Volume 8. Issue 2. March/April 2015
Out to launch: IYL opening ceremony
of life â€“ Masterclass on the body clock
Secretary Brendan Keely MSLL firstname.lastname@example.org SLL Coordinator Juliet Rennie Tel: 020 8675 5211 email@example.com Editor Jill Entwistle firstname.lastname@example.org Communications committee: Iain Carlile (chairman) MSLL Rob Anderson Jill Entwistle Chris Fordham MSLL Wiebke Friedewald Mark Ingram MSLL Stewart Langdown MSLL All contributions are the responsibility of the author, and do not necessarily reflect the views of the society. All contributions are personal, except where attributed to an organisation represented by the author. Copy date for NL3 2015 is 20 March Published by The Society of Light and Lighting 222 Balham High Road London SW12 9BS www.sll.org.uk ISSN 1461-524X © 2015 The Society of Light and Lighting The Society of Light and Lighting is part of the Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers, 222 Balham High Road, London SW12 9BS. Charity registration no 278104
One of the perennial topics discussed in lighting, not least by me in this column, is the need to engage with other disciplines and look beyond our own backyard. But what should also be interesting about the International Year of Light (sorry, but you’re going to be hearing about it a lot in 2015) is that it’s also going to work the other way round. Current and incoming presidents John Aston and Liz Peck were at the two-day opening ceremony in Paris (see p5) and as is patent from Aston’s report it was an extraordinarily stimulating experience. Apart from the awards ceremony in Oslo it probably set some sort of record for the number of nobel laureates gathered in one room. Grappling with femtochemistry, quantum physics and nanophotonics might be a bit of a stretch for some of us but it’s fascinating stuff and we are beginning to see more links with the abstruse areas of light-related physics and the world of lighting as we experience it – in how we actually generate light, for instance, as we move to the next stage of solid state lighting. (And if it is difficult to get the head round some of it, it was gratifying to learn the other day on Radio 4’s In Our Time programme that Einstein admitted that he never got to grips with photons, and that the consensus of the physics community is that anyone who says he has is a fool.) However, there is an art to communicating difficult concepts and Aston cites one of the nobel prize-winners, Dr William D Phillips,
as giving one of the more delightful and comprehensible presentations, apparently conveying some essential physics with liquid nitrogen, balloons and a plastic bottle. The SLL and IALD lecture (sponsored by Philips) on Fresnel at the Royal Institution (10 March) will be similarly entertaining one suspects, and a perfect example of the hidden connections between apparently unrelated scientific areas and lighting. Peter Phillipson is keen to demonstrate that this wellrespected but perhaps underrated scientist had an extraordinary and largely unknown influence on lighting that goes way beyond the famous eponymous lens. Not to be missed. Jill Entwistle email@example.com
Current SLL lighting guides SLL Lighting Guide 1: The Industrial Environment (2012)
SLL Lighting Guide 2: Hospitals and Health Care Buildings (2008) SLL Lighting Guide 4: Sports (2006)
SLL Lighting Guide 5: Lighting for Education (2011)
SLL Lighting Guide 6: The Outdoor Environment (1992)
SLL Lighting Guide 7: Office Lighting (2005) – (including Addendum)
SLL Lighting Guide 09: Lighting for Communal Residential Buildings (2013) SLL Lighting Guide 10: Daylighting and Window Design (1999) SLL Lighting Guide 11: Surface Reflectance and Colour (2001)
SLL Lighting Guide 12: Emergency Lighting Design Guide (2004) SLL Lighting Guide 13: Places of Worship Guide to Limiting Obtrusive Light (2012)
Guide to the Lighting of Licensed Premises (2011) PRINT CONSULTANTS
Printed in UK
SLL Lighting Guide 8: Lighting for Museums and Galleries (2015) SLL Lighting Guide 13: Lighting for Places of Worship (2014)
Wow. What a start to the Unesco International Year of Light 2015. The society was represented by president John Aston, president elect Liz Peck and RIBA president elect Jane Duncan at the opening ceremony at Unesco HQ in Paris (see p5). The reports coming back from the event have inspired us all and there will be highlights from the opening in the Newsletter throughout the year. John and Liz also attended the UK launch of the International Year of Light with Florence Lam as guest at St James’s Palace. I understand it was a packed house and HRH The Duke of York, who is the UK Patron of the IYL, spoke passionately about light and light applications. The first SLL event of the year was held in January at Arup in London with its 24:00:00 Lighting in the Urban Age exhibition. The event stays open until 15 March and if you get the chance it’s well worth a visit. Events are happening in all regions, including the UAE and Hong Kong, and we ask you to keep an eye on the SLL website for updates. Bookings for the Fresnel Lecture on 10 March are coming in thick and fast, and we have teamed up with Philips and the IALD to host the event. It will be one of the highlights of our year and we encourage all to attend. Bookings are also coming in for Ready Steady Light at Rose Bruford on 24 March, and we have launched Young Lighter of the Year (see website). The competition is now in its 21st year and that is really something to celebrate. We also welcome another company to our Sustaining Membership Programme, BEG (UK), and are delighted to have them on board. If anyone would like information on the programme please do get in touch with me. Notification of the AGM has been sent out electronically for those we have email addresses for and by post for those who we do not. The AGM will take place on 21 May at RIBA, London, and will be a very enjoyable gathering for all members. Liz Peck will take the presidential role and we will announce the winner of the Jean Heap Bursary, as well as the winner of the iPad for introducing a new member to the society – and we have many (new members that is). We currently have more than 2800 members and we thank all that have promoted the benefits of the society to others. During this period of subscription renewals it might be a good time to update your details if you’ve moved on in your career or changed address. Please
Editorial 2 Secretary’s column
News 4 Out to launch 5 SLL president John Aston reports on the International Year of Light opening ceremony
‘The Young Lighter of the Year competition is now in its 21st year and that is really something to celebrate’ do send any updates through (to sll@ cibse.org.). We encourage you all to maintain your support of the society and maximise the benefits of free access to the Code for Lighting, Lighting Handbook and all Lighting Guide publications through the CIBSE Knowledge Portal, together with free access to Lighting Research and Technology, the SLL Newsletter and CIBSE Journal, and discount to paid events. It is important to maintain your post nominals, progressing through your membership grades, as well as generally furthering your lighting knowledge. Publications released recently include LG10: Daylighting – a guide for designers, as well as LG8: Lighting for Museums and Art Galleries. We are receiving a great deal of traffic and downloads from the CIBSE Knowledge Portal and we will be releasing LG6: Lighting for the Outdoor Environment and LG12: Emergency Lighting soon. The Light for Life Masterclasses continue to be successful and well attended. We will be in Edinburgh, Bristol and London in March, April and May respectively. Brendan Keely, MSLL firstname.lastname@example.org
A shot in the dark Peter Phillipson recounts the recent Light Grafitti event
The road to Rome Brendan Keely on the third round of The Challenge
Rhythm of life Masterclass 2015: Helen Loomes looks at lighting and body clocks
Broader horizons YLOTY: where are they now? Rachael Nicholls with the first of a regular series
Behind the scenes Juliet Rennie on her role as SLL coordinator
Obituary 13 Professor James Bell On the light wavelength Iain Carlile summarises the latest LR&T
Cover project Cundall Birmingham office
Downing Street launch for IYL The traditional Christmas tree outside 10 Downing Street in December 2014 celebrated not only the recent festive season but also the beginning of the International Year of Light. London SLL events organiser Peter Phillipson of Future Group Lighting Design was approached by Dr Beth Taylor, chair of the UK Steering Committee for IYL. She told him the idea of using the IYL symbol on the tree had been mooted by the Home Office. Various concepts were discussed, including projection, but eventually time and logistical pressures dictated a simple approach. ‘It was decided that I could have three lit designs on the tree but nothing on the door,’ said Phillipson. ‘I had wanted bauble shapes but by the time we got the decision through it would not have been possible to achieve in time. I went for circular backlit signs as 99.9 per cent of the audience would see it on camera and would not know if they were spheres or flat, provided they all faced the same way to the camera.’ Phillipson invited lighting designer and artist Inessa Demidova to feature
her deer illustrations on the design. The design has to be seen as a triptych: eight reindeer are arranged so that they appear to leave the ground and fly towards the IYL symbol. The designs were printed in high resolution on to a diffuse film by specialist Wyatt Enever. This was then cut into perfect circles and attached with a special glue to a circular diffuse disk. Fixing them to the tree was an issue as Phillipson was dealing with a series of unknowns, not knowing the thicknesses or angle of the branches. ‘I had three differing methods made up knowing that it should cover all eventualities,’ he said. The source was also crucial, according to Phillipson. ‘Normal LEDs would flicker badly on camera. The control gear and LED match were therefore very important. The light output of the LEDs during the day was higher than at night to avoid camera flare. A photocell at the top of the tree switched between two site-adjustable light levels.’ What turned out to be a difficult commission, mired in security and protocol, paid off, however.
Awards season Manchester hosts premier CIE event
Lighting professionals are currently anticipating the forthcoming 28th Session of the CIE in Manchester. The Congress will start at the end of June and will be held at Manchester University. ‘The National Illumination Committee of Great Britain – CIE-UK is proud to have won the bid to host the 28th
No 25 Churchill Place by PJC Light Studio (pictured) is just one of around 70 projects that have been shortlisted for the 2015 Lighting Design Awards, which take place later this month. Following the purchase of Lighting magazine from Emap by Revo Media, the associated lighting awards are now organised by Revo. More than 800 lighting designers, architects, manufacturers and other lighting professionals attended last year’s event, which is again supported by the Society of Light and Lighting.
On the lighter side...
The awards will be held at the London Hilton, Park Lane, on 19 March. For more details go to http://awards. lighting.co.uk/
A barking idea, obviously. Dog Lamp is designed by Matt Pugh and inspired by the workshop mascot terrier Sampson (presumably after a visit to the vet). Available in dark tulip wood or oak it is fitted with brass fittings and a bronze coloured cable, with white or red shade. It costs £120 in case you are moved to buy one.
‘When David Cameron switched them on it was the first real event for the International Year of Light,’ said Phillipson, ‘and both the UK and International organisers were very pleased with the result.’ Session of the CIE, especially in the International Year of Light,’ said Nigel Pollard, chair of CIE UK. ‘I would urge all lighting professionals to participate.’ Alongside the packed scientific programme (still being finalised at time of going to press), the social itinerary will also offer a mix of experiences, which will include the conference dinner. The 28th Session of the CIE takes place from 28 June-3 July at University Place, University of Manchester. http://session2015.cie.co.at/
Events: Masterclass Events: 2013/14 IYL
Out to launch
President John Aston reports on the opening ceremony of the Unesco International Year of Light in Paris Three nervous travellers – myself, Liz Peck and our guest Jane Duncan, president elect of RIBA – meet up at the St Pancras International terminal for the Eurostar service to Paris. We are nervous because all trains had been cancelled on the previous day due to a fire in one of the tunnels. However, the indicator boards are all showing that our train is due to leave on time, although we are to expect a delay of 30-60 minutes on the journey. The train leaves on time and then spends over an hour at Ebbsfleet giving us an exciting view of a large concrete support to a flyover. Another period of waiting outside the tunnel and then we are into France and speeding on to Paris, arriving more than two hours late. After an entertaining taxi ride across Paris we checked into our hotel and set out for the Unesco HQ to set up our small stand – two banners and ‘cube’ to display our literature. Despite our unexpectedly late arrival the HQ was still open and we not only managed to organise the stand but also register for the opening ceremony the next day – a smart move that saved us queuing the next morning. Leaving Unesco on the way to a few drinks and dinner we were able to admire the lighting effects currently deployed on the Eiffel Tower, as well as catch a preview of the lighting effects being set-up for the following night.
– it currently hosts 40 per cent of the world’s capacity. The day continued with a brief overview of the importance of light given by John Dudley, chair of the IYL steering committee, who reminded us all of the universality of light, and the need for inclusivity. More than 1bn people are unable to study at night because they have no suitable light. Dudley then introduced us to our first Nobel Laureate, Ahmed Zewail, who asked us to consider life without light. Put in these terms we recall photosynthesis (our food, energy and the atmosphere), how we use light to communicate, and to see – both deep into the universe and the smallest objects known to man. We are reminded of the way we use the term ‘light’ to describe progress and knowledge, for instance the Islamic Golden Age of Enlightenment between the eighth and 13th centuries, when most of the noted scientists and thinkers of the time gathered in the Middle East, while Europe experienced the Dark Ages. We cast light on a subject to remove it from being in the dark. During this session we heard words such as ‘femtochemistry’ (clue: a femtosecond = 10-15 seconds) and learned about the essential roles that light plays in modern medicine, biology, clean energy, clean water, food production and nano-technology – all vital to our wellbeing in the 21st century. After lunch we were introduced to our second Nobel Laureate (and former US Secretary for Energy, 2009-2013), Steven Chu, who discussed the challenges of climate change and the role that light can play in reducing our dependence on hydrocarbons. He shared the Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the laser cooling of atoms, a subject we were to hear more about later. The remainder of the afternoon was a rich mix of contributions from scientists, astronomers, lighting designers, performance artists and others. The two sessions reminded us of the many aspects of light that we do not always consider. How 1.5bn people have no electricity supply, and a further billion are subject to frequent supply interruptions. How light formed the basis of many early religions and civilisations, and how this mysticism later turned into reality and science. The fact that we all have a right to see the stars, and how many of us are denied that privilege because we live in cities (see www.globeatnight. org). The importance of education and the future of engineers; that education is light. The challenge that LEDs present when astronomers try to filter out the artificial light; it was easy with Sox and many other sources compared to the broad spectra of solid state lighting.
19 January 2015 The opening ceremony began at 10am with a series of goodwill messages including one from UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, wishing the 2015 International Year of Light and Light-based Technologies every success and a lasting legacy. The introduction to the IYL involved those countries who had been most involved in its creation: Ghana, which initiated the proposal; Mexico, which pointed out the ubiquitous nature of light; New Zealand, which sent the key letter to Unesco (pointing out that New Zealanders were the first to see the light every morning); Russia, which highlighted the many innovators in light technology; Saudi Arabia, which insisted that the IYL featured the work of Ibn Al Haytham in the ‘age of enlightenment’ 1000 years ago, and finally Chile, which asked for the inclusion of the ‘dark skies’ campaign because of the importance of astronomy
These final sessions of the day also included a performance by the Ngāti Rānana London Maori Club, which featured one of their famous haka. We heard more about Ibn Al Haytham, a subject that will form the basis of another article for the Newsletter, a man who provided source material for Newton,
Ngāti Rānana London Maori Club mid-haka
Fresnel and many others. The day concluded with the world premiere of three original compositions by Bruce Adolphe to accompany the film Einstein’s Light. These were performed live on stage by Joshua Bell (violin) and Marija Stroke (piano); both music and film were stunning. 20 January 2015 Day two of the opening ceremony began with Einstein, Time and Light presented by our third Nobel Laureate, William D Phillips. And what a presentation it proved to be. It is 110 years since Einstein produced his theory of special relativity, which we all remember is all about space and time. Our modern life needs really accurate clocks to do many things we take for granted – such as GPS. And really accurate time measurement is usually based on atomic clocks. Dr Phillips brilliantly conveyed some of the essential physics behind ever more accurate clocks, which fundamentally depend on atoms being cooled to very low temperatures. First we were shown just how cool these devices needed to be with liquid nitrogen being poured across the stage and used to show just what happened at such cold temperatures, including packing many balloons into a box only just bigger than one of them, as well as blowing up a plastic bottle. This was education as it should be done and no matter we were dealing with advanced physics. Cool in more than one sense. Continuing this session we learnt about the importance of light to the emerging African economies – particularly fibre optics and solar photovoltaic energy. We also received a very moving presentation by Thanh-Nga Trinh Tran (Harvard Medical School) on the medical benefits of light, and the creation of the Vietnam Vascular Anomalies Center. Session 1 was closed with a reminder about the charity initiative Earth Hour created by the World Wide Fund for Nature; where going ‘dark’ does good things. Earth Hour happens every year worldwide and in the UK at 8.30pm on the last Saturday in March; around 1.2bn people took part in 2014. Session 2 and the fourth Nobel Laureate, Serge Haroche, told us about Light and the Quantum, so really taking us down to the smallest matters. It was all about asking about the properties of light: wave or particle? Or both. More mindstretching knowledge and discussion of such subjects as Schroedinger’s Cat and how one photon must pass through
two holes at the same time. If we fail to understand nature’s behaviour at these basic levels science cannot move forward to concepts such as quantum computers. The following speakers pursued this theme and introduced us to sub-atomic studies, petawatt lasers, the pressure of light and on to super telescopes containing 3.2 gigapixel CCD (charge-coupled device) cameras – in fact light at the extremes of resolution and pushing out the boundaries of the universe as we discover (see) more. Our fifth Nobel Laureate was Zhores Alferov, who began Session 3 with the subject Efficient Light Conversion and Generation. This stretched from the physics of the H-Bomb (the closest we have come to solar energy on earth – for just a µS) to laser ignition of a possible fusion process, and on to making the semiconductors at the heart of laser and LED technology work better. The same science also develops the efficiency of photovoltaics, and Haroche in his earlier presentation predicted that this would form the major source of energy in future. Supporting speakers developed the discussion and we heard phrases such as ‘quantum mechanics and entanglement’, but, more important, were shown where ‘light’ would take us in the future. Interestingly many light-based technologies transfer to other uses: both consumer devices and military hardware have been successfully moved to medical use. Rounding off this session we heard from a former chair of the Nobel Committee for Physics, Sune Svanberg, who treated us to some history of the Nobel Prize and light – more laureates than you might imagine.
Nobel Laureate Dr William D Phillips with a bucket of nitrogen, brilliantly conveying the complexities of essential physics
Unfortunately we had to leave after Session 3 in order to break down our stand and make it to the Gare du Nord in time for our train. Session 4 of the ceremony was in two parts and largely focused on bringing ‘off-grid’ lighting to Africa and large parts of Asia, and discussion of the future science policies that will ensure that the benefits of light are shared across the whole world. In summary, the opening ceremony was an inspiring – and enlightening – two days that clearly demonstrated just how important light is to all our lives. Life is not possible without it, and it reaches into almost every aspect of modern technology – photonics is a $700bn business now, and growing. All three of us are eternally grateful that the society sent us to Paris (the City of Light) and I hope to share more with you as the year progresses. www.light2015.org/Home.html
A shot in the dark
Bearing torches: Peter Phillipson recounts the recent SLL Light Graffiti event
Just before Christmas, the SLL had a magical evening of light graffiti with artist Michael Bosanko. It was hosted in two venues. All of the guests met at ACDC’s studio in Hoxton, north London, and then walked en masse to nearby St John’s Church. The venue was chosen because it was a pleasant, large dark space in an ever-bright metropolis, and for its accommodating staff. So what exactly is lighting graffiti? It is a disciplined longtime exposure photograph where the principal light is provided by a deliberate movement of sources against a moving or static background in the dark. ACDC’s ever-amenable April Dorian had lent us 100 LED torches and Lee Filters provided a generous collection of gels with which to colour the LEDs’ output. The church had some radio-controlled Christmas and house lighting, allowing me to easily black out the main church area once each part of the evening had been explained. Michael, lighting designer and artist Inessa Demidova and myself used radio mikes to introduce the evening – highly necessary when you have nearly 100 people in darkness trying to record long exposures of more than a minute each. St John’s also had several monitor screens allowing for playback of Michael’s work, which allowed him to explain his motivations and previous work with a presentation before demonstrating his techniques first hand. Michael was in fine form. He began by explaining his early attempts and how they were achieved, moving on to some of
his most ambitious pieces that can take more than an hour of pure spatial memory to achieve. He uses his knowledge of karate to keep his movements deliberate so that he can move his hand up and down in a very accurate and described manner while keeping the rest of his body static. In this way he demonstrated a crisply defined tree (above left) and then a flower image. Michael explained the camera set up, and those who had brought their own tripod and suitable camera with a shutter release for long exposure had a go under his supervision. We then returned to ACDC where everyone played back their attempts of light graffiti on another screen (including Alex Gkika from Elektra, Linda Salamoun from BuroHappold and many others). A memorable and positive experience. www.michaelbosanko.com/light-sculptures-light-graffiti
The road to Rome Brendan Keely on the third round of The Challenge student speaker competition as the stakes get higher In early February the SLL attended the third round of the PLDC warm-up event, The Challenge, as the student speaker competition’s official knowledge partner. I was there as coach to three of the speakers: Regina Lausell and Hong Wang, who both graduated from Parsons in New York City in 2014, and a double act, Pernille Krieger and Eik Lykke Nielsen from Aarhus University in Denmark, who had just graduated in January this year. My first introduction to the competition was back in August during round two when as a future coach I assessed nearly 40 three-minute ‘elevator pitches’ from international students. Following all the coaches’ evaluations, 15 students (16 as we have to include the double act) were then to be mentored for round three of the competition at Edinburgh Napier University, where they were required to give a 20-minute paper. It was then down to the coaches to pick the student who would accompany them to the finals of the competition at PLDC 2015 in Rome in October where they will fight it out for the title. I have been mentored by some amazing lighters in the past, including Barrie Wilde, Martin Lupton, Laura Bayliss and Mark Ridler during my years at BDP, and to have the opportunity to coach and encourage my team to the best of my ability gave me immense personal satisfaction. Not only that, it was worthy CPD time. Yes, there were early and late Skype calls to New York but the experience was positive and one I will not forget.
‘All students who made it to round three gave stimulating, diverse and passionate presentations’ All students who made it to round three gave stimulating, diverse and passionate presentations, and my three speakers exceeded any expectations I might have had. It is difficult to put down in words just how nervous I felt as my students took to the stage. Regina, Hong, and Pernille and Eik all delivered their presentations as if they were naturals and had been doing it for years. To say I was relieved but especially proud would be an understatement. However, life is not just a stroll through a park on a sunny day and the crunch came: I had to decide who was to go through to Rome, and thus disappoint the others. Although all three papers were amazing, I chose Pernille and Eik to go forward to the finals with their presentation entitled Lighting Design for the Elderly.
Regina Lausell, Hong Wang, Eik Lykke Nielsen and Pernille Krieger awaiting the result from Brendan Keely
Chosen for Rome: Pernille Krieger and Eik Lykke Nielsen
We have a lot more to do before we get to Rome. At PLDC, the young talents are required to give a 45-minute presentation, with all five speakers and their coaches fighting to win. The best speaker in round four will receive a money prize. PLDC attracts more than 1500 international delegates from the world of lighting so to say it is a step up would be an understatement. The Challenge is a great platform for the students to fine tune their presentation techniques and speak in front of a huge audience of their peers. PLDC 2015 will also be accredited with CIBSE CPD credits for all attending the lectures. So, now the competition suddenly gets a little more serious (yet another understatement) as the stakes get higher. October will come fast, but Team Brendan will be ready to fight it out. The coaches and the young speakers chosen for the final in Rome: Brendan Keely: Pernille Krieger/Denmark and Eik Lykke Nielsen/Denmark Emrah Baki Ulas: Roslyn Leslie/UK Florence Lam: Isabel Sanchez Sevillano/USA Tapio Rosenius: Mahdis Aliasgari/Sweden Iain Ruxton: Stephanie Denholm/UK
Rhythm of life
Based on her presentation for this year’s Masterclass series, Helen Loomes looks at how our body clock will become an increasingly important consideration in lighting design
Over millions of years people have conducted their life according to natural daylight. We have become accustomed to sunlight and the natural day/night rhythm throughout evolution. Natural daylight changes in intensity, colour temperature and direction, all according to the season and time of day. We now know that our biological circadian rhythm responds to this natural cycle. We all like to feel we are individuals, but in reality we are very predictable. The secretion of our hormones, which determines whether we feel alert or sleepy, are able to concentrate and even our body temperature, are directly influenced by certain wavelengths of light entering through our visual system. However, these stimuli avoid the optic nerve and have a direct pathway through to the pineal gland, keeping our internal time clock in tune with the natural passage of time.
Ipswich Hospital dementia wards: programmable lighting
With the advent of artificial lighting we have changed the conditions that our body relies on to have a normal sleep/ wake cycle. It certainly seems a good idea to give ourselves the best environment possible to help us to perform at the height of our ability and research is now proving that this is the case. Many studies are showing us that we can improve concentration and the ability to learn by incorporating the correct lighting conditions. Ideally, we would like a low intensity of light with a warm colour temperature to start the day gently, then an increase in intensity and a transition to a cooler colour temperature, where the blue wavelength is especially important, to energise us. That process then needs to be reversed in the evening and we need to make sure we have a truly dark environment during the night for sound sleep. The two areas where this is most relevant is within education and also healthcare, especially the care of the elderly, and these are also the areas where we can see the most dramatic results. There is a word of caution here, however – we should not try to manipulate people to a greater performance but rather to replicate what would happen naturally under daylight. It is difficult to stipulate exactly what we should be doing but interest has stepped up a gear and now many bodies are investing in this type of research. For instance, the German government is investing €5.7m, along with the Fraunhofer Institute (Europe’s largest application-orientated research organisation), to try and get more specific answers.
On a smaller scale, our hospitals are investing in enhancing the healing environment through the King’s Fund, an English health charity. This is a practical investment in a small number of hospitals to improve many aspects of the healing environment, including lighting, wayfinding, good contrast and supporting the day/night cycle, and the results are proving to be very beneficial. For the elderly this can be measured through decreased falls and accidents and, anecdotally, with better quality of sleep. At Ipswich Hospital NHS Trust, for example, three dementia wards have been improved by introducing daylight wherever possible, adding sufficient domestic-style elements and exposing people to the 24-hour cycle of light and dark. This means luminaires are programmed to provide warmer, lowerintensity light in the morning and evening, but also much higher levels of cooler white light during the day – higher than we normally would use in this environment – with 600 lux in many rooms. Some studies, however, recommend 1000 lux. Key elements such as doorways and recognisable features are also highlighted to aid wayfinding and create a safer, more confident environment. At the Maria-Hilf Hospital in Brilon, Germany, human centric lighting has been installed in the geriatric department in all patient rooms and corridors. Here all the LED lighting is controlled through a central management system to provide 600 lux at eye level and 300 lux at floor level in corridors,
into the space supplemented by a variety of artificial lighting. This was zoned to provide different lighting conditions for different activities. Areas that were furthest away from natural daylight were used for more relaxed activities and given a warm colour temperature, while the spaces that naturally had daylight were supplemented by cooler lighting conditions and used for more intensive study. While understanding our biologically specific requirements is crucial, I think there’s another aspect which is very important. We can have a very powerful emotional response to our environment – just think of a beautiful sunset and how it can make you feel, or a bright summer’s day that lifts the spirits.
Maria-Hilf Hospital: special controls for the geriatric ward
and between 600 to 1500 lux during the day in patient rooms. Again the control system also varies the colour temperature between 3000K and 6000K. There are also impressive results in the educational sector. In a study where the classroom teacher was given the ability to adjust the lighting according to the activity and time of day, attainment levels in reading increased dramatically compared to a control classroom. Errors relating to concentration were also down and reduction in restlessness was the most impressive difference. The lighting for this new group of classrooms involved suspended direct/indirect fittings with dimming controls and the ability to mix colour temperatures between different banks of LEDs. To make it simple for the teacher there were four preset lighting conditions. This type of technology is readily available with the development of LEDs and does not cost much more than the conventional luminaires used in the control group. Another case study where there have been dramatic results is the Bridge Academy in London’s Hackney, which went from being a failing school to being in the top 25 per cent of schools adding value. While this was not solely down to the lighting, it was one of the elements that transformed the school. Here BDP Lighting worked to bring as much natural daylight as possible
Bridge Academy: extensive daylighting and zoned lighting
Is what makes us think that something is beautiful biologically programmed into us? Or is it learned behaviour? A child’s face is designed to be appealing because they need us to look after them. Perhaps we react to a sunset because there is something within that sunset that we need biologically to function better? So If we need changing lighting conditions throughout the day to satisfy some biological requirement, do we also find that people actually like it that way? Is it a built-in natural emotional response? In my humble experience this is certainly the case and I think this will become the biggest lighting debate over the next five years. As our population increases and our living spaces become smaller, the quality of those spaces will become much more important. We will need our personal space to work harder for us and interact with all of our needs, biologically and emotionally.
YLOTY: where are they now?
Broader horizons In the first of a regular series, we look at what happened to winners and finalists after becoming Young Lighter of the Year. We begin with Rachael Nicholls, who won in 2013
I won the SLL’s Young Lighter of the Year for my paper on task lighting at the hospital bed. At the time I was working in London as a lighting designer for Hoare Lea, as part of its specialist lighting team, working primarily on large developments, particularly high-end residential projects. I had always wanted to travel and work overseas, and around the time of winning the competition, I was starting to get itchy feet; I felt like it was the right time in my professional and personal life to go. Just after I’d won, as I received message after message of congratulations on various channels of social media, I began to realise that winning the competition could give me the exposure to get a job overseas. I chose Australia as I knew there is a strong, and growing lighting industry here. I also wanted to live in a smaller city and a warmer climate; I wanted a change of lifestyle. In January 2014 I sent my CV to several consultancies in Australia and within a month I had a job offer in Sydney. In March 2014, having never visited Australia, I moved over here to start my new role at Point of View, an independent lighting consultancy. I now work on a wide range of projects including hospitality, infrastructure and commercial developments. After just six months here I’d already completed my first project, an event space in Sydney Tower. While the way we approach things workwise is actually quite similar to my last role, clearly working in a smaller consultancy is considerably different, as is working in a completely different environment. The opposite seasons, extreme weather, smaller city and the relatively remote location of Sydney brings with it several challenges but has also brought benefits and valuable lessons. The industry out here is great. It’s smaller than in London but there’s still a lot happening here. The Vivid Sydney festival of light, music and ideas is a fantastic platform for the creative arts and a valuable event for the city, attracting thousands of visitors every year. Moving here was by no means easy, but it continues to be a great experience and I’m learning so much. I would thoroughly recommend that future finalists and
winners of Young Lighter of the Year use the prize and the resulting exposure to take a positive step in their career. During my 12 months as Young Lighter of the Year, I was invited to be a judge for the video and written paper stages of the 2014 competition. Having experienced it all so recently myself it was great to be a part of the process from another perspective, especially as the papers were of a very high quality. I only wish I could have seen the final. Do I have any tips? To those entering this year’s competition, I would recommend allowing a lot of time to film and edit the video blog. I would also suggest writing about something different – a niche that others haven’t looked at. In many ways Young Lighter of the Year was my catalyst. It gave me the confidence and exposure to achieve something I had wanted to do for a long time, and for that I will always be grateful. For details of this year’s YLOTY competition contact Juliet Rennie at email@example.com
‘To those entering this year’s competition, I would recommend allowing a lot of time to film and edit the video blog. I would also suggest writing about something different – a niche that others haven’t looked at’ 11
Inside the SLL YLOTY
Behind the scenes
Juliet Rennie, who recently joined as coordinator for the SLL, explains her role and her impressions so far
It is coming up to nine months since I started working for the Society of Light and Lighting and a lot has happened in that time, including the new Masterclass series, Light for Life, LuxLive 2014 and the Young Lighter of the Year competition. I have really enjoyed working for the society so far, along with getting to know members and attending the various committee meetings, and I am grateful for this opportunity to introduce myself to the wider membership. Although my background isn’t in lighting, I am keen to learn more and I admire the enthusiasm that so many people feel towards the society and the industry more generally. Having always loved reading and writing, I studied English Literature at the University of Westminster. While at university, I trained as a barista, enabling me to travel around South East Asia after completing my degree. After arriving back in the UK, I undertook a work experience placement with the publishing house Harper Collins. I worked alongside one of the assistant editors in the historical fiction department, giving me the opportunity to proof read unpublished novels and assist with the marketing of new releases. I thoroughly enjoyed the marketing side of this placement and continued to look for internships which would allow me to develop in this area.
Soon after, I accepted a marketing internship with a new and growing company, working alongside its marketing director for three months, in which I undertook a marketing course. Throughout my time there, I monitored the social media output and worked on a broader social media strategy for the company. I loved learning more about how best to interact with a certain target audience, and developing research and content that would be valuable to them. I then went on to find a permanent role working as a property and social media manager for an independent estate agent. I really enjoyed building relationships with tenants, and I helped the company create and grow its profile on social media as well. This helped the company become an integrated part of the local area, leading to opportunities for events which supported the community. After a year in this role, I felt that it was time to look for a position that would allow me to concentrate on the areas which I wanted to develop and gain more experience in. When I first accepted the role of SLL coordinator, I began by reading Reflections on the Last One Hundred Years of Lighting in Great Britain by David Loe and Rosemary McIntosh, a history of the SLL published to coincide with its centenary in 2009. I was impressed by the society’s history and the huge voluntary contribution from its members. I felt it was a very exciting time to join, with the International Year of Light on the horizon. My first introduction to the work of the coordinator was processing the latest applications for membership and preparing them for the membership panel. I got to grips with the vast database of SLL members, enjoying the opportunity to speak with them and assist with any enquiries that came my way. I have been working on growing the society’s Twitter feed and interacting with members and the wider lighting community. Initially, I was tweeting about events, society news and lighting news more generally. We then had a meeting with Rohan Servand, social media manager for iGuzzini, who gave us some excellent advice on where to find content and what tends to draw people to a particular Twitter feed. Following this, we have had a steady increase in the amount of followers and interaction with the society. I am currently working on a broader social media plan to ensure that the society can reach as many people as possible during the International Year of Light and beyond. The increased social media output has also really helped in promoting the new Masterclass series. Following the Masterclass review earlier this year, Pom Daniells and I worked to secure all of the venues for the 2014-2015 series, with the first one at the Library of Birmingham back in October. This was a successful event and the feedback from delegates was positive. There was also excellent audience participation during the new Lighter’s Question Time section. I also worked closely with Peter Phillipson, chair of the London events committee, to organise the Light Graffiti evening with the artist Michael Bosanko (see p7). We had an excellent response from members and people interested in finding out more about the society and the type of events that we put on. Part of the appeal with this event is that guests had the opportunity to participate and create their own light graffiti. I am enjoying building on and reviewing some of the procedures and strategies already in place. I have been warmly welcomed by the membership and the volunteers that sit on all of the committees, and I admire the passion and enthusiasm that drives the society. Now that we are at the beginning of the International Year of Light, I feel lucky to have joined when I did. firstname.lastname@example.org
Professor James Bell 1925-2014 David Loe pays tribute to a former president and honorary fellow who linked the worlds of lighting and architecture
James Bell was a long-term member of the IES and subsequently the SLL, and was president in 1985. He was awarded an honorary fellowship in 1988. Having attended Harris Art College, he went on to study architecture at Liverpool University in 1941 but had to break for National Service. He resumed his studies along with James Stirling and Derek Phillips. There must have been something special in the air in Liverpool at that time for three architectural students to have an interest in lighting.
After graduation he joined the Tom Mellor architectural practice, but then found his niche when he became a member of the architecture faculty at Manchester University, eventually becoming its professor of architecture and head of school. James, along with Derek Phillips, injected into the lighting world a link with architecture, which was perceived by George Cole, the IES secretary between 1946 and 78, who encouraged them both to take an active part in IES matters. At that time lighting was not seriously recognised by RIBA. They both helped raise awareness of the subject, not just as architects but by recognising the science and engineering that formed important elements. But I need to mention James the man. He was one of the most kind and generous people I have had the pleasure to know. He always had time for students and new members of the lighting society as well as his colleagues. He was also a man of humour. Many friends have received his hand-drawn Christmas cards which were whimsical images of Victorian family life. When he retired from academia he turned his artistic skills to glass engraving. He was often invited to give talks at local architectural and similar meetings, and like many academics he had a couple of standard lectures for which he had the slides prepared. His were Victorian architecture, the subject of his doctoral thesis, and lighting. He told me of one occasion when the chairman of such an event announced that James would speak on Victorian architecture and due to some mix up James had gone with the wrong slides â€“ he announced that it might be called Victorian architecture but it would look a lot like lighting. Apparently it went off well. James will be sadly missed in the world of lighting, and particularly by his friends in the Society of Light and Lighting, including the Northwest Region.
On the light wavelength
Iain Carlile finds that SPD is a recurring theme in the latest issue of LR&T In his opinion piece, Whithead argues that the Planckian radiator is a suitable reference illuminant for evaluating the colour rendering of low-CCT lamps, noting that pleasant colour distortion due to non-smooth spectral power distributions (SPDs) is a different concept to colour rendering, and that a colour preference metric should be developed to complement the CRI. Regarding optimal SPDs of LED light sources in offices, commerce and residential applications, as an introduction to a future series of papers, Schanda et al summarise the general questions relating to colour preference investigations. Using two mock-up office rooms, one with a spectrally tuneable white LED lighting system with a high value of reference-based colour metrics (CQS and gamut area index), and the other using fluorescent luminaires, Dangol, Islam et al investigated user acceptance studies for office lighting. Forty observers took part, performing office-related tasks totally immersed in the lighting condition. It was found that observers preferred the LED lighting at 4000K-6500K at an illuminance of 500 lux over 300 lux. Another study by Islam, Dangol et al, using the same mockup offices, examined observer preferences in terms of SPD, spatial brightness and illuminance. It was found that spatial brightness was affected by illuminance and SPD, with bias for lighting that had higher values of CQS colour preference scale and CQS gamut area scale metrics. Regarding spatial brightness at the photopic level, Fotios et al consider how the SPD of a light source can be tuned to better match the sensitivity of visual perception, resulting in the same perceived spatial brightness but at lower illuminance levels, and the resultant energy savings. The authors conducted a review of 70 previous studies of spatial brightness in order to explore potential metrics for predicting the effects of SPD. While no suitable metric was found, a proposal for further work has been made in order to establish one. Aries et al review the link between daylight and health in the built environment. The paper provides an overview of scientific literature on the proven effects of daylight exposure on health. It was found that the results from the different studies are diverse and either physiological or psychological. The authors note that more research is required to fully understand the link between daylight and health, and provide a number of first practical implementations for daylight and health building design. Juntunen et al present the results from a study comparing a newly developed LED street light with commercially available lamp and LED-based street lighting luminaires. The new version incorporates sensors to dim the LEDs, allowing for changes in background ambient illuminance and also reducing light levels when no pedestrians were present. From their results they found an energy saving of 19-44 per cent based on improved technical characteristics. Once smart lighting control was taken into account, energy savings were between 40-60 per cent.
Spectral power distributions of FL and LED SPDs (a) at 4000K and (b) at 6500K (Dangol, Islam et al)
A pilot study also showed a user preference for the new model. First developed in Brazil in 2002 by Alfred Moser, the solar bottle bulb (SBB) consists of a disused PET soft drinks bottle filled with water and fixed through a hole in the ceiling. Acting as a simple light pipe, the SBB increases the levels of daylight in a space in comparison to just opening a hole in the ceiling, without transmitting much heat into the interior. The SBB has found use in poor and developing countries across the world. Wang et al studied the performance of varying bottle sizes and interior bottle exposure levels, finding that a single 1.5 litre bottle performed better than three half-litre bottles together, and that an interior bottle exposure level of half performed the best. Iain Carlile, MSLL, is an associate of DPA Lighting Design Lighting Research and Technology Vol 47, No 1, February 2015 Editorial: Recognition and opportunity Peter Boyce Opinion: In defence of the Planckian radiator Lorne A Whitehead Daylight and health: A review of the evidence and consequences for the built environment MBC Aries, MPJ Aarts and J van Hoof Introduction to a study of preferred colour rendering of light sources J Schanda, P Csuti, F Szabó, P Bhusal and L Halonen User acceptance studies for LED office lighting: preference, naturalness and colourfulness R Dangol, MS Islam, M Hyvärinen, P Bhushal, M Puolakka and L Halonen User acceptance studies for LED office lighting: lamp spectrum, spatial brightness and illuminance MS Islam, R Dangol, M Hyvärinen, P Bhusal, M Puolakka and L Halonen Lamp spectrum and spatial brightness at photopic levels: a basis for developing a metric S Fotios, D Atli, C Cheal, K Houser and Á Logadóttir A smart LED luminaire for energy savings in pedestrian road lighting E Juntunen, E Tetri, O Tapaninen, S Yrjänä, V Kondratyev, A Sitomaniemi, H Siirtola, EM Sarjanoja, J Aikio and V Heikkinen The performance of solar bottle bulbs at different interior exposure levels C Wang, VL How and H Abdul-Rahman
Performance debut double The first ever BPA awards to include a lighting category produces joint winners
The first ever lighting category in the CIBSE Building Performance Awards has produced joint winners: Cundall Light4 for its new 650sqm office in Birmingham, and Sainsbury’s supermarkets for the LED element of its Project Graphite programme. The category also brought in the highest quality entrants, according to CIBSE. Cundall Light4 lighting director Andrew Bissell wanted to create a scheme that focused on the occupants, their tasks and their wellbeing, as well as efficiency. Using Fagerhult Avion Lamell fittings with T5 Eco lamps in office areas, the scheme delivers a connected load of 6W/sqm for 100 per cent light output. This is without taking into account lighting control, currently set to ~75 per cent and which dims further or switches off when daylight or absence is detected. The current operating load is just under 4W/sqm. While fittings – scrutinised for eco-friendly manufacture and recyclability – and control system played a major part, the priority was natural light. ‘First and foremost the drive was to get as many of the staff a view out and access to sunlight and daylight,’ says Bissell. Following completion of the project the refurbishment was awarded a SKA Gold Label. Sainsbury’s has been working with major suppliers to develop and implement LED lighting on a large scale across its estate. By the end of financial year 2014 Sainsbury’s was aiming at 100,000 luminaires and a saving of 54.6GWhrs. The overall lighting electrical load reduction from £25m of investment is 56 per cent and has achieved a payback of under five years (best paypack has been 1.5 years). LEDs have now been adopted for all Sainsbury’s future developments. Zumtobel, Dextra and GE have been among the key suppliers in the stores. To minimise environmental impact, 60,000 luminaire carcasses were reused, and all waste material recycled through GE and Dextra. Sainsbury’s also worked with manufacturers to develop new ambient luminaires that bias light to vertical rather than horizontal surfaces, placing 700 lux on shelving and a relatively low 200 lux on floors and tops of merchandising units. The BPA were presented on 10 February at Grosvenor House. The award recognises the importance of natural lightscapes within the built environment and their impact on energy consumption – it is recognised that 30-40 per cent of a commercial building’s energy consumption is accounted for by its lighting. Criteria include delivering the required illumination levels (on all relevant surfaces not just the working plane), lighting quality and working conditions for building users or occupants, and demonstrating substantially reduced energy consumption and carbon emissions.
‘This scheme breaks the general mould for lighting. It is a significant achievement to make it work in a landlord-owned building’ – BPA judges
Cundall Birmingham by Cundall Light4
‘A strong, clever understanding of design intent. It’s great to see a retail environment leading in terms of sustainable lighting and an example that the retail sector is looking to follow’ – BPA judges
Sainbury’s London Colney outlet
OLED Moon chandelier, Cinimod. Best Luminaire LDA 2014
2015 10 March 200 Years of Fresnel (SLL and IALD event, sponsored by Philips) Venue: Royal Institution, London W1 www.sll.org.uk 11 March Fundamental Lighting Course (Organised by the ILP) Venue: Regent House, Rugby email@example.com 16-20 March Exterior Lighting Diploma Module 2 (Organised by the ILP) Venue: Draycote Hotel, Nr Rugby firstname.lastname@example.org 19 March Lighting Design Awards Venue: London Hilton, Park Lane http://awards.lighting.co.uk/ 23 March How to be Brilliant with: Michael Grubb, Michael Grubb Studio (ILP event) Venue: ACDC Lighting Studio, London N1 Time: 6.30pm email@example.com 24 March Ready Steady Light Location: Rose Bruford College, Sidcup www.sll.org.uk 26 March SLL Masterclass: Light for Life Location: Edinburgh Castle, Edinburgh www.sll.org.uk 9-14 April Euroluce Venue: Milan Fairgrounds, Milan www.cosmit.it/en/euroluce 28 April How to be Brilliant with: Neil Knowles, Elektra Lighting (ILP event) Venue: ACDC Lighting Studio, London N1 Time: 6.30pm firstname.lastname@example.org 30 April SLL Masterclass: Light for Life Location: Watershed, Bristol www.sll.org.uk
19 March: Lighting Design Awards, London Hilton, Park Lane
7 May SLL and CIBSE Merseyside and North Wales LG8: Lighting for museums and art galleries Venue: Blundells Hill Golf Club, Merseyside www.cibse.org/training
Lighting Masterclasses: Masterclasses are kindly sponsored by Helvar, Philips, Thorn and Trilux. For venues and booking details : www.sll.cibse.org
14 May SLL Masterclass: Light for Life Location: Royal Society of Arts, John Adam St, London WC2 www.sll.org.uk 21 May SLL AGM, Presidential Address and Awards Venue: RIBA, 66 Portland Place, London W1 www.sll.org.uk 21 May Lightscene (ILP event) Venue: Northampton Saints Rugby Club www.sll.org.uk 29-31 May 3rd International Conference of Artificial Light at Night (ALAN 2015) Location: Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada www.artificiallightatnight.org 27 June-4 July 28th Session of the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) Venue: University Place, University of Manchester http://session2015.cie.co.at/
LET Diploma (in association with London South Bank University): advanced qualification by distance learning. Details from www.lightingeducationtrust.org or email LET@cibse.org Mid Career College: the college runs various courses across the whole spectrum of lighting and at sites across the UK. Full details at www.cibsetraining.co.uk/mcc LIF courses: details from John Hugill, 0208 529 6909, or email email@example.com