love in such a friendly and innovative industry. I think
Women in lighting YLOTY
I started at a great time, I got to learn from the likes of Barrie Wilde, Martin Lupton, Mark Ridler and Laura Bayliss to name but a few. The industry has changed and grown a lot over the past decade, which means it’s always been fresh and exciting. In 2011 I helped Paul set up Paul Nulty Lighting Design. I went from a large multidisciplinary practice to what I now fondly refer to as the broom cupboard. The past four years have been full of new opportunities and things to learn, and the broom cupboard is now a studio with an awesome view, a ping pong table and a team of talented lighting designers. For me personally lighting design always starts with people – a great looking scheme is always nice but if it can improve someone’s quality of life as well then that’s what makes it really worthwhile – people-centred, sustainable, pragmatic and integrated. n Lorraine Calcott Lighting, what a wonderful profession to be in. However, like the vast majority of us when we left school it was never even considered on the careers list. I was fortunate enough to be placed at Thorn Lighting in Romford as a YTS (Youth Training Scheme) employee and although I wanted to be an architect this was a compromise I found to be most acceptable and interesting. My road from there was a little bumpy as I got fired from the YTS scheme after three months but due to a twist of fate, five years later I ended up back in the same department and was re-hired by my friend and mentor Clive Roach. Working for Clive as a trainee lighting engineer and then moving up the ranks was a superb way to learn the many diverse aspects of the lighting profession and I took to the work like a duck to water. After six years with Thorn I decided to spread my wings and worked for some of the other great companies in the industry such as Louis Poulsen, Trilux and Philips before starting my own company – It Does Lighting – in January 2004. I have since done my IEng and I am currently doing my CEng and a PhD in circadian lighting. In the past the industry was a boys’ club but I always found it to be an advantage to be a woman. Now things are changing and I employ one of each gender currently; in previous roles I have strived to strike a good balance. I love having a great canvas to paint with light, so brilliant architecture is always an inspiration. Nature is another good source. This career ticks all my boxes and even after more than 20 years of being involved in lighting I still love every day and every opportunity to learn – best job in the world. n Laura Phillips I knew that I wanted to do something in art and design. After a couple of summer schools at ballet school I decided a career in dance wasn’t for me. So I decided to go to art school. After doing my foundation year I opted for 3D design as it offered a range of different things to work with. I would have loved to paint for a living but ultimately solving
problems and having parameters suited me better. I did a BA Hons in Design, and on graduating was fortunate enough to be given the St Andrews Scholarship which I used to attend Parsons School of Design in New York, and completed my MFA. This led to a job with what is now Fisher Marantz Stone, which was a great place to train. Living in New York at the time, where the lighting profession was growing, was a great experience. There were two defining things that led me to lighting; when I was a student I loved Ingo Maurer’s work – I saw some of his work at a show in Ron Arad’s studios in London – and the playful and interactive quality of his light objects. Then in my third year I attended a lighting show at the Building Design Centre in Islington, north London, which opened my eyes in terms of what equipment was available. I quickly realised that using it to light architecture had masses of potential. I spent a lot of my time at the Architecture School playing with light in my final year. That culminated in a series of lights and structures which led me to become very interested in architecture combined with natural and artificial light. I have been very fortunate to work for practices of a high professional standing where I’ve always been encouraged to get involved in professional organisations, a rewarding and great way to meet like-minded people. I was involved in the IALD in the US as a student member so went to meetings and organised some seminars in the UK when I returned, and had a great time heading a workshop for the PLDA. I’ve tutored on lighting courses at University of Strathclyde, Napier University and Grays School of Art, to encourage talent into our industry. I’m currently discipline director at Buro Happold. Balancing your personal and work life in the lighting profession is a challenge for anyone; we work long hours and a lot of travel is involved. Everyone needs to find the right balance for them as an individual. I would encourage employers to be flexible and really look at the quality of work and the efficiencies of staff rather than simply judging by the hours they do in the office. As a parent I’m fortunate that our office is relaxed about flexible working. Just because design is a vocational type of profession doesn’t mean that you should have no personal time and I still think our profession overall has work to do in this area. I had many positive female role models when I was training in the US – two of the four associates were women, I was fascinated by the work of Motoko Ishi and the scale of projects she undertook, and when I returned to the UK Sally Storey and Janet Turner were established designers. However, establishing yourself as a female lead designer in the international construction industry is not for the faint-hearted. n
I would like to throw out an invitation to any women who are associated with lighting to join us at our next meeting. Please contact me for details (email@example.com). We also have a LinkedIn group called Women in Light and Lighting, which I would encourage you to look at for location and timing details. I don’t want men to feel excluded as I feel eventually we would like to include them in our discussion group. However, we will start small and celebrate the women in lighting for the present. – Helen Loomes
First impressions Iain Carlile singles out papers on the perception of light Now printed eight times a year, Lighting Research and Technology publishes a substantial number of papers. Since I last looked at it for the Newsletter, two issues have been printed, comprising 17 papers plus editorials, opinion pieces, book reviews and correspondence. Topics have included new lighting technologies, human factors, road lighting, daylight and sunlight, and measurement. I have provided a short summary on just a small selection of papers here (SLL members can access them free through the SLL Lighting Publications pages on the CIBSE website). Denk et al’s paper examines the impact of light sources (LED and HID) and CCT (warm-white 3000K and neutral white 4200K) on the wellbeing, mental state and concentration of shop assistants. In a controlled experiment working with a number of shop assistants, they found that warm white lighting positively affects the feeling of wellbeing and mental state, but negatively affects the powers of concentration. The results of the experiment showed no effects due to light source. Also considering perception, Alber et al studied whether the use of coloured light in a passenger aircraft cabin can be used to influence passengers’ temperature sensations, making the climate be perceived as cooler (using a cool ambient colour) or warmer (using a warm ambient colour), a phenomenon known as the hue-heat hypothesis. Experiments were conducted in a single-aisle aircraft cabin with nearly 200 participants. They found that lighting colour does impact on climate perception and evaluation as hypothesised. Of interest to many who work in the design of lighting installations will be the papers by Schanda, Csuti et al on the illumination of picture galleries. Considering the colour fidelity of presented artworks, showing the colours of the pictures as seen by the painter in the light which was used to create the picture, the authors note that most artworks up until the 20th century would have been produced under daylight. Therefore daylight would be the optimum illuminant. For art conservation and energy saving reasons this is not feasible and the authors note that many galleries use a
Luminance measurement points in the examination room (Light sources and the performance of shop assistants)
correlated colour temperature (CCT) of 3500K. The authors therefore present a method to determine the spectral power distribution with the least colour distortion when moving from a daylight illuminant of 6500K to 3500K at a lower illuminance, allowing the artworks to be displayed with the best possible colour fidelity. The authors note that the presented method could be used for any CCT and adaptation levels. The second part of the paper puts this into practice with a number of test samples of Renaissance paintings. Iain Carlile, MSLL, is an associate of DPA Lighting Design n Lighting Research and Technology Vol 47, No 4, June 2015 Editorial: The problem with light Peter Boyce Opinion: Climate-based daylighting metrics in LEEDv4 – A fragile progress Christoph Reinhart Smart modular lighting control system with dual-beam luminaires D Caicedo, A Pandharipande and MCJM Vissenberg Psychovisual evaluations of many luminous environments on the Internet C Villa and R Labayrade n The impact of light source technology and colour temperature on the wellbeing, mental state and concentration of shop assistants E Denk, P Jimenez and B Schulz Dominant contrast as a metric for the lighting of pedestrians R Saraiji and M Saju Oommen Road lighting and pedestrian reassurance after dark: A review S Fotios, J Unwin and S Farrall Near-field and far-field goniophotometry of narrow-beam LED arrays V Jacobs, S Forment, P Rombauts and P Hanselaer n In search of evidence for the hue-heat hypothesis in the aircraft cabin F Albers, J Maier and C Marggraf-Micheel A light-emitting diode headlamp for motorcycles based on freeform micro-lenses XF Li, Y Li, JY Dong, GD Chen, C Liang and P Ge Book review: Human Factors in Lighting, 3rd ed Steve Fotios Lighting Research and Technology Vol 47, No 5, August 2015 Editorial: The end of an era Peter Boyce Opinion: Climate-based daylighting modelling in practice Paul Littlefair n Colour fidelity for picture gallery illumination, Part 1: Determining the optimum light-emitting diode spectrum J Schanda, P Csuti and F Szabó n Colour fidelity for picture gallery illumination, Part 2: Test sample selection – museum tests P Csuti, A Fáy, J Schanda, F Szabó and V Tátrai Conceptual design and assessment of a profiled Fresnel lens daylight collector MG Nair, AR Ganesan and K Ramamurthy Observing other pedestrians: Investigating the typical distance and duration of fixation S Fotios, B Yang and J Uttley The simultaneous occurrence and relationship of sunlight and skylight under ISO/CIE standard sky types R Kittler and S Darula A study of atmosphere perceptions in a living room XY Liu, MR Luo and H Li Lamp spectrum and spatial brightness at photopic levels: Investigating prediction using S/P ratio and gamut area S Fotios, D Atli, C Cheal and N Hara A new way to measure the luminous intensity distribution of LEDs based on Luneburg lens A Ge, J Wang, P Qiu and J Cai Measurement of junction temperature of light-emitting diodes in a luminaire KR Shailesh, CP Kurian and SG Kini Correspondence: Do we look at other people’s faces more than we need? N Davoodian and P Raynham Reply to Davoodian and Raynham S Fotios, B Yang and J Uttley
YLOTY: where are they now?
From theory to practice
June 2010 and I had finally handed in my research project at UCL’s Bartlett School of Graduate Studies. Two long, challenging years of studying and working had finally come to an end and I was eagerly awaiting the results. To take my mind off the waiting, and to do something with the wealth of research I’d gathered, I decided to enter the SLL Young Lighter of the Year Competition in 2011. I’d spent the past year developing a study that examined what really happens when you give office users individual control over the lighting at their workstation. Generously supported by iGuzzini and Crestron, the study gave the participants control of the lighting at their individual workstation via an iPhone app. At the time smartphones were becoming mainstream and lighting systems could finally leverage the ubiquitous nature of personal technology to deliver lighting control at an individual level. The research concluded that in general people liked their workstations to be darker than the typical 300 lux average and that they were more concerned with balancing the artificial light levels with daylight ingress. There was some evidence to suggest that participants would raise and lower their lighting in response to sky conditions and the amount of daylight. After some particularly amateur video work for the first ever video entries I was thrilled to be invited into the final of the YLOTY. I distinctly remember that all the hours of practice I had put into making the final presentation rapidly evaporated as I stood up at the lectern, delivering what was possibly one of my least polished performances. Looking around the room at an audience of academics and lighting professionals, and knowing that they would know much more about lighting and my subject matter than me, was a daunting experience. With all the presentations over I was truly overwhelmed to be presented with the ILP Best Written Paper and the SLL YLOTY 2012. Following the win and completion of my MSc, I felt I needed a new challenge and it was shortly after this that I started my own company and began working on my own projects, mixed with freelancing. The YLOTY was certainly a good platform in getting my name out there in our industry. I was actually surprised by how far reaching the recognition was. I received messages from as far away as the USA, Asia and Australia. Working for myself was truly liberating and terrifying in equal measure. You certainly learn quickly when you are solely responsible for your work without the safety net of others
Photography: Matt Irwin
2011 winner Christopher Knowlton continues the occasional series that discovers what happened to winners and finalists after becoming Young Lighter of the Year
Many Hands: ‘My favourite project from my time in Australia, made for MondoArc’
around you. Testament to the warmth and generosity of our industry I was immensely fortunate to be surrounded by some of its most talented, creative and generous people. It was also during this period that I was offered an interview through Twitter (definitely a sign of the times). Paul Beale of Electrolight invited me down to Melbourne, Australia, for a few months as an ‘international guest designer’. Needless to say, the lure of sunshine, a relaxed pace of life and some of the best work of my career turned those few months into a year. Having learnt so much and formed some very strong bonds, I knew it wouldn’t be the end of the line for Electrolight and me. Returning to the UK I carried on my own project work, a mixture of architecture, art projects and installations. Then, at the end of last year, Paul invited me to help him start the Electrolight London Studio with myself as principal of the practice on the aptly named Christopher Street. Since January we have grown to a team of five and are working on some really exciting projects. We believe that lighting is integral to the fabric of the architecture and that our work is resonant with its context. It really is rewarding to be part of such a passionate team of talented, creative people. For those lucky enough to still be under 30, I would really encourage you to enter the YLOTY competition. It’s a fantastic platform from which to meet and engage with new people. n
2015 14-18 September Exterior Lighting Diploma Module 1 (Organised by the ILP) Venue: Draycote Hotel, Nr Rugby firstname.lastname@example.org 16-19 September LED Lighting China Venue: Shanghai New International Expo Centre www.ledlightingchina-sh 20-23 September First International Workshop on Future Light Technology and Human Health Venue: University of Surrey www.lightingandhealth.net 22-24 September Fifth International LED professional Symposium and Expo (LpS 2015) Venue: Festspielhaus, Bregenz, Austria www.led-professional-symposium.com 23-24 September Professional Lighting Summit (Organised by the ILP) Venue: Queen Hotel, Chester email@example.com 30 September LG7: The HCNW Lighting Paper at GX Venue: Zumtobel Lighting Chalfont St Peter www.cibse.org/training-events 1 October Night of Heritage Light (SLL IYL event, lighting of a series of UK Unesco World Heritage Sites) www.sll-nhl.org 4-6 October Plasa Venue: ExCel, London E16 www.plasashow.com 8-10 October IALD Enlighten Americas 2015 Location: Baltimore, MD www.iald.org 21 October Jonathan Speirs Memorial Lecture Speakers: Carrie Donahue-Bremner of Speirs and Major, and architect Neil Gillespie of Reich and Hall will discuss Maggie’s Centre, Lanarkshire Venue: Trades Hall, Glasgow www.sll.org.uk 27-30 October Hong Kong International Lighting Fair Venue: Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre ww.hktdc.com
20–23 September: First International Workshop on Future Light Technology and Human Health, University of Surrey
28-31 October PLDC 2015 (with SLL as Official Knowledge Partner) Venue: Ergife Palace Hotel, Rome www.pld-c.com
Lighting Masterclasses: Masterclasses are kindly sponsored by Philips, Thorn and Trilux. For venues and booking details : www.sll.cibse.org
29 October SLL Masterclass: Light and Architecture Location: Cardiff www.sll.org.uk 3-4 November Building Performance Conference and Exhibition (Launch of BRE research on daylight metrics and Public Health England research on the health impacts of LEDs) Venue: QEII Centre, Westminster www.cibse.org/cibse-conference-2015 18-19 November LuxLive 2015 (Including SLL Young Lighter of the Year final and Mini Masterclasses) Venue: ExCel, London E16 www.luxlive.co.uk 19 November Lux Awards 2015 Venue: Troxy, Commercial Road London E1 www.luxawards.co.uk 26 November SLL Masterclass: Light and Architecture Location: Leicester www.sll.org.uk
LET Diploma (in association with London South Bank University): advanced qualification by distance learning. Details from www.lightingeducationtrust.org or email LET@cibse.org Mid Career College: the college runs various courses across the whole spectrum of lighting and at sites across the UK. Full details at www.cibsetraining.co.uk/mcc LIF courses: details from John Hugill, 0208 529 6909, or email firstname.lastname@example.org