The Society of Light and Lighting
LIGHT LINES May/June 2019
VOLUME 12 ISSUE 3 MAY/JUNE 2019
SCENE SETTING RSL and the new degree
SEEING DAYLIGHT Reviewing the first pan-European standard Twitter: @sll100
FROM THE EDITOR Disturbingly, I go back to before Ready Steady Light existed. In fact I remember discussing with Mark Ayers and Martin Lupton the ways in which lighting students could be given opportunities to get practical experience with lighting equipment. They being doers and not just talkers, RSL emerged, with considerable assistance from Mike Simpson. Not only has it proved an enduring success but has also led to an even more important development: the new BA (Hons) Lighting Design for Architecture degree course that begins this September (see p7) at Rose Bruford College. For years the idea of a first degree has been mooted, its necessity widely acknowledged. While there has been the long-established MSc at the Bartlett, and more recently the MA at Edinburgh Napier, establishing a BA/BSc has proved elusive. There was the lighting design pathway at Brunel University London, there is the lighting component of the engineering course at LSBU and the BA (Hons) Lighting Design and Technology at University of South Wales. In a relatively new profession, it is perhaps inevitable that a full three-year degree is still unrealistic and the new degree will not entirely stand alone, the first year being shared with the established theatre lighting course. However, the relevance of that course
SECRETARY Brendan Keely FSLL email@example.com SLL COORDINATOR Juliet Rennie Tel: 020 772 3685 firstname.lastname@example.org EDITOR Jill Entwistle email@example.com COMMUNICATIONS COMMITTEE: Gethyn Williams (chairman) Iain Carlile MSLL Jill Entwistle Chris Fordham MSLL Rebecca Hodge Eliot Horsman MSLL Stewart Langdown FSLL Linda Salamoun MSLL Bruce Weil All contributions are the responsibility of the author, and do not necessarily reflect the views of the society. All contributions are personal, except where attributed to an organisation represented by the author.
COPY DATE FOR LL 4 2019 IS 10 MAY PUBLISHED BY The Society of Light and Lighting 222 Balham High Road London SW12 9BS www.sll.org.uk ISSN 2632-2838 © 2019 THE SOCIETY OF LIGHT AND LIGHTING The Society of Light and Lighting is part of the Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers, 222 Balham High Road, London SW12 9BS. Charity registration no 278104
ERRATA Apologies, there were a couple of errors in Kit Cuttle’s article in the Jan/Feb issue of Light Lines (Vol 12 Issue 1). The second metric on p8 should have appeared as follows: •
Printed in UK
JILL ENTWISTLE JILLENTWISTLE @YAHOO.COM
for planning the direct flux distribution (DFD) within a space by selecting target surfaces and specifying TAIR values. The equation on p9 should have read as follows:
Target/ambient illuminance ratio (TAIR) is the ratio of the illuminance (direct + ambient) of selected target surfaces or objects to the ambient illuminance, so that for a specific surface
Where Es(d), ρ s and A s are respectively the direct illuminance, reflectance and area of surface s.
where Es(d) is the direct illuminance of surface s. This metric may be used
To read the full article go to: https://issuu.com/matrixprint/docs/ sll_nl_jan_feb_2019_issuu
PRODUCED BY Unit C, Northfield Point, Cunliffe Drive, Kettering, Northants NN16 9QJ Tel: 01536 527297 E: firstname.lastname@example.org
and the years of thought behind it make it perhaps the strongest proposition yet. RSL has always been an enjoyable event for all concerned, a lesson in how much fun can be derived from free, spontaneous creativity in lighting. Who would have thought that that small progressive step in education 17 years ago would have led to such a big step in the teaching of lighting today. ‘Without the Society of Light and Lighting’s ongoing support and Ready Steady Light as an annual focal point the architectural strand within the existing BA Lighting Design course would not have developed and expanded as it has, and I think we would not now be looking at launching this exciting new programme,’ says Hansjörg Schmidt, academic programme manager at RCB. It is a lesson that outreach projects such as RSL, NoHL and others, all apparently modest educational ventures, can have significant consequences.
FROM THE SECRETARY
and continue to enjoy the benefits of membership. If you have forgotten to pay or wish to discuss your membership, please do get in touch with us. For those that have not and do not wish to renew their subscriptions, many of your benefits of membership have been stopped prior to lapsing later in the year. We’re sorry to see you go but again please do get in touch if you wish to renew or if you have any membership or benefits queries. For all affiliates, associated members and members there are still opportunities to upgrade your SLL membership. If you have any questions or would like to discuss what grades to aim for in terms of education and experience please do get in touch, we are always happy to help. We are looking for volunteers to join our events committee. The committee meets three to four times a year for a couple of hours late afternoon and has previously organised events such as the Trotter Paterson Lectures, Light Graffiti, 200 years of Fresnel and Celebrating 100 Years of Munsell. If you are interested in joining please do get in touch. Also get in contact if you would like to know more about our Sustaining Member programme. We are pleased to welcome Arkos Light and Current by GE as our latest members. The Lighting Design Awards will take place on 16 May at the Troxy, which is also appropriately the International Day of Light. We wish all our members who are shortlisted for either product or project awards the best of luck. Finally it was extremely sad to hear about the passing of Lou Bedocs (see p13). Lou was a man of many talents and I don’t know anyone in the industry who hasn’t benefited directly or indirectly from his life or work. Lou will be sadly missed by us all.
A REFINED PALETTE
SCENE SET FOR NEW DIRECTION
Creativity and constraint at this year’s Ready Steady Light
Jill Entwistle talks to Hansjörg Schmidt of Rose Bruford College about the new architectural lighting degree
Ruth Kelly Waskett examines the first pan-European daylight standard
THINKING INSIDE THE BOX
Juliet Rennie looks at the implications of AI with machine learning for lighting design
The industry pays tribute to Lou Bedocs
Iain Carlile singles out four LR&T papers that consider the various effects of light on human beings
COVER: The Marlow Integrated Designs (MID) scheme at this year’s Ready Steady Light
BRENDAN KEELY BKEELY @CIBSE.ORG
This year’s Ready Steady Light competition with Rose Bruford College was again a great success with the sun shining down on Sidcup throughout the day (see p5). With 11 teams taking part, the competition hotted up quickly. Congratulations to the Technical and Peer Award winner, dpa lighting consultants, and to UCL Team C who won the Creative Award supported by the IALD. Thanks go to the judges of the competition: Iain Carlile, Bob Bohannon, Juliet Rennie, Kevin Theobald, Nick Hunt and Kerem Asfuroglu. A huge thank you too to all who took part and, of course, our partners at Rose Bruford College. Thanks also to those that supplied equipment for the competition: SGM, Commercial Lighting Systems, Cree, Sparks, Signify, Lee Filters and White Light. We look forward to the 18th annual RSL event in March 2020. The deadline for the Jean Heap Bursary entries has passed and we hope to announce the recipient soon. This year it’s worth up to £4000. Meanwhile, the Young Lighter 2019 entry deadline is almost upon us. We encourage everyone under 30 on 10 May, also the entry deadline, to get their application and entry in to us. The final of the competition will take place on 14 November at LuxLive and you not only get the chance of taking the title Young Lighter 2019 and £1000 prize money, but also the opportunity to be presented with the Young Lighter 2019 trophy on stage among your industry peers at the Lux Awards the same evening. More details can be found on the SLL website. This month will see the last LightBytes of the current series in London on 9 May at the Royal Society. The series has welcomed more than 250 delegates at venues in six regions so far and there are places still available at the London event. Booking can be made via the website. The AGM takes place on 23 May at St Martin-in-the-Fields, Trafalgar Square. We look forward to Jim Shove’s presidential address, the SLL awards and guest speaker, and hope to see many there. Thank you to all members who have renewed their subscriptions for 2019
THE LATEST NEWS AND STORIES
EDUCATION TRUST REFORMS CONSTITUTION The Lighting Education Trust (LET) has reformed its original constitution, converting from a charitable trust to a charitable incorporated organisation (CIO). Now in its 24th year, the LET has extended its activities into areas not envisaged at the time it was founded. Following legal guidance, the trustees decided that a review of its constitution was necessary. From 1995 until 2011, the primary work of the LET was giving grant support to the MSc Light and Lighting at Bartlett UCL, supporting and advising on courses at other establishments and collaborating with London South Bank University (LSBU) to deliver the LET Diploma in Lighting. These activities have been funded by sponsorship raised within the lighting industry. In 2011, the LSBU withdrew from administering while wishing to continue its collaboration. This led to the LET formally taking over the administration of the course, which has since been delivered in association with LSBU. However, becoming a ‘provider’ was not a specific power listed in the original Deed of Trust from 1995. On legal advice the decision was made to go beyond revising the constitution and to future proof the trust by converting to a CIO. Current trustees (pictured) are: Hugh Ogus (chair), Mike Simpson, John Aston (representing CIBSE) and Bob Venning, who chairs the management committee, responsible for day-to-day operations. CIBSE’s Pom Daniells is the administrator.
GLOBAL INITIATIVE FOR WOMEN IN LIGHTING Light Collective launched its Women in Lighting project in March, on International Women’s Day. With its own website, it is designed to be an inspirational digital platform for women working in the architectural lighting industry. The website has a database of interviews with women from around the world. Starting with lighting designers, the scope of the project will expand to include women in all aspects of lighting, including education, journalism, manufacturing, art and research. ‘The idea is to celebrate women in lighting and elevate their profile in the lighting community,’ says Sharon Stammers, cofounder with Martin Lupton, of Light Collective. The project launch was supported by formalighting, a 50-year-old family-owned lighting manufacturer. The initiative has already gathered support from individual female designers in almost 50 different countries.
IALD CELEBRATES ITS 50TH ANNIVERSARY The International Association of Lighting Designers (IALD) is celebrating 50 years since its foundation in 1969. Starting in the US as a small group of architectural lighting designers, the Chicago-based association now represents more than 1450 members in over 60 countries. For more details, go to www.iald.org/events
For more information go to www.womeninlighting.com A Women in Lighting event will take place at LuxLive 2019 later this year (13-14 November).
ON THE LIGHTER SIDE... The best way to understand this is by watching the video which is one of those satisfying experiences akin to popping bubblewrap. Presented at Milan Design Week last month, glow ⇄ grow is a series of lights made from resin, created by Tokyo studio Takt Project. Liquid resin is dripped on to a glowing programmable LED light resembling an icicle but solidifying
and growing like a stalactite. As the resin hardens it also changes the quality of the light emitted. The exhibit is designed to convey a work in progress rather than a finished form. It’s ‘a process of artificial and natural integration that incorporates the principle of nature into artificial operation,’ explains Takt. Watch the video at www.designboom.com
Winning both the Peer and Technical Awards, the scheme by dpa lighting consultants. Photography by Darren Woolway
A REFINED PALETTE Judges applaud the creativity and constrained use of colour at this year’s Ready Steady Light competition at Rose Bruford College q From the top: the Thorlux site, lighting for the event by RBC students, scheme by UCL Team B
aving scooped the Peer Prize last year, dpa lighting consultants not only went on to repeat its achievement this year, but picked up the Technical Award as well. UCL’s Team C was given the Creative Award, sponsored by the IALD. Now in its 17th year, Ready Steady Light was as usual co-organised with and held at Rose Bruford College in Sidcup, Kent. The 11 teams – design practices, manufacturers and educational institutions – who took part were challenged to create an exterior lighting installation in just 180 minutes, using a limited selection of lighting equipment. The move to LED fittings has produced a preponderance of multi-colour schemes over the past few years but the judges were pleased to see that more subtle schemes were also in the mix. ‘The availability of colour-change LED fixtures has inevitably resulted in the use of
saturated colour, although it was pleasantly surprising that several teams limited their use of colour and the results were appreciated by the judges,’ said Kevin Theobald, past president of the IALD. ‘The quality of the installations and design innovation was, as always, very high.’ This year’s judges were SLL president Iain Carlile, vice president Bob Bohannon and SLL co-ordinator Juliet Rennie, who awarded the technical prize. Kevin Theobald, Kerem Asfuroglu, founder of Dark Source, and Nick Hunt, head of design, management and technical arts at Rose Bruford, judged the IALD’s Creative Award. ‘Over the years it has been fascinating to see how the different sites have been tackled by the teams participating,’ said SLL president Iain Carlile. ‘This year was no different, with many new creative approaches from the various teams reinterpreting the sites, completely transforming the campus.’
Entry from UCL Team C which won the Creative Award
t Iain Carlile presents award to dpa lighting consultants x UCL Team C with Kevin Theobald
Winners: Technical Award (SLL): dpa lighting consultants Creative Award (IALD): UCL Team C Peer Prize: dpa lighting consultants
Teams: Ansell Lighting dpa lighting consultants Future Designs GIA Equation iGuzzini Marlow Integrated Designs
(MiD) Thorlux UCL Bartlett Teams A, B and C WSP
Sponsors: SGM White Light Lee Filters Signify Erco
The theatre context will be ‘a crucial aspect of the new course’, says Schmidt MICHAEL O’REILLY
SCENE SET FOR NEW DIRECTION Jill Entwistle talks to Hansjörg Schmidt, academic programme manager at Rose Bruford College, about the new BA (Hons) Lighting Design for Architecture degree course that will be launched this September – a long-awaited milestone in lighting education HOW LONG HAS ROSE BRUFORD BEEN CONSIDERING A DEGREE IN ARCHITECTURAL LIGHTING? For some years now. I joined the college in 2009 and it was talked about back then. Since then there’s been an optional architectural lighting strand embedded into the second year of the BA (Hons) Lighting Design programme. This strand always has had strong support from the architectural lighting community, through Hugh Ogus at the Lightmongers and Mike Simpson at the SLL (and many more). When I started as programme director lighting design the strand was quite strongly connected to the annual Ready Steady Light competition. That has been crucial. Without
the Society of Light and Lighting’s ongoing support and Ready Steady Light as an annual focal point the architectural strand within the existing BA Lighting Design course would not have developed and expanded as it has done, and I think probably we would not now be looking at launching this exciting new programme. Over the years this strand, along with other ‘specialist’ (non-theatre lighting) aspects of the course, has expanded and gained in confidence and weight. Even before introducing this new degree course, we’ve always had graduates progressing into the architectural lighting industries as junior designers for a wide range of lighting design offices and companies.
WHAT HAS THAT CONSIDERATION PROCESS INVOLVED? This has been a very gradual process that has evolved organically, in line with the lighting design programme’s continuous development and in line with ongoing changes in the lighting and creative industries. My own background as a theatre lighting designer and graduate of the MSc Light and Lighting at the Bartlett has also meant that I have been actively exploring ways in which the two separate strands of lighting in theatre and lighting in architecture can be fused. WHY HAS THE COLLEGE TAKEN THE STEP OF INTRODUCING THE DEGREE AT THIS POINT?
Hansjörg Schmidt: ‘The degree is definitely opening up a new and exciting area for development’
Very pragmatically, it was in response to the LET approaching the college to see whether we would be interested in developing an architectural lighting design undergraduate degree programme. The LET very generously has given some seed funding to help write the programme and nurture it through its first year. The timing of the LET’s approach has coincided with the college gaining degree-awarding powers so it is much easier for the college to launch a new degree programme. This course sits well within Rose Bruford’s existing portfolio as well as the college’s ambitions to expand into new areas of teaching. HOW DO YOU SEE IT MESHING WITH THE EXISTING CURRICULUM? The BA (Hons) Lighting Design for Architecture is definitely opening up a new and exciting area for development. The college’s expertise has always been in the performing arts so we are very aware that with regards to recruitment and potential students for the course, we are moving into an area that we do not have a strong foothold in at the moment – applicants may come from a science rather than an arts background, for example. The vision for the new course – there was some considerable discussion on whether this should be a BA or BSc – is that it will share a considerable amount of teaching in the first year with the existing BA (Hons) Lighting Design, to allow students to explore light as a medium. The second and third year of the new programme will then be delivered discretely, with the necessary skills and working methods of the architectural lighting designer delivered in year two, and year three being focused on an internship and industry experience.
‘As both a theatre lighting designer and graduate of the MSc Light and Lighting I have been exploring ways in which the two strands of lighting can be fused’ 8
WHAT DO YOU THINK THE THEATRE CONTEXT BRINGS TO THE VALUE OF THE COURSE? This will be a crucial aspect of the new course. Architectural projects are increasingly becoming designed experiences. Clients are aware of the increasing sophistication in the visual design and articulation of built environments. Architects look for lighting specialists who understand the theatricality of a building that tells a story. The technological advances in lighting see an ever increasing synergy between the live performance and architecture sectors. So I think the new course can teach a really unique and distinct understanding of light within the built environment as something that is performative and user driven. HOW IMPORTANT IS THE COLLABORATION WITH BOTH INDUSTRY AND ACADEMIC BODIES? A close collaboration between the college and industry partners is absolutely key. The
college has a long tradition of working closely with industry partners on continuously adapting and developing the teaching in line with developments in the industry. Real workplace experience and understanding of the broader industry context through placements and industry-led workshops is a crucial aspect of the students’ training at Rose Bruford. A lot of the learning is indeed vocational so we also need to work closely with industry on accessing the right technologies and equipment to offer the students the best possible training. WHAT IS THE FULL EXTENT OF THE LET’S ROLE? As well as supporting the course development through some seed funding, the Lighting Education Trust has also made its diploma available to inform some of the course content. We are also working closely with the LET on establishing industry links. We are hugely grateful to the LET for its ongoing support, without which the course could not have been developed this swiftly. www.bruford.ac.uk/courses
NATURAL MEASURES Ruth Kelly Waskett looks at the impact of the first pan-European daylight standard he new European daylight standard (EN 17037) is being quietly published around now. It’s been 10 years in the making, and is actually the first pan-European standard on daylight in buildings. The notable lack of fanfare might be understandable given the current uncertainty surrounding the UK’s relationship with the EU. Nonetheless, the UK plans to adopt the standard, a process which is expected to take several months. Ahead of this, I wanted to explore what the new developments are, and what they might mean for our clients. The publication of the standard signals the increasing importance of daylight in buildings, not just as an energy-saving feature, but as a characteristic of healthy buildings. It also comes at a time when climatebased daylight modelling has become more mainstream, but is not always possible, for example on small building projects with limited design resources.
GREATER FLEXIBILITY This new British Standard is likely to replace BS 8206-2, the Code of Practice for Daylighting (2008). So, how does it differ from what we currently have in place? Well, one of the main developments is that it gives daylight targets in terms of illuminance as well as daylight factor. In essence, this means we can use either climate-based modelling or daylight factor calculations to work out the levels of daylight in a building. This is good news for clients who want to achieve building energy certification with a scheme such as WELL, which requires climate-based daylight modelling to demonstrate compliance. This flexibility is a theme that runs through other aspects of the new guidance. It also provides a mechanism for adjusting daylight factor targets to suit the geographical location of a building, and therefore the daylight availability at a given site. p Folded Light, a 10-storey-high integrated steel and dichroic glass artwork by Carpenter Lowings Architecture and Design, creatively brings natural light to the core of WilkinsonEyre’s 8 Finsbury Square office development
Blavatnik School of Government building, University of Oxford, lighting scheme by Hoare Lea: a full daylight study was carried out to ensure daylight penetration was maximised, while minimising solar gain
Added to this, there are now high, medium and low daylight targets, rather than a one-size fits all approach. This means that different types of building, with varying activities going on inside them, can be taken into consideration, and daylight levels assessed accordingly. SUNLIGHT EXPOSURE The new standard is also quite rightly concerned with limiting sunlight exposure in order to avoid overheating in a space. It sets parameters in terms of duration of exposure to sunlight on the equinox (21 March) under low, medium and high exposure targets. Again, this is useful because this more flexible approach allows designers and clients to apply different criteria to different types of building depending on their use and the needs of occupants. In recognition of the fact that good daylighting is about more than daylight quantity, the new standard provides quantitative guidance on views out of a building, and glare. The criteria for views out are based on the distance of a viewer from a window and the size of the window, creating a view angle.
The glare criteria are based on the Daylight Glare Probability (DGP) metric, an index which has become widely regarded as the most reliable measure of daylight glare. FUTURE IMPACTS I believe the impact of this new standard will be significant for those tasked with predicting daylight in all kinds of buildings, but particularly residential. Currently, planning applications for residential developments often require an internal daylight assessment providing evidence for adequate daylight provision in habitable rooms. Most local authorities refer to BRE guidance, which is itself based on BS 8206-2. The new standard will look and feel very different, and it will take time for everyone to become familiar with it. It will also be interesting to see how other European countries handle the transition to the new guidance. There are bound to be teething pains when the standard begins to be applied on real projects, especially if consultants and local authorities interpret the guidance in different ways. For now though, we look forward to the new British Standard in a few monthsâ€™ time.
Ruth Kelly Waskett, FSLL, is principal daylight designer with Hoare Lea Lighting. She is also principal editor for Lighting Guide 10: Daylighting, and developed the daylight module of the Lighting Education Trust (LET) diploma course and acts as module tutor. She is currently a vice president of the SLL
Design and technology
Will the designer be left with more time and creative freedom or will skilled crafts become obsolescent in the face of increased automation?
THINKING INSIDE THE BOX Will artificial intelligence nurture or nullify the creative process? Juliet Rennie looks at the implications of AI with machine learning for lighting design omeone once observed that they were less concerned about artificial intelligence than genuine stupidity. There is no doubt, however, that the concept of artificial intelligence, or AI, in general is controversial, complex and for some disturbing. As was clear from the audience’s responses to a joint SLL/Arup event at the company’s exhibition held some 18 months ago, the idea of AI in a lighting context is also a divisive issue.
By and large it would appear that those with more exposure to certain tools hold a more optimistic view of how AI with machine learning could benefit the lighting profession, and also society more generally. However, there also seems to be a more pessimistic outlook, suggesting that skilled crafts could be forced into obsolescence in the face of increased automation. The introduction to the Arup exhibition (Artificial Intelligence: enabling machines to
learn), defined the term machine learning as: ‘…where the programmed machine develops and grows based on learning from a diverse and comprehensive amount of real-time world data’. This statement would suggest the potential to remove tasks from the designer or engineer that may otherwise detract from the creative process, whether that is searching for images to illustrate a concept, or finding the right product for a specific application or effect. In doing so, the designer would theoretically be left with more time and creative freedom. In this sense, AI can be seen as a helpful tool to inform decisionmaking based on statistical probability, providing a variety of scenarios and highlighting the likely outcome from each. Autodesk’s Shape Generator tool, for instance, allows the user to specify certain constraints, such as materials being used, along with structural and environmental considerations, developing a 3D mesh which then informs the process of engineering and design refinement. Designed to be used alongside the skill and expertise of the designer, tools such as this have the potential to save valuable time. It is important to consider AI with machine learning as a tool to be used alongside human intuition and expertise, rather than something to replace them. It was evident
Design and technology
from the debate at the event that one of the fears associated with the use of AI within the design process relates to an apparent loss of expertise. There is concern that those entering into lighting design will become overly reliant on software, losing the ability to sense check the work they are producing. Mario Carpo, professor of architectural history at the Bartlett, has likened the scepticism towards AI with machine learning to the feelings of ‘alienation’ outlined in Karl Marx’s critique of the Industrial Revolution, with increased separation of the hands of the producers from the tools of production, extrapolating it to, ‘…the ongoing postindustrial separation of the minds of the thinkers from the tools of computation’. As elements of the current design process are outsourced to machine learning, it is already impossible for human beings to replicate this analytical capability. Arup’s Francesco Anselmo, who actively develops computer tools for lighting design, building simulation, interaction design and building information modelling, has looked at the ways in which a programmatic and algorithmic approach could positively influence the design of a luminaire. When speaking at the exhibition, he also referenced Arup’s collaborative installation, Breathing Space, created for London Design Fair, as a positive example of connectivity through the design of smart luminaires. The installation used artificial intelligence to build an understanding of the environment, gathering air pollution data at sites throughout the city and then translating this using dynamic colour at the installation. Examples such as this highlight the potential to use information from the surrounding atmosphere and environment in order to raise awareness of a shared social and environmental responsibility. The use of web-based interfaces and open-source technology means that we can begin to change the dialogue between people and light, expanding the conversation beyond the traditional methods of control and interaction. That being said, data collection and security is generally the area which raises the most concern. Big Data relates to large sets of information which are computationally analysed in order to identify
patterns, with particular emphasis on human behaviour. There is a level of mistrust in relation to personal privacy and transparency in how information is gathered and used. Data breaches from large organisations have been well documented, including the likes of Facebook, British Airways and Google. However, our reliance on programmes which use AI with machine learning is growing as increasingly, day-to-day tasks are moving online, from shopping to navigation. As smart buildings and the internet of things become the norm, AI with machine learning will provide opportunities for increased collaboration between disciplines. The ability to work on statistical probability within the design phase could help the lighting industry in protecting and ensuring the quality of the lit environment, while working alongside other disciplines to use the potential for efficiency, through data collection and analysis. There are a number of potential uses for AI in commissioning and maintenance of a lighting system. Implementation of a smart lighting system means that performance data can be gathered from the point of installation, enabling a level of predictive maintenance to take place. This data can be used to help the building owners in optimising their energy consumption and to create the most comfortable and appropriate lit environment for occupants. With regard to the development of new lighting technologies, the University of Houston conducted a study whereby machine learning was used to predict the properties of more than 100,000 compounds to assess whether they would be suitable phosphors for LED lighting. The aim is to use this machine learning algorithm to create an LED light source which is more efficient, has improved colour quality and is cheaper to produce. Mike Haley, senior director of machine intelligence at Autodesk (who was featured in Arup’s publication that accompanied the
Mike Haley of Autodesk: optimistic about AI
exhibition), looks to the future of design with AI and machine learning, breaking it into three stages. Stage one, is ‘Intelligent Tools’, involving software that looks and feels like existing design software but rather than using unchanging algorithms based on past experience, it uses machine learning to search for examples of the same problem in order to find better solutions. Stage two is ‘Intelligent Collaborators’, moving beyond traditional deterministic software, to being able to perceive the context in which someone is working. The principal idea at this stage is that the software will be able to identify the more mundane tasks, taking these on and allowing the designer to focus on the more creative elements of the project. The final stage Haley outlines is, ‘Trusted Collaborators’. This refers to a point at which the software closely resembles working with another human being, albeit a human being who has the ability to ‘consider billions of possibilities and work at the speed of light’. Ending on an optimistic note, Haley comments that the future of design with AI is bright, marrying human empathy and creativity with the breadth and productivity of AI systems. While security and regulatory concerns must be addressed, the fourth industrial revolution is here and will reshape the way that we understand design and manufacturing. We can see it as the light at the end of the tunnel, or that of an oncoming train. As technology continues to evolve, the lighting industry has the opportunity to be part of shaping this process, but it certainly won’t wait for us to get on board.
‘There is concern that those entering into lighting design will become overly reliant on software, losing the ability to sense check the work they are producing’
A video of the SLL/Arup event is available at www.youtube.com/ watch?v=YTEopsPc1Mk
Lou Bedocs: ‘his legacy lives on in all the apprentices and colleagues he inspired’
A tribute to ‘a giant’ in the lighting industry, Lou Bedocs, FSLL, who died in February ou Bedocs, or Lajos as he was christened, was born in March 1942 in Körmend, a Hungarian town near the Austrian border, in a war-torn Europe. Having achieved his General Education Certificate, he started at the local grammar school in August 1956 at the age of 14. The Russian invasion of Hungary shortly afterwards completely changed his life. Familiar with the area, he helped guide refugees escaping the invaders across the nearby border into Austria. However, a forced change of the border guards in October 1956 from Hungarians to Russians cut off his return home. Planning to make his way to the US, he was flown to London by the RAF to await onward movement to the States. But he was befriended by one of the refugee camp carers who invited him to stay with his family in Malvern. It was the kindness of this social worker and his wife that started a chain of events that would lead eventually to a career in the lighting industry. Improving his grasp of English at the local school, he worked as an interpreter for refugees seeking employment in various factories in the north east of England. This led
to himself getting a job with Thorn Electrical Industries, firstly in the Ferguson Radio Factory and then in 1962 with Atlas Lighting. After completing his apprenticeship and engineering studies at various polytechnics he was offered the role of environmental development engineer in the Atlas Lighting labs. Over the years this would lead to the origination of many novel lamps, lighting products and application techniques. His many achievements within Thorn include building the first calorimeter in the UK in 1967 (nicknamed Gypsy Moth), developing the largest luminaire in the world in 1968 (for illuminating maps for flight simulators), developing the first HID uplight for offices, producing the 2D lamp, and the first intelligent luminaire, Sensa, among many other achievements. When he finally retired he had spent 60 years with Thorn. His contribution to the wider industry was also enormous. He was chairman of the SLL’s forerunner, the CIBSE Lighting Division, and president of what is now the Lighting Industry Association (then LIF), becoming an honorary lifetime president. He worked with the ISO, CEN, BSI, CIE and CELMA/LightingEurope, chairing committees and making major
contributions to the formulation of standards and guidance, including the SLL’s LG12: Emergency Lighting Design Guide (2004). He presented a paper at the first ever Lux-Europa conference, received the IHVE Barker Silver Medal in 1971, the IES Leon Gaster Medal in 1975, and again in 1990, the SLL Lighting Award in 2008, the SLL President’s Medal in 2016 and the CIBSE Gold Medal in 2017. He was presented with the BSI International Standards Maker award for his inspiring leadership in European Standardisation in 2017. He took a keen interest in the training and development of others, creating and running many training courses, and teaching at universities and colleges. He helped establish the Thorn Academy of Light, a worldwide training facility at Spennymoor. ‘Much as Lou will be sadly missed, his legacy lives on in all the apprentices and colleagues he inspired with his breadth of knowledge, humanity and infectious enthusiasm,’ said Peter Thorns, head of strategic lighting applications and Lou’s colleague at Thorn. With thanks to Peter Thorns
‘He always had a passion for people and lighting’
‘It was rare to find Lou far from the matters of importance. He had a sharp intelligence that could get to the root of many arguments, work out a sensible way forward, and often point out the fault in another’s position without making them feel like a fool. Equally when he knew he was right he could be as stubborn as the rest of us, but he always listened with interest and engaged you with a smile. “Whatever you do Iain, always keep the passion for people and for light”, he told me once. I realise now that that was central to Lou’s own personality. He always had a passion for people who worked with light and lighting, and he certainly always had a passion for lighting.’ – Iain Macrae, CEng FSLL, SLL past president
‘Lou was a very modest and hugely talented man who has been held in the highest esteem within the lighting industry, not only in the UK but worldwide. His achievements are far too numerous for one to catalogue easily and he had a profound effect on everyone who was lucky enough to work with him. My days at Thorn Lighting in the late 1970s and 1980s were made more enjoyable by the enthusiasm, encouragement and knowledge of a true gentleman. What an inspiration. The lighting industry has today lost one of its forefathers and we should be eternally grateful to him.’ – David Holmes, CEng MCIBSE FSLL
‘An absolute giant in the lighting industry. Lou was one of my visiting lecturers in the early 1970s at South Bank University (then Polytechnic), and his care and attention to teaching
‘The lighting industry has lost one of its forefathers and we should be eternally grateful to him’ 14
and ensuring students understood was probably the inspiration and catalyst for the manner in which I have dealt with students over the past 15-20 years. Lou was always available to discuss and debate... no matter whether it was a matter of discussing a commercial project or academically. His knowledge and experience were huge, and one could always expect to learn something from him.’
Nimmo-Smith and Slater on the incidence of headaches under different forms of control gear has become a classic. His passing can be seen as the end of an era.’
– Barrie Wilde, CEng MCIBSE FSLL, SLL past president
– Mike Simpson, FSLL FREng, past president of SLL and CIBSE, global application lead Signify
‘When I was very new in the field of lighting Lou was very supportive and encouraging. He arranged visits to the Thorn facility at Enfield where I was able to get the views of a relatively young Joe Lynes on the future of lighting and the necessary data to calibrate the air-handling luminaire that we had at Wolverhampton. At a conference once in Sicily Lou was very inclusive and introduced me to so many European academics, manufacturers and designers that I was able to establish many useful contacts that have continued throughout my academic and research career. He was a hugely significant figure in the field of lighting.’ – Dr Geoff Cook, CEng MCIBSE FSLL, SLL past president
‘During 17 years at Thorn, you realised how revered Lou was. He would always talk so proudly about his own roots, his love for all things light and for Thorn. He was a significant contributor to our industry and a well-respected man.’ – Chris Tiernan, managing director, Erco
‘Lighting has just lost one of its greats.’ – Richard Caple, MSLL, past president SLL, marketing and lighting applications director, Thorlux
‘We will all miss Lou. He was the go-to person for any question about lighting products or, more recently, lighting standards. I first met him when he was working on heat recovery from fluorescent luminaires. His enthusiasm for uplighting was infectious and his paper with Wilkins,
– Peter Boyce, FSLL FIESNA
‘I first remember Lou as a student working in the laboratories at Thorn in 1976. Lou was always a powerhouse of the lighting profession and it has been a privilege to have known him throughout my career.’
‘He was a great man. The last time I saw him it was at a lighting stakeholder event, and he came and spoke to me for over an hour. He was genuinely interested in the opinions of people about up-to-date lighting trends. He maintained his interest in lighting right to the end. We have all lost a kindred spirit.’ –Peter Phillipson, MSLL, principal Future Group Lighting Design
‘I doubt that there is anyone in the industry who hasn’t benefited from Lou’s work. My main recollection is that he would always give valuable and helpful advice no matter how much of a novice you were or how stupid the question. He really will be missed.’ – Alan Tulla, FSLL, SLL past president
‘A hugely talented man held in the highest esteem, not only in the UK but worldwide’
IMPACT ASSESSMENT Iain Carlile singles out four recently published Lighting Research and Technology papers that consider the various effects of light on human beings q
ienold et al have been taking the measure of daylight glare with a study to test the performance and robustness of 22 different glare prediction metrics, both established and newly proposed. From the study, the authors concluded that metrics which consider the saturation effect as a main glare effect perform better and are more robust than those based purely on contrast or empirical measures. They note that these results were valid for daylight-dominated workplaces and the results might not be transferrable for other spaces, for example, open-plan offices with overall low light levels. Given the increased interest in recent years into the effects of the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cell in the human eye (melanopsin receptor), Berman and Clearâ€™s paper looks at establishing a suitable metric for melanopic metrology. The authors believe that previous attempts made in this area are complex and do not relate to the CIE definition of a lumen. They propose a method which uses effective watts and melanopic/photopic ratios, more closely aligned with CIE standard unit definitions. The authors hope that this method will be adopted for both lighting and vision research and applications. Cajochen et al have investigated an LED lighting solution that mimicks a daylight spectrum, considering it in relation to visual comfort, circadian physiology, daytime alertness, mood, cognitive performance and sleep. The study involved a sample group of 15 young males, all of whom were healthy, good sleepers and with good cognitive skills. The subjects were exposed to both conventional-LED and daylight-LED conditions in a laboratory for a period of 49 hours. It was found that the subjects had better visual comfort, and felt more alert and happier in the morning and evening under
Comparing daylight glare metrics (Wienold et al)
the daylight LED than the conventional LED lighting. It was also found that there was no significant difference in the diurnal melatonin profile, psychomotor vigilance and working memory performance of the test subjects under laboratory conditions. Also considering light exposure, Yang et al investigated the effects of intermittent light on peopleâ€™s sleep EEG spectral power and performance the following morning. Fifteen subjects were exposed to intermittent bright light, continuous bright light and continuous dim light while sleeping in a laboratory. Following the experiment the subjects completed questionnaires and performed two cognitive tasks. Lighting Research and Technology: OnlineFirst SLL members can gain access to these papers via the SLL website (www.sll.org.uk)
Cross-validation and robustness of daylight glare metrics J Wienold, T Iwata, M Sarey Khanie, E Erell, E Kaftan, RG Rodriguez, JA Yamin Garreton, T Tzempelikos, I Konstantzos, J Christoffersen, TE Kuhn, C Pierson, M Andersen
Effect of daylight LED on visual comfort, melatonin, mood, waking
The authors concluded that intermittent bright light exposure was as effective as continuous bright light in increasing the level of alertness. The intermittent bright light had an effect on vitality, but only when the subject was in a state of relatively low vitality. Intermittent bright light exposure could also increase beta activity during the first sleep cycle. In addition, intermittent and continuous bright light in the evening did not show any consistent impact on sleepiness, affective state and daytime functioning the following morning. Iain Carlile, MSLL, is an associate of dpa lighting and current president of the SLL
performance and sleep C Cajochen, M Freyburger, T Basishvili, C Garbazza, F Rudzik, C Renz, K Kobayashi, Y Shirakawa, O Stefani, J Weibel
The effects of intermittent light during the evening on sleepiness, sleep electroencephalographic spectral power and performance the next morning MQ Yang, QW Chen, YY Zhu, Q Zhou, YG Geng, CC Lu, GF Wang, C-M Yang
A practical metric for melanopic metrology SM Berman and RD Clear
9 MAY SLL Lighting Knowledge Series: LightBytes Venue: The Royal Society, London email@example.com 16 MAY Lighting Design Awards Venue: Troxy, London E1 awards.lighting.co.uk 22 MAY How to be Brilliant: On light and Brexit (organised by the ILP) Speaker: John Bullock Venue: Body and Soul, London EC1 www.theilp.org.uk/brilliant 19-23 MAY Lightfair International Tradeshow and Conference (sponsored by the IALD and IES) Venue: Pennsylvania Convention Center www.lightfair.com 22 MAY IALD International Lighting Design Awards Venue: 100 East Penn Square, Philadelphia www.iald.org 23 MAY SLL AGM, presidential address and awards Venue: St Martin-in-the-fields, London WC2 firstname.lastname@example.org 23 MAY The Growth of Red Saturated Light since 2000 (SLL and CIBSE North West) Venue: BDP Manchester email@example.com 12-13 JUNE Professional Lighting Summit (Organised by the ILP) Venue: Life Science Centre, Newcastle firstname.lastname@example.org
16 MAY: LIGHTING DESIGN AWARDS, TROXY, LONDON E1
5 JULY CIBSE training: Lighting Design – Principles and Application Venue: CIBSE, Balham, SW12 email@example.com
LightBytes The LightBytes Series is kindly sponsored by Fagerhult, Thorlux Lighting, Xicato and Zumtobel. For venues and booking details: www.sll.org.uk
12 JULY CIBSE training: Emergency Lighting to Comply with Fire Safety Venue: CIBSE, Balham, SW12 firstname.lastname@example.org 23 JULY CIBSE training: Lighting – Legislation and Efficiency Venue: CIBSE, Balham, SW12 email@example.com 15-17 OCTOBER Light Middle East (including Ready Steady Light ME with the SLL and Light Middle East Awards) Venue: Dubai International Convention and Exhibition Centre www.lightme.net 23-26 OCTOBER Professional Lighting Design Convention (PLD-C) Venue: Rotterdam Ahoy! 2019.pld-c.com 13-14 NOVEMBER LuxLive (including SLL Young Lighter 2019) Venue: ExCel London http://luxlive.co.uk
LET Diploma: advanced qualification by distance learning. Details from www.lightingeducationtrust.org or email LET@cibse.org CIBSE Training: various courses across the whole spectrum of lighting and at sites across the UK. Full details at cibse.org/training-events/cibse-training